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Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the IndianRiverLagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the IndianRiverLagoon.
The IndianRiver Wetlands Initiative is a broad research effort to compare the effects of various restoration and management strategies on a variety of wetland functions, flora, and fauna. It involves managing a selected group of impoundments under various management strategies ...
With the publication of the IndianRiverLagoon Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (IRLCCMP), more than 100 agencies and local governments with management responsibilities for the Lagoon have agreed on a united strategy to preserve the fragile...
The St. Lucie Estuary is one of the largest brackish water bodies on the east coast of Florida, USA and a major tributary\\u000a to southern IndianRiverLagoon. The IndianRiverLagoon is a biogeographic transition zone, rich in habitats and species,\\u000a with the greatest species diversity of any estuary in North America. Habitats and species diversity in the lagoon
We examine three radium isotopes (224Ra, 223Ra and 226Ra) as a sediment-water interface tracer in upper IndianRiverLagoon. Benthic fluxes are estimated using lagoon budgets, benthic chambers and pore water profiles. The lagoon budget approach estimates range from ~20 dpm\\/m2-d for 224Ra to ~7 dpm\\/ m2-d for 223Ra to zero for 226Ra. Benthic Chamber flux estimates determined over an
J. M. Smoak; P. W. Swarzenski; J. E. Cable; J. B. Martin
Contents: Overview of the industry; History of the IndianRiverLagoon; Biological and environmental factors affecting the clamming industry; Economics of clams; Clam mariculture; Management of the industry; Industry's view.
S. BADYLAK ,K. K ELLEY AND E.J. PHLIPS. 2004. A description of Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) from the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida, USA. Phycologia 43: 000-000. The primary focus of this paper is to provide a detailed description of Pyrodinium bahamensefrom the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida. Recent reports of saxitoxin production by P. bahamense from the IndianRiverlagoon has heightened
We investigated the antifungal chemical defenses and physiological responses of five seagrasses collected from nearshore seagrass beds from the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida, against a panel of co-occurring marine fungi isolated from nearby coastal communities. Whole plant tissues from Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme prevented overgrowth by three of the seven fungi used in this study. Organic extracts
The IndianRiverLagoon (IRL) crosses a zone of climatic transition. Historically, marshes dominated saline and brackish environments in the north of the lagoon, while mangroves became important to the south. Distribution of marsh communities was influenc...
We examine three radium isotopes (224Ra, 223Ra and 226Ra) as a sediment-water interface tracer in upper IndianRiverLagoon. Benthic fluxes are estimated using lagoon budgets, benthic chambers and pore water profiles. The lagoon budget approach estimates range from ~20 dpm/m2-d for 224Ra to ~7 dpm/ m2-d for 223Ra to zero for 226Ra. Benthic Chamber flux estimates determined over an 8 hour time period are statistically no different than zero for all three isotopes. Pore water profile flux estimates are low with 0.5 dpm/m2-d for 224Ra to 0.2 dpm/m2-d for 223Ra and zero for 226Ra. Benthic flux estimates correlate with the regeneration rates of the individual isotopes. Radium-224 has the largest flux value and is the isotope with the fastest regeneration rates due to a short half-life. The isotope with the slowest regeneration rate (226Ra) due to a 1600-year half-life, cannot be distinguished from zero in any of the estimates. The short half-life of 224Ra and 223Ra, allow for the examination of exchange processes at the sediment-water interface that cannot be achieved with the long-lived radium isotope (226Ra).
Smoak, J. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.
A new genus of marine, interstitial schizorhynch (Platyhelminthes: Kalyptorhynchia) is described from sediment collected in Mosquito Lagoon and IndianRiverLagoon, Florida, USA. Smithsoniarhynches is char- acterized by the presence of proboscis hooks constructed of ten individual spine-like teeth that emerge separately from a basal plate. Histology and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to reveal addi- tional details of
Phytoplankton dynamics in the IndianRiverLagoon was examined from the point of view of several key controlling factors, including: nutrient limitation, light availability, temperature, wind, hydrodynamic restriction and grazing. Water was collected at eight sampling sites in the lagoon on a monthly basis for a two and a half year period. Samples were analysed for nutrient content and phytoplankton
The flushing of Florida’s IndianRiverLagoon is investigated as a response to tidal and low-frequency lagoon-shelf exchanges\\u000a in the presence of freshwater gains and losses. A one-dimensional computer model uses the continuity equation to convert water-level\\u000a variations into both advective transport within the lagoon and lagoon-shelf exchanges. The model also incorporates transport\\u000a by longitudinal diffusion. Flushing is quantified by
Seagrasses have been considered one of the most critical marine habitat types of coastal and estuarine ecosystems such as\\u000a the IndianRiverLagoon. They are an important part of biological productivity, nutrient cycling, habitat stabilization and\\u000a species diversity and are the primary focus of restoration efforts in the IndianRiverLagoon. The areal extent of seagrasses\\u000a has declined within segments
Mohamad T. Musavi; Habtom W. Ressom; S. Srirangam; Padma Natarajan; R. W. Virnstein; L. J. Morris; W. Tweedale
There is a growing evidence that the ecological and biological integrity of the lagoon has declined during the last 50 years, probably due to the decline in water quality. Establishment of a watershed scale seagrass-based nutrient load assessment is the major aim of water quality management in the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL). Best estimate loadings incorporate wet and dry deposition,
Data are presented on the vegetation dynamics of two impounded marshes along the IndianRiverLagoon, in east-central Florida, USA. Vegetation in one of the marshes (IRC 12) was totally eliminated by overflooding and by hypersaline conditions (salinities over 100 ppt) that developed there in 1979 after the culvert connecting the marsh with the lagoon was closed. Over 20% recovery
The occurrence of potentially toxic phytoplankton species was examined over a 5-year period in a region of the IndianRiverLagoon in Florida that has recently been subject to ecologically significant events, putatively related to algal toxins. The results of the study reveal a significant presence of two species of phytoplankton that have been shown to be toxic in Florida
Data are presented on the vegetation dynamics of two impounded marshes along the IndianRiverLagoon, in east-central Florida,\\u000a USA. Vegetation in one of the marshes (IRC 12) was totally eliminated by overflooding and by hypersaline conditions (salinities\\u000a over 100 ppt) that developed there in 1979 after the culvert connecting the marsh with the lagoon was closed. Over 20% recovery
Seagrass both disappeared and recovered within 4 yr in one region of northern IndianRiverLagoon (IRL). For the specific\\u000a area referred to as Turnbull Bay, a relatively pristine area of the IRL, over 100 ha of seagrass completely disappeared from\\u000a 1996 to 1997 and then recovered by 2000. Based on lagoon-wide mapping from aerial photographs taken every 2–3 years
Phytoplankton dynamics in the IndianRiverLagoon was examined from the point of view of several key controlling factors, including: nutrient limitation, light availability, temperature, wind, hydrodynamic restriction and grazing. Water was collected at eight sampling sites in the lagoon on a monthly basis for a two and a half year period. Samples were analysed for nutrient content and phytoplankton abundance. Site measurements of salinity and light extinction were made at all sites. Regional data on rainfall, wind and water temperature was obtained for correlation analyses. Bioassays were performed to determine nutrient limiting status and a series of preliminary grazing experiments were carried out on selected samples. The results indicate that the IndianRiverLagoon is a nutrient-rich environment where phytoplankton standing crops are often held below their potential by several key loss functions, including hydraulic flushing and grazing. Spatial patterns of phytoplankton abundance generally reflected the degree of restriction to water turnover in different regions of the lagoon, with higher mean abundances in restricted regions. Spatial and temporal patterns of nutrient content and limitation suggest that patterns of external nutrient loading also play a significant role in phytoplankton dynamics. High phosphorus levels in the southern portion of the lagoon contribute to the predominance of nitrogen limitation in the region. In contrast, relatively high N/P ratios in the northern portions of the lagoon contribute to greater potential for phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton growth. As might be expected from the subtropical location of the lagoon, temporal patterns of phytoplankton abundance appear to be less strictly dependent on season than in temperate habitats, and more closely linked to variations in weather conditions, like rainfall (including storm events). The latter considerations bring into play issues like temporal variation in salinity and wind-induced mixing. The high light flux and shallow depth in the lagoon also presents the potential for photoinhibition.
Establishment of a watershed scale seagrass-based nutrient load assessment is the major aim of water quality management in the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL). Best estimate loadings incorporate wet and dry deposition, surface water, groundwater, sediment nutrient flux, and point source effluent discharge...
Magnitudes of terrestrial (fresh) and marine (saline) sources of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) are estimated for a transect across IndianRiverLagoon, Florida. Two independent techniques (seepage meters and pore water Cl- concentrations) show terrestrial SGD decreases linearly to around 22 m offshore, and these techniques, together with a model based on the width of the outflow face, indicate a
Jonathan B. Martin; Jaye E. Cable; Christopher Smith; Moutusi Roy; Jennifer Cherrier
Magnitudes of terrestrial (fresh) and marine (saline) sources of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) are estimated for a transect across IndianRiverLagoon, Florida. Two independent techniques (seepage meters and pore water Cl? concentrations) show terrestrial SGD decreases linearly to around 22 m offshore, and these techniques, together with a model based on the width of the outflow face, indicate a
Jonathan B. Martin; Jaye E. Cable; Christopher Smith; Moutusi Roy; Jennifer Cherrier
Six synoptic sampling events were conducted in the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL) between April and June, 1997 to collect TSS (total suspended solids), color (dissolved organic matter), chl a (chlorophyll a), and light (photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) data. These data were used to develop our understanding of light attenuation dynamics in the IRL and for verification of a numerical light
A Spanish caravelles brought the first European adventurers and settlers to the New World depositing them on the East Florida coast. American rockets boosted space ships from the same land into another frontier, Space. Between these two events, East Florida, Cape Canaveral and the IndianRiverlagoon felt the impact of several waves of settlement which maintained the region's image
Establishment of a watershed scale seagrass-based nutrient load assessment is the major aim of water quality management in the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL). The development of such targets requires information on nutrient concentration, external nutrient loading rates, sediment nutrient flux estimates,...
This paper describes the results of 10 years of water quality monitoring in the IndianRiverLagoon Florida, with special\\u000a emphasis on the relationships between trends in climatic conditions and the distribution, composition, and abundance of the\\u000a phytoplankton community. The IndianRiverLagoon, which spans 220 km of Florida’s east coast, is a region of particular concern\\u000a because of the rapid rate
Edward J. Phlips; Susan Badylak; Mary C. Christman; Margaret A. Lasi
Water and sediment samples collected during 1977 to 1978 from the IndianRiverlagoon between Vero Beach, IndianRiver County, and Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida were analyzed for PCBs and DDT. Sample locations were chosen on the basis of proximity to major tributaries, sewage outfalls, or municipal area. Concentrations in water samples were below 0.01 ppB sigma DDT
Pagurus maclaughlinae is the most common hermit in the IndianRiverLagoon System. Wide variations in lagoonal salinity make it likely that P. maclaughlinae is euryhaline and that other hermit species in the area are more stenohaline, at least in some stages of their life histories. In a study of salinity tolerance, crabs were held unfed at salinities of 5–50
We examined controls on water levels and salinity in a mangrove on a carbonate barrier island along the IndianRiverLagoon,\\u000a east-central Florida. Piezometers were installed at 19 sites throughout the area. Groundwater was sampled at 17 of these sites\\u000a seasonally for three years. Head measurements were taken at the other two sites at 15-minute intervals for one year. Water
Christina E. Stringer; Mark Cable Rains; Sarah Kruse; Dennis Whigham
Salt marshes of the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida (USA) were once prolific producers of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes lay their eggs\\u000a on the infrequently-flooded high marsh surface when the soil surface is exposed. The eggs hatch when the high marsh is flooded\\u000a by the infrequent high tides or summer rains. To control mosquito production, most of the salt marshes (over 16.200 ha)
R. E. Brockmeyer; J. R. Rey; R. W. Virnstein; R. G. Gilmore; L. Earnest
ABSTRACT Data gathered from 220 stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the IndianRiverLagoon system, Florida, were used to derive a life table. Survivorship curves were fit to the data using Siler’s competing-risk model,and a maximum likelihood approach. Population growth,was estimated to be between,r ¼ 0:0 and 0.046 based on the observed numbers,of stranded dolphins. Variance in survival rates
Recent reclassification of Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima and Pseudo-nitzschia cuspidata prompted a reexamination of the P. pseudodelicatissima designation assigned to recently observed blooms in the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL) in Florida. Light microscopy, SEM and TEM were used to study morphological features of Pseudo-nitzschia from the IRL and compare these features to the new classification scheme. The valve shape, density of fibulae
Seagrass protection and restoration in Florida’s IndianRiverLagoon system (IRLS) is a mutual goal of state and federal programs.\\u000a These programs require, the establishment of management targets indicative of seagrass recovery and health. We used three\\u000a metrics related to seagrass distribution: areal coverage, depth limit, and light requirement. In order to account for the\\u000a IRLS’s spatial heterogeneity and temporal
Joel S. Steward; Robert W. Virnstein; Lori J. Morris; Edgar F. Lowe
Lagoon fishes, in netted holding cages, were placed in an impounded salt marsh and submitted to a gradient of sulfide-rich artesian well water. Near the well head, all specimens of 13 species died within 5-45 min, while all individuals of 5 species survived. More distant from the well, survival time increased sufficiently to rank species in approximate order of sensitivity to sulfide. PMID:1583499
The IndianRiverLagoon (IRL) is a biologically diverse estuary located at the boundary between sub-tropical and warm-temperate marine waters on Florida`s Atlantic coast. Increased residential, agricultural and commercial development along the IRL has drastically changed the nutrient load of freshwater sources emptying into the lagoon, which has in turn impacted the local ecosystem. The degree of development is heterogeneously
Fifteen species of elasmobranchs, eight sharks and seven rays, have been recorded with reasonable certainty from the Indian\\u000a Riverlagoon system on the central east coast of Florida. We collected four shark and six ray species during a three and one-half\\u000a year study of the northern portion of the lagoon system. Five of these appear to be year-round residents, and
Time-series measurements of chloride (Cl2) concentrations in lagoon and pore waters of an estuary on the east coast of Florida (IndianRiverLagoon) demonstrate exchange of lagoon surface water to depths of ,40 cm in the sediment in less than 46 h. The exchange rate may be as fast as 150 cm d21 based on models of the decay in
Jonathan B. Martin; Jaye E. Cable; John Jaeger; Kevin Hartl; Christopher G. Smith
A model of spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance in terms of the inherent optical properties of optically important water quality parameters was calibrated near two seagrass beds in the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida, U.S.A. One of the seagrass sites was near the outflow of a canal discharging highly coloured water, and is regularly inundated by a plume of
The objective of this study was to establish reference baseline data for hemato- logic, biochemical, and cytologic findings in apparently healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida, USA. Sixty-two dolphins were captured, examined, and released during June 2003 and June 2004. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated for each parameter, and values for which
Juli D. Goldstein; Eric Reese; John S. Reif; Stephen D. McCulloch; R. H. Defran
This paper describes the results of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) monitoring effort in the IndianRiverLagoon. The goal of the study was to describe spatial and temporal variability in the distribution, frequency of occurrence, and composition of HABs, along with an examination of potential driving factors, such as hydrologic conditions and nutrient concentrations. Six sampling sites in the
Edward J. Phlips; Susan Badylak; Mary Christman; Jennifer Wolny; Julie Brame; Jay Garland; Lauren Hall; Jane Hart; Jan Landsberg; Margaret Lasi; Jean Lockwood; Richard Paperno; Doug Scheidt; Ariane Staples; Karen Steidinger
Many coastal shark species use shallow estuarine regions as nursery habitat, but there are considerable gaps in our understanding of the seasonal distribution and habitat use patterns of sharks within these systems. We compiled all available sampling data from the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL) along Florida's central Atlantic coast to examine the distribution of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas. The data
Tobey H. Curtis; Douglas H. Adams; George H. Burgess
Recent studies indicate that hydrological processes control many aspects of ecosystem structure and function in mangroves. In this study, we are examining controls on the physical and chemical hydrology and subsequent physical and chemical hydrological controls on species composition, primary productivity, and nutrient cycling in mangroves on a barrier island in the IndianRiverLagoon on the east-central coast of
C. E. Stringer; M. C. Rains; S. Kruse; D. Whigham; J. T. Verhoeven; R. Laanbroek
Porewater (i.e., groundwater) samples were collected from multi-level piezometers across the freshwater–saltwater seepage face within the IndianRiverLagoon subterranean estuary along Florida’s (USA) Atlantic coast for analysis of the rare earth elements (REE). Surface water samples for REE analysis were also collected from the water column of the IndianRiverLagoon as well as two local rivers (Eau Gallie
Karen H. Johannesson; Darren A. Chevis; David J. Burdige; Jaye E. Cable; Jonathan B. Martin; Moutusi Roy
Seagrasses are considered to be the single most important habitat in the IndianRiverLagoon. Since seagrasses are light dependent, they are particularly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of degraded water quality, especially turbidity. Another factor tha...
Photo-identification surveys conducted between 2002 and 2005 were used to determine dolphin home ranges and site fidelity\\u000a within the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL), Florida. The IRL was divided into six segments based on hydrodynamics and geographic\\u000a features for purposes of characterization. Among the 615 dolphins with identifiable dorsal fins, 339 had ?6 sightings and\\u000a were used in segment and linear
Marilyn Mazzoil; John S. Reif; Marsh Youngbluth; M. Elizabeth Murdoch; Sarah E. Bechdel; Elisabeth Howells; Stephen D. McCulloch; Larry J. Hansen; Gregory D. Bossart
Lobomycosis (lacaziosis) is a chronic fungal disease of the skin that affects only dolphins and humans. Previous studies have\\u000a shown a high prevalence of lobomycosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida (IRL). We studied the occurrence and distribution of lobomycosis in the IRL using\\u000a photo-identification survey data collected between 1996 and 2006. Our objectives were
M. Elizabeth Murdoch; John S. Reif; Marilyn Mazzoil; Stephen D. McCulloch; Patricia A. Fair; Gregory D. Bossart
This 33 month study quantified red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.) litter fall response to a selective pruning event using fringing forests located along the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida, U.S.A. Selective pruning consisted of the removal of as many as 50% of the lateral branches originating between 2.1m (7ft) and 4.5m (15ft) above the forest floor while maintaining at least 50%
Randall W. Parkinson; Monica Perez-Bedmar; Jenna A. Santangelo
Concentrations of mercury (Hg) in fish were compared between two Florida estuaries, the IndianRiverLagoon and Florida Bay.\\u000a The objective was to determine if differences in Hg concentration exist and to attempt to relate those differences to sources\\u000a of Hg. Five hundred and thirteen estuarine fish were collected and analyzed for Hg concentration. Fish species collected were\\u000a black drum,
Long-term nutrient concentration trends and load variations at six monitoring stations on four canals in the Southern Indian\\u000a RiverLagoon (Florida, USA) were evaluated using the Estimate Trend (Estrend) and Load Estimator (Loadest) programs. The results\\u000a of trend analysis on nutrient concentrations suggested that the nutrient trend patterns were spatially variable. Increasing\\u000a trends were most often observed in orthophosphate and\\/or
Yun Qian; Kati W. Migliaccio; Yongshan Wan; Yuncong Li
Most of the wetlands located along the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL) ineast-central Florida (USA) have been impounded since the 1950's and1960's to reduce mosquito reproduction. Impounded marsh (i.e.,impoundment) dikes physically separate the wetlands from the estuary toallow artificial flooding of the impoundments during the mosquito breedingperiod (May to October). Presently, Rotational ImpoundmentManagement (RIM) is the preferred impoundment management techniquein the
Gregg R. Poulakis; Jonathan M. Shenker; D. Scott Taylor
During the summer of 2004, four hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne) affected Florida between August 13 and September\\u000a 27. Two storms (Frances: category 2 and Jeanne: category 3) made landfall in the southern portion of the IndianRiverLagoon\\u000a (IRL) on the east-central coast of Florida. The presence of Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's long-term\\u000a fisheries monitoring program
R. Paperno; D. M. Tremain; D. H. Adams; A. P. Sebastian; J. T. Sauer; J. Dutka-Gianelli
Between August 14 and September 26, 2004, four tropical weather systems (Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne) affected the\\u000a central IndianRiverLagoon (IRL). The central IRL received a prodigious amount of rainfall for the 2 mo, between 72 and 83\\u000a cm, which is a once-in-50-yr rainfall event. High stream discharges were generated that, combined with wind-suspended sediments,\\u000a significantly reduced salinities
Joel S. Steward; Robert W. Virnstein; Margaret A. Lasi; Lori J. Morris; Janice D. Miller; Lauren M. Hall; Wendy A. Tweedale
Data gathered from 220 stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the IndianRiverLagoon system, Florida, were used to derive a life table. Survivorship curves were fit to the data using Siler's competing-risk model and a maximum likelihood approach. Population growth was estimated to be between r ¼ 0:0 and 0.046 based on the observed numbers of stranded dolphins. Variance
A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport model has been applied to the Florida's IndianRiverLagoon (IRL) to develop a tool for managing salinity regime. The 3D model, known as the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code, includes capabilities consistent with the complex estuarine environment. Thus, stratified residual flows and density stratification common estuaries can be simulated. An air-sea interaction sub-model also allows
Water and sediment samples collected during 1977-78 from the IndianRiverlagoon between Vero Beach, IndianRiver County, and Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida were analyzed for PCBs and DDT. Sample locations were chosen on the basis of proximity to major tributaries, sewage outfalls, or municipal area. Concentrations in water samples were below 0.01 ppb sigma DDT and 0.5 ppb PCBs. Small amounts of PCBs and DDT were found in most sediment samples, ranging from less than 1.0 ppb to 0.63 ppm Aroclor 1254 and from less than 0.1 ppb to 0.081 ppm sigma DDT. Samples from the Taylor Creek tributary and from the Fort Pierce power plant and municipal docking area contained higher PCB concentrations then did samples from other locations. DDT and PCB levels in most samples indicate little contamination by these compounds of the IndianRiver Waterway between Vero Beach and Fort Pierce. PMID:6770334
There is a growing evidence that the ecological and biological integrity of the lagoon has declined during the last 50 years, probably due to the decline in water quality. Establishment of a watershed scale seagrass-based nutrient load assessment is the major aim of water quality management in the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL). Best estimate loadings incorporate wet and dry deposition, surface water, groundwater, sediment nutrient flux, and point source effluent discharge data. On the average, the IRL is receiving annual external loadings of 832, 645 and 94,476kg of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), respectively, from stormwater discharges and agricultural runoff. The average internal cycling of TN and TP from sediment deposits in the IRL was about 42,640kg TN and 1050kg TPyr(-1). Indirect evidence suggests that atmospheric deposition has played a role in the ongoing nutrient enrichment in the IRL. The estimated total atmospheric deposition of TN and TP was about 32,940 and 824kgyr(-1), while groundwater contribution was about 84,920 and 24,275kgyr(-1), respectively, to the surface waters of the IRL. The estimated annual contribution of point effluent discharge was about 60,408kg TN and 7248kg TP. In total, the IRL basin is receiving an annual loading of about 1,053,553kg TN and 127,873kg TP. With these results, it is clear that the current rate of nutrient loadings is causing a shift in the primary producers of the IRL from macrophyte to phytoplankton- or algal-based system. The goal is to reverse that shift, to attain and maintain a macrophyte-based estuarine system in the IRL. PMID:12710924
Magnitudes of terrestrial (fresh) and marine (saline) sources of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) are estimated for a transect across IndianRiverLagoon, Florida. Two independent techniques (seepage meters and pore water Cl- concentrations) show terrestrial SGD decreases linearly to around 22 m offshore, and these techniques, together with a model based on the width of the outflow face, indicate a cumulative discharge of between 0.02 and 0.9 m3/d per meter of shoreline. Seepage meters and models of the deficiencies in 222Rn activity in shallow sediments indicate marine SGD discharges of roughly 117 m3/d per meter of shoreline across the entire 1800-m-wide transect. Two surface streams nearest the transect have an average discharge of about 28 m3/d per meter of shoreline. Marine SGD is thus 4 times greater then surface water discharge and more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than terrestrial SGD. The magnitude of the terrestrial SGD is limited by the amount of regional precipitation, evaporation, recharge, and groundwater usage, while marine SGD is limited only by processes circulating marine water into and out of the sediments. The large magnitude of marine SGD means that it could be important for estuarine cycling of reactive components such as nutrients and metals with only slight modification from estuarine water compositions. The small magnitude of terrestrial SGD means that large differences from estuarine water composition would be required to affect chemical cycling.
Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Smith, Christopher; Roy, Moutusi; Cherrier, Jennifer
Photo-identification surveys conducted between 2002 and 2005 were used to determine dolphin home ranges and site fidelity within the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL), Florida. The IRL was divided into six segments based on hydrodynamics and geographic features for purposes of characterization. Among the 615 dolphins with identifiable dorsal fins, 339 had > or =6 sightings and were used in segment and linear range analyses. The majority (98%) of dolphins were seen in < or =3 consecutive segments (331/339); of these, 44% (144/331) occurred in two segments, and 33% (109/331) in one segment. No dolphins were observed in all six segments. The largest number of dolphins was sighted in segment 1C (North IndianRiver). However, the highest density of dolphins was found in segment 2 (North-Central IndianRiver). Re-sighting rates for dolphins with > or =6 sightings ranged from 2.8 to 8.7 times observed. The mean linear home range varied from 22 to 54 km. Distributional analyses indicated that at least three different dolphin communities exist within the IRL: Mosquito Lagoon, and the North and South IndianRiver. No statistically significant correlations were found between the total number or density per km(2 )of dolphins and surface water area, salinity, or contaminant loads within segments of the lagoon. These results suggest that dolphins do not selectively avoid areas with relatively unfavorable water quality. IRL dolphins should be studied on smaller spatial scales than currently practiced, and potential anthropogenic impacts should be evaluated based on geographic partitioning. PMID:18841416
Mazzoil, Marilyn; Reif, John S; Youngbluth, Marsh; Murdoch, M Elizabeth; Bechdel, Sarah E; Howells, Elisabeth; McCulloch, Stephen D; Hansen, Larry J; Bossart, Gregory D
/ The IndianRiverLagoon (IRL) system that extends from Ponce DeLeon Inlet to Jupiter Inlet is comprised of three interconnected estuarine lagoons: the Mosquito Lagoon (ML), the Banana RiverLagoon (BRL), and the IndianRiverLagoon (subdivided into North IndianRiverLagoon, NIRL and the South IndianRiverLagoon, SIRL). The declines in both the areal coverage and species diversity of seagrass communities within the IRL system are believed to be due in part to continued degradation of water quality. Large inflows of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) -laden storm-water from urban areas and agricultural land have been correlated with higher chlorophyll a production in the central, south central, and the south segments of the lagoon. In a system as large and complex as the lagoon, N and P limitations are potentially subject to significant spatial and temporal variability. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TN) was higher in the north (1.25 mg/liter) and lower in the south (0.89 mg/liter). The reverse pattern was observed for total P (TP), i.e., lowest in the north (0.03 mg/liter) and highest at the south (0.14 mg/liter) ends of the IRL. This increased P concentration in the SIRL appears to have a significantly large effect on chlorophyll a production compared with the other segments, as indicated by stepwise regression statistics. This relationship can be expressed as follows: South IRL [chlorophyll a] = -8.52 + 162.41 [orthophosphate] + 7.86 [total nitrogen] + 0.38 [turbidity]; R(2) = 0.98**. PMID:10594193
Porewater (i.e., groundwater) samples were collected from multi-level piezometers across the freshwater-saltwater seepage face within the IndianRiverLagoon subterranean estuary along Florida's (USA) Atlantic coast for analysis of the rare earth elements (REE). Surface water samples for REE analysis were also collected from the water column of the IndianRiverLagoon as well as two local rivers (Eau Gallie River, Crane Creek) that flow into the lagoon within the study area. Concentrations of REEs in porewaters from the subterranean estuary are 10-100 times higher than typical seawater values (e.g., Nd ranges from 217 to 2409 pmol kg -1), with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) at the freshwater-saltwater seepage face exhibiting the highest REE concentrations. The elevated REE concentrations for SGD at the seepage face are too high to be the result of simple, binary mixing between a seawater end-member and local terrestrial SGD. Instead, the high REE concentrations indicate that geochemical reactions occurring within the subterranean estuary contribute substantially to the REE cycle. A simple mass balance model is used to investigate the cycling of REEs in the IndianRiverLagoon and its underlying subterranean estuary. Mass balance modeling reveals that the IndianRiverLagoon is approximately at steady-state with respect to the REE fluxes into and out of the lagoon. However, the subterranean estuary is not at steady-state with respect to the REE fluxes. Specifically, the model suggests that the SGD Nd flux, for example, exported from the subterranean estuary to the overlying lagoon waters exceeds the combined input to the subterranean estuary from terrestrial SGD and recirculating marine SGD by, on average, ˜100 mmol day -1. The mass balance model also reveals that the subterranean estuary is a net source of light REEs (LREE) and middle REEs (MREE) to the overlying lagoon waters, but acts as a sink for the heavy REEs (HREE). Geochemical modeling and statistical analysis further suggests that this fractionation occurs, in part, due to the coupling between REE cycling and iron redox cycling within the IndianRiverLagoon subterranean estuary. The net SGD flux of Nd to the IndianRiverLagoon is ˜7-fold larger than the local effective river flux to these coastal waters. This previously unrecognized source of Nd to the coastal ocean could conceivably be important to the global oceanic Nd budget, and help to resolve the oceanic "Nd paradox" by accounting for a substantial fraction of the hypothesized missing Nd flux to the ocean.
Johannesson, Karen H.; Chevis, Darren A.; Burdige, David J.; Cable, Jaye E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Roy, Moutusi
Six synoptic sampling events were conducted in the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL) between April and June, 1997 to collect TSS (total suspended solids), color (dissolved organic matter), chl a (chlorophyll a), and light (photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) data. These data were used to develop our understanding of light attenuation dynamics in the IRL and for verification of a numerical light model. Data from our study show that tripton (non-algal particulate matter calculated from TSS and chl a corrected for pheophytin) has a dominant effect on light attenuation in the IRL. For each synoptic event, there exists a positive correlation between the event-averaged downwelling light attenuation coefficient, Kd(PAR), and event-averaged tripton concentration. A negative correlation is found between the event-averaged Kd(PAR) and the event-averaged color, while a positive correlation is found between event-averaged Kd(PAR) and event-averaged chl a concentration. The correlation between event-averaged tripton and event-averaged Kd(PAR) is the only one of the three to show significance at the 0.05 level. Relative contributions of color, chl a, and tripton to light attenuation were found to be 5-25%, 10-26%, and 59-78% of Kd(PAR), respectively. These values depend on the method for partitioning Kd(PAR) and the method for obtaining average value of relative partitioned Kd(PAR) from all the data points. These values show that tripton has a more dominant influence on light attenuation in the IRL than in Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, but comparable to that in Florida Bay. The effect of suspended chlorophyll on light attenuation in the IRL is less than that in Tampa Bay, comparable to Charlotte Harbor, but more than that in Florida Bay. A numerical process-based light attenuation model has been developed to calculate Kd(PAR) based on measured or simulated values of TSS, color, and chl a. The model was found to give reasonable estimates of Kd(PAR) throughout the IRL.
Water and sediment samples collected during 1977 to 1978 from the IndianRiverlagoon between Vero Beach, IndianRiver County, and Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida were analyzed for PCBs and DDT. Sample locations were chosen on the basis of proximity to major tributaries, sewage outfalls, or municipal area. Concentrations in water samples were below 0.01 ppB sigma DDT and 0.5 ppB PCBs. Small amounts of PCBs and DDT were found in most sediment samples, ranging from less than 1.0 ppB to 0.63 ppM Aroclor 1254 and from less than 0.1 ppB to 0.081 ppM sigma DDT. Samples from the Taylor Creek tributary and from the Fort Pierce power plant and municipal docking area contained higher PCB concentrations than did samples from other locations. DDT and PCB levels in most samples indicate little contamination by these compounds of the IndianRiver Waterway between Vero Beach and Fort Pierce.
Three areas of the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida (USA) were surveyed to show seasonal changes in the distribution and biomass of macroalgae and seagrass. Acoustic seafloor discrimination based on first and second echo returns of a 50 kHz and 200 kHz signal, and two different survey systems (QTCView and ECHOplus) were used. System verification in both the field and a
Bernhard M. Riegl; Ryan P. Moyer; Lori J. Morris; Robert W. Virnstein; Samuel J. Purkis
The IndianRiverLagoon (IRL) is a biologically diverse estuary located at the boundary between sub-tropical and warm-temperate marine waters on Florida`s Atlantic coast. Increased residential, agricultural and commercial development along the IRL has drastically changed the nutrient load of freshwater sources emptying into the lagoon, which has in turn impacted the local ecosystem. The degree of development is heterogeneously distributed along the length of the IRL, creating distinct zones of high and low nutrient loading. We examined the effect of these spatially distinct changes in nutrient content on the IRL ecosystem by collecting specimens of seagrass and marine algae from several sites spanning a north-south transect within the IRL and analyzing the carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotope composition of these marine macrophytes. Aquatic plant tissue stable isotope values are strongly influenced by the stable isotope composition of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nitrogen (DIN) pools, which in turn show distinct differences between anthropogenic and natural sources. Thus, the ?13C and ?15N values of marine macrophytes can aid in monitoring the human impact on environmental quality by serving as proxies for the relative contribution and influence of anthropogenic, terrestrial and marine nutrients within the IRL. Large spatial and seasonal differences in stable isotope values were detected among both plant types. A north-south gradient in carbon and nitrogen isotope values was found in the IRL with ?13C values lowest and ?15N values highest towards the northern end of the lagoon. Comparison of this gradient with water quality data collected by the IRL monitoring program suggests that these isotope values are strongly correlated with salinity. To the north of the IRL, freshwater influx from natural rivers and man-made canals lower salinity levels and introduce large amounts of DIC and DIN from anthropogenic sources. In contrast, the southern stretch of the lagoon is more strongly impacted by marine influx via several inlets into the lagoon. The magnitude of the difference in vegetation isotope values from different ends of the lagoon was also found to fluctuate seasonally and was correlated with the timing of freshwater dumping from canals into the IRL during the fall and winter seasons.
Pagurus maclaughlinae is the most common hermit in the IndianRiverLagoon System. Wide variations in lagoonal salinity make it likely that P. maclaughlinae is euryhaline and that other hermit species in the area are more stenohaline, at least in some stages of their life histories. In a study of salinity tolerance, crabs were held unfed at salinities of 5-50 (25 control) for up to 30 days. Based on survivorship curves, P. maclaughlinae tolerated acute exposure to salinities of 10-45 for up to 18 days, and survivorship up to 30 days at 20-45 equaled or exceeded survivorship of the control. In a study of acclimation, the osmotic pressure of hemolymph was measured after crabs were held in the laboratory for 12, 48, and 96 h acutely exposed to salinities of 10-45. Paired t-tests revealed that the crabs weakly hyperregulated their hemolymph at 45-154 mOsmol above the external medium at all salinities and sampling times, and the osmotic differential of their hemolymph was fully acclimated by 96 h. In a third study, acclimatization of hemolymph was studied on crabs at four field sites that differed in their recent salinity histories. Field-collected crabs weakly regulated their hemolymph 72-84 mOsmol above the external medium at all sites sampled. Performance did not differ by site. The range of salinity tolerance and acclimation of hemolymph of P. maclaughlinae partly explain their wide distribution, and the consistent osmotic differential of its hemolymph indicates that the osmoregulatory ability of this small-bodied species is conserved in populations throughout the lagoon. Although some other larger-bodied hermit species in the region are euryhaline as adults, their tendency to hyperregulate strongly at low salinities possibly adds an energetic burden that, along with their less euryhaline long-lived larvae, might exclude them from the lagoon. Salinity tolerance of larval P. maclaughlinae has yet to be studied.
Lobomycosis (lacaziosis) is a chronic fungal disease of the skin that affects only dolphins and humans. Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of lobomycosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida (IRL). We studied the occurrence and distribution of lobomycosis in the IRL using photo-identification survey data collected between 1996 and 2006. Our objectives were to (1) determine the sensitivity and specificity of photo-identification for diagnosis of lobomycosis in free-ranging dolphins; (2) determine the spatial distribution of lobomycosis in the IRL; and (3) assess temporal patterns of occurrence. Photographs from 704 distinctly marked dolphins were reviewed for skin lesions compatible with lobomycosis. The presumptive diagnosis was validated by comparing the results of photographic analysis with physical examination and histologic examination of lesion biopsies in 102 dolphins captured and released during a health assessment and 3 stranded dolphins. Twelve of 16 confirmed cases were identified previously by photography, a sensitivity of 75%. Among 89 dolphins without disease, all 89 were considered negative, a specificity of 100%. The prevalence of lobomycosis estimated from photographic data was 6.8% (48/704). Spatial distribution was determined by dividing the IRL into six segments based on hydrodynamics and geographic features. The prevalence ranged from <1% in the Mosquito Lagoon to 16.9% in the south IndianRiver. The incidence of the disease did not increase during the study period, indicating that the disease is endemic, rather than emerging. In summary, photo-identification is a useful tool to monitor the course of individual and population health for this enigmatic disease. PMID:18712442
Murdoch, M Elizabeth; Reif, John S; Mazzoil, Marilyn; McCulloch, Stephen D; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D
Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from estuarine waters of IndianRiverLagoon, FL (IRL) and Charleston, SC (CHS) were cultured to screen for microorganism\\u000a colonization and to assess antibiotic sensitivity. Swabs (n = 909) were collected from the blowhole, gastric fluid, and feces\\u000a of 171 individual dolphins The most frequently cultured organisms were Plesiomonas shigelloides (n = 161), Aeromonas hydrophila (n = 144), Escherichia coli (n = 85), and
Adam M. Schaefer; Juli D. Goldstein; John S. Reif; Patricia A. Fair; Gregory D. Bossart
Yearly above-ground production estimates in natural, ditched, and impounded high salt marshes along the IndianRiverLagoon\\u000a in east central Florida ranged from 834.9 g\\/m2 in the impounded marsh to 2.316.5 g\\/m2 in the natural one. Mosquito control activities in the impounded marsh prior to the start of this study resulted in larger\\u000a stocks of dead and litter biomass there
Jorge R. Rey; John Shaffer; Roy Crossman; Derek Tremain
The portunid crab Charybdis hellerii (Milne Edwards, 1867), a species of Indo-Pacilic origin, is reported from the IndianRiverlagoon system of Florida. Although this species was reported in 1987-1988 from Cuba, Co- lombia, and Venezuela, this is the fii^t subsequent record in the western At- lantic, and the first in the continental United States. The specimens found in the
As human development in coastal areas increases, the role of anthropogenically-created habitats in the life history of marine\\u000a organisms is becoming increasingly important. We examined the diet of age-0 tarpon, Megalops atlanticus, in and around man-made mosquito control impoundments along the IndianRiverLagoon in east-central Florida, with a particular\\u000a focus on identifying dietary patterns associated with tarpon size and
Zachary R. Jud; Craig A. Layman; Jonathan M. Shenker
Vallentinia gabriellae (Hydrozoa) was collected from shallow water in a mangrove wetland along the eastern shore of the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida.\\u000a Adult (gravid) medusae were collected in September 1990 and October 1990, non-gravid medusa in May 1991, and juvenile and\\u000a gravid medusae in July 1991. All were observed or collected in the perimeter ditch of a mosquito impoundment (Impoundment
The ecological role and the association of Hippolyte zostericola (Smith, 1873) (Decapoda: Natantia) with different seagrass species in the IndianRiverLagoon (Florida, USA) were investigated\\u000a through field sampling and the analysis of diet, size–frequency distributions and laboratory experiments. Gut contents suggested\\u000a that H. zostericola is a mesograzer which may be important in the transfer of primary production to higher
Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48?hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48?hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings.
Schaefer, Adam M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A.; Reif, John S.
Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48 hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48 hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings. PMID:21977048
Schaefer, Adam M; Bossart, Gregory D; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S
The objective of this study was to establish reference baseline data for hematologic, biochemical, and cytologic findings in apparently healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida, USA. Sixty-two dolphins were captured, examined, and released during June 2003 and June 2004. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated for each parameter, and values for which published data were available, were close to or within the ranges previously reported for free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. No pathologic abnormalities were found in fecal and blowhole cytologic specimens. However, 24% (7/29) of the dolphins examined in 2003 had evidence of gastritis, which was graded as severe in 14% (4/29) of the cases. In 2004, only 4% (1/24) of dolphins sampled had evidence of mild or moderate gastritis; no severe inflammation was present. Dolphins with evidence of gastritis were 8 yr of age or older and predominantly male. Several statistically significant differences were found between males and females, between pregnant and nonpregnant animals, and between juveniles (<6 yr) and adults (> or =6 yr). However, the values remained within the established ranges for this species, and the differences were not likely to be of clinical significance. PMID:16870874
Goldstein, Juli D; Reese, Eric; Reif, John S; Varela, René A; McCulloch, Stephen D; Defran, R H; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D; Hansen, Larry
A model of spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance in terms of the inherent optical properties of optically important water quality parameters was calibrated near two seagrass beds in the IndianRiverLagoon, Florida, U.S.A. One of the seagrass sites was near the outflow of a canal discharging highly coloured water, and is regularly inundated by a plume of coloured water. Attenuation coefficients for photosynthetically active radiation predicted by the model agreed with observations within about 15 %. Observed ecological compensation depth for the seagrass bed more distant from the colour source agreed well with the central tendency of the 20 % penetration depth predicted by the optical model using the observed distributions of water quality parameters. Depth distributions of the seagrass bed near the coloured water source were about 0 ·5 m shallower, a result predicted by the optical model assuming the seagrass bed is inundated by the coloured water plume 50 -70 % of the time. At depths less than their ecological compensation depths, the two seagrass beds had similar species composition, shoot densities and biomass characteristics. Application of the model to hypothetical scenarios to reduce the impact of coloured water on the depth distribution of seagrasses near the discharge site indicated that any improvement in water quality would improve conditions for seagrass growth. The results indicate the utility of optical modelling in conjunction with limited field surveys of seagrasses for setting water quality objectives.
The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of IndianRiver. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared. PMID:12647149
Feller, Ilka C; Whigham, Dennis F; McKee, Karen L; Lovelock, Catherine E
Recent studies indicate that hydrological processes control many aspects of ecosystem structure and function in mangroves. In this study, we are examining controls on the physical and chemical hydrology and subsequent physical and chemical hydrological controls on species composition, primary productivity, and nutrient cycling in mangroves on a barrier island in the IndianRiverLagoon on the east-central coast of Florida. Salinities vary spatially, with surface-water and groundwater salinities ranging from ~10 in the upland, to ~30 in the regularly-flushed mangroves, to ~75 in the irregularly-flushed mangroves. However, salinities do not vary temporally, with no significant differences in salinities at given locations between the wet and dry seasons. Cation and anion concentrations and stable isotope ratios indicate that surface-water and groundwater salinities are largely controlled by evaporative enrichment. Resistivity and electromagnetic geophysical surveys further show that a freshwater lens is restricted to the upland and that great-than- seawater salinities extend to depths of greater than 20 m below the mangrove. These results indicate that precipitation and lagoon water mix and evapoconcentrate in the mangrove, and that this evapoconcentrated water sinks to form the thick layer of greater-than-seawater-salinity water below the mangrove. Spatial variations in species composition correlate with spatial variations in salinities, with maritime hammock, red mangrove, dense black mangrove, sparse black mangrove, and salt pan habitats being arranged on a gradient of increasing salinities. Spatial variations in primary productivity and nutrient cycling also correlate with spatial variations in salinities, though the relationships are in some cases less clear. For example, denitrification rates are lowest in the areas with salinities of approximately 30 and 75, corresponding with red mangrove and salt pan habitats, respectively, and are highest in areas with salinities of approximately 10, 45, and 60, corresponding to maritime hammock, dense black mangrove, and sparse black mangrove habitats, respectively. The spatial variations in nutrient cycling may be related to differences in microbial species composition, as some microbial species cluster in areas with specific salinities and associated habitats.
Stringer, C. E.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.; Whigham, D.; Verhoeven, J. T.; Laanbroek, R.
Nearly all saltmarshes in east-central, Florida were impounded for mosquito control during the 1960s. The majority of these marshes have since been reconnected to the estuary by culverts, providing an opportunity to effectively measure exchange of aquatic organisms. A multi-gear approach was used monthly to simultaneously estimate fish standing stock (cast net), fish exchange with the estuary (culvert traps), and piscivore abundance (gill nets and bird counts) to document patterns of fish use in a reconnected saltmarsh impoundment. Changes in saltmarsh fish abundance, and exchange of fish with the estuary reflected the seasonal pattern of marsh flooding in the northern IndianRiverLagoon system. During a 6-month period of marsh flooding, resident fish had continuous access to the marsh surface. Large piscivorous fish regularly entered the impoundment via creeks and ditches to prey upon small resident fish, and piscivorous birds aggregated following major fish movements to the marsh surface or to deep habitats. As water levels receded in winter, saltmarsh fish concentrated into deep habitats and emigration to the estuary ensued (200% greater biomass left the impoundment than entered). Fish abundance and community structure along the estuary shoreline (although fringed with marsh vegetation) were not analogous to marsh creeks and ditches. Perimeter ditches provided deep-water habitat for large estuarine predators, and shallow creeks served as an alternative habitat for resident fish when the marsh surface was dry. Use of the impoundment as nursery by transients was limited to Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, but large juvenile and adult piscivorous fish used the impoundment for feeding. In conclusion, the saltmarsh impoundment was a feeding site for piscivorous fish and birds, and functioned as a net exporter of forage fish to adjacent estuarine waters. ?? Springer 2006.
Appropriate assessment of long-term water quality monitoring data is essential to evaluation of water quality and this often requires use of multivariate techniques. Our objective was to evaluate water quality in the south IndianRiverLagoon (IRL), Florida using several multivariate techniques and a comprehensive water quality index (WQI). Clustering was used to cluster the six monitoring stations into three groups, with stations on the same or characteristic-similar canals being in the same group. The first five factors from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) explain around 70% of the total variance and were used to interpret water quality characterized by original constituents for the purpose of data reduction. Nutrient species (phosphorus and nitrogen) were major variables involved in the construction of the principal components (PCs) and factors. Seasonal and spatial differences were observed in compositional patterns of factors and principal water quality constituents. Positive or negative trends were detected for different factor at different monitoring groups identified by clustering during different seasons. The composite WQI was developed based on principal water quality constituents greatly contributing to the construction of factors which were derived from EFA. The WQI showed significant difference among the three clustering groups with the greatest WQI median in group 1 stations (C23S48, C23S97, and C24S49). Medians of WQI were significantly greater in the wet than in the dry season, which implied more natural nutrient water status during the dry than the wet season probably due to the different contribution of nonpoint sources between two seasons.
Qian, Yun; Migliaccio, Kati White; Wan, Yongshan; Li, Yuncong
Examination of the gill lamellae of three sheepshead Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum) from the IndianRiverLagoon in Florida revealed six species of Monogenoidea: Microcotyle archosargi MacCallum, 1913 (Microcotylidae); Neobenedenia sp. (Capsalidae); and four new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Dactylogyridae). The prevalence of all helminths was 100%, except for Neobenedenia sp., which was represented by a single immature
In response to multiple, unexpected cases of saxitoxin poisoning that started in January 2002, southern puffers Sphoeroides nephelus, checkered puffers S. testudineus, and bandtail puffers S. spengleri were collected from April to August 2002 from several locations in the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL), Florida. Fish were analyzed for saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) content in muscle, liver, and gonad tissues
Jonathan R. Deeds; Kevin D. White; Stacey M. Etheridge; Jan H. Landsberg
Fresh groundwater discharge to estuaries creates a subsurface zone where oxygenated surface water mixes with reduced pore water, forming redox boundaries in sediment of the outflow face (the subterranean estuary). This mixing has been widely cited to satisfy discrepancies of mass balance calculations for submarine groundwater discharge of terrestrially derived water (terrestrial SGD). Redox boundaries in the subsurface are clearly shown in distributions Fe and Mn in pore waters collected from IndianRiverLagoon, Florida. Pore waters were collected from 8 sites in a 30 m transect offshore and at a single site 250 m offshore. Terrestrial SGD decreases offshore to the seaward end of the outflow face at 22.5 m. Both Fe and Mn show maxima in their depth profiles. Manganese maxima are restricted to the upper 40 cmbsf (centimeter below the surface) and always occur above the Fe maxima, which increase in depth offshore. Maximum Fe and Mn concentrations (1.05 and 0.28 ?M, respectively) at the shoreline are of the same order of magnitude as maximum Fe and Mn concentrations (0.48 ?M and 0.56 ?M, respectively), at 250 m offshore. Maximum Fe and Mn concentrations increase to 261 ?M, and 2.9 ?M respectively, 22.5 and 30m offshore, a few meters seaward of the outflow face. Between 5 and 20 m offshore, the maximum Fe concentrations increase from 3.7 to 22.8 ?M, but maximum Mn concentrations show little variability, averaging around 1.05 ?M ± 20%. Sediments collected in three vibracores at 0, 20, and 30 m offshore are orange-yellow at the shoreline. A black layer, which occurs above these orange-yellow sediments, increases in thickness from 5 cm to 60 cm from the shoreline to 30 m offshore. The variation in color corresponds to changes in solute concentrations: S2- maxima occur within the black layer, Fe maxima occur in the orange-yellow layer, and Mn maxima mostly occur in the black layer. Pore water Fe and S2- are inversely correlated and no correlation exists between Mn and S2-. These distributions of solutes suggest the source of Fe and Mn are oxyhydroxides coating the orange-yellow sediments. Dissolved Fe accumulates in absence of S2-, and the depths of the Fe maxima increase as S2- concentrations increase offshore. The low concentrations of Fe and Mn within the outflow face may reflect discharge of water from the outflow face, while the elevated concentrations seaward of the outflow face reflects a zone of no flow. Farther offshore, Fe concentrations are low because of elevated S2- production there. The distributions of these redox sensitive elements suggest there is little landward flow of marine water that mixes with the terrestrial source of SGD.
Roy, M.; Martin, J.; Cable, J.; Smith, C.; Cherrier, J.; Dorsett, A.
Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from estuarine waters of IndianRiverLagoon, FL (IRL) and Charleston, SC (CHS) were cultured to screen for microorganism colonization and to assess antibiotic sensitivity. Swabs (n = 909) were collected from the blowhole, gastric fluid, and feces of 171 individual dolphins The most frequently cultured organisms were Plesiomonas shigelloides (n = 161), Aeromonas hydrophila (n = 144), Escherichia coli (n = 85), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 82). In descending frequency, organisms demonstrated resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, and cephalothin. Human and animal pathogens resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine were cultured. Escherichia coli (E. coli) more often was resistant in IRL dolphins. Three cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were found at CHS. Emergence of antibiotic resistance is not confined to humans. Bottlenose dolphins may serve as sentinels for transfer of resistance from humans and animals or indicate that antibiotics are reaching the marine environment and causing resistance to emerge through selective pressure and genetic adaptation. PMID:19415386
Schaefer, Adam M; Goldstein, Juli D; Reif, John S; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D
Examination of the gill lamellae of three sheepshead Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum) from the IndianRiverLagoon in Florida revealed six species of Monogenoidea: Microcotyle archosargi MacCallum, 1913 (Microcotylidae); Neobenedenia sp. (Capsalidae); and four new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Dactylogyridae). The prevalence of all helminths was 100%, except for Neobenedenia sp., which was represented by a single immature specimen. The four new species, Euryhaliotrema carbuncularium n. sp., E. dunlapae n. sp., E. amydrum n. sp. and E. spirulum n. sp., are described and with E. carbunculus (Hargis, 1955) Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 apparently constitute a monophyletic clade of Euryhaliotrema spp. that parasitise sparid hosts in the western hemisphere. The IndianRiverLagoon in Florida represents a new locality record for M. archosargi, and the sheepshead is apparently a new host record for a member (Neobenedenia sp.) of the Capsalidae. PMID:21161491
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical and virtual field trips on students' achievement in estuarine ecology and their attitudes toward science. The study also assessed the effect of students' learning styles, the interaction between group membership and learning styles, and the effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy. Working with a convenient sample of 67 freshmen and sophomore non-science majors, students were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (physical, n = 32 and virtual, n = 35). Prior to treatment, students' learning styles were determined, students were pre-assessed on the two targeted measures, and all students attended four consecutive, in-class, 75-minute lectures on estuarine ecology and the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL). Pre-assessed data indicated no significant differences between the groups on the two dependent measures. On the weekend following the lecture series, the physical field trip group engaged in a set of predetermined activities at the IRL for 2 hours in the morning. Later that afternoon, the virtual field trip group participated in a 2-hour virtual trip to the IRL that exactly matched the physical field trip activities. This virtual trip incorporated the CD-ROM The Living Lagoon: An Electronic Field Trip. Following each trip, students were post-assessed using the same pre-assessment instruments. MANCOVA results indicated no significant differences on all research factors (i.e., group membership, learning style, and group-learning style interaction). Data analysis also revealed that there was no significant effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's taxonomy. These findings imply that educators can integrate virtual field trips that are structured in the same manner as their corresponding physical field trips without significantly impacting student achievement or attitudes.
Groundwater highly contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) from a leaky storage tank was detected in Vero Beach, Florida in 1978. Aware of this problem, the local and state authorities gave permission to pump out the contaminated water as a means of reducing concentrations in the aquifer. The water was air sprayed to strip the organic compounds and subsequently discharged and mixed by means of a hydraulic pump in the drainage canal. The average discharge rate of contaminated water into the canal was approximately 0.2 million gallons per day. This project was initiated to determine the spatial distribution of pollutants in the canal and river as well as rainfall and canal flow rate effects on water, sediment, and biological organisms. Prior to flushing the well, a baseline survey of trichloroethylene and other related compounds in the canal and river was performed.
In the subterranean estuary, flow paths for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) depend on two sources of water - freshwater and recirculated seawater. The lengths of freshwater flow paths increase as discharge points move offshore across the outflow face. Recirculated seawater flow paths can have different lengths depending on mechanisms driving the flow, with the longest flow paths resulting from diffusive entrainment of saltwater at the freshwater - saltwater boundary. As a consequence, pore water at the freshwater-saltwater boundary should be more reduced than pore water close to the sediment-water interface. In the subterranean estuary of IndianRiverLagoon, Florida, porewater collected from a 30 m long shore perpendicular transect and at 250 m offshore have concentrations of Fe and Mn that trace the redox conditions. Porewater Cl concentrations, seepage meter results and 222Rn modeling indicate the outflow face extends 25 m offshore. Dissolved Fe and Mn concentrations are low at the shoreline (1.05 and 0.28 µM, respectively) and at 250 m offshore (0.48 µM and 0.56 µM, respectively) but their concentrations are orders of magnitude greater at the distal end of the seepage face at 22.5 m (261 and 2.9 µM, respectively). Cores from 0, 10, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 30, and 250 m offshore have sediment that varies from orange-yellow to black. The black sediment occurs at the top of the core and generally thickens from a feather edge about 5 cm thick at the shoreline to about 60 cm thick 30 m from shore. The dissolved Fe concentrations are greatest in the orange sediments but the dissolved sulfide concentrations are greatest in the black sediments. Dissolved Mn maxima occur at shallower depths than the Fe maxima. The distributions of Fe, Mn and sulfide concentrations suggest the orange sediment may be caused by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides coatings and the black sediment may be caused by Fe-sulfide precipitates. The observed elevated concentrations of dissolved Fe and Mn at the distal end of the outflow face may result from longer flow paths, allowing a greater amount of time for reduction of Fe oxides. A diagenetic model that accounts for dissolved Fe pathway from the source of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides to the sink of Fe-sulfides is currently being developed. This model will be used to quantify Fe production and uptake within the sediments and comparisons with estimated flow paths of SGD.
Roy, M.; Martin, J. B.; Cable, J. E.; Cherrier, J.; Smith, C. G.; Dorsett, A.
A survey to monitor the distribution and abundance of fishes and selected invertebrates in the St. Sebastian River, Florida, was conducted from March 1999 through June 2000. We recorded a total of 181,854 individuals (representing 77 taxa) in 128 seine samples, and a single species, bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli), accounted for 84.4% of the animals collected. Seasonally, the species compositions
This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon and three neighbouring rivers (the Kaoping River, Tungkang River and Lingbeng River) in Taiwan, Republic of China. Canonical discriminant analysis was applied to identify the source of pollution in neighbouring rivers outside Tapeng Lagoon. The two constructed discriminant functions showed a marked contribution to all discriminant variables, and the total nitrogen,
Shao-Wei Liao; Hwa-Sheng Gau; Wen-Liang Lai; Jen-Jeng Chen; Chang-Gai Lee
A survey to monitor the distribution and abundance of fishes and selected invertebrates in the St. Sebastian River, Florida, was conducted from March 1999 through June 2000. We recorded a total of 181,854 individuals (representing 77 taxa) in 128 seine samples, and a single species, bay anchovy ( Anchoa mitchilli), accounted for 84.4% of the animals collected. Seasonally, the species compositions of spring and fall samples were most similar (percent similarity index (PSI)=95.3%), whereas those of summer and winter samples were most dissimilar (PSI=54.0%). The spring samples contained the greatest mean number of taxa (N0=59 taxa), and the fall samples had the fewest (N0=38). In addition, spring samples had the highest index of abundant taxa (Hill's N1=10.6) and summer samples had the lowest (Hill's N1=6.4), suggesting that approximately four more taxa were caught in greater abundance during spring than during summer. Community composition determined via canonical correspondence analysis revealed four assemblages: two seasonal groupings and two spatial groupings. Seasonal species assemblages were composed of a spring-summer group characterized by recruits of Irish pompano ( Diapterus auratus), snook ( Centropomus undecimalis), and naked goby ( Gobiosoma bosc), and a fall-winter group characterized by recruits of mullet ( Mugil cephalus), spot ( Leiostomus xanthurus), and croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus). Spatial groupings were composed of a north prong group which included taxa with estuarine affinities, and a south prong group which included taxa with freshwater affinities. Community composition recorded during periods of controlled water releases and during periods of naturally high-water-flow differed, primarily because abundant estuarine taxa disappeared during the controlled release. The loss of these taxa suggests that when large amounts of fresh water enter the system during relatively short periods of time, the estuarine component of the community does not have time to adjust to the rapid decrease in salinity.
The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different freshwater inflow volumes on benthic communities and water column\\u000a dynamics in different estuary classes. Benthic and water column spatial dynamics were contrasted in lagoons (with no direct\\u000a inflow sources), tidal rivers that empty directly into the Gulf of Mexico, and bar-built bay systems (with direct inflow sources)\\u000a along
Terence A. Palmer; Paul A. Montagna; Jennifer Beseres Pollack; Richard D. Kalke; Hudson R. DeYoe
This Final Technical Report provides a concise retrospective and summary of all facets of the Sheldon Jackson College electrical Infrastructure Renovation portion of the IndianRiver Hydroelectric Project Grant of the City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska. The Project Overview describes the origins of the project, the original conditions that provided the impetus for the grant funding, how the grant amendment was developed, the conceptual design development, and the actual parameters of the final project as it went out to bid. The Project Overview also describes the ''before and after'' conditions of the project. The Objectives division of this Final Technical Report describes the amendment-funded goals of the project. It also describes the milestones of project development and implementation, as well as, the rationale behind the milestone array. The Description of Activities Performed division of this report provides an in-depth chronological analysis of progressive project implementation. Photographs will provide further illustration of particular functional aspects of the renovation project within project parameters. The Conclusions and Recommendations division of this report provides a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the project.
This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife RiverIndian Villages National Historic Site. The…
National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.
Microcystin pollution is known to affect different types of inland water bodies: river mouths and coastal lagoons may be affected by local production as well as by transportation through the freshwater network. Physicochemical and biological water quality, including the total microcystin concentration, was investigated from July to December 2003 in the reservoir Hjar, Tunisia. 2 - Microcystin levels and characterization
We report a data-set of dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Comoé, Bia and Tanoé) and five lagoons (Grand-Lahou, Ebrié, Potou, Aby and Tendo) of Ivory Coast (West\\u000a Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season).\\u000a The surface waters of the three rivers were over-saturated in CH4 with
We report partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and ancillary data in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé, and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou, and Grand-Lahou)\\u000a in Ivory Coast (West Africa), during four cruises covering the main climatic seasons. The three rivers were oversaturated\\u000a in CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, and the seasonal variability of pCO2 was due to
Y. J. M. Koné; G. Abril; K. N. Kouadio; B. Delille; A. V. Borges
White River Germplasm Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides [Roem. & Schult.] Barkworth) has been released for use in rangeland seedings. This plant material traces from a seed morph collected in northwestern Colorado in Rio Blanco County, near the White River. White River Germplasm displays go...
In autumn and winter 1993-94, two major floods of the Rhone river caused dyke breaching in the delta. Water from inundated area was mainly transfered to the Vaccares lagoon, and from the lagoon to the sea, either by gravity or pumping. As a consequence, great quantities of supended matter entered the hydrosystem, and the flushing of the lagoons caused a
\\u000a Mayotte Island, a small volcanic island, is surrounded by the largest coral reef lagoon of the Indian Ocean (almost 1,500\\u000a km2), with all coral reefs types represented: ribbon barrier reefs, lagoonal and fringing reefs, and also coastal mangroves.\\u000a Since 1975, Mayotte has shown an incredible development of its population (today about 180,000) and of its economy, with increases\\u000a in consumer
Bernard A. Thomassin; Fabrice Garcia; Luc Sarrazin; Thèrese Schembri; Emmanuel Wafo; Véronique Lagadec; Véronique Risoul; Julien Wickel
Degradation of coastal ecosystems in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon, Australia, has been linked with increased land-based runoff of suspended solids, nutrients and pesticides since European settlement. This study estimated the increase in river loads for all 35 GBR basins, using the best available estimates of pre-European and current loads derived from catchment modelling and monitoring. The mean-annual load to the GBR lagoon for (i) total suspended solids has increased by 5.5 times to 17,000ktonnes/year, (ii) total nitrogen by 5.7 times to 80,000tonnes/year, (iii) total phosphorus by 8.9 times to 16,000tonnes/year, and (iv) PSII herbicides is 30,000kg/year. The increases in river loads differ across the 10 pollutants and 35 basins examined, reflecting differences in surface runoff, urbanisation, deforestation, agricultural practices, mining and retention by reservoirs. These estimates will facilitate target setting for water quality and desired ecosystem states, and enable prioritisation of critical sources for management. PMID:22154273
Kroon, Frederieke J; Kuhnert, Petra M; Henderson, Brent L; Wilkinson, Scott N; Kinsey-Henderson, Anne; Abbott, Brett; Brodie, Jon E; Turner, Ryan D R
This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Colorado RiverIndian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...
This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Gila RiverIndian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...
...Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...Secretary's certification of the amendment to the Salt River Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance...Chapter 14, Articles I, II, and III of the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian...
This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan. Factor analysis was conducted to explain the characteristics and the variation in the quality of water during the disassembly of oyster frames and fishery boxes. The result shows that the most important latent factors in Tapeng Lagoon are the ocean factor, primary productivity factor, and the fishery pollution factor. Canonical
Shao-Wei Liao; Wen-Liang Lai; Jen-Jeng Chen; Jia-Yuh Sheu; Chang-Gai Lee
The IndianRiver Inlet is the only connection between the Atlantic Ocean and Rehoboth and IndianRiver Bays. The inlet has been problematic from an engineering standpoint since locals and state agencies first tried to make the opening permanent in the late 1920's. Localized scour is of particular concern to state officials due to its proximity to supporting bridge piers
...134A2100DD/AAK300000/a0t500000.000000] Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...This notice publishes the amendment to the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian Community...Beverage Control Ordinance, Chapter 14, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian...
The Colville River in Alaska is the largest river in North America that drains only continuously permafrosted tundra, and as such provides a unique signal of historical changes in one of the world's most vulnerable areas to climate changes. Additionally, the Colville flows into Simpson's Lagoon, a shallow area of the Alaskan Beaufort coast protected by a barrier island chain, lessening the impacts of Arctic storms and ice grounding on sediment mixing. Cores collected from the Colville river delta in August of 2010 were found to be composed of muddy, organic-rich, well-laminated sediments. The 2.5 to 3 meter length of each core spans about one to two thousand years of Holocene history, including the entire Anthropocene and much of the late Holocene. Three cores were sampled for this data set, arranged latitudinally from the mouth of the Colville River east into Simpson's Lagoon. Samples were taken every 2 cm for the entire length of all cores. Bulk analyses including percent organic carbon, percent nitrogen, and stable carbon isotopic analysis were performed, and compound specific analyses including lignin-phenol and algal pigment analyses were performed. These analyses showed significant changes in carbon storage over the past one to two thousand years. There were also significant spatial differences in organic carbon inputs across the ~20km distance between the Colville mouth and the easternmost core. Lignin-phenol concentrations in surface sediments nearest to the river mouth correlated positively with reconstructed Alaskan North Slope temperatures, suggesting more terrestrial organic matter was delivered during higher temperature regimes. Molar C:N ratios and plant pigments correlated negatively and positively, respectively, with reconstructed Alaskan North Slope moisture regime, indicating greater algal inputs during wetter time periods. These data may in part be consistent with observed woody shrub encroachment and increasing expanse of permafrost lakes on the North Slope. Bulk isotope data of the same core showed extremely depleted (up to -34‰) excursions in the top third (i.e. over the past 800 years), and corresponded with increased input of more highly degraded lignin-phenols (as indicated by higher (Ad:Al)v ratios). Alternatively, sediments from the most distal core from the river mouth indicate the majority of organic carbon input to this area of the lagoon was not connected with Colville River outflow, and likely originated from either coastal retreat or was potentially carried into the lagoon from farther east by the Beaufort Gyre. Over the past millennium, the organic carbon input has consistently become more enriched in 13C and less lignin-phenol rich, likely indicating increased input of algal carbon. This data provides the first fine-scale, late Holocene record for this region of the Arctic.
Schreiner, K. M.; Bianchi, T. S.; Allison, M. A.; Miller, A. J.; Marcantonio, F.
Pocket beaches are common worldwide but documentation on their hydrodynamics, sediment transport processes and morphodynamics is sparse compared to open beaches. Studies of headland-bound pocket beaches in coral reef environments are even more sparse notwithstanding an increasing number of studies of coral reef shorelines. Mayotte Island, in the Indian Ocean, is characterised by a coral reef-lagoon complex and numerous pocket beaches nested between volcanic headlands. Field experiments were conducted in order to: compare wave attenuation from the outer barrier reef to the inner reef flat fronting three pocket beaches, analyse attenuation patterns across an inner reef flat fronting one of the beaches, and document beach morphological changes. Wave attenuation exceeded 90%, and increased as wave heights increased, with maximum attenuation of moderately large waves (significant wave heights > 1.8 m) generated by a category 1 cyclone (Jokwe). Further attenuation across the inner reef flat was neither related to reef width nor correlated with water depth, but the correlation was slightly better with relative wave height. Attenuation increased as relative wave height decreased.Patterns of beach morphological change driven by residual wave energy following reef attenuation were strongly affected by the degree of beach embayment. Mtsanga Gouela and Trevani beaches are characterised by a low bay indentation conducive to longshore sediment mobility, and provide rare examples of inferred rotation of reef-fronted beaches, similar to rotation of drift-aligned beaches in non-reef settings. In contrast, Dapani beach, nested in a strongly indented bay, was dominated by seasonal cross-shore sand exchange. In addition to reef-driven wave attenuation, an important factor differentiating pocket beaches in coral reef settings and non-reef settings is the inner reef flat. The historical stability of the beaches suggests that the outer limits of cross-shore seasonal or cyclone-induced sediment movements are set over these reef flats. Further studies of reef-fronted pocket beaches will require better elucidation of the effect of the fronting reef flats on sediment transport and storage, and of the role of heterogeneity in sediment grain size and density common in reef environments in volcanic settings.
Jeanson, Matthieu; Anthony, Edward J.; Dolique, Franck; Aubry, Aline
In autumn and winter 1993-94, two major floods of the Rhone river caused dyke breaching in the delta. Water from inundated area was mainly transfered to the Vaccares lagoon, and from the lagoon to the sea, either by gravity or pumping. As a consequence, great quantities of supended matter entered the hydrosystem, and the flushing of the lagoons caused a strong and rapid decrease of salinity (from 15 g/l to 6 g/l in one week). Heavy rains during the winter 95-96 and 96-97 made the salt stock decrease again (to a minimum of 500,000 tons) and the stock was restored in 2000 (around 2 millions of tons). Monitoring during the flood crisis mainly concerned discharges and water levels. Results from previous studies (hydrologic behaviour of drainage basin, suspended matter fluxes of the Rhone river) were used, together with recent field data acquired in similar conditions, in order to quantify fluxes of suspended matter during this particular event and to compare them with the functionning of the following years (94-97). It was estimated that during the two flood events, the lagoon received a total amount of suspended load equivalent to more then ten times the average annual input.
The structure of the wind-induced exchange between IndianRiver Bay, Delaware and the adjacent continental shelf is examined based on current measurements made at the IndianRiver Inlet which represents the only conduit of exchange between the bay and the coastal ocean. Local ...
Introduction The Arc River and Berre lagoon are one of important river basin hydrosystem in the South of France that receives industrial\\u000a and municipal wastewaters from the adjacent area.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Due to its social and economic impact as well as ecological function of basin, an assessment of environmental risk due to\\u000a mobilization of contaminants is necessary. Thus, the study aims
Fehmi Kanzari; Agung Dhamar Syakti; Laurence Asia; Laure Malleret; Gilbert Mille; Bassem Jamoussi; Manef Abderrabba; Pierre Doumenq
By streamlining the IRL-WQMN, staff and laboratory resources were used more effectively and placed less budgetary demand on the participating agencies. The ultimate benefit was a more cost- effective and efficient monitoring tool to measure the water quality of the seagrass environment. Statistical ...
The Growth Management and Land Development Regulation Act of 1985 (Chapter 163, F.S.) required that all local governments in Florida prepare comprehensive plans which outline their intended growth pattern over a ten year period. Central to the comprehensi...
The Canal Street cove is a man-made feature that was created from spoil material used to fill shoreline areas during the first part of this century, as was the coastal development practice at the time. As part of these activities, concrete sheetpile seawa...
Seasonality is often the major exogenous effect that must be compensated for or removed to discern trends in water quality. Our objective was to provide a methodological example of trend analysis using water quality data with seasonality. Selected water quality constituents from 1979 to 2004 at three monitoring stations in southern Florida were evaluated for seasonality. The seasonal patterns of flow-weighted and log-transformed concentrations were identified by applying side-by-side boxplots and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p < 0.05). Seasonal and annual trends were determined by trend analysis (Seasonal Kendall or Tobit procedure) using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Estimate TREND (ESTREND) program. Major water quality indicators (specific conductivity, turbidity, color, and chloride), except for turbidity at Station C24S49, exhibited significant seasonal patterns. Almost all nutrient species (NO(2)-N, NH(4)-N, total Kjeldahl N, PO(4)-P, and total P) had an identical seasonal pattern of concentrations significantly greater in the wet than in the dry season. Some water quality constituents were observed to exhibit significant annual or seasonal trends. In some cases, the overall annual trend was insignificant while opposing trends were present in different seasons. By evaluating seasonal trends separately from all data, constituents can be assessed providing a more accurate interpretation of water quality trends. PMID:17255629
Qian, Y; Migliaccio, K W; Wan, Y; Li, Y C; Chin, D
The relative habitat value of an attached macroalage, 'Caulerpa prolifera', was compared with shallow water seagrass beds over a 12 month period. Benthic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled monthly from two areas within a subtropical, east-central ...
A year-long analysis of the characteristics of the seagrassSyringodium filiforme and the associated dynamics of the nutrient pool in the sediment pore water was done to assess co-variation. Changes in seagrass\\u000a growth rate and standing stock throughout the year were accompanied by seasonal changes in the nutrient pools. The link between\\u000a plant production and morphometrics and the sediment nutrient pool
F. T. Short; J. Montgomery; C. F. Zimmermann; C. A. Short
Seasonality is often the major exogenous effect that must be com- pensated for or removed to discern trends in water quality. Our ob- jective was to provide a methodological example of trend analysis using water quality data with seasonality. Selected water quality con- stituents from 1979 to 2004 at three monitoring stations in southern Florida were evaluated for seasonality. The
Y. Qian; K. W. Migliaccio; Y. Wan; Y. C. Li; D. Chin
Brazilian pepper Schinus terebinthifolius is a highly invasive plant species that can be found in many different ecosystems, including the edges of estuaries in south and central Florida. Brazilian pepper fruits contain chemicals that are toxic to native salt marsh plants. Previous researchers found that high densities of crushed Brazilian pepper fruits negatively impacted growth and final biomass of the
Lori Konar; Tiffany Sheldon; Stephanie Garvis; Melinda Donnelly; Faculty Mentor; Linda Walters
The discharge of submarine groundwater has recently been shown to be an important process in many environmentally fragile coastal ecosystems. However, groundwater discharge into coastal bottom water is still an often-overlooked component of many hydrologic and oceanic models. The exchange of interstitial water across the sediment\\/water interface may introduce anthropogenic pollutants, may be an important part of coastal nutrient cycles,
Peter W. Swarzenski; Jonathan B. Martin; Jaye C. Cable
Rain volume and chemistry monitoring as part of the Kennedy Space Center Long Term Environmental Monitoring Program included the years 1984-1987 as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Atmospheric deposition in rainfall consisted primarily of seasalt and hydrogen ion, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions. The deposition of nitrogen was on the order of 200-300 metric tons per year to
T. W. Dreschel; B. C. Madsen; L. A. Maull; C. R. Hinkle; W. M. Knott
The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region.
Rothenberger, Meghan B.; Burkholder, Joann M.; Brownie, Cavell
The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region. PMID:19597872
Rothenberger, Meghan B; Burkholder, JoAnn M; Brownie, Cavell
Current and wind data collected during a 223-d study period from early June 1983 through early January 1984 are used to document\\u000a net upwind return flow over seasonal time scales in the IndianRiverLagoon near Sebastian Inlet on the Atlantic Coast of\\u000a central Florida. Spectral analysis of wind and current meter data suggests that wind forcing accounts for the
Twenty collections from 18 stations in IndianRiver and Rehoboth bays, June 1968 to April 1970, yielded 41,286 fishes representing 46 species. Five species, ecologically important as food for many local commercial species, comprised 89% of the total catch and were, in order of abundance: Fundulus majalis, Menidia menidia, Fundulus heteroclitus, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, and Anchoa mitchilli. Combined average biomass estimates
Most of Central Florida withdraws water from the Floridian Aquifer by means of deep wells. The water that comes from both the inland fresh water wells and the coastal saline wells is typically high in total dissolved solids (TDS) and chlorides. Both the fresh water and saline water supplies usually contain elevated hydrogen sulfide concentrations. IndianRiver County is a
William F. McCain; Richard L. Johnson; Bradford H. O'Keefe
|The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…
Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.
|Developed by teachers at the Poplar River School Number 050 (Negginan, Ontario, Canada), this curriculum guide presents a cultural expansion program for: (1) kindergarten students (a unit on community study including such topics as: food, shelter, clothing, medicine, transportation and a unit on "other" Indian cultures "by way of legends"); (2)…
|The teaching guide presents social studies activities to help ninth graders learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Based on the IndianRiver County environment in Florida, it is part of a series for teachers, students, and community members. The introduction describes the county's geography, natural resources,…
Natural streamflow in the Jemez River at the boundaries of Indian lands was estimated from available streamflow records which were adjusted by estimated losses of water due to man-made changes in the hydraulic characteristics of the river basin. The average estimate annual natural streamflow is 53,180 acre-feet at the upstreams boundary of the Jemez Indian Reservation, 53 ,180 acre-feet at the Jemez--Zia Indian Reservation boundary, 55 ,440 acre-feet at the Zia--Santa Ana Indian Reservation boundary , and 46,550 acre-feet at the downstream boundary of the Santa Ana Reservation. (USGS)
We tracked a swine waste spill (4.13 ? 107 L) into a small receiving river and estuary. After 2 d, a 29-kin freshwater segment that the wastes had traversed was anoxic, with ca. 4000 dead fish floating and hung in shoreline vegetation. Suspended solids, nutrients, and fecal coliforms were 10- to 100-fold higher at the plume's edge (71.7 mg SS\\/L,
JoAnn M. Burkholder; Michael A. Mallin; Howard B. Glasgow; L. Michael Larsen; Matthew R. McIver; G. Christopher Shank; Nora Deamer-Melia; David S. Briley; Jeffrey Springer; Brant W. Touchette; Elle K. Hannon
The purpose of this report is to establish the feasibility of constructing fish hatchery facilities producing trout, thereby providing employment and revenue for the Tribe of the Tule RiverIndian Reservation at Porterville, California. The basic problem ...
Poverty among American Indians living on reservations in the United States remains a widespread and seemingly intractable problem. In order to address this problem it is imperative that researchers examine poverty and poverty policy longitudinally in order to better understand factors that contribute to poverty, to assess attendant personal and social consequences of persistent poverty, and to evaluate programs on
Judith Antell; Audie Blevins; Katherine R. Jensen; Garth M. Massey
Acoustic telemetry was employed to resolve seasonal and daily movement patterns of adult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in the northern IndianRiverLagoon system, Florida. From May 2006 to September 2008, 44 tagged fish were tracked within\\u000a an array of 34 autonomous receivers with individuals detected for up to 654 days. Most red drum exhibited strong site fidelity\\u000a from winter through
Eric A. Reyier; Russell H. Lowers; Douglas M. Scheidt; Douglas H. Adams
The Gila River water rights settlement will restore to the Gila RiverIndian Community (GRIC) a water supply necessary to meet present and future demands on their tribal homeland. The settlement provides water from nine water sources, including delivery from four irrigation districts, treated municipal effluent, irrigation return flow and supplemental groundwater. The Gila RiverIndian Community Water Resources Decision
Brian D. Westfall; Andrew A. Keller; Ronald D. Bliesner; Tim Flynn
A study was made on mysid species composition, reproductive periods, and diurnal and seasonal abundance in IndianRiver Inlet,\\u000a Delaware.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Neomysis americana was present in the surface plankton throughout the year and was the dominant species, averaging 80% of the mysid population.\\u000a This species was most numerous in surface waters during hours of darkness and seasonally was most abundant from
This study was aimed at investigating which processes cause acidic herbicides (e.g., bentazone, MCPA and dichlorprop) to rapidly disappear in the lagoons of the Rhône delta, which are peculiar brackish and shallow aquatic environments. The use of the model MASAS (Modeling of Anthropogenic Substances in Aquatic Systems) revealed that sorption, sedimentation, volatilization, flushing and abiotic hydrolysis had a minor role in the attenuation of the investigated herbicides. Laboratory scale biodegradation and photodegradation studies were conducted to better assess the significance of these two processes in the natural attenuation of herbicides in brackish (lagoons) waters with respect to fresh waters (canals draining paddy fields). Herbicide biodegradation rates were significantly lower in lagoon water than in canal water. Consequently, photodegradation was the main dissipation route of all investigated herbicides. The contribution of indirect photolysis was relevant for MCPA and dichlorprop while direct photolysis dominated for bentazone removal. There is a need to further investigate the identity of phototransformation products of herbicides in lagoons. PMID:21075422
Sacajawea Park Lagoon, Livingston, Montana is a man-made lake formed when the northern (north-westerly) channel of the Yellowstone River was diked off. Associated with the lagoon proper is some 8600 linear feet of stream area which both directs water supp...
...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona Â§ 52.142 Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities...the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix, Arizona is codified at 40 CFR 49.22. [64 FR 65664, Nov....
In 1997, a new University of Florida (UF) teaching program was established at the IndianRiver Research and Education Center (IRREC), Fort Pierce, FL, USA. Increased student enrollment and the need for hands-on laboratory activities out- doors inspired the idea of transforming a 0.81 ha piece of fallow land into a teaching garden. The north half of the garden was
Sandra B. Wilson; Laurie A. Krumfolz; Judith Gerson
An iterative calculation method is proposed to estimate total phosphorus in runoff from six landuses in six drainage basins based upon the acreage of those landuses, their respective runoff coefficients, and measured values from samples collected as part of various water quality monitoring programs. A computer routine was created to identify from among the multitude of possible combinations, the set
Egypt and Sudan are heavily dependent on the Nile River for sustaining their populations. In high flow years, the Lake Nasser surface water levels rise and overflows filling surrounding natural depressions and forming additional lakes (Tushka lakes) in peak flow years. The underlying Nubian Aquifer is recharged in high flow yeas, whereas the Nubian groundwater discharges into the Nile in low flow years. Previous studies have shown that the variability in flow volumes in the Nile River can be partially (~30%) accounted for by variations in the intensity of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Other previous studies suggested that rainfall in the upper Blue Nile catchment in Sudan can be linked to changes in the intensity of temperature variations across the Indian Ocean (the Indian Ocean Dipole or IOD). To test which of these events correlate best with Nile flow volumes, Nile flow records in the Blue Nile (above Khartoum), the White Nile (above Kharthoum), and combined flow at Wadi Halfa covering the time period from 1902 to 1962 were analyzed together with SST measurements. Peak and minimum discharge, and quarterly measurement from each gauge were obtained. The intensity of El Nino 3.4 and 4, and of the Indian Ocean Dipole variations from the reconstructed SST dataset hadlSST covering the same time period were used. The best correlation was found to exist between fluctuations in the IOD in the Spring (Apr-May-Jun) preceding the peak flow (usually occurring in August) and maximum discharge at the Blue Nile Gauge above Khartoum (Correlation coefficient of 0.65). Variations in El Nino intensity for the same time period showed lower correlations with peak and base Nile flow in the Blue Nile (0.55). This indicates that the intensity of the Indian Ocean Dipole has been a better predictor than El Nino for peak Nile Flow volume. Results highlight the potential for using the latter relationship for predicting Nile Flow volumes flowing in Lake Nasser and for modeling the corresponding recharge and storage in the Nubian Aquifer under futuristic model climatic scenarios.
A finite-difference numerical model is used to investigate seasonal-scale lagoon-shelf exchanges and transport within IndianRiver, a multi-inlet lagoon on the Atlantic coast of Florida, U.S.A. Meteorological, hydrologic and hydrographic data quantify forcing by seasonally-varying wind stress, coastal sea level and the net freshwater gain. The along-axis component of the wind stress reverses seasonally. North-westward wind stress stores water in the northern part of the lagoon in summer months, then south-westward wind stress removes it in winter months. The seasonal rise and fall in water level at opposite ends of the lagoon differ by ±0·1-0·2 m, primarily as a result of seasonal variations in wind forcing. The rise and fall of coastal sea level forces water into the lagoon during summer months, then draws it out during late fall and winter months. Net freshwater gain forces water out of the inlets during summer months, when rainfall rates are highest, and to a lesser extent during mid winter, when evaporation is relatively low. When forcing is by shelf tides only, simulations suggest that the northern and southern inlets are flood-dominant, while the central inlet is ebb dominant. With the addition of seasonal-scale forcing, the northern inlet becomes flood-dominant from late fall through early spring, then ebb-dominant during the rest of the year. The central and southern inlets are ebb-dominant throughout the year but seasonal variations differ. The central inlet has strongest outflow during summer months, while the southern inlet has strongest outflow during fall and winter months. Convergent and divergent patterns of transport within the lagoon are a complex response to both local and remote forcing. Simulations suggest that transport in the dredged part of a navigation channel opposes transport outside the channel.
Increasing interest in expanding the livestock and agricultural operations on the Walker RiverIndian Reservation, Nev., has prompted the Walker River Paiute Tribe to have the present and available water resources of the reservation appraised and proposed sites for new wells evaluated. Flow of the Walker River into the reservation averages about 113,000 acre-feet a year. Of this amount, about 42,000 acre-feet is used on the reservation, recharging the gound-water system and supplying irrigation water for alfalfa and pasture crops. The water quality of the river water is well suited for these purposes, and the possibility of expanding surface-water use exists. A mathematical model of the ground-water system was constructed to test various assumptions about recharge and discharge rates. The model generated water-level contours that agreed reasonably well with measured water levels, median deviation was 12 feet. With additional data , the model could be used in the future to test the feasibility of evapotranspiration salvage at the seven proposed sites for new stock and irrigation wells. The primary users of ground water on the reservation are phreatophytes and playa surfaces. They allow ground water to be lost to evaporation. About 19,000 acre-feet per year is lost through this mechanism. Domestic and livestock uses account for only about 250 acre-feet per year. Total recharge to the ground-water system amounts to about 30 ,000 acre-feet per year, and the possibility of more extensive use of ground water on the reservation exists. Quality of the ground water in most areas is suitable for all intended purposes. (USGS)
The purpose of this work is to increase ecological understanding of Avicennia germinans L. and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. F. growing in hypersaline habitats with a seasonal climate. The area has a dry season (DS) with low temperature and vapour pressure deficit (vpd), and a wet season (WS) with high temperature and slightly higher vpd. Seasonal patterns in interstitial soil
Nearly all saltmarshes in east-central, Florida were impounded for mosquito control during the 1960s. The majority of these\\u000a marshes have since been reconnected to the estuary by culverts, providing an opportunity to effectively measure exchange of\\u000a aquatic organisms. A multi-gear approach was used monthly to simultaneously estimate fish standing stock (cast net), fish\\u000a exchange with the estuary (culvert traps), and
Philip W. Stevens; Clay L. Montague; Kenneth J. Sulak
Pesticide monitoring in St. Lucie County by various local, state and federal agencies has indicated consistent residues of several pesticides, including ethion and bromacil. Although pesticides have long been known to pose a threat to non-target species and much background monitoring has been done, no pesticide aquatic risk assessment has been done in this geographical area. Several recognized United States
Contamination of groundwater by organic pollutants is now widely recognized as a serious threat to the integrity of many municipal and rural water supplies (Burmaster 1982; Wilson and McNabb 1983; Hansen 1983). The source of this contamination includes various waste disposal activities (e.g. industrial impoundments, landfills, accidental spills, underground storage tank leaks, pesticides and fertilizer application). Groundwater highly contaminated with
Fresh groundwater discharge to estuaries creates a subsurface zone where oxygenated surface water mixes with reduced pore water, forming redox boundaries in sediment of the outflow face (the subterranean estuary). This mixing has been widely cited to satisfy discrepancies of mass balance calculations for submarine groundwater discharge of terrestrially derived water (terrestrial SGD). Redox boundaries in the subsurface are clearly
M. Roy; J. Martin; J. Cable; C. Smith; J. Cherrier; A. Dorsett
Ecology and culture comprise interacting components of landscapes. Understanding the integrative nature of the landscape is essential to establish methods for sustainable management. This research takes as a unifying theme the idea that ecological and cultural issues can be incorporated through management. As a first step in developing integrative management strategies, information must be collected that compares and contrasts ecological and cultural issues to identify their areas of intersection. Specifically how can local cultural knowledge enable water resource management that reflects cultural and ecological values? This research examines Native American cultural knowledge for setting water resource management priorities in the Wind RiverIndian Reservation in central Wyoming. A cross-cultural approach is adopted to assess the relationship between indigenous cultural knowledge and Euro-American perspectives through a comparative examination of the Wind River Water Code and Wyoming Water Law. This research indicates that cultural perspectives provide a rich arena in which to examine management issues. Understanding and identifying cultural practices may be an important first step in collaborative resource management between different cultural groups to prevent conflict and lengthy resolution in court. PMID:15285403
Water quality and the contamination in relation to land use in the fluvial-lagoon system of the Palizada River (FLSPR; State of Campeche, Mexico) was investigated using an integrated approach including 21-d in situ bioassays with the native mosquito fish Gambusia yucatana, determination of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in wild populations of this species, and water-quality variables. The present study was performed over 19 months at three sites with different types of anthropogenic impact. Significant differences in a water-quality index for aquatic life (WQI) were found among sites. Fish mortality was significantly and negatively correlated with WQI, dissolved oxygen, and sulfates. High survival rates (> or =80%) were found in preliminary exposures and in some of the bioassays performed at all sites. Therefore, test chambers and the cabinet seemed to be suitable for use in toxicity bioassays with G. yucatana. The in situ bioassay was able to discriminate levels of water contamination in both time and space, indicating that it is suitable for use in conditions similar to those found in the FLSPR. In the biomonitoring study, a ChE inhibition of greater than 20% in wild fish was found in some periods of the year at all sampling sites. This indicates the presence of anticholinesterase agents in the water. Fish from two of the sites had a ChE inhibition of greater than 40% in some sampling months, suggesting that deleterious effects already may have been induced in fish. Furthermore, at these sites, the pattern of ChE inhibition was in good agreement with the probable runoff of pesticides from agricultural fields. PMID:17089727
Rendón-Von Osten, Jaime; Memije, Martin G; Ortiz, Alejandro; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Guilhermino, Lucia
Among aquatic ecosystems, estuarine lagoons are generally more complex than inland waters because of the combined effect of the land and the sea. These systems are under the influence of land through the rivers and have a restricted and temporally variable water exchange with the seas or the oceans. Estuarine lagoons are generally productive ecosystems which offer habitats for many
Ali Ertürk; A. Razinkovas; P. Zemlys; R. Pilkaityte; Z. Gasiunaite
A two-dimensional, finite difference numerical model is used to describe longitudinal transport through a transverse cross section into and out of the northern segment of IndianRiverlagoon, along the Atlantic coast of Florida. The model uses four layers to represent the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, and two layers in the shallow waters east and west of the waterway to quantify transport. Simulations during a 161-day period from late June through late November 1983 include a seasonal shift in the longitudinal component of the wind. Transport is in the same sense throughout the cross section 32% of the time. Relatively subtle lateral shear, however, has a profound effect on long-term net transport. For most of the study, cumulative net transport in the shallow areas on either side of the waterway follows the cumulative along-channel windstress, but it is directed upwind in the lower half of the Intracoastal Waterway. Four numerical experiments examine the relative importance of terms in the momentum equation and components of the database. Results suggest that time-varying baroclinic forcing is an important component of the pressure gradient. Simulations which ignore water-level variations at the open end of the model differ substantially from those which incorporate water-level fluctuations.
This paper examines the Burullus lagoon deposits of the Nile delta coast and the distribution of Pb-210 and Cs-137. Three\\u000a vibrocores from the lagoon have revealed densely concentrated shell fragments of brackish water origin in the upper (
...Maricopa (Ak Chin) Indian Reservation, Arizona; Gila RiverIndian Community of the Gila RiverIndian Reservation, Arizona; Hopi Tribe of Arizona; Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation, Arizona; Tohono...
Current measurements during a 32-day study period in late spring, 1977, are used to quantify the magnitude and relative importance of tidal and wind-driven motion in the interior of the IndianRiverlagoon, on the Atlantic coast of Florida. Harmonic analysis of the total longitudinal flow along the axis of the lagoon isolates the tidal component of the current; non-tidal flow is revealed by subtracting the tidal current from the total current, and making corrections for non-linear relationships between the current and both surface wind stress and bottom friction. A one-layer, one-dimensional model is developed to simulate wind drift. A quadratic bottom friction term with a drag coefficient of 15 × 10 -3 gives results which compare most favourably with observations. Results indicate that tidal forcing explains approximately 45% of the total variance at the study site, 25 km from the nearest inlet. Local wind forcing accounts for 44% of the non-tidal flow. The remainder of the variance is attributed to freshwater outflow through the lagoon and non-local forcing.
...Maricopa (Ak Chin) Indian Reservation, Arizona; Gila RiverIndian Community of the Gila RiverIndian Reservation, Arizona; Hopi Tribe of Arizona; Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation, Arizona; Tohono...
The Vaccarès lagoon in the diked Rhône delta is the only lagoon in southern France out of 28 lagoons where a large population of YOY (young of the year) shad occurs every year from June-July to November-March depending on the year. This peculiar case can be explained on one hand by the nearby spawning ground in the River Rhône and
Heavy metal pollution in water is generally associated with industrial and municipal discharges into rivers, estuaries and lagoons. Once metals are in the water column, they may be taken up by organisms, deposited in the sediments or remain for some period in the water itself. The deposition rate in sediments depends on, among other factors, metal concentration in surface sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of coastal, estuarine and lagoon environments have been determined by many workers. For the past several years, we have been interested in determining trace and heavy metal concentrations in the lagoons in Mexico to establish the levels of metal pollution. The work reported here is the completion of our ongoing study in San Andres lagoon. San Andres lagoon is located north of two industrial ports, Tampico and Altamira. In this industrial zone, the basins of the Panuco and Tamesi Rivers are localized and have industrial effluent throughout the year. All these activities and the input of the Tigre River, which runs through an agricultural and cattle-raising region, may affect the biogeochemistry of the San Andres lagoon. In the present work, we report concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb in sediments of San Andres lagoon. The measurements were made in different seasons; Rain-84 (August-September 1984); North (October-December 1984); Dry (April 1985); and Rain-85 (April-June 1985). 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Vazquez, F.G.; Aguilera, L.G. (Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universitaria (Mexico)); Sharma, V.K. (Texas A M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States))
The efficacy of extreme events is directly linked to the flood power and the total energy expended. The geomorphic effectiveness of floods is evaluated in terms of the distribution of stream power per unit boundary area (?) over time, for three very large floods of the 20th Century in the Indian Peninsula. These floods stand out as outliers when compared
The efficacy of extreme events is directly linked to the flood power and the total energy expended. The geomorphic effectiveness of floods is evaluated in terms of the distribution of stream power per unit boundary area (omega) over time, for three very large floods of the 20th Century in the Indian Peninsula. These floods stand out as outliers when compared
Chilka lake, the largest coastal lagoon of Asia is one of the most dynamic ecosystems along the Indian coast. Historically the lagoon has undergone a considerable reduction in surface area due, in part, to input from natural processes but mostly due to human activities. The purpose of this investigation is to document the heavy metals' affinity for specific geochemical phases
The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook to the Yakima River system. In January, 1983, 100,000 fish raised at Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery were transported to Nile Springs Rearing Ponds on the Naches River. These fish were allowed a volitional release as smolts in April. An additional 100,000 smolts were transported from Leavenworth Hatchery in April and immediately released to the Upper Yakima River. Relative survival of smolts from their points of release to a trap at Prosser (RM48) was 1.69:1 for fish from Nile Springs, versus the trucked smolts. The fish from Nile Springs arrived at Prosser and McNary Dam approximately 1 week earlier than the transported fish. To better determine the magnitude and location of releases, distribution and abundance studies were undertaken. There is a decrease in abundance from upstream areas over time, indicating a general downstream movement. In the Naches System, the lower Naches River is heavily utilized by juvenile spring chinook during the early summer. A preliminary study evaluated physical limitations of production. On a single evening 67 fish were killed on diversion screens at Chandler Canal. This constituted 5.7% of the wild spring chinook entering the canal and 8.2% of the fall chinook. The larger hatchery spring chinook sustained a 2.3% loss. Adult returns resulted in 443 redds in the Yakima System, with 360 in the Yakima River and 83 in the Naches System.
Atmospheric deposition in the lagoon of Venice and river inputs from the watershed were collected and analysed from 1998 to 1999 using the same analytical methods. The input from riverine sources largely prevails (>70%) over that from the atmosphere for As, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, nitrogen and phosphorus. Equivalent amounts of Hg, Pb, PCBs, HCB are discharged into the lagoon
In implementing the Flood Control Act of 1944, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) constructed a number of dams on the Missouri River in North Dakota and South Dakota. The construction of the Oahe dam, located 6 miles northwest of Pierre, South Dakot...
The phenomenal growth of oxidation lagoons as a form of municipal waste treatment is a reflection of their relatively low cost and ease of maintenance. The widespread acceptance of lagooning was originally predicated on their ability to produce effluent q...
A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae). PMID:17196776
In the interest of improved public safety during flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, completed a flood-inundation study of the Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at Kenneth Road to 63rd Street, of Indian Creek from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, and of Dyke Branch from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, to determine the estimated extent of flood inundation at selected flood stages on the Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch. The results of this study spatially interpolate information provided by U.S. Geological Survey gages, Kansas City Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time gages, and the National Weather Service flood-peak prediction service that comprise the Blue River flood-alert system and are a valuable tool for public officials and residents to minimize flood deaths and damage in Kansas City. To provide public access to the information presented in this report, a World Wide Web site (http://mo.water.usgs.gov/indep/kelly/blueriver) was created that displays the results of two-dimensional modeling between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street, estimated flood-inundation maps for 13 flood stages, the latest gage heights, and National Weather Service stage forecasts for each forecast location within the study area. The results of a previous study of flood inundation on the Blue River from 63rd Street to the mouth also are available. In addition the full text of this report, all tables and maps are available for download (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5068). Thirteen flood-inundation maps were produced at 2-foot intervals for water-surface elevations from 763.8 to 787.8 feet referenced to the Blue River at the 63rd Street Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time stream gage operated by the city of Kansas City, Missouri. Each map is associated with gages at Kenneth Road, Blue Ridge Boulevard, Kansas City (at Bannister Road), U.S. Highway 71, and 63rd Street on the Blue River, and at 103rd Street on Indian Creek. The National Weather Service issues peak stage forecasts for Blue Ridge Boulevard, Kansas City (at Bannister Road), U.S. Highway 71, and 63rd Street during floods. A two-dimensional depth-averaged flow model simulated flooding within a hydraulically complex, 5.6-mile study reach of the Blue River between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street. Hydraulic simulation of the study reach provided information for the estimated flood-inundation maps and water-velocity magnitude and direction maps. Flood profiles of the upper Blue River between the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at Kenneth Road and Hickman Mills Drive were developed from water-surface elevations calculated using Federal Emergency Management Agency flood-frequency discharges and 2006 stage-discharge ratings at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gages. Flood profiles between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street were developed from two-dimensional hydraulic modeling conducted for this study. Flood profiles of Indian Creek between the Kansas-Missouri border and the mouth were developed from water-surface elevations calculated using current stage-discharge ratings at the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at 103rd Street, and water-surface slopes derived from Federal Emergency Management Agency flood-frequency stage-discharge relations. Mapped flood water-surface elevations at the mouth of Dyke Branch were set equal to the flood water-surface elevations of Indian Creek at the Dyke Branch mouth for all Indian Creek water-surface elevations; water-surface elevation slopes were derived from Federal Emergency Management Agency flood-frequency stage-discharge relations.
Lagoons are widely used in rural area for wastewater treatment; however, the odor problem has hampered its application. The root of odor emission from lagoons varies from one to another. The key of controlling the odor is to find out the cause and accordingly provide strategies. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been reported and applied for odor control. Physical technologies such as masking, capturing and sorption are often employed to mitigate the pressure from compliant while not to cut off the problem. Chemical technologies which act rapidly and efficiently in odor control, utilize chemicals to damage the odorant production root or convert odorant to odorless substances. Biological methods such as aeration, biocover and biofiltration control the odor by enhancing aerobic condition or developing methanogens in lagoon, and biologically decomposing the odorants. Comparing to physical and chemical methods, biological methods are more feasible. PMID:23607996
In the subterranean estuary, flow paths for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) depend on two sources of water - freshwater and recirculated seawater. The lengths of freshwater flow paths increase as discharge points move offshore across the outflow face. Recirculated seawater flow paths can have different lengths depending on mechanisms driving the flow, with the longest flow paths resulting from diffusive
M. Roy; J. B. Martin; J. E. Cable; J. Cherrier; C. G. Smith; A. Dorsett
|This study examined the effect of physical and virtual field trips on undergraduate, nonscience majors. No significant differences were seen in achievement, attitudes, learning styles, interactions between field trip and learning styles, or students' ability to answer questions at different levels. Results imply that both field trips promote…
Fish population dynamics in a 24.3 ha mangrove-dominated mosquito impoundment in east-central Florida were examined by seining and culvert traps before and after installation of culverts that established estuarine connection for the first time in 39 years. In a 27-day period following the culvert opening, fish species increased from 9 to 21, while total number of fish in the impoundment
D. Scott Taylor; Gregg R. Poulakis; Sven R. Kupschus; Craig H. Faunce
This study aimed to analyse the composition and ecological attributes of the phytoplankton assemblages in four lateral lagoons and in the main channel of Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, SE Brazil). Fieldwork was carried out in September and November/2004 and January, March, May and August/2005. A total of 283 taxa was identified. Zygnemaphyta was the most specious group, followed by Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Higher richness, abundance and biomass were observed in the lagoons when compared with the river-reservoir sampling point, especially during the rainy period. Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae dominated numerically. Cryptomonas brasiliensis Castro, Bicudo and Bicudo was the main species of the phytoplankton in terms of abundance and frequency of occurrence. The dynamics of the most important taxa are discussed and the results showed that the phytoplankton assemblages are mainly influenced by meteorological factors and nutrient availability (the main driving forces). Correlation analyses indicated that the assemblage abundance was limited by nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus). The phytoplankton abundance influenced positively the zooplankton abundance, what indicates the prevalence of bottom-up control routes in the lateral lagoons system. The results validate the hypotheses that lateral lagoons have a prominent ecological role on the phytoplankton diversity, as already previously demonstrated for fish and zooplankton. Therefore, the incorporation of the lateral lagoons in environmental programmes should be a target strategy for the conservation of the regional aquatic biota, minimising the negative impact of the dam. PMID:23644798
Kotychi lagoon, located at the northwestern coast of Peloponnese, Greece, is a biotope of great ecological and financial importance,protected by the Ramsar International Convention. Kotychi lagoon hasbeen severely degraded and transformed during the past 50 years, due to agricultural activities in the surrounding areas and watercourse alterations after the construction of Pinios river dam in the late 60's. Restoration works
The aims of this project were to study intensively the entomological fauna of sewage lagoons including insects, crustacea, mites, spiders, and sowbugs in all sorts of lagoons from the newest, rawest ones to old ones, including primary and secondary lagoon...
This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.
Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)
1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER SALT RIVER IN BACKGROUND. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Indian Bend Pond & Pump Ditch, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ
...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...AREA REGULATIONS Â§ 334.240 Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...point on the easterly shore of the Potomac River at latitude 38Â°36â²00â³, longitude...
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...AREA REGULATIONS Â§ 334.240 Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...point on the easterly shore of the Potomac River at latitude 38Â°36â²00â³, longitude...
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...AREA REGULATIONS Â§ 334.240 Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen...point on the easterly shore of the Potomac River at latitude 38Â°36â²00â³, longitude...
In order to better understand environmental disturbances in the French coastal Mediterranean lagoons, we used an ecotoxicological approach based on the measurement of the toxicity of the sediments using oyster embryo bioassay that provides a basis for assessing the effects on the fauna of contaminants adsorbed on the sedimentary particles. The study covers all of the main lagoons of the French Mediterranean coasts of Languedoc Roussillon, Camargue, and Provence (Berre and Bolmon lagoons), where 188 stations were sampled. The toxicity tests provide evidence of variable levels of toxicity in sediments. Contaminated lagoons such as La peyrade, Le canet, and Ingrill and locally affected lagoons such as Bages-Sigean, Vaccares, Bolmon, and Berre have sampling stations with 100% of larval abnormalities during 24-h development. In all of the lagoons, the toxicity was mainly located close to local harbors and rivers. Salses Leucate (Languedoc roussillon) lagoon was found very clean, with no important toxicity. The results are discussed in terms of environmental disturbances of the coastal lagoons and with regard to the long-term monitoring of the impact of contaminants on the coastal environment. PMID:19288037
The highest concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ag in marine sediments from Gdansk Bay, Poland, occur near the mouth of the Vistula River. These elements are probably scavenged at the hydrological front by Mn and Fe oxyhydroxides where mixing of Vistula river water with brackish Baltic Sea water takes place. Vistula Lagoon sediments are much less polluted with
A two-dimensional, four-layer numerical model of tidally induced residual flow is used to quantify longitudinal transport through the interior of IndianRiverlagoon, on Florida's Atlantic coast. Water depths and surface slopes at the approximate midpoint between two inlets are calculated by assuming that the tide in the interior of the lagoon is the superposition of exponentially damped sine waves representing six tidal constituents. Tidal waves moving south from one inlet are modified significantly by the same six constituents moving north from a second inlet. The net slope as they pass through each other at the study site quantifies the barotropic pressure gradient. Tidal period variations in longitudinal flow are simulated as a response to the barotropic pressure gradient, vertical eddy viscosity, and horizontal and vertical advective accelerations. The model is tuned and simulations are verified by comparing amplitudes and phase angles with values computed from currents and water levels measured over a 65-day study period in the summer of 1981. Results indicate a depth-averaged tidally induced residual flow of 0.8 cm/s at the study site. The residual flow varies from 0.1 to 1.2 cm/s over a synodic lunar month. Just under two thirds of the total is explained by Stokes transport; Eulerian mass transport contributes slightly more than one third. The total mass transport residual current through individual layers decreases from 1.0 cm/s in the top layer to 0.6 cm/s in the lowest 75 cm. An analysis of individual terms in the momentum equation indicates that the force balance is dominated by the barotropic pressure gradient and vertical eddy viscosity forces. The significance of tidally induced residual flow lies in the base-line level of transport it provides at times of low wind speeds.
The fish and macro-crustacean community of the Vaccarès lagoon (Rhône River delta, South France) was sampled monthly from 1993 to 2002. The lagoon salinity shifted from 15 in 1993 to 5 in 1994–1997 and went back to 15 in 1999–2002. Connections with the sea also varied during the study period with larger openings in 1996–1997. During the study period, the
Gilles Poizat; Elizabeth Rosecchi; Philippe Chauvelon; Pascal Contournet; Alain J Crivelli
The role of oceanic tide, wind stress, freshwater river inflows, and waves in the long-term circulation and residence time in Óbidos Lagoon is investigated using a sensitivity analysis carried out by means of a two-dimensional model. MOHID modeling system coupled to Steady-State Spectral Wave model for simulate Óbidos Lagoon circulation were implemented. For residence time calculus, a Lagrangian transport model was used. Tidal forcing is shown to be the dominant forcing, although storm waves must be considered to simulate accurately the long-term circulation. Tidal forcing enhances a spatial distribution in water residence time. Renewal time scales varies from values of 2 days in the near-ocean areas and 3 weeks in the inner areas. Freshwater river inflows decrease the residence time, while waves increase. In heavy rain periods, the water residence time decreases by about 40% in the upper lagoon. When wave forcing is considered, the residence time increases between 10% and 50% depending on lagoon area. The increase in residence time is explained by the sea level rise within lagoon (~1 m above average lagoon sea level) during storm wave periods. Average residence time is 16 days for tidal forcing, 9 days when the rivers are included (wet period), and 18 days when the waves are considered.
A combined strontium isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) and paleontological method is newly applied to a modern lagoon in Egypt's Nile River delta to test its applicability as a paleosalinity proxy. Analyses of 22 surficial samples collected throughout the lagoon include 81 Sr isotopic analyses of mollusks, foraminifera, ostracods, barnacles, bryozoans, serpulid worm tubes, pore water, and gypsum crystals. Two salinity groups are distinguished in each sample: a lower salinity group (˜1 ppt) mixed with a higher salinity group (˜3 10 ppt) that, respectively, are interpreted as the modern biocoenosis and an older relict fauna. The relict fauna denotes higher salinity conditions in the lagoon prior to closure of the Aswan High Dam (1964), and the modern fauna records freshening of the lagoon. Recent decreased salinity is a response to regulated Nile River flow and increased discharge into Manzala of fresh water via canals and drains. Quantification of this short-term salinity change holds promise for study of modern lagoons in other world settings, and may provide paleoclimatic information for older lagoon sequences in the Nile River delta and the geologic record.
Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Stanley, Daniel Jean; Patterson, R. Timothy
This research represents data about Narta and Oricum lagoon. Narta lagoon is situated in the south side of Vjosa river overflowing in Adriatik sea and Oricum lagoon is the next one,situated in the south side of Vlora bay.They represent very important habitats because of their turistical value and the use of them for fishing.Therefore it is important toknow the quality
Eutrophication in coastal bays has made it necessary to better understand nutrient sources in these settings. Because groundwater often has elevated nutrient levels with respect to surface water, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) may be an important source of nutrients to coastal bays. To understand the pathways of SGD and how bayfloor geology and hydrology affect them, we examined the geology, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at IndianRiver Bay, DE. Marine geophysical tools were used to identify the hydrogeologic framework and geometry of a shore-perpendicular freshwater plume beneath the bay. Shallow chirp seismic data outlined a low-permeability paleochannel infill, which is 150m across and 2-3m thick at the center, thinning towards the channel flanks. Offshore continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data show a low-salinity plume generally co-located with, but extending beyond the edges of, this low-permeability cap. Salinity data from 12 offshore wells with multi-level sampling ports verify the general extent of the plume indicated by CRP data. Using Lee-type seepage meters, 565 direct measurements of SGD were made between July 2010 and June 2011. These data show that the paleochannel feature generally controls nearby fresh SGD (FSGD), preventing discharge at the shoreline and causing diffuse freshened or brackish discharge at the channel flanks. In the adjoining interfluve, where the low-K cap is absent, fresh discharge appears focused and decreases monotonically from the shoreline, as predicted by theory. Saline SGD did not follow this trend and comprised the majority of the discharge. The measured maximum FSGD was 33cm/d compared to 198cm/d for recirculated baywater. SGD salinity ranged from 0-33ppt, with an average of 26.9ppt; the average surface baywater salinity was 28.4ppt. Seepage salinity patterns correlate spatially with CRP survey results. To assess the potential for saline SGD driven by interactions of surface water flowing over deployed seepage meters, bay surface current velocities were measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Currents ranged from 0-20 cm/s with an average of 3-6 cm/s, which would produce an estimated discharge of <6 cm/d, less than the average measured saline flux (9.2 cm/d). This indicates that other factors are driving the large saline SGD component at this site. During spring tides, both fresh and saline SGD rates at low tide are twice those at high tide, indicating a strong tidal influence on SGD. Though SGD is difficult to measure due to inherent geologic heterogeneity, temporal forcing factors and current/bathymetry interactions, extensive direct seepage data and correlated geophysical and well data show that the low-permeability paleochannel cap confines and controls fresh and saline groundwater flowpaths to the bay. By quantifying the effects of this cap we can develop better estimates of water and chemical fluxes into the bay.
Russoniello, C. J.; Fernandez, C.; Bratton, J. F.; Krantz, D.; Banaszak, J.; Andres, A. S.; Konikow, L. F.; Michael, H. A.
The spatial variability of plant organic matter processing was studied experimentally in a shallow coastal lagoon (Tancada lagoon, average depth: 37 cm, area: 1.8 km2) in the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain). To determine the effect of hydrology and sediment characteristics on plant organic matter processing, leaves of Phragmites australis at the end of its vegetative cycle and whole plants of Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande, just abscised, were enclosed in litter bags. Two different mesh sizes (100 m and 2 mm) were used to study the effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition. The bags were placed in the water column and approximately 15 cm above the sediment at 6 different locations in the lagoon. The experiment was performed twice, in autumn-winter and spring-summer. The effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition rate was not significant in Tancada lagoon. Breakdown rates showed spatial differences only in spring-summer. In the autumn-winter experiment, the effect of strong wind masked the effects of environmental variables and hydrology on decomposition rate. In the spring-summer experiment, characterised by high stability of the water column, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration in the water column and organic matter in the sediment were the main factors determining the variability of organic matter processing. A positive relationship was calculated between P. australis decomposition rate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in spring-summer (r2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). (
Menéndez, Margarita; Hernández, Oliver; Sanmartí, Neus; Comín, Francisco A.
The fish and macro-crustacean community of the Vaccarès lagoon (Rhône River delta, South France) was sampled monthly from 1993 to 2002. The lagoon salinity shifted from 15 in 1993 to 5 in 1994-1997 and went back to 15 in 1999-2002. Connections with the sea also varied during the study period with larger openings in 1996-1997. During the study period, the community changed to revert in 2002 to a state similar to 1993. These changes consisted of a sequence of increased and decreased patterns of freshwater species and some marine species. Typical lagoon species tended to resist to salinity changes. Freshwater species colonised the lagoon when the salinity was low. Marine species may have varied both in relation to connections with the sea and to indirect effects of freshwater outflow. This study shows that community changes following environmental variations can be delayed in time, and emphasises the need for long-term studies.
In this work, SPLITT Fractionation (split flow thin cell) is used to sort hydrodynamically sedimented particles coming from the Sacca di Goro, a lagoon-like system close to the Po River delta (Italy). First the possibility of performing quantitative mass separations with a SPLITT cell apparatus was checked on a standard silica sample of known particle size distribution (PSD). Environmental sediment samples and relative SPLITT sub-fractions were subject to Inductive Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) characterization for the following elements: Al, Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn. The distribution of these metals by particle size fractions has been investigated. The accuracy of the entire separation procedure has been also evaluated. PMID:15506612
Blo, Gabriella; Conato, Chiara; Contado, Catia; Fagioli, Francesco; Dondi, Francesco
Indian nations have been thoroughly removed from the Loess Hills of the Missouri River valley. That removal, however, does not conform to the typical story of Indian displacement from the forested East or the Great Plains; it was specific to a time and a place and reflected the changing status of Indian sovereignty in the United States. While it was
The central Guilan coast along the Iranian Caspian coastline is characterized by sandy beaches and the development of spit-lagoon complexes, which are prone to preserve past sea-level fluctuations. The morphology of three spit-lagoon complexes along the central Guilan coast was studied using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and sediment sequences to understand the effects of past sea-level changes on spit-lagoon development. The results showed the prominent role of coastal setting in conditioning the development of spit-lagoon formation in response to sea-level change. When the Caspian Sea experienced a highstand in the Little Ice Age, the coast of central Guilan recorded fluctuations in sedimentation which are reflected, for example, by river avulsion and beach ridge formation depending on physical setting. In the western half of the central Guilan, eastward longshore currents and strong wave action on a W-E coastline coupled with sea-level changes shaped the Anzali spit-lagoon complex; while in the eastern part of the studied area river avulsion and changing the coastline orientation are responsible for development of the Amirkola and Kiashahr spit-lagoon complexes under the same sea-level fluctuations. Although sea-level change has a major role in spit-lagoon development, an increase in the frequency of storms, changes in sediment supply due to more precipitation, and river avulsion are other players in spit-lagoon development in the central Guilan during the Little Ice Age and more recent times.
Naderi Beni, A.; Lahijani, H.; Moussavi Harami, R.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Shah-Hosseini, M.; Kabiri, K.; Tavakoli, V.
Between 1978 and 2009, approximately 430,000 oz of placer gold were obtained from the IndianRiver and Black Hills Creek,\\u000a which equates to roughly 20% of the production for the entire Yukon Territory during that period. The area is unglaciated,\\u000a exposure is poor, and there are few known lode gold occurrences present. The technique of microchemical characterization of\\u000a placer gold grains
Robert John Chapman; James Keith Mortensen; William P. LeBarge
In order to evaluate the possible radiological impact to the local public and environment from a phosphogypsum stockpile, 210Po and 210Pb concentrations in river water, lagoon water, suspended matter, superficial sediment, algae and bivalves samples collected in Venice lagoon area have been investigated. The results show that the mean 210Po and 210Pb concentrations in river water are 1.42±0.36 mBq.l-1 and
Guogang Jia; M. Belli; U. Sansone; S. Rosamilia; M. Blasi
Sacca di Goro is a shallow coastal microtidal lagoon with a surface area of 26km2, and an average depth of about 1.5m. Fresh water pollutant loads from Po River branches and several drainage canals lead to anthropogenic eutrophication, frequent summer anoxia crises and chemical contamination. Such events not only affect the lagoon ecosystem but also cause serious economic losses, the
R. Carafa; D. Marinov; S. Dueri; J. Wollgast; J. Ligthart; E. Canuti; P. Viaroli; J. M. Zaldívar
The natural flux of groundwater into coastal water bodies has recently been shown to contribute significant quantities of nutrients and trace metals to the coastal ocean. Groundwater discharge and hyporheic exchange to estuaries and rivers, however, is frequently overlooked though it often carries a distinctly different chemical signature than surface waters. Most studies that attempt to quantify this input to rivers use multiple geochemical tracers. However, these studies are often limited in their spatial and temporal extents because of the labor-intensive nature of integrating multiple measurement techniques. We describe here a method of using a single tracer, 222Rn, to rapidly characterize groundwater discharge into tidally-influenced rivers and streams. In less than one week of fieldwork, we determined that of six streams that empty into the IndianRiverLagoon (IRL), Florida, three (Eau Gallie River, Turkey Creek, and Main Canal) did not receive substantial groundwater inputs, one canal (C-25 Canal) was dominated by groundwater exchange, and the remaining two (Sebastian River system and Crane Creek) fell somewhere in between. For more detailed discharge assessments, we focused on the Sebastian River system, a stratified tidal river estuary, during a relatively dry period (June) and a wet period (July) in 2008. Using time-series 222Rn and current velocity measurements we found that groundwater discharge into all three branches of the Sebastian River increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude during the wetter period. The estimated groundwater flow rates were higher than those reported into the adjacent IRL, suggesting that discharge into these rivers can be more important than direct discharge into the IRL. The techniques employed here should work equally well in other river/stream systems that experience significant groundwater discharge. Such assessments would allow area managers to quickly assess the distribution and magnitude of groundwater discharge nature into rivers over large spatial ranges.
Peterson, Richard N.; Santos, Isaac R.; Burnett, William C.
The Alvarado Lagoon System (ALS) is located within the Papaloapan River Basin in southern Veracruz, Mexico. The ALS is a shallow system (2 m) connected to the Gulf of Mexico through a narrow sea channel. There are a large number of riverbank communities within the ALS that are dependent upon its biological productivity for comestible and economic subsistence. The purpose of
Jane L. Guentzel; Enrique Portilla; Katherine M. Keith; Edward O. Keith
During the dry season in California, when storm action is limited and river flow is weak, the mouths of many estuaries close, creating barrier beaches and ponding water in the backing lagoons. If these barrier beaches do not breach naturally or are not ma...
9. Indian Gap Run Aqueduct, reconstructed isometric detail of bridge framing by Willie Graham and Mark R. Wenger, 3/4', 1991 - North River Canal System, Indian Gap Run Aqueduct, West side of Buena Vista, Buena Vista, Roanoke City, VA
Streams (line features) coverage for Colorado RiverIndian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...
4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH NEWER CHECK AND TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN FOREGROUND - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ
This site features pages to more than twenty NASA radar images of the world's major river systems. The image pages contain a brief description of the respective processes and setting, and are available for download. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing.
The Piper Aircraft Corporation/Vero Beach Water and Sewer Department National Priorities List Site covers 8 acres in Vero Beach, Indiana River County, Florida. The facility began assembling and painting light aircraft in 1957. Chemicals utilized in these operations are stored on-site in underground storage tanks. In 1978, routine sampling and analysis of the city water supply revealed the presence of four volatile organic compounds: trichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethene, cis/trans-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. Based on available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substance via contaminated groundwater, aerated groundwater that is being discharged to the surface water, and air contaminants released from the groundwater aeration process.
The report presents some of the ecologic changes occurring in sewage lagoons receiving domestic wastes plus potato processing wastes (Grafton), cheese manufacturing wastes (Lakota), and domestic wastes (Harvey). Since each lagoon presents unique operating...
J. W. Vennes H. W. Holm M. W. Wentz K. L. Hanson J. M. Granum
The surficial aquifer system beneath citrus groves in IndianRiver, Martin, and St. Lucie Counties, Florida, was studied to determine the effects of citrus agriculture on ground-water quality. The surficial aquifer is the primary drinking-water source for Martin and St. Lucie Counties and furnishes about 33 percent of the drinking-water for IndianRiver County. Water-quality samples and water-level data were collected from December 1996 through October 1998. Nitrate concentrations in ground water exceeded 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s maximum contaminant level for nitrate reported as nitrogen, in 5 percent of the samples from citrus groves. These exceedances occurred in samples from wells with depths of 10 feet or less at citrus groves, and mostly in samples collected during or immediately following fertilizer applications. Samples from wells with depths of 20-25 feet contained little or no nitrate. The decreased nitrate concentrations in ground water with depth was not consistent with chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations, two other common indicators of agricultural activity. Chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations remained elevated in ground-water samples from all depths at citrus groves; median chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations in samples from citrus sites were 125 and 779 mg/L, respectively. In comparison, samples from the reference site had maximum chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations of 61 and 366 mg/L, respectively. Based on the age of ground water at 20-25 foot depths (3-50 years, measured with tritium and helium-3 concentration ratios), nitrate concentrations also should have remained elevated with depth because fertilizers have been used for at least 20-30 years at these citrus groves. Nitrate concentrations decreased with depth as a result of denitrification. This could have occurred because favorable conditions for denitrification existed in the aquifer, including high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and iron (median concentrations of 25.5 and 1.75 mg/L, respectively at citrus sites) and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (median concentration of 0.9 mg/L at citrus sites), which indicates that reducing conditions were present. Evidence that denitrification occurred included the enrichment of ground water with depth in the heavier isotope of nitrogen, nitrogen-15 (15N). Ground water from wells screened 10-15 feet below land surface had a median d 15N value of 24.6 per mil, whereas ground water from wells screened 5-10 feet below land surface had a median d 15N value of 9.4 per mil. Fertilizer samples had a median d 15N value of 3.0 per mil. Increased d 15N values coincident with decreased nitrate concentrations with depth indicates that fractionation occurred during denitrification reactions. Finally, excess nitrogen gas, a byproduct of denitrification reactions, was detected at concentrations ranging from 0-8 mg/L in samples from wells screened 10-25 feet below land surface.
The concentrations of heavy metals and organic carbon in sediment of the Homa Lagoon which is one of the most productive lagoons and commercial important active fish trap in the Eastern Aegean Sea, were investigated in order to describe the temporal and spatial distributions of metals. These results were used to evaluate possible ecological risks that could be a problem for the environment of the lagoon in the future. Sediments were enriched with Cr, Ni and considered as heavily polluted per the SQG. The C(f) of Ni and Cr were presented moderate level of contamination in this area. The C(d) levels indicated moderate degree of contamination at station B, C, D and E due to agricultural drainage water, industrial and domestic wastewater, are transported by the Gediz River. Sediments from Homa Lagoon were most toxic for Ni due to exceedances of the TEL and PEL values. PMID:21764081
The Lake Worth Lagoon is a major estuarine water body located in Palm Beach County, Florida whose remaining natural resouces\\u000a need to be protected. The lagoonal ecosystem has been stressed through the past one hundred years due to many anthropogenic\\u000a influences. Altered hydrology of the system allows massive freshwater discharges into the lagoon, which exit via two ocean\\u000a inlets and
Six plant associations were identified at Gandoca Lagoon by photointerpretation and field verification: a) mangroves, b) palm trees swamp, and palm trees with Acrostichum aureum and A. danaefolium, c) mixed palm trees, d) very humid tropical rain forest, and e) tropical beach vegetation. The mangroves cover 12.5 ha surrounding the lagoon and extend 2 km up the Gandoca River. Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the dominant species, with Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) and Conocarpus erectus (buttonwood) also present. Moving inland the mangroves grade into a tropical rain forest. Gandoca, the largest and best preserved mangrove of Caribbean Costa Rica, tripled its area from 1976 to 2000. Possible causes include sedimentation and the Limón earthquake, which may have subside the lagoon area. PMID:15264546
This chapter reports a thorough study of the geochemistry of some metals in the sediments of the Patos lagoon, one of the biggest coastal lagoons in the world (and the biggest in Brazil). After a screening study of the sediments, which considered the granulometry, organic carbon, organic nitrogen and sulphur contents, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr concentrations of more than 100 samples collected all over the system, the relationships between these variables were considered in order to explain their distribution. The distribution of metals within different granulometric fractions was also studied. Finally a sequential extraction procedure was performed in selected samples to provide information on the geochemical partitioning of the metals in the sediments. The absence of direct anthropogenic sources of metals to the lagoon was established. The main source of metals is the Guaiba system (northern portion), whose material is spread all over the lagoon and can be concentrated in the areas where physico-chemical parameters are favourable. The Camaquã river also constitutes a significant source of Cu and Pb for the southern portion of the Patos Lagoon, originating from the mining of metallic sulphides.
In view of increasing environmental awareness and biodiversity conservation, understanding the main forcing mechanism driving biogeochemical cycles in coral reefs and lagoon coastal areas is a priority. La Niña events cause unbalanced situations in the Equatorial Pacific and result in enhanced precipitation in South West Pacific coastal areas. We investigated the impact of heavy rainfalls during the 2008 La Niña event on the New Caledonia lagoon using a 3D coupled on-line hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model. Simulations and data showed that the whole lagoon was impacted by river inputs and stronger hydrodynamics, enhancing chlorophyll-a concentration by a factor between 1.7 and 1.9. The coupled model provided new insights into plume transport, highlighting that eastern plumes can be advected northwards or can reach the South West Lagoon, depending on the balance between regional, tide-induced, and wind-induced surface currents. It also provided a synoptic view of lagoon biogeochemical-hydrodynamic response, when remote sensing data are not available due to cloud coverage. PMID:22721694
Fuchs, R; Dupouy, C; Douillet, P; Caillaud, M; Mangin, A; Pinazo, C
A seismic survey of Midway Lagoon shows that the volcanic rocks beneath the coral had two terraces cut on them before they were covered by the coral atoll. One terrace, under the north half of Midway Lagoon, lies at a depth between 0.63 and 0.71 km; the s...
The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine lagoon effluent to Coastal bermudagrass were evaluated for six years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9m x 9m plots by weekly sprinkler irrigation during the growing season. Forage y...
P. W. Westerman J. C. Burns L. D. King M. R. Overcash R. O. Evans
Anaerobic lagoons are a common management practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very sophisticated. To get a better understanding of the processes which occur i...
Total community, planktonic and benthic metabolisms were measured by using the carbon dioxide production and consumption, the ‘diurnal curve' method and the in situ bottle incubation technique over an annual cycle in two sublagoons of the Saquarema Lagoon, Brazil. Metabolic rates of the phytoplankton-based lagoon were characterized by considerable daytime and daily variability in production and respiration, by a seasonal
The issue-focused, reviewed, student article addresses how the livelihood of the Kayapo Indians is threatened by: revived plans for several hydroelectric dams along the Xingu River, increased pollution from agricultural runoff, and the illegal invasion of territorial lands.
Bacteria were identified from a large, seasonally flooded river (Paraná River, Brazil) and two floodplain habitats that were\\u000a part of the same river system yet very different in nature: clearwater Garças Lagoon and the highly humic waters of Patos\\u000a Lagoon. Bacterioplankton were collected during mid-summer (Jan. 2002) from water samples (2 l) filtered first through a 1.2-?m\\u000a filter then a 0.2-?m
Michael J. Lemke; E. Kurt Lienau; Jean Rothe; Thomaz A. Pagioro; Jeff Rosenfeld; Rob DeSalle
Coastal lagoons are highly variable and dynamic systems that have been rarely investigated in terms of benthic microbial loop. We present here the results of a comparative study aimed at investigating factors and benthic processes potentially affecting microbial loop functioning in three lagoon systems (Goro, Lesina and Marsala lagoons). The three lagoons were characterised by different geo-morphological, trophic and ecological
Elena Manini; Carla Fiordelmondo; Cristina Gambi; Antonio Pusceddu; Roberto Danovaro
A three-dimensional numerical model in finite differences was used to simulate the transport and mixing in Barbamarco Lagoon, Italy. The field data for the boundary conditions and for the conditions within the lagoon are described in an earlier paper by Ramirez and Imberger [Hydrodynamics of a shallow lagoon: Barbamarco Lagoon, Italy, submitted, 2000]. In general, the model reproduced the main
The Salt River Salt Banks are located on the north shore of the Salt River on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Three small springs emerge above and flow over the salt banks resulting in the formation of stalactites. The mechanism by which the banks wer...
Anthropogenic eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems continues to be one of the major environmental issues worldwide and also of Brazil. Over the last five decades, several approaches have been proposed to discern the trophic state and the natural and cultural processes involved in eutrophication, including the multi-parameter Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS) index model. This study applies ASSETS to four Brazilian lagoons (Mundaú, Manguaba, Guarapina, and Piratininga) and one estuarine delta (Paraíba do Sul River), set along the eastern Brazilian coast. The model combines three indices based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) approach to rank the trophic status and forecast the potential eutrophication of a system, to which a final ASSETS grade is established. The lagoons were classified as being eutrophic and highly susceptible to eutrophication, due primarily to their longer residence times but also their high nutrient input index. ASSETS classified the estuary of the Paraíba do Sul river with a low to moderate trophic state (e.g., largely mesotrophic) and low susceptibility to eutrophication. Its nutrient input index was high, but the natural high dilution and flushing potential driven by river flow mitigated the susceptibility to eutrophication. Eutrophication forecasting provided more favorable trends for the Mundaú and Manguaba lagoons and the Paraíba do Sul estuary, in view of the larger investments in wastewater treatment and remediation plans. The final ASSETS ranking system established the lagoons of Mundaú as "moderate," Manguaba as "bad," Guarapina as "poor," and Piratininga as "bad," whereas the Paraíba do Sul River Estuary was "good." PMID:22821328
Cotovicz Junior, Luiz Carlos; Brandini, Nilva; Knoppers, Bastiaan Adriaan; Mizerkowski, Byanka Damian; Sterza, José Mauro; Ovalle, Alvaro Ramon Coelho; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter
An ensemble data assimilation scheme, Error Subspace Statistical Estimation (ESSE), is utilized to investigate the seasonal ecosystem dynamics of the Lagoon of Venice and provide guidance on the monitoring and management of the Lagoon, combining a rich data set with a physical-biogeochemical numerical estuary-coastal model. Novel stochastic ecosystem modeling components are developed to represent prior uncertainties in the Lagoon dynamics model, measurement model, and boundary forcing by rivers, open-sea inlets, and industrial discharges. The formulation and parameters of these additive and multiplicative stochastic error models are optimized based on data-model forecast misfits. The sensitivity to initial and boundary conditions is quantified and analyzed. Half-decay characteristic times are estimated for key ecosystem variables, and their spatial and temporal variability are studied. General results of our uncertainty analyses are that boundary forcing and internal mixing have a significant control on the Lagoon dynamics and that data assimilation is needed to reduce prior uncertainties. The error models are used in the ESSE scheme for ensemble uncertainty predictions and data assimilation, and an optimal ensemble dimension is estimated. Overall, higher prior uncertainties are predicted in the central and northern regions of the Lagoon. On the basis of the dominant singular vectors of the ESSE ensemble, the two major northern rivers are the biggest sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) uncertainty in the Lagoon. Other boundary sources such as the southern rivers and industrial discharges can dominate uncertainty modes on certain months. For dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and phytoplankton, dominant modes are also linked to external boundaries, but internal dynamics effects are more significant than those for DIN. Our posterior estimates of the seasonal biogeochemical fields and of their uncertainties in 2001 cover the whole Lagoon. They provide the means to describe the ecosystem and guide local environmental policies. Specifically, our findings and results based on these fields include the temporal and spatial variability of nutrient and plankton gradients in the Lagoon; dynamical connections among ecosystem fields and their variability; strengths, gradients and mechanisms of the plankton blooms in late spring, summer, and fall; reductions of uncertainties by data assimilation and thus a quantification of data impacts and data needs; and, finally, an assessment of the water quality in the Lagoon in light of the local environmental legislation.
The following 3 species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) were recorded from marine fishes off Florida: Caranginema americanum Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza and Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 from the subcutaneous tissue of the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) (Carangidae); Philometra charlestonensis Moravec, de Buron, Baker and González-Solís, 2008 from the gonads (ovaries) of the scamp Mycteroperca phenax Jordan and Swain (Serranidae); and Philometra sp. (only subgravid females) from the gonads (ovaries) of the Atlantic needlefish Strongylura marina (Walbaum) (Belonidae). The male of C. americanum , the type species of Caranginema Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza, and Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 , is described for the first time. Its general morphology is similar to that of males of Philometra and Philometroides species. The males of C. americanum are mainly characterized by an elongate body, 3.13-3.28 mm long, a markedly elongate esophagus, and spicules and a gubernaculum 69-75 µm and 48-51 µm long, respectively. The present findings of C. americanum and P. charlestonensis represent new geographical records. The gonad-infecting Philometra sp. from S. marina probably belongs to an undescribed species. PMID:22017549
Surface sediments collected from the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria, and three adjoining rivers were analysed for their physicochemical properties and pseudo-total concentration of the potentially toxic metals (PTM) Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration of the PTM varied seasonally and spatially. Odo-Iyaalaro was observed to be the most polluted river, with highest concentrations of 42.1 mg kg(-1), 102 mg kg(-1), 185 mg kg(-1), 154 mg kg(-1) and 1040 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively, while Ibeshe River was the least contaminated, apart from a site affected by Cu from the textile industry. Some of the sediments were found to be above the consensus-based probable effect concentrations and Dutch sediment guideline for metals. Overall metal concentrations were similar to those reported for other tropical lagoon and estuarine systems affected by anthropogenic inputs as a result of rapid urbanisation. Due to the large number of samples, principal component analysis was used to examine relationships within the data set. Generally, sediments collected during the dry season were observed to have higher concentration of PTM than those collected during the rainy season. This means that PTM could accumulate over a prolonged period and then be released relatively rapidly, on an annual basis, into tropical lagoon systems. PMID:22628107
Oyeyiola, A O; Davidson, C M; Olayinka, K O; Oluseyi, T O; Alo, B I
Sediment samples were collected from four sandy and muddy bottom sites at both Sacca di Goro lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea) and Lesina lagoon (southern Adriatic Sea) on one occasion in May and one occasion in July in order to make a comparative study of ciliate abundance and diversity. The temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential were measured at the time of collection, the water content of the sediments was determined, and samples subjected to granulometric analysis. The ciliated protozoa in sub-samples from the top centimeter of sediment were identified to genus and species level and enumerated. Ciliates belonging to 38 and 33 species were found in the sediment of Sacca di Goro and Lesina, respectively, the diversity of ciliates varying widely between stations. Total ciliate numbers ranged from 32 to 759 cm(-2) and from 2 to 256 cm(-2) at Sacca di Goro and Lesina, respectively; the ciliate biomass ranged from 1.1 to 30.3 microg C cm(-2) in the samples collected at Sacca di Goro, and from 0.01 to 157 microg C cm(-2) in the samples collected at Lesina lagoon. Aspidisca lynceus, Aspidisca steini, Chilodonella uncinata, Frontonia marina, Pleuronema marinum, Strombidinopsis minimum, Strombidium sp., and Urotricha sp., were observed at the two lagoons but not in all stations; Keronopsis flavicans and Trachelostyla pediculariformis were often numerous at Goro lagoon, A. lynceus, Condylostoma patulum and Tracheloraphis teissieri were the most abundant ciliates observed at Lesina lagoon. PMID:17070761
The Mundaú-Manguaba complex in north-eastern Brazil is a 79 km 2 shallow tropical coastal lagoon system, consisting of two interconnected waterbodies and a channel system linked to the ocean. Mundaú-Manguaba is similar to many tropical lagoon systems in Latin America. The system is characterized by semidiurnal tides, which are reduced in amplitude by more than 88% as compared to the coastal ocean. The lagoons experience a distinct rainy (winter) and dry (summer) season. Anthropogenic inputs from sugar-cane processing and urban growth pose environmental management problems. During the dry season, urban and industrial pollution frequently produce eutrophic conditions in both lagoons. During flood discharge, sudden salinity drops occur in Lagoa Mundaú, causing mass mortality of the abundant estuarine mussel ( Mytella falcata) every few years. River discharge controls the oceanward transport of salts and pollutants and produces low salinity in Lagoa Manguaba during the entire year. This is true in Lagoa Mundaú during the rainy season, while currents and salt dispersion in Lagoa Mundaú are tidally driven during the dry season. The tide advects ocean water into the system, mixes the water column, and produces strong currents in the channels. Winds modify the magnitude of currents in Lagoa Manguaba.
The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint
The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods,
Imboassica lagoon is an urban coastal lagoon located in the municipality of Macaé (RJ), which has been exposed to a process of artificial eutrophication through the inflow of untreated sewage, as well as artificial openings of the sandbar that separates it from the ocean, provoking drastic modifications in this ecosystem. The sampling for the analysis of the community of macroinvertebrates
Edélti Faria Albertoni; Cleber Palma-Silva; Francisco de Assis Esteves
A framework of numerical models has been developed and applied to the coastal lagoon of Cabras in Sardinia, Italy. These models consist of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, a radiational transfer module of heat at the water surface and a transport diffusion model.In the first part of the research the hydrodynamic circulation of the lagoon has been simulated taking in account
This report provides information and analysis on the physical condition of the dam as of the report date. Information and analysis are based on visual inspection of the dam by the performing organization. Indian Lake Stone Dam was judged to unsafe-non-eme...
The Indian calendars are interesting, but very complicated. Indians use both solar and lunisolar calendars. The solar calendars follow the sidereal year. The lunisolar calendars are of two types; some have months that run from new Moon to new Moon, while some have months that run from full Moon to full Moon. Leap months are a common feature of these
|Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…
The spatial distribution of cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations in water, sediment and oysters from San Andres Lagoon was evaluated. Significantly higher cadmium (0.33 mg L(-1)) and lead (0.70 mg L(-1)) concentrations in water were observed in front of the mouth of Tigre river, whereas, zinc concentration (5.0 mg L(-1)) was significantly higher in the south part of the lagoon. Similarly, lead and zinc values in sediment (1.01 and 9.29 ?g g(-1), respectively) and oyster tissue (0.86 and 3.19 ?g g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher in the south part of the lagoon. Levels of cadmium and lead in oyster tissue were positively related to those found in sediment. However, concerning zinc no evident relationship was found. Such differences in regression analyses may be explained by differential bioaccumulation of xenobiotic (cadmium, lead) and essential (zinc) metals. PMID:21336861
Vázquez-Sauceda, María de la Luz; Aguirre-Guzmán, G; Sánchez-Martínez, J G; Pérez-Castañeda, R
The Berre lagoon receives freshwater from two natural rivers but the implementation of the hydroelectric power plant led to strong changes in the ecosystem structure and functioning. Sediments are important sites for nitrogen cycling because the O(2) sharp gradient allows oxic nitrification as well as anoxic denitrification and anammox to operate in close proximity. Seasonal and short-term variations in the coastal nitrogen processes were quantified at two stations: SA1 located in the northern part of the lagoon directly under the inflows of freshwater and SA3 in the southern part of the lagoon influenced mainly by the marine water inflows. Results revealed that most of the nitrate formed by nitrification was denitrified. Total denitrification was the main N(2) removal process. The high primary production based on N-NH(4)(+) might be explained by mineralization rates, while the primary production based on N-NO(3)(-) was not fully explained by nitrification. PMID:23276532
In tropical and subtropical zones, coastal lagoons are surrounded by mangrove communities which are a source of high quantity organic matter that enters the aquatic system through litter fall. This organic matter decomposes, becoming a source of nutrients and other substances such as tannins, fulvic acids and humic acids that may affect the composition and productivity of phytoplankton communities. Sontecomapan is a coastal lagoon located in the southern Gulf of Mexico, which receives abundant litter fall from mangrove. To study the phytoplankton composition and its variation in this lagoon from October 2002 to October 2003, we evaluated the concentrations of dissolved folin phenol active substances (FPAS) as a measure of plant organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH, O 2, N-NH 4+, N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-, Si-SiO 2, and phytoplanktonic cell density in different mangrove influence zones including the three main rivers that feed the lagoon. Nutrients concentrations depended on freshwater from rivers, however these varied seasonally. Concentrations of P-PO 43-, N-NH 4+ and FPAS were the highest in the dry season, when maximum mangrove litter fall is reported. Variation of these nutrients seemed to depend on the internal biogeochemical processes of the lagoon. Blooms of diatoms ( Skeletonema spp., Cyclotella spp. and Chaetoceros holsaticus) and dinoflagellates ( Peridinium aff. quinquecorne, Prorocentrum cordatum) occurred seasonally and in the different mangrove influence zones. The high cell densities in these zones and the occurrence of certain species and its ordination along gradient of FPAS in a canonical correspondence analysis, suggest that plant organic matter (i.e. mangrove influence) may contribute to phytoplankton dynamics in Sontecomapan lagoon.
The southern portion of the Venice lagoon contains a relatively thick (up to 20 m) Holocene sedimentary body that represents a detailed record of the formation and evolution of the lagoon. New very high-resolution (VHR) seismic profiles provided a detailed investigation on depositional geometries, internal bounding surfaces and stratal relationships. These informations, combined with core analysis, allowed the identification of large- to medium-scale sedimentary structures (e.g. dunes, point bars), the corresponding sedimentary environment, and of retrogradational and progradational trends. In addition, the availability of dense seismic network produced a 3D reconstruction of the southern lagoon and the recognition of the along-strike and dip variability of the stratal architecture. Three main seismic units (H1-H3), separated by key stratal surfaces (S1-S3), form the Holocene succession in the southern Venice lagoon. This succession is bounded at the base by the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary (the surface S1), which consists of a surface of subaerial exposure locally subjected to river incision. The lower part of the Holocene succession (up to 13 m thick) consists of incised valley fills passing upward into lagoon and then shallow-marine sediments (Unit H1), and therefore shows a deepening-upward trend and a retrogradational stacking pattern. A prograding delta and adjacent shorelines, showing internal clinoforms downlapping onto the top of Unit H1 (the surface S2), form the middle part of the Holocene succession (Unit H2, up to 7.5 m thick). Unit H2 is interpreted as a result of a regressive phase started about 6 kyr BP and continued until recent time. The upper part of the Holocene succession (Unit H3) consists of lagoonal deposits, including tidal channel and tidal and subtidal flat sediments, that abruptly overlie Unit H2. Unit H3 is thought to represent a drowning of the area primarily due to human interventions that created rivers diversion and consequent delta abandonment during historical time.
Shu'aiba Lagoon (Lat. 20°45'N; Long. 39°28'E) is located on the eastern coast of the Red Sea. It is relatively shallow with an area of approximately 11·7 km 2. The inlet to the lagoon is narrow with a cross-sectional area of about 245 m 2. This lagoon is a future site to develop mariculture. With this objective in view the flushing time scale of the lagoon was calculated, as flushing is an important abiotic factor in lagoon ecology. The average flushing time for the months February to June and September to November is about 20 days. Oceanic inputs play an important part in the process of fertilization of the lagoons. The marine environment in arid zone lagoons is under natural stress due to high temperatures and salinities. However, the flushing time scale of 20 days may not exert intolerable stress on the ecology of the Shu'aiba Lagoon.
Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low ?g/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river. PMID:23314119
Radium is considered to be an excellent tracer of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and, therefore, has been used in many studies of this process in the past decade. Comprehensive surveys of excess 223,224Ra activity were completed in the surface waters of the Venice Lagoon over 6 seasons in order to quantify seasonal variation of SGD into the lagoon. The mass balance of radium found that SGD was 5-26 times greater than total river discharge (35.5 m3 s-1), and that total SGD could differ by almost an order of magnitude pending season. Several possible parameters, which may cause the seasonal variation, were tested. These included precipitation events, average tidal elevation, average tidal excursion, wind speed and direction, yet none provided a satisfactory explanation for the difference. Residence time based on a hydrodynamic model, however, was very strongly correlated with the observed variation. When the average residence time in the lagoon was low (5 days) the SGD was calculated to be 930 m3 s-1 and when the average residence time was high (9 days) the SGD was quantified as 160 m3 s-1. Radioactive decay is already accounted for in the mass balance model and therefore this correlation must be explained by another process. The Venice Lagoon is characterized by low residence time during periods of spring tides and bora or northerly winds, both of which create exceptionally strong currents in the Venice Lagoon. The currents as well as the large tidal excursion which occurs at spring tides drive a recirculation of seawater through the surface sediments, which greatly increases short-lived Ra activity in the surface waters. This evidence suggests, therefore, that short-lived Ra mass balance studies, which are based on a single survey, may under or overestimate the mean annual SGD pending the hydrodynamics of the investigated location.
The main aspects of the summertime circulation and dynamics of the Patos Lagoon, a system located in southern Brazil and considered as one of the world's largest choked coastal lagoons, are studied through the analysis of time series of wind stress, water level and freshwater discharge, combined with the results of a barotropic circulation model. The longitudinal wind component has been verified as the main driving force, generating a set-up/set-down mechanism of oscillation with the nodal line in the midlagoon area. The period of this oscillation coincides with the passages of frontal systems for this region. The sea breeze acts as a secondary effect, being clearly observed in the northern part of the lagoon. Freshwater discharge is expected to cause variations in water level on the seasonal band and to a lesser degree in the 8-15 day time-scale. The tidal signal is of importance only near the exit to the ocean, being strongly reduced in the interior of the lagoon. Model results suggest a wind set-up momentum balance in the longitudinal direction in the deeper parts of the lagoon; near the margins, the longitudinal momentum balance is mostly of frictional form, with the wind stress being balanced by the bottom friction. In the lateral direction, a geostrophic balance is verified in both regions. The wind forced circulation is characterized by the presence of several cells with downwind velocity near the margins and upwind return flow occurring in the central areas.
The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactivation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was fill...
M. D. Little R. C. Badeaux R. S. Reimers T. G. Akers W. D. Henriques
Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had twofold objectives: 1] quantify denitrification e...
Three anaerobic swine lagoons in the Southern Coastal Plain of South Carolina were monitored for two years to determine the effects of lagoon seepage on the groundwater. A series of shallow monitoring wells were installed at each lagoon, mostly on the dow...
The aim of this work was to determine the caloric density of leaves, stems a nd roots of aquatic macrophytes in different environments of the Baía subsystem (Baía river and Fechada and Guaraná lagoons) on the Upper Paraná river floodplain, in addition to identify the variability between ecological groups. Samplings of Eichhornia crassipes , Salvinia spp , Pistia stratiotes ,
Célia de Almeida Lopes; Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria; Gislaine Iachstel Manetta; Evanilde Benedito-Cecilio
The present work aimed to identify the main environmental drivers shaping temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities within a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Sediments in the Óbidos lagoon showed a gradient of increasing metal contamination from the inlet area to inner branches. The mid-lower lagoon area exhibited an intermediate contaminated condition between the inlet and upstream areas, suggesting that the
Susana Carvalho; Patrícia Pereira; Fábio Pereira; Hilda de Pablo; Carlos Vale; Miguel B. Gaspar
Lagoon systems have particular ecological, morphological and hydrodynamic characteristics and act like transitional zones between inland and open waters. The aim of this study is to develop a Lagoon Water Quality Index (L-WQI) for environmental control of polluted lagoon systems by focusing on primary problems such as increasing stress on aquatic biota, eutrophication and organic pollution. The indicators used in
Of the only known two Lagoon populations of Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella) in the world, one is residing in the Chilika Lagoon in Orissa state, India. In addition to accidental deaths in gill net fishery and mechanized boat operations, there has been exploitation of the species for their oil. Extreme patchy distribution and vulnerability to becoming entangled in fishing gear has made it a focus of conservation concern. Information on genetic diversity of populations has considerable potential for informing conservation plans. The present paper reports the first genetic study of O. brevirostris from Chilika Lagoon based on mtDNA sequencing and PCR-based sex identification from 11 individuals. Control region sequence comparison showed two haplotypes and cytochrome b a single haplotype in the Chilika population of the species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated distinct clades within the Asian samples, with the Indian population showing closest genetic proximity to the haplotypes from Thailand. Sex of the animal was determined by PCR-based method. It is important to continue to examine the population discreteness and genetic variation of Irrawaddy dolphin in Chilika Lagoon vis-à-vis its global geographic distribution for formulating the conservation plans of the species. PMID:20857220
Jayasankar, P; Patel, A; Khan, M; Das, P; Panda, S
The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 ?g g-1) to west (0.7 ?g g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (<16 ?m), as a consequence of transport and dispersion from the fluvial source through littoral and tidal currents. However, speciation analyses highlighted the presence of Hg sulphides in the coarse sandy fraction of sediments from the eastern area, as expected given the origin of the sedimentary material. Unlike Hg, the distribution of MeHg (0.47-7.85 ng g-1) does not show a clear trend. MeHg constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably good correlation between MeHg normalized to humic acid (HA) content and humic ?13C indicates that MeHg is preferentially associated with autochthonous ?13C-enriched HAs in lagoon surface sediments, suggesting that the structure of "marine" HAs, less refractory and less aromatic, could favor MeHg binding and/or production. In the context of the potential hazard of Hg and MeHg accumulation in reared clams, the choice of a site for the extension of farming activities inside the Marano and Grado Lagoon is dependent on several factors and cannot be decided solely on the basis of the total Hg content in the sediment.
... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria Â§ 258.42 Approval...Indian Community (SRPMIC), Salt River Landfill Research, Development, and Demonstration...this section applies to the Salt River Landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill...
The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is a well known H h region in the constellation of Sagittarius. It is one of the most studied objects in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and has been examined at all wavelengths from the radio to the gamma ray region. This study will concentrate on the optical region using CCD images taken through filters centered at select wavelengths. These wavelengths are important to understanding the physics of the nebula and include emission lines of the following ions: O(sup ++) at lambda(lambda)4363,5007, N(sup +) at lambda(lambda)5755,6584, S(sup +) at lambda(lambda)6717,6731 and H(sup +) at lambda(lambda)4861,6563. The first two sets of lines are used to determine the electron temperature (Te) of the nebula, the next pair is used to calculate the electron density (Ne) and the final pair is used to determine the amount of light which is scattered due to dust in the nebula. The CCD images used in this study were obtained at San Pedro Matir Observatory in Baja, Mexico, using the 2.12 meter telescope. The images were reduced using the Image Reduction Analysis Facility (IRAF). Corrections to the raw data included bias subtraction, dark subtraction, cosmic ray removal and corrections for flat field differences. Additional steps were necessary to produce the final images, which are Te and Ne maps of the nebula. These steps will be discussed. The maps show variations in temperature and density on a pixel-by-pixel level. The O(sup ++) images clearly show high ionization regions in the nebula near the ionizing stars, as expected, Some of the most dramatic variations can be seen in the sulfur images. Clumps, ridges and arcs of high density material are clear and well defined. These maps are used to better understand the physical conditions in M8 and the chemical abundances in the nebula.
The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal
Coastal and inshore areas of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon receive substantial amounts of material from adjacent developed catchments, which can affect the ecological integrity of coral reefs and other inshore ecosystems. A 5-year water quality monitoring dataset provides a 'base range' of water quality conditions for the inshore GBR lagoon and illustrates the considerable temporal and spatial variability in this system. Typical at many sites were high turbidity levels and elevated chlorophyll a and phosphorus concentrations, especially close to river mouths. Water quality variability was mainly driven by seasonal processes such as river floods and sporadic wind-driven resuspension as well as by regional differences such as land use. Extreme events, such as floods, caused large and sustained increases in water quality variables. Given the highly variable climate in the GBR region, long-term monitoring of marine water quality will be essential to detect future changes due to improved catchment management. PMID:22142496
A large number of estuarine site development lagoon systems have been constructed along the New Jersey shore with little, if any, knowledge regarding the true nature of the system being created and its impact on the existing natural estuarine system. A co...
G. F. Walton G. H. Nieswand S. J. Toth C. W. Stillman J. R. Westman
Recent publications of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and high levels of potential surficial oxygen transfer indicated that large amounts of nitrogen may be removed via denitrification in anaerobic lagoons. If this denitrification is occurring via classical denitrification, the denitrification...
Although the colonisation of coastal rivers on the Atlantic and Mediterranean coast by glass eels, Anguilla anguilla, has been well studied and understood, the colonisation of lagoons by glass eels is much less known. For the first time in\\u000a the Mediterranean region, the installation of a glass eel fish-pass in Grau de la Fourcade channels in the Rhône delta enabled
A. J. Crivelli; N. Auphan; P. Chauvelon; A. Sandoz; J.-Y. Menella; G. Poizat
Although the colonisation of coastal rivers on the Atlantic and Mediterranean coast by glass eels, Anguilla anguilla, has been well studied and understood, the colonisation of lagoons by glass eels is much less known. For the first time in\\u000a the Mediterranean region, the installation of a glass eel fish-pass in Grau de la Fourcade channels in the Rhône delta enabled
A. J. Crivelli; N. Auphan; P. Chauvelon; A. Sandoz; J.-Y. Menella; G. Poizat
|Describes a tribal school with a mission to gang-involved youth in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (Arizona). Explains disciplinary actions; involvement of parents, teachers, and police; and requirements for student participation in various activities. (LRW)|
1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ
Coastal lagoon beaches are typically characterized by a seasonal berm that separates the lagoon mouth from the open ocean during summer months and is temporarily breached and eroded offshore as a result of higher wave energy during winter months. Seasonal morphodynamic changes on a coastal lagoon pocket beach in Santa Cruz, California were monitored from August 2010 to April 2011. Monthly total station GPS surveys were conducted on Younger Lagoon Reserve beach in conjunction with monthly grain size analyses. A time series comparison of beach profiles extracted from shore-normal transects reveals that the berm fronting the lagoon mouth did not erode with increasing wave energy during the winter months as expected, but either stayed fixed while the foreshore steepened or migrated horizontally across shore. Berm height is likely maintained by wave overtopping of the berm crest at the lagoon mouth during high tides or storm events. Foreshore steepening occurs in conjunction with an increase in coarse sediment fraction and is consistent with increasing wave energy and turbulent swash interaction. Cross-shore sediment transport in the foreshore fronting the lagoon mouth is likely enhanced by infiltration and exfiltration of water on the shoreface due to the position of the water table with respect to the maximum swash runup. Coastal lagoon beach berm behavior and the subsequent extent of lagoon-ocean mixing has important implications for coastal water quality and lagoon ecosystem dynamics.
The estuarine area of coastal lagoons and freshwater-influenced regions presents periodically stratified and destratified conditions. The Patos Lagoon, one of the most important hydrological resources in South America, is located in the southernmost part of Brazil and exhibits such variable conditions. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of straining and advection to the modulation of stratification conditions in the Patos Lagoon estuarine region using potential energy anomaly budgets. This study was based a three-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model that provided information for the potential energy anomaly equation and wavelet analysis. Results from the potential energy anomaly time series revealed strong variability over a timescale of several days following local wind action and the river discharge pattern. Each part of the estuary exhibited contrasting regimes that were spatially distributed with a different balance of terms. The upper part was dominated by along-shore currents associated with east-west wind component and gravitational flux. Contribution from cross-shore advection became important in the middle part of the estuary, where there was an increase in superficial area observed. The lower region was controlled by the north-south wind component being influenced by advection, cross-shore straining, and transversal circulation, suggesting that current velocity maintained transversal pressure gradients and further circulation. Nonlinear interactions between deviations in the dispersion terms and vertical density and velocity were important everywhere but were associated with modulation effects.
Marques, Wilian C.; Fernandes, Elisa H. L.; Rocha, Luiz A. O.
The morphologic changes in estuaries and coastal lagoons are very complex and constitute a challenging task in coastal research. The bathymetric changes result from the combined action of tides, waves, rivers discharge and wind stress in the area of interest. Additionally, an accurate knowledge of the sediment transport is essential to achieve a good morphological characterization. This work establishes the influence of the wave climate on the morphodynamics of the Ria de Aveiro lagoon inlet by analysing the numerical results of the morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D. The numerical simulations considered a realistic coupled forcing of tidal currents and waves. The computed sediment fluxes and bathymetric changes are analysed and compared with the erosion and accretion trends obtained from the numerical simulations forced only by tidal currents, in order to establish the wave climate influence. The final bathymetry and the corresponding changes are compared with bathymetric data collected through surveys. It is concluded that: (a) the morphodynamics of the study area is dominated by the wave regime in the lagoon inlet and nearshore areas, while in the inner areas is tidally dominated; and (b) the inclusion of the wave regime forcing constitutes an improvement in order to accurately reproduce the local morphodynamics.
Plecha, Sandra; Silva, Paulo A.; Oliveira, Anabela; Dias, João M.
|With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…
Humanity's resourcefulness inspired two attempts to draw life out of the desolation of Central Arizona's Salt River Valley over the past 1,500 years. Building over the remains of an irrigation culture left behind by lost Indian tribe, the Hohokam, federal...
working and living on the wind riverindian reservation Research on social problems among American Indians consistently expresses a sequential narrative. Whether research focuses on poverty, poor health, low academic achievement, teen pregnancy, unemployment, or any other social problem, the discussion rests foremost on an overriding concern for the chronic and deep poverty of reservation Indians. The conclusions, though they
The Marano and Grado lagoon, one of the largest wetlands in the Mediterranean Sea, has been subject to mercury contamination by industrial and mining activities. This must be considered a severe threat for Manila clam harvesting, which is an important fishing and commercial activity in the area. Contamination levels and potential risk for human consumption both in reared and wild clams collected from the lagoon were assessed by analyzing total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contents. In addition, relationships between THg and MeHg in sediments and in the bivalves were investigated. Increased bioaccumulation of THg but not of MeHg with increasing size of wild clam populations was observed at most sites. Higher concentrations both of THg (605 ± 210 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (147 ± 37 ng g-1 ww) were detected in the eastern lagoon where the highest THg contents in sediments were observed as a consequence of the long-term supply of cinnabar rich suspended material from the Isonzo river. The variation of Hg content in seeded Manila clams during growth was monitored over a period of 18 months at two sites of the western sector of the lagoon. Results showed that the two areas were suitable for clam farming, with THg levels in reared bivalves always lower than the 0.5 mg kg-1 ww European Community limit. At the same time, as clams grew bigger in size, their THg and MeHg concentrations decreased, becoming lower than in the starting seeded pool. Reared clams presented lower THg (84 ± 55 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (44.1 ± 24.6 ng g-1 ww) content than wild clams of the same commercial size (>30 mm). Based on a precautionary approach, intake of Hg and MeHg with the estimated clam consumption does not seem to constitute a risk for human health in the studied area.
The spatial distribution of silicate, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen in Obidos lagoon was obtained by surveying five sites in eight campaigns, between October 2004 and October 2006. A confined inner branch of the lagoon showed higher availability of ammonium (1.2-81 micromol l(-1)), phosphate (1.9-17 micromol l(-1)), silicate (0.85-86 micromol l(-1)) and chlorophyll a (0.30-18 microg l(-1)) than other sites (0.47-25 micromol l(-1), 0.10-3.9 micromol l(-1), 0.47-25 micromol l(-1), 0.25-11 microg l(-1), respectively). According to several trophic classification tools, that branch is considered eutrophic to polytrophic, emphasising its deteriorated conditions, while the rest of the lagoon is of better quality. In autumn/winter nutrients were inversely correlated to salinity (r > 0.93) reflecting the freshwater inputs enriched in nitrogen and phosphorous compounds to the inner branch. In warmer periods, dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped during the night, and sediments of the branch become an important source of ammonium and phosphate. The low DIN:P ratio (median = 10) obtained in the branch, which suggests an excess of phosphate, that increased in warmer periods and changed the limiting nutrient in the entire lagoon. These results emphasize the spatial heterogeneity of water quality in Obidos lagoon, its seasonal variability, and the importance of recognising these distributions before defining homogenous water body on the scope of Water Framework Directive. PMID:18512123
Pereira, Patrícia; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Franco, Vanda; Nogueira, Marta
The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic\\u000a Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control\\u000a of the hydraulic dynamics of the laggon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon
The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.
The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and off-stream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements were signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Two landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and one chose OWEB as a funding source. Two landowners implemented there own enhancement measures protecting 3 miles of stream. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin. We provided input to the John Day Summary prepared for the NWPPC by ODFW. The Tribe worked with the Umatilla National Forest on the Clear Creek Dredgetailings Rehabilitation project and coordinated regularly with USFS Fisheries, Hydrology and Range staff.
Paleontological data suggest that coral populations in the Caribbean were consistently healthy for the past 2 3 k.y. Beginning in the 1980s, however, disease outbreaks, bleaching episodes, hurricanes, and other perturbations caused catastrophic coral mortality and regional turnover. An alternative hypothesis, based on historical sources, posits that coral populations were already declining more than a century ago. These hypotheses can be distinguished only if turnover events are reliably preserved in the Holocene record of coral reefs. Push-cores extracted from uncemented lagoonal reefs in Belize showed that a direct hit by Hurricane Iris in 2001 did not disrupt the signature of the recent turnover event, which entered the subfossil record essentially intact. Cores from lagoonal systems in several areas of the Caribbean do not support the hypothesis that corals declined before the 1980s.
Aronson, Richard B.; MacIntyre, Ian G.; Precht, William F.
The Coorong is a choked coastal lagoon in South Australia that forms part of the terminal lake system at the end of the River Murray, Australia's major river. It is an inverse estuary with a constricted channel connection to the sea at one end and extends parallel to the coast for more than 100 km away from this inlet. The present paper considers the physical dynamics of the Coorong, particularly its ecologically important salinity and water level regimes, and how these respond to connectedness with the ocean, barrage flows and meteorological conditions. The approach combines hydrodynamic modelling with measurements and considers temporal variation in the system ranging from seasonal to multi-decadal timescales. The Coorong is relatively unusual in that the major freshwater input occurs through barrages much closer to the estuary mouth than to its head. Thus, the barrage flows only 'flush' the Coorong between the barrages and the sea. Over most of its length, salt accumulating through evapo-concentration mixes back out of the system by fluctuating water motions caused by sea level variations propagating through the inlet channel and by wind. By scouring the inlet channel on a seasonal basis, barrage flows facilitate the penetration of sea level variations into the Coorong leading to enhanced along-lagoon mixing. Further, barrage flows freshen the waters near the seaward end of the system causing water of lower salt content than sea water to replace evaporative losses in its interior. By increasing the water depth in the system, barrage flows facilitate the exchange between the North and South Lagoons of the Coorong which are its two major basins. The modelling supported by measurements shows how the salinity regime in the Coorong appears to have responded to multi-year cycles of variation in discharge of the River Murray over the last 50 years. Even before the present drought, which has seen salinity in the South Lagoon exceed four times sea water, the lagoon was dominantly hypersaline. The modelling suggests that the significant reductions in freshwater inflows to the Coorong due to water resource development would have caused the South Lagoon to evolve from a state of being usually brackish to marine into its present hypersaline state. The conceptual understanding of the Coorong's physical dynamics and their encapsulation in a hydrodynamic model are enabling strategies to be evaluated for alleviation of its present degraded condition, and for its improved future management.
This work discusses the temporal variation of metal concentrations in a hypertrophic coastal lagoon located in the metropolitan\\u000a area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The lagoon watershed includes one of the mostly densely urbanized areas of the city but without\\u000a industrial activities. Six sediment cores were collected in the lagoon between May and July 2003 and analyzed for the concentration
Daniel Dias Loureiro; Marcos A. Fernandez; Friedrich W. Herms; Luiz D. Lacerda
For the first time, organotins have been assessed in samples collected from Bizerte lagoon, in Tunisia, during two seasons (summer and winter). The organotin distribution was studied in marine sediments and mussels tissues of this lagoon. Butyl-, phenyl- and octyltins were determined using a rapid speciation analytical method based on one-step ethylation/extraction with sodium tetraethylborate in aqueous phase. Simultaneously to the ethylation, the extraction was performed by either liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) or head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) was used to perform quantitative determination. The technique has been validated using biological and sediment reference materials. The different samples from Bizerte lagoon were found to be moderately contaminated, especially by butyltins. This pollution was attributed to industrial activities, which are very important in this area. Organotins appeared accumulated in both sediments and mussels, while significant degradations of triorganotins to monosubstituted ones was observed in water. PMID:16198682
Mzoughi, N; Lespes, G; Bravo, M; Dachraoui, M; Potin-Gautier, M
A 412-layer model with active thermodynamics and mixed-layer physics is used to isolate effects on salinity distributions in the Indian Ocean that result from various forcing mechanisms. These forcings include evaporation (E) and precipitation (P) through the ocean surface and inflows across basin boundaries by river runoff in the Bay of Bengal, the Indonesian Throughflow, the Persian Gulf, and the
The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…
Long-term non-linear ecosystem-scale changes in water quality and biotic communities in coastal lagoons have been associated with intensification of anthropogenic pressures. In light of incipient changes in Johnson Bay (an embayment of Chincoteague Bay, Maryland-Virginia, USA), examination of nitrogen sources was conducted through synoptic water quality monitoring, stable nitrogen isotope signatures (?15N) of in situ bioindicators, and denitrification estimates. These data were placed in the context of long-term and broader spatial analyses. Despite various watershed protection efforts, multiyear summer time studies (2004-2007) suggested that high levels of terrestrially derived nutrients still enter Johnson Bay. Total nitrogen concentrations in Johnson Bay were 132% the concentrations in the broader Chincoteague Bay during the late 1970s (mean 2004-2007 was 40.0 - 73.2 ?M). Comparing total nitrogen concentrations in Johnson Bay to St. Martin River (consistently the most eutrophic region of these coastal bays), Johnson Bay has increased from 62.5% to 82.5% of the concentrations in St. Martin River during the late 1970s. Though specific sources of nitrogen inputs have not yet been definitively identified, the long-term increase in total nitrogen concentrations occurred despite increased and continued conservation and protection measures. We suggest that investigating nutrient sources can reveal potentially ineffective nutrient policies and that this knowledge can be applied towards other coastal lagoons.
Fertig, B.; O'Neil, J. M.; Beckert, K. A.; Cain, C. J.; Needham, D. M.; Carruthers, T. J. B.; Dennison, W. C.
The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2007-January 31, 2008) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Camp Creek, Greasewood Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying five fish passage barriers on four creeks, (2) planting 1,275 saplings and seeding 130 pounds of native grasses, (3) constructing two miles of riparian fencing for livestock exclusion, (4) coordinating activities related to the installation of two off-channel, solar-powered watering areas for livestock, and (5) developing eight water gap access sites to reduce impacts from livestock. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at all existing easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the life of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety of fisheries monitoring techniques and habitat assessments used to determine existing conditions and identify factors limiting anadromous salmonid abundance. Proper selection and implementation of the most effective site-specific habitat restoration plan, taking into consideration the unique characteristics of each project site, and conducted in cooperation with landowners and project partners, was of paramount importance to ensure each project's success.
Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation programs. The aim of this work was to describe shorebirds temporal and spatial distribution in Barra de Navidad lagoon during three non-breeding seasons (1999-2000, 2006-2007 and 2008-2009). For this, monthly censuses were performed from November-April with the purpose of registering all the shorebirds species. We were able to identify 19 shorebirds species (three residents and 16 winter visitors), of which Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa and Tringa semipalmata were the most abundant. The greater number of species was registered for November, December and March of the first and third seasons. The greater number of individuals was registered when birds were feeding during low tides, mainly in December, January and February of the first and third seasons. At low tide, there was a great number of species and individuals in zone C. This area had muddy substrates that were exposed during low tides and were used to feed. Barra de Navidad lagoon provided suitable habitats for feeding and resting for resident and migratory birds. Twelve of the 19 species were considered as priority within the Mexican bird conservation strategy. However, these habitats are threatened by human activities performed in the nearby areas of the lagoon that may have negative consequences for the distribution, abundance and conservation of these species. PMID:23025100
Hernández, Salvador; Serrano, Sergio; Hernández, Xóchitl A; Robles, María Isabel
Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in freshwater lagoons and among marine migrant species.
Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María
An inventory of estuarine site development lagoon systems along the New Jersey shore was developed for that portion of the shoreline extending from Sandy Hook to Cape May Point. Lagoon systems were identified by a visual inspection of air photo index shee...
A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...
Anaerobic lagoons are used for the treatment of meat packing wastes in most areas of the country. They are a relatively low cost means of achieving BOD reduction. Although lagoon effluent is not suitable for stream discharge, it is amenable to further treatment or to land applica...
This study attempts to detect anthropogenic Nitrate. Our site was a basaltic lagoon at Waiopae, on the island of Hawaii. The highest concentrations of Nitrate detected was at the surface layer during low tide. Nitrate concentrations negatively correlated with Chloride\\/Salinity and Bromide within the lagoon. The data suggest that freshwater and Nitrate moved from upland to the ocean. Water samples
The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the lagoon system and to evalu...
This report covers nutrient control in a serially arranged, multicell aerated lagoon system over a three year period. The objective was to develop reliable technology for reducing phosphorus and for converting ammonia-nitrogen to nitrate-nitrogen. A six-cell lagoon was modified i...
This report summarizes the results of a two year study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a 143 MG facultative lagoon for treating combined sewer overflow and polishing secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent. The lagoon performance was evaluated for changes in the deg...
Marabasco is a tropical river-estuary system comprising the Marabasco river and the Barra de Navidad Lagoon. The river is impacted by the Peña Colorada iron mine, which produces 3.5 million tons of pellets per year. Thirteen surface sediment samples were collected in May 2005 (dry season) in order to establish background levels of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb,
Ana Judith Marmolejo-Rodríguez; Ricardo Prego; Alejandro Meyer-Willerer; Evgueni Shumilin; Antonio Cobelo-García
Miller Sands, an island-lagoon complex located in the Columbia River Estuary at River Kilometre 39 (River Mile 24) was one of five research projects where the feasibility of using dredged material for beneficial habitat development was studied. The study ...
R. J. McConnell S. J. Lipovsky D. A. Misitano D. R. Craddock J. R. Hughes
The "MIRACLE" Project was established in order to assess the feasibility of clam farming and high levels of sediment mercury (Hg) contamination coexisting in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy. This lagoon has been subjected to Hg input from both industrial waste (chlor-alkali plant) and long-term mining activity (Idrija mine, NW Slovenia). One of the subtasks of the "MIRACLE" Project was to determine the historical evolution of Hg accumulation in the lagoon's bottom sediments. Thirteen 1-m deep sediment cores were collected from the subtidal and intertidal zones, plus one in a saltmarsh, all of which were then analyzed for total Hg content and several physicochemical parameters. Sedimentation rate assessments were performed by measuring short-lived radionuclides (excess 210Pb and 137Cs). For most of the analyzed cores, natural background levels of Hg were observed at depths of 50-100 cm. In the eastern area, Hg contamination was found to be at its maximum level at the core top (up to 12 ?g g-1) as a consequence of the long-term mining activity. The vertical distribution of Hg was related to the influence of the single-point contamination sources, whereas the grain-size variability or organic matter content seemed not to affect it. In the western area, Hg content at the surface was found not to exceed 7 ?g g-1 and contamination was recorded only in the first 20-30 cm. Geochronological measurements showed that the depositional flux of Hg was influenced by anthropogenic inputs after 1800, when mining activity was more intense. After 1950, Hg in the surface sediment, most remarkable in the central-western sector, seemed to also be affected by the discharge of the Aussa River, which delivers Hg from the chlor-alkali plant. In 1996, Hg mining at Idrija ceased, however the core profiles did not show any subsequent decreasing trend in terms of Hg flux, which implies the system retaining some "memory" of contamination. Thus, in the short term, a decrease in Hg inputs into the nearby Gulf of Trieste and the lagoon seems unlikely. A preliminary rounded-down gross estimate of total Hg "trapped" in the lagoon's sediments amounted to 251 t. Such a quantity, along with the complexity of the lagoon ecosystem, suggests that an in toto reclamation of the sediments at the lagoon scale is unfeasible, both economically and environmentally.
Covelli, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Acquavita, Alessandro; Piani, Raffaella; Emili, Andrea
The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control of the hydraulic dynamics of the lagoon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon is subjected to considerable pollutant loading through the drainage of land under cultivation, municipal sewage, and industrial effluents. In this paper are reported the results of observations designed to document recent changes in macroalgal species composition, seasonal cycles of primary producers and nutrient levels, and the effects of the macroalgal community on concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants. The dominant macroalgae in the lagoon was Ulva rigida, and the levels of plant nutrients and pollutants were influenced by the seasonal cycles of the macroalgal community. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Sfriso, A.; Pavoni, B.; Marcomini, A.; Orio, A.A. (Department of Environmental Sciences, Venezia (Italy))
Studies of aerial photographs, bathymetric charts and sedimentation patterns show that the lagoons of Aitutaki and Manuae, in the Southern Cook Group, are much shallower than average Pacific atoll lagoons and that movement of present-day sediment into the lagoons is burying coral knolls which probably formed during the post-glacial rise in sea level; both lagoons are steadily silting up.
The Orbetello lagoon, one of the largest Western Mediterranean lagoons, was affected by high algal blooms and severe anoxic crises in 1992 and 1993, with fish mortality throughout most of the lagoon and a drastic reduction of benthic species. Many measures were undertaken between 1994 and 1996 to remove the severe eutrophication of this lagoon. Such measures included harvesting of
Materials presented in this resource guide are the direct result of an American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Development Workshop. Activities consist of nine flannelboard stories (including The Fire War, How Coyote Made the Columbia River, Legend of the Mayan Moon God); two games (American Indian Games and Indian Picture Symbol Checkerboard);…
|Materials presented in this resource guide are the direct result of an American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Development Workshop. Activities consist of nine flannelboard stories (including The Fire War, How Coyote Made the Columbia River, Legend of the Mayan Moon God); two games (American Indian Games and Indian Picture Symbol Checkerboard);…
Nineteen short vignettes depicting recent incidents involving various forms of aggressiveness and nationalism on the part of Indians are employed by the author to suggest a modern American Indian renaissance, led primarily by articulate, and at times militant, Indian youth who are dissatisfied with the manner in which the American Indian is still…
|This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…
This issue of "The Goldfinch" examines the history of American Indians in Iowa. This volume's featured articles include: "Encounter"; "Iowa Earthworks"; "The Long Way Home"; "How One Learns, a Mesquakie Woman's Life Story"; "Indians of Iowa"; "Little Brother Snares the Sun"; "Being Indian in an Urban World"; and "Indian Wars Myth." (DB)
|This issue of "The Goldfinch" examines the history of American Indians in Iowa. This volume's featured articles include: "Encounter"; "Iowa Earthworks"; "The Long Way Home"; "How One Learns, a Mesquakie Woman's Life Story"; "Indians of Iowa"; "Little Brother Snares the Sun"; "Being Indian in an Urban World"; and "Indian Wars Myth." (DB)|
|A product of Michigan's Indian Education Project, this report includes two proposals designed to help meet the educational needs of Michigan American Indian students at various levels. The first of the two feasibility studies includes: a perspective on Michigan's American Indians; problems of Indian education (priorities, roots of the problem,…
Closure of the Clipperton Island atoll (10°17' N 109°13' W), now a meromictic lake, is estimated to have occurred between 1839 and 1849. It was still closed in 2005. Brackish waters in the upper layer (0-10 m) were oxygenated, while saline waters in the deep layer (>20 m) were anoxic. Allowing for the methodological difficulties of earlier measurements, the physical characteristics of the lagoon did not seem to have changed significantly since the last expedition (1980). The intermediate layer between brackish and saline waters was characterized by a strong density gradient and a temperature inversion of up to 1.6°C. Microbial activity, water exchange between the deep layer and surrounding oceanic waters and the geothermal flux hypothesis are discussed. The low DIN and SRP concentrations observed in the upper layer, despite high nutrient input by seabird droppings, reflect the high nutrient uptake by primary producers as attested by the elevated overall gross primary production (6.6 g C m-2 day-1), and high suspended photosynthetic biomass (2.23 ± 0.23 ?g Chl a l-1) and production (263 ± 27 ?g C l-1 day-1). Phytoplankton composition changed in 67 years with the advent of new taxa and the disappearance of previously recorded species. The freshwater phytoplanktonic community comprised 43 taxa: 37 newly identified during the expedition and 6 previously noted; 16 species previously found were not seen in 2005. The closure of the lagoon, combined with the positive precipitation-evaporation budget characteristic of the region, has induced drastic changes in lagoon functioning compared with other closed atolls.
Charpy, L.; Rodier, M.; Couté, A.; Perrette-Gallet, C.; Bley-Loëz, C.
Coastal lagoons are considered to be among the most productive ecosystems in the world. Many of them support important fisheries, and some of them maintain intensive and extensive aquacultural exploitations. Their particular features, such as shallowness, relative isolation and protection from the sea, and the presence of boundaries with strong physical and ecological gradients help explain this high productivity. Despite the fact that coastal lagoons are among the most studied ecosystems in the world, our knowledge on fisheries in coastal lagoons or why some lagoons capable of maintaining profitable fisheries seem inadequate for intensive aquaculture remains limited. Scarce, too, is our knowledge of the characteristics of target species, their exploitation status, and the ecological processes that are affected by fisheries or that influence them, including the impact of human activities or climatic change. Here, we review present day knowledge on lagoon fisheries and analyse gaps in the science, stressing the need for adequate management of these important resources.
A total of 312 samples in two experiments were analyzed to determine mean nutrient concentrations of swine lagoons and hoop barns in Kansas. First, in a retrospective study (Exp. 1), we obtained 41 sample analyses from the Kansas Department of Agriculture of sow, nursery, wean-to-finish, finish, and farrow-to-finish operations in 1999. The average total N concentration was 899 ppm (SD = 584 ppm), while the total P concentration was 163 ppm (SD = 241 ppm). In an attempt to reduce the variation, we conducted a prospective experiment standardizing collection procedure, laboratory techniques, phase of production, and season of year to more accurately determine the nutrient concentrations of swine lagoons in Kansas. In Exp. 2, we used 236 lagoon and 35 hoop barn manure samples taken in 2000 from Kansas swine operations to determine the impacts of production phase and season of the year on nutrient concentration. The different operations with swine lagoons were: 1) sow; 2) nursery; 3) wean-to-finish; 4) finish; and 5) farrow-to-finish, with a total of 9, 8, 7, 10, and 8 lagoons sampled from each phase of production, respectively. The total N and P concentrations from lagoons were 1,402 and 204 ppm, respectively, averaged over all samples. Concentrations of total N were higher in wean-to-finish and finishing lagoons (P < 0.05) compared with sow and farrow-to-finish lagoons. Lagoon analyses also revealed that N concentrations decreased (linear, P < 0.05) during the summer and fall compared with winter and early spring. The concentration of P was greater (P < 0.05) for wean-to-finish compared with farrow-to-finish lagoons. Phosphorus concentrations for all lagoons increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) from February until June, but then declined steady throughout the remainder of the year. Average total N and P in hoop barns were 8,678 and 4,364 ppm, respectively. No seasonal changes in N and P concentrations were observed in manure from hoop barns. Season and type of production phase affect the nutrient content of Kansas swine lagoons, and producers will benefit from obtaining individual analyses from their lagoons when developing nutrient management plans rather than utilizing published reference values. PMID:12211372
DeRoucheys, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Murphy, J P
Almost the entire suspended load of Yamuna River is transported during the monsoon period; quartz and illite are the dominant minerals of these suspended sediments. Basin lithology, tributary contributions, and sediment grain size seem to control mineral distribution in the sediments. Trace metal concentrations of Yamuna core sediments reflect their mineralogical composition. Illite is the chief clay mineral of the Himalayan river sediments. The mineralogical characteristics of the Himalayan river sediments differ significantly from the Peninsular Indianrivers, which chiefly carry montmorillonite.
River Ganga is the largest river of Indian subcontinent and it originates in the state of Uttarakhand. Because of its importance in Indian culture and dense population residing at banks, it faces several forced and unforced human activities. In the present study, Gangetic river system of Uttarakhand (India) was studied in detail for quality of water. Samples were collected from
Anchal Sood; Kamal Deep Singh; Piyush Pandey; Shivesh Sharma
Enteroviruses associate with aerobically and anaerobically digested sludge were determined before the addition of the sludge to a sludge lagoon. The fate of sludge-associated viruses was followed during detention of sludge in the lagoon and after application of sludge to land for disposal. While digested sludge was being added to the lagoon, enteroviruses were readily detected in grab samples of sludge from the lagoon. Sludge-associated viruses dropped to low or undetectable levels after disposal of sludge on land and during periods when addition of digested sludge to the lagoon was suspended. Changes in the levels of fecal coliforms in the lagooned sludge paralleled changes in the numbers of enteroviruses. Enteroviruses were not detected in water from deep wells located on the sludge disposal site or near the lagoon. During the initial part of the study, poliovirus serotypes accounted for greater than 90% of the viruses identified. Later, poliovirus serotypes comprised less than 40% of the virus isolates, and echoviruses and Coxsackieviruses were the most common enteroviruses identified.
Farrah, S R; Bitton, G; Hoffmann, E M; Lanni, O; Pancorbo, O C; Lutrick, M C; Bertrand, J E
Temperature data collected in the shallow, tidally isolated reef flat/lagoon of Lady Elliot Island off Queensland, Australia, show marked variability under solar and tidal forcing. Sea level drops below the height of the protective lagoon rim for a few hours during low tide, effectively isolating the remaining water. Because the lagoon is shallow, its temperature change (from diurnal solar forcing and cooling) is amplified. We develop a simple analytical model to predict the time evolution of mean lagoon temperature, beginning with a well-mixed control volume. This approach highlights the asymmetric flood/ebb physics of tidally isolated lagoons. After discussing the response of this model, we compare it with results from two idealized numerical simulations that illustrate differing aspects of lagoon temperature variability under "potential flow" and "prevailing current" situations. The conceptual model captures the essence of lagoon temperature variability and underscores the importance of solar-lunar phasing. However, because of the well-mixed assumption, it cannot reproduce sudden temperature transitions associated with new incoming water masses. Observations show that a slowly progressing thermal wave inundates the lagoon on rising tides. This wave is similar to our "potential flow" simulation in that it is approximately radially symmetric. On the other hand, it appears to advectively replace resident lagoon water, similar to our "prevailing current" simulations. We attempt to account for this behavior with a simple "frontal" modification to our conceptual model. Results show that this frontal model is able to capture the sudden temperature transitions present in the data and offers improved predictive capabilities over the well-mixed model.
McCabe, R. M.; Estrade, P.; Middleton, J. H.; Melville, W. K.; Roughan, M.; Lenain, L.
In the present work, we evaluated the origin of organic matter in the tropical estuarine-lagoon system of Mundaú–Manguaba,\\u000a NE Brazil, by considering the bulk (organic carbon and chlorophyll-a) and lipidic (n-alcohols and sterols) composition of suspended particles. Water samples were collected in August 2006 from\\u000a 24 stations covering the salinity gradient from the rivers down to the sea outlet. Chlorophyll-a
Talitha L. F. Costa; Michelle P. Araújo; Bastiaan A. Knoppers; Renato S. Carreira
Studies on biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the Chilka Lake, Asia’s largest brackish lagoon on the east coast of India,\\u000a revealed, for the first time, strong seasonal and spatial variability associated with salinity distribution. The lake was\\u000a studied twice during May 2005 (premonsoon) and August 2005 (monsoon). It exchanges waters with the sea (Bay of Bengal) and\\u000a several rivers open
G. V. M. Gupta; V. V. S. S. Sarma; R. S. Robin; A. V. Raman; M. Jai Kumar; M. Rakesh; B. R. Subramanian
Open-cast mining for Ni, Cr and Co was conducted in the south-west part of New Caledonia during the 20th century. Abandoned mining and prospecting sites were severely affected by erosion, resulting in an increase in the load of terrigenous particles transported to the coral reef lagoon. This article assesses the impact of a typical small catchment area (La Coulée River,
A study on nutrient regeneration processes and a measure of their fluxes at the sediment-water interface was carried out in two different stations of a shallow lagoon of the Po delta river (Italy). A few parameters on the solid fraction (grain-size, porosity, C, N) and pore water profiles of o-P, NH3, NOinf3sup-, SiO2, Tot-CO2, SOinf4sup2-, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, pH,
A. Barbanti; V. U. Ceccherelli; F. Frascari; G. Reggiani; G. Rosso
Measurements of the benthic flux of four naturally occurring radium isotopes in a shallow lagoon in the Bega River estuary has provided information on the types and rates of transport processes operating in the lagoon sediments. The measurement techniques included Ra mass budgets of the lagoon, Ra fluxes into benthic chambers, and modelling of the pore water and solid phase Ra profiles in a sediment core. The sediment profile of 210Pb, and the solid phase and pore-water profiles of the longer-lived Ra isotopes, 228Ra (half-life 5.7 years) and 226Ra (half-life 1600 years), indicate bioturbation to a depth of 10 cm. A diffusion-bioturbation model has been used to assess the relative importance of molecular diffusion and bioturbation as transport processes controlling the benthic flux of Ra. The flux of the shortest-lived isotope, 224Ra (half-life 3.7 days), is not significantly enhanced by bioturbation, and its flux is consistent with diffusion-controlled release. However bioturbation enhances the 228Ra flux by a factor of more than two over the flux due to molecular diffusion alone. Modelled pore-water profiles and flux calculations are consistent with a bioturbation time scale between 0.5 and 2 years. The measured benthic flux of 226Ra is much greater than can be accounted for by the modelled profile, and may be due to slow 226Ra desorption from the sediment, variable sediment accumulation rates, or groundwater flow. Based on 226Ra pore-water and flux measurements at the time of this study, groundwater flow has an upper limit of 0.3 cm d -1.
Hancock, G. J.; Webster, I. T.; Ford, P. W.; Moore, W. S.
The Odra flood transported large additional water masses into the Szczecin Lagoon area during a period of about one month. The dispersion of these water masses in the Szczecin Lagoon and southern Pomeranian Bight was simulated using the operational hydrodynamic model of the North Sea and Baltic Sea which is run at the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency of Germany (BSH). The model system is forced by meteorological forecast fields from the EUROPA model of the German Weather Service. As a result of the model simulation, the temporal development of the river plume can be described as follows: First the eastern part of Szczecin Lagoon, the Zalew Wielki, filled with flood water displacing “normal” runoff water from that area. After about a week, Odra flood water started to flow into the Pomeranian Bight. Its dispersion within Szczecin Lagoon was by no means uniform. The Kleines Haff, the western part of the Lagoon, was not much affected at first. When large marked water masses had already left the Zalew Wielki area throught the Swina river, maximally only about half the water volume in Kleines Haff had been replaced by Odra flood water (fig. 1). In the Pomeranian Bight, the concentration was higher at the coast of Usedom — at least initially — than at the coast of Wolin. After 30 August 1997, northwesterly winds caused “fresh” Baltic water to flow from the northern to the southern part of the Pomeranian Bight, pushing the water body marked by Odra water eastward along the coast of Wolin. At the same time, outflow began from Kleines Haff through the Peenestrom into the Greifswalder Bodden. Due to low atmospheric activity, and hence limited vertical mixing in summer, the proportion of freshwater in Baltic surface water reached about 50 % in the southern Pomeranian Bight. Near Rügen, it fell below 10 %. Later on, short periods of stronger wind caused major shifts of the water bodies concerned.
Current meter data obtained in IndianRiver Inlet and IndianRiver Bay, Delaware are analyzed to compute second order low-frequency tidal flow and tidally induced mean flow in the system. Results from least-squares harmonic analysis show that nonlinearly induced M4 currents in the inlet and bay occur at order 10 -1 of the M2 amplitudes, indicating weak nonlinearity in the system. Tidally rectified mean flow computed from Mm and Msf is ˜3 cm s -1, which is of the same order of magnitude as the observed mean current. The estimated low-frequency tidal flow and the tidally induced mean flow agree well with scalings computed for the inlet and with results found by Münchow et al. [Münchow, A., Masse, A.K., Garvine, R.W., 1992. Astronomical and nonlinear tidal currents in a coupled estuary shelf system. Continental Shelf Research 12, 471-498] in Delaware Bay.
Cyanide and heavy metals were accidentally released from a mine waste lagoon in Romania into tributaries ultimately draining\\u000a into the Tisza River. Within two months of the cyanide accident two subsequent heavy metal waste spills further contaminated\\u000a the Tisza River, followed by severe spring flooding, which potentially spread the contamination to soils adjacent to the river.\\u000a Flood plain soils and
Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling of nitrogen is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms which produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). For denitrification,...
Lagoons are important tools for manure management in dairy and livestock operations but are potential sources of transmission of human or animal pathogens and present potential environmental hazards from release of nitrogen and phosphorus. Electroflotation technology utilizes electrolytic gas genera...
A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...
A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...
The Jacarepaguá lagoon receives the waste from 239 industries and domestic sewage. Bottom sediment analysis revealed that metal pollution is not spread over the lagoons but restricted to the discharge areas of the main metal-carrier rivers. Metal concentrations in superficial water showed the following concentrations values in ng/ml: Zn, 9.63+/-3.59; Pb, 0.61+/-0.43; Cu, 0.94+/-0.45; Mn, 12.7+/-8.0. Metal concentration in fish (average of seven different species) presented the following results, in mg/kg wet weight: Cr, 0.08+/-0.01; Cu, 0.4+/-0.15; Zn, 4.6+/-3.4; Fe, 2.4+/-1.3; Mn, 0.4+/-0.3. These results imply, considering fish consumption rate and the RfD (USEPA Reference Dose), that the local population is not exposed to undue health risks. Metal concentrations in the water may, however, increase due to their dissolution induced by pH and redox changes in the sediments. PMID:15091655
Fernandes, H M; Bidone, E D; Veiga, L H; Patchineelam, S R
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Federal and state agencies, and NW Indian Tribes has produced a 1:100,000-scale River Reach data layer for the Pacific Northwest that will serve water-resource management applications for the next decade or more. The Pacific N...
Recent studies (1980-88) on the Albufera of Valencia show that this shallow oligohaline coastal lagoon is an ecosystem under stress. Domestic and industrial waters loaded with phosphorus and ammonium reach the lagoon from the northern side. Nitrate-rich agricultural waters arrive mainly from the southern side. The estimated nutrient loadings are: Total P - 39 g m-2yr-1, dissolved P = 14
Over the past century, the Venice lagoon has experienced a high rate of wetland loss and a strong net export of sediments;\\u000a currently the local Authority is running several projects for beneficial use of dredging materials. From March 1993 until\\u000a March 1995 the accretionary response of wetlands in the lagoon to changing water levels was studied. Vertical accretion, short\\u000a term
We investigated the independent and interactive effects of nutrient loading and summer water temperature on phytoplankton,\\u000a drift macroalgae, and eelgrass (Zostera marina) in a coastal lagoon mesocosm experiment conducted from May through August 1999. Temperature treatments consisted of controls\\u000a that approximated the 9-yr mean daily temperatures for Ninigret and Point Judith Lagoons in Rhode Island (United States) and\\u000a treatments approximately
Joanne C. Bintz; Scott W. Nixon; Betty A. Buckley; Stephen L. Granger
The presence?absence of macroalgae and\\/or phytoplankton in some areas of the Venice lagoon and the factors controlling the prevailing of one over the other were tested by monitoring two critical sites over March?December 1990. One, Sacca Sessola [B1], was the lagoon area more densely populated by macroalgae, vice versa the other, namely Fusina [D] displayed only phytoplankton blooms. For this
Lagoons are ecotones between freshwater, marine and terrestrial biotopes, characterized by internal ecosystem heterogeneity, due to patchy spatial and temporal distribution of biotic and abiotic components, and inter-ecosystem heterogeneity, due to the various terrestrial-freshwater and freshwater -marine interfaces. 2 - Here, we carried out an analysis of environmental heterogeneity and benthic macro-invertebrate guilds in a sample of 26 Italian lagoons
A progress report is presented on the Student American Medical Association's (SAMA) American Indian Health Project, designed to assist in the development of Indian health resources through identification of alternative methods of dealing with health needs...
Data are presented on a sample of white (N = 391) and American Indian (N = 120) high school youth attending the four high schools in the vicinity of Wyoming's Wind River Reservation. For the most part, the Indian youth were members of either the Arapahoe or Shoshone tribes. The general null hypothesis that no significant differences existed between white and Indian youth in either attitudes toward drug use or in the use of drugs was rejected. The data indicate that Indian youth have a more favorable attitude toward the use of marijuana and other drugs than do white youth. Indian youth were also more likely than white youth to try using marijuana and other drugs, but no more likely than whites to continue using such drugs after having tried them. PMID:1262089
This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) . The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules . These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense ultraviolet light, are responsible for making the nebula glow brightly. But the Lagoon Nebula is also home to much younger stellar infants. Newborn stars have been detected in the nebula that are so young that they are still surrounded by their natal accretion discs. Such new born stars occasionally eject jets of matter from their poles. When this ejected material ploughs into the surrounding gas short-lived bright streaks called Herbig-Haro objects  are formed, making the new-borns easy to spot. In the last five years, several Herbig-Haro objects have been detected in the Lagoon Nebula, so the baby boom is clearly still in progress here. Notes  This survey, one of six VISTA surveys currently in progress, will image the central parts of the Milky Way many times over a period of five years and will detect huge numbers of new variable objects.  Bart Bok was a Dutch-American astronomer who spent most of his long career in the United States and Australia. He first noticed the dark spots that now bear his name, in star formation regions and speculated that they may be associated with the earliest stages of star formation. The hidden baby stars were only observed directly when infrared imaging was possible several decades later.  Although not the first to see such objects, the astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro were the first to study the spectra of these strange objects in detail and realise that they were not just clumps of gas and dust that reflected light, or glowed under the influence of the ultraviolet light from young stars, but were a new class of objects associated with star formation. More information The science team for VVV includes Dante Minniti (Universidad Catolica, Chile), Phil Lucas (University of Hertfordshire, UK), Ignacio Toledo (Universidad Catolica) and Maren Hempel (Universidad Catolica). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, D
The response of early Ruppia cirrhosa Petagna (Grande) litter decomposition to external nitrogen and phosphorus availability in La Tancada (Ebro River, NE Spain), a coastal lagoon that receives agricultural freshwater runoff from rice fields has been examined. Recently abscised dead R. cirrhosa stems were collected and 25 g of fresh weight was placed in litter bags with a mesh size of 100 ?m and 1 mm. These bags were fertilised by adding nitrogen (N), a mixture of nitrogen plus phosphorus (N + P), or phosphorus (P), or were left untreated (CT). Macroinvertebrates were retrieved from the bags and the ash-free dry weight, and carbon, and N and P content of the remaining plant material were measured after 0, 3, 7, 14, 22 and 32 days. Litter decomposition rates, k (day -1), were estimated using a simple exponential model. Litter decay was clearly accelerated by the addition of P in the fine (100 ?m) litter bags (0.042), but when N was added alone (0.0099) the decomposition rate was lower than in the CT treatments (0.022). No significant difference was observed between the N (0.0099-0.018) and N + P (0.0091-0.015) treatments in either the fine or the coarse (1 mm) litter bags. These results could be attributed to the relatively high availability of external (environmental) and internal (detritus contents) N. No significant effect of macro invertebrates was observed in the CT treatment or under N or P or N + P addition. The ratio between the decomposition rates in coarse and fine litter bags (k c/k f) was lower in disturbed Tancada lagoon (0.82) than in Cesine lagoon (2.11), a similar Mediterranean coastal water body with almost pristine conditions. These results indicate that, in addition to data on macroinvertebrate community structure, decomposition rates could also be used to assess water quality in coastal lagoons.
Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, an invasive Rhodophyta recently recorded in the Po Delta lagoons (May 2008), was also found in the Venice lagoon in March 2009 and successively in Pialassa della Baiona (Emilia-Romagna Region) in May 2009. The species has colonized the eutrophic and confined areas of Venice by pleustophytic tangled populations (5-15 kg fwt m-2), replacing the allochthonous species whereas it is absent in the areas characterized by low nutrient availability and high water exchange. In contrast, in the Po Delta lagoons and in Pialassa della Baiona it is present everywhere, also with high water renewal, because of the eutrophication caused by the Po river and the industrial area of Ravenna. This study presents the autoecology and distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the above environments, according to their different eutrophication status, showing its relationship with physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in water column, pore-water, surface sediments and particulate matter collected by traps in a station of the Venice lagoon (Teneri) sampled monthly during one year. Furthermore, we give new information on its morphology and the high dimorphism between female and male gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.
Sfriso, A.; Wolf, M. A.; Maistro, S.; Sciuto, K.; Moro, I.
India has been underrepresented in genome-wide surveys of human variation. We analyse 25 diverse groups in India to provide strong evidence for two ancient populations, genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. One, the `Ancestral North Indians' (ANI), is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, whereas the other, the `Ancestral South Indians' (ASI), is as
David Reich; Kumarasamy Thangaraj; Nick Patterson; Alkes L. Price; Lalji Singh
|This report summarizes American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population statistics from the 1990 Census. In 1990 there were about 2 million persons who identified themselves as American Indians in the United States, a 38 percent increase over the 1980 census. More than half of the Indian population lived in six states, with Oklahoma having…
This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…
|The major problem in the administration and funding of Indian education is that it has been and continues to be the responsibility of diverse federal, state, and private agencies. Currently there are four school systems involved in Indian education: public schools, Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools, contract schools, and mission and other…
|Undertaken at the request of House and Senate committees with responsibility for Indian affairs and government health programs, this study examines the health status of Indians and the services and technologies that are provided to them through Federal Indian health programs. The first half of the report contains background information and the…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.
This guide provides a basic source of historical and contemporary Indian information from an American Indian perspective and includes study questions at the end of each section. The primary function of this guide is to be a quick-study reference handbook. Basic questions essential to understanding current problems and issues of American Indians…
This paper characterizes major ion distributions and investigates whether groundwater exerts a major control on the chemical\\u000a functioning of Mangueira Lagoon, a large (90 km long), shallow (?4–5 m deep), and fresh coastal lagoon in southern Brazil.\\u000a Water volumes equivalent to ?80% of the total annual input are used in the summer for irrigating nearby rice plantations,\\u000a the most important regional economic
Isaac R. Santos; Maria I. Machado; Luis F. Niencheski; William Burnett; Idel B. Milani; Carlos F. F. Andrade; Richard N. Peterson; Jeffrey Chanton; Paulo Baisch
Wisconsin's Native Americans (1634–1836) hunted for subsistence and for the fur trade. Major river valleys within the broad forest-oak savanna ecotone were preferred hunting destinations. Locations of specific family or tribal hunting grounds often changed, however, because of population migrations or opportunism of individual hunters. Indian use of wildlife for the fur trade reflected the price of pelts, species'fertility, and
During a decade (1996-2006), ecotoxicological studies were carried out in biota of the Vaccarès Lagoon (Biosphere Reserve in Rhone Delta, France). A multicontamination was shown at all levels of the trophic web due to a direct bioconcentration of chemical from the medium combined with a food transfer. Here, the pollutants investigated were organochlorines, among which many compounds banned or in the course of prohibition (or restriction) (PCB, lindane, pp'-DDE, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, endosulfan...) and some substances likely still used in the Rhone River basin (diuron, fipronil). The results confirmed the ubiquity of contamination. It proves to be chronic, variable and tends to regress; however contamination levels depend on the trophic compartment. A biomagnification process was showed. A comparison of investigation methods used in other Mediterranean wetlands provides basis of discussion, and demonstrates the urgent need of modelling to assess the ecotoxicological risk in order to improve the management of such protected areas. PMID:19362400
Respiration and calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) production by the farmed short-neck clam Ruditapes philippinarum were calculated to assess their importance as carbon dioxide (CO(2)) sink/source in a lagoon of the Po Delta River (Italy). Biomass and calcimass were established by monthly harvests during a 1-year period (2009). The ratio of CO(2) released to CaCO(3) precipitated was calculated as a function of the near-bottom temperature. From our estimates, R. philippinarum sequestered [Formula: see text] for shell formation, but the CO(2) fluxes due to respiration and calcification resulted 22.7 and 5.56 [Formula: see text] , respectively. Clam farming seems therefore to be a significant additional source of CO(2) to seawater. PMID:22846887
Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole pesticide widely used to protect sugar-cane crops from insect pests. After reaching the environment, this insecticide may have several fates. This research aimed to propose a kinetic model to describe the fate of commercial fipronil Regent 800WG in the sediment-water interface of the Oleo Lagoon in the Mogi-Guaçu river floodplain, situated within the Jataí Ecological Station, by means of a microcosm scale experiment. Results showed that a small fraction of the pesticide is quickly dragged to the sediment while most of it remains in the water column. Biodegradation proves to be an important fipronil degradation route, especially when microorganisms capable of using fipronil as sole carbon source increase their population, as a function of exposure time. Biodegradation rates were higher in the sediment than in the water column. PMID:20079520
Peret, André Moldenhauer; Oliveira, Luciana Fontes; Bianchini, Irineu; Seleghim, Mirna Helena Regali; Peret, Alberto Carvalho; Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido
The analysis of reservoir quality and seal capacity of the Middle Devonian Keg River carbonate reservoirs in northwestern Alberta requires facies studies of rock units of the Keg River Formation and of the overlying Muskeg and Sulphur Point formations. Using lithologic criteria, faunal type, and stratigraphic positions, the entire sequence is subdivided into ten major facies. The system used is that of standard facies belts with second-order modification to Wilson's terminology. These facies are (from basin to land): basin, open sea shelf, toe of slope, foreslope, organic buildup, shoal lime sand, open lagoon, restricted lagoon, tidal flats, and sabkha evaporites. The upper member of the Keg River Formation is the main hydrocarbon reservoir in the study area. It consists of floatstone, rudstone, and boundstone with wackestone, packstone, and grainstone matrix. The principal faunal constituents are crinoids, brachiopods, stromatoporoids, corals, and stachyodes. The reservoir porosity is of primary intergranular and intragranular and secondary vugular textures. The upper Keg River member is composed of two major facies: patch reefs and banks. Both facies are formed in an open lagoon environment fronted by Presqu'ile barrier to the west-northwest. Water depth was the main factor in controlling the distribution of the bank and patch reef facies. Patch reefs were developed in areas of deeper water, whereas banks were formed in shallower areas of the open lagoon. Recent analogs of the Keg River buildups are found on the Bermuda Platform and Belize Shelf. A direct relationship exists between the thickness of overlying anhydrites of the Muskeg Formation and hydrocarbon occurrences in the Keg River Formation. Generally in areas where patch reefs are developed, the thickness of the anhydrite is more than 30 ft. However, areas of bank are covered by less than 30 ft of anhydrite.
Microbial populations, especially those of viruses, are poorly studied in dairy wastewater treatment operations. Here we report signature nucleic acid metagenomic sequences obtained by pyrosequencing viromes of virus-like particles that were extracted from two dairy waste treatment lagoons. The lagoons are operated in series, with Lagoon I being used as the primary stage and Lagoon II as the secondary stage of wastewater treatment. An average of 2000 sequences was obtained from each lagoon. More than 300 signatures from each lagoon matched sequences in the virus database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). We utilized a bioinformatics approach and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the viral diversity and presence of potential viral pathogens within the lagoons. Our results showed differences in viral community compositions between Lagoon I and Lagoon II, suggesting that the viral community changes significantly in the transition of water between the two lagoons. Furthermore, the diverse viral community in the lagoon samples contained signature sequences of a variety of bacterial, plant, and animal viruses. Bacteriophage sequences dominated the viral community metagenomes in both lagoons. Ultimately these results can be used to identify viral bioindicators to rapidly assess wastewater treatment quality and the potential impacts of dairy operations on watersheds. Our viral metagenomic sequences have been submitted to GenBank (GPID 65805) and can provide insight into the composition and structure of viral communities within wastewaters of dairy lagoon systems. PMID:23220059
Alhamlan, F S; Ederer, M M; Brown, C J; Coats, E R; Crawford, R L
The Indian Creek drainage (17050114) is located in the Boise River Basin of Southwest Idaho. This study was concerned with the portion of Indian Creek near the Nampa and Caldwell urban areas. Major land uses in the area are associated with urban development and irrigated agricu...
|In August 1676 Nathaniel Bacon brought his campaign to "ruin and extirpate all Indians in general" to the Green Dragon Swamp on the upper Pamunkey River. While there, he attacked and massacred nearly fifty Pamunkey Indians, who had been at peace with the government of Virginia for thirty years. Having once formed the backbone of the mighty…
Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing were investigated in the restricted Bizerte Lagoon in 2002 and 2004. The\\u000a 2002 study, carried out at one station from January to October, showed significant seasonal variations in phytoplankton dynamics.\\u000a High growth rates (0.9–1.04 day?1), chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations (6.6–6.8 ?g l?1) and carbon biomass (392–398 ?g C l?1) were recorded in summer (July), when several chain-forming diatoms had intensively proliferated and
A. Sakka Hlaili; B. Grami; Hassine Hadj Mabrouk; M. Gosselin; D. Hamel
The contamination of surface and ground water by nitrates is still one of the major factors determining the ready-to-use water resources available within Europe, despite the Directive 676 of 1991. Since there appears to be an urgent requirement for action to control nitrate concentration in freshwaters, there is a need to utilize existing knowledge in the development of management strategies
Vassova lagoon is a typical Mediterranean (small, shallow, micro-tidal, well-mixed) coastal lagoon, receiving limited seasonal freshwater inflows from direct precipitation and underground seepage. An intensive study was carried out in order to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the intra-tidal and residual transport of water, salt, nutrients and chlorophyll at the mouth of this lagoon and to assess the lagoon's flushing
Georgios K. Sylaios; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis; Christos Akratos; Kiriaki Haralambidou
Since no mechanism presently exists for the effective distribution of tribal income to tribal members, the wealth created by development of natural resources on the American Indian reservations of the Colorado River Basin will not substantially alter the quality of Indian life. (JC)
Spatio-temporal recruitment patterns, growth and survival of the Swan River goby Pseudogobius olorum and western hardyhead Leptatherina wallacei are described from two small, coastal lagoons on the south coast of Western Australia. In these lagoons, estuarine salinity dynamics were relatively stable over much of the autumn-spring period when freshwater inputs from rivers were reduced and there was no oceanic connection. Preflexion and flexion stages of both fish species contributed strongly to population size structure in downstream reaches, whereas upstream reaches were dominated by postflexion larvae and juvenile stages. Spawning of both species was protracted and largely asynchronous, although the episodic presence of stronger preflexion and flexion cohorts suggested some synchronized spawning had occurred. Comparison with estuarine conditions over this period provided evidence that synchronized spawning may be related to temperature and salinity variations from a combination of freshwater inputs and periods of marine exchange. Uninterrupted growth and the progression of cohorts through to juvenile stages were consistent with the generally stable estuarine conditions. Larval and juvenile stages of both species were also tolerant of abrupt changes in salinity and temperature, which occurred due to a non-seasonal oceanic connection. These findings were consistent with the euryhaline nature of adults of both species. PMID:20537023
|The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…
In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.
Lagoon systems are a common and effective method to purify communal sewage in rural areas. Low costs and high purification rates are some of their advantages. But mostly algae blooms in the lagoon cause a secondary pollution of the following stream. In order to tackle this problem, several tests have been carried out combining both lagoon and filtering system. This
Christian R Steinmann; Sabine Weinhart; Arnulf Melzer
Analysis of morphological, geological and environmental characteristics of the Fusaro Lagoon has shown the present degraded condition of the lagoon and the perilagoon area. The lagoon developed during the mid-Holocene within a wide marine bay confined between the coastal volcanic structures of Mt. Cuma to the north and Torregaveta to the south in the western part of the Phlegrean Fields.
Tommaso De Pippo; Carlo Donadio; Doriana Grottola; Micla Pennetta
A major problem of the Mediterranean coastal lagoons is an excessive input of nutrients (i.e. N and P), causing eutrophic conditions in summer. The sediments of these lagoons can serve as a reservoir by fixing phosphate, or as a source when this phosphate is released under certain conditions. Knowledge of nutrient sources and fluxes is needed if coastal lagoons are
In Maldives, 39 islands are significantly damaged among 200 inhabited islands and nearly a third of the Maldivian people are severely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 26 December 2004. We surveyed tsunami impact in 43 islands by measuring island topography and run-up height, interview to local people and mapping of the flooded and destructed areas. The differences in tsunami height and disaster corresponding to the atoll shape and island topography are observed. In the northern atolls, atoll rims consist of many ring-shaped reefs, i.e. miniature atolls called `faro', and interrupted many channels between them. The interrupted atoll rim may play an important role to reducing tsunami run-up height. Severe damage was not observed in the eastern coast of the islands. Beach ridge also contribute to the protection against tsunami. However, in some islands, houses beside the lagoon are damaged by backwashing floodwater from the lagoon. Water marks show the run-up height of -1.8m above MSL. The lagoon water-level seems to set-up by tsunami which permeates into the lagoon through the interrupted atoll rim. The disaster was severe at the southern atolls of Meemu, Thaa and Laamu. The higher run-up heights of up to 3.2m above MSL and enormous building damages were observed at the islands on the eastern atoll rims. The continuous atoll rim of these atolls may reinforce tsunami impact at the eastern islands. In addition, tsunami surge washed the islands totally because of low island topography without beach ridge. Significant floodwater from lagoon was not observed in these atolls. It seems the lagoon water-level was not set-up largely. The continuous atoll rim reduces the tsunami influence to the lagoon and the western side of the atolls. The continuity of atoll rim is probably the major factor to cause the difference in water movement, i.e. tsunami run-up and lagoon set-up, which affects the disaster in the islands. Beach ridge contribute to reduce the tsunami impact to the settlement and agricultural land. Our results may elucidate secure atoll and island type to mitigate the risk of future tsunamis on atoll nations/districts in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean.
Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry.
Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244
The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.
Despite their registration on the list of the Ramsar convention sites, the Mediterranean lagoons rarely beneficiate of an effective protection, and are particularly sensitive to environmental quality. A control of these wetlands needs the creation of an inventory of knowledge for the concerned environment. In this perspective, the seagrass beds were followed up in the coastal lagoon of Urbino (Corse, France) since 1990. A cartographic study was carried out by remote sensing of aerial photography. Temporal evolution of the seagrass beds (Cymodocea nodosa principally) allows to determine the vitality of these structures. A comparison of the surface areas occupied by Cymodocea nodosa, between 1990 and 1999, did not allow seeing any significant evolution. However, some variations appear like biotopes all more fragile and coveted as the Mediterranean coastal fringe is straight and is the privileged site of appear in the localization of the beds, due to the modification of environmental conditions in the lagoon. PMID:12929800
Ferrat, Lila; Fernandez, C; Pasqualini, V; Pergent, G; Pergent-Martini, C
Biogeochemical Carbon cycling was studied in Asia's largest brackish lagoon, Chilika on the east coast of India. Systematic time-series observations were made at 35 hydrologically different stations over the entire lagoon. The first of these kinds of measurements reveal, inter and intra annual variability of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). A comparative analysis of pCO2, CO2 flux over four years (2005, 2009, 2010 and 2011) showed that the northern part of the lagoon maintained the highest levels of pCO2, with maximum CO2 efflux to the atmosphere associated with peak monsoon period. The high pCO2 corresponded to a significant decrease in pH (˜0.8) from the low to high flow periods. Higher bacterial abundance (1.55 ± 0.28 × 109 cells L-1) and bacterial respiration (185.31 ± 105.37 ?g C L-1 d-1), suggested high levels of organic carbon decomposition during the high flow period. In contrast, the southern sector was least affected by river discharge, with low pCO2 values and CO2 flux as in the dry period. The central part and outer channel of the lagoon had intermediate characteristics. During high flow, the air-water CO2 flux from the entire lagoon was estimated to be 31.2 mol C m-2 y-1, which was comparatively very high with respect to the mean CO2 emission from the entire subtropical and tropical estuaries. Highest CO2 flux (65.98 mol C m-2 y-1) was observed in the northern sector, followed by the outer channel (17.61 mol C m-2 y-1), central sector (15.69 mol C m-2 y-1) and southern sector (14.44 mol C m-2 y-1). The northern part of Chilika lagoon being an important river-influenced region was responsible for the biological transformation of organic carbon to inorganic carbon and emitting CO2 to the atmosphere. Such a sectoral approach would reveal zonal influences of CO2 within a water body along with conditions leading to sink or a source.
Muduli, Pradipta R.; Kanuri, Vishnu Vardhan; Robin, R. S.; Charan Kumar, B.; Patra, Sivaji; Raman, A. V.; Nageswarara Rao, G.; Subramanian, B. R.
Contents: The Pima Indians: Pathfinders for Health; The Pima Indians and Genetic Research; Breaking the Vicious Cycle; A Pima Mother and Her Daughters; Advanced Technology Used to Measure Energy Expenditure; Kidney Disease of Diabetes in the Pima Indians;...
This study investigated the variation in abundance, distribution and composition of ichthyoplankton in a lagoon in southern Brazil through the year and at different stations within the lagoon. Ibiraquera Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon connected to the sea by a semi-permanent sandbar. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected monthly from December 2003 to December 2004, with a 200 µm mesh net
Luis C. P. Macedo-Soares; Alesandra B. Birolo; Andrea S. Freire
As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.
Born in 1767, Black Hawk was the last great war leader of the Sauk Indians, who lived in the Rock River valley in Illinois. By age 25, he was a famed warrior and leader of his people who raided neighboring tribes until a period of peace and prosperity began about 1800. Various treaties of which the Sauk knew and understood very little deprived the…
|These materials are for use in the instruction on current occupations existing on the Standing Rock, Cheyenne River, Sisseton, Lower Brule, Crow Creek, Flandreau, Pine Ridge, Rosebud, and Yankton Sioux Indian Reservations in South Dakota. Objectives of the materials are to help learners identify the geographical locations of each of the nine…
South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. School of Education.
|Born in 1767, Black Hawk was the last great war leader of the Sauk Indians, who lived in the Rock River valley in Illinois. By age 25, he was a famed warrior and leader of his people who raided neighboring tribes until a period of peace and prosperity began about 1800. Various treaties of which the Sauk knew and understood very little deprived…
The Fort Peck Indian Reservation, which encompasses about 3,300 square miles in northeastern Montana, is characterized by three major types of terrain: Missouri River bottom lands, badlands, and topographically higher benchlands. The reservation lies on the western flank of the Williston Basin, a large, petroleum-rich structural depression in Montana, North and South Dakota, and Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. Structurally, the
This survey was conducted to determine the point source impact of treatment sewage discharged from the New Meadows Wastewater Treatment lagoons on the Little Salmon River (17060210). Water quality data was collected semiannually from June 1970 to May 1975. Some of this data is ...
|The only local tribe to migrate into California during recorded history, the Chemehuevi Indians had one of the largest tribal areas in California, though their population probably never exceeded 800. Today most live on the Colorado River Reservation, where they share membership with the Colorado River tribes. First mentioned in a priest's report…
The Lagoon of Venice (Italy) is the unique result of natural and anthropogenic changes. Through the centuries, human activities, steadily modified its environment, bringing it to the point that the Lagoon of Venice is itself a signature of human activities. Moreover, the historical city of Venice, a world heritage site, is threatened by flooding caused by sea level rises, so much so that major modifications of the lagoon inlets are ongoing in order to protect it. For these reasons, the Lagoon of Venice is at the same time a paradigm of a relatively circumscribed ecosystem in which the Anthropocene has started long ago, and a sensitive testbed of the environmental changes that are taking place at the global level. In this context, a large geophysical survey was carried out to explore the Holocene sediments in order to establish the natural evolution of the lagoon and the impact of human activities. The survey is the basis of an interdisciplinary study that has allowed the reconstruction of ancient landscapes of the lagoon from before its origin to present days. In particular, thanks to acoustic and geologic investigation of the lagoon sub-bottom, and by crossing our data with the environmental records provided by archaeological findings and by the city's historical archives, we could distinguish different phases of the lagoon evolution and evaluate the weight of human-induced changes We first mapped the position and the depth of the alluvial plain that was flooded during the last marine transgression, about 6000 years before present (BP), when the lagoon originated. Then, we mapped the areal extension of a dense network of palaeochannels and palaeosurfaces corresponding to different hydrological conditions and relative mean sea levels. Using many radiocarbon dating and the acoustical sub-bottom reconstruction, we could establish an average sedimentation rate of about 1 mm/year from 2500 and 1500 BP and 0.5 mm/year from 1500 BP up to present and an average migration rate of the natural channels ranging from 10 to 20 m/century with a filling rate between 0.5 and 2.5 mm/year. As a further result of this investigation, we found a general simplification of the morphologies over the centuries with a drastic reduction of the number of channels and salt marshes. This simplification can be explained by natural causes such as the general increase of the mean sea level, and by human activities such as artificial river diversion and inlet modifications causing a reduced sediment supply and a change of the hydrodynamics. Finally, we observed that this tendency accelerated dramatically in the last century as a consequence of the construction of a deep industrial canal, dredged between 1961 and 1969 to allow navigation of large containers. These results can contribute to planning effective environmental strategies for the Lagoon of Venice.
Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to <2% compared to 53% in winter. Four Hg-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 ?g ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation. However, during winter, Hg-resistant bacteria that are capable of degrading MeHg via the mer-catalyzed reductive pathway increase in importance.
The Southern Brazilian Shelf is a region influenced by freshwater, and the evolution of stratification can present important ecological consequences in this area. The aim of this paper was to investigate the importance of straining and advection processes that affect the stratification and destratification of the water column along the Southern Brazilian inner shelf, a region that is influenced by the Patos Lagoon coastal plume. The study was carried out through 3-D numerical modeling experiments and the results were analyzed using the potential energy anomaly equation and wavelet analysis. Results showed that the potential energy anomaly showed strong variability over a time scale of several days and followed the wind pattern over the study region, and was accompanied by the monthly modulation of river discharge and remote effects associated with variability in oceanic circulation. However, the most important events in synoptic time scales occurred in periods shorter than 20 days and were coincident with the passage of meteorological systems over the study region. Straining and advection were the most important mechanisms for the evolution of stratification in the adjacent coastal region. Nonlinearities and dispersion terms were as important as modulation effects, mainly during periods of high fluvial discharge. Close to the Patos Lagoon mouth, vertical advection explained most of the stratification evolution, due to the morphological characteristics in this region. In the frontal region and far field of the plume, the following two regions must be considered: the northeast part, which is characterized by the convergence of the coastal currents and ebb flows associated with the freshwater discharge that promote the domination of the cross-shore straining and advection, and the southwest part, which is controlled by the coastal currents that result in the domination by alongshore straining and advection and cross-shore advection terms. Close to the mouth of the Patos Lagoon, the occurrence of downward velocities generated downward displacement of the isopycnals, which decreases the potential energy anomalies, and vice versa. Near the frontal region, the anomalies were dependent on the intensity of the fluvial discharge. During moderate to high discharge events, the northeastward currents intensified mixing along shore, which decreased the potential energy anomalies. In the same way, the southwestward currents intensified the spreading of freshwater and increased the stratification and the potential energy anomalies.
Marques, Wilian C.; Fernandes, Elisa H. L.; Moller, Osmar O.
The primitive religious ideas of the American Indians. their ritual istic forms, their social function, and their chief practitioners are described in this article. The persistence of these ideas and the manner in which they affect the Indian's acceptance of the white man's ways are illustrated. Special attention is paid to the rise of the Peyote Cult and its development
This paper reports descriptive characteristics of Indian child welfare programs organized to deal with new tribal responsibilities following passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Most programs consist of one to five staff with an administrator whose responsibilities also include casework. Program continuity is uncertain since funding comes from competitive grants. Although more than one-third of respondents report
Dale M. Wares; Kenneth R. Wedel; James A. Rosenthal; Antonia Dobrec
|The passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act has caused concern and misunderstanding among social workers. The Act is seen as a victory for tribal sovereignty but must be viewed within the context of American Indian culture and child rearing practices. (Author/JAC)|
This book reviews present knowledge about suicidal behavior in American Indians, prevention efforts in Native communities, and recommendations for understanding suicidal behavior and developing suicide prevention efforts. Data from Canadian aboriginal groups is also included. Chapter 1 explains why suicide in American Indians is of concern to…
|The degree of economic, social, and psychological adjustment of urban American Indians residing in Seattle, Washington was investigated. The assumption that the 3 types of adjustment are highly correlated was assessed and hypotheses relating length of urban residence and "Indianness" (observable actions and physical characteristics) to urban…
The location, funding, organization, goals, and activities of the St. Augustine's Center for American Indians are described in an attempt to focus attention on the problems of urban Indians. Services provided by the Center in the areas of social and psychiatric casework, medical and legal aid, and subsistence requirements are discussed.…
This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the
Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…
Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
In his keynote address to the Fifth Annual American Indian Studies Consortium in 2005 David Wilkins began by commenting on earlier attempts to formally organize such a gathering in ways that might help establish and accredit Indian studies programs. He said he had the sense that the thrust of earlier meetings "was really an opportunity for Native…
|Every student in high school is faced with the question of what to do after graduation. American Indian students, whether on or off reservations, need ideas as to what is available to them. This compilation of interviews with 10 individuals who are maintaining their "Indian identity" and making contributions in the working world provides role…
The Southern Brazilian Shelf (SBS) is a freshwater-influenced region, but studies on the dynamics of coastal plumes are sparse and lack in space-time resolution. Studies on the dynamics of the Patos Lagoon plume are even more limited. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the principal physical forcing for the formation and behavior of the Patos
W. C. Marques; E. H. Fernandes; I. O. Monteiro; O. O. Möller
The Virginia Coastal Reserve (VCR) lagoon is a ~ 65 km X 15 km body of water (depth 1-2 m) west of Chesapeake Bay, and bounded by solid land on the west and a barrier island chain to the east. Inlets between the barrier islands allow communication with the Atlantic continental shelf. We examine data from four water level gauges
R. P. Mied; R. Handler; C. Snow; R. Fusina; J. Porter
Indigenous enteric virus removal from raw wastewater was examined in facultative and partially aerated treatment lagoon systems at paired sites in the southwest, southeast, and north central regions of the U.S. The virus samples were concentrated from large wastewater volume usin...
Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.
Free-living massive and branching spheroidal growths (about 5 cm diameter) of calcareous red algae (rhodoliths) and corals (coralliths) occur in abundance on the sea bed of shallow Muri Lagoon on Rarotonga's reef flat. The rhodoliths are composed of one or more species of Neogoniolithon, Lithophyllum, Tenarea, and Porolithon; the coralliths are Pavona varians (Verrill) and Porites lutea (Milne-Edwards and Haime).
Terence P. Scoffin; David R. Stoddart; Alexander W. Tudhope; Colin Woodroffe
In Alabama, the term 'coastal shoreline' applies to the gulf shoreline and the shorelines of estuaries, bays, and sounds connected to the Gulf of Mexico and subject to its tides. However, Alabama shoreline studies have yet to include Little Lagoon, which ...
Mugu Lagoon is significant as one of the least disturbed and best protected estuaries in southern California; thus this small estuarine system can serve as a baseline model for the region. This report summarizes and synthesizes scientific data on the ecological structure and functioning of the estuary, including discussions of climate, hydrology, geology, physiography, biotic assemblages, and ecological processes and
Distributions of benthic populations in the Hadley Harbor area, Massachusetts, form the basis for a model study of benthic ecosystems which can be applied to coastal lagoons in temperate and tropical regions. The Hadley Harbor area covers one-third Km2 an...
The Ria Formosa is a shallow mesotidal lagoon on the south coast of Portugal, with natural biogeochemical cycles essentially regulated by tidal exchanges at the seawater boundaries and at the sediment interface. Existing data on nutrients in the water column and the sediment, together with chlorophyll a and oxygen saturation in the water column, are compared using different models for
A. Newton; J. d. Icely; M. Falcao; A. Nobre; J. p. Nunes; J. g. Ferreira; C. Vale
The Orbetello lagoon is a shallow brackish waterbody subject to intense and diverse eutrophication (phytoplankton, macroalgae and macrophytes). Periodically a large amount of algae must be artificially removed, their collection and disposal representing a considerable management cost. This paper describes the design of a bloom predictor based on the daily fluctuations of simple water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen,
Although land application of swine (Sus scrofa) manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotic resistance in swine lagoon bacteria from sow, nursery, and finisher farms in the southeastern United States. Effluents from 37 lagoons were assayed for the presence of Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined by the Kirby-Bauer swab method for 12 antibiotics comprising eight classes. Statistical analyses indicated that farm type influenced the amount and type of resistance, with nurseries and sow farms ranking as most influential, perhaps due to use of more antibiotic treatments. Finisher farms tended to have the least amount of antibiotic class resistance, signaling an overall healthier market pig, and less therapeutic or prophylactic antibiotic use. Many bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, cephalosporin, and tetracycline class antibiotics, while nearly all were susceptible to quinolone antibiotics. It appeared that swine farm type had a significant association with the amount of resistance associated with bacterial genera sampled from the lagoons; nurseries contributed the largest amount of bacterial resistance. PMID:19875799
The Venice Lagoon (VL) is a complex ecosystem in which public participation and area-based management has often been neglected by administrative bodies involved in the planning of coastal projects and public works. In this area, the analysis of the local situation highlighted a substantial absence of coordination among the various administrative bodies in charge of planning and management at various
Daniel Suman; Stefano Guerzoni; Emanuela Molinaroli
Spatial change in eelgrass meadows, Zostera marina L., was assessed between 1978 and 1987 and between 1987 and 1995 at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Change in total extent was evaluated through a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1978 Landsat multi-spectral scanner image and 1987 black and white aerial photographs. A ground survey in 1995 was used to
This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k–? model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function
The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner images from 1975 to 1979 to determine pollution dispersion in the central basin of the lagoon under varying tidal conditions is described. Images taken during the late spring and representing both short and long ra...
Bacteriophages (phages) associated with Salmonella were collected from nine swine manure lagoons in Mississippi. Phages were isolated by an enrichment protocol or directly from effluent. For enrichment, chloroform-treated samples were filtered (0.22 mum) and selectively enriched by adding a cocktail of Salmonella strains in trypticase soy broth. After overnight incubation at 35 degrees C, chloroform was added and samples stored at 5 degrees C. Enriched samples were tested by double agar layer (DAL) plaque assay against individual Salmonella isolates. Phage titers of 2.9 x 10(8) to 2.1 x 10(9) plaque forming units (pfu) per mL were produced, but estimation of phage titers in lagoons was not possible. For direct isolation, effluent was clarified by centrifugation, filtered (0.22 microm), and used in DAL plaque assays to select single-plaque isolates for 15 Salmonella strains. Plaque counts varied among Salmonella strains and lagoons. The most sensitive strain for direct phage recovery was ATCC 13311. Phage titers estimated by direct isolation with ATCC 13311 ranged among lagoons from 12 to 148 pfu per mL. In limited host range tests, 66 isolates recovered by the enrichment protocol produced plaques only on Enteritidis and Typhimurium strains of Salmonella and none produced plaques on lagoon isolates of Citrobacter, Escherichia, Proteus, Providencia, or Serratia. Electron microscopy (EM) showed purified enrichment isolates had Podoviridae morphology (tailless 50-nm icosahedral heads with tail spikes). Electron microscopy of clarified concentrated effluent showed 5.5:1 tailless to tailed phages. The isolated phages have potential as typing reagents, specific indicators, and biocontrol agents of Salmonella. PMID:16455853
This paper discusses some of the resources in the literature by and about the American Indian and lists numerous anthologies and bibliographies in this area. More than 40 publications are listed, including "Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian,""American Indian Almanac,""Ethnographic Bibliography of North America,""American Indian Prose…
Indian Music for the Classroom presents the different styles of Indian music and their cultural contexts, with chapters on Indian culture and sound, Indian classical vocal and instrumental music, folk music, film music, and traditional popular musics. From Hindi-Pop to bhangra to the Urdu ghazal, the book covers them all, as well as national songs, children's songs, and the devotional
Simultaneous measurements of respiration, excretion and production rates were carried out several times over a year period at five representative stations of the Ebrié Lagoon. Assuming a constant assimilation efficiency rate of 69.4%, we derived metabolic budgets for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Daily specific ingestion rates calculated were rather generally high, and ranged between 54 and 159% of body carbon,
The Ganga and Yamuna rivers drain the Garhwal Himalaya of northern India and cut cross several active faults as they pass into the Gangetic Plain and the northern Indian foreland. Unlike rivers in the central or eastern Himalayas, which debouch directly into the foreland and have built large depositional fan complexes, the Ganga and Yamuna rivers have been funnelled into
A. L. Densmore; R. Sinha; J. B. Barnes; J. Pickering; S. K. Tandon
The Ganga river basin is the largest river basin of India and it provides water to about 40 percent of the Indian population. It has an important place in activities related to industrial, agricultural and social structure. The Ganga is also India's holiest river and holds a special place in the minds of devout Hindus . However, the water quality
The central and eastern Himalaya are drained by the Ganga River and its tributaries, which flow southeastward across the Gangetic Plain in the northern Indian . Rivers in the eastern Gangetic Plain are generally characterized by high sediment fluxes and frequent avulsions in the foreland, leading to the deposition of very large, low-gradient alluvial fans. Rivers in the western Plain,
Alexander Densmore; Rajiv Sinha; Jason Barnes; Vikrant Jain; S. K. Tandon
This study focuses on sediment transport and exchange dynamics in the 27km2 Tana Estuary located at Kipini in the north Kenya coast. The estuary is drained by the Tana River, which contributes more than 50% of the total river discharges into the Kenyan sector of the Indian Ocean. The study involved measurement of river discharges, estuarine flood–ebb tidal discharges, total
The reefs of the Mascarenes differ in structure and stage of development. Mauritius is the oldest island, bound by a discontinuous fringing reef and small barrier reef, with large lagoon patch reefs. Rodrigues has nearly continuous fringing reefs bounding an extensive lagoon with deep channels and few patch reefs. Reunion, the youngest island, has short stretches of narrow fringing reefs along southwestern coasts. The islets of St Brandon are bound to the east by an extensive arc of fringing reef. Reef mapping of the Mascarenes using satellite imagery provides an estimate of 705 km2 of shallow reef habitats. These areas have been modified over geological time by changes in sea level, ocean-atmosphere disturbances and biological and chemical forcing. Further modification has resulted from historical changes in land-use patterns. Recent economic development has placed many of these reefs at risk from anthropogenic impact. The reefs of the Mascarenes have escaped mass mortality from bleaching to date, which increases their conservation significance within the wider Indian Ocean. The reefs are poorly protected. A case study shows how a geographic information system incorporating reef-habitat maps can help formulate and demonstrate Marine Protected Area boundaries. PMID:15598634
... 2009-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section...FOR INDIANS Â§ 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian...their presence will not exclude Indian pupils eligible under Â§ 31.1....
... 2010-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section...FOR INDIANS Â§ 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian...their presence will not exclude Indian pupils eligible under Â§ 31.1....
The relationships between the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have been widely documented for over 100 years. Indeed, the Southern Oscillation (SO) itself was first documented by Walker (1923) in his search for ISM rainfall predictors. Since this pioneering work, the links between ISM and ENSO have been documented in many observational and modeling studies
The education provided to American Indians by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) over the last two centuries has received considerable justified criticism by both Indians and non-Indians. How-ever, it is important to realize that the BIA has also attempted to im-prove the quality of Indian education throughout its history. This pa-per details efforts within the BIA to
Tidal inlets are extremely dynamic, as a result of an often delicate balance between the effects of tides, waves and other forcings. Since the morphology of these inlets can affect navigation, water quality and ecosystem dynamics, there is a clear need to anticipate their evolution in order to promote adequate management decisions. Over decadal time scales, the position and size of tidal inlets are expected to evolve with the conditions that affect them, for instance as a result of climate change. A process-based morphodynamic modeling system is validated and used to analyze the effects of sea level rise, an expected shift in the wave direction and the reduction of the upper lagoon surface area by sedimentation on a small tidal inlet (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal). A new approach to define yearly wave regimes is first developed, which includes a seasonal behavior, random inter-annual variability and the possibility to extrapolate trends. Once validated, this approach is used to produce yearly time series of wave spectra for the present and for the end of the 21st century, considering the local rotation trends computed using hindcast results for the past 57 years. Predictions of the mean sea level for 2100 are based on previous studies, while the bathymetry of the upper lagoon for the same year is obtained by extrapolation of past trends. Results show, and data confirm, that the Óbidos lagoon inlet has three stable configurations, largely determined by the inter-annual variations in the wave characteristics. Both sea level rise and the reduction of the lagoon surface area will promote the accretion of the inlet. In contrast, the predicted rotation of the wave regime, within foreseeable limits, will have a negligible impact on the inlet morphology.
The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be carefully monitored so that appropriate responses can be timely to mitigate the impacts from global change. References: Eisenreich, S.J. (2005). Climate Change and the European Water Dimension - A report to the European Water Directors. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, European Comission-Joint Research Centre. Ispra, Italy. 253pp. Kerr, R. (2008). Global warming throws some curves in the Atlantic Ocean. Science, 322, 515. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K., Tignor, M., Miller, H. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996pp. Lloret, J., Marín, A., Marín-Guirao, L. (2008). Is coastal lagoon eutrophication likely to be aggravated by global climate change? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 78, 403-412. Snoussi, M., Ouchani, T., Niazi, S. (2008). Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 77, 206-213.
...the mouth of the Salmon River on the shores of the...is no known ``Salmon River'' that drains into...however, ``Salmon Lagoon'' was a location with...Kiska Island at Salmon Lagoon and the date of the...Representatives of any other Indian tribe that believes...
The Alvarado Lagoon System (ALS) is located within the Papaloapan River Basin in southern Veracruz, Mexico. The ALS is a shallow system (2 m) connected to the Gulf of Mexico through a narrow sea channel. There are a large number of riverbank communities within the ALS that are dependent upon its biological productivity for comestible and economic subsistence. The purpose of this project was to determine the levels of mercury in water, sediment, fish, and hair samples from within the Papaloapan River Basin and to characterize the risk of Hg exposure to the individuals that reside in these communities. Water and fish samples were collected during the wet (September 2005) and dry (March 2003 and 2005) seasons. Hair samples, dietary surveys, and sediment samples were obtained during the wet and dry seasons of 2005. Total Hg in the water column ranged from 1.0 to 12.7 ng/L. A strong correlation (R(2)=0.82; p<0.001) between total Hg and total suspended solids in the water column suggests that particulate matter is a transport mechanism for Hg within the lagoon system. Total Hg in the sediments ranged from 27.5 to 90.5 ng Hg/g dry weight with no significant difference between the 2005 wet and dry seasons. There was a mild, but significant, correlation between total Hg and % carbon for the March 2005 sediment samples (R(2)=0.435; p=0.020), suggesting that Hg is associated with organic matter on the solid phase. Concentrations of total Hg in fish and shellfish harvested from the ALS ranged from 0.01 to 0.35 microg Hg/g wet. The levels of total Hg in hair ranged from 0.10 to 3.36 microg Hg/g (n=47) and 58% of the samples were above 1.00 microg Hg/g. The findings from this study suggest that individuals who frequently consume fish and shell fish containing low levels of Hg (<0.3 microg/g) can accumulate low to moderate body burdens of Hg, as indicated by hair Hg concentrations>1.0 microg/g, and may be at risk for experiencing low dose mercury toxicity. PMID:17850849
Guentzel, Jane L; Portilla, Enrique; Keith, Katherine M; Keith, Edward O
In the coastal lagoons of Adriatic Sea Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa are plants with seeds and flowers, that colonizes the sandy bottom of lagoons. They are capable to produce oxygen with very weak light. Characterization of photosynthetic pigments of eelgrass Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa, were performed during the period 2002-2008 in some Adriatic lagoons: Kune-Vaini, Patog, Karavasta and Narta. Dynamics of chlorophylls and carotenoids during the vegetation period of these plants were characterized. As a result, the chlorophyll content of Zoostera noltii taken from the Kune- Vain lagoon is higher than at plants collected from the other lagoons. The photosynthetic pigment content of the Zostera noltii plants is higher than of Ruppia cirrhosa. The differences on the distribution of these species in the analyzed lagoons are represented in this presentation.
Groundwater seepage from coastal aquifers has recently been recognized as an overlooked major source of nutrients (N, P) and contaminants to the coastal environment (Biddanda et al., 2009; Fear, Paerl and Braddy, 2007; Kluge et al., 2007; Kroeger and Charette, 2008). Nutrient and contaminants concentrations in groundwater are often much higher than those in river water, compensating for the lower flux of groundwater relative to the lagoon surface water. The Ria Formosa is a coastal lagoon located in the south of Portugal (Algarve, Faro) and surrounded by an intensely farmed area. We hypothesize that water quality and ecological health of the Ria Formosa environments are influenced by past and on-going contamination of terrestrial groundwaters with nutrients from fertilizer, sewage and industry. According to Leote, Ibanhez and Rocha (2005) estimated submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the lagoon to be 3.6 m3 day-1 per linear meter of coastline with freshwater contributions (per volume) ranging from 10% to 50%. SGD as an important nutrient source to the Ria Formosa, estimating annual loads of 36.2 mol (0.507 kg) of Nitrogen, 1.1 mol (0.034 kg) of Phosphorus and 18.6 mol (0.522 kg) of Silicon per meter of coastline. Based on these results, it was suggested that SGD is a potential contributor to the observed nutrification status of the Ria Formosa lagoon. We are testing the following two hypotheses: (1) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of inorganic nutrients in groundwater will be characterized by higher density of Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) distribution, and higher chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site; (2) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of contaminants in groundwater will be characterized by lower AIS dispersal and colonization, and lower chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site. By processing data and performing interdisciplinary study of groundwater seepage, concentration of contaminants and distribution of AIS in the Ria Formosa, we achieved an easily-measured set of indicators (Lauritsen, Mozley and White, 1985) that can be implementing in the future to gauge changes in the Ria Formosa ecosystem.
|A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)|
The report presents previously unpublished data from the 1970 Census on the American Indian population living on reservations. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, relationship to head of household, families by...
A statistical assessment of wave, tide, and river power was carried out using a database of 721 Australian clastic coastal deposi- tional environments to test whether their geomorphology could be pre- dicted from numerical values. The geomorphic classification of each environment (wave- and tide-dominated deltas, wave- and tide-domi- nated estuaries, lagoons, strand plains, and tidal flats) was established independently from
P. T. Harris; A. D. Heap; S. M. Bryce; R. Porter-Smith; D. A. Ryan; D. T. Heggie
Design and development of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS?1A and the successful operation of the space and ground segments of IRS?1A over the past three years form a major milestone in the Indian Remote Sensing Programme. Significant growth in Remote Sensing application\\/activities in almost all the sectors of natural resources survey and management, supply of various remote sensing data products
M. G. Chandrasekhar; K. Radhakrishnan; V. Jayaraman; B. Manikiam
Bacterial community composition (BCC) has been extensively related to specific environmental conditions. Tropical coastal\\u000a lagoons present great temporal and spatial variation in their limnological conditions, which, in turn, should influence the\\u000a BCC. Here, we sought for the limnological factors that influence, in space and time, the BCC in tropical coastal lagoons (Rio\\u000a de Janeiro State, Brazil). The Visgueiro lagoon was
Thaís Laque; Vinicius F. Farjalla; Alexandre S. Rosado; Francisco A. Esteves
Araruama Lagoon is an environment characterized by high salt concentrations. The low raining and high evaporation rates in\\u000a this region favored the development of many salty ponds around the lagoon. In order to reveal the microbial composition of\\u000a this system, we performed a 16S rRNA gene survey. Among archaea, most clones were related to uncultured environmental Euryarchaeota.\\u000a In lagoon water,
M. M. Clementino; R. P. Vieira; A. M. Cardoso; A. P. A. Nascimento; C. B. Silveira; T. C. Riva; A. S. M. Gonzalez; R. Paranhos; R. M. Albano; A. Ventosa; O. B. Martins
Coastal lagoons are ecologically and economically important environments but a relative low number of studies were carried\\u000a out in subtropical and permanently closed coastal lagoons. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal and spatial dynamic\\u000a of trophic relevant water quality parameters in the small, deep and freshwater Peri coastal lagoon, South Brazil. During the\\u000a 19 sampled months (March\\/2008–September\\/2009) spatial
levels (r 2 0.50, P < 0.001; n 18), with the geometric means of individual resistance concentrations ranging from 4- to 8.3-fold greater in lagoon samples with above-median tetracycline levels (>1.95 g\\/liter by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay techniques) than in below-median lagoon samples. Of the three Tc r genes tested, tet(W) and tet(Q) were more commonly found in lagoon water
Marilyn S. Smith; Richard K. Yang; Charles W. Knapp; Yafen Niu; Nicholas Peak; Margery M. Hanfelt; John C. Galland; David W. Graham
Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon is an urban ecosystem undergoing accelerated degradation, therefore selected as a model for microbiological\\u000a quality studies of tropical lagoons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the abundance and the spatial distribution of fecal\\u000a pollution indicators and pathogenic microorganisms in the lagoon. The relationships between microbial groups and abiotic measurements\\u000a were also determined to evaluate
Alessandra M. Gonzalez; Rodolfo Paranhos; Márcia S. Lutterbach
Malibu Lagoon, California, USA, is a small estuary that has been substantially altered by habitat loss and increased freshwater\\u000a input from development in its watershed. The lagoon’s fish assemblage was sampled at nine stations on 32 occasions between\\u000a July 1993 and August 1994 on at least a monthly basis using beach seines and fish traps. Thirteen fish species represented\\u000a by
The Great Astrolabe Lagoon (18°45?S,178°32?E), located some 70km south of Suva, the capital of Fiji, is a marine environment in relatively pristine condition, impacted only by low human populations on small islands. The Great Astrolabe Reef which encloses the Lagoon is a barrier reef composed of oceanic ribbon reefs. A baseline study of the Lagoon was carried out in 1989–92
In order to simulate the dynamic interaction between a saline lagoon and a ground water system, a numerical model for two-dimensional, variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, coupled flow and solute transport (SIFEC) was modified to allow the volume of water and mass of salt in the lagoon to vary with each time step. The modified SIFEC allows the stage of a lagoon to
The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)
Hydrological and hydrodynamic characteristics are important controls in all wetlands including coastal lagoons. Enhanced understanding\\u000a of lagoon functioning can be obtained through the acquisition and interpretation of hydrological, meteorological and related\\u000a data. The MELMARINA Project investigated links between hydrological and ecological conditions within North African coastal\\u000a lagoons. It employed three primary sites: Merja Zerga in Morocco, Ghar El Melh in
J. R. Thompson; R. J. Flower; M. Ramdani; F. Ayache; M. H. Ahmed; E. K. Rasmussen; O. S. Petersen
The present work aimed to identify the main environmental drivers shaping temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities within a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Sediments in the Óbidos lagoon showed a gradient of increasing metal contamination from the inlet area to inner branches. The mid-lower lagoon area exhibited an intermediate contaminated condition between the inlet and upstream areas, suggesting that the effects of the organic loadings into the lagoon may be reflected until this area. This transitional feature was corroborated by biological data, with macrobenthic assemblages displaying characteristics of down- and upstream areas. Macrobenthic abundance peaked in winter, which was associated with a higher nutrient availability (mainly ammonium) and the proliferation of green macroalgae in mid-lower and inner lagoon areas. However, massive macroalgae growth resulted in a sharp decrease of macrobenthic diversity and abundance in spring, particularly where the higher amounts of decaying algae were detected. Higher dissimilarities between assemblages were detected during winter (and spring, for trophic composition), while in summer, differences were highly attenuated. The least contaminated area (close to the sea inlet) experienced smaller temporal variations for environmental variables, as well as the lowest temporal biological variability. This area was dominated by carnivores, which were related with increased salinity. Deposit-feeders were numerically dominant in the lagoon, being generally spread within organically enriched sandy and muddy areas. The high concentration of chlorophyll a and suspended particulate matter in water was reflected in the abundance of deposit-feeders/suspension-feeders, taking benefit of the high primary productivity. On the other hand, deposit-feeders/herbivores responded to the decay of macroalgae mats in the sediment. Biological associations varied with the biological data used (taxonomic versus trophic group composition; abundance versus biomass), highlighting the relevance of the combination of different data analysis' approaches. In general, BIOENV analysis indicated total phosphorus, biomass of Ulva, metals and organic carbon and nitrogen as being significantly influencing benthic patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies in ecological behaviours of some taxa were also detected in the present study stressing the need for additional studies on the relationships between macrobenthic communities and environmental variables. Implications of the present results for monitoring studies are discussed. PMID:21236484
Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Patrícia; Pereira, Fábio; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Gaspar, Miguel B
Bacterial community composition (BCC) has been extensively related to specific environmental conditions. Tropical coastal lagoons present great temporal and spatial variation in their limnological conditions, which, in turn, should influence the BCC. Here, we sought for the limnological factors that influence, in space and time, the BCC in tropical coastal lagoons (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The Visgueiro lagoon was sampled monthly for 1 year and eight lagoons were sampled once for temporal and spatial analysis, respectively. BCC was evaluated by bacteria-specific PCR-DGGE methods. Great variations were observed in limnological conditions and BCC on both temporal and spatial scales. Changes in the BCC of Visgueiro lagoon throughout the year were best related to salinity and concentrations of NO (3) (-) , dissolved phosphorus and chlorophyll-a, while changes in BCC between lagoons were best related to salinity and dissolved phosphorus concentration. Salinity has a direct impact on the integrity of the bacterial cell, and it was previously observed that phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient to bacterial growth in these lagoons. Therefore, we conclude that great variations in limnological conditions of coastal lagoons throughout time and space resulted in different BCCs and salinity and nutrient concentration, particularly dissolved phosphorus, are the main limnological factors influencing BCC in these tropical coastal lagoons. PMID:20217404
Laque, Thaís; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Rosado, Alexandre S; Esteves, Francisco A
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k-? model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function of temperature. A test of the model applicability is conducted in a covered lagoon digester operated under tropical climate conditions. The commercial CFD software, ANSYS-Fluent, is employed to solve the integrated model. The simulation procedures include solving fluid flow and heat transfer, predicting local resident time based on the converged flow fields, and calculating the BOD reduction and methane production. The simulated results show that monthly methane production varies insignificantly, but the time to achieve a 99% BOD reduction in January is much longer than that in July. PMID:21339067
The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.
The benthic macroinfauna of Lagunal Joyuda, a coastal lagoon in Puerto Rico, was surveyed for two years. Seven hundred fifty\\u000a core samples yielded 23 macrobenthic taxa. The oligochaeteThalassodrilides gurwitschi comprised 43.4% of the number of individuals collected. Polychaetes comprised 35.4% of the individuals, includingCapitella cf.capitata, Dasybranchus lumbricoides, andSteninonereis martini in approximately equal numbers. The amphipodGrandidierella bonnieroides made up 11.5% of
The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a well differentiated typology of water bodies on the basis of scientific\\u000a and biological criteria. For coastal waters, such criteria have long been established, while for transitional waters they\\u000a are still under discussion. One of the difficulties when applying the WFD to coastal lagoons is to include them in only one\\u000a of these
Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Concepción Marcos; Isabel María Pérez-Ruzafa; María Pérez-Marcos
We describe the depth distribution of phosphorus in relation to the distribution of major redox species (dissolved O2, NO3?, NH4+, Mn, and Fe, and particulate S, organic C, reactive Mn- and Fe-oxides) in modern sediments of two stations in the Thau Lagoon. Sediments close to the oyster bank zone are enriched in organic carbon and are highly bioturbated, while those
Pierre Anschutz; Gwénaëlle Chaillou; Pascal Lecroart
An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.
In situ measurements of the exchange of ammonia, nitrate plus nitrite, phosphate, and dissolved organic phosphorus between sediments\\u000a and the overlying water column were made in a shallow coastal lagoon on the ocean coast of Rhode Island, U.S.A. The release\\u000a of ammonia from mud sediments in the dark (20–440 ?mol per m2 per h) averaged ten times higher than from
A coupled 3D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was developed and implemented for the Sacca di Goro coastal lagoon. The model\\u000a considers nutrient and oxygen dynamics in water column and sediments. Among the biological elements, phytoplankton, zooplankton,\\u000a bacteria, Ulva sp. and commercial shellfish (Tapes philippinarum) were taken into consideration. Nutrients fluxes from the watershed and open sea, as well as atmospheric inputs, heat
D. Marinov; J. M. Zaldívar; A. Norro; G. Giordani; P. Viaroli
Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5 km wide), deep (up to 56 m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much
Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5km wide), deep (up to 56m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much of the
Christopher T. Perry; Kevin G. Taylor; Philip G. Machent
TELEMAC-2D, a two-dimensional depth-averaged finite element flow model, has been chosen for modelling the hydrodynamics of the Patos Lagoon during the 1998 El Niño event. The model is initially calibrated against measurements carried out between 20 and 29\\/10\\/98, and good agreement is achieved between measured and predicted longitudinal velocities. Model validation is carried out by comparing measurements and predictions for
E. H. L. Fernandes; K. R. Dyer; O. O. Moller; L. F. H. Niencheski
Summary Bryostromatolites are laminated carbonate rocks composed of bryozoan zoarial laminae. The laminated texture is frequently\\u000a caused by patterns of bryozoan self overgrowth as a regular defensive tactic against microbial fouling. In the Coorong Lagoon\\u000a (South Australia), another type of bryostromatolite is present where the laminated growth of the weakly calcifying bryozoan\\u000a speciesConopeum aciculata is postmortally stabilized by cyanobacterial mats at
Katarzyna A. Palinska; Joachim Scholz; Katja Sterflinger; Gisela Gerdes; Yvonne Bone
The Nador lagoon is a paralic system, located North-East of Morocco. At the present time this ecosystem undergoes an anthropic stress induced by urban, industrial and agricultural releases, and also by fishery activity which enriches this ecosystem in organic and inorganic wastes. A geochemical study has been undertaken, first to define the areas contaminated by heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr and V), and second to caracterize the different mineral phases, which trap these elements. Sediment samples were collected on twenty-eight stations scattered all over the lagoon, and each core (30 cm) was subdivided in two horizons (surface and depth). Mineralogical analyses as well as major and trace elements analyses were performed on surface and deep sediments. The results on major element analyses (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, P) show an enrichment in halite and phosphates in the surface sediments. This highlights on one hand, low water exchange rates between the lagoon and the Mediterranean sea, and on the other hand, an increase in organic releases related to the urban, agricultural and fishery activities. The highest concentrations in inorganic micro-pollutant were recorded N-E of the lagoon and close to Nador city. With reference to the geochemical background, it can be concluded that there is a slight contamination in heavy metals. Moreover, enrichment factor calculations (EF) for heavy metals point out an increase in metal elements as following: Zn>Co>Cr>V>Cu. Sequential extractions were performed to determine the behaviour of these micro-pollutants. Thus, it was shown that carbonates, oxides and phosphates are the preferential mineral phases for trapping these heavy metals.
Mugu Lagoon is significant as one of the least disturbed and best protected estuaries in southern California; thus this small estuarine system can serve as a baseline model for the region. This report summarizes and synthesizes scientific data on the ecological structure and functioning of the estuary, including discussions of climate, hydrology, geology, physiography, biotic assemblages, and ecological processes and interactions. The estuary exhibits extreme variability in freshwater inputs, being at times totally marine and at other times flushed by stormwater runoff from the watershed. Major storms in 1978 and 1980 resulted in sedimentation that drastically altered benthic communities and resulted in changes in the distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation and benthos, and fish and shorebird use of these food resources. Mugu Lagoon is part of a naval base and therefore not subject to the development pressures facing many other southern California estuaries. Storm-produced sedimentation remains a management concern, as well as closure of the mouth of the lagoon due to littoral drift of sand along the barrier spit.
The concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As) were determined in seven seaweeds of environmental and commercial relevance (Ulva rigida C. Ag., Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft, L. Irvine and Farnham, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe., Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Suringar, Fucus virsoides J. Agardh, Cystoseira barbata (Good. et Wood.) Ag.) collected in four sampling sites in the lagoon of Venice, in spring and autumn 1999. Metals were extracted using hot concentrated acids in a Microwave Digestion Rotor and analysed by absorption spectrophotometry using a flame mode for Fe and Zn and a graphite furnace for Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni and As. High contamination levels, especially for Pb, were detected in Ulva and to a lesser extent in Gracilaria. Brown seaweeds, especially Cystoseira was highly contaminated by As. The least contaminated genera with all metals except As were Porphyra and Undaria. A concentration decrease for Zn and Cd was observed from the inner parts of the central lagoon, close to the industrial district, towards the lagoon openings to the sea. PMID:11999620
From a geoscience perspective, coastal lagoons are essentially ephemeral features which are part of a continuum of coastal environments. Their natural hydromorphological evolution is seldom if ever permitted to take place as a consequence of human action; either directly by engineering interventions, to maintain or create navigable inlets, or indirectly due to activities within their catchment areas. The hydromorphological impacts of historical, contemporary and proposed engineering activities in coastal lagoons around in the world are reviewed and from these a powerful exemplar is that of the Aveiro system in Portugal. Here, two centuries of channelization, jetty and breakwater construction and progressive dredging have transformed a then fluvially dominant system into one that is today tidally dominant. Both the tidal range and tidal prism have increased along with the extent of saline intrusion. The associated stresses imposed by increased tidal currents have, in turn, led to important changes in the sedimentary regime and to the loss of almost all seagrass species which were once abundant in the system. This, along with observations from other related case studies, raises important questions regarding the concept of lagoon ecosystem 'health' and the baseline or reference conditions to which it is assessed.
...OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... means any Federal or State Indian tribe, band...services or funding to a State Indian Tribe that is...receive services from the United States, published...
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II alleles were defined for 302 Lakota Sioux American Indians as part of the American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics coordinated studies on minority populations. The study group was comprised of adult volunteers from the Cheyenne River and Ogala Sioux tribes residing, respectively, on the Cheyenne River and Pine Ridge Reservations in South
Mary S Leffell; M. Daniele Fallin; William H Hildebrand; Joshua W Cavett; Brian A Iglehart; Andrea A Zachary
A 4½-layer model with active thermodynamics and mixed-layer physics is used to isolate effects on salinity distributions in the Indian Ocean that result from various forcing mechanisms. These forcings include evaporation (?) and precipitation (P) through the ocean surface and inflows across basin boundaries by river runoff in the Bay of Bengal, the Indonesian Throughflow, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea. A suite of solutions is obtained in which each forcing is added sequentially. In the solution forced only by P-?, salinity patterns in the upper three layers agree qualitatively with the observations, but values tend to be higher throughout most of the basin. When river inflow into the Bay of Bengal is included, salinity values are significantly improved in the upper three layers, especially in the northern Bay and along the east and west coasts of India. In addition, solutions suggest that during the Northeast Monsoon part of the river water flows out of the Bay in the shallow channel between Sri Lanka and India: Only when this channel is opened in the upper layer do solutions develop a strong, across-shelf salinity gradient along the west Indian coast, consistent with the observations. When the Indonesian Throughflow is added, salinities are lowered in all four layers, especially in the southern tropical ocean. Most of the Throughflow eventually flows out of the Indian Ocean along the western boundary and near Madagascar, but some is advected across the equator by the East African Coastal Current, where it is carried eastward and northward into the central Arabian Sea. Saltier Persian Gulf Water is introduced into the model in layer 3. Some of it subsequently entrains into the surface mixed layer, increasing sea surface salinity by 0.1-0.2 practical salinity units (psu) in a broad region of the Arabian Sea. Saltier Red Sea Water enters the basin in layer 4. It increases layer 4 salinity values throughout much of the Indian Ocean, particularly in the Somali Basin, the interior Arabian Sea, and the central and western equatorial ocean.
The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...
To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by radon) and shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1. Both sources of TA were important on a reef wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependant on the time of day. On a daily basis, groundwater can contribute approximately 70% to 80% of the TA taken up by corals within the lagoon. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water-column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.
Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.