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1

Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water.

2

INDIAN RIVER LAGOON IR, 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the Indian River Lagoon Program's last implementation review, the NEP through the local sponsorship of the St. Johns River Water Management District, has seen a three-fold increase in implementation funding from $6.7 million in 1999, to $21.3 million in FY 2003. This fundin...

3

INDIAN RIVER LAGOON CCMP PUBLIC PARTICIPATION INITIATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of public involvement within the Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program (IRLNEP) was to develop the public consensus necessary to ensure long-term support for, and implementation of, the Indian River Lagoon Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan (CCMP). Consens...

4

Antifungal defenses of seagrasses from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the antifungal chemical defenses and physiological responses of five seagrasses collected from nearshore seagrass beds from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, against a panel of co-occurring marine fungi isolated from nearby coastal communities. Whole plant tissues from Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme prevented overgrowth by three of the seven fungi used in this study. Organic extracts

Cliff Ross; Melany P. Puglisi; Valerie J. Paul

2008-01-01

5

Neural network-based light attenuation model for monitoring seagrass population in the Indian river lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seagrasses have been considered one of the most critical marine habitat types of coastal and estuarine ecosystems such as\\u000a the Indian River Lagoon. They are an important part of biological productivity, nutrient cycling, habitat stabilization and\\u000a species diversity and are the primary focus of restoration efforts in the Indian River Lagoon. The areal extent of seagrasses\\u000a has declined within segments

Mohamad T. Musavi; Habtom W. Ressom; S. Srirangam; Padma Natarajan; R. W. Virnstein; L. J. Morris; W. Tweedale

2007-01-01

6

Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence of flushing. Coordinated studies of circulation through the Haulover Canal, Ponce Inlet and Sebastian Inlet would aid in understanding the genesis of future bloom events.;

Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

2012-12-01

7

Mercury level in fish caught in Indian River Lagoon higher than it should be?  

E-print Network

Mercury level in fish caught in Indian River Lagoon higher than it should be? Harbor Branch at the idea he might ingest too much mercury. "I ain't dead yet," said Justin Baird, who stopped, figured he would gobble it up in two days. Chances are, all the fish contained some mercury. As the poor

Belogay, Eugene A.

8

Magnitudes of submarine groundwater discharge from marine and terrestrial sources: Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnitudes of terrestrial (fresh) and marine (saline) sources of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) are estimated for a transect across Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Two independent techniques (seepage meters and pore water Cl- concentrations) show terrestrial SGD decreases linearly to around 22 m offshore, and these techniques, together with a model based on the width of the outflow face, indicate a

Jonathan B. Martin; Jaye E. Cable; Christopher Smith; Moutusi Roy; Jennifer Cherrier

2007-01-01

9

Magnitudes of submarine groundwater discharge from marine and terrestrial sources: Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnitudes of terrestrial (fresh) and marine (saline) sources of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) are estimated for a transect across Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Two independent techniques (seepage meters and pore water Cl? concentrations) show terrestrial SGD decreases linearly to around 22 m offshore, and these techniques, together with a model based on the width of the outflow face, indicate a

Jonathan B. Martin; Jaye E. Cable; Christopher Smith; Moutusi Roy; Jennifer Cherrier

2007-01-01

10

Biodiversity of Saline and Brakish Marshes of the Indian River Lagoon: Historic and Current Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) crosses a zone of climatic transition. Historically, marshes dominated saline and brackish environments in the north of the lagoon, while mangroves became important to the south. Distribution of marsh communities was influenced by hydrology, salinity, soil characteristics, and fire, as well as periodic freezes. Marshes of the IRL have been greatly modified since the 1940s. Despite significant modifications, marsh plant species have not been lost from the region, but community and landscape patterns have been greatly modified and ecosystem processes altered.

Schmalzer, Paul A.

1995-01-01

11

Lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to document the presence of the fungal granulomatous skin disease lacaziosis in stranded Indian River Lagoon (IRL) bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). From 1 January 2007 through 31 December 2007, stranded dolphins from the northern part of the IRL were thoroughly examined, and appropriate tissue samples were collected. The intralesional fungal agent (Lacazia loboi) was identified histologically in three bottlenose dolphins. Histologically, lacaziosis has been previously documented in IRL dolphins inhabiting the southern portion of the lagoon. Our findings suggest that the disease occurs throughout the lagoon. Enhanced monitoring of the prevalence of lacaziosis in dolphins throughout the IRL is needed to assess changes in population health. PMID:19617500

Durden, Wendy Noke; St Leger, Judy; Stolen, Megan; Mazza, Teresa; Londono, Catalina

2009-07-01

12

Surface water quality evaluation using multivariate methods and a new water quality index in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate assessment of long-term water quality monitoring data is essential to evaluation of water quality and this often requires use of multivariate techniques. Our objective was to evaluate water quality in the south Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida using several multivariate techniques and a comprehensive water quality index (WQI). Clustering was used to cluster the six monitoring stations into three

Yun Qian; Kati White Migliaccio; Yongshan Wan; Yuncong Li

2007-01-01

13

Controls on the Chemical Hydrology and Associated Ecological Structure and Function in Mangroves, Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that hydrological processes control many aspects of ecosystem structure and function in mangroves. In this study, we are examining controls on the physical and chemical hydrology and subsequent physical and chemical hydrological controls on species composition, primary productivity, and nutrient cycling in mangroves on a barrier island in the Indian River Lagoon on the east-central coast of

C. E. Stringer; M. C. Rains; S. Kruse; D. Whigham; J. T. Verhoeven; R. Laanbroek

2008-01-01

14

A Tale of Two Inlets: Tidal Currents at Two Adjacent Inlets in the Indian River Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tidal currents and hydrography at two adjacent inlets of the Indian River Lagoon estuary (Florida) were recently measured using a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system. Although the two inlets—Sebastian Inlet and Port Canaveral Inlet—are separated by only 60 km, their characteristics and dynamics are quite unique. While Sebastian Inlet is a shallow (~4 m), curved inlet with a free connection to the estuary, Port Canaveral Inlet is dominated by a deep (~13 m), straight ship channel and has limited connectivity to the Banana River through a sector gate lock. Underway measurements of tidal currents were obtained using a bottom tracking acoustic Doppler current profiler; vertical casts of hydrography were obtained with a conductivity-temperature-depth profiling instrument; and continuous underway measurements of surface water hydrography were made using a Portable SeaKeeper system. Survey transects were performed to elucidate the along-channel variability of tidal flows, which appears to be significant in the presence of channel curvature. Ebb and flood tidal currents in Sebastian Inlet routinely exceeded 2.5 m/s from the surface to the bed, and an appreciable phase lag exists between tidal stage and current magnitude. The tidal currents at Port Canaveral Inlet were much smaller (~0.2 m/s) and appeared to be sensitive to meteorological forcing during the study period. Although the lagoon has free connections to the ocean 145 km to the north and 45 km to the south, Sebastian Inlet likely drains much of the lagoon to its north, an area of ~550 sq. km.

Webb, B. M.; Weaver, R. J.

2012-12-01

15

A Continuation of Base-Line Studies for Environmentally Monitoring Space Transportation Systems at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 3, Part 1: Ichthyological Survey of Lagoonal Waters. [Indian River lagoon system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ichthyological species in the Indian River lagoonal system likely to be affected by NASA's aerospace activities at the Kennedy Space Center were surveyed. The importance of the fish found to inhabit the waters in the area is analyzed.

Snelson, F. F., Jr.

1980-01-01

16

Watershed scale assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus loadings in the Indian River Lagoon basin, Florida.  

PubMed

There is a growing evidence that the ecological and biological integrity of the lagoon has declined during the last 50 years, probably due to the decline in water quality. Establishment of a watershed scale seagrass-based nutrient load assessment is the major aim of water quality management in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). Best estimate loadings incorporate wet and dry deposition, surface water, groundwater, sediment nutrient flux, and point source effluent discharge data. On the average, the IRL is receiving annual external loadings of 832, 645 and 94,476kg of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), respectively, from stormwater discharges and agricultural runoff. The average internal cycling of TN and TP from sediment deposits in the IRL was about 42,640kg TN and 1050kg TPyr(-1). Indirect evidence suggests that atmospheric deposition has played a role in the ongoing nutrient enrichment in the IRL. The estimated total atmospheric deposition of TN and TP was about 32,940 and 824kgyr(-1), while groundwater contribution was about 84,920 and 24,275kgyr(-1), respectively, to the surface waters of the IRL. The estimated annual contribution of point effluent discharge was about 60,408kg TN and 7248kg TP. In total, the IRL basin is receiving an annual loading of about 1,053,553kg TN and 127,873kg TP. With these results, it is clear that the current rate of nutrient loadings is causing a shift in the primary producers of the IRL from macrophyte to phytoplankton- or algal-based system. The goal is to reverse that shift, to attain and maintain a macrophyte-based estuarine system in the IRL. PMID:12710924

Sigua, Gilbert C; Tweedale, Wendy A

2003-04-01

17

Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon  

PubMed Central

Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%). Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations. PMID:23840535

Stolen, Megan; St. Leger, Judy; Durden, Wendy Noke; Mazza, Teresa; Nilson, Erika

2013-01-01

18

Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon.  

PubMed

Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%). Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations. PMID:23840535

Stolen, Megan; St Leger, Judy; Durden, Wendy Noke; Mazza, Teresa; Nilson, Erika

2013-01-01

19

Relative influence of various water quality parameters on light attenuation in Indian River Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six synoptic sampling events were conducted in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) between April and June, 1997 to collect TSS (total suspended solids), color (dissolved organic matter), chl a (chlorophyll a), and light (photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) data. These data were used to develop our understanding of light attenuation dynamics in the IRL and for verification of a numerical light model. Data from our study show that tripton (non-algal particulate matter calculated from TSS and chl a corrected for pheophytin) has a dominant effect on light attenuation in the IRL. For each synoptic event, there exists a positive correlation between the event-averaged downwelling light attenuation coefficient, Kd(PAR), and event-averaged tripton concentration. A negative correlation is found between the event-averaged Kd(PAR) and the event-averaged color, while a positive correlation is found between event-averaged Kd(PAR) and event-averaged chl a concentration. The correlation between event-averaged tripton and event-averaged Kd(PAR) is the only one of the three to show significance at the 0.05 level. Relative contributions of color, chl a, and tripton to light attenuation were found to be 5-25%, 10-26%, and 59-78% of Kd(PAR), respectively. These values depend on the method for partitioning Kd(PAR) and the method for obtaining average value of relative partitioned Kd(PAR) from all the data points. These values show that tripton has a more dominant influence on light attenuation in the IRL than in Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, but comparable to that in Florida Bay. The effect of suspended chlorophyll on light attenuation in the IRL is less than that in Tampa Bay, comparable to Charlotte Harbor, but more than that in Florida Bay. A numerical process-based light attenuation model has been developed to calculate Kd(PAR) based on measured or simulated values of TSS, color, and chl a. The model was found to give reasonable estimates of Kd(PAR) throughout the IRL.

Christian, David; Sheng, Y. Peter

2003-08-01

20

Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in water and sediment of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida - 1977 to 1978  

SciTech Connect

Water and sediment samples collected during 1977 to 1978 from the Indian River lagoon between Vero Beach, Indian River County, and Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida were analyzed for PCBs and DDT. Sample locations were chosen on the basis of proximity to major tributaries, sewage outfalls, or municipal area. Concentrations in water samples were below 0.01 ppB sigma DDT and 0.5 ppB PCBs. Small amounts of PCBs and DDT were found in most sediment samples, ranging from less than 1.0 ppB to 0.63 ppM Aroclor 1254 and from less than 0.1 ppB to 0.081 ppM sigma DDT. Samples from the Taylor Creek tributary and from the Fort Pierce power plant and municipal docking area contained higher PCB concentrations than did samples from other locations. DDT and PCB levels in most samples indicate little contamination by these compounds of the Indian River Waterway between Vero Beach and Fort Pierce.

Wang, T.C.; Johnson, R.S.; Bricker, J.L.

1980-01-01

21

Seasonal and Spatial Variation in Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Values of Aquatic Macrophytes within the Indian River Lagoon, FL, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) is a biologically diverse estuary located at the boundary between sub-tropical and warm-temperate marine waters on Florida`s Atlantic coast. Increased residential, agricultural and commercial development along the IRL has drastically changed the nutrient load of freshwater sources emptying into the lagoon, which has in turn impacted the local ecosystem. The degree of development is heterogeneously distributed along the length of the IRL, creating distinct zones of high and low nutrient loading. We examined the effect of these spatially distinct changes in nutrient content on the IRL ecosystem by collecting specimens of seagrass and marine algae from several sites spanning a north-south transect within the IRL and analyzing the carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotope composition of these marine macrophytes. Aquatic plant tissue stable isotope values are strongly influenced by the stable isotope composition of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nitrogen (DIN) pools, which in turn show distinct differences between anthropogenic and natural sources. Thus, the ?13C and ?15N values of marine macrophytes can aid in monitoring the human impact on environmental quality by serving as proxies for the relative contribution and influence of anthropogenic, terrestrial and marine nutrients within the IRL. Large spatial and seasonal differences in stable isotope values were detected among both plant types. A north-south gradient in carbon and nitrogen isotope values was found in the IRL with ?13C values lowest and ?15N values highest towards the northern end of the lagoon. Comparison of this gradient with water quality data collected by the IRL monitoring program suggests that these isotope values are strongly correlated with salinity. To the north of the IRL, freshwater influx from natural rivers and man-made canals lower salinity levels and introduce large amounts of DIC and DIN from anthropogenic sources. In contrast, the southern stretch of the lagoon is more strongly impacted by marine influx via several inlets into the lagoon. The magnitude of the difference in vegetation isotope values from different ends of the lagoon was also found to fluctuate seasonally and was correlated with the timing of freshwater dumping from canals into the IRL during the fall and winter seasons.

Clementz, M.; Tuross, N.

2006-12-01

22

Estimating the Submarine Groundwater Discharge Flux of Rare Earth Elements to the Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA, Using the 1-D Vertical - Flow Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the sources and sinks of trace elements like the rare earth elements (REE) in the oceans has important implications for quantifying their global geochemical cycles, their application as paleoceanographic tracers, and in discerning the geochemical reactions that mobilize, sequester, and fractionate REEs in the environment. This understanding is critical for neodymium (Nd) because radiogenic Nd isotopes are commonly used in paleoceanographic studies over glacial-interglacial to million year time scales. The submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) flux of each REE for the Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA, was calculated using a modified form of the 1-dimensional vertical-flow equation that accounts for diffusion, advection, and non-local mass transfer processes. The SGD REE flux is comprised of two sources: a near shore, heavy REE (HREE) enriched advective source chiefly composed of terrestrial SGD, and a light REE (LREE) and middle REE (MREE) enriched source that originates from reductive dissolution of Fe (III) oxides/hydroxides in the subterranean estuary. This SGD flux mixture of REE sources is subsequently transported by groundwater seepage and bioirrigation to the overlying lagoon water column. The total SGD flux of REEs reveals that the subterranean estuary of the Indian River Lagoon is a source for LREE and MREEs, and a sink for the HREEs, to the local coastal ocean. The calculated SGD flux of Nd presented in this study is estimated at 7.69×1.02 mmol/day, which is roughly equivalent to the effective local river flux to the Indian River Lagoon. Although our re-evaluated SGD flux of Nd to the Indian River Lagoon is lower than estimates in our previous work, it nonetheless represents a substantial input to the coastal ocean.

Chevis, D. A.; Johannesson, K. H.; Burdige, D.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.

2013-12-01

23

Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of Indian River. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared.

Feller, I.C.; Whigham, D.F.; McKee, K.L.; Lovelock, C.E.

2003-01-01

24

Patterns of fish use and piscivore abundance within a reconnected saltmarsh impoundment in the northern Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly all saltmarshes in east-central, Florida were impounded for mosquito control during the 1960s. The majority of these marshes have since been reconnected to the estuary by culverts, providing an opportunity to effectively measure exchange of aquatic organisms. A multi-gear approach was used monthly to simultaneously estimate fish standing stock (cast net), fish exchange with the estuary (culvert traps), and piscivore abundance (gill nets and bird counts) to document patterns of fish use in a reconnected saltmarsh impoundment. Changes in saltmarsh fish abundance, and exchange of fish with the estuary reflected the seasonal pattern of marsh flooding in the northern Indian River Lagoon system. During a 6-month period of marsh flooding, resident fish had continuous access to the marsh surface. Large piscivorous fish regularly entered the impoundment via creeks and ditches to prey upon small resident fish, and piscivorous birds aggregated following major fish movements to the marsh surface or to deep habitats. As water levels receded in winter, saltmarsh fish concentrated into deep habitats and emigration to the estuary ensued (200% greater biomass left the impoundment than entered). Fish abundance and community structure along the estuary shoreline (although fringed with marsh vegetation) were not analogous to marsh creeks and ditches. Perimeter ditches provided deep-water habitat for large estuarine predators, and shallow creeks served as an alternative habitat for resident fish when the marsh surface was dry. Use of the impoundment as nursery by transients was limited to Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, but large juvenile and adult piscivorous fish used the impoundment for feeding. In conclusion, the saltmarsh impoundment was a feeding site for piscivorous fish and birds, and functioned as a net exporter of forage fish to adjacent estuarine waters. ?? Springer 2006.

Stevens, P.W.; Montague, C.L.; Sulak, K.J.

2006-01-01

25

Measures of Water Quality in Merrit Island National Wildlife Refuge Impoundments and Adjacent Indian River Lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to conduct preliminary investigations to determine appropriate sampling strategies to measure the flux of dissolved nutrients (specifically, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, and PO4(3-)) and suspended particulate matter (TSS) between impoundments and the IRL in preparation for an intensive three-year monitoring program. In addition to nutrients and TSS, a variety of common water quality indicators were also measured during these preliminary studies. Six impoundments and a single restored marsh were selected for study. Over a month long period, water samples were collected weekly at selected impoundment culverts. Water was collected in duplicate as independent grab samples from both the lagoon side and within the perimeter ditch directly adjacent to the culverts. Water quality indicators inside and outside the marsh impoundments were different. Ammonium, salinity, bacteria, and chlorophyll-a were higher inside the impoundments as expected possibly as a result of the great affect of evaporation on impoundment water. Water quality indicators responded rapidly both inside and outside the impoundments as exemplified by the increase in NH4(+)-N concentrations during a horseshoe crab die-off. Water quality indicators were high variable during the month in which water samples were collected. Because the impoundments are widely spaced it is logistically unrealistic to sample each of the impoundments and associated seagrass beds on a single day, sampling must be stratified to allow patterns of material movement and the annual flux of materials to and from the impoundments to be determined.

Blum, Linda K.

2000-01-01

26

Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight

Satish Kumar; Muniyandi Nagarajan; Jasmeet S Sandhu; Niraj Kumar; Vandana Behl

2007-01-01

27

Missouri River at Double Ditch Indian Village  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is a comparison between the top photo taken on September 27, 2006 and the bottom photo taken June 8, 2011. These photos where both taken from the Double Ditch Indian Village, Bismarck, ND. This is the Missouri River at Double Ditch Indian Village looking downstream....

28

Indian River Hydroelectric Project Grant  

SciTech Connect

This Final Technical Report provides a concise retrospective and summary of all facets of the Sheldon Jackson College electrical Infrastructure Renovation portion of the Indian River Hydroelectric Project Grant of the City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska. The Project Overview describes the origins of the project, the original conditions that provided the impetus for the grant funding, how the grant amendment was developed, the conceptual design development, and the actual parameters of the final project as it went out to bid. The Project Overview also describes the ''before and after'' conditions of the project. The Objectives division of this Final Technical Report describes the amendment-funded goals of the project. It also describes the milestones of project development and implementation, as well as, the rationale behind the milestone array. The Description of Activities Performed division of this report provides an in-depth chronological analysis of progressive project implementation. Photographs will provide further illustration of particular functional aspects of the renovation project within project parameters. The Conclusions and Recommendations division of this report provides a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the project.

Rebecca Garrett

2005-04-29

29

Impact of a river flash flood on microbial carbon and nitrogen production in a Mediterranean Lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over half of the total nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loading was discharged from the Vène River into the Thau Lagoon waters within the first five days of what was considered to be the autumn flash flood period. Such loads represented about 8% and 3% of the yearly averaged total nitrogen and phosphorus load in Thau Lagoon, respectively. Although this event affected >20% of the total lagoon volume, river trace metal loads contributed apparently only weakly to the increase in labile trace metal concentrations in the lagoon surface waters. Differences between theoretical dilution values and observed values were also noticed for phosphate, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. DOC losses (10-50%) mainly through flocculation, together with the substantial increases in some metallic contaminants such as Zn (from 6 to >30 ?g L-1) observed during the flash flood in saline lagoon waters, may have limited the carbon production of bacterial communities. The potential osmotic shock and the increase in turbidity may mainly explain the low phytoplankton C turnover rates (average of 0.02 h-1) measured in brackish waters (<30) during periods of heavy flood discharge. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN: NO3 + NH4) enrichment measured 12 days after the flash flood event in saline lagoon surface waters (from 22 to 143 ?g N L-1) led to a substantial increase in phytoplanktonic C production and associated DIN uptake rates (from 2.6 to 7.0 ?g C L-1 h-1 and from 0.5 to 1.1 ?g N L-1 h-1, respectively). Subsequent accumulation in particulate organic carbon and nitrogen was not observed in the area studied during and after the flash flood period, averaging 549 ± 50 ?g C L-1 and 168 ± 9 ?g N L-1, respectively. This suggests that most of locally produced microbial production was rapidly filtered by oysters contributing to about 13% of the yearly exploited production in the lagoon and/or exported through sedimentation.

Fouilland, E.; Trottet, A.; Bancon-Montigny, C.; Bouvy, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Gonzalez, J.-L.; Hatey, E.; Mas, S.; Mostajir, B.; Nouguier, J.; Pecqueur, D.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Rodier, C.; Roques, C.; Salles, C.; Tournoud, M.-G.; Vidussi, F.

2012-11-01

30

Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo  

PubMed Central

Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds. PMID:17915036

Kumar, Satish; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Sandhu, Jasmeet S; Kumar, Niraj; Behl, Vandana

2007-01-01

31

76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...liquor within the Colorado River Indian Tribes' Reservation...alcoholic beverages within the Colorado River Indian Tribes' Reservation...August 15, 1953, Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586...in Indian country. The Colorado River Indian Tribal...

2011-12-13

32

Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, estuarine-lagoons, and coastal ecosystems along the eastern Hainan Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient dynamics were studied along the eastern Hainan Island based on field observations during 2006-2009, to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes and to have an overview of human perturbations on coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The concentrations of nutrients in the rivers had seasonal variations enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). High riverine concentrations of nitrate were mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer input. The ratios of DIN : PO43- ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential PO43- relative to nitrogen in the rivers. The areal yields of dissolved silicate (DSi) varied from 76 to 448 × 103 mol km-2 yr-1 due to erosion over the drainage area, inducing high levels of DSi among worldwide tropical systems. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ (up to 157 ?M) and DON (up to 130 ?M). Particulate phosphorus concentrations (0.5 ∼1.4 ?M) were in lower level comparied with estuaries around the world. Particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas were affected by human activities (e.g. aquaculture, agriculture), as well as natural events such as typhoon. Nutrient concentrations were low because open sea water dispersed land-derived nutrients. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes would be magnified by estuarine processes (e.g. regeneration, desorption) in the Wenchanghe/Wenjiaohe Estuary, Wanquan River estuary, and the Laoyehai Lagoon except in the Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater input were the major sources of nutrients to the Xiaohai Lagoon and the Laiyehai Lagoon, respectively. Riverine input and aquaculture effluent were the major sources of nutrients to the eastern coastal of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem can be increased by typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, and phytoplankton bloom in the sea would be caused.

Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

2013-06-01

33

Consistent trophic patterns among fishes in lagoon and channel habitats of a tropical floodplain river: Evidence from stable isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between food web dynamics and hydrological connectivity in rivers should be strongly influenced by annual flood pulses that affect primary production dynamics and movement of organic matter and consumer taxa. We sampled basal production sources and fishes from connected lagoons and the main channel of a low-gradient, floodplain river within the Orinoco River Basin in Venezuela. Stable isotope

Katherine A. Roach; Kirk O. Winemiller; Craig A. Layman; Steven C. Zeug

2009-01-01

34

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

35

Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006-2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43-. High riverine concentrations of nitrate mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer inputs. The DIN : PO43- ratios ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential depletion of PO43- relative to nitrogen in rivers. Chemical weathering in the drainage area might explain the high levels of dissolved silicate. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen. The particulate phosphorus concentrations in the study area were lower than those reported for estuaries worldwide. The particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than the global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas was affected by human activities (e.g., aquaculture, agriculture), and by natural phenomena including typhoons. The nutrient concentrations in coastal waters were low because of dispersion of land-derived nutrients in the sea. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes are magnified by estuarine processes (e.g., regeneration, desorption) in estuaries and Laoyehai Lagoon, but not in Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater inputs were the major sources of nutrients to Xiaohai and Laoyehai lagoons, respectively, and riverine inputs and aquaculture effluents were the major sources for the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem increased with typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, elucidating the important influence of typhoons on small tropical rivers.

Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

2014-01-01

36

Geohydrology of Indian River County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system are the sources of groundwater used in Indian River County, Florida. About 65% of the groundwater is used for irrigation and is from the Floridan aquifer system. Saline water ranging from slightly saline to brine underlies the fresh groundwater throughout the county and is the chief water quality problem. Transmissivities of the surficial aquifer system in eastern Indian River County range from 1,500 to 11,000 sq ft/d. Yields of wells are as much as 1,200 gal/min. Reported transmissivities for the Floridan aquifer system range from 65,000 to 200,000 sq ft/d. Most wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system flow; flow rates range from 30 to 2,000 gal/min. Chloride concentrations of water in the surficial aquifer system generally are below 100 mg/L, but concentrations often exceed 250 mg/L in water from the Floridan aquifer system. Between 1976 and 1983, average chloride concentrations in water from six wells that tap the surficial aquifer system in the Vero Beach well field increased about 36 mg/L, but were unchanged in four other wells. The increase in chloride concentration probably is related to a well-field pumpage increase from 5.44 million gal/d in 1976 to 8.00 million gal/d in 1983. In most of the County, chloride concentrations of wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system have not changed significantly in the 15-year period, 1968-83. Water levels in the surficial aquifer system declined 15 to 19 ft between 1971 and 1984 in the Vero Beach well field where the larger groundwater withdrawals occur, but have not declined significantly outside heavily pumped areas. Water levels in the Floridan aquifer system have declined 16 to 24 ft in eastern Indian River County in the 50-year period, 1934-84, but declines outside the heavily pumped areas generally have been less than 10 ft during this period. (USGS)

Schiner, G.R.; Laughlin, C.P.; Toth, D.J.

1988-01-01

37

Harmful Algae Records in Venice Lagoon and in Po River Delta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)  

PubMed Central

A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide “updated reference conditions” for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200?cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance. PMID:24683360

Bilani?ovà, Dagmar; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-01-01

38

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic  

E-print Network

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic Retold by Rodney Frey 28 September 2000 Salmon ..................................12 Salmon is a great warrior. He's going up the Columbia River; Salmon always goes up river. Salmon to catch the salmon; it's not so good. Salmon goes over, piles up rocks, here and here. He goes up the bank

O'Laughlin, Jay

39

Notice of release of White River germplasm Indian ricegrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White River Germplasm Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides [Roem. & Schult.] Barkworth) has been released for use in rangeland seedings. This plant material traces from a seed morph collected in northwestern Colorado in Rio Blanco County, near the White River. White River Germplasm displays go...

40

Dispersion of Outflow from Small Rivers and Coastal Lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along many tropical and subtropical coasts, waters enter the ocean via small streams or lagoons. These outflow plumes are known to be important to coastal productivity, but as pollutant loading increases they are also seen as an increasing source of coastal pollution. Physical processes in these small plumes interact in ways that are different to larger plumes, e.g., flow rate varies on short time scales, and the coriolis term is typically unimportant. After a brief review of dominant terms, attention will be given to observed plume patterns with a focus on the presence of low-salinity and outflow-related constituents nearshore. Data from studies off California and elsewhere will be used to suggest that there are common transport and mixing patterns at this scale. While the ultimate aim is to understand and model physical processes controlling dispersion of land-derived pollutants, at the very least one can recognize a spatial pattern of probability that can be characterized by primary physical parameters. Due to limited data on physical processes at the requisite resolution, numerical modeling is used to better understand processes and phenomena including inertial jets, buoyant plumes, alongshore flow, mixing and surface stresses. Ultimately, one can expect that a reasonable estimate of a probabilistic "zone of impact" can be obtained from knowledge of fundamental physical parameters that control transport and mixing. This link between physical forcing and response needs both a dynamical explanation and statistical support - yielding a general model that can be used for countless small inflows along many coasts. These features may be small but they are very common, and it is argued that their importance for coastal pollution and ecology is disproportionately big. The benefit of recognizing a transport-based zone of impact is that this pattern is the basis of distribution patterns for a variety of constituents, including dissolved and particulate contaminants, terrigeneous sediment, and planktonic organisms (e.g., larvae and microbial pathogens) - thus providing valuable insight to diverse issues in coastal water quality and ecology.

Largier, J. L.; Basdurak, N. B.

2013-05-01

41

Effects of extended absence of flooding on the fish assemblages of three floodplain lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Neotropics, a large proportion of fish communities of large rivers use floodplain as habitats for feeding, reproduction, and refuge. An evaluation was made of the effects of extended dry periods on the species richness, abundance and local extinction of fish species in three marginal lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, southeastern Brazil. The studied lagoons fail to

Paulo dos Santos Pompeu; Hugo Pereira Godinho

2006-01-01

42

75 FR 39960 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Ordinance, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC) AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community's Code of Ordinances. An amended Chapter...the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Code of Ordinances in its entirety...

2010-07-13

43

Effects of water level, abiotic and biotic factors on bacterioplankton abundance in lagoons of a tropical floodplain (Paraná River, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to assess the influence of basic limnological variables on bacterioplankton abundance in twenty lagoons in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Twelve abiotic (depth, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), water transparency, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity and total inorganic carbon), and two biotic (chlorophyll-a and rotifers abundance) limnological

P. Carvalho; S. M. Thomaz; L. M. Bini

2003-01-01

44

Sources of terrigenous inputs to surface sediments of the Colville River Delta and Simpson's Lagoon, Beaufort Sea, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The provenance of sediments and particulate organic carbon (POC) in the Colville River delta and adjacent Simpson's Lagoon, in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, was investigated using a variety of bulk and molecular techniques, including stable and radiocarbon isotopes, neodymium isotopes, algal pigments, and lignin-phenols. Additionally, stable carbon isotopes and lignin-phenols were analyzed on four different density fractions from sediments. The Colville River, the largest river in North America with a watershed exclusively located in the high-Arctic tundra, was an important source of terrestrial POC to the western edge of the Lagoon, shown by extremely old radiocarbon ages (fraction modern of 0.165 ± 0.001 close to the river mouth up to 0.418 ± 0.002 farther away). Stations without northern protective barrier islands had large amounts of marine POC input, and evidence of benthic microalgae was found in one area of the Lagoon (chlorophyll-a concentration 35.0 µg gOC-1 in the high-algal biomass area compared to 1 to 7 µg gOC-1 outside of it). Stations in the middle and eastern end of the Lagoon showed significant sediment input from coastal erosion (input of peat-indicating non-lignin-phenols 0.079 mg (100mgOC)-1 in the eastern lagoon compared to 0.022 mg (100mgOC)-1 near the Colville delta), and on the eastern end of the Lagoon there was evidence of input of Mackenzie River POC, shown with neodymium isotopes and also COP. POC inputs derived from rivers, coastal erosion, and marine productivity were quantified using a ternary mixing model and showed that fluvial supply and coastal erosion were the dominant carbon sources to the Lagoon. This constitutes the first study of POC delivery by the Colville River into a nearshore region and illustrates that continued warming of the high Arctic tundra will likely lead to increased riverine POC delivery to this region of the world.

Schreiner, Kathryn M.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Allison, Mead A.; Hanna, Andrea J. M.

2013-06-01

45

Seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a data-set of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou and Grand-Lahou) of Ivory Coast (West Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season). The surface waters of the three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, the seasonal variability of CO2 and CH4 seemed to be largely controlled by dilution during the flooding period. The strong correlation of CH4 concentrations with the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) confirm the dominance of a continental sources (from soils) for both CO2 and CH4 in these rivers. The largest CH4 over-saturations and diffusive air-water CH4 fluxes were observed in the Tendo and Aby lagoons that are permanently stratified systems (unlike the other 3 lagoons), leading to anoxic bottom waters favorable for a large CH4 production. In addition, these two stratified lagoons showed low pCO2 values due to high primary production, which suggests an efficient transfer of organic matter across the pycnocline. As a result, the stratified Tendo and Aby lagoons were respectively, a low source of CO2 to the atmosphere and a sink of atmospheric CO2 while the other 3 well-mixed lagoons were strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere but lower sources of CH4 to the atmosphere.

Koné, Y. J. M.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Borges, A. V.

2009-04-01

46

Holocene sedimentary evolution of a mid-ocean atoll lagoon, Maldives, Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on detailed analyses of cores covering the lagoon of Rasdhoo Atoll, Maldives, six carbonate facies, one soil, and one peat facies have been identified. The abundance of carbonate and rare opaque grains was quantified with a point counter. X-ray diffractometry was used to measure mineralogical composition of samples. The statistical delineation of facies using cluster analysis was based on point count, mineralogical, and textural analyses. In decreasing abundance, the six carbonate facies are classified as mollusk-coral-algal floatstone to rudstone (30 %), mollusk-coral-red algae rudstone (23 %), mollusk-coral-algal wackestone to floatstone (23 %), mollusk-coral wackestone (13 %), mollusk-coral mudstone to wackestone (9 %), and mollusk mudstone (2 %). The carbonate facies represent lagoonal background sedimentation, mostly consisting of fine sediments, and event sedimentation depositing transported coarse-grained reefal components. Fifty-seven carbonate samples and one peat sample were dated radiometrically, covering the Holocene transgression from 10 kyrs BP until today. Comparing the sediment accumulation data of the lagoon with two local sea-level curves, three systems tracts can be identified: (1) a lowstand systems tract characterized by karst and soil deposition >10 kyrs BP, (2) a transgressive systems tract with peat and carbonate separated by hiatus 10-6.5 kyrs BP, and (3) a highstand systems tract dominated by carbonate sedimentation 6.5-0 kyrs BP and further divided into three stages (6.5-3, 3-1, and 1-0 kyrs BP). During the Holocene transgression, sedimentation rates increased continuously to a maximum of 1.4 m/kyr during 3-1 kyrs BP. Modern (1-0 kyrs BP) mean sedimentation rates average 0.6 m/kyr. A simple calculation suggests that two processes (background sedimentation and sand apron progradation) will probably fill up the accommodation space of the lagoon during the Holocene highstand, but these processes will not suffice to fill the larger atoll lagoons of the archipelago.

Klostermann, Lars; Gischler, Eberhard

2015-01-01

47

Climate change impact assessment on hydrology of Indian river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the National Communication (NATCOM) project undertaken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, the present study has been taken up to quantify the impact of the cl i- mate change on the water resources of Indian river systems. The study uses the HadRM2 daily weather data to determine the spatio-temporal water availabil- ity in

A. K. Gosain; Sandhya Rao; Debajit Basuray

48

Terrestrial Carbon Inputs from the Colville River to Simpson Lagoon, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, Arctic regions could warm over the next 100 years by as much 3° to 7°C. There is currently a paucity of knowledge about the input of terrestrial carbon into Arctic marginal seas, the potential effects of climate change on that carbon input, and how that input reflects the effects of climate change on Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. This study explores carbon input from the Colville River into its delta and the adjacent Simpson’s Lagoon in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, using core material and land samples taken during an August 2010 field campaign. The Colville is the largest North American river that drains only continuously permafrosted drainage basin, originating in the Brooks Range and flowing over the Alaskan North Slope into the Beaufort Sea. Preliminary X-radiographic analysis of these cores indicates they are well-laminated, with minor bioturbation and no ice-gouging disturbance. Lignin-phenol biomarkers and ?13C analyses of downcore samples indicate that terrestrial carbon inputs in this region are closely linked with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) mode. A negative AO mode during the 1960’s has likely contributed to an increased inputs of terrestrial carbon, while a switch to more positive AO conditions in the 1970’s and 1980’s corresponds with a decreased input of terrestrial carbon relative to other sources. This study also provides the first evidence of laminated sediment cores collected from such shallow regions near the delta and consequently hold great promise for reconstruction of terrestrial ecosystem changes in the Alaskan North Slope over the last millennia. More specifically, factors like terrestrial river runoff, precipitation, sea and landfast ice extent, coastal erosion rates, and permafrost temperatures have varied prior to the instrumental record in the Arctic are examined, and are reflected in the sedimentary organic carbon record. Finally, these reconstruction analyses have the potential to aid in decoupling climate factors such as the influence of anthropogenic climate change and the Arctic Oscillation.

Schreiner, K. M.; Bianchi, T. S.; Allison, M. A.

2010-12-01

49

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2013-07-01

50

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2010-07-01

51

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2014-07-01

52

Jupiter Courier Pygmy sperm whale found on Indian River beach had no signs of  

E-print Network

Jupiter Courier Pygmy sperm whale found on Indian River beach had no signs of trauma By Elliott -- The adult pygmy sperm whale that died after washing up on Indian River County's beaches on Tuesday had enlarges, reducing blood flow. The animal was reported by people on the beach near the Sea Oaks

Belogay, Eugene A.

53

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2011-07-01

54

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2012-07-01

55

A near real-time scour monitoring system at Indian River Inlet, Delaware, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian River Inlet is the only connection between the Atlantic Ocean and Rehoboth and Indian River Bays. The inlet has been problematic from an engineering standpoint since locals and state agencies first tried to make the opening permanent in the late 1920's. Localized scour is of particular concern to state officials due to its proximity to supporting bridge piers

J. A. Puleo; J. T. Hayden

2009-01-01

56

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2014-07-01

57

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2010-07-01

58

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2011-07-01

59

78 FR 44590 - Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community-Amendment to Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...134A2100DD/AAK300000/a0t500000.000000] Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...This notice publishes the amendment to the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian Community...Beverage Control Ordinance, Chapter 14, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian...

2013-07-24

60

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2013-07-01

61

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian...

2011-07-01

62

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2012-07-01

63

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 52.142 Section...Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. The Federal...located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix,...

2010-07-01

64

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 52.142 Section...Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. The Federal...located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix,...

2014-07-01

65

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 52.142 Section...Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. The Federal...located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix,...

2012-07-01

66

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 52.142 Section...Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. The Federal...located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix,...

2013-07-01

67

Changes in Terrestrial Organic Carbon Delivery to the Colville River Delta and Adjacent Simpson's Lagoon Over the Late Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colville River in Alaska is the largest river in North America that drains only continuously permafrosted tundra, and as such provides a unique signal of historical changes in one of the world's most vulnerable areas to climate changes. Additionally, the Colville flows into Simpson's Lagoon, a shallow area of the Alaskan Beaufort coast protected by a barrier island chain, lessening the impacts of Arctic storms and ice grounding on sediment mixing. Cores collected from the Colville river delta in August of 2010 were found to be composed of muddy, organic-rich, well-laminated sediments. The 2.5 to 3 meter length of each core spans about one to two thousand years of Holocene history, including the entire Anthropocene and much of the late Holocene. Three cores were sampled for this data set, arranged latitudinally from the mouth of the Colville River east into Simpson's Lagoon. Samples were taken every 2 cm for the entire length of all cores. Bulk analyses including percent organic carbon, percent nitrogen, and stable carbon isotopic analysis were performed, and compound specific analyses including lignin-phenol and algal pigment analyses were performed. These analyses showed significant changes in carbon storage over the past one to two thousand years. There were also significant spatial differences in organic carbon inputs across the ~20km distance between the Colville mouth and the easternmost core. Lignin-phenol concentrations in surface sediments nearest to the river mouth correlated positively with reconstructed Alaskan North Slope temperatures, suggesting more terrestrial organic matter was delivered during higher temperature regimes. Molar C:N ratios and plant pigments correlated negatively and positively, respectively, with reconstructed Alaskan North Slope moisture regime, indicating greater algal inputs during wetter time periods. These data may in part be consistent with observed woody shrub encroachment and increasing expanse of permafrost lakes on the North Slope. Bulk isotope data of the same core showed extremely depleted (up to -34‰) excursions in the top third (i.e. over the past 800 years), and corresponded with increased input of more highly degraded lignin-phenols (as indicated by higher (Ad:Al)v ratios). Alternatively, sediments from the most distal core from the river mouth indicate the majority of organic carbon input to this area of the lagoon was not connected with Colville River outflow, and likely originated from either coastal retreat or was potentially carried into the lagoon from farther east by the Beaufort Gyre. Over the past millennium, the organic carbon input has consistently become more enriched in 13C and less lignin-phenol rich, likely indicating increased input of algal carbon. This data provides the first fine-scale, late Holocene record for this region of the Arctic.

Schreiner, K. M.; Bianchi, T. S.; Allison, M. A.; Miller, A. J.; Marcantonio, F.

2012-04-01

68

Studies on the toxic elements and organic degradation products in aquatic bodies and sediments around Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Haulover Canal and Mosquito Lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work during the first year ending September, 1975, is reported. Indian River, Haulover Canal, Mosquito Lagoon, and other aquatic areas of discharge around Kennedy Space Center (KSC) were studied. The presentation and interpretation of data on water and sediment samples collected from Haulover Canal and Mosquito Lagoon are included. The field and laboratory data are presented and tentative conclusions were drawn in the various aspects of the study. An attempt was made to correlate the physical, chemical, and biological parameters.

Ghuman, G. S.; Menon, M. P.; Emeh, C. O.

1975-01-01

69

Pollution Externalities and Health: A Study of Indian Rivers Working Paper  

E-print Network

Pollution Externalities and Health: A Study of Indian Rivers Working Paper Quy-Toan Do (The World's rivers, focusing on infant mortality as a measure of health outcomes. In particular, we quantify two impacts: The mortality burden of river pollution in the district of its measurement; and the persistence

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

70

Indian water rights, the central Arizona project, and water policy in the lower Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian reserved water rights have an enormous potential to disrupt the status quo of western water rights, making rational water policy planning nearly impossible. The problem is particularly acute in Arizona, where 21 Indian reservations comprise 26% of the land and the state has tried to secure Colorado River water since it obtained statehood in 1912. Seventy years of litigation

McCool

1981-01-01

71

Indian and Non-Indian Delinquency: A Self-Report Study of Wind River Reservation Area Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was motivated by 2 concerns: (1) a large proportion of offenses that are committed both by juveniles and adults are never reported or officially recorded; and (2) without detailed information concerning the delinquent acts committed by non-Indian youths in the Wind River Reservation area of Wyoming it is impossible to ascertain whether…

Forslund, Morris A.

72

The effect of connectivity on the relationship between local and regional species richness of testate amoebae (protozoa, rhizopoda) in floodplain lagoons of the Upper Paraná River, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of connectivity on the relationship between local and regional testate amoebae species richness was investigated in two floodplain lagoons in the Upper Paraná River. Regional species pool was positively correlated with local species richness in the lagoon highly connected to the associated river. This result indicates the importance of connectivity and regional processes such as dispersal on the determination of testate amoebae species richness at local scales. We show how regional-local species richness plots can be useful to quantify and test the effects of connectivity on species richness of floodplain assemblages. Based on our results, we postulate that conservation and restoration of fluvial dynamics and connectivity, as concluded by other studies, can maximize the preservation of local richness levels.

Bini, L. M.; Velho, L. F. M.; Lansac-Tôha, F. A.

2003-05-01

73

Brazil The Duck Lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) which reaches peak production during summer. Sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) can be found in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is restricted to Central America). MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

74

AAACCOMPLISHMENTSCCOMPLISHMENTSCCOMPLISHMENTS 2012201220122012 FAU Harbor Branch Research Highlights INDIAN RIVER LAGOON OBSERVATORY PROGRAM ESTABLISHED  

E-print Network

PROJECT The Harbor Branch Marine Mammal Research and Conservation (MMRC) program (funded by the Protect (supported by the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute Foundation along with Save Our Seas and Protect Wild Scientists from the FAU Harbor Branch Marine Biomedical and Biotechnology Research (MBBR) program (supported

Fernandez, Eduardo

75

Precipitation chemistry - Atmospheric loadings to the surface waters of the Indian River lagoon basin by rainfall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rain volume and chemistry monitoring as part of the Kennedy Space Center Long Term Environmental Monitoring Program included the years 1984-1987 as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Atmospheric deposition in rainfall consisted primarily of sea salt and hydrogen ion, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions. The deposition of nitrogen (a principal plant nutrient) was on the order of 200-300 metric tons per year to the surface waters.

Dreschel, Thomas W.; Madsen, Brooks C.; Maull, Lee A.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, William M., III

1990-01-01

76

Seasonality of Selected Surface Water Constituents in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonality is often the major exogenous effect that must be com- pensated for or removed to discern trends in water quality. Our ob- jective was to provide a methodological example of trend analysis using water quality data with seasonality. Selected water quality con- stituents from 1979 to 2004 at three monitoring stations in southern Florida were evaluated for seasonality. The

Y. Qian; K. W. Migliaccio; Y. Wan; Y. C. Li; D. Chin

2007-01-01

77

Long-term effects of changing land use practices on surface water quality in a coastal river and lagoonal estuary.  

PubMed

The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region. PMID:19597872

Rothenberger, Meghan B; Burkholder, JoAnn M; Brownie, Cavell

2009-09-01

78

ON THE WIND-INDUCED EXCHANGE BETWEEN INDIAN RIVER BAY, DELAWARE AND THE ADJACENT CONTINENTAL SHELF. (R826945)  

EPA Science Inventory

The structure of the wind-induced exchange between Indian River Bay, Delaware and the adjacent continental shelf is examined based on current measurements made at the Indian River Inlet which represents the only conduit of exchange between the bay and the coastal ocean. Local ...

79

Impacts to a Coastal River and Estuary from Rupture of a Large Swine Waste Holding Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tracked a swine waste spill (4.13 ? 107 L) into a small receiving river and estuary. After 2 d, a 29-kin freshwater segment that the wastes had traversed was anoxic, with ca. 4000 dead fish floating and hung in shoreline vegetation. Suspended solids, nutrients, and fecal coliforms were 10- to 100-fold higher at the plume's edge (71.7 mg SS\\/L,

JoAnn M. Burkholder; Michael A. Mallin; Howard B. Glasgow; L. Michael Larsen; Matthew R. McIver; G. Christopher Shank; Nora Deamer-Melia; David S. Briley; Jeffrey Springer; Brant W. Touchette; Elle K. Hannon

1997-01-01

80

Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Eighth Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching guide presents social studies activities for eighth graders to learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Part of a series for teachers, students, and community members, it is based on the Indian River County environment in Florida. The introduction identifies the county's natural resources, wildlife, and…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

81

Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Band of Ojibwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…

Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.

2010-01-01

82

Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Grade Nine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching guide presents social studies activities to help ninth graders learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Based on the Indian River County environment in Florida, it is part of a series for teachers, students, and community members. The introduction describes the county's geography, natural resources,…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

83

Estimation of natural streamflow in the Jemez River at the boundaries of Indian lands, central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural streamflow in the Jemez River at the boundaries of Indian lands was estimated from available streamflow records which were adjusted by estimated losses of water due to man-made changes in the hydraulic characteristics of the river basin. The average estimate annual natural streamflow is 53,180 acre-feet at the upstreams boundary of the Jemez Indian Reservation, 53 ,180 acre-feet at the Jemez--Zia Indian Reservation boundary, 55 ,440 acre-feet at the Zia--Santa Ana Indian Reservation boundary , and 46,550 acre-feet at the downstream boundary of the Santa Ana Reservation. (USGS)

Fischer, E.E.; Borland, J.P.

1983-01-01

84

BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF WATER LEVEL CHANGES IN MARGINAL LAGOONS AT LOWER SÃO FRANCISCO FLOODPLAIN RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in marginal lagoons at the low São Francisco watershed is dependent on water flow of upstream reservoirs. These organisms inhabit the bottom of freshwater ecosystems and their presence\\/absence, abundance and species richness are ecological indicators of water level fluctuations and human impacts in the watershed. The objective of this study was to assess the taxonomic

DÉBORAH OLIVEIRA; VÍCTOR GOMES; MARCOS CALLISTO

85

Gila River Indian Community Water Resources Decision Support System - A Modeling System for Managing a Multi-Source Conjunctive Use Water Supply for Long-Term Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gila River water rights settlement will restore to the Gila River Indian Community (GRIC) a water supply necessary to meet present and future demands on their tribal homeland. The settlement provides water from nine water sources, including delivery from four irrigation districts, treated municipal effluent, irrigation return flow and supplemental groundwater. The Gila River Indian Community Water Resources Decision

Brian D. Westfall; Andrew A. Keller; Ronald D. Bliesner; Tim Flynn

86

Moxos' Lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a long-standing debate on the anthropogenic origin of Moxos' lagoons. In the late 1990s, an analysis of the orientation of a comprehensive and statistically significant number of lagoons showed that only human action could explain the peculiarities of their geometry and especially their orientation according to a main axis aligned to an azimuth of 50° and its complementary angle. Besides, the absence of distinctive geographical marks in the horizon strongly suggested an astronomical justification for such peculiar pattern. Thus, the lagoons could have been deliberately orientated in agreement with certain stellar positions which may have marked special moments of the local climatic or economic cycle, a fact which might be confirmed in ethno-historic references.

Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Barba, Josep F.

87

Effects of flow releases on macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Adirondack Mountains of Northern New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of flow releases (daily during spring and four times weekly during summer) from a small impoundment on macroinvertebrate assemblages in the lower Indian River and upper Hudson River of northern New York were assessed during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Community indices, feeding guilds, dominant species and Bray—Curtis similarities at three sites on the Indian River, below a regulated impoundment, were compared with those at four control sites on the Cedar River, below a run-of-the-river impoundment of comparable size. The same indices at four less-likely affected sites on the Hudson River, below the mouth of the Indian River, were compared with those at an upstream control site on the Hudson River. Results show that the function and apparent health of macroinvertebrate communities were generally unaffected by atypical flow regimes and/or altered water quality at study reaches downstream from both dams in the Indian, Cedar and Hudson Rivers. The lentic nature of releases from both impoundments, however, produced significant changes in the structure of assemblages at Indian and Cedar River sites immediately downstream from both dams, moderate effects at two Indian River sites 2.4 and 4.0 km downstream from its dam, little or no effect at three Cedar River sites 7.2-34.2 km downstream from its dam, and no effect at any Hudson River site. Bray—Curtis similarities indicate that assemblages did not differ significantly among sites within similar impact categories. The paucity of scrapers at all Indian River sites, and the predominance of filter-feeding Simulium gouldingi and Pisidium compressum immediately below Abanakee dam, show that only minor differences in dominant species and trophic structure of macroinvertebrate communities occurred at affected sites in the Indian River compared to the Cedar River. Thus, flow releases had only a small, localized effect on macroinvertebrate communities in the Indian River.

Baldigo, B.P.; Smith, A.J.

2011-01-01

88

Fractionation and ecotoxicological implication of potentially toxic metals in sediments of three urban rivers and the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria, West Africa.  

PubMed

The potential environmental impact of sediment-bound Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in three trans-urban rivers in Lagos state and in the Lagos Lagoon was assessed by use of the modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. The quality of the data was checked using BCR CRM 143R and BCR CRM 701. Good agreement was obtained between found and certified/indicative values. Of the rivers, the Odo-Iyaalaro, was generally the most contaminated and the Ibeshe the least. Higher concentrations of metals were generally found in the dry season compared to the wet season. Cadmium and Zn were released mostly in the acid exchangeable step of the sequential extraction, indicating that they have the greatest potential mobility and bioavailability of the analytes studied. Chromium and Cu were associated mainly with the reducible and oxidisable fractions, and Pb predominantly with the reducible and residual fractions. Sediments with the highest pseudototal analyte concentrations also released higher proportions of analytes earlier in the sequential extraction procedure. The study suggests that, during the dry season, potentially toxic metals (PTM) may accumulate in sediments in relatively labile forms that are released and can potentially be transported or bioaccumulate in the rainy season. Application of risk assessment codes and Hankanson potential risk indices indicated that Cd was the element of greatest concern in the Lagos Lagoon system. The study indicated that there is a need to strengthen environmental management and pollution control measures to reduce risk from PTM, but that even relatively simple strategies, such as seasonal restrictions on dredging and fishing, could be beneficial. PMID:25069633

Oyeyiola, Aderonke O; Davidson, Christine M; Olayinka, Kehinde O; Alo, Babajide I

2014-11-01

89

Wisconsin Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

90

Mixed stock analysis of juvenile loggerheads (Caretta caretta) in Indian River Lagoon, Florida: implications for conservation planning  

E-print Network

on a beach, which ignores the effects of juvenile mortality caused by disease (Work 2001), commercial the effects of pollution, disease, natural disasters, and commercial fisheries by-catch on juvenile popula and Graves 1995; Lahanas et al. 1998; Bass Conservation Genetics (2006) Ó Springer 2006 DOI 10.1007/s10592

Parkinson, Christopher L.

91

Feeding Habits of Indian River Lagoon Bottlenose Dolphins Assessed Using Stable Isotope and Fatty Acid Signature Analysis  

E-print Network

-round sampling. Analysis of dolphin blubber showed both sea- sonal and gender related differences in fatty acid Historically, the majority of diet studies on marine mammals have used stomach content and/or fecal analy- ses for stable isotopic and fatty acid signatures using standard methodologies. Consistent with their different

92

An appraisal of the water resources of the Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasing interest in expanding the livestock and agricultural operations on the Walker River Indian Reservation, Nev., has prompted the Walker River Paiute Tribe to have the present and available water resources of the reservation appraised and proposed sites for new wells evaluated. Flow of the Walker River into the reservation averages about 113,000 acre-feet a year. Of this amount, about 42,000 acre-feet is used on the reservation, recharging the gound-water system and supplying irrigation water for alfalfa and pasture crops. The water quality of the river water is well suited for these purposes, and the possibility of expanding surface-water use exists. A mathematical model of the ground-water system was constructed to test various assumptions about recharge and discharge rates. The model generated water-level contours that agreed reasonably well with measured water levels, median deviation was 12 feet. With additional data , the model could be used in the future to test the feasibility of evapotranspiration salvage at the seven proposed sites for new stock and irrigation wells. The primary users of ground water on the reservation are phreatophytes and playa surfaces. They allow ground water to be lost to evaporation. About 19,000 acre-feet per year is lost through this mechanism. Domestic and livestock uses account for only about 250 acre-feet per year. Total recharge to the ground-water system amounts to about 30 ,000 acre-feet per year, and the possibility of more extensive use of ground water on the reservation exists. Quality of the ground water in most areas is suitable for all intended purposes. (USGS)

Schaefer, Donald H.

1980-01-01

93

ECOLOGY OF THE MAYAN CICHLID, CICHLASOMA UROPHTHALMUS GÜNTHER, IN THE ALVARADO LAGOONAL SYSTEM, VERACRUZ, MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus, has a wide distribution in southeastern Mexico where it inhabits rivers and coastal lagoons. In the Alvarado lagoonal system, Veracruz, it is distributed towards the north in Camaronera Lagoon. The Mayan cichlid shows an affinity for oligohaline to mesohaline sites with submerged vegetation well-oxygenated, deep, and transparent water. The major abundance and biomass of this

Rafael Chávez-López; Mark S. Peterson; Nancy J. Brown-Peterson; Ana Adalia Morales-Gómez; Jonathan Franco-López

2005-01-01

94

Local cultural knowledge and water resource management: the Wind River Indian Reservation.  

PubMed

Ecology and culture comprise interacting components of landscapes. Understanding the integrative nature of the landscape is essential to establish methods for sustainable management. This research takes as a unifying theme the idea that ecological and cultural issues can be incorporated through management. As a first step in developing integrative management strategies, information must be collected that compares and contrasts ecological and cultural issues to identify their areas of intersection. Specifically how can local cultural knowledge enable water resource management that reflects cultural and ecological values? This research examines Native American cultural knowledge for setting water resource management priorities in the Wind River Indian Reservation in central Wyoming. A cross-cultural approach is adopted to assess the relationship between indigenous cultural knowledge and Euro-American perspectives through a comparative examination of the Wind River Water Code and Wyoming Water Law. This research indicates that cultural perspectives provide a rich arena in which to examine management issues. Understanding and identifying cultural practices may be an important first step in collaborative resource management between different cultural groups to prevent conflict and lengthy resolution in court. PMID:15285403

Flanagan, Cathleen; Laituri, Melinda

2004-02-01

95

Effects of recreational flow releases on natural resources of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Central Adirondack Mountains, New York, 2004-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), and Cornell University carried out a cooperative 2-year study from the fall of 2004 through the fall of 2006 to characterize the potential effects of recreational-flow releases from Lake Abanakee on natural resources in the Indian and Hudson Rivers. Researchers gathered baseline information on hydrology, temperature, habitat, nearshore wetlands, and macroinvertebrate and fish communities and assessed the behavior and thermoregulation of stocked brown trout in study reaches from both rivers and from a control river. The effects of recreational-flow releases (releases) were assessed by comparing data from affected reaches with data from the same reaches during nonrelease days, control reaches in a nearby run-of-the-river system (the Cedar River), and one reach in the Hudson River upstream from the confluence with the Indian River. A streamgage downstream from Lake Abanakee transmitted data by satellite from November 2004 to November 2006; these data were used as the basis for developing a rating curve that was used to estimate discharges for the study period. River habitat at most study reaches was delineated by using Global Positioning System and ArcMap software on a handheld computer, and wetlands were mapped by ground-based measurements of length, width, and areal density. River temperature in the Indian and Hudson Rivers was monitored continuously at eight sites during June through September of 2005 and 2006; temperature was mapped in 2005 by remote imaging made possible through collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology. Fish communities at all study reaches were surveyed and characterized through quantitative, nearshore electrofishing surveys. Macroinvertebrate communities in all study reaches were sampled using the traveling-kick method and characterized using standard indices. Radio telemetry was used to track the movement and persistence of stocked brown trout (implanted with temperature-sensitive transmitters) in the Indian and Hudson Rivers during the summer of 2005 and in all three rivers during the summer of 2006. The releases had little effect on river temperatures, but increased discharges by about one order of magnitude. Regardless of the releases, river temperatures at all study sites commonly exceeded the threshold known to be stressful to brown trout. At most sites, mean and median water temperatures on release days were not significantly different, or slightly lower, than water temperatures on nonrelease days. Most differences were very small and, thus, were probably not biologically meaningful. The releases generally increased the total surface area of fast-water habitat (rapids, runs, and riffles) and decreased the total surface area of slow-water habitat (pools, glides, backwater areas, and side channels). The total surface areas of wetlands bordering the Indian River were substantially smaller than the surface areas bordering the Cedar River; however, no channel geomorphology or watershed soil and topographic data were assessed to determine whether the releases or other factors were mainly responsible for observed differences. Results from surveys of resident biota indicate that the releases generally had a limited effect on fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Indian River and had no effect on communities in the Hudson River. Compared to fish data from Cedar River control sites, the impoundment appeared to reduce total density, biomass, and richness in the Indian River at the first site downstream from Lake Abanakee, moderately reduce the indexes at the other two sites on the Indian River, and slightly reduce the indexes at the first Hudson River site downstream from the confluence with the Indian River. The densities of individual fish populations at all Indian River sites were also reduced, but related effects on fish populations in the Hudson River were less evident. Altho

Baldigo, B.P.; Mulvihill, C.I.; Ernst, A.G.; Biosvert, B.A.

2011-01-01

96

Numerical Simulation of Flow and Sediment Transport Patterns in Indian River Inlet, de, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian River Inlet (IRI), the only water way which connects the Atlantic Ocean to Delaware inland bays, plays an essential role in sediment exchange between the ocean and two bays. Complex and turbulent flow patterns inside the tidal channel during high and low tide cause large quantities of sediment to move through the inlet. During ebb a tidal jet with peak velocities sometimes nearing 5 m/s emerges from the inlet veering south assisting in the formation of a semi-lunar ebb shoal that can affect shoreline evolution. Within the inlet, two scour holes have deepened significantly over the last 20 years reaching depths of 30m compared to the roughly 8-10 m depth of the channel. The scour holes presently threaten in-water piers that support a bridge across the inlet. It is believed the scour holes are a result of large-scale vertical motions initiated over a bathymetric high directly underneath the bridge and eddy shedding off the bridge piers themselves. In this study, the Coastal Modeling System (CMS) is used to simulate the 2D depth-averaged motion within the inlet-bay system. CMS includes sediment transport predictions based on advection-diffusion equations and subsequent morphological change. Preliminary results will include hydrodynamic simulations before and after scour hole growth and with and without the addition of wave forcing.

Keshtpoor, M.; Puleo, J. A.; Kraus, N.

2010-12-01

97

Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

O'Brien, W. J.

1978-01-01

98

33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334.240 Section 334.240 Navigation...Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. (a) The danger...

2010-07-01

99

A Case Study of Gila River Indian Community (Arizona) and Its Role as a Partner in the NSF-Supported UCAN Rural Systemic Initiative (RSI).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines the history and current circumstances of education in the Gila River Indian Community (Arizona) in the context of its participation in the Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN RSI), which aims to improve science and mathematics achievement through systemic reform. This report describes…

Russon, Craig; Horn, Jerry; Oliver, Steve

100

Brazil: Duck Lagoon  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is ...

2013-04-18

101

Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

Kjerfve, Bjorn

1986-01-01

102

Role of the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature in shaping the natural variability in the flow of Nile River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is shaped by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, we investigate a similar role for the Indian Ocean (IO) sea surface temperature (SST) in shaping the inter-annual variability of the Nile River flow. Using observations of global SST distribution and river flow in addition to atmospheric general circulation model sensitivity experiments, we show that North and Middle IO SSTs play a significant intermediate role in the teleconnection between ENSO and the Nile flow. Applying partial coherency analyses, we demonstrate that the connection between North and Middle IO SSTs and Nile flow is strongly coupled to ENSO. During El Niño events, SST in the North and Middle IO increases in response to the warming in the Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean and forces a Gill-type circulation with enhanced westerly low-level flow over East Africa and the Western IO. This anomalous low-level flow enhances the low-level flux of air and moisture away from the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin resulting in reduction of rainfall and river flow. SSTs in the South IO also play a significant role in shaping the variability of the Nile flow that is independent from ENSO. A warming over the South IO, generates a cyclonic flow in the boundary layer, which reduces the cross-equatorial meridional transport of air and moisture towards the UBN basin, favoring a reduction in rainfall and river flow. This independence between the roles of ENSO and South IO SSTs allows for development of new combined indices of SSTs to explain the inter-annual variability of the Nile flow. The proposed teleconnections have important implications regarding mechanisms that shape the regional impacts of climate change over the Nile basin.

Siam, Mohamed S.; Wang, Guiling; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

2014-08-01

103

Data report for the geologic and scenic quality evaluation of selected sand and gravel sites on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field studies on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, to inventory and evaluate sand and gravel deposits underlying river terraces on tribal lands along the Wind River. This report contains the results for 12 sites of sand and gravel deposits evaluated for their potential use as aggregate in Portland cement concrete, asphalt, and base course. The report provides the results of: * The USGS geologic studies and engineering tests. * A conclusion and recommendation for the best use of sand and gravel materials. * Calculations of available sand and gravel materials. * A scenic quality landscape inventory and evaluation.

Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Arbogast, Belinda; Lindsey, David A.

2011-01-01

104

Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

105

Continuous resistivity profiling and seismic-reflection data collected in April 2010 from Indian River Bay, Delaware  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was carried out in April 2010. This included surveying at higher spatial resolution in the vicinity of a study site at Holts Landing, where intensive onshore and offshore studies were subsequently completed. The total length of continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) survey lines was 145 kilometers (km), with 36 km of chirp seismic lines surveyed around the perimeter of the bay. Medium-resolution CRP surveying was performed using a 50-meter streamer in a baywide grid. Results of the surveying and data inversion showed the presence of many buried paleochannels beneath Indian River Bay that generally extended perpendicular from the shoreline in areas of modern tributaries, tidal creeks, and marshes. An especially wide and deep paleochannel system was imaged in the southeastern part of the bay near White Creek. Many paleochannels also had high-resistivity anomalies corresponding to low-salinity groundwater plumes associated with them, likely due to the presence of fine-grained estuarine mud and peats in the channel fills that act as submarine confining units. Where present, these units allow plumes of low-salinity groundwater that was recharged onshore to move beyond the shoreline, creating a complex fresh-saline groundwater interface in the subsurface. The properties of this interface are important considerations in construction of accurate coastal groundwater flow models. These models are required to help predict how nutrient-rich groundwater, recharged in agricultural watersheds such as this one, makes its way into coastal bays and impacts surface-water quality and estuarine ecosystems.

Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Michael, H.A.; Kroeger, K.D.; Green, Adrian; Bergeron, Emile

2014-01-01

106

Ute Indian water compact  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential addition to the Law of the River, the Ute Indian Water Compact (approved by the Utah Legislature in 1980), attempts to resolve conflicts between the State of Utah and the Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation regarding rights to surface and ground waters appurtenant to the reservation. This includes several tributaries of the Colorado River.

Fetzer

1982-01-01

107

Qualitative evaluation of Kanhan river and its tributaries flowing over central Indian plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality evaluation of Kanhan river and its tributaries viz. Pench and Nag rivers was carried out in order to assess\\u000a the qualitative changes and possibility of point and non-point pollution loads in these rivers for the post monsoon and summer\\u000a seasons. pH, turbidity, conductivity, total alkalinity and total hardness were found in the range 7.1?8.7, 0.8?35 (NTU), 227?970\\u000a (µScm-1),

G. K. Khadse; P. M. Patni; P. S. Kelkar; S. Devotta

2008-01-01

108

Short Research Note Recovery of the seagrass Zostera marina in a disturbed Mediterranean lagoon  

E-print Network

; Mars, 1966). From 1966, the diversion of the Durance river towards the Saint-Chamas hydroelectric power of freshwater from a hydroelectric plant led to the desalination and stratification of the lagoon. Following

Boudouresque, Charles F.

109

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over the next 2 decades.

Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

2014-05-01

110

Channel Characteristics and Planform Dynamics in the Indian Terai, Sharda River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sharda River creates and maintains the ecologically diverse remnant patches of rare Terai ecosystem in northern India. This study used repeat satellite imagery and geographic information system analysis to assess the planform dynamics along a 60 km length of the Sharda River between 1977 and 2001 to understand the altered dynamics and its plausible causes in this data-poor region. Analyses revealed that the Sharda River has undergone significant change corresponding to enhanced instability in terms of increased number of neck cut-offs and consistent occurrence of avulsions in subsequent shorter assessment periods. An increased channel area (8 %), decreased sinuosity (15 %), increased braiding intensity, and abrupt migrations were also documented. The river has migrated toward the east with its west bankline being more unstable. The maximum shifts were 2.85 km in 13 years (1977-1990), 2.33 km in next 9 years (1990-1999), and a substantial shift of 2.39 km in just 2 years (1999-2001). The altered dynamics is making the future of critical wildlife habitats in Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and North Kheri Forest Division precarious and causing significant economic damage. Extensive deforestation and expansion of agriculture since the 1950s in the catchment area are presumed to have severely impacted the equilibrium of the river, which urgently needs a management plan including wildlife habitat conservation, control, and risk reduction. The present study provides a strong foundation for understanding channel changes in the Sharda River and the finding can serve as a valuable information base for effective management planning and ecological restoration.

Midha, Neha; Mathur, Pradeep K.

2014-01-01

111

Rotifers in different environments of the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil): richness, abundance and the relationship with connectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotifers were collected in the open water of twenty-eight locations (3 rivers, 12 connected lagoons and 13 isolated lagoons) of the upper Paraná River floodplain during the high water (February) and low water (August) period of 2001. Greatest species richness was found in rivers during the high water period. Isolated lagoons had the lowest species richness. Abundance was highest in

Anderson S. M. Aoyagui; Claudia C. Bonecker

2004-01-01

112

Field Trips and Their Effect on Student Achievement and Attitudes: A Comparison of Physical versus Virtual Field Trips to the Indian River Lagoon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of physical and virtual field trips on undergraduate, nonscience majors. No significant differences were seen in achievement, attitudes, learning styles, interactions between field trip and learning styles, or students' ability to answer questions at different levels. Results imply that both field trips promote…

Garner, Lesley C.; Gallo, Michael A.

2005-01-01

113

Research and Teaching: Field Trips and Their Effect on Student Achievement and Attitudes -- A Comparison of Physical Versus Virtual Field Trips to the Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study examined the effect of physical and virtual field trips on undergraduate, nonscience majors. No significant differences were seen in achievement, attitudes, learning styles, interactions between field trip and learning styles, or students' ability to answer questions at different levels. Results imply that both field trips promote learning.

Lesley C. Garner

2005-03-01

114

Flow paths of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its relation to Fe diagenesis: A case study from Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the subterranean estuary, flow paths for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) depend on two sources of water - freshwater and recirculated seawater. The lengths of freshwater flow paths increase as discharge points move offshore across the outflow face. Recirculated seawater flow paths can have different lengths depending on mechanisms driving the flow, with the longest flow paths resulting from diffusive

M. Roy; J. B. Martin; J. E. Cable; J. Cherrier; C. G. Smith; A. Dorsett

2008-01-01

115

77 FR 61723 - Felgates Creek and Indian Field Creek Along the York River in Yorktown, VA; Restricted Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...35'00'' W. (5) Indian Field Creek (prohibited). Navigable...33 CFR part 329 within Indian Field Creek from the boundary fence line at the mouth to the mean high water line of the head...contains the entirety of Indian Field Creek and all associated...

2012-10-11

116

Assessment of water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1989-94  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to assess ground-water and surface-water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District in northern Palm Beach County from 1989 to 1994. Contamination of the surficial aquifer system and availability of a potable water supply have become of increasing concern. The study consisted of sampling 11 ground-water wells and 14 surface- water sites for determination of major inorganic constituents and physical characteristics, trace metals, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and synthetic organic compounds. Sodium and chloride concentrations exceeded Florida drinking-water standards in ground water at two wells, dissolved- solids concentrations at five ground-water wells and one surface-water site, and color values at all 11 ground-water wells and all 14 surface-water sites. Other constituents also exhibited concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards. Cadmium and zinc concentrations exceeded the standards in ground water at one well, and lead concentrations exceeded the standard in ground water at five wells. Nitrogen and phosphorus specie concentrations did not exceed respective drinking-water standards in any ground-water or surface-water samples. Several synthetic organic compounds were detected at or above 50 micrograms per liter in water samples collected from six ground-water wells and three surface-water sites.

Lietz, A.C.

1996-01-01

117

Estimated Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Upper Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch in Kansas City, Missouri, 2006-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the interest of improved public safety during flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, completed a flood-inundation study of the Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at Kenneth Road to 63rd Street, of Indian Creek from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, and of Dyke Branch from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, to determine the estimated extent of flood inundation at selected flood stages on the Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch. The results of this study spatially interpolate information provided by U.S. Geological Survey gages, Kansas City Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time gages, and the National Weather Service flood-peak prediction service that comprise the Blue River flood-alert system and are a valuable tool for public officials and residents to minimize flood deaths and damage in Kansas City. To provide public access to the information presented in this report, a World Wide Web site (http://mo.water.usgs.gov/indep/kelly/blueriver) was created that displays the results of two-dimensional modeling between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street, estimated flood-inundation maps for 13 flood stages, the latest gage heights, and National Weather Service stage forecasts for each forecast location within the study area. The results of a previous study of flood inundation on the Blue River from 63rd Street to the mouth also are available. In addition the full text of this report, all tables and maps are available for download (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5068). Thirteen flood-inundation maps were produced at 2-foot intervals for water-surface elevations from 763.8 to 787.8 feet referenced to the Blue River at the 63rd Street Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time stream gage operated by the city of Kansas City, Missouri. Each map is associated with gages at Kenneth Road, Blue Ridge Boulevard, Kansas City (at Bannister Road), U.S. Highway 71, and 63rd Street on the Blue River, and at 103rd Street on Indian Creek. The National Weather Service issues peak stage forecasts for Blue Ridge Boulevard, Kansas City (at Bannister Road), U.S. Highway 71, and 63rd Street during floods. A two-dimensional depth-averaged flow model simulated flooding within a hydraulically complex, 5.6-mile study reach of the Blue River between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street. Hydraulic simulation of the study reach provided information for the estimated flood-inundation maps and water-velocity magnitude and direction maps. Flood profiles of the upper Blue River between the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at Kenneth Road and Hickman Mills Drive were developed from water-surface elevations calculated using Federal Emergency Management Agency flood-frequency discharges and 2006 stage-discharge ratings at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gages. Flood profiles between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street were developed from two-dimensional hydraulic modeling conducted for this study. Flood profiles of Indian Creek between the Kansas-Missouri border and the mouth were developed from water-surface elevations calculated using current stage-discharge ratings at the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at 103rd Street, and water-surface slopes derived from Federal Emergency Management Agency flood-frequency stage-discharge relations. Mapped flood water-surface elevations at the mouth of Dyke Branch were set equal to the flood water-surface elevations of Indian Creek at the Dyke Branch mouth for all Indian Creek water-surface elevations; water-surface elevation slopes were derived from Federal Emergency Management Agency flood-frequency stage-discharge relations.

Kelly, Brian P.; Huizinga, Richard J.

2008-01-01

118

A GIS for the Assessment of the Spatio-Temporal Changes of the Kotychi Lagoon, Western Peloponnese, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kotychi lagoon, located at the northwestern coast of Peloponnese, Greece, is a biotope of great ecological and financial importance,protected by the Ramsar International Convention. Kotychi lagoon hasbeen severely degraded and transformed during the past 50 years, due to agricultural activities in the surrounding areas and watercourse alterations after the construction of Pinios river dam in the late 60's. Restoration works

D. P. Kalivas; V. J. Kollias; G. Karantounias

2003-01-01

119

Ground-water resources of the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The area of this investigation is in the western part of the Wind River Basin and includes parts of the Absaroka, Washakie, Wind River, and Owl Creek Mountains. The purposes of the study were to determine the general hydrologic properties of the rocks in the area and the occurrence and quality c f the water in them. Structurally, the area is a downfolded basin surrounded by upfolded mountain ranges. Igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age are exposed in the mountains: folded sedimentary rocks representing all geologic periods, except the Silurian, crop out along the margins of the basin; and relatively flat-lying Tertiary rocks are at the surface in the central part of the basin. Surficial sand and gravel deposits of Quaternary age occur along streams and underlie numerous terraces throughout the basin. The potential yield and quality of water from most rocks in the area are poorly known, but estimates are possible, based on local well data and on data concerning similar rocks in nearby areas. Yields of more than 1,000 gpm are possible from the rocks comprising the Bighorn Dolomite (Ordovician), Darby Formation (Devonian), Madison Limestone (Mississippian), and Tensleep Sandstone (Pennsylvanian). Total dissolved solids in the water range from about 300 to 3,000 ppm. Yields of as much as several hundred gallons per minute are possible from the Nugget Sandstone (Jurassic? and Triassic?). Yields of 20 gpm or more are possible from the Crow Mountain Sandstone (Triassic) and Sundance Formation (Jurassic). Dissolved solids are generally high but are less than 1,000 ppm near outcrops in some locations. The Cloverly and Morrison (Cretaceous and Jurassic), Mesaverde (Cretaceous) and Lance(?) (Cretaceous) Formations may yield as much as several hundred gallons per minute, but most wells in Cretaceous rocks yield less than 20 gpm. Dissolved solids generally range from 1,000 to 5,000 ppm but may be higher. In some areas, water with less than 1,000 ppm dissolved solids may be available from the Cloverly and Morrison Formations. Tertiary rocks yield a few to several hundred gallons per minute and dissolved solids generally range from 1,000 to 5,000 ppm. Wells in the Wind River Formation (Eocene) yield about 1.-500 gpm of water having dissolved solids of about 200-5,000 ppm. Yields of a few to several hundred gallons per minute are available from alluvium (Quaternary). Dissolved solids range from about 200 to 5,000 ppm. Many parts of the Wind River Irrigation Project have become waterlogged. The relation of drainage problems to geology and the character and thickness of rocks in the irrigated areas are partly defined by sections drawn on the basis of test drilling. The drainage-problem areas are classified according to geologic similarities into five general groups: flood plains, terraces, underfit-stream valleys, slopes, and transitional areas. Drainage can be improved by open drains, buried drains, relief wells, and pumped wells or by pumping from sumps or drains. The methods that will be most successful depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions. In several areas, the most effective means of relieving the drainage problem would be to reduce the amount of infiltration of water by lining canals and ditches and by reducing irrigation water applications to the optimum. Water from underground storage in alluvium could supplement water from surface storage in some areas. A few thousand acre-feet of water per square mile are in storage in some of the alluvium. The use of both surface and underground storage would reduce the need for additional surface-storage facilities and also would alleviate drainage problems in the irrigated areas.

McGreevy, Laurence J.; Hodson, Warren Gayler; Rucker, Samuel J., IV

1969-01-01

120

Indian Summer  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

121

Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.

NONE

1995-03-01

122

Evaluation of natural radioactivity and its associated health hazard indices of a South Indian river.  

PubMed

The activity concentration of the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was measured for sediment samples collected from thirty-three different locations along the Bharathapuzha river basin by using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides were found to vary from location to location, and their mean values are 19.6, 82.87 and 19.44% higher than the worldwide mean values of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The value of (232)Th was found to be higher than that of (226)Ra in 82% of the samples collected for this study. The calculated values of indoor gamma dose rate (DIN) ranged between 89.55 and 194.24 nGy h(-1), and the overall mean value is 63.2% higher than the recommended safe and criterion limit by UNSCEAR. The internal and external hazard indices (H(in) and H(ex)), the representative gamma index and alpha index (I(gamma) and I(alpha)), the annual gonad dose equivalent (AGDE) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values. Multivariate statistical analyses were also carried out to determine the relation between the natural radionuclides and various radiological parameters. PMID:24319106

Krishnamoorthy, N; Mullainathan, S; Mehra, R; Chaparro, Marcos A E; Chaparro, Mauro A E

2014-12-01

123

Freshwater inflows and seasonal forcing strongly influence macrofaunal assemblages in Mediterranean coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons of the Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain) are part of the Ebro Delta Natural Park managed by regional government authorities. Coastal lagoons have persistently received freshwater inputs from the Ebro River from May to November that have altered their natural ecology and hydrological cycle. In this study, we evaluate the seasonal effect of contrasting salinity regimes (polyhaline in the Tancada lagoon, mesohaline in the Encanyissada and oligohaline in the Clot lagoon) on the composition, abundance, species richness, alpha diversity and biomass of benthic macrofauna communities, and we assess the relative contribution of local environmental variables to the observed patterns. Additional sampling was conducted in the largest lagoon (Encanyissada) in order to assess variability at lower spatial scale. At both spatial scales (i.e., among-lagoon and within-lagoon), species richness and diversity tended to increase at higher salinities, particularly in summer. At the assemblage level, significantly different groupings were also found among lagoons and among zones of the Encanyissada lagoon, with more distinctive differences also in summer. Environmental factors accounted for up to 56-60% of the variation in macrofaunal assemblages at both spatial scales, with salinity and temperature accounting for the largest contributions (approx. 14% and 10%, respectively), whereas biomass was mostly controlled by temperature and nutrients. Distinctive oxygen and organic matter levels across the lagoons were also associated with the freshwater influx and displayed significant contributions to observed patterns. Our study shows that the low salinity regime and/or other factors related to long-term inputs of freshwater shape the community of macrofauna within the lagoons, a central trophic resource for most of the local species of fish and aquatic birds. Restoration of these systems to their natural hydrological functioning without further inputs of freshwater and higher marine connectivity is suggested as the more appropriate management.

Prado, Patricia; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles

2014-06-01

124

Evaluation of TRMM rainfall estimates over a large Indian river basin (Mahanadi)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper examines the quality of satellite-based precipitation estimates for the Lower Mahanadi River Basin (Eastern India). The considered data sets known as 3B42 and 3B42-RT (version 7/7A) are routinely produced by the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) from passive microwave and infrared recordings. While the 3B42-RT data are disseminated in real time, the gage-adjusted 3B42 data set is published with a delay of some months. The quality of the two products was assessed in a two-step procedure. First, the correspondence between the remotely sensed precipitation rates and rain gage data was evaluated at the sub-basin scale. Second, the quality of the rainfall estimates was assessed by analyzing their performance in the context of rainfall-runoff simulation. At sub-basin level (4000 to 16 000 km2) the satellite-based areal precipitation estimates were found to be moderately correlated with the gage-based counterparts (R2 of 0.64-0.74 for 3B42 and 0.59-0.72 for 3B42-RT). Significant discrepancies between TRMM data and ground observations were identified at high intensity levels. The rainfall depth derived from rain gage data is often not reflected by the TRMM estimates (hit rate < 0.6 for ground-based intensities > 80 mm day-1). At the same time, the remotely sensed rainfall rates frequently exceed the gage-based equivalents (false alarm ratios of 0.2-0.6). In addition, the real time product 3B42-RT was found to suffer from a spatially consistent negative bias. Since the regionalization of rain gage data is potentially associated with a number of errors, the above results are subject to uncertainty. Hence, a validation against independent information, such as stream flow, was essential. In this case study, the outcome of rainfall-runoff simulation experiments was consistent with the above-mentioned findings. The best fit between observed and simulated stream flow was obtained if rain gage data were used as model input (Nash-Sutcliffe Index of 0.76-0.88 at gages not affected by reservoir operation). This compares to the values of 0.71-0.78 for the gage-adjusted TRMM 3B42 data and 0.65-0.77 for the 3B42-RT real-time data. Whether the 3B42-RT data are useful in the context of operational runoff prediction in spite of the identified problems remains a question for further research.

Kneis, D.; Chatterjee, C.; Singh, R.

2014-01-01

125

Evaluation of TRMM rainfall estimates over a large Indian river basin (Mahanadi)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper examines the quality of satellite-based precipitation estimates for the lower Mahanadi River basin (eastern India). The considered data sets known as 3B42 and 3B42-RT (version 7/7A) are routinely produced by the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) from passive microwave and infrared recordings. While the 3B42-RT data are disseminated in real time, the gauge-adjusted 3B42 data set is published with a delay of some months. The quality of the two products was assessed in a two-step procedure. First, the correspondence between the remotely sensed precipitation rates and rain gauge data was evaluated at the sub-basin scale. Second, the quality of the rainfall estimates was assessed by analysing their performance in the context of rainfall-runoff simulation. At sub-basin level (4000 to 16 000 km2) the satellite-based areal precipitation estimates were found to be moderately correlated with the gauge-based counterparts (R2 of 0.64-0.74 for 3B42 and 0.59-0.72 for 3B42-RT). Significant discrepancies between TRMM data and ground observations were identified at high-intensity levels. The rainfall depth derived from rain gauge data is often not reflected by the TRMM estimates (hit rate < 0.6 for ground-based intensities > 80 mm day-1). At the same time, the remotely sensed rainfall rates frequently exceed the gauge-based equivalents (false alarm ratios of 0.2-0.6). In addition, the real-time product 3B42-RT was found to suffer from a spatially consistent negative bias. Since the regionalisation of rain gauge data is potentially associated with a number of errors, the above results are subject to uncertainty. Hence, a validation against independent information, such as stream flow, was essential. In this case study, the outcome of rainfall-runoff simulation experiments was consistent with the above-mentioned findings. The best fit between observed and simulated stream flow was obtained if rain gauge data were used as model input (Nash-Sutcliffe index of 0.76-0.88 at gauges not affected by reservoir operation). This compares to the values of 0.71-0.78 for the gauge-adjusted TRMM 3B42 data and 0.65-0.77 for the 3B42-RT real-time data. Whether the 3B42-RT data are useful in the context of operational runoff prediction in spite of the identified problems remains a question for further research.

Kneis, D.; Chatterjee, C.; Singh, R.

2014-07-01

126

Characteristics of water, sediment, and benthic communities of the Wolf River, Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, water years 1986-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses and interpretation of water quality, sediment, and biological data from water years 1986 through 1998 indicated that land use and other human activities have had only minimal effects on water quality in the Wolf River upstream from and within the Menominee Indian Reservation in northeastern Wisconsin. Relatively high concentrations of calcium and magnesium (natural hardness), iron, manganese, and aluminum were measured in Wolf River water samples during water years 1986?98 from the three sampled sites and attributed to presence of highly mineralized geologic materials in the basin. Average calcium and magnesium concentrations varied from 22?26 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and 11?13 mg/L, respectively. Average iron concentrations ranged from 290?380 micrograms per liter (?g/L); average manganese concentrations ranged from 53?56 mg/L. Average aluminum concentrations ranged from 63?67 ?g/L. Mercury was present in water samples but concentrations were not at levels of concern. Levels of Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and orthophosphorus in water samples were often low or below detection limits (0.01? 0.10 mg/L). Trace amounts of atrazine (maximum concentration of 0.031 ?g/L), deethylatrazine (maximum 0.032 ?g/L), and alachlor (maximum of 0.002 ?g/L) were detected. Low concentrations of most trace elements were found in streambed sediment. Tissues of fish and aquatic invertebrates collected once each year from 1995 through 1998 at the Langlade and Keshena sites, near the northern and southern boundaries of the Reservation, respectively, were low in concentrations of most trace elements. Arsenic and silver in fish livers from both sites were less than or equal to 2 ?g/g arsenic and less than 1 ?g/g silver for dry weight analysis, and concentrations of antimony, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and uranium were all below detection limits (less than 1 ?g/g dry weight). Concentrations of most other trace elements in fish were low, with the exceptions of chromium, copper, mercury, and selenium; however, these concentrations are not at levels of concern. Concentrations of all trace elements analyzed in whole caddisfly larvae also were low compared to those reported in the literature. During 1998, a total of 48 species of macroinvertebrates were identified at each of two sampled sites, with similar numbers of genera represented at both: 41 at Keshena and 44 at Langlade. The percentage EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) was 52 at Keshena and 77 at Langlade; these relatively large percentages suggest very good to excellent water quality at these sites. A total of 52 algal taxa were identified at the Wolf River near Langlade. Diatoms made up 96 percent of the algal biomass. A total of 58 algal taxa were identified at Keshena, including 48 diatom taxa (83 percent). Although diatoms accounted for just 22 percent of the algal relative abundance, in cells per square centimeter, diatoms contributed 91 percent of the total algal biomass. The overall biological integrity of the Keshena and Langlade sites, based on diversity, siltation, and pollution indexes for diatoms is excellent.

Garn, Herbert S.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Richards, Kevin D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

2001-01-01

127

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER SALT RIVER IN BACKGROUND. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Indian Bend Pond & Pump Ditch, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

128

Late Holocene sedimentation in a high Arctic coastal setting: Simpson Lagoon and Colville Delta, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic coastal environments near major river outfalls, like Simpson Lagoon, Alaska and the adjacent Colville River Delta, potentially contain high-resolution sediment records useful in elucidating late Holocene Arctic sediment transport pathways and coupled terrestrial-ocean evidence of paleoclimate variability. This study utilizes a multi-tracer geochronology approach (137Cs, 239,240Pu, and 14C) tailored for high-latitude environments to determine the age models for cores collected from Simpson Lagoon, and to date seismic boundaries in shallow acoustic reflection data (CHIRP) to examine late Holocene infill patterns. Modern (~100 y) sediment accumulation rates range from <0.02 to 0.46±0.04 cm y-1, with a primary depocenter in western Simpson Lagoon adjacent to the Colville Delta and a secondary depocenter in eastern Simpson Lagoon. CHIRP reflectors, age-constrained by 14C analysis, reveal rapid late Holocene (0-3500 y BP) transgression consistent with high modern shoreline retreat rates. The western depocenter contains >5 m of late Holocene interbedded sediments, likely derived primarily from the Colville River, with onset of accumulation occurring prior to ~3500 y BP. A paleo-high in central Simpson Lagoon, separating the two depocenters, was subaerially exposed prior to ~600 y BP. The millimeters-per-year sedimentation rates across the lagoon, coupled with the undisturbed, interbedded sediment record, indicate that these settings hold great potential to develop new Arctic paleoenvironmental records.

Hanna, Andrea J. M.; Allison, Mead A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Marcantonio, Franco; Goff, John A.

2014-02-01

129

Circulation in Enewetak Atoll lagoon  

SciTech Connect

Currents at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, were measured on the reef margins, in the channels, and in the lagoon. Lagoon circulation is dominated by wind-driven downwind surface flow and an upwind middepth return flow. This wind-driven flow has the characteristics of an Ekman spiral in an enclosed sea. Lagoon flushing is accomplished primarily by surf-driven water input over the windward (eastern) reefs and southerly drift out the South Channel. Mean water residence time is 1 month, while water entering the northern portion of the atoll takes about 4 months to exit.

Atkinson, M.; Smith, S.V.; Stroup, E.D.

1981-11-01

130

40 CFR 258.42 - Approval of site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requests in Indian country. (a) Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC), Salt River Landfill Research, Development, and Demonstration...a) of this section applies to the Salt River Landfill, a municipal solid waste...

2013-07-01

131

40 CFR 258.42 - Approval of site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requests in Indian country. (a) Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC), Salt River Landfill Research, Development, and Demonstration...a) of this section applies to the Salt River Landfill, a municipal solid waste...

2011-07-01

132

40 CFR 258.42 - Approval of site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...requests in Indian country. (a) Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC), Salt River Landfill Research, Development, and Demonstration...a) of this section applies to the Salt River Landfill, a municipal solid waste...

2014-07-01

133

40 CFR 258.42 - Approval of site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requests in Indian country. (a) Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC), Salt River Landfill Research, Development, and Demonstration...a) of this section applies to the Salt River Landfill, a municipal solid waste...

2012-07-01

134

Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

1992-01-01

135

Mercury methylation and demethylation in Hg-contaminated lagoon sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) transformation activities and sulfate (SO42-) reduction were studied in sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea region as part of the "MIRACLE" project. The lagoons, which are sites of clam (Tapes philippinarum) farming, have been receiving excess Hg from the Isonzo River for centuries. Marano Lagoon is also contaminated from a chlor-alkali plant. Radiotracer methods were used to measure mercury methylation (230Hg, 197Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation (14C-MeHg) and SO42- reduction (35S) in sediment cores collected in autumn, winter and summer. Mercury methylation rate constants ranged from near zero to 0.054 day-1, generally decreased with depth, and were highest in summer. Demethylation rate constants were much higher than methylation reaching values of ˜0.6 day-1 in summer. Demethylation occurred via the oxidative pathway, except in winter when the reductive pathway increased in importance in surficial sediments. Sulfate reduction was also most active in summer (up to 1600 nmol mL-1 day-1) and depth profiles reflected seasonally changing redox conditions near the surface. Methylation and demethylation rate constants correlated positively with SO42- reduction and pore-water Hg concentrations, and inversely with Hg sediment-water partition coefficients indicating the importance of SO42- reduction and Hg dissolution on Hg cycling. Hg transformation rates were calculated using rate constants and concentrations of Hg species. In laboratory experiments, methylation was inhibited by amendments of the SO42--reduction inhibitor molybdate and by nitrate. Lagoon sediments displayed a dynamic seasonal cycle in which Hg dissolution in spring/summer stimulated Hg methylation, which was followed by a net loss of MeHg in autumn from demethylation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) tended to be responsible for methylation of Hg and the oxidative demethylation of MeHg. However, during winter in surficial sediments, iron-reducing bacteria seemed to contribute to methylation and Hg-resistant bacteria increased in importance in the reductive demethylation of MeHg. The high rates of MeHg demethylation in lagoon sediments may diminish the accumulation of MeHg.

Hines, Mark E.; Poitras, Erin N.; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Emili, Andrea; Žižek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena

2012-11-01

136

Control of submarine groundwater discharge patterns and salinity by a low-permeability paleochannel cap at Indian River Bay, Delaware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication in coastal bays has made it necessary to better understand nutrient sources in these settings. Because groundwater often has elevated nutrient levels with respect to surface water, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) may be an important source of nutrients to coastal bays. To understand the pathways of SGD and how bayfloor geology and hydrology affect them, we examined the geology, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at Indian River Bay, DE. Marine geophysical tools were used to identify the hydrogeologic framework and geometry of a shore-perpendicular freshwater plume beneath the bay. Shallow chirp seismic data outlined a low-permeability paleochannel infill, which is 150m across and 2-3m thick at the center, thinning towards the channel flanks. Offshore continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data show a low-salinity plume generally co-located with, but extending beyond the edges of, this low-permeability cap. Salinity data from 12 offshore wells with multi-level sampling ports verify the general extent of the plume indicated by CRP data. Using Lee-type seepage meters, 565 direct measurements of SGD were made between July 2010 and June 2011. These data show that the paleochannel feature generally controls nearby fresh SGD (FSGD), preventing discharge at the shoreline and causing diffuse freshened or brackish discharge at the channel flanks. In the adjoining interfluve, where the low-K cap is absent, fresh discharge appears focused and decreases monotonically from the shoreline, as predicted by theory. Saline SGD did not follow this trend and comprised the majority of the discharge. The measured maximum FSGD was 33cm/d compared to 198cm/d for recirculated baywater. SGD salinity ranged from 0-33ppt, with an average of 26.9ppt; the average surface baywater salinity was 28.4ppt. Seepage salinity patterns correlate spatially with CRP survey results. To assess the potential for saline SGD driven by interactions of surface water flowing over deployed seepage meters, bay surface current velocities were measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Currents ranged from 0-20 cm/s with an average of 3-6 cm/s, which would produce an estimated discharge of <6 cm/d, less than the average measured saline flux (9.2 cm/d). This indicates that other factors are driving the large saline SGD component at this site. During spring tides, both fresh and saline SGD rates at low tide are twice those at high tide, indicating a strong tidal influence on SGD. Though SGD is difficult to measure due to inherent geologic heterogeneity, temporal forcing factors and current/bathymetry interactions, extensive direct seepage data and correlated geophysical and well data show that the low-permeability paleochannel cap confines and controls fresh and saline groundwater flowpaths to the bay. By quantifying the effects of this cap we can develop better estimates of water and chemical fluxes into the bay.

Russoniello, C. J.; Fernandez, C.; Bratton, J. F.; Krantz, D.; Banaszak, J.; Andres, A. S.; Konikow, L. F.; Michael, H. A.

2011-12-01

137

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2014-07-01

138

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2013-07-01

139

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2011-07-01

140

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2010-07-01

141

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2012-07-01

142

Swine lagoon biogas utilization system  

SciTech Connect

A project was conceived to design and build a system to recover methane from pig manure with covered anaerobic lagoon technology. Covered lagoon technology lends itself both to new lagoon construction and to retrofit designs on existing anaerobic lagoons. A two cell passive in-ground digester/lagoon system was designed for a 600 sow feeder pig farm. The digester was covered with a flexible fabric cover made of 30 mil XR-5. The biogas has 1,100 ppm hydrogen sulfide. For the first month of operation 473 cubic feet of biogas per hour has been recovered from the digester 24 hours per day. At this gas flow the engine turns an induction generator to produce 17.1 KW per hour. A little over 80% of the farm`s electrical needs are generated with methane from swine manure. On an annual basis there will be 150,000 KWh of electricity produced from 4.3 million cubic feet of biogas.

Gettier, S.W.; Roberts, M. [Carroll`s Foods of Va., Inc., Waverly, VA (United States)

1994-12-31

143

PERFORMANCE OF AERATED LAGOONS IN NORTHERN CLIMATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies of cold climate aerated lagoons conducted by the Arctic Environmental Research Station, Fairbanks, Alaska are reported. Conclusions are based on these studies, observations of full scale aerated lagoons operating in Alaska and reports on lagoons in the northern tier of th...

144

Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons  

PubMed Central

Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

2012-01-01

145

Development of spit-lagoon complexes in response to Little Ice Age rapid sea-level changes in the central Guilan coast, South Caspian Sea, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Guilan coast along the Iranian Caspian coastline is characterized by sandy beaches and the development of spit-lagoon complexes, which are prone to preserve past sea-level fluctuations. The morphology of three spit-lagoon complexes along the central Guilan coast was studied using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and sediment sequences to understand the effects of past sea-level changes on spit-lagoon development. The results showed the prominent role of coastal setting in conditioning the development of spit-lagoon formation in response to sea-level change. When the Caspian Sea experienced a highstand in the Little Ice Age, the coast of central Guilan recorded fluctuations in sedimentation which are reflected, for example, by river avulsion and beach ridge formation depending on physical setting. In the western half of the central Guilan, eastward longshore currents and strong wave action on a W-E coastline coupled with sea-level changes shaped the Anzali spit-lagoon complex; while in the eastern part of the studied area river avulsion and changing the coastline orientation are responsible for development of the Amirkola and Kiashahr spit-lagoon complexes under the same sea-level fluctuations. Although sea-level change has a major role in spit-lagoon development, an increase in the frequency of storms, changes in sediment supply due to more precipitation, and river avulsion are other players in spit-lagoon development in the central Guilan during the Little Ice Age and more recent times.

Naderi Beni, A.; Lahijani, H.; Moussavi Harami, R.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Shah-Hosseini, M.; Kabiri, K.; Tavakoli, V.

2013-04-01

146

Groundwater-surface water interactions in a freshwater lagoon vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures (Pateira de Fermentelos, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryGroundwater-surface water interactions are investigated in the Pateira de Fermentelos lagoon, a shallow freshwater body with important aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The monthly monitoring of water levels proves that the lagoon drains phreatic aquifers which in turn contribute to recharge the underlying semi-confined aquifers. Besides rainwater, four types of natural waters contribute for the water balance and water quality in the lagoon: (1) the Cértima River with a Ca-HCO3 water type and circum neutral pH; (2) the Cretaceous aquifers with a Na-Cl-HCO3 water type and acidic pH; (3) the Triassic aquifers with a mixed water type, and slightly alkaline pH; and, (4) under certain conditions, the Águeda River with a diluted Na-Cl water type. Calculation of the water budget of the lagoon was developed with a lumped parameter model earlier proposed. The results of the lumped parameter model show that subsurface lateral flow is an important contributor to surface water bodies when compared to aquifer discharge. Albeit the lagoon drains impacted aquifers with high nitrate content, surface water bodies revealed low nitrate content throughout most of the 1-year monitoring period. The low nitrate content in the lagoon reflects a natural attenuation capacity that ranges between 8% and 13% which is mainly attributed to biogeochemical processes occurring in the hyporheic and riparian zones associated to the lagoon.

Sena, Clara; Teresa Condesso de Melo, M.

2012-10-01

147

Metals in some lagoons of Mexico.  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of metals, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in some lagoons to establish the level of metal pollution. The lagoons studied were Alvarado lagoon, Veracruz; San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas; and Terminos lagoon, Campeche. The concentrations were determined in water, oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and sediments. Metals were accumulated in either oysters or sediments. Cu and Zn were higher in oysters and Fe and Mn were higher in sediments. The results in water samples were compared with the limit established by the Secretaria de Ecologia and Desarrollo Urbano Report and briefly discussed. PMID:7621796

Vazquez, F G; Sharma, V K; Alexander, V H; Frausto, C A

1995-01-01

148

Nutrient inputs to a Lagoon through submarine groundwater discharge: The case of Laoye Lagoon, Hainan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with inputs of nutrients in certain regions may play a significant role in controlling water quality in the coastal regions. In this paper, we have determined four naturally occurring radium isotope (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra) activities and nutrient concentrations in surface water, coastal groundwater and river water in the mixing zone of Laoye Lagoon to estimate the fluxes of SGD by several models. The activities of the four radium isotopes of ground water were considerably greater than those in surface water samples. Using a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio (AR) model, we estimated the average lagoon water age to be 3.2 days, which was comparable with the flushing time of 4.0 days. Based on the excess radium isotopes and the water age of the lagoon, the estimated fluxes of SGD (in 106 m3/d) ranged from 2.64 to 5.32 with an average of 4.11. Moreover, we used Si balance to evaluate the flux of SGD (4.8 × 106 m3/d) which was close to the result calculated by radium. The SGD-derived nutrient fluxes (in mol/d) were DIN = 1.7 × 105, PO43 - = 5.2 × 102, and SiO3 = 5.3 × 104. Furthermore, we applied the biogeochemical budget approach using SiO3 as a tracer to evaluate the impact of SGD. The differences between the results estimated by radium and SiO3 may indicate different pathways for the input of nutrients.

Ji, Tao; Du, Jinzhou; Moore, Willard S.; Zhang, Guosen; Su, Ni; Zhang, Jing

2013-02-01

149

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...publishes approval of an Agreement to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian Community and the State of Arizona (Amendment). DATES: Effective Date: June 4, 2013. FOR FURTHER...

2013-06-04

150

High rates of geomorphological processes in a tropical area: the Remparts River case study (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reunion Island is characterized by rapid landscape evolution resulting from its cyclonic tropical climate. However, local active surface processes are not well understood. The relationships between climatic events, large scale landslides and torrential transport of sediment by the rivers remain unclear. The Remparts River is an appropriate area for studying such geomorphological processes, as it deeply incises the active Piton de la Fournaise volcano. In this study, different approaches are used to analyze the morphological evolution of the river from the sediment production areas to the outlet over the last 40 years. Recurrent events of huge mass wasting occur at Mahavel Cliff, upstream of one of the river tributaries, the most recent producing around 50×10 6 m 3 of sediment in 1965. Combined analyses of the sequence of cyclonic events, major mass wasting events and aerial photography interpretation over the last 40 years led to the proposal of a functional model of river system responses to these events. The river system can be divided into three compartments, each affected by three classes of geomorphological events. The sedimentary response (erosion and/or aggradation) of each compartment to a triggering event, such as cyclonic rainfall and/or seasonal rise of water discharge, is controlled both by the magnitude of the climatic event and by the state of the compartment resulting from previous evolution. A set of five aerial photographs and a satellite image showing the evolution of the studied area during the last 40 years are examined in detail in the light of the functional model. Observations confirm a rapid and complex evolution of the river bed (erosion and aggradation), and provide information about the dynamics of the sediment transfer from the production areas to the ocean. Analysis of two distinct topographic datasets bracketing the last major cyclone Dina in 2002 allows the estimation of the river sediment budget resulting from this event. The net volume of aggraded sediments in the river bed is estimated at around 8×10 6 m 3. With no major collapse event recorded at Mahavel Cliff, sediment transfer due to the flood associated with the 3-day cyclone Dina event is responsible for this significant increase in river bed sediment volume. This quantification shows that several million cubic meters of sediment may take only a few years to spread over more than 5 km downstream. The river bed has now reached its highest elevation since the 1965 landslide, with potential consequences for natural hazards in the area of the outlet at the city of Saint-Joseph.

Garcin, Manuel; Poisson, Blanche; Pouget, Richard

2005-04-01

151

Career Guidance for Indian Youth. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Initial research conducted by the Colorado River Indian Tribes Rehabilitation Center revealed that lack of career information available to Indian youth, lack of Indian student direction and motivation, and resultant low academic achievement inadequately prepared these students for the world of work. Consequently, a new program (involving seminars,…

Colorado River Indian Tribes, Parker, AZ.

152

77 FR 3241 - Intent To Hold North Dakota Task Force Meeting as Established by the Missouri River Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...River from sedimentation, and protect Indian and non-Indian historical and cultural sites along the Missouri River from erosion. DATES: North Dakota Missouri River Task Force established by the Missouri River Protection and Improvement Act of 2000...

2012-01-23

153

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K takes you on a trip down Idaho's Snake River near 1000 Springs and Blur Heart Springs while it explains how rivers are formed, their uses, and how they make valleys, canyons and even plains.

Idaho PTV

2011-09-04

154

Field measurements of groundwater discharge to a lagoon under variable density water conditions (Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ringkøbing Fjord is a lagoon located near the west coast of Denmark. It has an extension of 300 km2 and receives water from the Skjern River (plus other smaller streams), direct rainfall, sea water through a controlled connection with the sea (sluice), and, finally, from groundwater. While most of these fluxes are relatively well known, groundwater inputs to the lagoon have never been quantified. The salinity of the lagoon changes from 4 g/L (winter) to 12 g/L (summer) due to the seasonal changes in discharge (mainly Skjern River) and the operation of the sluice. Four field surveys (March, May, August and October) were accomplished in 2012 to determine, for the first time, the groundwater discharge to the lagoon at four locations/transects on the eastern shore line. The main objective was to understand the groundwater-fjord exchange processes that take place in the near-shore lagoon environment where, according to the theory, most groundwater discharge to the lagoon is to be expected. The investigative methods were similar to those utilized in lake and stream studies. More than 350 seepage meter measurements and around 150 vertical groundwater temperature logs of the first 50 cm under the lagoon bed were collected providing direct and indirect quantification of fluxes, respectively. Nevertheless, a significant difference remains compared with e.g. lakes, because of the salinity changes of the fjord water and, subsequently also the groundwater directly beneath the fjord. The seasonal contrasts in the density of groundwater and lagoon water made it necessary to take into account the salinity distribution in the shallow groundwater, because it can affect the pattern and amount of groundwater discharge to the lagoon. Thus, the salinity of the groundwater was measured every 25 cm in vertical profiles until 3 m depth along each transect. In total, more than 1300 points were sampled to obtain the spatio-temporal salinity distribution at the four locations. These discharge and salinity data were used to; i) Study the groundwater Electrical Conductivity (EC) changes due to both salinity changes in the fjord and groundwater discharge variations, (ii) Compare the freshwater discharge flux rates obtained by different methods and, finally, iii) Correlate the groundwater salinity distribution and the estimated flux patterns at the fjord bed. The changes in the salinity of groundwater combined with analysis of the saline wedge location indicate that the system is dynamic with slow seasonal changes and characterized by high heterogeneity along the lagoon shore. The measured average flux rates ranges from 0.5 to 2 cm/d. The discharge from the aquifer to the fjord tends to decrease with distance to the shoreline, but affected by the presence of the saline wedge.

Duque, Carlos; Haider, Kinza; Engesgaard, Peter; Sebok, Eva; Sonnenborg, Torben O.

2013-04-01

155

The United States and the Betrayal of Indian Water Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are (1) the effects of the Reclamation Projects upon the American Indians and non-Indians and of the power plants upon the Indians; and (2) the implications of the Winters Doctrine, the Eagle River Decision, the trustee-client relationship between the Indians of the United States and the National Water Commission Report. (NQ)

Martone, Rosalie

1974-01-01

156

Benthic biogeochemical cycling of mercury in two contaminated northern Adriatic coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research recognized most of the Northern Adriatic coastal lagoon environments as contaminated by mercury (Hg) from multiple anthropogenic sources. Among them, the Pialassa Baiona (P.B.) Lagoon, located near the city of Ravenna (Italy), received between 100 and 200 tons of Hg, generated by an acetaldehyde factory in the period 1957-1977. Further east, the Grado Lagoon has been mainly affected by a long-term Hg input from the Idrija mine (western Slovenia) through the Isonzo River since the 16th century. Hg cycling at the sediment-water interface (SWI) of the two lagoons was investigated and compared by means of an in situ benthic chamber, estimating diffusive Hg and Methyl-Hg fluxes in the summer season. Major chemical features in porewaters (Fe, Mn, H 2S, dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC), nutrients) and in the solid phase (C org, N and S) were also explored to understand the general biogeochemical conditions of the system in response to benthic respiration. The daily integrated flux for the methylated Hg form was extremely low in P.B. Lagoon, accounting for only 7% of the corresponding flux calculated for the Grado Lagoon. Despite a higher sedimentary Hg content in the P.B. Lagoon (14.4-79.0 ?g g -1) compared to the Grado Lagoon (10.7-12.5 ?g g -1), the in situ fluxes of Hg in the two experimental sites appeared similar. A selective sequential extraction procedure was applied to the solid phase, showing that the stable crystalline mineral phase cinnabar (HgS) is the predominant Hg fraction (about 50%) in the Grado Lagoon surface sediments. Conversely, Hg mobilization and sequestration in the P.B. Lagoon is related to the extremely anoxic redox conditions of the system where the intense sulfate reduction, by the release of sulfur and the formation of sulfides, limits the metal recycling at the SWI and its availability for methylation processes. Thus, the environmental conditions at the SWI in the P.B. Lagoon seem to represent a natural "barrier" for the potential risk of Hg transfer to the aquatic trophic chain.

Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Faganeli, Jadran

2011-10-01

157

Mud deposit formation on the open coast of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an explanation of the mud deposits on the inner Shelf of Cassino Beach, South Brazil, by using computational modeling. These mud deposits are mainly formed by sediments delivered from Patos Lagoon, a coastal lagoon connected to the Shelf, next to Cassino Beach. The deposits are characterized by (soft) mud layers of about 1 m thick and are found between the -5 and -20 isobaths. Two hydrodynamic models of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system were calibrated against water elevation measured for a 5 months period, and against currents and salinity measured for a week period. The circulation patterns and water exchange through the mouth were analyzed as a function of local and remote wind effects, and river discharges. The remote wind effect mainly governs the quantity of water exchange with the Lagoon through its effect on mean sea level as a result of Ekman dynamics, while river discharges are important for the salinity of the exchanged water masses. Local winds augment the export-import rates by set-up and set-down within the Lagoon, but their effects are much smaller than those of the remote wind. Currents patterns on the inner Shelf during water outflow revealed a recirculation zone south of the Lagoon, induced by the local geometry and bathymetry of the system. This recirculation zone coincides with observed locations of mud deposition. Water, hence suspended sediment export occurs when remote and local winds are from the N-E, which explains why fine sediment deposits are mainly found south of the Lagoon's breakwater. A sensitivity analysis with the numerical model quantified the contribution of the various mechanisms driving the transport and fate of the fine suspended sediments, i.e. the effects of remote and local wind, of the astronomical tide, of river discharge and fresh-salt water-induced density currents, and of earth rotation. It is concluded that gravitational circulation and earth rotation affects the further dispersion of the deposits largely, whereas the remote wind effect has the largest influence on the amount of sediment released from the Lagoon. It is noted that this paper analyzes the initial deposition patterns induced by current effects only. However, in reality, these deposits are further redistributed over the Shelf by wave effects—these are subject of a next study on the sediment dynamics of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system.

Vinzon, S. B.; Winterwerp, J. C.; Nogueira, R.; de Boer, G. J.

2009-03-01

158

Holocene eolian activation as a proxy for broad-scale landscape change on the Gila River Indian Community, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eolian sediments are common within the middle Gila River Valley, southern Arizona, and reflect variability in eolian and fluvial processes during the late Holocene. This study focuses on deciphering the stratigraphic record of eolian deposition and associated luminescence dating of quartz extracts by single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocols. Stratigraphic assessment coupled with luminescence ages indicates that there are four broad

David K. Wright; Steven L. Forman; Michael R. Waters; John C. Ravesloot

2011-01-01

159

Easy Guide to Breastfeeding for American Indian and Alaska Native Families  

MedlinePLUS

... as obesity and diabetes. The people of Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, working together with the ... Council of Arizona Gailyn Lewis, Genesis Program, Gila River Pima Indian Community Priscilla Lopez, MCH Coordinator, Tohono ...

160

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EXISTING LAGOONS, PETERBOROUGH, NEW HAMPSHIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

Although wastewater treatment lagoons are used extensively, little operational data is currently available for evaluating the performance capabilities of lagoons. This report presents data gathered during a one-year period of monitoring the lagoon system at Peterborough, New Hamp...

161

Polarization in the Lagoon nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A V-band polarimetric survey of stars associated with the Lagoon nebula was conducted. The data were combined with existing photometric and spectroscopic observations in order to investigate the alignment of magnetic field lines with identifiable symmetry axes and to evaluate the nature of dust in the immediate vicinity. Although stars are not in general highly polarized, electric vectors align with the minor axis of the Lagoon nebula, perpendicular to the major axis of the spatial distribution of massive stars. The observations indicate that the collapse of the molecular cloud progenitor was inhibited along directions perpendicular to magnetic field lines. Considering the low polarization efficiency and the high ratio of total to selective extinction, smaller grains of intranebular dust appear to have been destroyed.

Mccall, Marshall L.; Richer, Michael G.; Visvanathan, N.

1990-01-01

162

Eutrophication, water management, and the functioning of dutch estuaries and coastal lagoons  

SciTech Connect

A number of European rivers (especially the Rhine) have a prevailing influence on the nutrient cycling of most Dutch estuaries. Owing to the increased loading of the estuaries with nitrogen and phosphorous compounds, effects of eutrophication on the biological communities are most evident in the tidal Western Wadden Sea and in a nontidal brackish lagoon, Veerse Meer. Whether the relation between changed nutrient loadings and changed biomass and production of primary and secondary producers in the turbid tidal Dutch ecosystems should be considered as a causal relation is questionable. The very widespread practice of lagoon modification confuses the effects of nutrient loading. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Nienhuis, P.H. (Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Yerseke (Netherlands))

1992-12-01

163

Numerical modeling of salinity distribution and submarine groundwater discharge to a coastal lagoon in Denmark based on airborne electromagnetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beneficial use of large-scale geophysical surveys in combination with numerical modeling for assessing water resources problems in coastal areas is demonstrated. A 5,000-year long historical evolution of the regional distribution of salinity beneath a coastal lagoon in Denmark is simulated in a stage-wise approach using a two-dimensional variable-density flow and transport model and compared with an interpreted resistivity distribution from transient electromagnetic data. A sequence of multi-layer unconfined/confined aquifers with non-continuous aquitards is needed to match observations in terms of complexity in resistivity/salinity distribution, deep-seated low resistivity zones (trapped residual saltwater), and presence of groundwater discharge tubes with high resistivities indicating both near and off-shore discharge of fresh groundwater. Refreshening of the lagoon system is ongoing and simulations show that this process has been most rapid during the last ˜300 years, but will continue at a slower rate for the next many hundreds of years. The development of the lagoon over the last 5,000 years, the associated changes in salinity and the present-day control of lagoon salinity are responsible for these processes. Finally, simulation results show that the groundwater influx to the lagoon is significant. The estimated fluxes correspond to 168 % of net precipitation on the lagoon or 17 % of the discharge from the largest river into the lagoon.

Haider, Kinza; Engesgaard, Peter; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Kirkegaard, Casper

2015-03-01

164

Evaluating groundwater discharge to tidal rivers based on a Rn-222 time-series approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural flux of groundwater into coastal water bodies has recently been shown to contribute significant quantities of nutrients and trace metals to the coastal ocean. Groundwater discharge and hyporheic exchange to estuaries and rivers, however, is frequently overlooked though it often carries a distinctly different chemical signature than surface waters. Most studies that attempt to quantify this input to rivers use multiple geochemical tracers. However, these studies are often limited in their spatial and temporal extents because of the labor-intensive nature of integrating multiple measurement techniques. We describe here a method of using a single tracer, 222Rn, to rapidly characterize groundwater discharge into tidally-influenced rivers and streams. In less than one week of fieldwork, we determined that of six streams that empty into the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, three (Eau Gallie River, Turkey Creek, and Main Canal) did not receive substantial groundwater inputs, one canal (C-25 Canal) was dominated by groundwater exchange, and the remaining two (Sebastian River system and Crane Creek) fell somewhere in between. For more detailed discharge assessments, we focused on the Sebastian River system, a stratified tidal river estuary, during a relatively dry period (June) and a wet period (July) in 2008. Using time-series 222Rn and current velocity measurements we found that groundwater discharge into all three branches of the Sebastian River increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude during the wetter period. The estimated groundwater flow rates were higher than those reported into the adjacent IRL, suggesting that discharge into these rivers can be more important than direct discharge into the IRL. The techniques employed here should work equally well in other river/stream systems that experience significant groundwater discharge. Such assessments would allow area managers to quickly assess the distribution and magnitude of groundwater discharge nature into rivers over large spatial ranges.

Peterson, Richard N.; Santos, Isaac R.; Burnett, William C.

2010-01-01

165

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

1991-07-01

166

Sediment characteristics and water quality in the two hyper-saline lagoons along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two hyper-saline Shoaiba lagoons, Khawr ash Shaibah al Masdudah (northern lagoon) and Khawr ash Shaibah al Maftuhah (southern lagoon) have a unique environmental set-up because no rivers or wadis flow into the lagoons and therefore detrital material to the lagoons is lacking and most of the sediments are indigenous carbonates. The biogenic material is mostly derived from coral debris, coralline algae and molluscs abundant in gravel and sand size fractions. The evaporite deposits from the adjoining sabkhas are transported to the lagoon during tidal cycles. Carbonate is abundant in the form of aragonite and High Mg-calcite indicating carbonate to be recent and formed under shallow water conditions. In general, the sediments are the result of the mechanical breakdown of molluscs and coral reefs by either human activity or by coral boring marine organisms and physical processes such as tidal and wind generated currents. Strong currents dominate only the deeper part at the entrance of the lagoons that causes the winnowing of the finer sediments, and its transportation during flooding and ebbing. Shallow depths averaging 3 m, wind and tidal stirring are the main forces preventing the lagoons from developing stratification resulting in a well-mixed body of water. The shallow depth of the lagoons keep the turbidity levels higher, whereas salinity as high as 52 ‰ and water temperature as high as 38 °C helps in the formation of halite at the periphery. The cyclical inundation of sabkhas by a thin sheet of water during tidal cycles is important in understanding the ecological consequence. Mangrove stands in the lagoons act as a source of nutrients to the flora and fauna inhabiting the lagoons. The configurations of the mouth of the lagoons influence the tidal currents, including the sediment and water movement. The tidal current is enhanced as it enters the lagoons, in response to the funneling effect caused by the narrow channel. The current diffuses as the entrance widens. In the case of Khawr ash Shaibah al Masdudah the mouth is wide and it faces the open sea directly, whereas the mouth of Khawr ash Shaibah al Maftuhah, although narrower, the tidal current is only strong until the channel to the lagoon bends almost 90° where the tidal current dissipates, resulting in the restricted water and sediment movement in the lagoon. The coarser sediments are stained gray-black because of a reducing environment and formation of authigenic pyrite. Stagnant condition prevails inside the lagoons because of insufficient exchange of water with the open sea and lack of rainfall causes hyper-saline conditions. Higher salinity values were evident in the shallow waters, whereas oxygen saturation ranged between 77 % (southern lagoon) and 107 % (northern lagoon) which could be attributed to the complex nature of the southern lagoon. Reactive phosphate and nitrite concentrations in the surface waters were low and in many locations under the detection limit reflecting the oligotrophic behaviour of the Red Sea and limited supply of nutrients from adjacent areas. There is an abundant presence of trace metals especially in fine sediments that has the tendency to adsorb the metals more efficiently. There is an inverse correlation between heavy metals and carbonate content in the sediments, and much stronger particularly with Cr, V and Co. The Landsat ETM identifies two depth zones in the lagoons and shows the effects of the influence of flooding and ebbing on the sediment distribution and the extent of the water cover seasonally.

Rasul, Najeeb; Al-Farawati, Radwan; Al-Harbi, Omer; Naser Qutub, Abdul

2013-04-01

167

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2010-10-01

168

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2014-10-01

169

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2011-10-01

170

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2013-10-01

171

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2012-10-01

172

Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, 1992-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected in 1992-93 from irrigation drainage areas and wetlands of the Wind River Federal Irrigation Project, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming. Most samples collected had concentrations of chemical constituents less than the established levels of concern for water, bottom sediment, and biota. In the Little Wind Unit irrigation area, however, selenium and mercury concentrations in water exceeded criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Six water samples analyzed from the Little Wind Unit in 1993 had selenium concentrations that equaled or exceeded 5 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of mercury in water were 0.1 micrograms per liter or less, except at four sites: one sample collected in 1993 from Sharp Nose Draw (4.9 micrograms per liter) and three samples collected in 1992 from Little Wind Unit and Johnstown Unit (0.2 micrograms per liter). Mercury concentrations in all bottom-sediment samples were less than 0.02 micrograms per liter, except at Sharp Nose Pond where a concentration of 0.02 micrograms per liter was measured. Selenium concentrations in some aquatic vegetation, inverte- brates, fish, bird eggs, and bird livers collected from the Little Wind Unit in 1993 exceeded established levels of concern. At Goose Pond and Sharp Nose Pond, selenium in the livers of five bird samples collected exceeded the 10 micrograms per gram level associated with reproductive failure in aquatic birds. Mercury concentrations in the livers of birds sampled at Sharp Nose Pond also were greater than suggested levels in dietary items for the protection of sensitive species of mammals and birds that regularly consume aquatic organisms.

Grasso, Dennis N.; Jennings, Mary E.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.

1995-01-01

173

Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for

J Kammerbauer; J Moncada

1998-01-01

174

Invasions of alien gammarid species and retreat of natives in the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea, Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades of the twentieth century, the alien gammarid species Gammarus tigrinus, Dikerogammarus haemobaphes, Pontogammarus robustoides and Obesogammarus crassus invaded the lower Vistula River and its deltaic, partly brackish regions. In brackish waters of the Vistula Lagoon the native Atlantic-boreal species Gammarus zaddachi and Gammarus duebeni have been replaced or at least outnumbered by the aliens. As compared to our earlier studies, through the years 1998-2004 we could observe nearly total decline of the native gammarid populations along the coasts of the Lagoon, and overdomination of the North-American G. tigrinus in most places. Possible reasons for the observed phenomena are e.g. increasing pollution and eutrophication of the Lagoon accompanied by competition between the native and the alien species.

Grabowski, Michal; Konopacka, Alicja; Jazdzewski, Krzysztof; Janowska, Ewa

2006-05-01

175

Indian Government and Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

Starblanket, Noel V.

1981-01-01

176

THE PALAEARCTIC WADER POPULATION OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pringle, J. S. & Cooper, J. 1975. The Palaearctic wader population of Langebaan Lagoon. Ostrich 46:213-218.Monthly counts of Palaearctic waders were made at high tide in three areas of Langebaan Lagoon, southwestern Cape, during 1973 and 1974. A total of sixteen species was observed. The five commonest species, in order of abundance, were Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Grey Plover Squalarola

J. S. Pringle; J. Cooper

1975-01-01

177

Aerated Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student manual contains the textual material for a unit which focuses on the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. Topic areas discussed include: (1) characteristics of completely mixed aerated lagoons; (2) facultative aerated lagoons; (3) aerated oxidation ponds; (4) effects of temperature on aerated lagoons; (5)…

Andersen, Lorri

178

Distribution, movement, and fate of nitrate in the surficial aquifer beneath citrus groves, Indian River, Martin, and St Lucie Counties, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surficial aquifer system beneath citrus groves in Indian River, Martin, and St. Lucie Counties, Florida, was studied to determine the effects of citrus agriculture on ground-water quality. The surficial aquifer is the primary drinking-water source for Martin and St. Lucie Counties and furnishes about 33 percent of the drinking-water for Indian River County. Water-quality samples and water-level data were collected from December 1996 through October 1998. Nitrate concentrations in ground water exceeded 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s maximum contaminant level for nitrate reported as nitrogen, in 5 percent of the samples from citrus groves. These exceedances occurred in samples from wells with depths of 10 feet or less at citrus groves, and mostly in samples collected during or immediately following fertilizer applications. Samples from wells with depths of 20-25 feet contained little or no nitrate. The decreased nitrate concentrations in ground water with depth was not consistent with chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations, two other common indicators of agricultural activity. Chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations remained elevated in ground-water samples from all depths at citrus groves; median chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations in samples from citrus sites were 125 and 779 mg/L, respectively. In comparison, samples from the reference site had maximum chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations of 61 and 366 mg/L, respectively. Based on the age of ground water at 20-25 foot depths (3-50 years, measured with tritium and helium-3 concentration ratios), nitrate concentrations also should have remained elevated with depth because fertilizers have been used for at least 20-30 years at these citrus groves. Nitrate concentrations decreased with depth as a result of denitrification. This could have occurred because favorable conditions for denitrification existed in the aquifer, including high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and iron (median concentrations of 25.5 and 1.75 mg/L, respectively at citrus sites) and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (median concentration of 0.9 mg/L at citrus sites), which indicates that reducing conditions were present. Evidence that denitrification occurred included the enrichment of ground water with depth in the heavier isotope of nitrogen, nitrogen-15 (15N). Ground water from wells screened 10-15 feet below land surface had a median d 15N value of 24.6 per mil, whereas ground water from wells screened 5-10 feet below land surface had a median d 15N value of 9.4 per mil. Fertilizer samples had a median d 15N value of 3.0 per mil. Increased d 15N values coincident with decreased nitrate concentrations with depth indicates that fractionation occurred during denitrification reactions. Finally, excess nitrogen gas, a byproduct of denitrification reactions, was detected at concentrations ranging from 0-8 mg/L in samples from wells screened 10-25 feet below land surface.

Crandall, Christy A.

2000-01-01

179

Trace Metal Concentrations in Sediments and Fish in the Vicinity of Ash Lagoon Discharges from Coal-Combustion Plants in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metals that originate from coal-combustion residue (ash) deposited in water-filled lagoons are eventually released into the\\u000a environment. This study measured metal concentrations in sediment and fish obtained in the vicinity of two coal-combustion\\u000a ash-lagoon outfalls on the East River (Nova Scotia) and Grand Lake (New Brunswick), Canada. Of the 34 metals analysed, this\\u000a study demonstrated that sediment in the immediate

Benoit A. Lalonde; William Ernst; Fernand Comeau

180

Geomorphological evolution and environmental reclamation of Fusaro Lagoon (Campania Province, southern Italy).  

PubMed

Analysis of morphological, geological and environmental characteristics of the Fusaro Lagoon has shown the present degraded condition of the lagoon and the perilagoon area. The lagoon developed during the mid-Holocene within a wide marine bay confined between the coastal volcanic structures of Mt. Cuma to the north and Torregaveta to the south in the western part of the Phlegrean Fields. Subsequently, the bay was gradually filled with pyroclastic materials from phlegrean eruptive vents and sediments carried by the rivers Volturno and Clanis, thus, creating an open lagoon. It then evolved into a partially closed lagoon due to the formation of a continuous littoral spit during the late Holocene, probably wider than the present-day one and surrounded by marshlands. Finally, the total closure of the lagoon took place in the Graeco-Roman period, following the stabilization of the dune ridge, and it assumed a shape similar to present-day one only towards the end of the 18th century. Between the Roman period and 1941, three lagoon channels were opened in order to avoid the frequent environmental crises which continue to affect, although for different reasons, this salt-water basin. The basin has been exploited for more than 2000 years not only for mollusc culture and pisciculture, but also for the maceration of hemp and flax. In the 1980s, in order to reduce the effects of the environmental crises, dredging of the lagoon bottom has been carried out, altering the hydrogeological equilibrium and that of the ecosystem. Over the past 30 years, the supply of raw sewage of domestic, agricultural and industrial origin has ensured the presence of a high concentration of pollutants, including heavy metals. On the basis of the data obtained and in order to restore this sensitive transitional environment, eco-compatible interventions are proposed which aim at morphological and hydrologic resettlement, abatement of pollutants on the bottom of the basin, reintroduction of endemic molluscs, together with monitoring the quality of sediments and both sea-lagoon waters and groundwater. PMID:14749109

De Pippo, Tommaso; Donadio, Carlo; Grottola, Doriana; Pennetta, Micla

2004-04-01

181

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features pages to more than twenty NASA radar images of the world's major river systems. The image pages contain a brief description of the respective processes and setting, and are available for download. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing.

Rich Pavlovsky

182

Movement of lagoon-liquor constituents below four animal-waste lagoons.  

PubMed

Movement of liquor constituents from animal-waste lagoons has the potential to degrade ground water quality. The depth of movement and concentrations of lagoon-liquor constituents in the soil underlying three cattle (Bos taurus)-waste retention lagoons and one swine (Sus scrofa)-waste lagoon were determined. Samples were taken by using a direct-push coring machine, dissected by depth, and analyzed for total N, organic C, CaCO3, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), texture, and extractable NO3, NH(4), P, Cl, Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Ammonium N concentrations were greatest in the upper 0.5 m of soil under all four lagoons with concentrations ranging from 94 to 1139 mg kg(-1). Organic N was determined to make up between 39 and 74% of the total N beneath all lagoons. The swine lagoon had 2.4 kg N m(-2) in the underlying soil whereas the cattle lagoon with highest quantity of N had 1.2 kg N m(-2) in the underlying soil. Although N concentrations decreased with depth, N was greater than expected background levels at the bottom of some cores, indicating that the sampling efforts did not reach the bottom of the N plume. Nitrate N concentrations were generally less than 5 mg kg(-1) immediately below the lagoon floor. In the uppermost 0.5 m of soil underlying the swine and three cattle lagoons, NH4+ occupied 44% and between 1 and 22% of the soil cation exchange sites, respectively. The depth of movement of N under these lagoons, as much as 4 m, may pose remediation difficulties at lagoon closure. PMID:15942042

DeSutter, Tom M; Pierzynski, Gary M; Ham, Jay M

2005-01-01

183

Evaluation of the nutrient inputs to a coastal lagoon: the case of the Ria de Aveiro, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria de Aveiro estuary-coastal lagoon system of northern Portugal is estimated to currently receive mean annual influxes of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) of c. 6118 t y-1 and 779 t y-1, respectively, from its influent rivers. In low summer flows the mean N and P fluxes decrease to c. 10% of the annual average. The sewage

J. Figueiredo da Silva; R. W. Duck; T. S. Hopkins; M. Rodrigues

2002-01-01

184

A Trophic Model of a Sandy Barrier Lagoon at Chiku in Southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the ECOPATH 3.0 software system, a balanced trophic model of a sandy barrier lagoon with intensive fishery activities at Chiku in tropical Taiwan was constructed. The lagoon model comprised 13 compartments. Trophic levels of the compartments varied from 1·0 for primary producers and detritus to 3·6 for piscivorous fish. Hanging-cultured oysters accounted for 39% of the harvestable fishery biomass and were the most important fishery species. The most prominent group in terms of biomass and energy flow in the lagoon was herbivorous zooplankton. Manipulations of the biomass of herbivorous zooplankton would have a marked impact on most compartments. Both total system throughput and fishery yield per unit area were high when compared to other reported marine ecosystems. This appears mainly due to high planktonic primary production, which is probably promoted by enriched river discharges draining mangroves and aquaculture ponds. Consequently, more than half of the total system throughput originates from primary producers in the lagoon. Although half of the primary production was not immediately used by upper trophic levels and flowed into the detrital pool, most of the detritus was directly consumed, passed up the food web and was exported to the fishery. Thus only a small proportion of energy was recycled through detritus pathways. This mechanism produces short pathways with high trophic efficiencies at higher trophic levels. The high fishery yield in the lagoon is due to high primary production and short pathways. This is the first model of a tropical sandy barrier lagoon with intensive fishery activities and thus may serve as a basis for future comparisons and ecosystem management.

Lin, H.-J.; Shao, K.-T.; Kuo, S.-R.; Hsieh, H.-L.; Wong, S.-L.; Chen, I.-M.; Lo, W.-T.; Hung, J.-J.

1999-05-01

185

Fingerprinting of sediment transport processes in coastal lagoon: An environmental magnetic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment transport in a coastal lagoon is highly complex and is controlled by various processes (mixing, sorting, erosion, transport, deposition) that govern the distribution of sediments between sources and sinks. In this study, we explore the potential of environmental magnetism in combination with sedimentological methods to magnetically fingerprint sediment transport processes in New Zealand's largest barrier enclosed mesotidal estuarine lagoon. Measurements of bulk magnetic susceptibility and grain sizes of surficial samples collected from various parts of Tauranga Harbour including rivers, the estuary, and nearshore zone helped to identify and differentiate the sedimentary processes in and off the lagoon. The sediments were mainly dominated by variable proportion of titanomagnetite and yield different grain sizes. A general trend (NW - SE) of increasing magnetite concentration and decreasing physical grain sizes indicates the variability in sediment inputs and transport energy of flow. Higher values of SIRM / ? indicate the dominance of fine grained magnetite within riverine sediments. The low enriched fine-grained riverine sediments entering the basin are mostly flushed out to the open sea, while medium-coarse grained magnetite rich sediments gets trapped into the southern lagoonal basin forming enriched zones as inferred from the magnetic data. Within the lagoon, the intense mixing and sorting causes fractionation of heavy (magnetic) minerals which further leads to magnetic enhancement and coarsening of magnetic grain sizes within the tidal channel network of the southern basin. We observed two different patterns in sediment grain sizes. The northern lagoonal basin sediments are dominated by fine sand (~ 200 ?m), while the southern basin sediments are composed of mixed grain sizes (300-500 ?m). This suggests much calmer hydrodynamics conditions in the northern basin favoured accumulation of fine grained sediment while as outlined above transport is more dynamic in the southern basin. Off Tauranga Harbour, active coast- parallel transport of fine sediments results in formation of nearshore magnetite-rich belt. The fining in magnetic grain size followed by decrease in volume of fine sand mirrors NW directed alongshore sediment transport.

Badesab, F. K.; von Dobeneck, T. F.; Briggs, R. M.; Just, J.; Bryan, K. R.; Müller, H.

2013-12-01

186

The Kayapo Indians Struggle in Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article addresses how the livelihood of the Kayapo Indians is threatened by: revived plans for several hydroelectric dams along the Xingu River, increased pollution from agricultural runoff, and the illegal invasion of territorial lands.

Ava Goodale (Cornell University; )

2004-01-01

187

Compression and Creep of Venice Lagoon Sands  

E-print Network

A laboratory test program was conducted to evaluate the one-dimensional (1D) compression and creep properties of intact sand (and silty-sand) samples from a deep borehole at the Malamocco Inlet to the Venice Lagoon. The ...

Sanzeni, Alex

188

Assessment of the trophic status of four coastal lagoons and one estuarine delta, eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems continues to be one of the major environmental issues worldwide and also of Brazil. Over the last five decades, several approaches have been proposed to discern the trophic state and the natural and cultural processes involved in eutrophication, including the multi-parameter Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS) index model. This study applies ASSETS to four Brazilian lagoons (Mundaú, Manguaba, Guarapina, and Piratininga) and one estuarine delta (Paraíba do Sul River), set along the eastern Brazilian coast. The model combines three indices based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) approach to rank the trophic status and forecast the potential eutrophication of a system, to which a final ASSETS grade is established. The lagoons were classified as being eutrophic and highly susceptible to eutrophication, due primarily to their longer residence times but also their high nutrient input index. ASSETS classified the estuary of the Paraíba do Sul river with a low to moderate trophic state (e.g., largely mesotrophic) and low susceptibility to eutrophication. Its nutrient input index was high, but the natural high dilution and flushing potential driven by river flow mitigated the susceptibility to eutrophication. Eutrophication forecasting provided more favorable trends for the Mundaú and Manguaba lagoons and the Paraíba do Sul estuary, in view of the larger investments in wastewater treatment and remediation plans. The final ASSETS ranking system established the lagoons of Mundaú as "moderate," Manguaba as "bad," Guarapina as "poor," and Piratininga as "bad," whereas the Paraíba do Sul River Estuary was "good." PMID:22821328

Cotovicz Junior, Luiz Carlos; Brandini, Nilva; Knoppers, Bastiaan Adriaan; Mizerkowski, Byanka Damian; Sterza, José Mauro; Ovalle, Alvaro Ramon Coelho; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter

2013-04-01

189

Osceola. The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Osceola was the guiding spirit and moving force behind the Second Seminole War. In 1830, when it became the official policy of the United States government to move all the Eastern Indians to a new Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, the Seminoles resisted. Under Osceola's leadership, a thousand Seminole warriors held off the entire…

Johnson, Robert Proctor

190

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.  

PubMed

A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3 ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6 ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109 ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

2014-07-15

191

Basic cytogenetics and physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal genes in Hoplias malabaricus (Osteichthyes, Characiformes, Erythrinidae) from isolated natural lagoons: a conserved karyomorph along the Iguaçu river basin  

PubMed Central

Abstract Erythrinidae include Neotropical teleost fish that are widely distributed in South America. Hoplias Gill, 1903 include two large groups: H. malabaricus Bloch, 1794 and H. lacerdae Miranda Ribeiro, 1908. Hoplias malabaricus is characterized by remarkable karyotype diversity, with some karyomorphs widely distributed geographically while others are more restricted to certain river basins. Cytogenetic analyzes were performed in a population of Hoplias malabaricus from the Wildlife Refuge of Campos de Palmas, the Iguaçu River basin. The specimens showed diploid number of 42 chromosomes (24m+18sm) without differentiated sex chromosomes system. The impregnation by silver nitrate showed multiple AgNORs. Seven pairs (4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20 and 21) carrying 18S rDNA were detected by FISH. Heterochromatin was verified in the centromeric and pericentromeric region of most chromosomes and the terminal region of some pairs. FISH with 5S rDNA probes showed two chromosome pairs carrying these sites in the interstitial region (8 and 14). The data obtained in this study are similar to those found for two other populations of H. malabaricus already studied in the basin of the Iguaçu River, confirming the hypothesis that this species is natural, not having been introduced, as well as having an intrinsic characteristic, such as the largest number of sites of 18S rDNA. PMID:25349672

Gemi, Gisele; Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Treco, Fernando Rodrigo; Paiz, Leonardo Marcel; Moresco, Rafaela Maria; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan

2014-01-01

192

Missouri River Looking Upstream  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is a comparison between the top photo taken on September 27, 2006 and the bottom photo taken June 8, 2011. These photos where both taken from the Double Ditch Indian Village, Bismarck, ND. This is the Missouri River at Double Ditch Indian Village looking north, upstream. Due to the flooding of ...

193

Description of Freshwater Bacterial Assemblages from the Upper Paraná River Floodpulse System, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were identified from a large, seasonally flooded river (Paraná River, Brazil) and two floodplain habitats that were\\u000a part of the same river system yet very different in nature: clearwater Garças Lagoon and the highly humic waters of Patos\\u000a Lagoon. Bacterioplankton were collected during mid-summer (Jan. 2002) from water samples (2 l) filtered first through a 1.2-?m\\u000a filter then a 0.2-?m

Michael J. Lemke; E. Kurt Lienau; Jean Rothe; Thomaz A. Pagioro; Jeff Rosenfeld; Rob DeSalle

2009-01-01

194

Macroinvertebrates associated with Chara in a tropical coastal lagoon (Imboassica lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imboassica lagoon is an urban coastal lagoon located in the municipality of Macaé (RJ), which has been exposed to a process of artificial eutrophication through the inflow of untreated sewage, as well as artificial openings of the sandbar that separates it from the ocean, provoking drastic modifications in this ecosystem. The sampling for the analysis of the community of macroinvertebrates

Edélti Faria Albertoni; Cleber Palma-Silva; Francisco de Assis Esteves

2001-01-01

195

A multistakeholder perspective on human interactions with the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Crystal River, Florida, U.S.A  

E-print Network

Wildlife tourism can be problematic as managers are faced with the dual responsibility of developing products and programs for visitors while simultaneously protecting the resource. This study focused on encounters with the endangered West Indian...

Sorice, Michael Gregory

2001-01-01

196

Temporal and spatial changes in the composition and structure of helminth component communities in European eels Anguilla anguilla in an Adriatic coastal lagoon and some freshwaters in Italy.  

PubMed

The composition and diversity of the helminth component communities in eels Anguilla anguilla were determined in three separate localities in Italy: an Adriatic coastal lagoon, Comacchio and two freshwater localities, the River Po and the Lake Piediluco. Data from Comacchio lagoon were analysed over 15 years to determine whether community composition and diversity changed significantly overtime. The community was species rich (nine species, all marine except Proteocephalus macrocephalus) and was dominated by a suite of digeneans: Deropristis inflata, Helicometra fasciata, Lecithochirium musculus and Bucephalus anguillae. The community showed little change in composition over the period, but the relative abundance and dominance of the species did alter. By contrast, the component communities in the freshwater localities were species poor and the dominant species were freshwater acanthocephalans, Pomphorhyncus laevis in River Po and Acanthocephalus rhinensis in Lake Piediluco. The helminth community of Lake Piediluco with five species was richer than that of the River Po with only three species, but was poorer than that of Comacchio lagoons. Similarity indices between samples from Comacchio were high; between the lagoon and the freshwater localities and between the two freshwater localities, similarity indices were very low. Helminth component community structure in coastal lagoons was comparable across Europe. The helminth community in the River Po was similar to those in the River Tiber and other European rivers whilst that in Lake Piediluco was similar to that in other European lakes. Levels of the pathogenic Anguillicoloides crassus in swim bladders were consistently lower in prevalence and abundance in the coastal lagoons than in freshwater localities. This suggests that this parasite may have little impact on migrating eels if they are indeed primarily of marine origin and so it may be of little importance in the recent decline of eel populations throughout Europe. PMID:24135871

Dezfuli, Bahram Sayyaf; Giari, Luisa; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Lanzoni, Mattia; Rossi, Remigio; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Kennedy, Clive Russell

2014-01-01

197

Metal ions in water and sediments of the Pom-Atasta Lagoon, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Temperature, salinity, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the surface water of the Pom-Atasta Lagoon at 15 stations during 5 sampling events from September 1996--May 1997. Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ag, Fe, Co, and Ba were also determined in the water and sediments at 15 stations during the study period. The values of salinity, turbidity, and TSS were related to the inputs of river water into the lagoon. Metals in the water and sediments showed no spatial variation. Seasonality in the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, and Ba in the water was found and may be related to the resuspension of sediments in the lagoon. The concentrations of metals in sediments did not give significant seasonal variation. Metals in sediments were not correlated with the iron, suggesting an anthropogenic source of metals in the Pom-Atasta Lagoon. The concentrations of dissolved Pb were above the value recommended by the National Water Commission of Mexico.

Vazquez, G.F.; Enciso, G.; Morales, J.W. [UNAM, Distrito Federal (Mexico). Instituto de Ciencias Del Mar y Limnologia] [UNAM, Distrito Federal (Mexico). Instituto de Ciencias Del Mar y Limnologia; Sharma, V.K. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Nischt, S.L.; Domingo, G.L. [PEMEX, Campeche (Mexico)] [PEMEX, Campeche (Mexico)

1999-07-01

198

Hydrographic measurements in Jökulsárlón lagoon, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jökulsárlón lagoon is an enclosed lake bordering the retreating Breidamerkurjökull glacier which flows down from the Vatnajökull ice cap. As the glacier calves most of the ice it releases decays within the lake and the addition of the stored fresh water modifies the water local properties. The lake itself is connected to the North Atlantic Ocean through a narrow channel only ~80 m wide, and all tidal and residual flows in and out of the lake are through this channel. In April 2012 (early spring) we conducted four hydrographic sections from a small boat to determine the early season hydrographic structure of the lake. We conducted two hydrographic sections from the entrance of the channel to sea across the lagoon to the Breidamerkurjökull glacier, one across the centre of the lagoon, and one along, and close to the glacier face. Four months of time series hydrographic data from the channel show that the oceanic tidal pulse into the lagoon is short in duration. The water that enters the lagoon is warm and saline enough to descend rapidly to the greatest depths within the lagoon. With our CTD measurements we have mapped the properties of water across the lake. These reveal the pathway of the Atlantic derived water towards the ice face. The warmest water measured within the lagoon was just below the surface and only adjacent to the glacier face. Whilst this warm water was created from solar input, its location and concentration reveal the complex density driven circulation patterns close to the ice face. Calculated oceanic driven melt rates from the ice face show enhanced oceanographic melting in this near surface layer which contributes to the more substantial deeper melting.

Brandon, M. A.; Hodgkins, R.; Björnsson, H.; Ólaffson, J.

2013-12-01

199

Trends in salinity and inorganic nitrogen compounds in the Berre lagoon (1994-2011) bacterial activities and nitrogen budgets.  

PubMed

The Berre lagoon receives freshwater from two natural rivers but the implementation of the hydroelectric power plant led to strong changes in the ecosystem structure and functioning. Sediments are important sites for nitrogen cycling because the O(2) sharp gradient allows oxic nitrification as well as anoxic denitrification and anammox to operate in close proximity. Seasonal and short-term variations in the coastal nitrogen processes were quantified at two stations: SA1 located in the northern part of the lagoon directly under the inflows of freshwater and SA3 in the southern part of the lagoon influenced mainly by the marine water inflows. Results revealed that most of the nitrate formed by nitrification was denitrified. Total denitrification was the main N(2) removal process. The high primary production based on N-NH(4)(+) might be explained by mineralization rates, while the primary production based on N-NO(3)(-) was not fully explained by nitrification. PMID:23276532

Zaghmouri, Imen; Michotey, Valerie D; Guasco, Sophie; Raimbault, Patrick; Garcia, Nicole; Bernard, Guillaume; Bonin, Patricia C

2013-02-15

200

The fate of Mediterranean lagoons under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model (SHYFEM) has been applied to 10 Mediterranean lagoons and a comparison study between the lagoons has been carried out. The lagoons are the lagoons of Venice, Marano-Grado, Varano and Lesina in the Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras lagoon in Sardinia, and the lagoons of Ganzirri and Faro in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain and the Nador lagoon in Morocco. These lagoons give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. The lagoons range from a leaky type of lagoons to a choked type. The number of inlets ranges from just one in the Nador lagoon to 6 in the case of the Marano-Grado lagoons. Tidal range is from nano-tidal to micro-tidal. The depth ranges from an average depth of 1 m to up to 40 meters. The model is a finite element model, especially suited to shallow water basins with complicated geometric and morphologic variations. The model can compute the basic hydrodynamics, dispersion of tracers, temperature and salinity evolution, sediment transport and ecological parameters. Building on an earlier study that focused on the classification of Mediterranean lagoons based on hydrodynamics, exchange rates and renewal time, this study is concerned with the changes in physical parameters under climate change. Data from IPCC has been used to simulate the changes in renewal time, salinity and temperature of all lagoons, with respect to the control simulation. Whenever possible downscaled data for the Mediterranean basin have been used. Sea level rise scenarios are taken from the last IPCC report. The model has been applied in its 3D version and the chosen setup allows a comparison between results in the different lagoons. Results indicate that the differences of renewal time between all studied lagoons become smaller. This means that leaky lagoons become less leaky and choked lagoons less choked. What concerns temperature and salinity, changes occurring in the sea are amplified inside lagoons. All lagoons show an increase of temperature higher than the one found outside in the sea. Salinity changes are also enhanced. This study shows how numerical modeling can be a useful tool to study the hydrodynamic changes forecasted to happen in transitional water bodies like lagoons.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Bellafiore, Debora; Bajo, Marco

2014-05-01

201

Arsenic pollution in Patos Lagoon estuarine sediments, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic distribution in sediments of the Mirim–Patos lagoonal system is investigated. Deposits of fresh water Mirim Lagoon and those of the fresh water part of the Patos Lagoon contain 2.5 and 7.7 mgkg?1, respectively, on average of total arsenic. In contrast, estuarine sediments of the Patos Lagoon are evidently contaminated by arsenic in high concentrations (up to 50 mgkg?1), and

Nicolai Mirlean; Vlad E Andrus; Paulo Baisch; Gilberto Griep; Maria R Casartelli

2003-01-01

202

Indian Calendars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian calendars are interesting, but very complicated. Indians use both solar and lunisolar calendars. The solar calendars follow the sidereal year. The lunisolar calendars are of two types; some have months that run from new Moon to new Moon, while some have months that run from full Moon to full Moon. Leap months are a common feature of these

203

Facultative Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The textual material for a unit on facultative lagoons is presented in this student manual. Topic areas discussed include: (1) loading; (2) microbial theory; (3) structure and design; (4) process control; (5) lagoon start-up; (6) data handling and analysis; (7) lagoon maintenance (considering visual observations, pond structure, safety, odor,…

Andersen, Lorri

204

DECAY OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER LAGOONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Estrogenic activity of wastewater held in municipal lagoons was monitored over an ~ three month period, using the MCF-7 cell line in a modified E-screen. One lagoon was emptied and refilled with fresh wastewater effluent over a one month period to reach levels equivalent to a second lagoon that had...

205

Accuracy of lagoon gas emissions using an inverse dispersion method  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions. These include those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish ...

206

PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactivation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. ach lagoon was filled with 7.56 m3 of anaerob...

207

Inverse-dispersion technique for assessing lagoon gas emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions, such as those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish equilib...

208

Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons.  

PubMed

Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low ?g/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river. PMID:23314119

Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Kelly, Walton R

2013-02-15

209

Airborne TEM investigations of salinity distribution in coastal aquifers: The Ringkoebing lagoon case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to obtain understanding of the often complicated hydrological settings in coastal areas, we have conducted a geophysical survey of the Ringkoebing lagoon area situated in western Denmark using the airborne SkyTEM system. Prior to this survey little was known about the hydrological and geological setting. The survey area mainly consists of a brackish lagoon with fresh water from a river system in the east and sea water from a sluice to the North Sea to the west. Geophysical resistivity mapping of such a setting is challenging for the TEM method, since most of the area is covered by saline water effectively reducing the signal from deeper lying geological structures. In order to ensure the highest possible quality of the final geophysical models, we have utilized state of the art techniques in each step of the data processing. To obtain high quality data the SkyTEM system was calibrated prior to the survey and the calibration was validated several times throughout the flight campaign. During the processing of the acquired data several novel techniques were put to use, eg. altitude processing and trapezoidal averaging for improved resolution of deeper lying structures. For the inversion we used the quasi 3-dimensional SCI inversion scheme in combination with a locally adapted starting model, which ensures high resolution of the shallow top water layer. Our resulting geophysical models show the location of fresh aquifers beneath the lagoon and areas of fresh/saline water mixing. Several buried valley structures filled with sea water are also found under the lagoon. Finally, we have been able to extract information on the lagoon itself from the results, leading to bathymetry- and salinity maps in very good agreement with other available data.

Kirkegaard, C. L.; Auken, E.; Sonnenborg, T. O.; Jorgensen, F.

2010-12-01

210

A simple tool for the assessment of water quality in polluted lagoon systems: A case study for Küçükçekmece Lagoon, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoon systems have particular ecological, morphological and hydrodynamic characteristics and act like transitional zones between inland and open waters. The aim of this study is to develop a Lagoon Water Quality Index (L-WQI) for environmental control of polluted lagoon systems by focusing on primary problems such as increasing stress on aquatic biota, eutrophication and organic pollution. The indicators used in

Mehmet Ümit Taner; Beyza Üstün; Ay?en Erdinçler

2011-01-01

211

The Indian Education Act in the 1980's: Quest for Equity and Quality. The 12th Annual Report to the Congress of the United States. Fiscal Year 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12th annual report to Congress from the National Advisory Council on Indian Education (NACIE) details activities during fiscal year 1985 and is dedicated to all Indian youth who benefit from any federal programs that support Indian education and those Indian youths lost from the Wind River Indian Reservation because of suicide. Part I contains…

National Advisory Council on Indian Education, Washington, DC.

212

Neuroendocrine disruption and health effects in Elliptio complanata mussels exposed to aeration lagoons for wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine neuroendocrine-disrupting effects of two domestic wastewater aeration lagoons on freshwater mussels. Mussels were caged and placed in two final aeration lagoons for treating domestic wastewaters for 60 days, at a site 1km downstream of the dispersion plume on the eastern shores of the Richelieu River; the western shore served as the reference site. The mussels were analysed for gonad activity, oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics, stress biomarkers and neuroendocrine status (monoamine and arachidonic acid metabolism). The domestic wastewaters produced many different effects at all levels examined. The gonado-somatic index and vitellogenin-like proteins were significantly induced in both aeration lagoons and gonad pyrimidine synthesis (aspartate transcarbamylase activity) was significantly reduced, indicating that vitellogenin-like proteins were produced while DNA synthesis in gametes remained constant. Biomarkers of oxidative metabolism revealed that global heme oxidase (HO), glutathione S-transferase and xanthine (caffeine) oxydoreductase (XOR) activities were significantly induced in at least one of the aeration lagoons, but not downstream of the dispersion plume. The activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin (cytochrome P4501A1), dibenzoylfluorescein (cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5) and benzoyloxyresorurufin (cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2B6) dealkylases were readily induced by substances sharing structural similarities with coplanar polyaromatic hydrocarbons and hydroxylated or aminated aromatic or cyclic hydrocarbon compounds such as pharmaceuticals or steroids in the domestic wastewaters. Biomarkers of toxic stress revealed that exposure to aeration lagoons led to increased production of metallothioneins, lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks, with decreased heme oxygenase activity. LPO was significantly correlated with XOR, HO and cytochrome P4501A1 activities. Neuroendocrine effects included significant increases in dopamine and serotonin levels and in monoamine oxidase (MAO). Dopamine transport in synaptosome was significantly increased while serotonin transport activity was significantly decreased, suggesting the mussels were in a state of serotonergicity. Moreover, arachidonic acid cyclooxygenase (COX) activity was also readily increased in one aeration lagoon. Aeration lagoons for the treatment of domestic wastewaters are toxic, estrogenic and disrupt the metabolism of monoamines and COX in freshwater mussels. PMID:17320148

Gagné, F; Blaise, C; André, C; Gagnon, C; Salazar, M

2007-06-01

213

Mitochondrial DNA diversity and PCR-based sex determination of Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) from Chilika Lagoon, India.  

PubMed

Of the only known two Lagoon populations of Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella) in the world, one is residing in the Chilika Lagoon in Orissa state, India. In addition to accidental deaths in gill net fishery and mechanized boat operations, there has been exploitation of the species for their oil. Extreme patchy distribution and vulnerability to becoming entangled in fishing gear has made it a focus of conservation concern. Information on genetic diversity of populations has considerable potential for informing conservation plans. The present paper reports the first genetic study of O. brevirostris from Chilika Lagoon based on mtDNA sequencing and PCR-based sex identification from 11 individuals. Control region sequence comparison showed two haplotypes and cytochrome b a single haplotype in the Chilika population of the species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated distinct clades within the Asian samples, with the Indian population showing closest genetic proximity to the haplotypes from Thailand. Sex of the animal was determined by PCR-based method. It is important to continue to examine the population discreteness and genetic variation of Irrawaddy dolphin in Chilika Lagoon vis-à-vis its global geographic distribution for formulating the conservation plans of the species. PMID:20857220

Jayasankar, P; Patel, A; Khan, M; Das, P; Panda, S

2011-03-01

214

Mercury in the sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea): Sources, distribution and speciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 ?g g-1) to west (0.7 ?g g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (<16 ?m), as a consequence of transport and dispersion from the fluvial source through littoral and tidal currents. However, speciation analyses highlighted the presence of Hg sulphides in the coarse sandy fraction of sediments from the eastern area, as expected given the origin of the sedimentary material. Unlike Hg, the distribution of MeHg (0.47-7.85 ng g-1) does not show a clear trend. MeHg constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably good correlation between MeHg normalized to humic acid (HA) content and humic ?13C indicates that MeHg is preferentially associated with autochthonous ?13C-enriched HAs in lagoon surface sediments, suggesting that the structure of "marine" HAs, less refractory and less aromatic, could favor MeHg binding and/or production. In the context of the potential hazard of Hg and MeHg accumulation in reared clams, the choice of a site for the extension of farming activities inside the Marano and Grado Lagoon is dependent on several factors and cannot be decided solely on the basis of the total Hg content in the sediment.

Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Berto, Daniela; Faganeli, Jadran; Giani, Michele; Horvat, Milena; Koron, Neža; Rampazzo, Federico

2012-11-01

215

Mercury Concentrations in Coastal Sediment from Younger Lagoon, Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Younger Lagoon Reserve, located in northern Monterey Bay, is one of the few relatively undisturbed wetlands that remain along the Central Coast of California. This lagoon system provides protected habitat for more than 100 bird species and for populations of fish, mammals, and invertebrates. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations in water within Younger Lagoon appear to vary with rainfall conditions and range from about 5-15 pM. These concentrations are similar to HgT in water from six nearby lagoon systems. However, Younger Lagoon contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (~1 mM) and monomethylmercury (MMHg, ~1 pM) relative to our comparison lagoon sites (DOC < 0.5 mM and MMHg < 0.5 pM). We attribute Younger Lagoon's high DOC and MMHg to its restricted connection to the ocean and minor riverine contribution. Coastal lagoons in this region typically form at the mouth of streams. They behave as small estuaries during the wet season when surface water discharge keeps the mouth of the stream open to the ocean, and then transition into lagoons in the dry season when a sand berm develops and effectively cuts off surface water exchange. At Younger Lagoon, the sand berm remains intact throughout the year, breaching only during particularly high tides or intense rain events. Therefore, the lagoon's connection to nearshore seawater is primarily via surface water - groundwater interaction through the sand berm. Because Younger Lagoon is largely isolated from a surface water connection with the ocean, runoff from upgradient urban and agricultural land has an enhanced impact on water (and presumably sediment) quality. As a result, the lagoon is eutrophic and experiences annual algal blooms. Groundwater surveys suggest surface water, groundwater, and coastal seawater are hydraulically connected at Younger Lagoon, and mixing among these water masses appears to influence water geochemistry. To date, no chemical analyses have been conducted on sediment from Younger Lagoon. To address this data gap we collected sediment samples during a February 2013 field campaign. One set of sediment samples is from the bottom of the lagoon along a transect perpendicular to the shoreline and another set is from an approximately 1 m depth profile on the lagoon side of the sand berm (depth of the groundwater table at the time of collection). These samples are being analyzed for HgT, MMHg, and total organic carbon (TOC) and will provide a first glimpse into the distribution of mercury species and organic carbon in sediments from the Younger Lagoon Reserve. We will also collect and analyze sediment samples from another lagoon site with comparable watershed characteristics.

Hohn, R. A.; Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Richardson, C. M.; Merckling, J.; Johnson, C.; Flegal, A. R.

2013-12-01

216

Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent publications of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and high levels of potential surficial oxygen transfer indicated that large amounts of nitrogen may be removed via denitrification in anaerobic lagoons. If this denitrification is occurring via classical denitrification, the denitrification...

217

Water quality in the inshore Great Barrier Reef lagoon: Implications for long-term monitoring and management.  

PubMed

Coastal and inshore areas of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon receive substantial amounts of material from adjacent developed catchments, which can affect the ecological integrity of coral reefs and other inshore ecosystems. A 5-year water quality monitoring dataset provides a 'base range' of water quality conditions for the inshore GBR lagoon and illustrates the considerable temporal and spatial variability in this system. Typical at many sites were high turbidity levels and elevated chlorophyll a and phosphorus concentrations, especially close to river mouths. Water quality variability was mainly driven by seasonal processes such as river floods and sporadic wind-driven resuspension as well as by regional differences such as land use. Extreme events, such as floods, caused large and sustained increases in water quality variables. Given the highly variable climate in the GBR region, long-term monitoring of marine water quality will be essential to detect future changes due to improved catchment management. PMID:22142496

Schaffelke, Britta; Carleton, John; Skuza, Michele; Zagorskis, Irena; Furnas, Miles J

2012-01-01

218

Ecosystem level assessment of the Grand Calumet Lagoons, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Calumet Lagoons make up the eastern section of the Grand Calumet River (GCR), Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal and nearshore Lake Michigan Area of Concern (AOC). The GCR AOC is the only one of the 42 Great Lakes Areas of Concern identified by the International Joint Commission with all 14 designated uses classified as impaired. Included within the boundaries of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU), is the central section of the Grand Calumet Lagoons. A number of biotic and abiotic factors were tested to determine the effects of an industrial landfill that borders the lagoons to assess the potential impact on park resources. Analysis included water quality testing, assessments of macroinvertebrate, fish, algae and aquatic plant communities and contaminant concentrations in water, sediment and plant and fish tissue. Surface water testing found very few contaminants, but significantly higher nutrient levels were found in the water column closest to the landfill. Macroinvertebrate, aquatic plant and fish communities all showed significant impairment in relationship to their proximity to the landfill. Aquatic plant growth habit became limited next to the landfill with certain growth habits disappearing entirely. Aquatic plants collected close to the landfill had high concentrations of several heavy metals in their stems and shoots. Using the index of biotic integrity (IBI), fish community assessment indicated impairment in the areas adjacent to the landfill. Sediments tested at one site had over 12% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from this site had whole fish tissue concentrations over 1 mg/kg PAH.

Stewart, P.M. [National Biological Service, Porter, IN (United States)

1995-12-31

219

Seasonal change in a filter-feeding bivalve Musculista senhousia population of a eutrophic estuarine lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filter-feeding bivalves often predominate the benthic biomass of estuaries, although their population size may drastically fluctuate due to physical and biological disturbances. To examine the recovery of a mussel population after periods of severe predation and anoxia, and to estimate the amount of nutrients removed from the system through mussel production, we surveyed, over 2 years, the Musculista senhousia population in the estuarine lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan. Predation by diving ducks ( Aythya fuligula, Aythya ferina and Aythya marila) during winter dramatically reduced the mussel biomass in both years, but recruitment of juvenile mussels sustained the population. Anoxia during the second summer severely reduced the mussel population, resulting in less biomass than in the autumn of the previous year. Potential annual removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the lagoon water through burial of M. senhousia shells under oxic conditions was estimated to be 7.1 and 5.1 tons, respectively. These are equivalent to 0.7% and 4.9% of the nitrogen and phosphorous annual load entering the lagoon via the main river. Under anoxic conditions, removal would decrease to only 5.6% of the potential amount.

Yamamuro, Masumi; Hiratsuka, Jun'ichi; Ishitobi, Yu

2000-10-01

220

Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon  

SciTech Connect

The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

1997-03-31

221

Partitioning, bioavailability and origin of heavy metals from the Nador Lagoon sediments (Morocco) as a basis for their management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nador Lagoon sediments show low trace element concentrations, and, in relation to the lagoon geochemical baseline, only some anomalies for As, Cd, Cu and Pb in the NW of the lagoon deserve to be outstanding. The distribution of major, minor and trace elements in the lagoon allows a breakdown in four zones. Between “Beni Ensar” and “Atelouane” (zone A), a quite confined zone rich in organic matter and S, the most important trace-element anomalies (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) were found, mainly around industry and old mining activities. In the surrounding of the city of Nador (zone B), the anomalies correspond to Mn, Cu and Zn. The coastal barrier and Kebdana channel (zone C) show moderately concentrations of Cd, Cr and Ni at specific sites. The less polluted area is the SE of the lagoon (zone D), with no outstanding anomaly. In lagoon sediments, metal bioavailability is very low. The metal partitioning patterns show that Cu, Pb and Zn present a low availability because they are bounded to the residual, non-mobile phases of the sediments. Only in some sites, the fraction was associated with organic matter, which could be liberated easily. Arsenic is concentrated in both the residual phases and the organic matter, the latter being more available. Cadmium is mainly concentrated in some samples in the interchangeable fraction, which could be considered as a potentially toxic element because it is easily released. Concerning the origin of these trace elements, those found in zone A correspond mostly to a natural source by weathering of mount Gourougou volcanic rocks (As, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn), and to an anthropogenic origin (Cd) owing to the presence of industry and old mines. In zone B, contributions of Cu and Zn enter the lagoon through soil weathering and river-borne, and as anthropogenic pollution from urban wastes. In zone C the most important pollutant is Cd deduced to be of anthropogenic origin from the close industry and intensive agriculture area. In spite of the intense socio-economic activities developed in the Nador Lagoon (agriculture, industry, fishing, tourism) trace element concentrations in the sediments are low and with scarce bioavailability. Only the NW sector is relativity polluted because of geogenic features.

González, I.; Águila, E.; Galán, E.

2007-08-01

222

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

1991-07-01

223

Bioaccumulation of mercury in reared and wild Ruditapes philippinarum of a Mediterranean lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marano and Grado lagoon, one of the largest wetlands in the Mediterranean Sea, has been subject to mercury contamination by industrial and mining activities. This must be considered a severe threat for Manila clam harvesting, which is an important fishing and commercial activity in the area. Contamination levels and potential risk for human consumption both in reared and wild clams collected from the lagoon were assessed by analyzing total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contents. In addition, relationships between THg and MeHg in sediments and in the bivalves were investigated. Increased bioaccumulation of THg but not of MeHg with increasing size of wild clam populations was observed at most sites. Higher concentrations both of THg (605 ± 210 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (147 ± 37 ng g-1 ww) were detected in the eastern lagoon where the highest THg contents in sediments were observed as a consequence of the long-term supply of cinnabar rich suspended material from the Isonzo river. The variation of Hg content in seeded Manila clams during growth was monitored over a period of 18 months at two sites of the western sector of the lagoon. Results showed that the two areas were suitable for clam farming, with THg levels in reared bivalves always lower than the 0.5 mg kg-1 ww European Community limit. At the same time, as clams grew bigger in size, their THg and MeHg concentrations decreased, becoming lower than in the starting seeded pool. Reared clams presented lower THg (84 ± 55 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (44.1 ± 24.6 ng g-1 ww) content than wild clams of the same commercial size (>30 mm). Based on a precautionary approach, intake of Hg and MeHg with the estimated clam consumption does not seem to constitute a risk for human health in the studied area.

Giani, Michele; Rampazzo, Federico; Berto, Daniela; Maggi, Chiara; Mao, Andrea; Horvat, Milena; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano

2012-11-01

224

Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons. (USGS)

Bobay, K.E.

1988-01-01

225

Tracing endocrine disrupting chemicals in a coastal lagoon (Sacca di Goro, Italy): Sediment contamination and bioaccumulation in Manila clams.  

PubMed

The Water Framework Directive, recently amended with new priority substances (2013/39/EU), is meant to regulate the health status of European aquatic environments, including transitional waters. Despite the ecological and economic importance of transitional water bodies and, in particular, of coastal lagoons, a relevant example of this type of environments, little is known about their contamination by priority substances, particularly by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, a wide array of priority substances, all with recognised disrupting properties, was investigated in the Sacca di Goro Lagoon (Adriatic Sea, Italy), which receives freshwater from the Po River after draining the most urbanised and industrialised Italian regions. Flame retardants, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, natural and synthetic steroids, personal care products and legacy pollutants were investigated both in sediments and in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum collected from three sites in the lagoon. Sediments showed that most of the chemicals analysed could reach the lagoon ecosystem but their concentrations were below existing quality guidelines. Clams essentially reflected this condition although some concern was raised by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): the limit for the sum of six congeners set for biota in the European Directive (2013/39/EU) to protect human health was exceeded 4-5 times. No significant biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were calculated. Nonylphenol, tonalide, PBDE, polychlorinated biphenyls and bisphenol A were the most abundant chemicals in clam tissues. PMID:25546459

Casatta, Nadia; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Roscioli, Claudio; Viganò, Luigi

2015-04-01

226

Thinking Like an Indian: Healing Tribal Gang Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a tribal school with a mission to gang-involved youth in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (Arizona). Explains disciplinary actions; involvement of parents, teachers, and police; and requirements for student participation in various activities. (LRW)

Hernandez, Arturo

2001-01-01

227

29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN BEND POND LABELLED 'SETTLING BASIN,' STEAM/DIESEL PLANT AND OTHER FEATURES. 1951 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

228

Connecticut Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the American Indians who settled in the state of Connecticut long before the Europeans discovered North America. Also provided is a listing of resources dealing with Native Americans of the Northeast for use by secondary and college U.S. history or state history teachers. (RM)

Cooper, Karen Coody

1986-01-01

229

1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

230

Lagoon Seepage Testing Report for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory, Butte County, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) performed seepage tests on the CFA Wastewater Lagoons 1, 2, and 3 between August 26th and September 22nd, 2014. The lagoons were tested to satisfy the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16) that require all lagoons be tested at a frequency of every 10 years and the Compliance Activity CA-141-03 in the DEQ Wastewater Reuse Permit for the CFA Sewage Treatment Plant (LA-000141-03). The lagoons were tested to determine if the average seepage rates are less than 0.25 in/day, the maximum seepage rate allowed for lagoons built prior to April 15, 2007. The average seepage rates were estimated for each lagoon and are given in Table-ES1. The average seepage rates for Lagoons 1 and 2 are less than the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day. Lagoon 1 and 2 passed the seepage test and will not have to be tested again until the year 20241. However, the average seepage rate for Lagoon 3 appears to exceed the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day which means the potential source for the excessive leakage should be investigated further.

Bridger Morrison

2014-09-01

231

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2013-10-01

232

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2011-10-01

233

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2010-10-01

234

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2012-10-01

235

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2014-10-01

236

77 FR 41454 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 3, LLC, Entergy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Westinghouse pressurized-water reactors and nuclear steam supply...Hudson River. Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit...unload the entire IP3 reactor core into the IP3 SFP...perform maintenance on the reactor vessel and associated...change at the Indian Point site. Therefore,...

2012-07-13

237

The Indian Wars Again?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains history of federal-Indian relationship and changing tribal sovereignty rights. Describes treaty disputes and Indian-non-Indian conflicts in Washington, Wisconsin, and Oklahoma. Describes general nature of Indian alliances and support networks. Discusses possible roles for social scientists and social-science studies to mitigate Indian

Snipp, C. Matthew

1991-01-01

238

The Role of Terrestrial Inputs of Organic Matter in Arctic Lagoons: Comparative Studies from Open-Water and Ice-Covered Periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems of the Arctic receive extraordinarily large quantities of terrestrial organic matter through river discharge and shoreline erosion. This organic matter, both in dissolved and particulate form, may provide an important carbon and energy subsidy that supports and maintains heterotrophic activity and food webs in coastal waters, especially in the lagoons. Recent food web studies using stable isotopes confirm the significant assimilation of terrestrial organic matter, based on the depletion in both 13C and 15N content of invertebrate and vertebrate consumers collected in eastern Beaufort Sea lagoons vs. offshore waters. Our current work specifically focuses on a set of 12 field sites along the eastern Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast, from Barter Island to Demarcation Bay. To examine linkages between biological communities and organic matter inputs from land, we compared sites ranging from lagoons to open coastal systems that receive differing amounts of freshwater runoff and also differ markedly in their exchange characteristics with shelf waters. Our temporal and spatial effort included field sampling during the ice covered period in a number of lagoons characterized by differences in their exchange characteristics with the nearshore shelf. Our preliminary chemical and biological measurements, the first of their kind in arctic coastal lagoons, reveal that lagoon benthos can become hypersaline (43) and net heterotrophic (values to 30% oxygen saturation) during winter, before rebounding during the period of ice break-up to net autotrophic (>100% saturation) under continued hypersaline conditions. Measurements of water and sediment chemistry, benthic and water column community characteristics, and natural abundance isotopic tracers promise to reveal the dynamic nature of these productive lagoon ecosystems under different hydrologic conditions. The possible role of terrestrially derived carbon to arctic estuarine food webs is especially important in view of the current warming trend in the arctic environment and the role of advective processes that transport carbon along the nearshore shelf.

Dunton, K. H.; McClelland, J. W.; Connelly, T.; Linn, S.; Khosh, M.

2012-12-01

239

Trust and Survival: "AWOL Hunkpapa Indian Family Prisoners of War at Fort Sully, 1890-1891"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hundred twenty five Hunkpapa Indians fled from the Grand River Camp on the Standing Rock Reservation to the Cheyenne River Reservation to council with Big Foot's band when Sitting Bull was killed on December 15, 1890. These Indian families did not contribute to the number of fatalities at Wounded Knee because they were being held by the U.S.…

Wojcik, Eva

2008-01-01

240

The Western Ghat as the water tower of the South Indian Rivers : a stable isotope investigation on the origin of water and factors affecting the water cycle.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long stretch (1600 km) of Ghats on the western side (Western Ghats) of Peninsular India separates relatively wetter west coast from drier eastern coast. The western and eastern sides of the Ghats are having distinct isotopic signatures indicating unequal distribution of the moisture sources. South India is characterized by having moisture source for southwest monsoon from Arabian Sea and northeast monsoon from Bay of Bengal. The wetter side of Peninsular region is covered by combination of evergreen tropical forest and grass lands, termed as Shola Forests which support higher vapor recycling process. Very few isotopic studies have been undertaken in these areas, except few places, mainly along the coast lines. This study presents the stable isotope results on rivers and groundwater of the Western Ghats covering Agumbe (Karnataka) to Ooty (Tamil Nadu) and its west coast river basins as observed for the three year period. The stable isotope results on the surface, subsurface and deep water pools show that the mean d18O value range from -4 o to -2 o on the west slope, and from -5 o to -4 o on the east slope, with quite no altitude or amount effect up to 2000 m asl. The more depleted values are found only in higher elevation, like the Doddabeta in the Nilgiri (2637m), with d18O close to -9 o which is exceptional for a tropical area. The hills on the west slope of the Western Ghats as well as in the mountainous Shola forest exhibit strong water vapor recycling as evidenced by high d-excess values. On the contrary on the eastern slope, the drier condition and the numerous impoundments and river damming support strong evaporation process. Thus, the study identifies the profound effect of tropical vegetation and anthropogenic factors on the recharge functioning of river and groundwater pools in Southern India.

Lambs, Luc; Tripti, Muguli; Balakrishna, Keshava

2014-05-01

241

Genetic divergence in natural populations of bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Osteoglossiformes: Notopteridae) from five Indian rivers, analyzed through mtDNA ATPase6/8 regions?  

PubMed Central

The present study characterized 842 bp fragment of mitochondrial ATP synthase 6 and 8 (ATPase6/8) genes in Notopterus notopterus. In all, 97 samples of N. notopterus were collected from five distant rivers; viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi representing 4 river basins in India. The analysis of variation revealed presence of 23 haplotypes in ATPase6/8 gene with haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.899 and nucleotide diversity (?) of 0.00336. The within population variation which was 41.78% of the total variation of 58.22% was found among population. The Fst value of 0.582 (P < 0.05) of the total population was found significant. The results concluded that the polymorphism in ATPase6/8 gene is a potential marker that is important for determining genetic divergence of wild N. notopterus populations. The findings reveal common ancestry of mahanadi population with the populations in rivers of Indo-Gangetic region. However, long evolutionary isolation must be responsible for the high genetic divergence between N. notopterus in Mahanadi and other regions. PMID:25606374

Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K.; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K.; Punia, Peyush; Dwivedi, Arvind K.; Gupta, B.K.; Luhariya, Rupesh K.; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R.M.; Jena, J.K.

2013-01-01

242

In Situ Measurements of Malodors in a Swine Waste Lagoon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obtaining data on the concentrations of malodorous compounds contained in waste lagoons is essential if the factors affecting their emission are to be described. We monitored selected compounds in a 0.4 ha lagoon that received waste from approximately 2000 sows. Phenol, p-cresol, m-cresol, p-ethyl...

243

Characterization of Salmonella bacteriophages isolated from swine lagoon effluent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four Salmonella bacteriophages originally isolated from swine lagoon effluent were further characterized. Their differences and similarities to known phages and to each other and their potential for biocontrol of Salmonella were assessed. In host inoculation spot tests the lagoon phages produced s...

244

CONTROL OF ODORS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS TREATING FOOD PROCESSING WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic lagoons are used for the treatment of meat packing wastes in most areas of the country. They are a relatively low cost means of achieving BOD reduction. Although lagoon effluent is not suitable for stream discharge, it is amenable to further treatment or to land applica...

245

The Lagoon of Venice: geological setting, evolution and land subsidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the geological setting, history and subsidence of the Venetian Plain. Major attention is paid to the Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphic sequence in the Lagoon of Venice, in relation to its origin that dates back to 6-7 kyr BP. Geological land subsidence, which played an important role in the origin and the evolution of the lagoon, and anthropogenic subsidence,

Antonio Brambati; Laura Carbognin; Tullio Quaia; Pietro Teatini; Luigi Tosi

2003-01-01

246

Environmental enhancement of swine lagoons through influent treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. Failure of these lagoons during tropical storms in North Carolina along with major public environmental concerns led to a permanent state moratorium of construction of new anaerobic lag...

247

Case Study: Promoting the Stability of the bidos Lagoon Inlet  

E-print Network

Case Study: Promoting the Stability of the �bidos Lagoon Inlet André B. Fortunato1 and Anabela Oliveira2 Abstract: The stabilization of tidal inlets by jetties interrupts the littoral drift and has inlet the �bidos Lagoon, Portugal and minimize maintenance dredging, while avoiding the disadvantages

248

EVALUATION OF A TREATMENT LAGOON FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of a two year study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a 143 MG facultative lagoon for treating combined sewer overflow and polishing secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent. The lagoon performance was evaluated for changes in the deg...

249

FACULTATIVE LAGOON EFFLUENT POLISHING USING PHASE ISOLATION PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

An investigation into the performance of 'Phase Isolation' as a means of upgrading facultative lagoons was conducted at Clinton, Mississippi, using 2 facultative lagoons arranged in series followed by 2 isolation ponds used alternately for final polishing. The isolation ponds wer...

250

DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: PROTECTION OF WASTEWATER LAGOON INTERIOR SLOPES  

EPA Science Inventory

A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...

251

SWINE MANURE AND LAGOON EFFLUENT APPLIED TO FESCUE  

EPA Science Inventory

The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine manure and swine lagoon effluent to tall fescue were evaluated for four years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9 in. X 9 in. plots by weekly sprinkler irrigations during the growing season while swine manure...

252

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING SEVEN CELL LAGOON SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the lagoon system and to evalu...

253

Teacher from the Black Lagoon & Other Story Books  

E-print Network

Teacher from the Black Lagoon & Other Story Books Dear Teacher: We have created the following study the Black Lagoon & other Story Books as meaningful as possible. For many, it will be their first time to the performers and the rest of the audience. This performance highlights seven favorite children's stories

Hutcheon, James M.

254

ROCK FILTERS FOR REMOVAL OF ALGAE FROM LAGOON EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to show that rock filtration was an effective, low cost unit process for removing algae from lagoon effluents and correspondingly upgrading lagoon treatment. Sedimentation is the primary mechanism of algal removal within rock filter. The settling...

255

Navajo Indians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's learn about Utah History! Let's learn about the Navajo Indians. Learning Objective After reading and researching information about the Navajo tribe, students will be able understand the culture and traditions of this tribe and make comparisons to their own culture, by researching, writing about and creating Navajo jewelry and completing a cultural comparison worksheet. Grades 3 4th Grade Content Area(s) Social Studies Content Targets History, culture ...

Keshia Chamberlain

2009-11-28

256

Indian Health Disparities  

MedlinePLUS

Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Feedback Employee Resources • A to ... Leader Letters Disparities Members of 566 federally recognized American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes and their descendants are ...

257

Macroalgae, nutrient cycles, and pollutants in the lagoon of Venice  

SciTech Connect

The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control of the hydraulic dynamics of the lagoon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon is subjected to considerable pollutant loading through the drainage of land under cultivation, municipal sewage, and industrial effluents. In this paper are reported the results of observations designed to document recent changes in macroalgal species composition, seasonal cycles of primary producers and nutrient levels, and the effects of the macroalgal community on concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants. The dominant macroalgae in the lagoon was Ulva rigida, and the levels of plant nutrients and pollutants were influenced by the seasonal cycles of the macroalgal community. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Sfriso, A.; Pavoni, B.; Marcomini, A.; Orio, A.A. (Department of Environmental Sciences, Venezia (Italy))

1992-12-01

258

Elucidating terrestrial nutrient sources to a coastal lagoon, Chincoteague Bay, Maryland, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term non-linear ecosystem-scale changes in water quality and biotic communities in coastal lagoons have been associated with intensification of anthropogenic pressures. In light of incipient changes in Johnson Bay (an embayment of Chincoteague Bay, Maryland-Virginia, USA), examination of nitrogen sources was conducted through synoptic water quality monitoring, stable nitrogen isotope signatures (?15N) of in situ bioindicators, and denitrification estimates. These data were placed in the context of long-term and broader spatial analyses. Despite various watershed protection efforts, multiyear summer time studies (2004-2007) suggested that high levels of terrestrially derived nutrients still enter Johnson Bay. Total nitrogen concentrations in Johnson Bay were 132% the concentrations in the broader Chincoteague Bay during the late 1970s (mean 2004-2007 was 40.0 - 73.2 ?M). Comparing total nitrogen concentrations in Johnson Bay to St. Martin River (consistently the most eutrophic region of these coastal bays), Johnson Bay has increased from 62.5% to 82.5% of the concentrations in St. Martin River during the late 1970s. Though specific sources of nitrogen inputs have not yet been definitively identified, the long-term increase in total nitrogen concentrations occurred despite increased and continued conservation and protection measures. We suggest that investigating nutrient sources can reveal potentially ineffective nutrient policies and that this knowledge can be applied towards other coastal lagoons.

Fertig, B.; O'Neil, J. M.; Beckert, K. A.; Cain, C. J.; Needham, D. M.; Carruthers, T. J. B.; Dennison, W. C.

2013-01-01

259

[Temporal and spatial variation of shorebirds in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Jalisco, during three non-breeding seasons].  

PubMed

Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation programs. The aim of this work was to describe shorebirds temporal and spatial distribution in Barra de Navidad lagoon during three non-breeding seasons (1999-2000, 2006-2007 and 2008-2009). For this, monthly censuses were performed from November-April with the purpose of registering all the shorebirds species. We were able to identify 19 shorebirds species (three residents and 16 winter visitors), of which Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa and Tringa semipalmata were the most abundant. The greater number of species was registered for November, December and March of the first and third seasons. The greater number of individuals was registered when birds were feeding during low tides, mainly in December, January and February of the first and third seasons. At low tide, there was a great number of species and individuals in zone C. This area had muddy substrates that were exposed during low tides and were used to feed. Barra de Navidad lagoon provided suitable habitats for feeding and resting for resident and migratory birds. Twelve of the 19 species were considered as priority within the Mexican bird conservation strategy. However, these habitats are threatened by human activities performed in the nearby areas of the lagoon that may have negative consequences for the distribution, abundance and conservation of these species. PMID:23025100

Hernández, Salvador; Serrano, Sergio; Hernández, Xóchitl A; Robles, María Isabel

2012-09-01

260

Dissolved and particulate heavy metals distribution in coastal lagoons. A case study from Mar Chiquita Lagoon, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon is located on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, and it has been declared a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB). This coastal lagoon constitutes an estuarine environment with a very particular behaviour and it is ecologically important due to its biological diversity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the

María Ornela Beltrame; Silvia G. De Marco; Jorge E. Marcovecchio

2009-01-01

261

Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to < 1 per thousand. These changes reflect the increasing use of synthetic fertilizers (delta15N approximately 0 per thousand) from the 1960s to the present. Sediments from Ghar El Melh show a similar trend, with %N more than tripling, %OM increasing by 50%, and delta15N declining from 6 per thousand to 2 per thousand since 1965. These changes are consistent with the increasing use of water from a nearby river for crop irrigation and agricultural fertilizer use. Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and environmental managers that eutrophication has had dramatic impacts on the coastal ecosystems, particularly at the Egyptian and Tunisian sites. PMID:21830712

Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

2011-07-01

262

Fisheries in coastal lagoons: An assumed but poorly researched aspect of the ecology and functioning of coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons are considered to be among the most productive ecosystems in the world. Many of them support important fisheries, and some of them maintain intensive and extensive aquacultural exploitations. Their particular features, such as shallowness, relative isolation and protection from the sea, and the presence of boundaries with strong physical and ecological gradients help explain this high productivity. Despite the fact that coastal lagoons are among the most studied ecosystems in the world, our knowledge on fisheries in coastal lagoons or why some lagoons capable of maintaining profitable fisheries seem inadequate for intensive aquaculture remains limited. Scarce, too, is our knowledge of the characteristics of target species, their exploitation status, and the ecological processes that are affected by fisheries or that influence them, including the impact of human activities or climatic change. Here, we review present day knowledge on lagoon fisheries and analyse gaps in the science, stressing the need for adequate management of these important resources.

Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción

2012-09-01

263

Historical flux of mercury associated with mining and industrial sources in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "MIRACLE" Project was established in order to assess the feasibility of clam farming and high levels of sediment mercury (Hg) contamination coexisting in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy. This lagoon has been subjected to Hg input from both industrial waste (chlor-alkali plant) and long-term mining activity (Idrija mine, NW Slovenia). One of the subtasks of the "MIRACLE" Project was to determine the historical evolution of Hg accumulation in the lagoon's bottom sediments. Thirteen 1-m deep sediment cores were collected from the subtidal and intertidal zones, plus one in a saltmarsh, all of which were then analyzed for total Hg content and several physicochemical parameters. Sedimentation rate assessments were performed by measuring short-lived radionuclides (excess 210Pb and 137Cs). For most of the analyzed cores, natural background levels of Hg were observed at depths of 50-100 cm. In the eastern area, Hg contamination was found to be at its maximum level at the core top (up to 12 ?g g-1) as a consequence of the long-term mining activity. The vertical distribution of Hg was related to the influence of the single-point contamination sources, whereas the grain-size variability or organic matter content seemed not to affect it. In the western area, Hg content at the surface was found not to exceed 7 ?g g-1 and contamination was recorded only in the first 20-30 cm. Geochronological measurements showed that the depositional flux of Hg was influenced by anthropogenic inputs after 1800, when mining activity was more intense. After 1950, Hg in the surface sediment, most remarkable in the central-western sector, seemed to also be affected by the discharge of the Aussa River, which delivers Hg from the chlor-alkali plant. In 1996, Hg mining at Idrija ceased, however the core profiles did not show any subsequent decreasing trend in terms of Hg flux, which implies the system retaining some "memory" of contamination. Thus, in the short term, a decrease in Hg inputs into the nearby Gulf of Trieste and the lagoon seems unlikely. A preliminary rounded-down gross estimate of total Hg "trapped" in the lagoon's sediments amounted to 251 t. Such a quantity, along with the complexity of the lagoon ecosystem, suggests that an in toto reclamation of the sediments at the lagoon scale is unfeasible, both economically and environmentally.

Covelli, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Acquavita, Alessandro; Piani, Raffaella; Emili, Andrea

2012-11-01

264

Geography and the French and Indian War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The military action in the French and Indian War was focused around specific geographic locations of strategic importance. This activity is intended to clarify why these particular spots were deemed so important. Indeed, the military plans of the French and the British were in agreement about which geographic areas held the key to victory. To answer the questions below you will need to study the maps! The French and Indian War began with the dispute over control of the Forks of the Ohio, an area the French, British and Indians all recognized as critically important. Fort Duquesne (later known as Fort Pitt) was situated where the Allegheny River and Monongahela River join to form the Ohio ...

Mr. Myers

2010-11-30

265

Nutrient composition of Kansas swine lagoons and hoop barn manure.  

PubMed

A total of 312 samples in two experiments were analyzed to determine mean nutrient concentrations of swine lagoons and hoop barns in Kansas. First, in a retrospective study (Exp. 1), we obtained 41 sample analyses from the Kansas Department of Agriculture of sow, nursery, wean-to-finish, finish, and farrow-to-finish operations in 1999. The average total N concentration was 899 ppm (SD = 584 ppm), while the total P concentration was 163 ppm (SD = 241 ppm). In an attempt to reduce the variation, we conducted a prospective experiment standardizing collection procedure, laboratory techniques, phase of production, and season of year to more accurately determine the nutrient concentrations of swine lagoons in Kansas. In Exp. 2, we used 236 lagoon and 35 hoop barn manure samples taken in 2000 from Kansas swine operations to determine the impacts of production phase and season of the year on nutrient concentration. The different operations with swine lagoons were: 1) sow; 2) nursery; 3) wean-to-finish; 4) finish; and 5) farrow-to-finish, with a total of 9, 8, 7, 10, and 8 lagoons sampled from each phase of production, respectively. The total N and P concentrations from lagoons were 1,402 and 204 ppm, respectively, averaged over all samples. Concentrations of total N were higher in wean-to-finish and finishing lagoons (P < 0.05) compared with sow and farrow-to-finish lagoons. Lagoon analyses also revealed that N concentrations decreased (linear, P < 0.05) during the summer and fall compared with winter and early spring. The concentration of P was greater (P < 0.05) for wean-to-finish compared with farrow-to-finish lagoons. Phosphorus concentrations for all lagoons increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) from February until June, but then declined steady throughout the remainder of the year. Average total N and P in hoop barns were 8,678 and 4,364 ppm, respectively. No seasonal changes in N and P concentrations were observed in manure from hoop barns. Season and type of production phase affect the nutrient content of Kansas swine lagoons, and producers will benefit from obtaining individual analyses from their lagoons when developing nutrient management plans rather than utilizing published reference values. PMID:12211372

DeRoucheys, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Murphy, J P

2002-08-01

266

Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2000.  

SciTech Connect

The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and off-stream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements were signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Two landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and one chose OWEB as a funding source. Two landowners implemented there own enhancement measures protecting 3 miles of stream. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin. We provided input to the John Day Summary prepared for the NWPPC by ODFW. The Tribe worked with the Umatilla National Forest on the Clear Creek Dredgetailings Rehabilitation project and coordinated regularly with USFS Fisheries, Hydrology and Range staff.

Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

2003-03-01

267

Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.  

SciTech Connect

The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

2003-03-01

268

Hypertrophic lagoon management by sediment disturbance.  

PubMed

Experimental control of eutrophication in a small coastal lagoon was attempted by means of sediment disturbance. A specially designed boat was used to resuspend the top 3 cm of sediment by a jets of air-water directed towards the bottom. This disturbance was carried out for 3 months in each of two areas with a surface area of 24 and 20 hectares respectively. In a total of 80 stations in these two areas and in two undisturbed areas of 16 and 20 ha, organic matter, porosity, density and redox potential were monitored in sediment bimonthly and free sulphides were monitored in water close to the bottom. Before, during and after disturbance, the impact of daily sediment resuspension on the water column was monitored monthly, as ammonium nitrogen (N-NH4), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. In the whole lagoon, sediment texture was determined at the start and at the end of the experiment in 120 stations, and seaweed (mainly Chaetomorpha linum and Lophosiphonia subadunca) and seagrass (Ruppia cirrhosa) biomasses were estimated in 42 stations every month. The results showed a stable organic matter content in disturbed areas and an increase in undisturbed areas, as well as an increase in seaweed in areas distant from disturbed areas. No significant effect of sediment resuspension on water column N-NH4, SRP, DO or pH was found. PMID:20303539

Lenzi, Mauro; Birardi, Francesca; Calzolai, Roberto; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Marcone, Francesco; Nocciolini, Stefano; Roffilli, Rugiada; Sgroi, Sergio; Solari, Duccio

2010-01-01

269

Increased Bioavailability of Mercury in the Lagoons of Lomé, Togo: The Possible Role of Dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations\\u000a were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to\\u000a the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives\\u000a major waste inputs,

Kissao Gnandi; Seunghee Han; M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon; Magali Porrachia; Dimitri D. Deheyn

2011-01-01

270

How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while expected impacts of climate changes on the Thau system were expected to be linked to water balance depletion in the catchment, the main threats are now linked to the impact on water quality of the introduction of the Rhône river waters within the system. This study is conducted in the CLIMB EU-FP7 project (2010-2014).

La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

2014-05-01

271

Late-Holocene to recent evolution of Lake Patria, South Italy: An example of a coastal lagoon within a Mediterranean delta system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Patria is a mesoaline coastal lagoon that develops along the coastal zone of the Volturno River plain (Campania, South Italy). The lagoon is a saline to brackish water body, ca. 2.0 long, and 1.5 km wide, with an average water depth of 1.5 m, reaching a maximum of ca. 3.0 m. The freshwater input into the lagoon is provided by a series of fresh to brackish water channels and small springs, landwards, while a permanent connection with the Tyrrhenian Sea is provided by a channel, 1.5 km long and a few meters wide. Drilling data from 12 boreholes acquired in the study area indicate that Lake Patria is a man-modified remnant of a larger lagoonal area that developed during the last millennia along the Campania coastal zone within an alluvial delta system at the mouth of the paleo-Volturno River. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analyses of drill cores suggest that the lower Volturno delta plain developed in the last 6000 years. Depositional conditions during this period were dominated by flood-plain and alluvial plain settings, with transition to coastal bars and associated back-barrier coastal lagoons. Lake Patria started evolving at an early stage of the Volturno delta plain formation as a consequence of foreshore deposits damming-up by littoral drift. The first marine layers display a radiocarbon age of ca. 4.8 ka BP and overlie a substrate represented by volcaniclastic deposits, originated by the Campi Flegrei, and associated paleosols. The lagoonal succession cored at Lake Patria may be interpreted as the result of a dynamic equilibrium between marine influence and riverine input into the lagoonal system through time, and has been tentatively correlated with the major climatic changes that occurred during Mid-Late Holocene. Insights into the recentmost evolution of the coastal lagoon of Lake Patria are provided by the GIS-based analysis of the physiographic changes of the region conducted on a series of historical topographic maps dating back to the early XVII century. Particularly, the superposition of historical cartography reveals the secular trends in the change of coastal environments and the role of human modification of natural habitats over the last 400 years.

Sacchi, M.; Molisso, F.; Pacifico, A.; Vigliotti, M.; Sabbarese, C.; Ruberti, D.

2014-06-01

272

Tribal water rights: exploring dam construction in Indian country.  

PubMed

This paper examines the legal and policy framework related to Tribal water rights, with a key focus on the environmental public health impacts of dam construction in Indian Country. Three dam projects will be highlighted: the Dalles Dam, the Elwha River Dams, and the Pick-Sloan Missouri River Basin Program. PMID:25846167

Church, Jerilyn; Ekechi, Chinyere O; Hoss, Aila; Larson, Anika Jade

2015-03-01

273

American Indian Sports Heritage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book chronicles the story of sports among American Indians. Part 1 examines the nature and role of games in traditional Indian life, with five chapters on: Indian concepts of sport; ball games; foot racing; other sports; children's play; and games of chance. Part 2 looks at the emergence of Indians in modern sport, with five chapters on:…

Oxendine, Joseph B.

274

KNOW YOUR NEVADA INDIANS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PUBLICATION PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL BACKGROUNDS OF THE PAIUTE, WASHOE, AND SHOSHONE INDIANS OF NEVADA. INCLUDED ARE AN OUTLINE OF GENERAL PROBLEMS PERTAINING TO INDIAN EDUCATION, SOME DISTINCT CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE DOMINANT NON-INDIAN SOCIETY AND THE INDIAN SOCIETY, AND THE PREHISTORIC ASPECTS OF THE…

POEHLMAN, CHARLES H.; AND OTHERS

275

American Indians Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

Snipp, C. Matthew

276

Indians of Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Goldfinch" examines the history of American Indians in Iowa. This volume's featured articles include: "Encounter"; "Iowa Earthworks"; "The Long Way Home"; "How One Learns, a Mesquakie Woman's Life Story"; "Indians of Iowa"; "Little Brother Snares the Sun"; "Being Indian in an Urban World"; and "Indian Wars Myth." (DB)

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1992-01-01

277

Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian Values" relates…

Bryde, John F.

278

Depth structuring of pelagic copepod biodiversity in waters adjacent to an Eastern Indian Ocean coral reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared pelagic copepod communities at three (400+ m) stations adjacent to Scott Reef (14°S), a shelf-break reef in Australia's Indian Ocean territory, with those within the shallow (c.50 m) atoll lagoon. The metazooplankton assemblage sampled by our 100-?m multinet system was dominated by small (< 1.0 mm) copepods. We identified over 220 copepod species, belonging to five of the nine orders. Of

A. D. McKinnon; S. Duggan; R. Böttger-Schnack; L. F. M. Gusmão; R. A. OLeary

2012-01-01

279

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951-2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well-informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under a changing climate.

Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

2015-01-01

280

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951–2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well-informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under a changing climate.

Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

2015-01-01

281

Study of water chlorophyl content in the Venice Lagoon through hyperspectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the HICO Project (http://hico.coas.oregonstate.edu/), a number of radiance and reflectance images of the Venice Lagoon were used to evaluate the possibility of performing quick and reliable mapping of water quality parameters. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO™) is the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer specifically designed to sample the coastal areas, with 128 spectral bands, a 90 m spatial resolution, full spectral coverage (380 to 960 nm sampled at 5.7 nm) and a very high signal-to-noise ratio to resolve the complexity of the coastal ocean. Eutrophication is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. The concentration of chlorophyll-a found in water can be used to trace the abundance of planktonic algae in rivers, lakes or lagoons. The Venice Lagoon, famous worldwide, represents one of the most fragile and vulnerable ecosystems, which is being constantly threatened by factors of stress, both human and natural, such as erosion, presence of urban and agricultural sources of pollution, stress from fishing, pollution produced by the industrial area of Porto Marghera and by the city of Venice itself, downwash of sediments from the hinterland and eutrophication. Traditional methods of water quality estimation are often time consuming and involve periodical sampling and plenty of laboratory analyses. In this study the possibility of using imaging spectroscopy to rapidly obtain raster-based maps of chlorophyll concentration by comparing the results obtained through five different literature bio-optical models, which permit the retrieval of mathematical relations between the water's spectral properties and physicochemical parameters; pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and chlorophyll concentration. Evaluation of performances is achieved by comparing the hyperspectral based maps with maps of kriged concentration values, provided by the Magistrato delle Acque di Venezia (http://www.magisacque.it/sama/sama_monitoraggi1.htm) and collected by the network of SAMANET sensors.

Garfagnoli, Francesca; Bizzaro, Beatrice; Moretti, Sandro

2013-04-01

282

Materials Developed from American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop (Tacoma, Washington, April 25-29, 1977). Book One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials presented in this resource guide are the direct result of an American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Development Workshop. Activities consist of nine flannelboard stories (including The Fire War, How Coyote Made the Columbia River, Legend of the Mayan Moon God); two games (American Indian Games and Indian Picture Symbol Checkerboard);…

Disney, Dick, Comp.

283

Management of coastal lagoons under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is a reality that is rendering the concept of 'background conditions' meaningless. We can no longer attempt to maintain the environmental status quo. What we can do is to attempt to maintain ecosystem services despite climate-driven environmental change. There is a pressing need for proactive management that purposefully changes ecosystems to maintain ecosystem services before uncontrolled, detrimental changes occur. Such management would go beyond the bounds of current management efforts and could include, for example, introduction of species, bioengineering, and physical engineering. I suggest that this approach be applied first to coastal lagoons as they are clearly defined geographic areas where this approach can, hopefully, be demonstrated such that it can be applied more widely - when it is accepted, which unfortunately will most probably not occur until the adverse impacts of global climate change become much more apparent.

Chapman, Peter M.

2012-09-01

284

1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on southeast (context) - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

285

ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

286

ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

287

Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed  

SciTech Connect

Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

2000-04-01

288

Indian Parliament  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With one of the largest parliamentary bodies in the world, it is not surprising that the Web site for the Indian Parliament contains a staggering amount of information about its operations, its members, bills, budget proposals, and other important governmental proceedings. Visitors will want to begin by browsing through the section on the president of India (currently this is Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam) to learn about his recent statements and speeches, along with information about the beautiful presidential palace and the exquisite Mughal Garden. The other sections of the site are also compelling, and include areas devoted to the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People), where guests can read recent debates (some of which are only available in Hindi), and learn about the members of each body. Additionally, there is a frequently asked questions area that answers some basic queries about the organization and history of the Parliament.

289

A combined modelling and geochemical study of the fate of terrigenous inputs from mixed natural and mining sources in a coral reef lagoon (New Caledonia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open-cast mining for Ni, Cr and Co was conducted in the south-west part of New Caledonia during the 20th century. Abandoned mining and prospecting sites were severely affected by erosion, resulting in an increase in the load of terrigenous particles transported to the coral reef lagoon. This article assesses the impact of a typical small catchment area (La Coulée River,

Jean-Michel Fernandez; Sylvain Ouillon; Christophe Chevillon; Pascal Douillet; Renaud Fichez; Romain Le Gendre

2006-01-01

290

VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense ultraviolet light, are responsible for making the nebula glow brightly. But the Lagoon Nebula is also home to much younger stellar infants. Newborn stars have been detected in the nebula that are so young that they are still surrounded by their natal accretion discs. Such new born stars occasionally eject jets of matter from their poles. When this ejected material ploughs into the surrounding gas short-lived bright streaks called Herbig-Haro objects [3] are formed, making the new-borns easy to spot. In the last five years, several Herbig-Haro objects have been detected in the Lagoon Nebula, so the baby boom is clearly still in progress here. Notes [1] This survey, one of six VISTA surveys currently in progress, will image the central parts of the Milky Way many times over a period of five years and will detect huge numbers of new variable objects. [2] Bart Bok was a Dutch-American astronomer who spent most of his long career in the United States and Australia. He first noticed the dark spots that now bear his name, in star formation regions and speculated that they may be associated with the earliest stages of star formation. The hidden baby stars were only observed directly when infrared imaging was possible several decades later. [3] Although not the first to see such objects, the astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro were the first to study the spectra of these strange objects in detail and realise that they were not just clumps of gas and dust that reflected light, or glowed under the influence of the ultraviolet light from young stars, but were a new class of objects associated with star formation. More information The science team for VVV includes Dante Minniti (Universidad Catolica, Chile), Phil Lucas (University of Hertfordshire, UK), Ignacio Toledo (Universidad Catolica) and Maren Hempel (Universidad Catolica). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, D

2011-01-01

291

Closure of Lagoons and Earthen Manure Storage Structures  

E-print Network

from municipal and indus- trial wastewater lagoons and holding ponds. These dredges typically comprise a floating barge and a variable-depth pump- ing head to remove sludge from the bot- tom of the structure (Fig. 2 and 3). The power units can... be located on either the barge or the embankment, as with hydraulically operated pumping heads. Because the sludge is removed without agitation, or dilution, you can remove a higher concentration of solids from the lagoon, thus reducing transportation costs...

Mukhtar, Saqib; Walker, Jerry

2002-09-12

292

Drivers of pCO2 dynamics in two contrasting coral reef lagoons: The influence of submarine groundwater discharge (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon chemistry of coral reef lagoons can be highly variable over short time scales. While much of the diel variability in seawater carbon chemistry is explained by biological processes, external sources such as river and groundwater seepage may deliver large amounts of organic and inorganic carbon to coral reefs and represent a poorly understood feedback to ocean acidification. Here, we assess the impact of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on pCO2 variability in two coral reef lagoons with distinct SGD driving mechanisms. Diel variability of pCO2 in the two ecosystems was explained by a combination of biological drivers and SGD inputs. In Rarotonga, a South Pacific volcanic island, SGD was driven primarily by a steep terrestrial hydraulic gradient, and the lagoon was influenced by the high pCO2 (5,501 ?atm) of the fresh groundwater. In Heron Island, a Great Barrier Reef coral cay, SGD was dominated by seawater recirculation through sediments (i.e. tidal pumping) and pCO2 was mainly impacted through the stimulation of biological processes. The Rarotonga water column had a relatively higher average pCO2 (549 ?atm) than Heron Island (471 ?atm). However, pCO2 exhibited a greater diel range in Heron Island (778 ?atm) than in Rarotonga (507 ?atm). The Rarotonga lagoon received 31.2 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 from SGD, while the Heron Island lagoon received 12.3 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1. Over the course of this study both systems were sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (3.00 to 9.67 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1), with SGD-derived CO2 contributing a large portion to the air-sea CO2 flux. The relationship between both water column pH and aragonite saturation state (?Ar) and radon (222Rn) concentrations indicate that SGD may enhance the local acidification of some coral reef lagoons. Studies measuring the carbon chemistry of coral reefs (e.g. community metabolism, calcification rates) may need to consider SGD-derived CO2.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D.; Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B.

2013-12-01

293

Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the conference examining the processes responsible for the development of the river breaching from the initial stages to a wide-open river flow and subsequent closure.

Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.

2012-12-01

294

Fish populations of lentic environments of the Paraná River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the fish populations of lentic water bodies in the Paraná River are given for different areas sampled over more than twenty years. Three kinds of environment are considered: small, medium and large lagoons. Each kind has a particular fish population, the characteristics of which are described. Fish populations are also considered in relation to the macrophytes along the

Elly Cordiviola

1992-01-01

295

Using Detrital Zircon (U-Th)/He Thermochronology From the Sutlej River Valley in the NW Indian Himalaya to Examine Erosion Distribution During the Early Holocene Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Himalaya and Tibet are an unrivaled example of continent-continent collision. This extensive orogenic system influences regional climate and is characterized by rapid erosion and exhumation. The interplay between climate-driven erosion and rock uplift is key in understanding the geomorphic evolution of the orogen. Recent studies using detrital zircon fission track data, combined with geomorphic models informed by Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) [Bookhagen et al. 2005] data and thermal-kinematic models [Brewer and Burbank 2006] show a strong correlation between regions of high precipitation rates and rapid erosion in the modern. However, paleoclimate records indicate evidence for a strengthened monsoon during the early Holocene [e.g., Fleitmann et al. 2003, Gupta et al. 2003]. It is believed that in addition to an increase of the monsoon's intensity precipitation penetrated farther into the Himalayan valleys [Bookhagen et al. 2005; Goodbred and Kuehl, 2000]. This study examines this correlation using detrital (U-Th)/He analyses in both modern and paleo-fluvial fill terrace sediments. A preliminary data set of sixty (U-Th)/He zircon grain-ages show the modern and paleo-fluvial terrace sediments reflect different population distributions, or probability density functions (PDF), of grain-ages. The slightly older (3 Ma higher) peak age of the paleo-fluvial terrace sample grain-age population is interpreted to correlate with a northward shift in spatial erosion, due to a strengthened early Holocene monsoon. Eighty more (U-Th)/He zircon grain-ages are presently being analyzed in order to achieve two statistically significant (n= 70) PDFs to make the comparison between modern-day and paleo-fluvial fill populations more robust. In addition, this study synthesizes TRMM-imaged precipitation and geomorphic and thermal-kinematic models to yield a synthetic, 'predicted' detrital grain-age population; a PDF for the modern-day fluvial system. This approach allows us to (i) test the thermal-kinematic model with a low closure temperature chronometer and (ii) characterize the correlation between the locus of maximum rainfall from the TRMM data and the predicted locus of maximum erosion. Finally, in order to ground truth the exhumation rates and zircon (U-Th)/He grain-ages predicted by our thermal-kinematic model, (U-Th)/He grain-ages from ten bedrock samples spaced along the river valley bottom will be produced.

Michalak, M.; Hourigan, J.; Bookhagen, B.

2008-12-01

296

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-09-28

297

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

298

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

299

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

300

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

301

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

302

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

303

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

304

A study of lagoonal and estuarine processes in the area of Merritt Island encompassing the space center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to determine the marine biology and dynamic oceanographic properties of the Indian River in Florida. One of the major areas of concentration involved the compilation of a taxonomic list of marine animals in the river. An important conclusion of the study is that diversity of the benthic community is substantially higher than expected. The effect of major climatic factors on the diversity and structure of the benthic community is analyzed.

1974-01-01

305

78 FR 16685 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pre-graduate, and Indian Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pre-graduate, and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial...Indian Health Professions Preparatory Scholarship authorized by Section 103 of the Indian...Indian Health Professions Pre-graduate Scholarship authorized by Section 103 of the...

2013-03-18

306

75 FR 1384 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pregraduate and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial...Indian Health Professions Preparatory Scholarship authorized by section 103 of the Indian...Indian Health Professions Pregraduate Scholarship authorized by section 103 of the...

2010-01-11

307

77 FR 21568 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pregraduate and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Overview Information: Indian...Pregraduate and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs. Announcement Type: Initial...Indian Health Professions Preparatory Scholarship authorized by section 103 of the...

2012-04-10

308

78 FR 78976 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pre-graduate and Indian Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pre-graduate and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial...Indian Health Professions Preparatory Scholarship authorized by Section 103 of the Indian...Indian Health Professions Pre-graduate Scholarship authorized by Section 103 of the...

2013-12-27

309

76 FR 8743 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pre-Graduate and Indian Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pre-Graduate and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial...Indian Health Professions Preparatory Scholarship authorized by section 103 of the Indian...Indian Health Professions Pre-graduate Scholarship authorized by section 103 of the...

2011-02-15

310

Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison study between 10 Mediterranean lagoons has been carried out by means of the 3-D numerical model SHYFEM. The investigated basins are the Venice and Marano-Grado lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lesina and Varano lagoons in the Southern Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras Lagoon in Sardinia, the Ganzirri and Faro lagoons in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain, and the Nador Lagoon in Morocco. This study has been focused on hydrodynamics in terms of exchange rates, transport time scale, and mixing. Water exchange depends mainly on the inlet shape and tidal range, but also on the wind regimes in the case of multi-inlet lagoons. Water renewal time, which is mostly determined by the exchange rate, is a powerful concept that allows lagoons to be characterized with a time scale. In the case of the studied lagoons, the renewal time ranged from few days in the Marano-Grado Lagoon up to 1 year in the case of the Mar Menor. The analysis of the renewal time frequency distribution allows identifying subbasins. The numerical study proved to be a useful tool for the intercomparison and classification of the lagoons. These environments range from a leaky type to a choked type of lagoons and give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. Mixing efficiency turns out to be a function of the morphological complexity, but also of the forcings acting on the system.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Bellafiore, Debora; Ghezzo, Michol; Bajo, Marco

2014-04-01

311

The Indian Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

Strong, Augusta

1969-01-01

312

Understanding Indian Immigrant Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses culture and educational system of India and describes characteristics of Indian immigrants to the United States. Makes recommendations to teachers and counselors concerning Indian students. Recommends educators gain some understanding of this group and its culture. (ABL)

Yao, Esther Lee

1989-01-01

313

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dolphin glides through the water looking for fish in the turn basin, which is located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. Dolphins inhabit the waters, known as the Indian River Lagoon, around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

314

Indians into Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Located at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Indians Into Medicine (INMED) is a multi-faceted program providing academic, financial, and personal support for Indian students preparing for health careers. The program has the following goals: (1) increase awareness and motivation among Indian students with the potential for health…

Beiswenger, James N.

315

Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

Wilson, James

316

Indian Law Enforcement History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

Etheridge, David

317

Indian Health Care. Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undertaken at the request of House and Senate committees with responsibility for Indian affairs and government health programs, this study examines the health status of Indians and the services and technologies that are provided to them through Federal Indian health programs. The first half of the report contains background information and the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

318

Indian Health Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is an assessment of health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives who are eligible for medical and health-related services from the federal government. Chapters outline Federal-Indian relationships; provide demographic and economic information on the Indian population; trace current health status, changing health problems, and…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

319

National Indian Education Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

Harvey, Karen Kay

2006-01-01

320

Indians of North Carolina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief historical review of the Cherokee Indians from the mid-sixteenth century to modern day depicts an industrious tribe adversely affected by the settlement movement only to make exceptional economic advancements with the aid of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Civic pride and self-leadership among the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina has…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

321

Patos Lagoon Outflow Within the Rio de la Plata Plume Using an Airborne Salinity Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major river systems discharging into continental shelf waters frequently form buoyant coastal currents that propagate along the continental shelf in a direction corresponding to that of coastal trapped wave propagation (with the coast on the right/left, in the northern/southern hemisphere). The combined flow of the Uruguay and Parana Rivers, which discharges freshwater into the Rio de La Plata estuary (Latitude ~36 S), frequently gives rise to a buoyant coastal current (the 'La Plata plume') that extends northward along the continental shelf off Uruguay and Southern Brazil. Depending upon the prevailing rainfall, wind and tidal conditions, the Patos/Mirim Lagoon complex (Latitude ~ 32 S) also produces a freshwater outflow plume that expands across the inner continental shelf. Under these circumstances the Patos outflow plume may be embedded in temperature, salinity and current fields that are strongly influenced by the larger Plata plume. The purpose of this paper is to present observations of such an embedded plume structure and to determine the implications for the dynamics of the smaller Patos plume. We describe the results of an airborne remote sensing and shipboard in situ study of the salinity distribution and extent of the La Plata and Patos/Mirim Lagoon plumes conducted under contrasting winter (2003) and summer (2004) conditions. The survey was conducted using an aircraft carrying NRL's Salinity, Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS). A series of broad-scale flights was conducted over the continental shelf off Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil, and a detailed mapping flight was undertaken over the Patos/Mirim outflow region. Their purpose was to determine the distribution and behavior of the Plata and Patos Lagoon plumes on the continental shelf under representative winter and summer conditions. The resulting airborne and shipboard hydrographic data are compared with dynamical model parameter estimates to address the following questions: What is the influence of a large-scale plume on the behavior of a smaller scale outflow embedded within it? How might the observed Patos plume be classified in comparison with other plumes, and would this classification likely change when it is embedded in the larger Plata plume? The situation of the Patos plume embedded within the Plata Plume during winter-time may be contrasted with the simpler situation in which either one of the plumes is absent. The case of a weak Plata plume being present during summer (in the absent of the Patos plume), serves as an approximation to the ambient conditions, or background state, pertaining to the embedded case.

Burrage, D.; Wesson, J.; Martinez, C.; Perez, T.; Moller, O., Jr.; Piola, A.

2005-05-01

322

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

323

Quantification of Water, Salt and Nutrient Exchange Processes at the Mouth of A mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vassova lagoon is a typical Mediterranean (small, shallow, micro-tidal, well-mixed) coastal lagoon, receiving limited seasonal freshwater inflows from direct precipitation and underground seepage. An intensive study was carried out in order to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the intra-tidal and residual transport of water, salt, nutrients and chlorophyll at the mouth of this lagoon and to assess the lagoon's flushing

Georgios K. Sylaios; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis; Christos Akratos; Kiriaki Haralambidou

2006-01-01

324

Variability of Anaerobic Animal Waste Lagoon deltaN Source Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

High ammonium-N concentrations derived from animal wastes stored and partially treated in earthen anaerobic lagoons at confined feeding facilities can seep to groundwater. ?N-NH4 values from +2.0 to +59.1‰ in 13 lagoons complicate identification of lagoon seepage as well as land-applied lagoon effluent in ground and surface waters. The spectrum of ?N values requires site-specific isotope characterization of the potential

Sadayappan Mariappan; Mary E. Exner; Glen E. Martin; Roy F. Spalding

2009-01-01

325

Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm\\/day to 2.4 mm\\/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm\\/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N),

J. M. Ham; T. M. DeSutter

2001-01-01

326

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

1997-01-01

327

Linking DNRA community structure and activity in a shallow lagoonal estuarine system  

PubMed Central

Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and denitrification are two nitrate respiration pathways in the microbial nitrogen cycle. Diversity and abundance of denitrifying bacteria have been extensively examined in various ecosystems. However, studies on DNRA bacterial diversity are limited, and the linkage between the structure and activity of DNRA communities has yet to be discovered. We examined the composition, diversity, abundance, and activities of DNRA communities at five sites along a salinity gradient in the New River Estuary, North Carolina, USA, a shallow temporal/lagoonal estuarine system. Sediment slurry incubation experiments with 15N-nitrate were conducted to measure potential DNRA rates, while the abundance of DNRA communities was calculated using quantitative PCR of nrfA genes encoding cytochrome C nitrite reductase, commonly found in DNRA bacteria. A pyrosequencing method targeting nrfA genes was developed using an Ion Torrent sequencer to examine the diversity and composition of DNRA communities within the estuarine sediment community. We found higher levels of nrfA gene abundance and DNRA activities in sediments with higher percent organic content. Pyrosequencing analysis of nrfA genes revealed spatial variation of DNRA communities along the salinity gradient of the New River Estuary. Percent abundance of dominant populations was found to have significant influence on overall activities of DNRA communities. Abundance of dominant DNRA bacteria and organic carbon availability are important regulators of DNRA activities in the eutrophic New River Estuary. PMID:25232351

Song, Bongkeun; Lisa, Jessica A.; Tobias, Craig R.

2014-01-01

328

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California  

E-print Network

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California ACRES: 28.3 acres NON-FEDERAL SPONSORS: City of Long Beach Friends of Colorado Lagoon PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Colorado Lagoon is a 28 of visitors from communities within and surrounding the City of Long Beach, California. There are over 700

US Army Corps of Engineers

329

Remediation of Ammonium-Contaminated Abandoned Animal Waste Lagoon Soil: Physical Properties and Growth of Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remediation of the soil beneath closed animal waste lagoons is an important issue, particularly for lagoons in environmentally sensitive regions. Few studies address the possibility of using plants to remediate these soils. The objectives of this research were to determine whether barley (Hor-deum vulgare L.), a salt-tolerant crop, would grow in lagoon soil and to determine the effect of plant

M. S. Liphadzi; M. B. Kirkham; K. R. Mankin

2002-01-01

330

Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of

Markes E. Johnson; Jorge Ledesma-Vázquez; David H. Backus; Maria R. González

331

SOIL CHEMISTRY AFTER FIFTEEN YEARS INTENSIVE APPLICATIONS OF SWINE LAGOON EFFLUENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Confined swine-feeding operations generate large quantities of waste on individual farms and in warmer climates it is typically flushed into anaerobic lagoons to facilitate digestion. To prevent lagoon overflow, swine effluent is applied to pastures and hayfields in close proximity to the lagoon fro...

332

Lagoon of Venice ecosystem: Seasonal dynamics and environmental guidance with uncertainty analyses and error subspace  

E-print Network

Lagoon of Venice ecosystem: Seasonal dynamics and environmental guidance with uncertainty analyses the seasonal ecosystem dynamics of the Lagoon of Venice and provide guidance on the monitoring and management stochastic ecosystem modeling components are developed to represent prior uncertainties in the Lagoon

Leonard, John J.

333

Anthropogenic changes and ecosystem monitoring in the Honjo Area of Nakaumi Lagoon, Southwest Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nakaumi Lagoon is a coastal brackish water lake formed by the Yumigahama peninsula in Shimane and Tottori Prefectures, Southwest Japan. In 1981 the Honjo Area, approximately the northern quarter of Nakaumi Lagoon, was almost completely isolated by the Moriyama and O-misaki Dikes constructed by the Nakaumi Reclamation and Desalination Project. A connection remained with Nakaumi Lagoon via one channel in

K. Seto; D. L. Dettman; K. Kurata; K. Yamaguchi; T. Irizuki; M. Saito; H. Takata

2008-01-01

334

Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons  

E-print Network

Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons Emmanuel Charles-Dominique ABSTRACT: Catch efficiencies of two commonly used fishing gears. in Ivory Coast lagoons, purse seine fisheries are well developed in Ivory Coast lagoons, yielding from 10,000 to 20,000 tons of commercially

335

Toxic blooms of cyanobacteria in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Patos Lagoon is the largest lagoonal system in South America. Its waters are formed by a huge drainage basin (201,600 km2) situated in the most industrialized areas of the Southern state of Rio Grande do Sul. On its margins more than 3 million inhabitants live in several cities and towns. The lagoon waters are used for leisure, drinking, industry,

J. S. Yunes; P. S. Salomon; A. Matthiensen; K. A. Beattie; S. L. Raggett; G. A. Codd

1996-01-01

336

Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 ? M in 1987 to 2.7 ? M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

2007-05-01

337

Cockacoeske, Weroansqua of the Pamunkeys, and Indian Resistance in Seventeenth-Century Virginia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In August 1676 Nathaniel Bacon brought his campaign to "ruin and extirpate all Indians in general" to the Green Dragon Swamp on the upper Pamunkey River. While there, he attacked and massacred nearly fifty Pamunkey Indians, who had been at peace with the government of Virginia for thirty years. Having once formed the backbone of the mighty…

Schmidt, Ethan A.

2012-01-01

338

Planning Project in Juvenile Delinquency: Prevention and Control of Delinquency Among Indian Youth in Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was conducted in an effort to ascertain the magnitude and dimensions of the delinquency problem among the American Indian youths from the Wind River Reservation (Wyoming). During the summer of 1971 data were obtained from the records of the Court of Indian Offenses, the Tribal police, the juvenile officer on the reservation, the Riverton…

Forslund, Morris A.; Meyers, Ralph E.

339

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, INDIAN CREEK (CANYON COUNTY), IDAHO 1976-1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian Creek drainage (17050114) is located in the Boise River Basin of Southwest Idaho. This study was concerned with the portion of Indian Creek near the Nampa and Caldwell urban areas. Major land uses in the area are associated with urban development and irrigated agricu...

340

Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

1995-06-01

341

Sediment biogeochemical differences in two pristine Mediterranean coastal lagoons (in Italy) characterized by different phanerogam dominance-A comparative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate functional differences in two Italian coastal lagoons (Caprolace and Fogliano, Tyrrhenian Sea) characterized by the dominance of two different seagrass species: Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson in the Caprolace lagoon and Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande in the Fogliano lagoon. 2. A monitoring system was set up in both lagoons in order to (i)

A. SIGNORINI; G. MASSINI; G. MIGLIORE; M. TOSONI; C. VARRONE; G. IZZO

2008-01-01

342

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Maldives: waves and disaster affected by shape of coral reefs and islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Maldives, 39 islands are significantly damaged among 200 inhabited islands and nearly a third of the Maldivian people are severely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 26 December 2004. We surveyed tsunami impact in 43 islands by measuring island topography and run-up height, interview to local people and mapping of the flooded and destructed areas. The differences in tsunami height and disaster corresponding to the atoll shape and island topography are observed. In the northern atolls, atoll rims consist of many ring-shaped reefs, i.e. miniature atolls called `faro', and interrupted many channels between them. The interrupted atoll rim may play an important role to reducing tsunami run-up height. Severe damage was not observed in the eastern coast of the islands. Beach ridge also contribute to the protection against tsunami. However, in some islands, houses beside the lagoon are damaged by backwashing floodwater from the lagoon. Water marks show the run-up height of -1.8m above MSL. The lagoon water-level seems to set-up by tsunami which permeates into the lagoon through the interrupted atoll rim. The disaster was severe at the southern atolls of Meemu, Thaa and Laamu. The higher run-up heights of up to 3.2m above MSL and enormous building damages were observed at the islands on the eastern atoll rims. The continuous atoll rim of these atolls may reinforce tsunami impact at the eastern islands. In addition, tsunami surge washed the islands totally because of low island topography without beach ridge. Significant floodwater from lagoon was not observed in these atolls. It seems the lagoon water-level was not set-up largely. The continuous atoll rim reduces the tsunami influence to the lagoon and the western side of the atolls. The continuity of atoll rim is probably the major factor to cause the difference in water movement, i.e. tsunami run-up and lagoon set-up, which affects the disaster in the islands. Beach ridge contribute to reduce the tsunami impact to the settlement and agricultural land. Our results may elucidate secure atoll and island type to mitigate the risk of future tsunamis on atoll nations/districts in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean.

Kan, H.; Ali, M.; Riyaz, M.

2005-12-01

343

PNW RIVER REACH FILE DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Federal and state agencies, and NW Indian Tribes has produced a 1:100,000-scale River Reach data layer for the Pacific Northwest that will serve water-resource management applications for the next decade or more. The Pacific N...

344

Spatio-temporal variation of CO2 emission from Chilika Lake, a tropical coastal lagoon, on the east coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical Carbon cycling was studied in Asia's largest brackish lagoon, Chilika on the east coast of India. Systematic time-series observations were made at 35 hydrologically different stations over the entire lagoon. The first of these kinds of measurements reveal, inter and intra annual variability of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). A comparative analysis of pCO2, CO2 flux over four years (2005, 2009, 2010 and 2011) showed that the northern part of the lagoon maintained the highest levels of pCO2, with maximum CO2 efflux to the atmosphere associated with peak monsoon period. The high pCO2 corresponded to a significant decrease in pH (˜0.8) from the low to high flow periods. Higher bacterial abundance (1.55 ± 0.28 × 109 cells L-1) and bacterial respiration (185.31 ± 105.37 ?g C L-1 d-1), suggested high levels of organic carbon decomposition during the high flow period. In contrast, the southern sector was least affected by river discharge, with low pCO2 values and CO2 flux as in the dry period. The central part and outer channel of the lagoon had intermediate characteristics. During high flow, the air-water CO2 flux from the entire lagoon was estimated to be 31.2 mol C m-2 y-1, which was comparatively very high with respect to the mean CO2 emission from the entire subtropical and tropical estuaries. Highest CO2 flux (65.98 mol C m-2 y-1) was observed in the northern sector, followed by the outer channel (17.61 mol C m-2 y-1), central sector (15.69 mol C m-2 y-1) and southern sector (14.44 mol C m-2 y-1). The northern part of Chilika lagoon being an important river-influenced region was responsible for the biological transformation of organic carbon to inorganic carbon and emitting CO2 to the atmosphere. Such a sectoral approach would reveal zonal influences of CO2 within a water body along with conditions leading to sink or a source.

Muduli, Pradipta R.; Kanuri, Vishnu Vardhan; Robin, R. S.; Charan Kumar, B.; Patra, Sivaji; Raman, A. V.; Nageswarara Rao, G.; Subramanian, B. R.

2012-11-01

345

Sediment budget in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of 1927, 1970 and 2002 bathymetric surveys in the Lagoon of Venice was used to reconstruct historical changes in sedimentation. A detailed GIS-based analysis of the charts revealed the timing and pattern of geomorphic changes and allowed calculation of sediment deposition and erosion for the entire lagoon and each of its four sub-basins: Treporti, Lido, Malamocco and Chioggia. Two main developments are discernible from comparative observation of the areal distribution of the main elevation ranges: the diminution in area of the saltmarshes, which decreased by more than 50%, from 68 km 2 in 1927 to 32 km 2 in 2002, and the progressive deepening of the lagoon, with a huge increase in the area of subtidal flats (between -0.75 and -2.00 m depth), from 88 to 206 km 2 during the same period. Generally, the lagoon showed a clear-cut change in the most frequent depths (modal depth) from a value of -0.62 m in 1927 to -0.88 m in 2002. The deepening of the lagoon affected mostly the lagoonal sub-basins south of the town of Venice, where modal depth increased from -0.65 to -1.12 m in Lido, from -0.64 to -1.75 m in Malamocco and from -0.39 to -0.88 m in Chioggia. Large changes in lagoonal morphology were caused by human-induced subsidence, the dredging of navigation channels between 1927 and 1970, and intense natural erosion enhanced by sediment re-suspension due to Manila clam fishing between 1970 and 2002. There was a net loss of about 110 Mm 3 of sediment from the lagoon, most of which (73 Mm 3, ca.70%) was in the earlier period. A significant amount was lost by dredging and direct disposal outside the system, either on land or at sea, and there was a net loss of 39 Mm 3 from the lagoon to the sea through the inlets, at an annual rate of 0.5 Mm 3. Comparison of erosion rates in the two periods revealed an alarming acceleration, from a net sediment loss of 0.3 Mm 3 yr -1 in the period 1927-1970 to 0.8 Mm 3 yr -1 in 1970-2002. Deterioration caused a shift from a highly differentiated lagoon morphology in the 1930s to a sediment-starved and subsidence-dominated structure in the 1970s, and from there to the high-energy and more open (bay-like) lagoon of today. The results demonstrate the potential application of GIS to reconstruct the recent chronology of sediment distribution and to improve the understanding of the geomorphic processes shaping the seafloor, whilst providing an insight into the possible impacts of environmental changes induced by natural and anthropogenic forcing.

Sarretta, A.; Pillon, S.; Molinaroli, E.; Guerzoni, S.; Fontolan, G.

2010-05-01

346

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts  

PubMed Central

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

347

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.  

PubMed

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

348

Lagoon Seepage Testing Procedures for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory Butte County, Idaho April 2014  

SciTech Connect

The lagoon seepage testing procedures are documented herein as required by the Wastewater Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16.493). The Wastewater Rules and Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 require that the procedure used for performing a seepage test be approved by IDEQ prior to conducting the seepage test. The procedures described herein are based on a seepage testing plan that was developed by J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) and has been accepted by several IDEQ offices for lagoons in Idaho.

Alan Giesbrecht

2014-05-01

349

Coastal lagoons as a natural sewage treatment plant and their impact on the natural stable isotope signature in nitrate (d 15N, d 18O)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication is one of the major threats to the Baltic Sea ecosystems and, therefore, various possibilities for nutrient removal scenarios are currently discussed. One approach considers a 50% decrease in nutrient inputs by all riparian countries, however, this would cost 380 Mio Euro/yr. Some countries already discharge highly treated sewage waters and any further reduction would be very costly, while other countries use only basic (mechanical) treatment procedures and further treatment could be done cost efficiently. One natural way that reduces nutrient loads and minimize inputs of nitrate, ammonium and phosphate is their transfer through coastal lagoons that act as a natural treatment plant. The residence time of river water is prolonged and that enables settlement of particles and bacterial removal of nitrate and ammonium. This study made it possible to investigate the effect the Szczecin Lagoon has on nutrient concentrations by comparing two stations - one located ca. 100 km upstream, and the other in the Swina Canal, the major outlet of the lagoon. Biweekly samples were taken at both stations. A drop in nitrate concentrations occasionally reached 90%, while the annual removal of nitrate amounted to 55%. The delta 15N and delta 18O data of nitrate were used to investigate the processes responsible for the drop in concentration. Surprisingly, the theoretical delta 15N values (calculated after Rayleigh equation) were negatively correlated with the measured ones, and delta 18O values were unusually high for the river nitrate. We therefore conclude that part of the nitrate was denitrified without fractionation as suggested by Brandes and Devol (1997). However, an additional nitrate source with low delta 15N and high delta 18O values might be also considered. For phosphate the removal was lower, reaching only 15% annually. It seems that the lagoon was more efficiently retaining nitrogen thus changing the N/P ratio of the outflowing water towards N-limitation.

Voss, M.; Pastuszak, M.; Sitek, S.; Schulte, U.

2003-04-01

350

Benthic Primary Production Budget of a Caribbean Reef Lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico)  

PubMed Central

High photosynthetic benthic primary production (P) represents a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reef systems. However, benthic P budgets of specific ecosystem compartments such as macrophyte-dominated reef lagoons are still scarce. To address this, we quantified individual and lagoon-wide net (Pn) and gross (Pg) primary production by all dominant functional groups of benthic primary producers in a typical macrophyte-dominated Caribbean reef lagoon near Puerto Morelos (Mexico) via measurement of O2 fluxes in incubation experiments. The photosynthetically active 3D lagoon surface area was quantified using conversion factors to allow extrapolation to lagoon-wide P budgets. Findings revealed that lagoon 2D benthic cover was primarily composed of sand-associated microphytobenthos (40%), seagrasses (29%) and macroalgae (27%), while seagrasses dominated the lagoon 3D surface area (84%). Individual Pg was highest for macroalgae and scleractinian corals (87 and 86 mmol O2 m?2 specimen area d?1, respectively), however seagrasses contributed highest (59%) to the lagoon-wide Pg. Macroalgae exhibited highest individual Pn rates, but seagrasses generated the largest fraction (51%) of lagoon-wide Pn. Individual R was highest for scleractinian corals and macroalgae, whereas seagrasses again provided the major lagoon-wide share (68%). These findings characterise the investigated lagoon as a net autotrophic coral reef ecosystem compartment revealing similar P compared to other macrophyte-dominated coastal environments such as seagrass meadows and macroalgae beds. Further, high lagoon-wide P (Pg: 488 and Pn: 181 mmol O2 m?2 lagoon area d?1) and overall Pg:R (1.6) indicate substantial benthic excess production within the Puerto Morelos reef lagoon and suggest the export of newly synthesised organic matter to surrounding ecosystems. PMID:24367570

Naumann, Malik S.; Jantzen, Carin; Haas, Andreas F.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Wild, Christian

2013-01-01

351

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

352

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

353

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

354

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

355

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

356

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

357

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

358

76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2011-03-01

359

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

360

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

361

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

362

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

363

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

364

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

365

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment...approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the...

2010-11-09

366

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

367

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

368

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

369

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

370

A combined wind wavetidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy  

E-print Network

A combined wind wave­tidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy L. Carniello and A. Defina Department of Hydraulic, Maritime, Environmental and Geotechnics Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy S, Environmental and Geotechnics Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy Received 30 August 2004; revised 8

Fagherazzi, Sergio

371

A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

372

Aerated Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit (which consists of a single lesson) describes the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. In addition, special troubleshooting and maintenance problems are discussed. The instructor's guide for the unit includes: (1) an overview of the lesson; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of slides used…

Andersen, Lorri

373

Facultative Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a two-lesson unit on the structure and components of facultative lagoons, the biological theory of their operation, and factors affecting their operation. Control testing recommendations, maintenance guidelines, and troubleshooting hints are also provided. These materials include: (1) an…

Andersen, Lorri

374

Antibiotic resistant bacterial profiles of anaerobic swine lagoon effluent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. To better understand this, more data is ne...

375

A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A water column sampler was needed to study stratification of nutrients and bacteria in a swine manure lagoon. Conventional samplers yielded shallow samples near the bank or required a boat. These limitations prompted development of a new sampler to collect at multiple depths with minimal disturbanc...

376

Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

1987-05-01

377

Land Application of Poultry Lagoon Effluent L. J. Aldrich1  

E-print Network

directly related to effluent nutrient levels and background soil concentrations. Nitrate and potassium. M. Sweeten4 Member Fellow Abstract Excess levels of plant nutrients are being applied to soils when public. Repeated applications of lagoon effluent can cause high levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P

Mukhtar, Saqib

378

Characterization of lagoon gases by an electronic nose  

E-print Network

in the decomposition of livestock wastes, the need for accurate and reliable devices for field monitoring of emissions exists. Studies were undertaken into the use of an array of chemical gas sensors for the detection and characterization of lagoon biogas. The sensors...

Woodcock, Jane Catherine

1997-01-01

379

Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from a waste lagoon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cost-effective approach was used to investigate the relationship between emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4, and N2O and energy fluxes from a swine waste lagoon. Energy fluxes were calculated using the Penman method. The energy fluxes showed a diurnal pattern as expected of such flux...

380

SPREADING LAGOONED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON FARMLAND: A CASE HISTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...

381

Montane lakes (lagoons) of the New England Tablelands Bioregion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation of montane lagoons of the New England Tablelands Bioregion, New South Wales is examined using flexible UPGMA analysis of frequency scores on all vascular plant taxa, charophytes and one liverworts. Seven communities are described- 1. Hydrocotyle tripartita - Isotoma fluviatilis - Ranunculus inundatus - Lilaeopsis polyantha herbfield 2. Eleocharis sphacelata - Potamogeton tricarinatus sedgeland 3. Eleocharis sphacelata -

Dorothy M. Bell; John T. Hunter; J. Haworth

382

Tidal Inlet and Lagoon on the San Andreas Fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bolinas Lagoon, located on the California coast about 24 kilometers north of San Francisco's Golden Gate (Figure 1), sits astride the San Andreas Fault and waits to die, a victim of many of the same types of human interventions that negatively impact other coastlines of the world. It is now almost certain that additional human intervention is the only means

Donald D. Treadwell; Ronald M. Noble; Orville T. Magoon

383

REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM TREATED ANAEROBIC SWINE LAGOONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need for treatment technologies that can eliminate environmental problems associated with anaerobic lagoons. These technologies must be able to capture nutrients, kill pathogens and reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors. To meet these needs, a full-scale wastewater treatment plan...

384

IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON  

E-print Network

) this study demonstrates the application of total phosphorus possible spectral indexes to monitor its contentIDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON USING AN HYPERSPECTRAL phosphorus concentrations. A reflectance determination coefficient of 0.49 was obtained from the 467 to 529

Gilbes, Fernando

385

Fate of estradiol and testosterone in anaerobic lagoon digestors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory-scale lagoon digestors were constructed, and the fate of 14C-labelled 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (Test) were monitored for 42 d anaerobically under biological and sterile conditions. Hormone levels decreased in the liquid layer and increased in the sludge with time. At 42 d, 16-2...

386

LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS AND AMPHIBIAN DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations and Amphibian Development. Dumont, J. N.* and Slagle, S., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, and Hutchins, S. R., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NRMRL/SPRD), Ada, OK. There is some evidence that confined anima...

387

Decline of Ulva growth in the lagoon of Venice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causes and effects of the remarkable regression of the macroalga Ulva rigida C. Ag. in the central part of the Venice lagoon since 1990 are reported. Climatic changes triggered the progressive reduction of Ulva coverage and production (?80% in 1993; ?95% in 1995) until its almost complete disappearance in 1996. Grazers, especially Gammaridae, controlled 70% of the current biomass production,

Adriano Sfriso; Antonio Marcomini

1996-01-01

388

WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

389

ISOLATION OF SALMONELLA BACTERIOPHAGES FROM SWINE WASTE LAGOONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lagoons on nine Mississippi hog farms were tested for the presence of lytic Salmonella-specific phages. Lytic phages are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Salmonella-killing phages were isolated using an enrichment method or directly from clarified filtered effluent. Enrichment samples were tre...

390

Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Profiles of Anaerobic Swine Lagoon Effluent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibi...

391

Fuzzy prediction of the algal blooms in the Orbetello lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orbetello lagoon is a shallow brackish waterbody subject to intense and diverse eutrophication (phytoplankton, macroalgae and macrophytes). Periodically a large amount of algae must be artificially removed, their collection and disposal representing a considerable management cost. This paper describes the design of a bloom predictor based on the daily fluctuations of simple water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen,

Stefano Marsili-libelli

2004-01-01

392

ENTERIC VIRUS REMOVAL IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT LAGOON SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Indigenous enteric virus removal from raw wastewater was examined in facultative and partially aerated treatment lagoon systems at paired sites in the southwest, southeast, and north central regions of the U.S. The virus samples were concentrated from large wastewater volume usin...

393

In Situ Monitoring of Malodors in a Swine Waste Lagoon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An apparatus for the in situ quantification of malodorous compounds from animal wastewater was developed that employed a submersible magnetic stir plate and stir bar sorbtive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bars. Prior to deployment of the apparatus in a hog waste lagoon, experime...

394

Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to <2% compared to 53% in winter. Four Hg-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 ?g ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation. However, during winter, Hg-resistant bacteria that are capable of degrading MeHg via the mer-catalyzed reductive pathway increase in importance.

Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

2012-11-01

395

Water sources, mixing and evaporation in the Akyatan lagoon, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Akyatan lagoon, located southeast of Turkey along the Mediterranean coast, is a choked and hypersaline lagoon, and hosts a large and specific biodiversity including endangered sea turtles and migrating birds. Physicochemical properties of this lagoon were investigated by measuring temperature, salinity, and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of its waters at a seasonal scale during years 2006 and 2007. Winter and spring seasons were dominated by mixing processes between freshwaters and Mediterranean seawater. The majority of spring season waters are formed by evapoconcentration of brackish water at moderate temperatures of 22 ± 2 °C. During summer, hypersaline waters result from evaporation of seawater and brackish waters formed during spring. Evaporation over the Akyatan lagoon reaches up to 76 wt% based on salinity measurements and operated with a dry (relative humidity of 0.15-0.20) and hot (44 ± 6 °C) air. These residual waters were characterized by the maximal seasonal isotopic enrichment in both deuterium and 18O relative to VSMOW. During autumn, most lagoonal waters became hypersaline and were formed by evaporation of waters that had isotopic compositions and salinities close to that of seawater. These autumnal hypersaline waters result from an air humidity close to 0.45 and an atmospheric temperature of evaporation of 35 ± 5 °C, which are responsible for up to 71 wt% of evaporation, with restricted isotopic enrichments relative to VSMOW. During the warm seasons, the combination of air humidity, wind velocity and temperature were responsible for a large kinetic component in the total isotopic fractionation between water liquid and water vapour.

Lécuyer, C.; Bodergat, A.-M.; Martineau, F.; Fourel, F.; Gürbüz, K.; Nazik, A.

2012-12-01

396

SEPARATION OF ALGAL CELLS FROM WASTEWATER LAGOON EFFLUENTS. VOLUME I. INTERMITTENT SAND FILTRATION TO UPGRADE WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOON EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A project to evaluate the performance characteristics of the intermittent sand filter for polishing lagoon effluents was conducted. Techniques described in the literature for summer and winter operation were applied to determine if filter effluents would consistently meet PL 92-5...

397

Indian Heritage: A Selected Book List for All Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book list, a sampling of resources from the Denver Public Library, pertains to the Indians of North America, especially those west of the Mississippi River. The annotated list is divided into two main parts: "Adult and Young Adult Books, Films, and Records" and "Children's Books, Films, and Records." The bulk of the list is adult and young…

Denver Public Library, CO.

398

Crustacean zooplankton in aerated wastewater treatment lagoons as a potential feedstock for biofuel.  

PubMed

Zooplankton biomass productivity was estimated for two 64,000 m3 (1.7 ha) facultative aerated wastewater treatment lagoons to evaluate potential biodiesel production from zooplankton biomass. Lagoons were monitored bi-weekly during summer 2010. Lipid accumulated by crustacean zooplankton was considered the most efficient means by which to collect lipid produced by phytoplankton owing to the greater ease in the collection of these organisms (>0.153mm) compared with unicellular algae (size <0.06 mm). In terms of biomass, the cladoceran Daphnia and the copepod Cyclops were the dominant zooplankton in these hypereutrophic lagoons, while unicellular chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community. Secondary productivity of these lagoons (250 g of dry weight m(-2) yr(-1)) is comparable to the secondary productivity of other sewage lagoons. The potential biodiesel production for one lagoon was estimated to be 0.04 +/- 0.02 L m(-2) yr(-1), which results in a total of 1120 +/- 560 L from two lagoons. This study showed that there are organisms present in wastewater lagoons, besides algae, that can serve as a biofuel feedstock. Additionally, this research expands the current knowledge of facultative aerated wastewater lagoon ecology and waste stream-derived biofuel. Future research should include complete life cycle and economic analyses to determine if harvesting zooplankton from wastewater lagoons is a sustainable endeavour. PMID:24350451

Kring, Stefanie A; Xia, Xiaoyan; Powers, Susan E; Twiss, Michael R

2013-01-01

399

Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian has a beautiful online exhibit, Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian which is meant to accompany the in situ exhibition in Washington D.C. and New York. Scholder's work is the subject of much debate in the world of Native Art, as his work has no obvious Native American imagery in it and he oftentimes denied he was Native American. By clicking on "Biography" near the top of the page, a list of links, "The Early Years", "The IAIA Years", and "The 70s and After" will appear. Below these links a clickable timeline also appears which advances when rolled over with the mouse. Another way to get an introduction to Scholder's life and the exhibit is to click on the "Podcasts" link near the top of the page. The first podcast listed is "Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian". Visitors should also not miss looking at his bold and sometimes disturbing paintings and sculptures, under the "Works" tab near the top of the page. They can be viewed by either D.C. or New York displays, as well as by "Curator's Choice", which is the default view. Each piece of work is also accompanied by commentary offered by the curators. Just click on the artwork, and under the bottom right hand corner of the image is a speaker to click on, complete with the name of the curator doing the commentary.

2008-01-01

400

Future evolution of a tidal inlet due to changes in wave climate, Sea level and lagoon morphology (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal inlets are extremely dynamic, as a result of an often delicate balance between the effects of tides, waves and other forcings. Since the morphology of these inlets can affect navigation, water quality and ecosystem dynamics, there is a clear need to anticipate their evolution in order to promote adequate management decisions. Over decadal time scales, the position and size of tidal inlets are expected to evolve with the conditions that affect them, for instance as a result of climate change. A process-based morphodynamic modeling system is validated and used to analyze the effects of sea level rise, an expected shift in the wave direction and the reduction of the upper lagoon surface area by sedimentation on a small tidal inlet (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal). A new approach to define yearly wave regimes is first developed, which includes a seasonal behavior, random inter-annual variability and the possibility to extrapolate trends. Once validated, this approach is used to produce yearly time series of wave spectra for the present and for the end of the 21st century, considering the local rotation trends computed using hindcast results for the past 57 years. Predictions of the mean sea level for 2100 are based on previous studies, while the bathymetry of the upper lagoon for the same year is obtained by extrapolation of past trends. Results show, and data confirm, that the Óbidos lagoon inlet has three stable configurations, largely determined by the inter-annual variations in the wave characteristics. Both sea level rise and the reduction of the lagoon surface area will promote the accretion of the inlet. In contrast, the predicted rotation of the wave regime, within foreseeable limits, will have a negligible impact on the inlet morphology.

Bruneau, Nicolas; Fortunato, André B.; Dodet, Guillaume; Freire, Paula; Oliveira, Anabela; Bertin, Xavier

2011-11-01

401

Circulation and suspended sediment transport in a coral reef lagoon: the south-west lagoon of New Caledonia.  

PubMed

The south-west lagoon of New Caledonia is a wide semi-open coral reef lagoon bounded by an intertidal barrier reef and bisected by numerous deep inlets. This paper synthesizes findings from the 2000-2008 French National Program EC2CO-PNEC relative to the circulation and the transport of suspended particles in this lagoon. Numerical model development (hydrodynamic, fine suspended sediment transport, wind-wave, small-scale atmospheric circulation) allowed the determination of circulation patterns in the lagoon and the charting of residence time, the later of which has been recently used in a series of ecological studies. Topical studies based on field measurements permitted the parameterisation of wave set-up induced by the swell breaking on the reef barrier and the validation of a wind-wave model in a fetch-limited environment. The analysis of spatial and temporal variability of suspended matter concentration over short and long time-scales, the measurement of grain size distribution and the density of suspended matter (1.27 kg l(-1)), and the estimation of erodibility of heterogeneous (sand/mud, terrigenous/biogenic) soft bottoms was also conducted. Aggregates were shown to be more abundant near or around reefs and a possible biological influence on this aggregation is discussed. Optical measurements enabled the quantification of suspended matter either in situ (monochromatic measurements) or remotely (surface spectral measurements and satellite observations) and provided indirect calibration and validation of a suspended sediment transport model. The processes that warrant further investigation in order to improve our knowledge of circulation and suspended sediment transport in the New Caledonia lagoon as well as in other coral reef areas are discussed, as are the relevance and reliability of the numerical models for this endeavour. PMID:20637477

Ouillon, S; Douillet, P; Lefebvre, J P; Le Gendre, R; Jouon, A; Bonneton, P; Fernandez, J M; Chevillon, C; Magand, O; Lefèvre, J; Le Hir, P; Laganier, R; Dumas, F; Marchesiello, P; Bel Madani, A; Andréfouët, S; Panché, J Y; Fichez, R

2010-01-01

402

2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map Showing Progress for the Fiscal Year 1927. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1927. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, District #4, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 29, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

403

“Being Indian,” “Being American”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a cross-cultural study that seeks to understand an aspect of Asian Indian women's realities by exploring concepts such as: attitudes toward gender roles, level of stress in their lives, and their ethnic identity. It compares Asian Indian women raised in the U.S. (n = 45), with women born and raised in India (n = 50) and with European

Shobha Srinivasan

2000-01-01

404

Indian Tribes of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lives and locations of early American Indian tribes are the subject of this book for children of junior high school age. The tribal life patterns which had developed to suit the climates lived in, prior to the arrival of the Europeans, are described. Thus, the livelihood of Indians in 5 different sections of the United States and Canada--the…

Gridley, Marion E.

405

Indians of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

406

Wetlands of the Attawapiskat River mouth, James Bay, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Attawapiskat River is one of the major rivers entering James Bay, Canada. Wetlands of the lower 12 km portion of the river\\u000a were studied between the Cree Indian village of Attawapiskat and James Bay. This portion contains both freshwater, freshwater\\u000a tidal and brackish\\/saline wetlands along a gradient downstream to the river mouth. Due to the high flow of fresh

Walter A. Glooschenko; I. Peter Martini

1983-01-01

407

National Indian Health Board Position on Indian Preference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The policy of granting American Indians preference for employment in Indian service facilities was established by Congress as long ago as 1834; in 1974 the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that Indian preference laws were not discriminatory or unconstitutional. However, a 1973 survey found that while 51 percent of the employees at Indian Health…

National Indian Health Board, Inc., Denver, CO.

408

The Chemehuevi Indians of Southern California. Malki Museum Brochure No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The only local tribe to migrate into California during recorded history, the Chemehuevi Indians had one of the largest tribal areas in California, though their population probably never exceeded 800. Today most live on the Colorado River Reservation, where they share membership with the Colorado River tribes. First mentioned in a priest's report…

Miller, Ronald Dean; Miller, Peggy Jeanne

409

River Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... About Low Vision & Blindness > Vision Disorders > River Blindness River Blindness What Is River Blindness? River blindness is an eye and skin disease caused by a tiny worm called onchocerca volvulus, ...

410

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

411

Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its hydrogeologic control in a reef lagoon setting, but is likely to occur in many similar coastal settings. Ignoring geologic complexity can result in mischaracterization of SGD and other coastal groundwater processes at many spatial scales.

Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.

2014-09-01

412

Factors structuring temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities in a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal).  

PubMed

The present work aimed to identify the main environmental drivers shaping temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities within a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Sediments in the Óbidos lagoon showed a gradient of increasing metal contamination from the inlet area to inner branches. The mid-lower lagoon area exhibited an intermediate contaminated condition between the inlet and upstream areas, suggesting that the effects of the organic loadings into the lagoon may be reflected until this area. This transitional feature was corroborated by biological data, with macrobenthic assemblages displaying characteristics of down- and upstream areas. Macrobenthic abundance peaked in winter, which was associated with a higher nutrient availability (mainly ammonium) and the proliferation of green macroalgae in mid-lower and inner lagoon areas. However, massive macroalgae growth resulted in a sharp decrease of macrobenthic diversity and abundance in spring, particularly where the higher amounts of decaying algae were detected. Higher dissimilarities between assemblages were detected during winter (and spring, for trophic composition), while in summer, differences were highly attenuated. The least contaminated area (close to the sea inlet) experienced smaller temporal variations for environmental variables, as well as the lowest temporal biological variability. This area was dominated by carnivores, which were related with increased salinity. Deposit-feeders were numerically dominant in the lagoon, being generally spread within organically enriched sandy and muddy areas. The high concentration of chlorophyll a and suspended particulate matter in water was reflected in the abundance of deposit-feeders/suspension-feeders, taking benefit of the high primary productivity. On the other hand, deposit-feeders/herbivores responded to the decay of macroalgae mats in the sediment. Biological associations varied with the biological data used (taxonomic versus trophic group composition; abundance versus biomass), highlighting the relevance of the combination of different data analysis' approaches. In general, BIOENV analysis indicated total phosphorus, biomass of Ulva, metals and organic carbon and nitrogen as being significantly influencing benthic patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies in ecological behaviours of some taxa were also detected in the present study stressing the need for additional studies on the relationships between macrobenthic communities and environmental variables. Implications of the present results for monitoring studies are discussed. PMID:21236484

Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Patrícia; Pereira, Fábio; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Gaspar, Miguel B

2011-03-01

413

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part II: The Indian Tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part II of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Documents are included relative to the Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, and the Red Cliff bands of Lake Superior Chippewa…

Fay, George E., Comp.

414

Influence of Groundwater Seepage on Water Quality and Ecological Health of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Southern Portugal (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater seepage from coastal aquifers has recently been recognized as an overlooked major source of nutrients (N, P) and contaminants to the coastal environment (Biddanda et al., 2009; Fear, Paerl and Braddy, 2007; Kluge et al., 2007; Kroeger and Charette, 2008). Nutrient and contaminants concentrations in groundwater are often much higher than those in river water, compensating for the lower flux of groundwater relative to the lagoon surface water. The Ria Formosa is a coastal lagoon located in the south of Portugal (Algarve, Faro) and surrounded by an intensely farmed area. We hypothesize that water quality and ecological health of the Ria Formosa environments are influenced by past and on-going contamination of terrestrial groundwaters with nutrients from fertilizer, sewage and industry. According to Leote, Ibanhez and Rocha (2005) estimated submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the lagoon to be 3.6 m3 day-1 per linear meter of coastline with freshwater contributions (per volume) ranging from 10% to 50%. SGD as an important nutrient source to the Ria Formosa, estimating annual loads of 36.2 mol (0.507 kg) of Nitrogen, 1.1 mol (0.034 kg) of Phosphorus and 18.6 mol (0.522 kg) of Silicon per meter of coastline. Based on these results, it was suggested that SGD is a potential contributor to the observed nutrification status of the Ria Formosa lagoon. We are testing the following two hypotheses: (1) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of inorganic nutrients in groundwater will be characterized by higher density of Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) distribution, and higher chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site; (2) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of contaminants in groundwater will be characterized by lower AIS dispersal and colonization, and lower chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site. By processing data and performing interdisciplinary study of groundwater seepage, concentration of contaminants and distribution of AIS in the Ria Formosa, we achieved an easily-measured set of indicators (Lauritsen, Mozley and White, 1985) that can be implementing in the future to gauge changes in the Ria Formosa ecosystem.

Kontar, A. Y.; Newton, A.

2009-12-01

415

Cycling of Geotube® Solids from Dairy Lagoons Through Turfgrass Sod  

E-print Network

Life Research C. Munster, Texas AgriLife Research T. Provin, Texas AgriLife Extension Service S. Mukhtar, Texas AgriLife Extension Service Funded by the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board under CWA Section 319, EPA TSSWCB Project # 03... been established for water treatment applications. Geotube ? solids ? particulate matter collected from wastewater pumped from lagoon into semi- permeable fibrous sock. Lysimeter ? Container in which the volume of soil used to grow plants...

Schnell, R.; Tahboub, M.; Vietor, D.; Munster, C.; Provin, T.; Mukhtar, S.

416

Coastal lagoons: “transitional ecosystems” between transitional and coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a well differentiated typology of water bodies on the basis of scientific\\u000a and biological criteria. For coastal waters, such criteria have long been established, while for transitional waters they\\u000a are still under discussion. One of the difficulties when applying the WFD to coastal lagoons is to include them in only one\\u000a of these

Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Concepción Marcos; Isabel María Pérez-Ruzafa; María Pérez-Marcos

417

Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

1985-02-01

418

Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons  

SciTech Connect

An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

1999-11-01

419

A Comprehensive Evaluation of OEO Community Action Programs on Six Selected American Indian Reservations. Report 4 - Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) Community Action Programs (CAP) on 6 selected American Indian reservations (Gila River and Papago, Arizona; Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico; Pine Ridge, South Dakota; Turtle Mountain, North Dakota, and White Earth Chippewa, Minnesota) are evaluated. After considering the development of Indian

Smith, James G. E.; And Others

420

Crustacean fish parasites from Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

The present study is the first investigation on ectoparasites of commercial important fish from Segara Anakan, a brackish water lagoon located at the southern coast of Java, Indonesia. Eight economically important marine fish species (Mugil cephalus, Siganus javus, Scatophagus argus, Caranx sexfasciatus, Lutjanus johnii, Eleutheronema tetradactylum, Johnius coitor, and Epinephelus coioides) were examined for crustacean parasites. Prevalence and intensity data for each parasite species are given, together with an analysis of the origin and possible transmission pathways. A highly divers copepod fauna consisting of 23 different species and two isopods was found. All fish species were at least infested with two copepod species, with the exception of L. johnii, S. argus, and M. cephalus. With seven and six species, respectively, they harboured the most species-rich ectoparasite fauna. The copepods Ergasilus sp. 3 and Caligus acanthopagri on S. argus showed the highest prevalence (78.6) and intensity [17.8 (1-233) and 5.3 (1-22)] of infestation. The recorded parasite fauna is represented by marine, brackish water, and probably also freshwater components. The brackish water environment of Segara Anakan does not prevent disease outbreaks due to parasitic copepods by preventing pathogenic marine or freshwater species to enter the lagoon. This might cause fish health problems if the Segara Anakan Lagoon would be developed for finfish mariculture in future. PMID:17219222

Yuniar, Asri T; Palm, Harry W; Walter, Thorsten

2007-05-01

421

Indian concepts on sexuality  

PubMed Central

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

422

Indian concepts on sexuality.  

PubMed

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

423

Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities  

PubMed Central

Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with “Caucasoid” populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

2013-01-01

424

Fox River Watershed Investigation - Stratton Dam to the Illinois River: Water Quality Issues and Data Report to the Fox River Study Group, Inc. Executive Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Background The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) in their Illinois Water Quality Report 2000 (IEPA, 2000) listed parts of the Fox River in McHenry and Kane Counties and part of Little Indian Creek as impaired. In the 2002 IEPA report (IEPA, 2002), the entire length of the Fox River in Illinois is listed as impaired, as well as Nippersink,

Sally McConkey; Alena Bartosova; Lian-Shin Lin; Karla Andrew; Michael Machesky; Chris Jennings

425

The effect of floods on sediment contamination in a microtidal coastal lagoon: the lagoon of Lesina, Italy.  

PubMed

The effects on the microtidal lagoon of Lesina of runoff and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities were investigated combining chemical analyses of pollutants [11 metals and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs)], determination of organic matter and grain size, and performance of innovative ecotoxicological tests. For metals, enrichment factors >3 for arsenic, nickel, and copper (Cu) were observed in the eastern zone of the lagoon, which is affected by nearby urban activities with discharge of water and domestic waste and by agricultural input with waters rich in fertilizers. Cu was correlated with no other metal, and its high concentrations (?77 µg g(-1)) may result from the use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyards. Total PAHs (2,230 ± 3,150 ng g(-1)) displayed a wide range of concentrations with hot spots near freshwater inputs from the part of the catchment area exploited for wheat crops. Pyrolitic contamination also emerged, with higher-mass PAH congeners, such as asphalt, bitumen or coal, usually present in higher fractions as the dominant components. Ecotoxicological evaluations recorded moderate to high toxicity levels; the innovative MOT test bioassay showed good discriminatory ability because it identified a lagoon area whose inputs mainly depend on agricultural activities and which is impacted by metals rather than PAHs. Floods during periods of heavy rain and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities may impact vulnerable systems, such as the lagoon of Lesina, where the presence of hot spots with remarkably high pollution values was observed. PMID:24862981

D'Adamo, Raffaele; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto; Fabbrocini, Adele

2014-10-01

426

Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

2013-04-01

427

Indian allotment water rights  

SciTech Connect

Allotted tribal lands create troublesome questions for western water lawyers. The author reviews the history of basic Indian reservation water rights created by the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Winters v. United States. He then explains the disposition of those rights when reservation lands are allotted. Finally, he discusses the difficult issues that arise when allotted lands pass from the federal trust, become subject to state law, and are transferred to non-Indians.

Collins, R.B.

1985-01-01

428

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

429

Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm/day to 2.4 mm/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), which accounted for over 99 percent of the soluble nitrogen, ranged from 10 ppm to 3500 ppm. On average, nitrogen concentrations in swine lagoons were about five times higher than those at cattle feedlots. The chemical flux density (flux boundary condition) was estimated from the seepage rate and the corresponding waste chemistry data from each lagoon. Results showed that ammonium-N export was between 0.02 and 1.06 kg NH4-N m-2 yr^{-1} with an overall average of about 0.3 kg NH4-N m^{-2} yr^{-1}$ . Similar data are available for other soluble compounds. Soil cores were collected beneath eight lagoons that had been operated from 12 to 25 years. Results showed that NH4-N was strongly adsorbed by the soil clay particles and that nitrogen concentrations often decreased to background levels at 3 m beneath the lagoon. Other ions, such as chloride, penetrated to much lower depths at all locations. The 'reservoir' of NH4-N that exists beneath older lagoons could convert to nitrate and move to lower depths after lagoon closure. Data suggest that the properties if the soil beneath lagoons, the concentration of the waste, the seepage rate, and the depth to groundwater are the crucial factors that affect the risk of groundwater contamination.

Ham, J. M.; DeSutter, T. M.

2001-05-01

430

Partitioning, bioavailability and origin of heavy metals from the Nador Lagoon sediments (Morocco) as a basis for their management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nador Lagoon sediments show low trace element concentrations, and, in relation to the lagoon geochemical baseline, only some\\u000a anomalies for As, Cd, Cu and Pb in the NW of the lagoon deserve to be outstanding. The distribution of major, minor and trace\\u000a elements in the lagoon allows a breakdown in four zones. Between “Beni Ensar” and “Atelouane” (zone A), a quite

I. González; E. Águila; E. Galán

2007-01-01

431

Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture  

PubMed Central

The Siddis (Afro-Indians) are a tribal population whose members live in coastal Karnataka, Gujarat, and in some parts of Andhra Pradesh. Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the Siddis to India from Africa about 300–500 years ago; however, there is little information about their more precise ancestral origins. Here, we perform a genome-wide survey to understand the population history of the Siddis. Using hundreds of thousands of autosomal markers, we show that they have inherited ancestry from Africans, Indians, and possibly Europeans (Portuguese). Additionally, analyses of the uniparental (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA) markers indicate that the Siddis trace their ancestry to Bantu speakers from sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate that the admixture between the African ancestors of the Siddis and neighboring South Asian groups probably occurred in the past eight generations (?200 years ago), consistent with historical records. PMID:21741027

Shah, Anish M.; Tamang, Rakesh; Moorjani, Priya; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mustak, Mohammed S.; Bhaskar, L.V.K.S.; Reddy, Alla G.; Gadhvi, Dharmendra; Gai, Pramod B.; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2011-01-01

432

The Salt River Project of Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information on the history of the Salt River community, its Native American Indian culture, and the impacts of water usage by and for humans. Activities topics include energy, electricity, and water energy, usage and safety. Historical references to the Salt River valley are integrated into resource materials. Resources are available free of charge for teachers and students and must be requested via email.

1996-01-01

433

Evidence of North Africa?s Green Revolution Preserved in Sedimentary Organic Matter Deposited in Three Coastal Lagoons.  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the dep...

434

Human impacts and the status of water quality in the Bundala RAMSAR wetland lagoon system in Southern Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brackish coastal wetlands in the Bundala National Park, the only RAMSAR site of southern Sri Lanka, are an important waterfowl habitat and economic zone. Bundala Lagoon, one of the three key lagoons of the Bundala wetlands, remains largely intact and relatively pristine, but the other two interconnected lagoons, namely, Embilikala and Malala, are impacted by drainage from 25.6 km2

S. C. Piyankarage; A. P. Mallawatantri; Y. Matsuno; K. A. S. Pathiratne

2004-01-01

435

Project summary. PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE (EPA/600/S2-89/015)  

EPA Science Inventory

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactlvation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was filled with 7.56 mL of ...

436

Seasonal variation in heat fluxes, predicted emissions of malodorants, and wastewater quality of an anaerobic swine waste lagoon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The concentrations of p-cresol above a wastewater lagoon were modeled from February through June based on equations developed in a previous study. Using this model, in which p-cresol concentrations were calculated based on lagoon evaporation and net available radiation at the lagoon surface, predic...

437

Induction of Purple Sulfur Bacterial Growth in Dairy Wastewater Lagoons by Circulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aims: To determine if circulation of diary wastewater induces the growth of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). Methods and Results: Two dairy wastewater lagoons that were similar in size, geographic location, number and type of cattle loading the lagoons were chosen. The only obvious diffe...

438

Effects of the Sand Bar Breaching on Typha domingensis (PERS.) in a Tropical Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal lagoons are usually subjected to several kinds of human impacts, especially eutrophication. The breaching of the sand bar, which separates the lagoon from the ocean, by human action, is a common process used to decrease the negative effects of eutrophication. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effects of the artificial sand bar breaching on the populations

Anderson M. dos Santos; André M. Amado; Murilo Minello; Vinicius F. Farjalla; Francisco A. Esteves

2006-01-01

439

Microbiological quality of effluents from anaerobic swine manure lagoons in Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Confined swine feeding operations in Mississippi and most of the southeastern USA routinely flush manure from pits beneath confinement barns into open anaerobic storage lagoons. Lagoon effluent is reused for pit flushing and eventually land applied as fertilizer for grass hay. The fertilizer quali...

440

Wind-Driven Surficial Oxygen Transfer and Dinitrogen Gas Emission from Treatment Lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surficial oxygen transfer plays an important role, when analyzing the complex biochemical and physical processes responsible for ammonia and dinitrogen gas emission in animal waste treatment lagoons. This paper analyzes if currently known nitrogen biochemical pathways can explain the enigmatic dinitrogen gas emissions recently observed from the treatment lagoons, based on the amount of wind-driven oxygen that can be transferred

K. S. Ro; P. G. Hunt; M. E. Poach

2006-01-01

441

SURFACE GAS EMISSIONS, CONSUMPTION, AND BUBBLE-TRANSPORT IN SWINE LAGOONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent studies have shown the production of significant amounts of benign nitrogen gas (N2) in anaerobic swine lagoons. The gas is found in bubbles collected below the lagoon surface. Contamination of these bubbles by N2 from the atmosphere cannot be excluded. Therefore, a model was developed with t...

442

Sludge reduction and water quality improvement in anaerobic lagoons through influent pre-treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. These lagoons may require cleanup and closure measures in the future. In practice, liquid and sludge need to be removed by pumping, usually at great expense of energy, and land applied ...

443

Microbialites in a modern lagoonal environment: nature and distribution, Tikehau atoll (French Polynesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbialites, including stromatolitic structures, gelatinous masses and mats develop in Tikehau lagoon (Tuamotu, French Polynesia), on the flanks and slopes of numerous pinnacles and ‘motu’ islets between 0 and 25 m deep, on coral colonies, algal tufts or on lagoonal sediments. Individual stromatolitic structures consist of hemispherical domes and are produced by monospecific populations of filamentous cyanobacteria belonging to three

S. Sprachta; G. Camoin; S. Golubic; Th. Le Campion

2001-01-01

444

Nitrification and Denitrification Communities Associated with a Semi-Permeable Swine Waste Lagoon Biocover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emission from swine waste lagoons presents a serious environmental challenge to pork producers. Semi-permeable swine waste lagoon biocovers have been developed to serve as a physical barrier and as an attachment site for biofilm development, but microbial analysis of the biocover technology...

445

ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage and  

E-print Network

and treatment structures. In a lagoon, organic waste is diluted with water and bacteria decompose the organic storage volumes for further treatment of volatile solids, total livestock waste, runoff, precipitationL ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage

Mukhtar, Saqib

446

Using floating vegetation to remove nutrients from an anaerobic swine wastewater lagoon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing in the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2007 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

447

Removal of Estrogenic Compounds in Dairy Waste Lagoons by Ferrate (VI): Oxidation/Coagulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferrate(VI) was used to break down and/or remove steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE). Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for estrogenic content (EC) and assayed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Effects of varying...

448

Plant growth and elemental uptake by floating vegetation on a single stage swine wastewater lagoon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing on the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2008 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

449

LONG TERM IMPACT OF SWINE LAGOON WASTEWATER ON SHALLOW GROUNDWATER NITROGEN LEVELS IN VEGETATED BUFFER SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An eight-year study was conducted to determine the impact of swine lagoon wastewater on shallow groundwater in vegetated buffer systems. Replicated 30 X 4 m plots were established at the interface of a pasture and riparian forest in 1993. Wastewater from the third lagoon of the University of Georg...

450

THE DIET OF THE CURLEW SANDPIPER AT LANGEBAAN LAGOON, SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puttick, G. M. 1978. The diet of the Curlew Sandpiper at Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa. Ostrich 49:158-167.Nereid worms (mainly Ceratonereis erythraensis) and the hydrobiid gastropod Assiminea globulus were the most important prey items throughout the year for Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferruginea feeding at Langebaan Lagoon. Other important items were the amphipod Urothoe grimaldi, the crabs Hymenosoma orbiculare and Cleistostoma edwardsii

Gillian M. Puttick

1978-01-01

451

REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM SWINE LAGOONS USING ALTERNATIVE WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need for treatment technologies that can effectively address environmental concerns associated with ammonia emissions from anaerobic lagoons, typically used to manage manure. To meet this need, we conducted a study to determine the effects of water quality improvement in swine lagoons on ...

452

Use of geotextile tubes with chemical amendments to dewater dairy lagoon solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three geo-textile filtration tubes were used to dewater lagoon solids from a first stage dairy lagoon using chemical amendments (aluminum sulfate and a polymer) to enhance the separation process. This experiment had previously been done without chemical amendment. The chemical amendments speeded the dewatering process so that filling could be accomplished sooner, and also increased the removal rate of nutrients,

J. W. Worley; T. M. Bass; P. F. Vendrell

2008-01-01

453

Metal pollution loading, Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt: Implications for aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

High cultural enrichment factors are found for Hg (13×), Pb (22.1×), and other potentially toxic metals (e.g., Sn, Zn, Cu, Ag) in the upper 20 cm of sediment cores from the southeastern Ginka subbasin of Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt. Cores from other areas of the lagoon show little metal loading. Metal loading followed the closure of the Aswan High

F. R. Siegel; M. L. Slaboda; D. J. Stanley

1994-01-01

454

Ecology of an isolated mangrove lagoon (Playa Medina, Venezuela) and its potential  

E-print Network

Ecology of an isolated mangrove lagoon (Playa Medina, Venezuela) and its potential use as sewage conditions of a coastal mangrove lagoon in Venezuela which is completely isolated from the sea, lacking any is to relate some of the effects of disconnection, with the potential use of the mangrove as a sewage pond

Vegas Vlarrúbia, Teresa

455

Late-Summer Abundance and Distribution of Marine Birds in Kasegaluk Lagoon, Chukchi Sea, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas drilling programs in the Alaska Chukchi Sea were carried out on leases offshore from Kasegaluk Lagoon in 1989-91, and further exploration and development activities in this area are likely in future years. We conducted aerial surveys between late July and early September 1989-91 to determine the distribution and abundance of marine birds in the Kasegaluk Lagoon area.

STEPHEN R. JOHNSON; DAVID A. WIGGINS; PETER F. WAINWRIGHT

456

Consequences of human-mediated marine intrusions on the zooplankton community of a temperate coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barrier bars separating lagoons from oceans are frequently breached as a management tool to prevent flooding of terrestrial ecosystems. The effects of such human-mediated openings on zooplankton have been investigated only in one tropical system. We investigated the temperate Waituna Lagoon, New Zealand, over a 2-year period when the barrier bar was ‘artificially’ breached on three occasions. Increases in salinity

Ian C Duggan; Michelle A White

2010-01-01

457

Measuring gas emissions from animal waste lagoons with an inverse-dispersion technique  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques due to non-ideal conditions such as trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and short fetch to establish equilibrated microclimate conditions within the water bo...

458

REMOVAL OF ESTROGENIC COMPOUNDS IN DAIRY WASTE LAGOONS BY FERRATE (VI): OXIDATION/COAGULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferrate (VI)is used as a means of breaking down and/or removing steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE), to minimize the amount of SE entering groundwater/watersheds. Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for EC (estrogenic content) and assayed using High Performance Liquid Chrom...

459

Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution  

E-print Network

Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution by Steve Ress UNL Water livestock waste lagoons may not be significant contributors to groundwater pollution. "This is particularly of Nebraskans drink groundwater," said research hydrochemist Roy Spalding, director of UNL's Water Sciences

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

460

Missouri River InfoLINK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Listed among the "Endangered Rivers" of 1999, the Missouri River drains one-sixth of the United States's surface water; management decisions regarding the Missouri River affect a wide range of wildlife, as well as millions of Americans from Missouri to Montana. The Missouri River InfoLINK, housed at the USGS-BRD Columbia Environmental Research Center, "was created for these stakeholders who want to understand how the river functions and make informed decisions about the river's future use and management." To that end, the site offers sections for the public as well as the scientist. For background information on current research, see the Science section (includes a large bibliography and research summaries); for a wide array of background information (some of which is technical), see the River section. In addition, the site offers summary data (soil attributes, agricultural products, the 1990 Census, etc.), beautiful maps showing county boundaries, basin-wide maps (depicting general geography, watersheds and rivers, average runoff, ecoregions, physiographic regions, Indian tribal lands, dams and reservoirs, and agriculture), or local maps (1:100,000 quadrangle maps of the 1993 flood extent, wetlands, etc.), and much more. This is an outstanding site, rich in information of varying complexity.

461

River discharge, sediment transport and exchange in the Tana Estuary, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on sediment transport and exchange dynamics in the 27km2 Tana Estuary located at Kipini in the north Kenya coast. The estuary is drained by the Tana River, which contributes more than 50% of the total river discharges into the Kenyan sector of the Indian Ocean. The study involved measurement of river discharges, estuarine flood–ebb tidal discharges, total

J. U. Kitheka; M. Obiero; P. Nthenge

2005-01-01

462

The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication.  

PubMed

Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication. PMID:19703693

Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

2009-12-01

463

Survival of Salmonella enterica in Aerated and Nonaerated Wastewaters from Dairy Lagoons  

PubMed Central

Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. PMID:25358096

Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.

2014-01-01

464

Survival of Salmonella enterica in aerated and nonaerated wastewaters from dairy lagoons.  

PubMed

Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. PMID:25358096

Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z

2014-11-01

465

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water in the turn basin, east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and more looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

466

Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different environmental factors acting upon the shell assemblages. These results suggest that tsunamigenic shell deposits can be identified based on their taphonomic characteristics when compared to beach and storm deposits in the same setting. Our data indicates that the following diagnostic taphonomic characteristics may indicate a tsunamigenic deposit: 1) presence/absence of articulated bivalves, 2) increased percentage of fragmented valves, 3) increased percentage of angular fragments, and 4) the large number of offshore bivalves in the lagoon. This study highlights the potential benefits and opportunity for using bivalve taphonomy as a useful indicator of paleotsunami deposits, particularly in protected coastal embayments in arid regions where stratified deposits might not readily preserve. This technique holds potential, as shell deposits are easy to identify in the field by non-experts, is very low cost, and analysis uses simple, easily applicable and recognizable taphonomic characteristics. Furthermore, this proxy can be used for risk assessment purposes in coastal areas with a seismic history but lacking a paleotsunami record. Further testing of this hypothesis should be conducted along the Omani coastline, particularly in the lagoons along the Eastern promontory. Key Words: tsunami, taphonomy, Oman, bivalve

Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.

2007-05-01

467

Classification of Australian Clastic Coastal Depositional Environments Based Upon a Quantitative Analysis of Wave, Tidal, and River Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical assessment of wave, tide, and river power was carried out using a database of 721 Australian clastic coastal deposi- tional environments to test whether their geomorphology could be pre- dicted from numerical values. The geomorphic classification of each environment (wave- and tide-dominated deltas, wave- and tide-domi- nated estuaries, lagoons, strand plains, and tidal flats) was established independently from

P. T. Harris; A. D. Heap; S. M. Bryce; R. Porter-Smith; D. A. Ryan; D. T. Heggie

2002-01-01

468

Fish populations in the Paraná River. I. Temporary water bodies of Santa Fe and Corrientes Areas, 1970 – 1971 (Argentine Republic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about fish population of temporary water bodies of the middle Paraná River at Corrientes area (31° 40’ S; 60° 43’ W) and Sante Fe a