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1

Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

Water., United S.

2

INDIAN RIVER LAGOON CCMP PUBLIC PARTICIPATION INITIATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of public involvement within the Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program (IRLNEP) was to develop the public consensus necessary to ensure long-term support for, and implementation of, the Indian River Lagoon Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan (CCMP). Consens...

3

INDIAN RIVER LAGOON CCMP PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

In, 1996, Florida Governor Lawton Chiles And USEPA Administrator Carol Browner officially adopted the Indian River Lagoon CCMP. In it are dozens of actions, that if implemented would help maintain and improve the ecological integrity of the IRL. To evaluate the progress towards i...

4

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

5

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida(SEERS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

6

Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence of flushing. Coordinated studies of circulation through the Haulover Canal, Ponce Inlet and Sebastian Inlet would aid in understanding the genesis of future bloom events.;

Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

2012-12-01

7

The occurrence of potentially toxic dinoflagellates and diatoms in a subtropical lagoon, the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of potentially toxic phytoplankton species was examined over a 5-year period in a region of the Indian River Lagoon in Florida that has recently been subject to ecologically significant events, putatively related to algal toxins. The results of the study reveal a significant presence of two species of phytoplankton that have been shown to be toxic in Florida

E. J. Phlips; S. Badylak; S. Youna; Karen Kelley

2004-01-01

8

Biodiversity of Saline and Brakish Marshes of the Indian River Lagoon: Historic and Current Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) crosses a zone of climatic transition. Historically, marshes dominated saline and brackish environments in the north of the lagoon, while mangroves became important to the south. Distribution of marsh communities was influenced by hydrology, salinity, soil characteristics, and fire, as well as periodic freezes. Marshes of the IRL have been greatly modified since the 1940s. Despite significant modifications, marsh plant species have not been lost from the region, but community and landscape patterns have been greatly modified and ecosystem processes altered.

Schmalzer, Paul A.

1995-01-01

9

Rehabilitation of impounded estuarine wetlands by hydrologic reconnection to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt marshes of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (USA) were once prolific producers of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes lay their eggs\\u000a on the infrequently-flooded high marsh surface when the soil surface is exposed. The eggs hatch when the high marsh is flooded\\u000a by the infrequent high tides or summer rains. To control mosquito production, most of the salt marshes (over 16.200 ha)

R. E. Brockmeyer; J. R. Rey; R. W. Virnstein; R. G. Gilmore; L. Earnest

1996-01-01

10

Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce: The Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Florida's Indian River Lagoon (IRL) is recognized as possibly the most biologically diverse estuarine system in the continental US. The Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce manages the IRL Species Inventory Project, which includes an online database of taxonomic, ecological, and life history information of species in the estuary. Researchers, educators, and resource managers are encouraged to make use of the IRL Species Inventory Project, which will be expanded as research continues. The database includes a search engine with helpful tips, species reports; alphabetized species lists, detailed descriptions of IRL habitats, and more. A photo gallery has been recently added, featuring the work of local photographers.

1998-01-01

11

A Tale of Two Inlets: Tidal Currents at Two Adjacent Inlets in the Indian River Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tidal currents and hydrography at two adjacent inlets of the Indian River Lagoon estuary (Florida) were recently measured using a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system. Although the two inlets—Sebastian Inlet and Port Canaveral Inlet—are separated by only 60 km, their characteristics and dynamics are quite unique. While Sebastian Inlet is a shallow (~4 m), curved inlet with a free connection to the estuary, Port Canaveral Inlet is dominated by a deep (~13 m), straight ship channel and has limited connectivity to the Banana River through a sector gate lock. Underway measurements of tidal currents were obtained using a bottom tracking acoustic Doppler current profiler; vertical casts of hydrography were obtained with a conductivity-temperature-depth profiling instrument; and continuous underway measurements of surface water hydrography were made using a Portable SeaKeeper system. Survey transects were performed to elucidate the along-channel variability of tidal flows, which appears to be significant in the presence of channel curvature. Ebb and flood tidal currents in Sebastian Inlet routinely exceeded 2.5 m/s from the surface to the bed, and an appreciable phase lag exists between tidal stage and current magnitude. The tidal currents at Port Canaveral Inlet were much smaller (~0.2 m/s) and appeared to be sensitive to meteorological forcing during the study period. Although the lagoon has free connections to the ocean 145 km to the north and 45 km to the south, Sebastian Inlet likely drains much of the lagoon to its north, an area of ~550 sq. km.

Webb, B. M.; Weaver, R. J.

2012-12-01

12

Comparative visual function in predatory fishes from the Indian River Lagoon.  

PubMed

Visual temporal resolution and spectral sensitivity of three coastal teleost species (common snook [Centropomus undecimalis], gray snapper [Lutjanus griseus], and pinfish [Lagodon rhomboides]) were investigated by electroretinogram. Temporal resolution was quantified under photopic and scotopic conditions using response waveform dynamics and maximum critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFmax). Photopic CFFmax was significantly higher than scotopic CFFmax in all species. The snapper had the shortest photoreceptor response latency time (26.7 ms) and the highest CFFmax (47 Hz), suggesting that its eyes are adapted for a brighter photic environment. In contrast, the snook had the longest response latency time (36.8 ms) and lowest CFFmax (40 Hz), indicating that its eyes are adapted for a dimmer environment or nocturnal lifestyle. Species spectral responses ranged from 360 to 620 nm and revealed the presence of rods sensitive to dim and twilight conditions, as well as multiple cone visual pigments providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Collectively, our results demonstrate differences in visual function among species inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon system, representative of their unique ecology and life histories. PMID:23629879

McComb, D Michelle; Kajiura, Stephen M; Horodysky, Andrij Z; Frank, Tamara M

2013-01-01

13

Water-quality monitoring and biological integrity assessment in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Status, trends, and loadings (1988--1994)  

SciTech Connect

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) system that extends from Ponce DeLeon inlet to Jupiter inlet is comprised of three interconnected estuarine lagoons: The Mosquito Lagoon (ML), the Banana River Lagoon (BRL), and the Indian River Lagoon. The declines in both the aerial coverage and species diversity of seagrass communities within the IRL system are believed to be due in part to continued degradation of water quality. Large inflows of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)-laden storm-water from urban areas an agricultural land have been correlated with higher chlorophyll a production in the central, south central, and the south segments of the lagoon. In a system as large and complex as the lagoon, N and P limitations are potentially subject to significant spatial and temporal variability. Total Kjeidahl nitrogen (TN) was higher in the north and lower in the south. The reverse pattern was observed for total P (TP), i.e., lowest in the north and highest at the south ends of the IRL. This increased P concentration in the SIRL appears to have a significantly large effect on chlorophyll a production compared with the other segments, as indicated by stepwise regression statistics. This relationship can be expressed as follows: South IRL [chlorophyll a] = {minus}8.52 + 162.41 [orthophosphate] + 7.86 [total nitrogen] + 0.38 [turbidity]; R{sup 2} = 0.98**.

Sigua, G.C.; Steward, J.S.; Tweedale, W.A.

2000-02-01

14

Estimating the Submarine Groundwater Discharge Flux of Rare Earth Elements to the Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA, Using the 1-D Vertical - Flow Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the sources and sinks of trace elements like the rare earth elements (REE) in the oceans has important implications for quantifying their global geochemical cycles, their application as paleoceanographic tracers, and in discerning the geochemical reactions that mobilize, sequester, and fractionate REEs in the environment. This understanding is critical for neodymium (Nd) because radiogenic Nd isotopes are commonly used in paleoceanographic studies over glacial-interglacial to million year time scales. The submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) flux of each REE for the Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA, was calculated using a modified form of the 1-dimensional vertical-flow equation that accounts for diffusion, advection, and non-local mass transfer processes. The SGD REE flux is comprised of two sources: a near shore, heavy REE (HREE) enriched advective source chiefly composed of terrestrial SGD, and a light REE (LREE) and middle REE (MREE) enriched source that originates from reductive dissolution of Fe (III) oxides/hydroxides in the subterranean estuary. This SGD flux mixture of REE sources is subsequently transported by groundwater seepage and bioirrigation to the overlying lagoon water column. The total SGD flux of REEs reveals that the subterranean estuary of the Indian River Lagoon is a source for LREE and MREEs, and a sink for the HREEs, to the local coastal ocean. The calculated SGD flux of Nd presented in this study is estimated at 7.69×1.02 mmol/day, which is roughly equivalent to the effective local river flux to the Indian River Lagoon. Although our re-evaluated SGD flux of Nd to the Indian River Lagoon is lower than estimates in our previous work, it nonetheless represents a substantial input to the coastal ocean.

Chevis, D. A.; Johannesson, K. H.; Burdige, D.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.

2013-12-01

15

Risk Factors for Colonization of E. coli in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

PubMed Central

Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48?hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48?hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings.

Schaefer, Adam M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A.; Reif, John S.

2011-01-01

16

Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of Indian River. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared.

Feller, I. C.; Whigham, D. F.; McKee, K. L.; Lovelock, C. E.

2003-01-01

17

Antibiotic-resistant organisms cultured from Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting estuarine waters of Charleston, SC and Indian River Lagoon, FL.  

PubMed

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from estuarine waters of Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) and Charleston, SC (CHS) were cultured to screen for microorganism colonization and to assess antibiotic sensitivity. Swabs (n = 909) were collected from the blowhole, gastric fluid, and feces of 171 individual dolphins The most frequently cultured organisms were Plesiomonas shigelloides (n = 161), Aeromonas hydrophila (n = 144), Escherichia coli (n = 85), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 82). In descending frequency, organisms demonstrated resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, and cephalothin. Human and animal pathogens resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine were cultured. Escherichia coli (E. coli) more often was resistant in IRL dolphins. Three cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were found at CHS. Emergence of antibiotic resistance is not confined to humans. Bottlenose dolphins may serve as sentinels for transfer of resistance from humans and animals or indicate that antibiotics are reaching the marine environment and causing resistance to emerge through selective pressure and genetic adaptation. PMID:19415386

Schaefer, Adam M; Goldstein, Juli D; Reif, John S; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D

2009-03-01

18

Impact of trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater discharged to the main canal and Indian River lagoon, Vero Beach, Florida  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater highly contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) from a leaky storage tank was detected in Vero Beach, Florida in 1978. Aware of this problem, the local and state authorities gave permission to pump out the contaminated water as a means of reducing concentrations in the aquifer. The water was air sprayed to strip the organic compounds and subsequently discharged and mixed by means of a hydraulic pump in the drainage canal. The average discharge rate of contaminated water into the canal was approximately 0.2 million gallons per day. This project was initiated to determine the spatial distribution of pollutants in the canal and river as well as rainfall and canal flow rate effects on water, sediment, and biological organisms. Prior to flushing the well, a baseline survey of trichloroethylene and other related compounds in the canal and river was performed.

Wang, T.; Lenahan, R.; Kanik, M.

1985-04-01

19

Water-Quality Monitoring and Biological Integrity Assessment in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Status, Trends, and Loadings (1988–1994)  

Microsoft Academic Search

a   production in the central, south central, and the south segments of the lagoon. In a system as large and complex as the lagoon,\\u000a N and P limitations are potentially subject to significant spatial and temporal variability. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TN)\\u000a was higher in the north (1.25 mg\\/liter) and lower in the south (0.89 mg\\/liter). The reverse pattern was observed

Gilbert C. Sigua; Joel S. Steward; Wendy A. Tweedale

2000-01-01

20

75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country...System (NPDES) general permits for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in Indian...issuance of the NPDES general permit for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in...

2010-08-31

21

Effects of environmental variables upon the spatial and temporal structure of a fish community in a small, freshwater tributary of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey to monitor the distribution and abundance of fishes and selected invertebrates in the St. Sebastian River, Florida, was conducted from March 1999 through June 2000. We recorded a total of 181,854 individuals (representing 77 taxa) in 128 seine samples, and a single species, bay anchovy ( Anchoa mitchilli), accounted for 84.4% of the animals collected. Seasonally, the species compositions of spring and fall samples were most similar (percent similarity index (PSI)=95.3%), whereas those of summer and winter samples were most dissimilar (PSI=54.0%). The spring samples contained the greatest mean number of taxa (N0=59 taxa), and the fall samples had the fewest (N0=38). In addition, spring samples had the highest index of abundant taxa (Hill's N1=10.6) and summer samples had the lowest (Hill's N1=6.4), suggesting that approximately four more taxa were caught in greater abundance during spring than during summer. Community composition determined via canonical correspondence analysis revealed four assemblages: two seasonal groupings and two spatial groupings. Seasonal species assemblages were composed of a spring-summer group characterized by recruits of Irish pompano ( Diapterus auratus), snook ( Centropomus undecimalis), and naked goby ( Gobiosoma bosc), and a fall-winter group characterized by recruits of mullet ( Mugil cephalus), spot ( Leiostomus xanthurus), and croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus). Spatial groupings were composed of a north prong group which included taxa with estuarine affinities, and a south prong group which included taxa with freshwater affinities. Community composition recorded during periods of controlled water releases and during periods of naturally high-water-flow differed, primarily because abundant estuarine taxa disappeared during the controlled release. The loss of these taxa suggests that when large amounts of fresh water enter the system during relatively short periods of time, the estuarine component of the community does not have time to adjust to the rapid decrease in salinity.

Paperno, Richard; Brodie, Russell B.

2004-10-01

22

Heavy metals in Morocco Lagoon and river sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were carried out in a short core from a salt marsh of the Nador Lagoon (north-eastem Morocco) and in surficial sediment samples collected in the Martil river, which borders the industrial town of Tétouan. Three soit samples and a reservoir sediment were also collected around the town to check the effects

L. G. Bellucci; B. El Moumni; F. Collavini; M. Frignani; S. Albertazzi

2003-01-01

23

Indian River Hydroelectric Project Grant  

SciTech Connect

This Final Technical Report provides a concise retrospective and summary of all facets of the Sheldon Jackson College electrical Infrastructure Renovation portion of the Indian River Hydroelectric Project Grant of the City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska. The Project Overview describes the origins of the project, the original conditions that provided the impetus for the grant funding, how the grant amendment was developed, the conceptual design development, and the actual parameters of the final project as it went out to bid. The Project Overview also describes the ''before and after'' conditions of the project. The Objectives division of this Final Technical Report describes the amendment-funded goals of the project. It also describes the milestones of project development and implementation, as well as, the rationale behind the milestone array. The Description of Activities Performed division of this report provides an in-depth chronological analysis of progressive project implementation. Photographs will provide further illustration of particular functional aspects of the renovation project within project parameters. The Conclusions and Recommendations division of this report provides a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the project.

Rebecca Garrett

2005-04-29

24

Impact of a river flash flood on microbial carbon and nitrogen production in a Mediterranean Lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over half of the total nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loading was discharged from the Vène River into the Thau Lagoon waters within the first five days of what was considered to be the autumn flash flood period. Such loads represented about 8% and 3% of the yearly averaged total nitrogen and phosphorus load in Thau Lagoon, respectively. Although this event affected >20% of the total lagoon volume, river trace metal loads contributed apparently only weakly to the increase in labile trace metal concentrations in the lagoon surface waters. Differences between theoretical dilution values and observed values were also noticed for phosphate, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. DOC losses (10-50%) mainly through flocculation, together with the substantial increases in some metallic contaminants such as Zn (from 6 to >30 ?g L-1) observed during the flash flood in saline lagoon waters, may have limited the carbon production of bacterial communities. The potential osmotic shock and the increase in turbidity may mainly explain the low phytoplankton C turnover rates (average of 0.02 h-1) measured in brackish waters (<30) during periods of heavy flood discharge. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN: NO3 + NH4) enrichment measured 12 days after the flash flood event in saline lagoon surface waters (from 22 to 143 ?g N L-1) led to a substantial increase in phytoplanktonic C production and associated DIN uptake rates (from 2.6 to 7.0 ?g C L-1 h-1 and from 0.5 to 1.1 ?g N L-1 h-1, respectively). Subsequent accumulation in particulate organic carbon and nitrogen was not observed in the area studied during and after the flash flood period, averaging 549 ± 50 ?g C L-1 and 168 ± 9 ?g N L-1, respectively. This suggests that most of locally produced microbial production was rapidly filtered by oysters contributing to about 13% of the yearly exploited production in the lagoon and/or exported through sedimentation.

Fouilland, E.; Trottet, A.; Bancon-Montigny, C.; Bouvy, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Gonzalez, J.-L.; Hatey, E.; Mas, S.; Mostajir, B.; Nouguier, J.; Pecqueur, D.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Rodier, C.; Roques, C.; Salles, C.; Tournoud, M.-G.; Vidussi, F.

2012-11-01

25

First Observation of Microcystins in Tunisian inland waters: a threat to river mouths and lagoon ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcystin pollution is known to affect different types of inland water bodies: river mouths and coastal lagoons may be affected by local production as well as by transportation through the freshwater network. Physicochemical and biological water quality, including the total microcystin concentration, was investigated from July to December 2003 in the reservoir Hjar, Tunisia. 2 - Microcystin levels and characterization

El Herry

26

Allochthonous and autochthonous carbon sources for fish in floodplain lagoons of an Australian dryland river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dryland rivers associated with arid and semi-arid land areas offer an opportunity to explore food web concepts and models\\u000a of energy sources in systems that experience unpredictable flooding and long dry spells. This study investigated the sources\\u000a of energy supporting three species of fish feeding at different trophic levels within floodplain lagoons of the Macintyre\\u000a River in the headwaters of

Elvio S. F. Medeiros; Angela H. Arthington

2011-01-01

27

Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, estuarine-lagoons, and coastal ecosystems along the eastern Hainan Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient dynamics were studied along the eastern Hainan Island based on field observations during 2006-2009, to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes and to have an overview of human perturbations on coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The concentrations of nutrients in the rivers had seasonal variations enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). High riverine concentrations of nitrate were mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer input. The ratios of DIN : PO43- ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential PO43- relative to nitrogen in the rivers. The areal yields of dissolved silicate (DSi) varied from 76 to 448 × 103 mol km-2 yr-1 due to erosion over the drainage area, inducing high levels of DSi among worldwide tropical systems. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ (up to 157 ?M) and DON (up to 130 ?M). Particulate phosphorus concentrations (0.5 ∼1.4 ?M) were in lower level comparied with estuaries around the world. Particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas were affected by human activities (e.g. aquaculture, agriculture), as well as natural events such as typhoon. Nutrient concentrations were low because open sea water dispersed land-derived nutrients. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes would be magnified by estuarine processes (e.g. regeneration, desorption) in the Wenchanghe/Wenjiaohe Estuary, Wanquan River estuary, and the Laoyehai Lagoon except in the Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater input were the major sources of nutrients to the Xiaohai Lagoon and the Laiyehai Lagoon, respectively. Riverine input and aquaculture effluent were the major sources of nutrients to the eastern coastal of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem can be increased by typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, and phytoplankton bloom in the sea would be caused.

Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

2013-06-01

28

Consistent trophic patterns among fishes in lagoon and channel habitats of a tropical floodplain river: Evidence from stable isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between food web dynamics and hydrological connectivity in rivers should be strongly influenced by annual flood pulses that affect primary production dynamics and movement of organic matter and consumer taxa. We sampled basal production sources and fishes from connected lagoons and the main channel of a low-gradient, floodplain river within the Orinoco River Basin in Venezuela. Stable isotope

Katherine A. Roach; Kirk O. Winemiller; Craig A. Layman; Steven C. Zeug

2009-01-01

29

Advanced Scour Monitoring at Indian River Inlet, Delaware  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scour holes threatening the bridge over Indian River Inlet, Delaware are unique in their size and location, and thus demand an innovative approach to their observation. Typical bridge scour occurs at the base of support structures. However, scour at Indian River Inlet has developed two large holes over 25m deep that flank the bridge. The deepest part of one

J. T. Hayden; J. A. Puleo; J. H. Macmahan

2008-01-01

30

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

31

Heavy metal contamination of the Sacca di Goro lagoon area (Po River Delta, Northern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lagoon area of the Sacca di Goro, within the Po River delta, is ca. 20 km2 wide, with a mean depth of 1.5 m and a mean salinity of 29%o. It holds a major naturalistic interest as well as an economic one due to the aquaculture activities (mussels and clams). In this lagoon system, the quality of the sea-bottom sediments is crucial not only for the cultivated species, but also for the potential bio-accumulation problems in heavy metals. The definition of the qualitative status of the lagoon sediments is crucial for adopting the best management strategies and the protection of the environmental conditions. We determined the concentration in SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn, Cu, Ga, Nd, S and Sr, of 31 samples homogeneously collected over the lagoon area. This large dataset allowed i) to define the environmental quality of the sediments, ii) to recognise the areas with the higher contamination risk; and iii) to emphasise the local occurrence of polluting phenomena associated to chromium, nickel, vanadium, cobalt, lead, zinc and copper.

Rapti-Caputo, Dimitra

2010-05-01

32

Geohydrology of Indian River County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system are the sources of groundwater used in Indian River County, Florida. About 65% of the groundwater is used for irrigation and is from the Floridan aquifer system. Saline water ranging from slightly saline to brine underlies the fresh groundwater throughout the county and is the chief water quality problem. Transmissivities of the surficial aquifer system in eastern Indian River County range from 1,500 to 11,000 sq ft/d. Yields of wells are as much as 1,200 gal/min. Reported transmissivities for the Floridan aquifer system range from 65,000 to 200,000 sq ft/d. Most wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system flow; flow rates range from 30 to 2,000 gal/min. Chloride concentrations of water in the surficial aquifer system generally are below 100 mg/L, but concentrations often exceed 250 mg/L in water from the Floridan aquifer system. Between 1976 and 1983, average chloride concentrations in water from six wells that tap the surficial aquifer system in the Vero Beach well field increased about 36 mg/L, but were unchanged in four other wells. The increase in chloride concentration probably is related to a well-field pumpage increase from 5.44 million gal/d in 1976 to 8.00 million gal/d in 1983. In most of the County, chloride concentrations of wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system have not changed significantly in the 15-year period, 1968-83. Water levels in the surficial aquifer system declined 15 to 19 ft between 1971 and 1984 in the Vero Beach well field where the larger groundwater withdrawals occur, but have not declined significantly outside heavily pumped areas. Water levels in the Floridan aquifer system have declined 16 to 24 ft in eastern Indian River County in the 50-year period, 1934-84, but declines outside the heavily pumped areas generally have been less than 10 ft during this period. (USGS)

Schiner, G. R.; Laughlin, C. P.; Toth, D. J.

1988-01-01

33

Harmful Algae Records in Venice Lagoon and in Po River Delta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)  

PubMed Central

A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide “updated reference conditions” for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200?cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance.

Bilanicova, Dagmar; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-01-01

34

Dispersion of Outflow from Small Rivers and Coastal Lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along many tropical and subtropical coasts, waters enter the ocean via small streams or lagoons. These outflow plumes are known to be important to coastal productivity, but as pollutant loading increases they are also seen as an increasing source of coastal pollution. Physical processes in these small plumes interact in ways that are different to larger plumes, e.g., flow rate varies on short time scales, and the coriolis term is typically unimportant. After a brief review of dominant terms, attention will be given to observed plume patterns with a focus on the presence of low-salinity and outflow-related constituents nearshore. Data from studies off California and elsewhere will be used to suggest that there are common transport and mixing patterns at this scale. While the ultimate aim is to understand and model physical processes controlling dispersion of land-derived pollutants, at the very least one can recognize a spatial pattern of probability that can be characterized by primary physical parameters. Due to limited data on physical processes at the requisite resolution, numerical modeling is used to better understand processes and phenomena including inertial jets, buoyant plumes, alongshore flow, mixing and surface stresses. Ultimately, one can expect that a reasonable estimate of a probabilistic "zone of impact" can be obtained from knowledge of fundamental physical parameters that control transport and mixing. This link between physical forcing and response needs both a dynamical explanation and statistical support - yielding a general model that can be used for countless small inflows along many coasts. These features may be small but they are very common, and it is argued that their importance for coastal pollution and ecology is disproportionately big. The benefit of recognizing a transport-based zone of impact is that this pattern is the basis of distribution patterns for a variety of constituents, including dissolved and particulate contaminants, terrigeneous sediment, and planktonic organisms (e.g., larvae and microbial pathogens) - thus providing valuable insight to diverse issues in coastal water quality and ecology.

Largier, J. L.; Basdurak, N. B.

2013-05-01

35

Effects of extended absence of flooding on the fish assemblages of three floodplain lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Neotropics, a large proportion of fish communities of large rivers use floodplain as habitats for feeding, reproduction, and refuge. An evaluation was made of the effects of extended dry periods on the species richness, abundance and local extinction of fish species in three marginal lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, southeastern Brazil. The studied lagoons fail to

Paulo dos Santos Pompeu; Hugo Pereira Godinho

2006-01-01

36

Impact of Commercial Clam Harvesting on Water Column and Sediment Physicochemical Characteristics and Macrobenthic Community Structure in a Lagoon (Sacca Di Goro) of the Po River Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sacca di Goro is a hypertrophic lagoon of the Po river Delta, which is heavily exploited for rearing ofthe Manila clam, Tapes philippinarum. Harvesting of the clams could add to the general disturbance regime in the lagoon through damage to the benthic community, the release of porewater nutrients which could fuel macroalgal growth and of reduced compounds from the

G. Castaldelli; S. Mantovani; D. T. Welsh; R. Rossi; M. Mistri; E. A. Fano

2003-01-01

37

Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:23644791

Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

2013-02-01

38

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Indian rivers.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical concentration data for Indian surface waters are currently scarce. Sewage often enters Indian rivers without prior treatment, and so previously reported environmental concentrations from regions with routinely implemented sewage treatment cannot simply be used to predict concentrations in Indian surface water. Improved knowledge of pharmaceutical concentrations in Indian waters would enable determination of potential risks posed to aquatic wildlife and human health in this region. The concentrations of five common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; diclofenac, ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid) were determined in surface waters from 27 locations of the Kaveri, Vellar, and Tamiraparani Rivers in southern India. The samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The measured concentrations of four of the five drugs in this reconnaissance were relatively similar to those reported elsewhere (ND-200 ng/l); however, acetylsalicylic acid, the most readily degradable of the investigated drugs, was found at all sites and at considerably higher concentrations (up to 660 ng/l) than reported in European surface waters. This is the first report on the occurrence of NSAIDs in Indian rivers. The finding of elevated concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid is most likely a result of direct discharges of untreated sewage. Therefore, readily degradable pharmaceuticals may present larger concern in regions without consistent sewage treatment. Based on measured environmental concentrations, the risks of direct toxicity to aquatic wildlife and of humans consuming the water are discussed. PMID:23832803

Shanmugam, Govindaraj; Sampath, Srimurali; Selvaraj, Krishna Kumar; Larsson, D G Joakim; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran

2014-01-01

39

Fishes of the White River basin, Indian  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1875, researchers have reported 158 species of fish belonging to 25 families in the White River Basin. Of these species, 6 have not been reported since 1900 and 10 have not been reported since 1943. Since the 1820's, fish communities in the White River Basin have been affected by the alteration of stream habitat, overfishing, the introduction of non-native species, agriculture, and urbanization. Erosion resulting from conversion of forest land to cropland in the 1800's led to siltation of streambeds and resulted in the loss of some silt-sensitive species. In the early 1900's, the water quality of the White River was seriously degraded for 100 miles by untreated sewage from the City of Indianapolis. During the last 25 years, water quality in the basin has improved because of efforts to control water pollution. Fish communities in the basin have responded favorably to the improved water quality.

Crawford, C. G.; Lydy, M. J.; Frey, J. W.

1996-01-01

40

SPRINGS AND WATER TANKS ON GILA RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Gila River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

41

SPRINGS AND WATER TANKS ON THE COLORADO RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Colorado River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

42

Climate change impact assessment on hydrology of Indian river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the National Communication (NATCOM) project undertaken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, the present study has been taken up to quantify the impact of the cl i- mate change on the water resources of Indian river systems. The study uses the HadRM2 daily weather data to determine the spatio-temporal water availabil- ity in

A. K. Gosain; Sandhya Rao; Debajit Basuray

43

Advanced Scour Monitoring at Indian River Inlet, Delaware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scour holes threatening the bridge over Indian River Inlet, Delaware are unique in their size and location, and thus demand an innovative approach to their observation. Typical bridge scour occurs at the base of support structures. However, scour at Indian River Inlet has developed two large holes over 25m deep that flank the bridge. The deepest part of one hole sits just 45m away from the bridge foundation, and has been migrating toward the bridge at a rate that has alarmed Delaware Department of Transportation (DelDOT) engineers. Recently a real-time bridge and bathymetric monitoring system was installed, giving engineers the ability to make operational decisions regarding the safety of the bridge, and providing scientists a unique opportunity to investigate the coupled inlet morphologic evolution and hydrodynamics over multiple time scales. The monitoring system consists of two identical sets of instruments permanently mounted to subaqueous bridge piers, with one three dimensional imaging sonar and one horizontal ADCP comprising each pair. This new system represents significant progress in scour monitoring at Indian River Inlet. Previous efforts only provided snapshots of the storied evolution of the bathymetry or tidal forcing - and thus offered diminished potential for understanding the complicated inlet dynamics. Data from the instruments are automatically uploaded to University of Delaware servers and processed twice per day. Preliminary analysis of observed diurnal evolution in bathymetry along with associated forcing will be presented.

Hayden, J. T.; Puleo, J. A.; Macmahan, J. H.

2008-12-01

44

One river, three sovereigns: Indian and interstate water rights  

SciTech Connect

Federal Indian reserved waters apply to intra and interstate streams and aquifers. Many interstate streams have been allocated among riparian states by Supreme Court decree, interstate compact or congressional apportionment, but Indian water rights are seldom well integrated into these mass allocations. In Arizona v. California, the Supreme Court held that in the case of a congressional apportionment Indian water rights are charged against the share of the state in which the reservation is located. States on over-appropriated rivers resist the general application of this principle, but states with surplus waters view the recognition of generous water rights as a way to protect base flows against the claims of other states. This article argues that it is fair to charge the satisfaction of reserved water rights against the state or states in which the reservation is located because Indian tribes are quasi-sovereign. This is the practice of Western states in negotiating reserve rights agreements and is leaning to fairer treatment of the tribes.

Tarlock, A.D.

1987-01-01

45

Analysis of Lagoonal Ecosystems in the Po River Delta Associated with Intensive Aquaculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations on structure and functioning of coastal lagoon ecosystems experiencing a high level of eutrophication impact were accomplished in three lagoons of Ca'Pisani integrated within an experimental aquaculture enterprise variously fertilized by waste effluents discharged from and intensive fish culture plant. During August and early September an extremely dense bloom of dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarensewas recorded in these lagoons with the density of phytoplankton up to 190 g m -3of wet biomass, and primary production 2 to 6 mg Cl -1 day -1. The diel dissolved oxygen fluctuations in water column during the bloom reached 15-20 mg O 2 l -1. The wet biomass of bacterioplankton in the lagoons attained 5-9 g m -3. The microzooplankton was dominated by ciliates with biomass 1 to 19 g m -3. The daytime mesozooplankton was dominated by calanoid copepods with a biomass 0·05-0·25 g m -3, while the biomass of the demersal zooplankton at night attained 2 to 14 g m -3. In the lagoon of Ocaro, the phototrophic plankton was dominated by the symbiotic ciliate Mesodinium.The labile sulphides content in the upper layer of the bottom attained over 1 g S dm -3of wet silt. The rate of microbial sulphate reduction was 5-10 mg S dm -3day -1. The data are generalized within the energy balance in these specific anthropogenically transformed pelagic communities.

Sorokin, Yu. I.; Sorokin, P. Yu.; Ravagnan, G.

1999-03-01

46

Wave characteristics and morphological variations of pocket beaches in a coral reef-lagoon setting, Mayotte Island, Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pocket beaches are common worldwide but documentation on their hydrodynamics, sediment transport processes and morphodynamics is sparse compared to open beaches. Studies of headland-bound pocket beaches in coral reef environments are even more sparse notwithstanding an increasing number of studies of coral reef shorelines. Mayotte Island, in the Indian Ocean, is characterised by a coral reef-lagoon complex and numerous pocket beaches nested between volcanic headlands. Field experiments were conducted in order to: compare wave attenuation from the outer barrier reef to the inner reef flat fronting three pocket beaches, analyse attenuation patterns across an inner reef flat fronting one of the beaches, and document beach morphological changes. Wave attenuation exceeded 90%, and increased as wave heights increased, with maximum attenuation of moderately large waves (significant wave heights > 1.8 m) generated by a category 1 cyclone (Jokwe). Further attenuation across the inner reef flat was neither related to reef width nor correlated with water depth, but the correlation was slightly better with relative wave height. Attenuation increased as relative wave height decreased. Patterns of beach morphological change driven by residual wave energy following reef attenuation were strongly affected by the degree of beach embayment. Mtsanga Gouela and Trevani beaches are characterised by a low bay indentation conducive to longshore sediment mobility, and provide rare examples of inferred rotation of reef-fronted beaches, similar to rotation of drift-aligned beaches in non-reef settings. In contrast, Dapani beach, nested in a strongly indented bay, was dominated by seasonal cross-shore sand exchange. In addition to reef-driven wave attenuation, an important factor differentiating pocket beaches in coral reef settings and non-reef settings is the inner reef flat. The historical stability of the beaches suggests that the outer limits of cross-shore seasonal or cyclone-induced sediment movements are set over these reef flats. Further studies of reef-fronted pocket beaches will require better elucidation of the effect of the fronting reef flats on sediment transport and storage, and of the role of heterogeneity in sediment grain size and density common in reef environments in volcanic settings.

Jeanson, Matthieu; Anthony, Edward J.; Dolique, Franck; Aubry, Aline

2013-01-01

47

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2012-07-01

48

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2011-07-01

49

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2010-07-01

50

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian...

2011-07-01

51

Brazil The Duck Lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) which reaches peak production during summer. Sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) can be found in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is restricted to Central America). MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

52

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...an Energy Project at the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River...

2013-07-01

53

Precipitation chemistry - Atmospheric loadings to the surface waters of the Indian River lagoon basin by rainfall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rain volume and chemistry monitoring as part of the Kennedy Space Center Long Term Environmental Monitoring Program included the years 1984-1987 as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Atmospheric deposition in rainfall consisted primarily of sea salt and hydrogen ion, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions. The deposition of nitrogen (a principal plant nutrient) was on the order of 200-300 metric tons per year to the surface waters.

Dreschel, Thomas W.; Madsen, Brooks C.; Maull, Lee A.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, William M., III

1990-01-01

54

76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs...River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor, Section 2-403(12...River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article 2, Liquor by Ordinance No. 10-03...

2011-12-13

55

Aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine, and organophosphorous pesticides in surface sediments from the Arc river and the Berre lagoon, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The Arc River and Berre lagoon are one of important river basin hydrosystem in the South of France that receives industrial\\u000a and municipal wastewaters from the adjacent area.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Due to its social and economic impact as well as ecological function of basin, an assessment of environmental risk due to\\u000a mobilization of contaminants is necessary. Thus, the study aims

Fehmi Kanzari; Agung Dhamar Syakti; Laurence Asia; Laure Malleret; Gilbert Mille; Bassem Jamoussi; Manef Abderrabba; Pierre Doumenq

56

Long-term effects of changing land use practices on surface water quality in a coastal river and lagoonal estuary.  

PubMed

The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region. PMID:19597872

Rothenberger, Meghan B; Burkholder, JoAnn M; Brownie, Cavell

2009-09-01

57

Long-Term Effects of Changing Land Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in a Coastal River and Lagoonal Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region.

Rothenberger, Meghan B.; Burkholder, Joann M.; Brownie, Cavell

2009-09-01

58

ON THE WIND-INDUCED EXCHANGE BETWEEN INDIAN RIVER BAY, DELAWARE AND THE ADJACENT CONTINENTAL SHELF. (R826945)  

EPA Science Inventory

The structure of the wind-induced exchange between Indian River Bay, Delaware and the adjacent continental shelf is examined based on current measurements made at the Indian River Inlet which represents the only conduit of exchange between the bay and the coastal ocean. Local ...

59

Impacts to a Coastal River and Estuary from Rupture of a Large Swine Waste Holding Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tracked a swine waste spill (4.13 ? 107 L) into a small receiving river and estuary. After 2 d, a 29-kin freshwater segment that the wastes had traversed was anoxic, with ca. 4000 dead fish floating and hung in shoreline vegetation. Suspended solids, nutrients, and fecal coliforms were 10- to 100-fold higher at the plume's edge (71.7 mg SS\\/L,

JoAnn M. Burkholder; Michael A. Mallin; Howard B. Glasgow; L. Michael Larsen; Matthew R. McIver; G. Christopher Shank; Nora Deamer-Melia; David S. Briley; Jeffrey Springer; Brant W. Touchette; Elle K. Hannon

1997-01-01

60

Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Grade Nine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching guide presents social studies activities to help ninth graders learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Based on the Indian River County environment in Florida, it is part of a series for teachers, students, and community members. The introduction describes the county's geography, natural resources,…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

61

Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Band of Ojibwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…

Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.

2010-01-01

62

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the eastern shore of Fritz Is. at latitude 27°39â²32.5â³ N., longitude 80°22â²20.6â³ W. following the shoreline northward to the northwest...

2010-07-01

63

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the eastern shore of Fritz Is. at latitude 27°39â²32.5â³ N., longitude 80°22â²20.6â³ W. following the shoreline northward to the northwest...

2009-07-01

64

BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF WATER LEVEL CHANGES IN MARGINAL LAGOONS AT LOWER SÃO FRANCISCO FLOODPLAIN RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in marginal lagoons at the low São Francisco watershed is dependent on water flow of upstream reservoirs. These organisms inhabit the bottom of freshwater ecosystems and their presence\\/absence, abundance and species richness are ecological indicators of water level fluctuations and human impacts in the watershed. The objective of this study was to assess the taxonomic

DÉBORAH OLIVEIRA; VÍCTOR GOMES; MARCOS CALLISTO

65

Factors responsible for rapid dissipation of acidic herbicides in the coastal lagoons of the Camargue (Rhône River Delta, France).  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating which processes cause acidic herbicides (e.g., bentazone, MCPA and dichlorprop) to rapidly disappear in the lagoons of the Rhône delta, which are peculiar brackish and shallow aquatic environments. The use of the model MASAS (Modeling of Anthropogenic Substances in Aquatic Systems) revealed that sorption, sedimentation, volatilization, flushing and abiotic hydrolysis had a minor role in the attenuation of the investigated herbicides. Laboratory scale biodegradation and photodegradation studies were conducted to better assess the significance of these two processes in the natural attenuation of herbicides in brackish (lagoons) waters with respect to fresh waters (canals draining paddy fields). Herbicide biodegradation rates were significantly lower in lagoon water than in canal water. Consequently, photodegradation was the main dissipation route of all investigated herbicides. The contribution of indirect photolysis was relevant for MCPA and dichlorprop while direct photolysis dominated for bentazone removal. There is a need to further investigate the identity of phototransformation products of herbicides in lagoons. PMID:21075422

Al Housari, Fadi; Höhener, Patrick; Chiron, Serge

2011-01-01

66

Health Consultation: Aero Dyne Corporation (Aero Dyne), District 4 Lone Butte Memorial Area, Gila River Indian Community, Maricopa County, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC), Office of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH), has prepared this health consultation through a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). This health consultation addre...

2006-01-01

67

[Factors involved in coastal lagoons formation in Colombian southwest Caribbean].  

PubMed

Based on origin, geomorphological evolution and environmental characteristics, four of the main types of coastal lagoons were identified in colombian southwest Caribbean. The following are examples of each type: (1) Terrigenous sediment inputs in delta environment (Lagoons from Sinu River Delta, Cordoba Department), (2) Shore sand bars in coastal flat (Tesca Lagoon, Bolivar Deparment), (3) bar built by organisms such as coral reefs, (Isla Grande Lagoons, Bolivar Deparment) and, (4) bars controlled by tectonism (Cartagena Bay, Bolivar Deparment). PMID:15916172

Alvarez-León, Ricardo; Mendoza-Mazzeo, Luis Alberto; Vernette, Georges

2003-01-01

68

Gila River Indian Community Water Resources Decision Support System - A Modeling System for Managing a Multi-Source Conjunctive Use Water Supply for Long-Term Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gila River water rights settlement will restore to the Gila River Indian Community (GRIC) a water supply necessary to meet present and future demands on their tribal homeland. The settlement provides water from nine water sources, including delivery from four irrigation districts, treated municipal effluent, irrigation return flow and supplemental groundwater. The Gila River Indian Community Water Resources Decision

Brian D. Westfall; Andrew A. Keller; Ronald D. Bliesner; Tim Flynn

69

Rhenium in Indian rivers: Sources, fluxes, and contribution to oceanic budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance and distribution of dissolved and particulate Rhenium (Re) has been measured in several rivers draining the Himalaya and Peninsular India, from their origin to outflow into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. The large data set resulting from this study on rivers flowing through a variety of lithologies e.g., the crystallines and sediments of the Himalaya, Deccan basalts, Vindhyan sediments and the Indian shield significantly enhances our understanding of the aqueous geochemistry of Re and also constrains its sources to rivers and fluxes to the sea. The concentration of dissolved Re in rivers of the Himalaya and the Peninsular India shows wide range; 1.4 to 72.7 pmol/kg (mean 7.8 pmol/kg) and 0.5 to 122 pmol/kg (mean 15 pmol/kg) respectively. The discharge weighted average annual flux of dissolved Re transported by the rivers from these regions are ˜5800 and ˜15,700 mol/year respectively. The major source of dissolved Re, as determined from inter-element associations, is black shales for the Himalayan rivers and pyrites in basalts for the east flowing Deccan rivers. In addition, there are evidences of considerable anthropogenic supply of Re to some of the rivers that have very high Re concentrations. Estimates of anthropogenic supply based on their Re/K ratios suggest that this source accounts for most of the Re in the Peninsular rivers, particularly the Godavari. The annual flux of anthropogenic Re transported by the Peninsular rivers is ˜14,600 mol, most of which is from the Godavari. This anthropogenic flux accounts for ˜70% of the total Re supply by the Indian rivers to the adjacent seas and 3.4% of the global riverine flux to the oceans. The global average, pre-anthropogenic (natural) concentration of dissolved Re in rivers is estimated to be ˜3 pmol/kg based on Re-K correlation. This value is much lower than the contemporary average determined from the measured concentrations and earlier estimate of natural Re based on Re-SO4 link.

Rahaman, Waliur; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Shukla, Anil Dutt

2012-08-01

70

Effects of flow releases on macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Adirondack Mountains of Northern New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of flow releases (daily during spring and four times weekly during summer) from a small impoundment on macroinvertebrate assemblages in the lower Indian River and upper Hudson River of northern New York were assessed during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Community indices, feeding guilds, dominant species and Bray—Curtis similarities at three sites on the Indian River, below a regulated impoundment, were compared with those at four control sites on the Cedar River, below a run-of-the-river impoundment of comparable size. The same indices at four less-likely affected sites on the Hudson River, below the mouth of the Indian River, were compared with those at an upstream control site on the Hudson River. Results show that the function and apparent health of macroinvertebrate communities were generally unaffected by atypical flow regimes and/or altered water quality at study reaches downstream from both dams in the Indian, Cedar and Hudson Rivers. The lentic nature of releases from both impoundments, however, produced significant changes in the structure of assemblages at Indian and Cedar River sites immediately downstream from both dams, moderate effects at two Indian River sites 2.4 and 4.0 km downstream from its dam, little or no effect at three Cedar River sites 7.2-34.2 km downstream from its dam, and no effect at any Hudson River site. Bray—Curtis similarities indicate that assemblages did not differ significantly among sites within similar impact categories. The paucity of scrapers at all Indian River sites, and the predominance of filter-feeding Simulium gouldingi and Pisidium compressum immediately below Abanakee dam, show that only minor differences in dominant species and trophic structure of macroinvertebrate communities occurred at affected sites in the Indian River compared to the Cedar River. Thus, flow releases had only a small, localized effect on macroinvertebrate communities in the Indian River.

Baldigo, B. P.; Smith, A. J.

2011-01-01

71

Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Associated Nitrogen Flux in Coral Reef Lagoons of Mauritius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent eutrophication in several coral reef lagoons along the Indian Ocean island nation of Mauritius (20° S, 57° E) has highlighted the need for a greater understanding of nutrient sources to these lagoon waters. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal environment is one possible transport mechanism for excess terrestrial nutrients to coral reef lagoons, since groundwater nitrate levels are

M. Eagle; A. Paytan; R. T. Ramessur

2003-01-01

72

Reconnaissance of the water resources of the Hoh Indian Reservation and the Hoh River basin, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground- and surface-water resources of the Hoh Indian Reservation and the Hoh River basin were studied from 1977 to 1980 under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Hoh Indian Tribe. It was determined that moderate quantities of groundwater can be obtained from near-surface, river-deposited sands and gravels on the northeastern part of the reservation. Groundwater recharge (induced by pumping from a nearby oxbow lake) could supply numerous wells indefinitely with yields of 25 to 50 gallons/min. Geologic units in other areas of the reservation appear to have a low hydraulic conductivity and would yield little, if any, water to wells. At seven sites where housing construction is planned, soils were tested for infiltration rates and it was determined that soils are adequate for waste disposal in septic tanks and associated drain fields at those locations. Chalaat Creek, which flows across the reservation, provides water for salmon-rearing ponds. Except for moderately high bacteria concentrations (fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were as high as 33 colonies/100 mL), results of water quality analyses indicate no unusual or harmful concentrations of any chemical constituent or physical properties of the water that would restrict its use for most purposes. Chemical and bacteriological analyses of the Hoh River and its major tributaries downstream from the Olympic Park boundary revealed no unusual or harmful levels of constituents, with some minor exceptions. Small increases in concentrations of sodium, chloride, nitrite plus nitrate, and turbidity were measured in water samples collected from the Hoh River in a downstream direction. These increases are probably the result of natural weathering of rocks and soils in the basin. Fluvial-sediment transport of the Hoh River was 82,000 tons from March 1978 to February 1979 and 1,510,000 tons from March 1979 to February 1980. Mean annual transport was estimated to be 630 ,000 tons. About 60% of the sediment transported by the Hoh River originates from within the boundaries of the Olympic National Park, which includes about 70% of the area of the Hoh River drainage basin. (USGS)

Lum, W. E.; Nelson, L. M.

1986-01-01

73

Wisconsin Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

74

Impact of trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater discharged to the main canal and Indian River Lagoon, Vero Beach, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of groundwater by organic pollutants is now widely recognized as a serious threat to the integrity of many municipal and rural water supplies (Burmaster 1982; Wilson and McNabb 1983; Hansen 1983). The source of this contamination includes various waste disposal activities (e.g. industrial impoundments, landfills, accidental spills, underground storage tank leaks, pesticides and fertilizer application). Groundwater highly contaminated with

T. Wang; R. Lenahan; M. Kanik

1985-01-01

75

Local cultural knowledge and water resource management: the Wind River Indian Reservation.  

PubMed

Ecology and culture comprise interacting components of landscapes. Understanding the integrative nature of the landscape is essential to establish methods for sustainable management. This research takes as a unifying theme the idea that ecological and cultural issues can be incorporated through management. As a first step in developing integrative management strategies, information must be collected that compares and contrasts ecological and cultural issues to identify their areas of intersection. Specifically how can local cultural knowledge enable water resource management that reflects cultural and ecological values? This research examines Native American cultural knowledge for setting water resource management priorities in the Wind River Indian Reservation in central Wyoming. A cross-cultural approach is adopted to assess the relationship between indigenous cultural knowledge and Euro-American perspectives through a comparative examination of the Wind River Water Code and Wyoming Water Law. This research indicates that cultural perspectives provide a rich arena in which to examine management issues. Understanding and identifying cultural practices may be an important first step in collaborative resource management between different cultural groups to prevent conflict and lengthy resolution in court. PMID:15285403

Flanagan, Cathleen; Laituri, Melinda

2004-02-01

76

Occurrence of selenium and mercury in surface water, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Physical and chemical data were collected in May and August, 1995, from an irrigated area of the Wind River Federal Irrigation Project, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming. Surface-water samples were collected from irrigation drains, ponds and streams in the Sharp Nose Draw and Mill Creek drainage areas, and from the Little Wind River. These samples were analyzed for selenium and mercury, as well as other selected inorganic constituents. Of the 13 samples collected in May, 6 had selenium concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) chronic aquatic-life criterion of 5 mg/L (micrograms per liter) and one exceeded the aquatic-life acute criteria of 20 mg/L. Samples with selenium concentrations exceeding aquatic criteria were collected from Sharp Nose Draw and the Mill Creek drainage areas. Selenium concentrations in all 12 samples collected in August were less than the laboratory minimum reporting level of 5 mg/L. The large selenium concentrations were associated with large dissolved solids concentrations that occur prior to the irrigation season when accumulated salts are flushed to drainages through ground water and natural precipitation. Mercury concentrations were less than the laboratory minimum reporting level of 0.1 mg/L for all samples except one collected in May that had a concentration of 0.3 mg/L. This concentration was larger than the aquatic-life chronic criterion of 0.012 mg/L established by the USEPA, but less than the aquatic-life acute criterion of 2.4 mg/L for mercury established by the USEPA.

Clark, M. L.; Sadler, W. J.

1996-01-01

77

Effects of recreational flow releases on natural resources of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Central Adirondack Mountains, New York, 2004-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), and Cornell University carried out a cooperative 2-year study from the fall of 2004 through the fall of 2006 to characterize the potential effects of recreational-flow releases from Lake Abanakee on natural resources in the Indian and Hudson Rivers. Researchers gathered baseline information on hydrology, temperature, habitat, nearshore wetlands, and macroinvertebrate and fish communities and assessed the behavior and thermoregulation of stocked brown trout in study reaches from both rivers and from a control river. The effects of recreational-flow releases (releases) were assessed by comparing data from affected reaches with data from the same reaches during nonrelease days, control reaches in a nearby run-of-the-river system (the Cedar River), and one reach in the Hudson River upstream from the confluence with the Indian River. A streamgage downstream from Lake Abanakee transmitted data by satellite from November 2004 to November 2006; these data were used as the basis for developing a rating curve that was used to estimate discharges for the study period. River habitat at most study reaches was delineated by using Global Positioning System and ArcMap software on a handheld computer, and wetlands were mapped by ground-based measurements of length, width, and areal density. River temperature in the Indian and Hudson Rivers was monitored continuously at eight sites during June through September of 2005 and 2006; temperature was mapped in 2005 by remote imaging made possible through collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology. Fish communities at all study reaches were surveyed and characterized through quantitative, nearshore electrofishing surveys. Macroinvertebrate communities in all study reaches were sampled using the traveling-kick method and characterized using standard indices. Radio telemetry was used to track the movement and persistence of stocked brown trout (implanted with temperature-sensitive transmitters) in the Indian and Hudson Rivers during the summer of 2005 and in all three rivers during the summer of 2006. The releases had little effect on river temperatures, but increased discharges by about one order of magnitude. Regardless of the releases, river temperatures at all study sites commonly exceeded the threshold known to be stressful to brown trout. At most sites, mean and median water temperatures on release days were not significantly different, or slightly lower, than water temperatures on nonrelease days. Most differences were very small and, thus, were probably not biologically meaningful. The releases generally increased the total surface area of fast-water habitat (rapids, runs, and riffles) and decreased the total surface area of slow-water habitat (pools, glides, backwater areas, and side channels). The total surface areas of wetlands bordering the Indian River were substantially smaller than the surface areas bordering the Cedar River; however, no channel geomorphology or watershed soil and topographic data were assessed to determine whether the releases or other factors were mainly responsible for observed differences. Results from surveys of resident biota indicate that the releases generally had a limited effect on fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Indian River and had no effect on communities in the Hudson River. Compared to fish data from Cedar River control sites, the impoundment appeared to reduce total density, biomass, and richness in the Indian River at the first site downstream from Lake Abanakee, moderately reduce the indexes at the other two sites on the Indian River, and slightly reduce the indexes at the first Hudson River site downstream from the confluence with the Indian River. The densities of individual fish populations at all Indian River sites were also reduced, but related effects on fish populations in the Hudson River were less evident. Altho

Baldigo, B.P.; Mulvihill, C.I.; Ernst, A.G.; Biosvert, B.A.

2011-01-01

78

Isotope Geochemistry and Chronology of Offshore Ground Water Beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results of geophysical surveys in Indian River Bay, Delaware, indicate a complex pattern of salinity variation in subestuarine ground water. Fresh ground-water plumes up to about 20 meters thick extending hundreds of meters offshore are interspersed with saline ground water, with varying degrees of mixing along the salinity boundaries. It is possible that these features represent pathways for nutrient transport and interaction with estuarine surface water, but the geophysical data do not indicate rates of movement or nutrient sources and reactions. In the current study, samples of subestuarine ground water from temporary wells with short screens placed 3 to 22 meters below the sediment-water interface were analyzed chemically and isotopically to determine the origins, ages, transport pathways, and nutrient contents of the fresh and saline components. Apparent ground-water ages determined from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He and 4He) commonly were discordant, but nevertheless indicate that both fresh and saline ground waters ranged from a few years to at least 50 years in age. Tritium-helium (3H-3He) ages, tentatively judged to be most reliable, indicate that stratified offshore freshwater plumes originating in distant recharge areas on land were bounded by relatively young saline water that was recharged locally from the overlying estuary. Undenitrified and partially denitrified nitrate of agricultural or mixed origin was transported laterally beneath the estuary in oxic and suboxic fresh ground water. Ammonium produced by anaerobic degradation of organic matter in estuarine sediments was transported downward in suboxic saline ground water around the freshwater plumes. Many of the chemical and isotopic characteristics of the subestuarine ground waters are consistent with conservative mixing of the fresh (terrestrial) and saline (estuarine) endmember water types. These data indicate that freshwater plumes detected by geophysical surveys beneath Indian River Bay represent lateral continuations of the active surficial nitrate-contaminated freshwater flow systems originating on land, but they do not indicate directly the magnitude of fresh ground-water discharge or nutrient exchange with the estuary. There is evidence that some of the terrestrial ground-water nitrate is reduced before discharging directly beneath the estuary. Local estuarine sediment-derived ammonium in saline pore water may be a substantial benthic source of nitrogen in offshore areas of the estuary.

Bohlke, John Karl; Krantz, David E.

2003-01-01

79

Ground-water inflow to the Deschutes River near the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon, August 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater inflow to the Deschutes River near the Warm Springs Indian Reservation in Oregon was estimated for August 1985 by: (1) measuring streamflow at various sites along the river; (2) determining the part of the streamflow that is groundwater inflow; and (3) analyzing the hydraulic gradients of the groundwater flow system to estimate the amount of groundwater discharge to the Deschutes River from both sides of the river. Results of the streamflow analysis indicated that the Deschutes River gained 415 cu ft/sec between Round Butte Dam and Dant in August 1985. Results of the analysis on hydraulic gradients of the groundwater flow system showed that the amount of groundwater inflow from the west side ranged from about 207 to 216 cu ft/sec, and groundwater inflow from the east side ranged from about 199 to 207 cu ft/sec. Streamflow measurements in September 1985 along the Metolius River from the site above Jefferson creek to the site below Camp Creek indicated a gain of 70 cu ft/sec. From the site below Camp Creek to the gage above Lake Billy Chinook the results of discharge measurements showed a loss of 112 cu ft/sec. Because of lack of groundwater hydraulic-head and lithologic data, no analysis of the groundwater flow system near the Metolius River was attempted. (USGS)

Bolke, E. L.; Laenen, Antonius

1989-01-01

80

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

81

Monitoring-well network and sampling design for ground-water quality, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wind River Indian Reservation, located in parts of Fremont and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming, has a total land area of more than 3,500 square miles. Ground water on the Wind River Indian Reservation is a valuable resource for Shoshone and Northern Arapahoe tribal members and others who live on the Reservation. There are many types of land uses on the Reservation that have the potential to affect the quality of ground-water resources. Urban areas, rural housing developments, agricultural lands, landfills, oil and natural gas fields, mining, and pipeline utility corridors all have the potential to affect ground-water quality. A cooperative study was developed between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wind River Environmental Quality Commission to identify areas of the Reservation that have the highest potential for ground-water contamination and develop a comprehensive plan to monitor these areas. An arithmetic overlay model for the Wind River Indian Reservation was created using seven geographic information system data layers representing factors with varying potential to affect ground-water quality. The data layers used were: the National Land Cover Dataset, water well density, aquifer sensitivity, oil and natural gas fields and petroleum pipelines, sites with potential contaminant sources, sites that are known to have ground-water contamination, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System sites. A prioritization map for monitoring ground-water quality on the Reservation was created using the model. The prioritization map ranks the priority for monitoring ground-water quality in different areas of the Reservation as low, medium, or high. To help minimize bias in selecting sites for a monitoring well network, an automated stratified random site-selection approach was used to select 30 sites for ground-water quality monitoring within the high priority areas. In addition, the study also provided a sampling design for constituents to be monitored, sampling frequency, and a simple water-table level observation well network.

Mason, Jon P.; Sebree, Sonja K.; Quinn, Thomas L.

2005-01-01

82

Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

Kjerfve, Bjorn

1986-01-01

83

Aquatic Invertebrate Monitoring at Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Knife River in central North Dakota is not supporting its designated use of recreation in the state because of high concentrations of fecal coliform along much of the rivers length. About 60% of the length of the Knife River has fecal coliform concent...

L. Tronstad

2013-01-01

84

Fine grain sediment transport and deposition in the Patos Lagoon-Cassino beach sedimentary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive mud deposits superimposed on the predominantly sandy inner continental shelf adjacent to the Patos Lagoon estuary, indicates that the Lagoon is a potential source of fine sediments to the coastal sedimentary system. The lagoon is large and shallow, and the water movement is mainly controlled by wind-driven set-up and set-down. The mean river inflow is around 2000 m 3

L. J. Calliari; J. C. Winterwerp; E. Fernandes; D. Cuchiara; S. B. Vinzon; M. Sperle; K. T. Holland

2008-01-01

85

Fine grain sediment transport and deposition in the Patos Lagoon–Cassino beach sedimentary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive mud deposits superimposed on the predominantly sandy inner continental shelf adjacent to the Patos Lagoon estuary, indicates that the Lagoon is a potential source of fine sediments to the coastal sedimentary system. The lagoon is large and shallow, and the water movement is mainly controlled by wind-driven set-up and set-down. The mean river inflow is around 2000m3s?1, although peak

L. J. Calliari; J. C. Winterwerp; E. Fernandes; D. Cuchiara; S. B. Vinzon; M. Sperle; K. T. Holland

2009-01-01

86

Qualitative evaluation of Kanhan river and its tributaries flowing over central Indian plateau.  

PubMed

Water quality evaluation of Kanhan river and its tributaries viz. Pench and Nag rivers was carried out in order to assess the qualitative changes and possibility of point and non-point pollution loads in these rivers for the post monsoon and summer seasons. pH, turbidity, conductivity, total alkalinity and total hardness were found in the range 7.18.7, 0.835 (NTU), 227970 (microScm(-1)), 7.18.7, 158486 (mg/L) and 142246 (mg/L), respectively. Ca, Mg, Na and K were in the range 2462, 1328, 15183 and 333 mg/L, respectively. The respective ranges of Cl, SO(4), NO(3) and PO(4) were observed between 19102, 823, 332 and 0.11.4 mg/L. DO and COD in the rivers ranged between nil to 8.5 and 7172 mg/L, respectively. Absence of DO and higher COD in Nag river is due to its sewage content from Nagpur city. Nag river showed higher bacterial counts than Kanhan and Pench rivers. The temporal and spatial variability in the river water quality may be attributed to catchment characteristics, agricultural and urban activities in catchment and on the bank of the river. The values of RSC, ESP and SAR indicated that the water of Kanhan and Pench rivers are suitable, whereas that of Nag river is unsuitable for irrigation purpose. PMID:18157651

Khadse, G K; Patni, P M; Kelkar, P S; Devotta, S

2008-12-01

87

Role of the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature in shaping the natural variability in the flow of Nile River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is shaped by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, we investigate a similar role for the Indian Ocean (IO) sea surface temperature (SST) in shaping the inter-annual variability of the Nile River flow. Using observations of global SST distribution and river flow in addition to atmospheric general circulation model sensitivity experiments, we show that North and Middle IO SSTs play a significant intermediate role in the teleconnection between ENSO and the Nile flow. Applying partial coherency analyses, we demonstrate that the connection between North and Middle IO SSTs and Nile flow is strongly coupled to ENSO. During El Niño events, SST in the North and Middle IO increases in response to the warming in the Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean and forces a Gill-type circulation with enhanced westerly low-level flow over East Africa and the Western IO. This anomalous low-level flow enhances the low-level flux of air and moisture away from the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin resulting in reduction of rainfall and river flow. SSTs in the South IO also play a significant role in shaping the variability of the Nile flow that is independent from ENSO. A warming over the South IO, generates a cyclonic flow in the boundary layer, which reduces the cross-equatorial meridional transport of air and moisture towards the UBN basin, favoring a reduction in rainfall and river flow. This independence between the roles of ENSO and South IO SSTs allows for development of new combined indices of SSTs to explain the inter-annual variability of the Nile flow. The proposed teleconnections have important implications regarding mechanisms that shape the regional impacts of climate change over the Nile basin.

Siam, Mohamed S.; Wang, Guiling; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

2014-04-01

88

Data report for the geologic and scenic quality evaluation of selected sand and gravel sites on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field studies on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, to inventory and evaluate sand and gravel deposits underlying river terraces on tribal lands along the Wind River. This report contains the results for 12 sites of sand and gravel deposits evaluated for their potential use as aggregate in Portland cement concrete, asphalt, and base course. The report provides the results of: * The USGS geologic studies and engineering tests. * A conclusion and recommendation for the best use of sand and gravel materials. * Calculations of available sand and gravel materials. * A scenic quality landscape inventory and evaluation.

Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Arbogast, Belinda; Lindsey, David A.

2011-01-01

89

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over the next 2 decades.

Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

2014-05-01

90

Distribution of Funds to Cowlitz and Grand River Band of Ottawa Indians. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session on S. 1334, S. 1659 (September 26, 1975).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testimony is presented in these congressional hearings by the nonfederally recognized Cowlitz and Grand River Band of Ottawa American Indian tribal and administrative representatives re: legislation introduced at the request of the two Indian groups following the Secretary of the Interior's withdrawal from Congress of distribution plans prepared…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

91

The Douala Coastal Lagoon Complex, Cameroon: Environmental Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Littoral zone of Douala in Cameroon depicts an interesting physiography dominated by hydro-geomorphic characteristics of immense sustainable potentials to its teeming urban human population growth. The Douala coastal lagoon complex is easily the dominant feature with richly endowed natural and socio-economic resources along the littoral zone of Cameroon. It is fed mainly by the River Wouri, evolving a maze

Chebo K. Asangwe

92

Research and Teaching: Field Trips and Their Effect on Student Achievement and Attitudes -- A Comparison of Physical Versus Virtual Field Trips to the Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study examined the effect of physical and virtual field trips on undergraduate, nonscience majors. No significant differences were seen in achievement, attitudes, learning styles, interactions between field trip and learning styles, or students' ability to answer questions at different levels. Results imply that both field trips promote learning.

Garner, Lesley C.; Gallo, Michael A.

2005-03-01

93

Assessment of water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1989-94  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to assess ground-water and surface-water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District in northern Palm Beach County from 1989 to 1994. Contamination of the surficial aquifer system and availability of a potable water supply have become of increasing concern. The study consisted of sampling 11 ground-water wells and 14 surface- water sites for determination of major inorganic constituents and physical characteristics, trace metals, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and synthetic organic compounds. Sodium and chloride concentrations exceeded Florida drinking-water standards in ground water at two wells, dissolved- solids concentrations at five ground-water wells and one surface-water site, and color values at all 11 ground-water wells and all 14 surface-water sites. Other constituents also exhibited concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards. Cadmium and zinc concentrations exceeded the standards in ground water at one well, and lead concentrations exceeded the standard in ground water at five wells. Nitrogen and phosphorus specie concentrations did not exceed respective drinking-water standards in any ground-water or surface-water samples. Several synthetic organic compounds were detected at or above 50 micrograms per liter in water samples collected from six ground-water wells and three surface-water sites.

Lietz, A. C.

1996-01-01

94

Trends in streamflow, sedimentation, and sediment chemistry for the Wolf River, Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, 1850-1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical trends in streamflow, sedimentation, and sediment chemistry of the Wolf River were examined for a 6-mile reach that flows through the southern part of the Menominee Indian Reservation and the northern part of Shawano County, Wis. Trends were examined in the context of effects from dams, climate, and land-cover change. Annual flood peaks and mean monthly flow for the Wolf River were examined for 1907-96 and compared to mean annual and mean monthly precipitation. Analysis of trends in sedimentation (from before about 1850 through 1999) involved collection of cores and elevation data along nine valley transects spanning the Wolf River channel, flood plain, and backwater and impounded areas; radioisotope analyses of impounded sediment cores; and analysis of General Land Office Survey Notes (1853-91). Trends in sediment chemistry were examined by analyzing samples from an impoundment core for minor and trace elements. Annual flood peaks for the Wolf River decreased during 1907-49 but increased during 1950-96, most likely reflecting general changes in upper-atmospheric circulation patterns from more zonal before 1950 to more meridional after 1950. The decrease in flood peaks during 1907-49 may also, in part, be due to forest regrowth. Mean monthly streamflow during 1912-96 increased for the months of February and March but decreased for June and July, suggesting that spring snowmelt occurs earlier in the season than it did in the past. Decreases in early summer flows may be a reflection earlier spring snowmelt and large rainstorms in early spring rather than early summer. These trends also may reflect upper-atmospheric circulation patterns. The Balsam Row Dam impoundment contains up to 10 feet of organic-rich silty clay and has lost much of its storage capacity. Fine sediment has accumulated for 1.8 miles upstream from the Balsam Row Dam. Historical average linear and mass sedimentation rates in the Balsam Row impoundment were 0.09 feet per year and 1.15 pounds per square foot per year for 1927-62 and 0.10 feet per year and 1.04 pounds per square foot per year for 1963-99. Sedimentation in the impoundment was episodic and was associated with large floods, especially the flood-related failure of the Keshena Falls Dam in 1972 and a large flood in 1973. Sand deposition is common in the Wolf River upstream from the impounded reach for 2.5 miles and is caused by the base-level increase associated with the Balsam Row Dam. Some sand deposition also may have been associated with logging and log drives in the late 1800s and the failure of the Keshena Falls Dam. In the upstream 1.5-mile part of the studied reach, the substrate is mainly rocky; however, about 2,000 feet downstream from Keshena Falls, the channel has narrowed and incised since the 1890s, likely related to human alterations associated with logging, log drives, and (or) changes in hydraulics and sediment characteristics associated with completion of the Keshena Falls Dam and head race in 1908. Minor- and trace-element concentrations in sediment from Balsam Row impoundment and other depositional areas along the Wolf River generally reflect background conditions as affected by watershed geology and historical inputs from regional and local atmospheric deposition.

Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

2005-01-01

95

Bayesian parameter uncertainty modeling in a macroscale hydrologic model and its impact on Indian river basin hydrology under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macroscale hydrologic models (MHMs) were developed to study changes in land surface hydrology due to changing climate over large domains, such as continents or large river basins. However, there are many sources of uncertainty introduced in MHM hydrological simulation, such as model structure error, ineffective model parameters, and low-accuracy model input or validation data. It is hence important to model the uncertainty arising in projection results from an MHM. The objective of this study is to present a Bayesian statistical inference framework for parameter uncertainty modeling of a macroscale hydrologic model. The Bayesian approach implemented using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods is used in this study to model uncertainty arising from calibration parameters of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) MHM. The study examines large-scale hydrologic impacts for Indian river basins and changes in discharges for three major river basins with distinct climatic and geographic characteristics, under climate change. Observed/reanalysis meteorological variables such as precipitation, temperature and wind speed are used to drive the VIC macroscale hydrologic model. An objective function describing the fit between observed and simulated discharges at four stations is used to compute the likelihood of the parameters. An MCMC approach using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is used to update probability distributions of the parameters. For future hydrologic simulations, bias-corrected GCM projections of climatic variables are used. The posterior distributions of VIC parameters are used for projection of 5th and 95th percentile discharge statistics at four stations, namely, Farakka, Jamtara, Garudeshwar, and Vijayawada for an ensemble of three GCMs and three scenarios, for two time slices. Spatial differences in uncertainty projections of runoff and evapotranspiration for years 2056-2065 for the a1b scenario at the 5th and 95th percentile levels are also projected. Results from the study show increased mean monthly discharges for Farakka and Vijayawada stations, and increased low, mid and high duration flows at Farakka, Jamtara and Vijayawada for the future. However, it is seen that uncertainty introduced due to choice of GCM, is larger than that due to parameter uncertainty for the VIC MHM. The largest effects of runoff predictive uncertainty due to uncertainty in VIC parameters are seen in the Himalayan foothills belt, and the high-precipitation Northeast region of the country. It is demonstrated through the study that it is relevant and feasible to provide Bayesian uncertainty estimates for macroscale models in projection of large-scale and regional hydrologic impacts.

Raje, D.; Krishnan, R.

2012-08-01

96

Indian Summer  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

97

Fish fauna recovery in a newly re-flooded Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drana Lagoon, located at the NW site of Evros River Delta, was drained in 1987 and re-flooded in 2004 within the framework of an integrated wetland restoration project. This study presents the results of a monitoring program of the lagoon's oceanographic, water quality and fish fauna characteristics, during the pre- and post-restoration period. Results depict the presence of high salinity water (up to 41) due to seawater intrusion, strong evaporation in its interior and inadequate freshwater inflows. Overall, nutrient levels were low depicting local changes. Tidal variability at the mouth was approximately 0.2 m, producing high velocity tidal currents (up to 0.75 m/s). Eleven fish fauna species were collected; seven species were caught in both the inlet channel and the lagoon during the pre-restoration period and nine species in the post-restoration period. Atherina boyeri (37.6%) and Pomatoschistus marmoratus (31.7%) dominated the lagoon during the post-restoration period. Most of the A. boyeri specimens (88.5%) were caught inside the lagoon, while P. marmoratus had an almost equal distribution in the inlet channel and the lagoon (56.3% and 43.7% respectively). The presence of species of the Mugilidae family (5.2% total average catches after lagoon re-flooding) was mainly in the inlet channel (12.6% of the average catches) and not inside the lagoon (only 1.3% of the average catches). The small number of fish species inhabiting the lagoon might be the result of the recent restoration or it could be related with the increased water flow observed at the lagoon mouth during the flood and ebb tidal phases, and also in the presence of a smooth bank in the concrete waterspout that connects the entrance channel with the lagoon. The limited presence of the Mugilidae juveniles inside the lagoon could be related to the prevailing tidal inlet dynamics (i.e. strong ebb flow at lagoon inlet), thus preventing the species to enter the lagoon. In order to restore the lagoon environment, careful and gradual steps should be undertaken under the basis of continuous monitoring of hydrologic, environmental and fisheries system's status.

Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Sylaios, Georgios; Kamidis, Nikolaos; Markou, Dimitrios; Sapounidis, Argyris

2009-08-01

98

Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Associated Nitrogen Flux in Coral Reef Lagoons of Mauritius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent eutrophication in several coral reef lagoons along the Indian Ocean island nation of Mauritius (20° S, 57° E) has highlighted the need for a greater understanding of nutrient sources to these lagoon waters. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal environment is one possible transport mechanism for excess terrestrial nutrients to coral reef lagoons, since groundwater nitrate levels are an order of magnitude greater than coastal nitrate levels (330 and 30 ? M respectively). However, the direct discharge of groundwater into the sea has been difficult to measure, because fluxes may be episodic and patchy in distribution. Here we utilize radium isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra), which desorbs from aquifer sediments when fresh water and salt water interact within the coastal aquifer, as naturally occurring SGD tracers. Given the positive correlations between radium activities, salinity and nitrate concentrations found in the lagoon waters of Mauritius, it is apparent that SGD is a source of nitrate to the coastal lagoons. Based on mass balance of 223Ra activities, submarine groundwater flux per meter of coastline is 116 m3/m along the west coast and more than twice as great on the east coast (323 m3/m). The nitrogen loading associated with SGD in the east coast lagoon (0.28 g N/m3) is likewise twice that in the west coast (0.14 g N/m3). Regions of the east coast lagoon have recently experienced eutrophication, while the west coast has not experienced significant algal blooms, suggesting that the nitrogen loading along the east coast may be negatively impacting the health of the coral reef lagoon. Given the sensitivity of the marine environment to excess nutrients and the potential groundwater transport of such nutrients far from their source, there is a clear need for greater understanding of groundwater nutrient transport to the lagoons of Mauritius.

Eagle, M.; Paytan, A.; Ramessur, R. T.

2003-12-01

99

Modern foraminiferal distribution and diversity in two atolls from the Maldives, Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraminifera from the coral-reef lagoons of two atolls are used to investigate the distribution and diversity of assemblages in the central Indian Ocean. Eight assemblages and 270 species of foraminifera are identified. Three assemblages are reefal and dominated by Amphistegina and Calcarina. Only one lagoon assemblage is present in both atolls, which is characterized by abundant Ammonia sp. 1 and

Justin H. Parker; Eberhard Gischler

2011-01-01

100

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF KILMICHAEL LAGOON  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-cell facultative lagoon at Kilmichael, Mississippi has been evaluated for performance in relation to design criteria and secondary treatment standards for municipal wastewater facilities throughout all seasons of the year. This report covers sampling equipment installatio...

101

Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

1992-01-01

102

The magnitude and origin of European-American admixture in the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona: a union of genetics and demography.  

PubMed Central

Complementary genetic and demographic analyses estimate the total proportion of European-American admixture in the Gila River Indian Community and trace its mode of entry. Among the 9,616 residents in the sample, 2,015 persons claim only partial Native American heritage. A procedure employing 23 alleles or haplotypes at eight loci was used to estimate the proportion of European-American admixture, m(a), for the entire sample and within six categories of Caucasian admixture calculated from demographic data, md. The genetic analysis gave an estimate of total European-American admixture in the community of 0.054 (95% confidence interval [CI] .044-.063), while an estimate from demographic records was similar, .059. Regression of m(a) on md yielded a fitted line m(a) = .922md, r = .959 (P = .0001). When total European-American admixture is partitioned between the contributing populations, Mexican-Americans have provided .671, European-Americans .305, and African-Americans .023. These results are discussed within the context of the ethnic composition of the Gila River Indian Community, the assumptions underlying the methods, and the potential that demographic data have for enriching genetic measurements of human admixture. It is concluded that, despite the severe assumptions of the mathematical methods, accurate, reliable estimates of genetic admixture are possible from allele and haplotype frequencies, even when there is little demographic information for the population.

Williams, R C; Knowler, W C; Pettitt, D J; Long, J C; Rokala, D A; Polesky, H F; Hackenberg, R A; Steinberg, A G; Bennett, P H

1992-01-01

103

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa...regulating emissions from an Energy Project at the Tri-Cities landfill located on the...

2010-07-01

104

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa...regulating emissions from an Energy Project at the Tri-Cities landfill located on the...

2009-07-01

105

Variability of Organic Matter Processing in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of plant organic matter processing was studied experimentally in a shallow coastal lagoon (Tancada lagoon, average depth: 37 cm, area: 1.8 km2) in the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain). To determine the effect of hydrology and sediment characteristics on plant organic matter processing, leaves of Phragmites australis at the end of its vegetative cycle and whole plants of Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande, just abscised, were enclosed in litter bags. Two different mesh sizes (100 m and 2 mm) were used to study the effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition. The bags were placed in the water column and approximately 15 cm above the sediment at 6 different locations in the lagoon. The experiment was performed twice, in autumn-winter and spring-summer. The effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition rate was not significant in Tancada lagoon. Breakdown rates showed spatial differences only in spring-summer. In the autumn-winter experiment, the effect of strong wind masked the effects of environmental variables and hydrology on decomposition rate. In the spring-summer experiment, characterised by high stability of the water column, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration in the water column and organic matter in the sediment were the main factors determining the variability of organic matter processing. A positive relationship was calculated between P. australis decomposition rate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in spring-summer (r2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). (

Menéndez, Margarita; Hernández, Oliver; Sanmartí, Neus; Comín, Francisco A.

2004-11-01

106

Control of submarine groundwater discharge patterns and salinity by a low-permeability paleochannel cap at Indian River Bay, Delaware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication in coastal bays has made it necessary to better understand nutrient sources in these settings. Because groundwater often has elevated nutrient levels with respect to surface water, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) may be an important source of nutrients to coastal bays. To understand the pathways of SGD and how bayfloor geology and hydrology affect them, we examined the geology, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at Indian River Bay, DE. Marine geophysical tools were used to identify the hydrogeologic framework and geometry of a shore-perpendicular freshwater plume beneath the bay. Shallow chirp seismic data outlined a low-permeability paleochannel infill, which is 150m across and 2-3m thick at the center, thinning towards the channel flanks. Offshore continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data show a low-salinity plume generally co-located with, but extending beyond the edges of, this low-permeability cap. Salinity data from 12 offshore wells with multi-level sampling ports verify the general extent of the plume indicated by CRP data. Using Lee-type seepage meters, 565 direct measurements of SGD were made between July 2010 and June 2011. These data show that the paleochannel feature generally controls nearby fresh SGD (FSGD), preventing discharge at the shoreline and causing diffuse freshened or brackish discharge at the channel flanks. In the adjoining interfluve, where the low-K cap is absent, fresh discharge appears focused and decreases monotonically from the shoreline, as predicted by theory. Saline SGD did not follow this trend and comprised the majority of the discharge. The measured maximum FSGD was 33cm/d compared to 198cm/d for recirculated baywater. SGD salinity ranged from 0-33ppt, with an average of 26.9ppt; the average surface baywater salinity was 28.4ppt. Seepage salinity patterns correlate spatially with CRP survey results. To assess the potential for saline SGD driven by interactions of surface water flowing over deployed seepage meters, bay surface current velocities were measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Currents ranged from 0-20 cm/s with an average of 3-6 cm/s, which would produce an estimated discharge of <6 cm/d, less than the average measured saline flux (9.2 cm/d). This indicates that other factors are driving the large saline SGD component at this site. During spring tides, both fresh and saline SGD rates at low tide are twice those at high tide, indicating a strong tidal influence on SGD. Though SGD is difficult to measure due to inherent geologic heterogeneity, temporal forcing factors and current/bathymetry interactions, extensive direct seepage data and correlated geophysical and well data show that the low-permeability paleochannel cap confines and controls fresh and saline groundwater flowpaths to the bay. By quantifying the effects of this cap we can develop better estimates of water and chemical fluxes into the bay.

Russoniello, C. J.; Fernandez, C.; Bratton, J. F.; Krantz, D.; Banaszak, J.; Andres, A. S.; Konikow, L. F.; Michael, H. A.

2011-12-01

107

Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

2012-01-01

108

Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons  

PubMed Central

Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Diez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

2012-01-01

109

Groundwater-surface water interactions in a freshwater lagoon vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures (Pateira de Fermentelos, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryGroundwater-surface water interactions are investigated in the Pateira de Fermentelos lagoon, a shallow freshwater body with important aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The monthly monitoring of water levels proves that the lagoon drains phreatic aquifers which in turn contribute to recharge the underlying semi-confined aquifers. Besides rainwater, four types of natural waters contribute for the water balance and water quality in the lagoon: (1) the Cértima River with a Ca-HCO3 water type and circum neutral pH; (2) the Cretaceous aquifers with a Na-Cl-HCO3 water type and acidic pH; (3) the Triassic aquifers with a mixed water type, and slightly alkaline pH; and, (4) under certain conditions, the Águeda River with a diluted Na-Cl water type. Calculation of the water budget of the lagoon was developed with a lumped parameter model earlier proposed. The results of the lumped parameter model show that subsurface lateral flow is an important contributor to surface water bodies when compared to aquifer discharge. Albeit the lagoon drains impacted aquifers with high nitrate content, surface water bodies revealed low nitrate content throughout most of the 1-year monitoring period. The low nitrate content in the lagoon reflects a natural attenuation capacity that ranges between 8% and 13% which is mainly attributed to biogeochemical processes occurring in the hyporheic and riparian zones associated to the lagoon.

Sena, Clara; Teresa Condesso de Melo, M.

2012-10-01

110

Development of spit-lagoon complexes in response to Little Ice Age rapid sea-level changes in the central Guilan coast, South Caspian Sea, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Guilan coast along the Iranian Caspian coastline is characterized by sandy beaches and the development of spit-lagoon complexes, which are prone to preserve past sea-level fluctuations. The morphology of three spit-lagoon complexes along the central Guilan coast was studied using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and sediment sequences to understand the effects of past sea-level changes on spit-lagoon development. The results showed the prominent role of coastal setting in conditioning the development of spit-lagoon formation in response to sea-level change. When the Caspian Sea experienced a highstand in the Little Ice Age, the coast of central Guilan recorded fluctuations in sedimentation which are reflected, for example, by river avulsion and beach ridge formation depending on physical setting. In the western half of the central Guilan, eastward longshore currents and strong wave action on a W-E coastline coupled with sea-level changes shaped the Anzali spit-lagoon complex; while in the eastern part of the studied area river avulsion and changing the coastline orientation are responsible for development of the Amirkola and Kiashahr spit-lagoon complexes under the same sea-level fluctuations. Although sea-level change has a major role in spit-lagoon development, an increase in the frequency of storms, changes in sediment supply due to more precipitation, and river avulsion are other players in spit-lagoon development in the central Guilan during the Little Ice Age and more recent times.

Naderi Beni, A.; Lahijani, H.; Moussavi Harami, R.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Shah-Hosseini, M.; Kabiri, K.; Tavakoli, V.

2013-04-01

111

Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small fres...

1995-01-01

112

Diabetic nephropathy in American Indians, with a special emphasis on the pima Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes affects American Indians disproportionately compared with other racial\\/ethnic groups in the United States and is\\u000a almost exclusively type 2 diabetes. Much of our knowledge about diabetes in American Indians comes from studies in a few tribes.\\u000a The most extensively studied American Indians are the Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, who participated\\u000a in a longitudinal

Meda E. Pavkov; William C. Knowler; Robert L. Hanson; Robert G. Nelson

2008-01-01

113

Estimating submarine groundwater discharge around Isola La Cura, northern Venice Lagoon (Italy), by using the radium quartet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four naturally-occurring radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra) were used to estimate the submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the Isola La Cura marsh area in the northern Venice Lagoon (Italy). By determining the radium contributors to the study area (river, coastal ocean and sediments) the radium excess in the lagoon water was quantified through a mass balance model.

E. Garcia-Solsona; P. Masqué; J. Garcia-Orellana; J. Rapaglia; A. J. Beck; J. K. Cochran; H. J. Bokuniewicz; L. Zaggia; F. Collavini

2008-01-01

114

Mitochondrial DNA analyses of Indian water buffalo support a distinct genetic origin of river and swamp buffalo.  

PubMed

Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is broadly classified into river and swamp categories, but it remains disputed whether these two types were independently domesticated, or if they are the result of a single domestication event. In this study, we sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop region and cytochrome b gene of 217 and 80 buffalo respectively from eight breeds/locations in northern, north-western, central and southern India and compared our results with published Mediterranean and swamp buffalo sequences. Using these data, river and swamp buffalo were distinguished into two distinct clades. Based upon the existing knowledge of cytogenetic, ecological and phenotypic parameters, molecular data and present-day distribution of the river and swamp buffalo, we suggest that these two types were domesticated independently, and that classification of the river and swamp buffalo as two related subspecies is more appropriate. PMID:17459014

Kumar, S; Nagarajan, M; Sandhu, J S; Kumar, N; Behl, V; Nishanth, G

2007-06-01

115

Barrier Beach Breaching from the Lagoon Side, With Reference to Northern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the dry season in California, when storm action is limited and river flow is weak, the mouths of many estuaries close, creating barrier beaches and ponding water in the backing lagoons. If these barrier beaches do not breach naturally or are not ma...

K. Patsch N. C. Kraus S. Munger

2008-01-01

116

Mercury transport and bioaccumulation in riverbank communities of the Alvarado Lagoon System, Veracruz State, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alvarado Lagoon System (ALS) is located within the Papaloapan River Basin in southern Veracruz, Mexico. The ALS is a shallow system (2 m) connected to the Gulf of Mexico through a narrow sea channel. There are a large number of riverbank communities within the ALS that are dependent upon its biological productivity for comestible and economic subsistence. The purpose of

Jane L. Guentzel; Enrique Portilla; Katherine M. Keith; Edward O. Keith

2007-01-01

117

Biogeochemical Composition of Mediterranean Waters Outside Thau Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicochemical characteristics (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen), nutrients (NO 3-, NO 2-, NH 4+, soluble reactive phosphorus, Si), dissolved organic matter with bacterial cell counts (DON, DOP, DOC, BACT) and particulate matter (POC, PON, Chl a) were measured weekly from January 1993 to March 1994 in Mediterranean surface waters, sampled 2·5 km offshore in Thau Lagoon (Sète, France). Waters outside the lagoon displayed salinity reductions below 29 which corresponded to flood periods of the Rhône River and/or to winds oriented in a southeasterly direction. Levels of nutrients were increased by the influence of the Rhône river plume. Concentrations of NO 3-and NH 4+were rather close to the theoretical dilution line, while SRP and Si seemed to be rapidly taken up along their dilution gradient, especially in spring. The influx of NO 3-enriched waters into the lagoon in October showed that the Rhône river plume can potentially fertilize this lagoon. The flux of nutrient from the Rhône River led to Chl amaxima above 4 ? g l -1in spring. The concentration of DOC and BACT reached peak values at the decay of the spring bloom and decreased to their lowest level afterwards, suggesting that primary production was an important source of DOC but also that DOC was repackaged in the microbial loop rather than being transported to deeper layers. Yearly averaged atomic C:N and C:P ratios in DOM were 15 and 1000, respectively, which probably compelled bacterioplankton to compete with phytoplankton for NH 4+and SRP. No influence of the Rhône River was observed during summer. This period was characterized by SRP, NO 3-and NO 2-concentrations below the limits of detection and by the lowest levels in DOC, DON, BACT and Chl a. However, NH 4+and DOP concentrations remained, respectively, above 0·3 and 0·15 ? M, and the summer period corresponded to oxygen supersaturation (up to 122%). These observations suggest the dominance of picophytoplanktonic communities with low biomass and high productivity associated with a heterotrophic component providing NH 4+directly to phytoplankton, and phosphorus dominated by organic forms.

Souchu, P.; Gasc, A.; Cahet, G.; Vaquer, A.; Collos, Y.; Deslous-Paoli, J. M.

1997-03-01

118

Field measurements of groundwater discharge to a lagoon under variable density water conditions (Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ringkøbing Fjord is a lagoon located near the west coast of Denmark. It has an extension of 300 km2 and receives water from the Skjern River (plus other smaller streams), direct rainfall, sea water through a controlled connection with the sea (sluice), and, finally, from groundwater. While most of these fluxes are relatively well known, groundwater inputs to the lagoon have never been quantified. The salinity of the lagoon changes from 4 g/L (winter) to 12 g/L (summer) due to the seasonal changes in discharge (mainly Skjern River) and the operation of the sluice. Four field surveys (March, May, August and October) were accomplished in 2012 to determine, for the first time, the groundwater discharge to the lagoon at four locations/transects on the eastern shore line. The main objective was to understand the groundwater-fjord exchange processes that take place in the near-shore lagoon environment where, according to the theory, most groundwater discharge to the lagoon is to be expected. The investigative methods were similar to those utilized in lake and stream studies. More than 350 seepage meter measurements and around 150 vertical groundwater temperature logs of the first 50 cm under the lagoon bed were collected providing direct and indirect quantification of fluxes, respectively. Nevertheless, a significant difference remains compared with e.g. lakes, because of the salinity changes of the fjord water and, subsequently also the groundwater directly beneath the fjord. The seasonal contrasts in the density of groundwater and lagoon water made it necessary to take into account the salinity distribution in the shallow groundwater, because it can affect the pattern and amount of groundwater discharge to the lagoon. Thus, the salinity of the groundwater was measured every 25 cm in vertical profiles until 3 m depth along each transect. In total, more than 1300 points were sampled to obtain the spatio-temporal salinity distribution at the four locations. These discharge and salinity data were used to; i) Study the groundwater Electrical Conductivity (EC) changes due to both salinity changes in the fjord and groundwater discharge variations, (ii) Compare the freshwater discharge flux rates obtained by different methods and, finally, iii) Correlate the groundwater salinity distribution and the estimated flux patterns at the fjord bed. The changes in the salinity of groundwater combined with analysis of the saline wedge location indicate that the system is dynamic with slow seasonal changes and characterized by high heterogeneity along the lagoon shore. The measured average flux rates ranges from 0.5 to 2 cm/d. The discharge from the aquifer to the fjord tends to decrease with distance to the shoreline, but affected by the presence of the saline wedge.

Duque, Carlos; Haider, Kinza; Engesgaard, Peter; Sebok, Eva; Sonnenborg, Torben O.

2013-04-01

119

Impacts of climate change on water resources in watersheds of four European lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrologic impacts of projected climate change were assessed for the drainage areas of four European lagoons: the Ria de Aveiro lagoon in Portugal, the Mar Menor lagoon in Spain, the Vistula lagoon in Poland and Kaliningrad region and the Tyligulski lagoon in Ukraine. The eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was applied to each of the four case study areas individually, considering basin-specific characteristics and management settings. All four watersheds were calibrated and validated towards river discharge at one or more gauges, reaching satisfactory to very good modelling results, depending on the quality and availability of input data (i.e. observed climate and discharge data). For the assessment of climate change impacts we forced the four model set-ups with scenario data from the ENSEMBLES project. Therefore a set of 15 climate scenarios, all running until the end of the 21st century, was applied to SWIM for one reference and three future periods of 30 years each. We evaluated the long-term changes of total freshwater inflow to the four lagoons and compared the results considering average trends and uncertainties induced by the different climate scenarios. The comparison not only shows differences in the magnitude of potential impacts among the four regions but also differences in the direction of change. In Spain and Portugal an average decrease in discharge of about -5% and -15% can be expected, while at the same time the total inflow to the Vistula and the Tyligulski lagoon is projected to increase by 18% and 20% on average by the end of the century. The agreement of climate projections among scenarios is varies between regions and in consequence the uncertainty in model outputs also differs between the four case studies. In the watershed of the Tyligulski lagoon the projected changes in river discharge vary between -70% and 120%, whereas the results for the Ria de Aveiro lagoon range between -1% and -27% for the last three decades of the century. We concluded that the outputs of such kind of impacts intercomparison can add a very valuable contribution to integrated lagoons management in a pan-European context.

Stefanova, Anastassi; Hesse, Cornelia; Krysanova, Valentina

2014-05-01

120

Guidelines for Land Disposal of Feedlot Lagoon Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guidelines are provided for feedlot operators who dispose of lagoon, water on agricultural lands. The design of lagoon, pumps, and irrigation systems are not discussed. Because lagoon water contains such plant nutrients as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potass...

W. L. Powers R. L. Herpich L. S. Murphy D. A. Whitney H. L. Manges

1974-01-01

121

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EXISTING LAGOONS, PETERBOROUGH, NEW HAMPSHIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

Although wastewater treatment lagoons are used extensively, little operational data is currently available for evaluating the performance capabilities of lagoons. This report presents data gathered during a one-year period of monitoring the lagoon system at Peterborough, New Hamp...

122

Benthic biogeochemical cycling of mercury in two contaminated northern Adriatic coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research recognized most of the Northern Adriatic coastal lagoon environments as contaminated by mercury (Hg) from multiple anthropogenic sources. Among them, the Pialassa Baiona (P.B.) Lagoon, located near the city of Ravenna (Italy), received between 100 and 200 tons of Hg, generated by an acetaldehyde factory in the period 1957-1977. Further east, the Grado Lagoon has been mainly affected by a long-term Hg input from the Idrija mine (western Slovenia) through the Isonzo River since the 16th century. Hg cycling at the sediment-water interface (SWI) of the two lagoons was investigated and compared by means of an in situ benthic chamber, estimating diffusive Hg and Methyl-Hg fluxes in the summer season. Major chemical features in porewaters (Fe, Mn, H 2S, dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC), nutrients) and in the solid phase (C org, N and S) were also explored to understand the general biogeochemical conditions of the system in response to benthic respiration. The daily integrated flux for the methylated Hg form was extremely low in P.B. Lagoon, accounting for only 7% of the corresponding flux calculated for the Grado Lagoon. Despite a higher sedimentary Hg content in the P.B. Lagoon (14.4-79.0 ?g g -1) compared to the Grado Lagoon (10.7-12.5 ?g g -1), the in situ fluxes of Hg in the two experimental sites appeared similar. A selective sequential extraction procedure was applied to the solid phase, showing that the stable crystalline mineral phase cinnabar (HgS) is the predominant Hg fraction (about 50%) in the Grado Lagoon surface sediments. Conversely, Hg mobilization and sequestration in the P.B. Lagoon is related to the extremely anoxic redox conditions of the system where the intense sulfate reduction, by the release of sulfur and the formation of sulfides, limits the metal recycling at the SWI and its availability for methylation processes. Thus, the environmental conditions at the SWI in the P.B. Lagoon seem to represent a natural "barrier" for the potential risk of Hg transfer to the aquatic trophic chain.

Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Faganeli, Jadran

2011-10-01

123

The ENSO signature and other hydrological characteristics in Patos and adjacent coastal lagoons, south-eastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a surface area of over 10,000 km2, Patos Lagoon is Brazil's largest (choked) coastal lagoon. Directly or indirectly, Patos is associated with two other coastal lagoons, Mirim and Mangueira. Patos Lagoon reaches maximum water level height during the austral winter, in coherence with the rainy season. The longest (1961-2011) available rainfall (recorded at nearby Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil) and river discharge time series (1940-2011, in the tributary Jacuí River, at Rio Pardo) shows an overall increasing trend through the application of Mann-Kendall analysis. If, however, the series are split in two segments, negative trends become evident for the 1990-2011 period; in both cases earlier data showed a positive trend until ˜1989. Coherent with water inflow, the lagoon's water height level shows a seasonal Kendall's ? coefficient that is consistently negative for the month of April (statistically significant p). Rainfall over Patos' drainage basin is actively teleconnected with ENSO occurrences in the equatorial Pacific. This can be verified in Porto Alegre's rainfall as well as in the Jacuí River discharge time series and in the lagoon's water level variability; a distinctly negative Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) usually results in excess precipitation, high riverine discharge and, accordingly, above normal lagoon water level. The use of a method for harmonic analysis (Continuous Wavelet Transform or CWT) allows detecting decadal and inter-annual periodicities in the rainfall and discharge frequencies and in the lagoon's water level time series. Also, a change in the frequency pattern appears to have occurred in the late 1990s (i.e., simultaneous with the 1997 ENSO event?) and suggests that it may be connected with the trend change which resulted in the current negative slope observed in deseasonalized hydrological data and a fainter ENSO signal for the region.

Pasquini, Andrea I.; Niencheski, Luis F. H.; Depetris, Pedro J.

2012-10-01

124

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

1991-07-01

125

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2013-10-01

126

STREAMS ON THE COLORADO INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

Streams (line features) coverage for Colorado River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

127

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2010-10-01

128

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2012-10-01

129

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2011-10-01

130

Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, 1992-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected in 1992-93 from irrigation drainage areas and wetlands of the Wind River Federal Irrigation Project, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming. Most samples collected had concentrations of chemical constituents less than the established levels of concern for water, bottom sediment, and biota. In the Little Wind Unit irrigation area, however, selenium and mercury concentrations in water exceeded criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Six water samples analyzed from the Little Wind Unit in 1993 had selenium concentrations that equaled or exceeded 5 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of mercury in water were 0.1 micrograms per liter or less, except at four sites: one sample collected in 1993 from Sharp Nose Draw (4.9 micrograms per liter) and three samples collected in 1992 from Little Wind Unit and Johnstown Unit (0.2 micrograms per liter). Mercury concentrations in all bottom-sediment samples were less than 0.02 micrograms per liter, except at Sharp Nose Pond where a concentration of 0.02 micrograms per liter was measured. Selenium concentrations in some aquatic vegetation, inverte- brates, fish, bird eggs, and bird livers collected from the Little Wind Unit in 1993 exceeded established levels of concern. At Goose Pond and Sharp Nose Pond, selenium in the livers of five bird samples collected exceeded the 10 micrograms per gram level associated with reproductive failure in aquatic birds. Mercury concentrations in the livers of birds sampled at Sharp Nose Pond also were greater than suggested levels in dietary items for the protection of sensitive species of mammals and birds that regularly consume aquatic organisms.

Grasso, Dennis N.; Jennings, Mary E.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.

1995-01-01

131

Invasions of alien gammarid species and retreat of natives in the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea, Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades of the twentieth century, the alien gammarid species Gammarus tigrinus, Dikerogammarus haemobaphes, Pontogammarus robustoides and Obesogammarus crassus invaded the lower Vistula River and its deltaic, partly brackish regions. In brackish waters of the Vistula Lagoon the native Atlantic-boreal species Gammarus zaddachi and Gammarus duebeni have been replaced or at least outnumbered by the aliens. As compared to our earlier studies, through the years 1998-2004 we could observe nearly total decline of the native gammarid populations along the coasts of the Lagoon, and overdomination of the North-American G. tigrinus in most places. Possible reasons for the observed phenomena are e.g. increasing pollution and eutrophication of the Lagoon accompanied by competition between the native and the alien species.

Grabowski, Michal; Konopacka, Alicja; Jazdzewski, Krzysztof; Janowska, Ewa

2006-05-01

132

SWINE LAGOON EFFLUENT APPLIED TO COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS  

EPA Science Inventory

The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine lagoon effluent to Coastal bermudagrass were evaluated for six years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9m x 9m plots by weekly sprinkler irrigation during the growing season. Forage yield and quality, soil nu...

133

Swine Lagoon Effluent Applied to Coastal Bermudagrass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine lagoon effluent to Coastal bermudagrass were evaluated for six years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9m x 9m plots by weekly sprinkler irrigation during the growing season. Forage y...

P. W. Westerman J. C. Burns L. D. King M. R. Overcash R. O. Evans

1983-01-01

134

Styles of lode gold mineralization contributing to the placers of the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, Yukon Territory, Canada as deduced from microchemical characterization of placer gold grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1978 and 2009, approximately 430,000 oz of placer gold were obtained from the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, which equates to roughly 20% of the production for the entire Yukon Territory during that period. The area is unglaciated, exposure is poor, and there are few known lode gold occurrences present. The technique of microchemical characterization of placer gold grains has been applied to illuminate the style(s) of source mineralization and their relationship to placer gold from the Klondike gold district immediately to the north. A total of 2,613 placer gold grains from 22 localities were characterised in terms of the Au, Ag, Cu, and Hg content of their alloy and associated suite of opaque mineral inclusions. A combination of alloy and inclusion mineralogy was used to define gold signatures which augmented the previous classification of orogenic gold in the Klondike. Gold type 3b (8-25% Ag) is the main component of the placers in lower Dominion Creek but is augmented and eventually replaced by type 3a gold (10-40% Ag) in placers in the main Indian River valley, probably through erosion of gold-bearing veins in the valley floor. Type 4 gold exhibits highly variable Ag which may contain Hg to a maximum of 11 wt.%. This gold type also hosts a distinctive inclusion assemblage of complex polymetallic sulphides, tellurides, sulfotellurides, and sulfosalts and has previously been ascribed to local low sulfidation epithermal mineralization. Placer gold in drainages radiating from Eureka Dome exhibits various proportions of types 3 and 4 gold depending on location, but type 3 gold forms the major component in Black Hills Creek and northerly flowing tributaries of the Indian River with the exception of Eureka and Montana creeks. Type 5 gold is found only in placers in the middle and lower Indian River. It is distinguished by slightly elevated (0.05-0.17%) Cu in the gold alloy, together with low (5-9%) Ag contents. Inclusions of Bi minerals, Cr-bearing magnetite and molybdenite within type 5 gold suggest derivation from an intrusion-related source. Candidates for such a source include undiscovered lode occurrences associated with Cretaceous age intrusions to the south of the Indian River, or deformed Cu-Au (-Mo) porphyry occurrences which are known to be present in the same area. This analysis of placer gold has indicated that the contribution of low sulfidation epithermal gold from Eureka Creek to the larger placers of the Indian River is minor. Consequently, the placer gold inventory of the Indian River is primarily orogenic in origin. Similarly, the characterization of placer gold in Blackhills Creek strongly suggests an orogenic source. This study has demonstrated for the first time that orogenic lode gold mineralization extends a considerable distance to the south of the southern Klondike goldfield. This information contributes to the regional models of gold mineralization in an area which is currently the focus of intensive exploration.

Chapman, Robert John; Mortensen, James Keith; Lebarge, William P.

2011-12-01

135

Contamination of metals in different tissues of rohu (Labeo rohita, Cyprinidae) collected from the Indian River Ganga.  

PubMed

In the present paper, accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) was determined in different tissues (skin, muscles, liver, gills, kidney and brain) of rohu (Labeo rohita) collected from the River Ganga in Varanasi, India. Concentrations of Cu (except gills), Fe and Cr (except brain for Cr) in most of the tissues were above the permissible safe limits for human consumption suggested by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO 1983). Concentrations of all metals were higher in River Ganga fish than those from the University fish farm. With the exception of Zn in skin, muscle and brain tissue, the studied metals were bioaccumulated in all tissues. The total metal accumulation or metal pollution index was highest in liver (20.8 ± 0.50) followed by kidney (16.8 ± 0.44), gills (15.2 ± 0.15), muscles (12.1 ± 0.08), skin (10.5 ± 0.53) and brain (7.0 ± 0.02). PMID:23666260

Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K

2013-07-01

136

Allozyme variation in a threatened freshwater fish, spotted murrel (Channa punctatus) in a South Indian river system.  

PubMed

Samples of the spotted murrel (Channa punctatus) were collected from three rivers of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The allozyme variation of C. punctatus was investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Eighteen enzymes were detected, but only 10 (EST, PGM, G3PDH, G6PDH, SOD, GPI, ODH, GDH, XDH, and CK) showed consistent phenotypic variations. Allele frequencies were estimated at the 18 polymorphic loci representing 10 enzymes. Two rare alleles, EST-4*C and G6PDH-2*C, were noted in the Tamirabarani and Kallada populations but were absent in the Siruvani population. The allele frequencies of the Tamirabarani and Kallada populations were similar, except for a few loci. Among the three populations, the maximum genetic distance (0.026) and FST (0.203) were found between the geographically distant Siruvani and Kallada populations. Overall the study showed that among the three populations, the Tamirabarani and Kallada have similar genetic structures. PMID:17265185

Haniffa, Mohamed Abdulkather; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Gopalakrishnan, Achamveetil; Musammilu, Kochikkaran Kunjumohammed

2007-04-01

137

Distribution, movement, and fate of nitrate in the surficial aquifer beneath citrus groves, Indian River, Martin, and St Lucie Counties, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surficial aquifer system beneath citrus groves in Indian River, Martin, and St. Lucie Counties, Florida, was studied to determine the effects of citrus agriculture on ground-water quality. The surficial aquifer is the primary drinking-water source for Martin and St. Lucie Counties and furnishes about 33 percent of the drinking-water for Indian River County. Water-quality samples and water-level data were collected from December 1996 through October 1998. Nitrate concentrations in ground water exceeded 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s maximum contaminant level for nitrate reported as nitrogen, in 5 percent of the samples from citrus groves. These exceedances occurred in samples from wells with depths of 10 feet or less at citrus groves, and mostly in samples collected during or immediately following fertilizer applications. Samples from wells with depths of 20-25 feet contained little or no nitrate. The decreased nitrate concentrations in ground water with depth was not consistent with chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations, two other common indicators of agricultural activity. Chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations remained elevated in ground-water samples from all depths at citrus groves; median chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations in samples from citrus sites were 125 and 779 mg/L, respectively. In comparison, samples from the reference site had maximum chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations of 61 and 366 mg/L, respectively. Based on the age of ground water at 20-25 foot depths (3-50 years, measured with tritium and helium-3 concentration ratios), nitrate concentrations also should have remained elevated with depth because fertilizers have been used for at least 20-30 years at these citrus groves. Nitrate concentrations decreased with depth as a result of denitrification. This could have occurred because favorable conditions for denitrification existed in the aquifer, including high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and iron (median concentrations of 25.5 and 1.75 mg/L, respectively at citrus sites) and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (median concentration of 0.9 mg/L at citrus sites), which indicates that reducing conditions were present. Evidence that denitrification occurred included the enrichment of ground water with depth in the heavier isotope of nitrogen, nitrogen-15 (15N). Ground water from wells screened 10-15 feet below land surface had a median d 15N value of 24.6 per mil, whereas ground water from wells screened 5-10 feet below land surface had a median d 15N value of 9.4 per mil. Fertilizer samples had a median d 15N value of 3.0 per mil. Increased d 15N values coincident with decreased nitrate concentrations with depth indicates that fractionation occurred during denitrification reactions. Finally, excess nitrogen gas, a byproduct of denitrification reactions, was detected at concentrations ranging from 0-8 mg/L in samples from wells screened 10-25 feet below land surface.

Crandall, Christy A.

2000-01-01

138

Evaluation of impingement losses of white perch at the Indian Point Nuclear Station and other Hudson River power plants  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates two independent lines of evidence concerning impingement losses of white perch at the power plants on the Hudson River. Based on regression analyses of impingement rate as an index of year-class strength versus year over the period 1972 through 1977, it is concluded that there is little evidence of a statistically significant downward trend. However, an analysis of minimum detectable differences in impingement rates indicates that a long time series of year-class strength would be required to detect even substantial reductions (e.g., 50%). Second, based on our estimates of percent reduction in year-class strength due to impingement (> 20% for the 1974 year class and >15% for the 1975 year class), it is concluded that the level of impingement impact is not acceptable a priori from the point of view of managing the white perch population. Our methodologies and results are compared with those of the utilities, and the bases for the substantial differences in estimate of impingement are discussed. Appendices are included on survival of impinged white perch, impingement rate as an index of population abundance, and ability to detect decreases in population abundance. 57 refs., 29 tabs.

Van Winkle, W.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Vaughan, D.S.

1980-06-01

139

Immunotoxic potential of aeration lagoon effluents for the treatment of domestic and hospital wastewaters in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata.  

PubMed

Municipal wastewaters are major sources of pollution for the aquatic biota. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of some pharmaceutical products and the immunotoxic potential of a municipal wastewater aeration lagoon for the treatment of the domestic wastewaters of a small town with wastewater inputs from a 400-bed hospital complex. Endemic mussels were collected, caged and placed in the final aeration lagoon and at sites 1 km upstream and 1 km downstream of the effluent outfall in the receiving river for a period of 14 days. The results showed that the final aeration lagoon contained high levels of total coliforms, conductivity and low dissolved oxygen (2.9 mg/L) as well as detectable amounts of trimethoprim, carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, and norfloxacin at concentrations exceeding 50 ng/L. The lagoon effluent was indeed toxic to the mussel specimens, as evidenced by the appearance of mortality after 14 days (10% mortality), decreased mussel weight-to-shell-length ratio and loss of hemocyte viability. The number of adhering hemocytes, phagocytic activity, total nitrite levels and arachidonic cyclooxygenase activity were significantly higher in mussels placed in the final aeration lagoon. A multivariate analysis also revealed that water pH, conductivity, total coliforms and dissolved oxygen were the endpoints most closely linked with phagocytic activity, the amount of adhering hemocytes and loss of hemocyte viability. In conclusion, exposure of mussels to treated aerated lagoon wastewater is deleterious to freshwater mussels where the immune system is compromised. PMID:22893952

Gagné, Francois; André, Chantale; Fortier, Marlène; Fournier, Michel

2012-01-01

140

Origin and transport of terrestrial organic matter from the Oder lagoon to the Arkona Basin, Southern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the origin and the transport of terrestrial organic matter from the River Oder to sediments in the Pomeranian Bight (Southern Baltic Sea) by using lignin as a molecular tracer. Approximately 40% of the organic carbon in Pomeranian Bight sediments are land-derived and the contribution of Oder lagoon organic carbon does not decrease significantly with increasing distance to land.

Anja Miltner; Kay-Christian Emeis

2000-01-01

141

The Kayapo Indians Struggle in Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article addresses how the livelihood of the Kayapo Indians is threatened by: revived plans for several hydroelectric dams along the Xingu River, increased pollution from agricultural runoff, and the illegal invasion of territorial lands.

Ava Goodale (Cornell University;)

2004-01-01

142

Assessment of the trophic status of four coastal lagoons and one estuarine delta, eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems continues to be one of the major environmental issues worldwide and also of Brazil. Over the last five decades, several approaches have been proposed to discern the trophic state and the natural and cultural processes involved in eutrophication, including the multi-parameter Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS) index model. This study applies ASSETS to four Brazilian lagoons (Mundaú, Manguaba, Guarapina, and Piratininga) and one estuarine delta (Paraíba do Sul River), set along the eastern Brazilian coast. The model combines three indices based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) approach to rank the trophic status and forecast the potential eutrophication of a system, to which a final ASSETS grade is established. The lagoons were classified as being eutrophic and highly susceptible to eutrophication, due primarily to their longer residence times but also their high nutrient input index. ASSETS classified the estuary of the Paraíba do Sul river with a low to moderate trophic state (e.g., largely mesotrophic) and low susceptibility to eutrophication. Its nutrient input index was high, but the natural high dilution and flushing potential driven by river flow mitigated the susceptibility to eutrophication. Eutrophication forecasting provided more favorable trends for the Mundaú and Manguaba lagoons and the Paraíba do Sul estuary, in view of the larger investments in wastewater treatment and remediation plans. The final ASSETS ranking system established the lagoons of Mundaú as "moderate," Manguaba as "bad," Guarapina as "poor," and Piratininga as "bad," whereas the Paraíba do Sul River Estuary was "good." PMID:22821328

Cotovicz Junior, Luiz Carlos; Brandini, Nilva; Knoppers, Bastiaan Adriaan; Mizerkowski, Byanka Damian; Sterza, José Mauro; Ovalle, Alvaro Ramon Coelho; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter

2013-04-01

143

Osceola. The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Osceola was the guiding spirit and moving force behind the Second Seminole War. In 1830, when it became the official policy of the United States government to move all the Eastern Indians to a new Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, the Seminoles resisted. Under Osceola's leadership, a thousand Seminole warriors held off the entire…

Johnson, Robert Proctor

144

Heavy-metal pollution of sediments from Szczecin Lagoon and the Gdansk Basin, Poland.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Pb, Th, U, REE, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Si, P, S, Ti, Cr and Ba were determined in the <63 microm fraction of bottom sediments of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Gdansk Basin, Baltic Sea, by ICP-MS, ICP-AES and XRF methods. Sediment samples from the Szczecin Lagoon displayed somewhat higher concentrations of P, Mn, Cr, Cu and possibly Cd, Pb and Zn in those collected in October 1997 after the exceptional flooding of the Oder River than in those collected in December 2000. The data suggest that the flood resulted in the enhanced transport of redox-sensitive and anthropogenic elements in the Oder River and their subsequent redeposition mainly in the western part of Szczecin Lagoon. The sediments of the Szczecin Lagoon also appear to be the most polluted with heavy metals within the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Baltic Sea. Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu are anthropogenically enriched in top layers of sediment cores from the Gdansk Basin, but the decrease of these elements with depth in the core is not systematic. The rare earth element (REE) patterns in sediments from both these areas do not appear to have been greatly modified during transport from their source into the southern Baltic. Factor analysis (FA) of the compositional data shows that sediments from Szczecin Lagoon can be divided into three main groups depending on their composition. It is concluded that clay minerals and organic matter build aggregates and flocs, which effectively concentrate trace metals and sink down to form a 'fluffy layer'. PMID:15325172

Glasby, G P; Szefer, P; Geldon, J; Warzocha, J

2004-09-01

145

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.  

PubMed

A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

2014-07-15

146

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features pages to more than twenty NASA radar images of the world's major river systems. The image pages contain a brief description of the respective processes and setting, and are available for download. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing.

Pavlovsky, Rich

147

Hydrographic measurements in Jökulsárlón lagoon, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jökulsárlón lagoon is an enclosed lake bordering the retreating Breidamerkurjökull glacier which flows down from the Vatnajökull ice cap. As the glacier calves most of the ice it releases decays within the lake and the addition of the stored fresh water modifies the water local properties. The lake itself is connected to the North Atlantic Ocean through a narrow channel only ~80 m wide, and all tidal and residual flows in and out of the lake are through this channel. In April 2012 (early spring) we conducted four hydrographic sections from a small boat to determine the early season hydrographic structure of the lake. We conducted two hydrographic sections from the entrance of the channel to sea across the lagoon to the Breidamerkurjökull glacier, one across the centre of the lagoon, and one along, and close to the glacier face. Four months of time series hydrographic data from the channel show that the oceanic tidal pulse into the lagoon is short in duration. The water that enters the lagoon is warm and saline enough to descend rapidly to the greatest depths within the lagoon. With our CTD measurements we have mapped the properties of water across the lake. These reveal the pathway of the Atlantic derived water towards the ice face. The warmest water measured within the lagoon was just below the surface and only adjacent to the glacier face. Whilst this warm water was created from solar input, its location and concentration reveal the complex density driven circulation patterns close to the ice face. Calculated oceanic driven melt rates from the ice face show enhanced oceanographic melting in this near surface layer which contributes to the more substantial deeper melting.

Brandon, M. A.; Hodgkins, R.; Björnsson, H.; Ólaffson, J.

2013-12-01

148

Temporal and spatial changes in the composition and structure of helminth component communities in European eels Anguilla anguilla in an Adriatic coastal lagoon and some freshwaters in Italy.  

PubMed

The composition and diversity of the helminth component communities in eels Anguilla anguilla were determined in three separate localities in Italy: an Adriatic coastal lagoon, Comacchio and two freshwater localities, the River Po and the Lake Piediluco. Data from Comacchio lagoon were analysed over 15 years to determine whether community composition and diversity changed significantly overtime. The community was species rich (nine species, all marine except Proteocephalus macrocephalus) and was dominated by a suite of digeneans: Deropristis inflata, Helicometra fasciata, Lecithochirium musculus and Bucephalus anguillae. The community showed little change in composition over the period, but the relative abundance and dominance of the species did alter. By contrast, the component communities in the freshwater localities were species poor and the dominant species were freshwater acanthocephalans, Pomphorhyncus laevis in River Po and Acanthocephalus rhinensis in Lake Piediluco. The helminth community of Lake Piediluco with five species was richer than that of the River Po with only three species, but was poorer than that of Comacchio lagoons. Similarity indices between samples from Comacchio were high; between the lagoon and the freshwater localities and between the two freshwater localities, similarity indices were very low. Helminth component community structure in coastal lagoons was comparable across Europe. The helminth community in the River Po was similar to those in the River Tiber and other European rivers whilst that in Lake Piediluco was similar to that in other European lakes. Levels of the pathogenic Anguillicoloides crassus in swim bladders were consistently lower in prevalence and abundance in the coastal lagoons than in freshwater localities. This suggests that this parasite may have little impact on migrating eels if they are indeed primarily of marine origin and so it may be of little importance in the recent decline of eel populations throughout Europe. PMID:24135871

Dezfuli, Bahram Sayyaf; Giari, Luisa; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Lanzoni, Mattia; Rossi, Remigio; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Kennedy, Clive Russell

2014-01-01

149

The fate of Mediterranean lagoons under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model (SHYFEM) has been applied to 10 Mediterranean lagoons and a comparison study between the lagoons has been carried out. The lagoons are the lagoons of Venice, Marano-Grado, Varano and Lesina in the Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras lagoon in Sardinia, and the lagoons of Ganzirri and Faro in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain and the Nador lagoon in Morocco. These lagoons give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. The lagoons range from a leaky type of lagoons to a choked type. The number of inlets ranges from just one in the Nador lagoon to 6 in the case of the Marano-Grado lagoons. Tidal range is from nano-tidal to micro-tidal. The depth ranges from an average depth of 1 m to up to 40 meters. The model is a finite element model, especially suited to shallow water basins with complicated geometric and morphologic variations. The model can compute the basic hydrodynamics, dispersion of tracers, temperature and salinity evolution, sediment transport and ecological parameters. Building on an earlier study that focused on the classification of Mediterranean lagoons based on hydrodynamics, exchange rates and renewal time, this study is concerned with the changes in physical parameters under climate change. Data from IPCC has been used to simulate the changes in renewal time, salinity and temperature of all lagoons, with respect to the control simulation. Whenever possible downscaled data for the Mediterranean basin have been used. Sea level rise scenarios are taken from the last IPCC report. The model has been applied in its 3D version and the chosen setup allows a comparison between results in the different lagoons. Results indicate that the differences of renewal time between all studied lagoons become smaller. This means that leaky lagoons become less leaky and choked lagoons less choked. What concerns temperature and salinity, changes occurring in the sea are amplified inside lagoons. All lagoons show an increase of temperature higher than the one found outside in the sea. Salinity changes are also enhanced. This study shows how numerical modeling can be a useful tool to study the hydrodynamic changes forecasted to happen in transitional water bodies like lagoons.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Bellafiore, Debora; Bajo, Marco

2014-05-01

150

Trends in salinity and inorganic nitrogen compounds in the Berre lagoon (1994-2011) bacterial activities and nitrogen budgets.  

PubMed

The Berre lagoon receives freshwater from two natural rivers but the implementation of the hydroelectric power plant led to strong changes in the ecosystem structure and functioning. Sediments are important sites for nitrogen cycling because the O(2) sharp gradient allows oxic nitrification as well as anoxic denitrification and anammox to operate in close proximity. Seasonal and short-term variations in the coastal nitrogen processes were quantified at two stations: SA1 located in the northern part of the lagoon directly under the inflows of freshwater and SA3 in the southern part of the lagoon influenced mainly by the marine water inflows. Results revealed that most of the nitrate formed by nitrification was denitrified. Total denitrification was the main N(2) removal process. The high primary production based on N-NH(4)(+) might be explained by mineralization rates, while the primary production based on N-NO(3)(-) was not fully explained by nitrification. PMID:23276532

Zaghmouri, Imen; Michotey, Valerie D; Guasco, Sophie; Raimbault, Patrick; Garcia, Nicole; Bernard, Guillaume; Bonin, Patricia C

2013-02-15

151

Persistence of Pathogens in Lagoon-Stored Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactivation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was fill...

M. D. Little R. C. Badeaux R. S. Reimers T. G. Akers W. D. Henriques

1989-01-01

152

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING LAGOON SYSTEM AT EUDORA, KANSAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The wastewater lagoons at Eudora, Kansas, consist of three cells in series and were placed into operation in May, 1972. These lagoons were designed for a population of 4000. Currently, the sewered population of Eudora is 2200. The lagoons were studied in detail from September, 19...

153

PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactivation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. ach lagoon was filled with 7.56 m3 of anaerob...

154

Anatomy of the Holocene succession of the southern Venice lagoon revealed by very high-resolution seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern portion of the Venice lagoon contains a relatively thick (up to 20 m) Holocene sedimentary body that represents a detailed record of the formation and evolution of the lagoon. New very high-resolution (VHR) seismic profiles provided a detailed investigation on depositional geometries, internal bounding surfaces and stratal relationships. These informations, combined with core analysis, allowed the identification of large- to medium-scale sedimentary structures (e.g. dunes, point bars), the corresponding sedimentary environment, and of retrogradational and progradational trends. In addition, the availability of dense seismic network produced a 3D reconstruction of the southern lagoon and the recognition of the along-strike and dip variability of the stratal architecture. Three main seismic units (H1-H3), separated by key stratal surfaces (S1-S3), form the Holocene succession in the southern Venice lagoon. This succession is bounded at the base by the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary (the surface S1), which consists of a surface of subaerial exposure locally subjected to river incision. The lower part of the Holocene succession (up to 13 m thick) consists of incised valley fills passing upward into lagoon and then shallow-marine sediments (Unit H1), and therefore shows a deepening-upward trend and a retrogradational stacking pattern. A prograding delta and adjacent shorelines, showing internal clinoforms downlapping onto the top of Unit H1 (the surface S2), form the middle part of the Holocene succession (Unit H2, up to 7.5 m thick). Unit H2 is interpreted as a result of a regressive phase started about 6 kyr BP and continued until recent time. The upper part of the Holocene succession (Unit H3) consists of lagoonal deposits, including tidal channel and tidal and subtidal flat sediments, that abruptly overlie Unit H2. Unit H3 is thought to represent a drowning of the area primarily due to human interventions that created rivers diversion and consequent delta abandonment during historical time.

Zecchin, Massimo; Brancolini, Giuliano; Tosi, Luigi; Rizzetto, Federica; Caffau, Mauro; Baradello, Luca

2009-05-01

155

Phytoplankton variation and its relation to nutrients and allochthonous organic matter in a coastal lagoon on the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In tropical and subtropical zones, coastal lagoons are surrounded by mangrove communities which are a source of high quantity organic matter that enters the aquatic system through litter fall. This organic matter decomposes, becoming a source of nutrients and other substances such as tannins, fulvic acids and humic acids that may affect the composition and productivity of phytoplankton communities. Sontecomapan is a coastal lagoon located in the southern Gulf of Mexico, which receives abundant litter fall from mangrove. To study the phytoplankton composition and its variation in this lagoon from October 2002 to October 2003, we evaluated the concentrations of dissolved folin phenol active substances (FPAS) as a measure of plant organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH, O 2, N-NH 4+, N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-, Si-SiO 2, and phytoplanktonic cell density in different mangrove influence zones including the three main rivers that feed the lagoon. Nutrients concentrations depended on freshwater from rivers, however these varied seasonally. Concentrations of P-PO 43-, N-NH 4+ and FPAS were the highest in the dry season, when maximum mangrove litter fall is reported. Variation of these nutrients seemed to depend on the internal biogeochemical processes of the lagoon. Blooms of diatoms ( Skeletonema spp., Cyclotella spp. and Chaetoceros holsaticus) and dinoflagellates ( Peridinium aff. quinquecorne, Prorocentrum cordatum) occurred seasonally and in the different mangrove influence zones. The high cell densities in these zones and the occurrence of certain species and its ordination along gradient of FPAS in a canonical correspondence analysis, suggest that plant organic matter (i.e. mangrove influence) may contribute to phytoplankton dynamics in Sontecomapan lagoon.

Aké-Castillo, José A.; Vázquez, Gabriela

2008-07-01

156

Diabetic nephropathy in American Indians, with a special emphasis on the Pima Indians.  

PubMed

Diabetes affects American Indians disproportionately compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the United States and is almost exclusively type 2 diabetes. Much of our knowledge about diabetes in American Indians comes from studies in a few tribes. The most extensively studied American Indians are the Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, who participated in a longitudinal study of diabetes and its complications between 1965 and 2007. They have one of the highest reported incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the world, and kidney disease attributable to diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In this article, we examine the course, determinants, and trends of diabetic kidney disease in American Indians, with special emphasis on studies conducted in the Pima Indians. We also review therapeutic strategies for managing diabetic kidney disease. PMID:18990306

Pavkov, Meda E; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Nelson, Robert G

2008-12-01

157

Pesticides in the Rhône river delta (France): Basic data for a field-based exposure assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pesticide concentration levels flowing into paddy fields and surrounding lagoons of the Rhône river delta were investigated over a period of 6 months in 2004. Water samples were collected at the outlets of the major ditches and in the lagoons in order to study the seasonal variation in pesticide concentrations and the spatial contamination profile. Twenty four pesticides were monitored,

Laetitia Comoretto; Bruno Arfib; Serge Chiron

2007-01-01

158

Exploring new issues for coastal lagoons monitoring and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons are productive and highly vulnerable ecosystems, but their management is still problematic mostly because they constitute transitional interface between terrestrial and marine domains. The "4th European Conference on Coastal Lagoon Research - Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems, South North comparisons", was focused on the scientific research on coastal lagoons and the management for their conservation and sustainable use. Selected contributions were considered in this special issue of Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science "Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems" as they deal with three important aspects for coastal lagoons management: (1) the design of monitoring programmes using biological compartments, (2) the ecosystem functioning and the impacts of perturbations and (3) ecosystem trajectories particularly after ecosystem restoration. Here we introduce the selected papers published in this issue, place these contributions in the perspective of the science-management interface and discuss new issues for coastal lagoon management.

Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; De Wit, Rutger

2012-12-01

159

Herpetofaunal communities at Muni Lagoon in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A herpetofaunal survey of Muni-Pomadze Lagoon, during the main rainy season (May–June), recorded a total of 32 species (13 amphibians and 19 reptiles). Three species are the first records for coastal habitats in Ghana: Kinixys homeana, Calabaria reinhardti, and Bothrophthalmus lineatus. None of the surveyed species are restricted to Ghana. The most diverse herpetofaunal community occurs in grassland thicket, with

Christopher J. Raxworthy; Daniel K. Attuquayefio

2000-01-01

160

Sediment Nitrogen Trapping in a Mangrove Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the inputs, transformations and outputs of nitrogenous species in the sedimentary environment of Joyuda lagoon, a mangrove-lined coastal lagoon on the west coast of Puerto Rico, indicates a nitrogen mineralization rate equivalent to 6·5% of the total input to the sediment. Sedimentation of particulate matter provides a nitrogen flux of c . 855 ?moles N m -2 h -1. Nitrogen fixation in the sediments provides an additional 22 ?moles N m -2 h -1. Ammonium diffusion to the water column removes 50 ?moles N m -2 h -1 from the mineralized fraction, while only 5 ?moles N m -2 h -1 are removed from the system via denitrification. Overall, the data presented here indicate that oxidative bacterial metabolism (mineralization and nitrification) in Joyuda Lagoon is severely limited. Our results lend support to the hypothesis which describes the role of tropical coastal lagoons as nutrient and carbon traps, probably a requisite for the well-being of seagrasses and coral reefs prone to degradation by uncontrolled nutrient inputs.

Morell, J. M.; Corredor, J. E.

1993-08-01

161

Hypertrophic lagoon management by sediment disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental control of eutrophication in a small coastal lagoon was attempted by means of sediment disturbance. A specially designed boat was used to resuspend the top 3cm of sediment by a jets of air–water directed towards the bottom. This disturbance was carried out for 3months in each of two areas with a surface area of 24 and 20 hectares respectively.

Mauro Lenzi; Francesca Birardi; Roberto Calzolai; Maria Grazia Finoia; Francesco Marcone; Stefano Nocciolini; Rugiada Roffilli; Sergio Sgroi; Duccio Solari

2010-01-01

162

Paleoenvironmental changes of the Common Era in core sediments of Nakaumi Lagoon, Southwest Japan: Correlation with solar activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Common Era coastal lagoon environments change through anthropogenic modification of landforms and the landscape evolution that occurs with eustatic sea level change. The recent lake water environment in Nakaumi Lagoon, Southwest Japan, has undergone large changes due to both of these factors. In this study, the paleoenvironment of the Common Era is examined using high-resolution sedimentologic and geochemical analysis of three cores collected from Nakaumi Lagoon. This lagoon is located on the Sea of Japan side of southwest Japan, and is a brackish-water lake of ~86 square kilometers. The three cores are 3.5~4m in length, and consist of mud with shell fragment at most horizons. Samples were collected at 1cm intervals from these cores, and grain size analysis and C, N, S element analyses were performed. In the N1 core, total organic carbon (TOC) content has a peak (ca 3.5%) at 380cm, and declines step-wise higher in the core. TOC content is lowest (ca 1.5%) at 30~40cm. TOC content increases above this horizon. Similar changes of TOC content occur in the other cores. Total Sulfur (TS) content shows a very similar pattern of change to TOC content. The horizon of the TOC peak at 380cm (BC200) in the N1 core indicates the most reduced environment based on the TS content. This suggests the final closure of the lagoonal area (Nakaumi Lagoon) formed by the progradation of the Yumigahama sand bar. After that, TOC content decreases as a new water circulation system became established in the lagoon and water depth shallowed through aggradation and increasing sedimentation rate. Mean grain size fluctuates in the range of 6.5~8.0 phi, and is around 7.5 phi in most samples. Mean grain size in the N2 core tends to coarsen above 70cm. This anomaly in mean grain size in the N2 core probably reflects the modification of the Iinashi River channel in AD1665. An additional excursion in mean grain size above 40cm may indicate a later anthropogenic channel diversion of the Iinashi River in AD1840. The pattern of variation in mean grain size in the N1 core is similar to variation in atmospheric radiocarbon 14C (Delta 14C). This pattern may therefore reflect climate change driven at least in part by solar activity. Coarser grain size in Nakaumi Lagoon sediments reflects flood events that bring a greater sediment load into the lake. Increased flood event frequency in the temperate zone is associated with warmer climates.

Seto, K.; Dettman, D. L.; Takata, H.; Kishiba, S.; Sato, T.

2011-12-01

163

Mercury in the sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea): Sources, distribution and speciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 ?g g-1) to west (0.7 ?g g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (<16 ?m), as a consequence of transport and dispersion from the fluvial source through littoral and tidal currents. However, speciation analyses highlighted the presence of Hg sulphides in the coarse sandy fraction of sediments from the eastern area, as expected given the origin of the sedimentary material. Unlike Hg, the distribution of MeHg (0.47-7.85 ng g-1) does not show a clear trend. MeHg constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably good correlation between MeHg normalized to humic acid (HA) content and humic ?13C indicates that MeHg is preferentially associated with autochthonous ?13C-enriched HAs in lagoon surface sediments, suggesting that the structure of "marine" HAs, less refractory and less aromatic, could favor MeHg binding and/or production. In the context of the potential hazard of Hg and MeHg accumulation in reared clams, the choice of a site for the extension of farming activities inside the Marano and Grado Lagoon is dependent on several factors and cannot be decided solely on the basis of the total Hg content in the sediment.

Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Berto, Daniela; Faganeli, Jadran; Giani, Michele; Horvat, Milena; Koron, Neža; Rampazzo, Federico

2012-11-01

164

Fine grain sediment transport and deposition in the Patos Lagoon-Cassino beach sedimentary system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive mud deposits superimposed on the predominantly sandy inner continental shelf adjacent to the Patos Lagoon estuary, indicates that the Lagoon is a potential source of fine sediments to the coastal sedimentary system. The lagoon is large and shallow, and the water movement is mainly controlled by wind-driven set-up and set-down. The mean river inflow is around 2000 m 3 s -1, although peak flow rates exceeding 20,000 m 3 s -1 have been observed during El Niño periods. Though the tidal elevations are small, tidal velocities in the lagoon's inlet can be significant due to the large extension of the backwaters. Moreover, significant exchange flows can be generated between the estuary and coastal area due to barotropic pressure gradients established as a function of wind and freshwater discharge. The predominant net flow is seawards, but opposite near-bed flows due to pronounced vertical salinity stratification can also be observed. The coastal area is characterized by small tidal effects, large scale ocean circulation, wind-induced residual flows and wave-driven currents, where the waves originate from swell or are locally generated. Fine sediment is brought into the Patos Lagoon by the rivers and its deposits are likely to have long residence times. These fine sediment deposits can be remobilized by locally generated waves, and driven towards the channels and lagoon's shallow bays. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations within the lagoon do not exceed a few 10 mg l -1, though higher values have been measured occasionally. In the southern estuarine part of the lagoon, fine sediments may accumulate due to gravitational circulation effects, yielding SPM concentrations of a few 100 mg l -1. The export of fine sediment from the lagoon to the coastal area occurs predominantly during NE winds. This explains why the majority of the off shore sediment deposits, known as the Patos Facies, are more widespread towards the southern portion of the inner continental shelf. These sediments deposit in the form of fluid and more compacted mud, between the 6 and 20 m isobath, in layers with thickness varying between a few dm to 2 m causing marked lateral differences in grain size. Recent sediment core data, indicates that fluid mud occurrence increases towards the shore and that the mud depocenter remains in the same area as previously mapped two decades before. On a long-term basis, this lateral heterogeneity in sediment properties controls the geomorphology of the inner continental shelf and shoreface, and influences the shoreline accretion rate and beach morphodynamic south of the inlet. Short-term effects are associated with episodic events of mud deposition on the beach during heavy storms that often result in strong gradients in hydrodynamic processes. These gradients in turn influence the morphodynamic behavior on the sectors affected by the mud deposits and can create coastal hazards relating to beach usage.

Calliari, L. J.; Winterwerp, J. C.; Fernandes, E.; Cuchiara, D.; Vinzon, S. B.; Sperle, M.; Holland, K. T.

2009-03-01

165

Organochlorine, organophosphoric and organotin contaminants, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in sediments of the ports from Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of: polycyclic aromatic and petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, organochlorine and organophosphoric pesticides, tributyltin and metals were determined in sediments of approach fairways to the main ports in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon and of the Elbl?g River. Analysed sediments contained low concentrations of all contaminants, except petroleum hydrocarbons. The average petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) concentration was

Marta Staniszewska; Helena Boniecka; Anna Gajecka

2012-01-01

166

Characterization of Salmonella Bacteriophages Isolated from Swine Lagoon Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Salmonella bacteriophages that had been originally isolated from swine manure lagoons were characterized and compared to each other\\u000a and to well-known Salmonella phages P22 and Felix 01. Host ranges of the lagoon phages were similar to each other in spot tests on reference strains of\\u000a Salmonella, but differed slightly from each other on a panel of Salmonella lagoon strains.

Michael R. McLaughlin; Rodney A. King

2008-01-01

167

Nutrient fluxes and net metabolism in Lobos coastal lagoon, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of nutrients and net metabolism were estimated in coastal lagoon Lobos, a semi-arid subtropical lagoon from Gulf of California, Mexico. Sampling runs were carried out during summer and winter, seawater samples for nutrients were collected in coastal lagoon, offshore and a channel waste-water, physico-chemical parameters were measured in situ. Fluxes of nutrients and net metabolism were estimated using LOICZ

Valenzuela-Siu Mónica; Arreola-Lizárraga José Alfredo; Sánchez-Carrillo Salvador; Padilla-Arredondo Gustavo

2007-01-01

168

Seasonal change in a filter-feeding bivalve Musculista senhousia population of a eutrophic estuarine lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filter-feeding bivalves often predominate the benthic biomass of estuaries, although their population size may drastically fluctuate due to physical and biological disturbances. To examine the recovery of a mussel population after periods of severe predation and anoxia, and to estimate the amount of nutrients removed from the system through mussel production, we surveyed, over 2 years, the Musculista senhousia population in the estuarine lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan. Predation by diving ducks ( Aythya fuligula, Aythya ferina and Aythya marila) during winter dramatically reduced the mussel biomass in both years, but recruitment of juvenile mussels sustained the population. Anoxia during the second summer severely reduced the mussel population, resulting in less biomass than in the autumn of the previous year. Potential annual removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the lagoon water through burial of M. senhousia shells under oxic conditions was estimated to be 7.1 and 5.1 tons, respectively. These are equivalent to 0.7% and 4.9% of the nitrogen and phosphorous annual load entering the lagoon via the main river. Under anoxic conditions, removal would decrease to only 5.6% of the potential amount.

Yamamuro, Masumi; Hiratsuka, Jun'ichi; Ishitobi, Yu

2000-10-01

169

Indian Summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the

Galindo

1997-01-01

170

Indian Orphanages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

Holt, Marilyn Irvin

171

77 FR 41454 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 3, LLC, Entergy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...facility is on the eastern bank of the Hudson River. Both IP2 and IP3 use Westinghouse...supplies cooling water from the Hudson River. Indian Point Nuclear Generating...action. No new withdrawals from the Hudson River or any new effluent...

2012-07-13

172

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

1991-07-01

173

Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon  

SciTech Connect

The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

1997-03-31

174

Bioaccumulation of mercury in reared and wild Ruditapes philippinarum of a Mediterranean lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marano and Grado lagoon, one of the largest wetlands in the Mediterranean Sea, has been subject to mercury contamination by industrial and mining activities. This must be considered a severe threat for Manila clam harvesting, which is an important fishing and commercial activity in the area. Contamination levels and potential risk for human consumption both in reared and wild clams collected from the lagoon were assessed by analyzing total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contents. In addition, relationships between THg and MeHg in sediments and in the bivalves were investigated. Increased bioaccumulation of THg but not of MeHg with increasing size of wild clam populations was observed at most sites. Higher concentrations both of THg (605 ± 210 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (147 ± 37 ng g-1 ww) were detected in the eastern lagoon where the highest THg contents in sediments were observed as a consequence of the long-term supply of cinnabar rich suspended material from the Isonzo river. The variation of Hg content in seeded Manila clams during growth was monitored over a period of 18 months at two sites of the western sector of the lagoon. Results showed that the two areas were suitable for clam farming, with THg levels in reared bivalves always lower than the 0.5 mg kg-1 ww European Community limit. At the same time, as clams grew bigger in size, their THg and MeHg concentrations decreased, becoming lower than in the starting seeded pool. Reared clams presented lower THg (84 ± 55 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (44.1 ± 24.6 ng g-1 ww) content than wild clams of the same commercial size (>30 mm). Based on a precautionary approach, intake of Hg and MeHg with the estimated clam consumption does not seem to constitute a risk for human health in the studied area.

Giani, Michele; Rampazzo, Federico; Berto, Daniela; Maggi, Chiara; Mao, Andrea; Horvat, Milena; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano

2012-11-01

175

Long-term water monitoring in two Mediterranean lagoons as an indicator of land-use changes and intense precipitation events (Adra, Southeastern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent historical times the Adra river delta, a detrital coastal aquifer of nearly 32 km 2 located in a semi-arid, mountainous area of SE Spain, has undergone different changes caused by human activity. Within this context, both the river dynamics in the plain and the geomorphology of the coastline have at various times resulted in the formation of small lagoons. At present only two small (<0.5 km 2) lagoons exist, at the eastern edge of the aquifer, which, although closely surrounded by commercial market-garden greenhouses, are protected under international agreements. During the last 30 years of the twentieth century traditional agricultural irrigation techniques have undergone significant changes to improve their efficiency. Surface-water resources in the Adra river basin are regulated via the Beninar reservoir. In addition, the use of groundwater is increasing progressively. Both these factors affect the recharge of the coastal aquifer. To monitor these changes measurements of electrical conductivity and water level fluctuations have been recorded in these lagoons for the last 35 years (1975-2010). A comparison of the hydrochemical characteristics of the water in the lagoons and of the surrounding groundwater from 2003 to 2010 shows marked differences induced by the different hydrological dynamics in each lagoon, as well as by the hydrogeological impact of changes in land use in the delta. The increase in water demand is a consequence of the extension of irrigated areas from the fluvio-deltaic plain to its slopes, originally occupied by unirrigated crops. A reduction in irrigation return-flow is linked to the use of new irrigation techniques. These modifications affect both the recharge regime of the aquifer and its water quality. Moreover, extreme precipitation events, which are characteristic of Mediterranean semi-arid environments, can affect the lagoons' hydrological dynamics to a considerable extent. One such example is the unusually rainy period from January to March 2010 (>600 mm). This event, along with other effects, has dramatically lowered the salinity of the water in both lagoons. This case study reveals the extreme vulnerability of deltaic environments and also how lagoons can reflect anthropogenic changes over the whole river basin.

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Miguel; Benavente, José; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Paracuellos, Mariano

2011-02-01

176

40 CFR 258.42 - Approval of site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.42 Approval...Indian Community (SRPMIC), Salt River Landfill Research, Development, and Demonstration...this section applies to the Salt River Landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill...

2013-07-01

177

Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons. (USGS)

Bobay, K. E.

1988-01-01

178

4. APACHE INDIAN LABORER WITH TEAM AND SCRAPER WORKING ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. APACHE INDIAN LABORER WITH TEAM AND SCRAPER WORKING ON THE POWER CANAL LINE FOUR MILES ABOVE LIVINGSTONE, ARIZONA Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, June 14, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

179

29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN BEND POND LABELLED 'SETTLING BASIN,' STEAM/DIESEL PLANT AND OTHER FEATURES. 1951 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

180

Thinking Like an Indian: Healing Tribal Gang Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a tribal school with a mission to gang-involved youth in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (Arizona). Explains disciplinary actions; involvement of parents, teachers, and police; and requirements for student participation in various activities. (LRW)

Hernandez, Arturo

2001-01-01

181

1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

182

Navajo Indians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's learn about Utah History! Let's learn about the Navajo Indians. Learning Objective After reading and researching information about the Navajo tribe, students will be able understand the culture and traditions of this tribe and make comparisons to their own culture, by researching, writing about and creating Navajo jewelry and completing a cultural comparison worksheet. Grades 3 4th Grade Content Area(s) Social Studies Content Targets History, culture ...

Chamberlain, Keshia

2009-11-28

183

The hydrodynamics and salinity regime of a coastal lagoon - The Coorong, Australia - Seasonal to multi-decadal timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coorong is a choked coastal lagoon in South Australia that forms part of the terminal lake system at the end of the River Murray, Australia's major river. It is an inverse estuary with a constricted channel connection to the sea at one end and extends parallel to the coast for more than 100 km away from this inlet. The present paper considers the physical dynamics of the Coorong, particularly its ecologically important salinity and water level regimes, and how these respond to connectedness with the ocean, barrage flows and meteorological conditions. The approach combines hydrodynamic modelling with measurements and considers temporal variation in the system ranging from seasonal to multi-decadal timescales. The Coorong is relatively unusual in that the major freshwater input occurs through barrages much closer to the estuary mouth than to its head. Thus, the barrage flows only 'flush' the Coorong between the barrages and the sea. Over most of its length, salt accumulating through evapo-concentration mixes back out of the system by fluctuating water motions caused by sea level variations propagating through the inlet channel and by wind. By scouring the inlet channel on a seasonal basis, barrage flows facilitate the penetration of sea level variations into the Coorong leading to enhanced along-lagoon mixing. Further, barrage flows freshen the waters near the seaward end of the system causing water of lower salt content than sea water to replace evaporative losses in its interior. By increasing the water depth in the system, barrage flows facilitate the exchange between the North and South Lagoons of the Coorong which are its two major basins. The modelling supported by measurements shows how the salinity regime in the Coorong appears to have responded to multi-year cycles of variation in discharge of the River Murray over the last 50 years. Even before the present drought, which has seen salinity in the South Lagoon exceed four times sea water, the lagoon was dominantly hypersaline. The modelling suggests that the significant reductions in freshwater inflows to the Coorong due to water resource development would have caused the South Lagoon to evolve from a state of being usually brackish to marine into its present hypersaline state. The conceptual understanding of the Coorong's physical dynamics and their encapsulation in a hydrodynamic model are enabling strategies to be evaluated for alleviation of its present degraded condition, and for its improved future management.

Webster, Ian T.

2010-12-01

184

Participation and Sustainable Management of Coastal Lagoon Ecosystems: The Case of the Fosu Lagoon in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation as a tool has been applied as a social learning process and communication platform to create awareness among stakeholders in the context of resource utilisation. The application of participatory processes to aquatic ecosystem management is attracting a growing body of literature. However, the application of participation as a tool for sustainable management of coastal lagoon ecosystems is recent. This

Frederick A. Armah; David O. Yawson; Alex N. M. Pappoe; Ernest K. A. Afrifa

2010-01-01

185

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2013-10-01

186

FIELD STUDY OF NUTRIENT CONTROL IN A MULTICELL LAGOON  

EPA Science Inventory

This report covers nutrient control in a serially arranged, multicell aerated lagoon system over a three year period. The objective was to develop reliable technology for reducing phosphorus and for converting ammonia-nitrogen to nitrate-nitrogen. A six-cell lagoon was modified i...

187

Urban Waste Pollution in the Korle Lagoon, Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Korle Lagoon in Accra, Ghana, has become one of the most polluted water bodies on earth. It is the principal outlet through which all major drainage channels in the city empty their wastes into the sea. Large amounts of untreated industrial waste emptied into surface drains has led to severe pollution in the lagoon and disrupted its natural ecology.

Kwasi Owusu Boadi; Markku Kuitunen

2002-01-01

188

CONTROL OF ODORS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS TREATING FOOD PROCESSING WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic lagoons are used for the treatment of meat packing wastes in most areas of the country. They are a relatively low cost means of achieving BOD reduction. Although lagoon effluent is not suitable for stream discharge, it is amenable to further treatment or to land applica...

189

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING SEVEN CELL LAGOON SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the lagoon system and to evalu...

190

Spatial variability of primary organic sources regulates ichthyofauna distribution despite seasonal influence in Terminos lagoon and continental shelf of Campeche, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities have strong impacts on coastal ecosystems functioning through their effect on primary organic sources distributions and resulting biodiversity. Hence, it appears to be of utmost importance to quantify contribution of primary producers to sediment organic matter (SOM) spatial variability and its associated ichthyofauna. The Terminos lagoon (Gulf of Mexico) is a tropical estuary severely impacted by human activities even though of primary concern for its biodiversity, its habitats, and its resource supply. Stable isotope data (d13C, d15N) from mangrove, seaweed, seagrass, phytoplankton, ichthyofauna and SOM were sampled in four zones of the lagoon and the continental shelf through windy (November to February), dry (March to June) and rainy (July to October) seasons. Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) mixing model were used to determine relative contributions of the autotrophic sources to the ichthyofauna and SOM. Analysis of variance of ichthyofauna isotopic values showed significant differences (P < 0.001) in the four zones of lagoon despite the variability introduced by the windy, dry and rainy seasons. In lagoons rivers discharge zone, the mangrove contribution to ichthyofauna was 40% and 84% to SOM. Alternative use of habitat by ichthyofauna was evidenced since in the deep area of the lagoon (4 m), the contribution of mangrove to fish is 50%, and meanwhile contribution to SOM is only 77%. Although phytoplankton (43%) and seaweed (41%) contributions to the adjacent continental shelf ichthyofauna were the main organic sources, there was 37% mangrove contribution to SOM, demonstrating conspicuous terrigenous influence from lagoon ecosystem. Our results point toward organic sources spatial variations that regulate fish distribution. In Terminos lagoon, significant correlation (p-value = 0.2141 and r=0.79) of Ariopsis felis and Sphoeroides testudineus abundances and seaweed and seagrasses contributions (30-35%) during both dry and rainy seasons, evidence that spatial variability organic sources could be central for the state of equilibrium of ecosystems. Keywords: sediment organic matter, mangrove, ecosystems, mixing model, trophic structure

Romo Rios, J. A.; Aguíñiga-García, S.; Sanchez, A.; Zetina-Rejón, M.; Arreguín-Sánchez, F.; Tripp-Valdéz, A.; Galeana-Cortazár, A.

2013-05-01

191

Clipperton, a possible future for atoll lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closure of the Clipperton Island atoll (10°17' N 109°13' W), now a meromictic lake, is estimated to have occurred between 1839 and 1849. It was still closed in 2005. Brackish waters in the upper layer (0-10 m) were oxygenated, while saline waters in the deep layer (>20 m) were anoxic. Allowing for the methodological difficulties of earlier measurements, the physical characteristics of the lagoon did not seem to have changed significantly since the last expedition (1980). The intermediate layer between brackish and saline waters was characterized by a strong density gradient and a temperature inversion of up to 1.6°C. Microbial activity, water exchange between the deep layer and surrounding oceanic waters and the geothermal flux hypothesis are discussed. The low DIN and SRP concentrations observed in the upper layer, despite high nutrient input by seabird droppings, reflect the high nutrient uptake by primary producers as attested by the elevated overall gross primary production (6.6 g C m-2 day-1), and high suspended photosynthetic biomass (2.23 ± 0.23 ?g Chl a l-1) and production (263 ± 27 ?g C l-1 day-1). Phytoplankton composition changed in 67 years with the advent of new taxa and the disappearance of previously recorded species. The freshwater phytoplanktonic community comprised 43 taxa: 37 newly identified during the expedition and 6 previously noted; 16 species previously found were not seen in 2005. The closure of the lagoon, combined with the positive precipitation-evaporation budget characteristic of the region, has induced drastic changes in lagoon functioning compared with other closed atolls.

Charpy, L.; Rodier, M.; Couté, A.; Perrette-Gallet, C.; Bley-Loëz, C.

2010-09-01

192

Impact of fishing on fish assemblages in tropical lagoons: the example of the Ebrie lagoon, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoon fish communities often consist of complex assemblages of numerous species, difficult to manage with conventional stock assessment models. Useful data are still lacking for evaluating the importance of man-made disturbance and reference situations are missing, especially in developing countries. As a consequence, by analysing data collected 20 years ago in two of the six sectors of the Ebrie lagoon

Jean-Jacques Albaret; Raymond Laë

2003-01-01

193

The Western Ghat as the water tower of the South Indian Rivers : a stable isotope investigation on the origin of water and factors affecting the water cycle.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long stretch (1600 km) of Ghats on the western side (Western Ghats) of Peninsular India separates relatively wetter west coast from drier eastern coast. The western and eastern sides of the Ghats are having distinct isotopic signatures indicating unequal distribution of the moisture sources. South India is characterized by having moisture source for southwest monsoon from Arabian Sea and northeast monsoon from Bay of Bengal. The wetter side of Peninsular region is covered by combination of evergreen tropical forest and grass lands, termed as Shola Forests which support higher vapor recycling process. Very few isotopic studies have been undertaken in these areas, except few places, mainly along the coast lines. This study presents the stable isotope results on rivers and groundwater of the Western Ghats covering Agumbe (Karnataka) to Ooty (Tamil Nadu) and its west coast river basins as observed for the three year period. The stable isotope results on the surface, subsurface and deep water pools show that the mean d18O value range from -4 o to -2 o on the west slope, and from -5 o to -4 o on the east slope, with quite no altitude or amount effect up to 2000 m asl. The more depleted values are found only in higher elevation, like the Doddabeta in the Nilgiri (2637m), with d18O close to -9 o which is exceptional for a tropical area. The hills on the west slope of the Western Ghats as well as in the mountainous Shola forest exhibit strong water vapor recycling as evidenced by high d-excess values. On the contrary on the eastern slope, the drier condition and the numerous impoundments and river damming support strong evaporation process. Thus, the study identifies the profound effect of tropical vegetation and anthropogenic factors on the recharge functioning of river and groundwater pools in Southern India.

Lambs, Luc; Tripti, Muguli; Balakrishna, Keshava

2014-05-01

194

[Temporal and spatial variation of shorebirds in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Jalisco, during three non-breeding seasons].  

PubMed

Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation programs. The aim of this work was to describe shorebirds temporal and spatial distribution in Barra de Navidad lagoon during three non-breeding seasons (1999-2000, 2006-2007 and 2008-2009). For this, monthly censuses were performed from November-April with the purpose of registering all the shorebirds species. We were able to identify 19 shorebirds species (three residents and 16 winter visitors), of which Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa and Tringa semipalmata were the most abundant. The greater number of species was registered for November, December and March of the first and third seasons. The greater number of individuals was registered when birds were feeding during low tides, mainly in December, January and February of the first and third seasons. At low tide, there was a great number of species and individuals in zone C. This area had muddy substrates that were exposed during low tides and were used to feed. Barra de Navidad lagoon provided suitable habitats for feeding and resting for resident and migratory birds. Twelve of the 19 species were considered as priority within the Mexican bird conservation strategy. However, these habitats are threatened by human activities performed in the nearby areas of the lagoon that may have negative consequences for the distribution, abundance and conservation of these species. PMID:23025100

Hernández, Salvador; Serrano, Sergio; Hernández, Xóchitl A; Robles, María Isabel

2012-09-01

195

Trophic state of Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon (Algarve, South Portugal) based on the water quality and the phytoplankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variation of water quality and phytoplankton community was studied in Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the trophic state of the wetland. This small coastal lagoon has temporary connections to the sea, when the sand barrier is naturally or artificially opened, but for most of the year is isolated receiving just the freshwater input from small rivers. Sampling took place in three stations along a gradient of marine influence from June 2001 to July 2002. During summer and autumn, the water in the lagoon was low, influencing positively water temperature, salinity, total solids in suspension (TSS), orthophosphates, total phosphorus (TP) and pH. In winter and spring, there was an increase of nitrates, nitrites, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and N:P ratio with the raise of water level in the lagoon. Chlorophyll a and phaeo-pigments concentrations were positively related to the previous parameters. Phytoplankton density was low and switching in dominant taxa was observed along time but the community was mainly dominated by Dinophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. Chlorophyceae and Euglenophyceae were related to higher TSS and lower DIN, salinity and TP; Cyanophyceae were stimulated by the opposite conditions. The decrease of water level jointly with the raise of salinity and TP influenced positively pico-nano flagellate algae. Cryptophyceae were positively correlated with the same factors and also TSS. Several trophic state indexes and water quality indicators have been applied and an overall analysis pointed out to a coastal lagoon with mesotrophic characteristics. During the studied period no serious eutrophication events occurred, however there were some situations of nutrient enrichment due to human activities, such as agriculture and non-treated sewage discharges, which might have favoured the development of potentially toxic phytoplankton species, namely Prorocentrum minimum.

Coelho, Susana; Gamito, Sofia; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

2007-01-01

196

STREAMS (POLYGON FEATURES) FOR THE FORT MCDOWELL INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

Streams (polygon features) coverage showing some double line rivers and river islands on the Fort McDowell Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

197

STREAMS (POLYGON FEATURES) COVERAGE FOR THE FORT MOJAVE INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

Streams (polygon features) coverage showing some double line rivers and river islands on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

198

Trust and Survival: "AWOL Hunkpapa Indian Family Prisoners of War at Fort Sully, 1890-1891"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hundred twenty five Hunkpapa Indians fled from the Grand River Camp on the Standing Rock Reservation to the Cheyenne River Reservation to council with Big Foot's band when Sitting Bull was killed on December 15, 1890. These Indian families did not contribute to the number of fatalities at Wounded Knee because they were being held by the U.S.…

Wojcik, Eva

2008-01-01

199

Holocene sea-level and climatic fluctuations: Pulicat lagoon - A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulicat lagoon situated in the Palar Basin, is the se c- ond largest lagoon on the east coast of India. The north-western margin of the desiccated lagoon is an irregular and elevated hard surface. Palynological studies were carried out in sedime ntary soil samples from four pits dug across this part of the lagoon. Vegetational reconstruction from peat beds at

Anjum Farooqui; G. G. Vaz

200

Sludge Lagoons. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson describes three different types of sludge lagoons: (1) drying lagoons; (2) facultative lagoons; and (3) anaerobic lagoons. Normal operating sequence and equipment are also described. The lesson is designed to be used in sequence with the complete Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166 or as an independent lesson. The instructor's…

Sharman, Ronald M.

201

Historical flux of mercury associated with mining and industrial sources in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "MIRACLE" Project was established in order to assess the feasibility of clam farming and high levels of sediment mercury (Hg) contamination coexisting in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy. This lagoon has been subjected to Hg input from both industrial waste (chlor-alkali plant) and long-term mining activity (Idrija mine, NW Slovenia). One of the subtasks of the "MIRACLE" Project was to determine the historical evolution of Hg accumulation in the lagoon's bottom sediments. Thirteen 1-m deep sediment cores were collected from the subtidal and intertidal zones, plus one in a saltmarsh, all of which were then analyzed for total Hg content and several physicochemical parameters. Sedimentation rate assessments were performed by measuring short-lived radionuclides (excess 210Pb and 137Cs). For most of the analyzed cores, natural background levels of Hg were observed at depths of 50-100 cm. In the eastern area, Hg contamination was found to be at its maximum level at the core top (up to 12 ?g g-1) as a consequence of the long-term mining activity. The vertical distribution of Hg was related to the influence of the single-point contamination sources, whereas the grain-size variability or organic matter content seemed not to affect it. In the western area, Hg content at the surface was found not to exceed 7 ?g g-1 and contamination was recorded only in the first 20-30 cm. Geochronological measurements showed that the depositional flux of Hg was influenced by anthropogenic inputs after 1800, when mining activity was more intense. After 1950, Hg in the surface sediment, most remarkable in the central-western sector, seemed to also be affected by the discharge of the Aussa River, which delivers Hg from the chlor-alkali plant. In 1996, Hg mining at Idrija ceased, however the core profiles did not show any subsequent decreasing trend in terms of Hg flux, which implies the system retaining some "memory" of contamination. Thus, in the short term, a decrease in Hg inputs into the nearby Gulf of Trieste and the lagoon seems unlikely. A preliminary rounded-down gross estimate of total Hg "trapped" in the lagoon's sediments amounted to 251 t. Such a quantity, along with the complexity of the lagoon ecosystem, suggests that an in toto reclamation of the sediments at the lagoon scale is unfeasible, both economically and environmentally.

Covelli, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Acquavita, Alessandro; Piani, Raffaella; Emili, Andrea

2012-11-01

202

Increased Bioavailability of Mercury in the Lagoons of Lomé, Togo: The Possible Role of Dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations\\u000a were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to\\u000a the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives\\u000a major waste inputs,

Kissao Gnandi; Seunghee Han; M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon; Magali Porrachia; Dimitri D. Deheyn

2011-01-01

203

American Indians Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

Snipp, C. Matthew

204

Indian Education Project, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A product of Michigan's Indian Education Project, this report includes two proposals designed to help meet the educational needs of Michigan American Indian students at various levels. The first of the two feasibility studies includes: a perspective on Michigan's American Indians; problems of Indian education (priorities, roots of the problem,…

Martin, Larry; Morris, Joann

205

Indians of Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Goldfinch" examines the history of American Indians in Iowa. This volume's featured articles include: "Encounter"; "Iowa Earthworks"; "The Long Way Home"; "How One Learns, a Mesquakie Woman's Life Story"; "Indians of Iowa"; "Little Brother Snares the Sun"; "Being Indian in an Urban World"; and "Indian Wars Myth." (DB)

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1992-01-01

206

How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while expected impacts of climate changes on the Thau system were expected to be linked to water balance depletion in the catchment, the main threats are now linked to the impact on water quality of the introduction of the Rhône river waters within the system. This study is conducted in the CLIMB EU-FP7 project (2010-2014).

La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

2014-05-01

207

Late-Holocene to recent evolution of Lake Patria, South Italy: An example of a coastal lagoon within a Mediterranean delta system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Patria is a mesoaline coastal lagoon that develops along the coastal zone of the Volturno River plain (Campania, South Italy). The lagoon is a saline to brackish water body, ca. 2.0 long, and 1.5 km wide, with an average water depth of 1.5 m, reaching a maximum of ca. 3.0 m. The freshwater input into the lagoon is provided by a series of fresh to brackish water channels and small springs, landwards, while a permanent connection with the Tyrrhenian Sea is provided by a channel, 1.5 km long and a few meters wide. Drilling data from 12 boreholes acquired in the study area indicate that Lake Patria is a man-modified remnant of a larger lagoonal area that developed during the last millennia along the Campania coastal zone within an alluvial delta system at the mouth of the paleo-Volturno River. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analyses of drill cores suggest that the lower Volturno delta plain developed in the last 6000 years. Depositional conditions during this period were dominated by flood-plain and alluvial plain settings, with transition to coastal bars and associated back-barrier coastal lagoons. Lake Patria started evolving at an early stage of the Volturno delta plain formation as a consequence of foreshore deposits damming-up by littoral drift. The first marine layers display a radiocarbon age of ca. 4.8 ka BP and overlie a substrate represented by volcaniclastic deposits, originated by the Campi Flegrei, and associated paleosols. The lagoonal succession cored at Lake Patria may be interpreted as the result of a dynamic equilibrium between marine influence and riverine input into the lagoonal system through time, and has been tentatively correlated with the major climatic changes that occurred during Mid-Late Holocene. Insights into the recentmost evolution of the coastal lagoon of Lake Patria are provided by the GIS-based analysis of the physiographic changes of the region conducted on a series of historical topographic maps dating back to the early XVII century. Particularly, the superposition of historical cartography reveals the secular trends in the change of coastal environments and the role of human modification of natural habitats over the last 400 years.

Sacchi, M.; Molisso, F.; Pacifico, A.; Vigliotti, M.; Sabbarese, C.; Ruberti, D.

2014-06-01

208

The PAH level, distribution and composition in surface sediments from a Mediterranean lagoon: the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).  

PubMed

The Marano and Grado Lagoon is one of the best conserved transitional environment in the whole Mediterranean area. On the other hand, it suffers from industrial, agricultural and fisheries activities, which could have an important impact on its environmental quality. With the application of the WFD, the sediment chemical status was investigated. In this work, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons included by the US EPA within the priority pollutants were considered. PAHs values ranged from non-detectable to 1056 ng g(-1) showing the highest contamination close to the Aussa-Corno River mouth, which received the industrial inputs. The contamination level was comparable to that observed in low contaminated sites of the Mediterranean region, and lower than the adjacent Gulf of Trieste. The ratios of selected PAHs congeners pointed out the prevalence of pyrolitic sources. Moreover, the application of the ERL/ERM displayed an environment, which should not have a potential biological impact. PMID:24492154

Acquavita, Alessandro; Falomo, Jari; Predonzani, Sergio; Tamberlich, Francesco; Bettoso, Nicola; Mattassi, Giorgio

2014-04-15

209

White pelicans swim in the lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

White pelicans search for a meal in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The habitat of white pelicans are marshy lakes along the Pacific and Texas coasts, wintering chiefly in coastal lagoons such as this one. They often capture fish cooperatively, forming a long line, beating their wings and driving the prey into shallow water. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

1999-01-01

210

Management of coastal lagoons under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is a reality that is rendering the concept of 'background conditions' meaningless. We can no longer attempt to maintain the environmental status quo. What we can do is to attempt to maintain ecosystem services despite climate-driven environmental change. There is a pressing need for proactive management that purposefully changes ecosystems to maintain ecosystem services before uncontrolled, detrimental changes occur. Such management would go beyond the bounds of current management efforts and could include, for example, introduction of species, bioengineering, and physical engineering. I suggest that this approach be applied first to coastal lagoons as they are clearly defined geographic areas where this approach can, hopefully, be demonstrated such that it can be applied more widely - when it is accepted, which unfortunately will most probably not occur until the adverse impacts of global climate change become much more apparent.

Chapman, Peter M.

2012-09-01

211

13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

212

Seasonal variation in a tropical lagoon with submarine groundwater discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chelem-Chuburna-Yucalpeten lagoon system is located at 21°17'N and 89°40'W in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Temperature, conductivity, sea level, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, and wind speed measurements were recorded in this lagoon, during various oceanographic surveys within 2010-2012. During the experiments, which included diurnal variations during spring and neap tidal cycles, CTD profiles were collected in 35 oceanographic stations and moored instruments were deployed at strategic locations. The aim of this work is to investigate transitions of thermohaline properties in a tropical lagoon with submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs) to increase the knowledge of the principal processes that control circulation and mixing in this kind of bodies of water. Results show that the lagoon is saltier than the ocean in the dry season and the opposite pattern is observed in the rain season. During the rain season could be more freshwater supplied from SGDs.

Tenorio, L.; Gómez-Valdés, J.; Enriquez, C.; Treviño, C.; Marino-Tapia, I.; López-Aguiar, K.

2013-05-01

213

ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

214

ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

215

VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense ultraviolet light, are responsible for making the nebula glow brightly. But the Lagoon Nebula is also home to much younger stellar infants. Newborn stars have been detected in the nebula that are so young that they are still surrounded by their natal accretion discs. Such new born stars occasionally eject jets of matter from their poles. When this ejected material ploughs into the surrounding gas short-lived bright streaks called Herbig-Haro objects [3] are formed, making the new-borns easy to spot. In the last five years, several Herbig-Haro objects have been detected in the Lagoon Nebula, so the baby boom is clearly still in progress here. Notes [1] This survey, one of six VISTA surveys currently in progress, will image the central parts of the Milky Way many times over a period of five years and will detect huge numbers of new variable objects. [2] Bart Bok was a Dutch-American astronomer who spent most of his long career in the United States and Australia. He first noticed the dark spots that now bear his name, in star formation regions and speculated that they may be associated with the earliest stages of star formation. The hidden baby stars were only observed directly when infrared imaging was possible several decades later. [3] Although not the first to see such objects, the astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro were the first to study the spectra of these strange objects in detail and realise that they were not just clumps of gas and dust that reflected light, or glowed under the influence of the ultraviolet light from young stars, but were a new class of objects associated with star formation. More information The science team for VVV includes Dante Minniti (Universidad Catolica, Chile), Phil Lucas (University of Hertfordshire, UK), Ignacio Toledo (Universidad Catolica) and Maren Hempel (Universidad Catolica). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, D

2011-01-01

216

Study of water chlorophyl content in the Venice Lagoon through hyperspectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the HICO Project (http://hico.coas.oregonstate.edu/), a number of radiance and reflectance images of the Venice Lagoon were used to evaluate the possibility of performing quick and reliable mapping of water quality parameters. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO™) is the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer specifically designed to sample the coastal areas, with 128 spectral bands, a 90 m spatial resolution, full spectral coverage (380 to 960 nm sampled at 5.7 nm) and a very high signal-to-noise ratio to resolve the complexity of the coastal ocean. Eutrophication is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. The concentration of chlorophyll-a found in water can be used to trace the abundance of planktonic algae in rivers, lakes or lagoons. The Venice Lagoon, famous worldwide, represents one of the most fragile and vulnerable ecosystems, which is being constantly threatened by factors of stress, both human and natural, such as erosion, presence of urban and agricultural sources of pollution, stress from fishing, pollution produced by the industrial area of Porto Marghera and by the city of Venice itself, downwash of sediments from the hinterland and eutrophication. Traditional methods of water quality estimation are often time consuming and involve periodical sampling and plenty of laboratory analyses. In this study the possibility of using imaging spectroscopy to rapidly obtain raster-based maps of chlorophyll concentration by comparing the results obtained through five different literature bio-optical models, which permit the retrieval of mathematical relations between the water's spectral properties and physicochemical parameters; pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and chlorophyll concentration. Evaluation of performances is achieved by comparing the hyperspectral based maps with maps of kriged concentration values, provided by the Magistrato delle Acque di Venezia (http://www.magisacque.it/sama/sama_monitoraggi1.htm) and collected by the network of SAMANET sensors.

Garfagnoli, Francesca; Bizzaro, Beatrice; Moretti, Sandro

2013-04-01

217

Holocene lagoonal development in the isolated carbonate platforms off Belize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-one vibracores were taken in interior lagoons of Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and Turneffe Islands—three isolated carbonate platforms offshore Belize, Central America. Holocene facies successions overlying the Pleistocene limestone bedrock begin with soils, followed by mangrove peats, and marine carbonate sediments of lagoonal origin. The soils formed on top of subaerially exposed Pleistocene limestone before the Holocene transgression. Mangrove peats developed during initial flooding of the platforms (Glovers ca. 8.5 ky, Lighthouse ca. 7 ky, Turneffe ca. 6 ky BP). As water depths increased, reefs colonized platform margins, lagoonal circulation improved thereby promoting carbonate production. The basal lagoonal carbonate sediments are characterized by shell beds and/or Halimeda packstones-grainstones. Mollusk-dominated wackestones and packstones follow upsection in Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. At present, open circulation prevails in Glovers and Lighthouse lagoons. In contrast, organic-rich Halimeda wackestones and packstones dominate the Turneffe Islands Holocene succession. The main lagoon area of Turneffe is enclosed by mangroves, and restricted circulation prevails. Factors that explain the differences in geomorphology, circulation, and facies are variations in depth of antecedent topography and degree of exposure to waves and currents. The thickness of Holocene lagoon sediments may exceed the maximum core length of 6 m in all atolls. Holocene sedimentation rates average 0.6 m/ky, with highest rates in Turneffe (0.82 m/ky), followed by Lighthouse (0.53 m/ky), and Glovers (0.46 m/ky). Like in many other isolated carbonate platforms and atolls, lagoon floor sedimentation did not keep pace with rising sea level, leading to unfilled accommodation space. At present, Glovers has an 18 m deep lagoon, while Lighthouse and the main Turneffe lagoon are 8 m deep. It is unlikely that the lagoons will be completely filled during the Holocene sea level highstand cycle. This observation should be kept in mind when using cycle thickness as a proxy for eustatic sea level change in fossil carbonate platforms.

Gischler, Eberhard

2003-06-01

218

Comparative Study of Wastewater Lagoon with and without Water Hyacinth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-year study was conducted on an existing, one-cell, facultative sewage lagoon having a total surface area of 3.6 ha and\\u000a receiving a BOD5 loading rate of 44 kglhald (40 Iblald). The comparative experimental periods ran from July through November for 3 consecutive\\u000a years. During the first period, water hyacinths completely covered the lagoon. The water hyacinth coverage was reduced

Rebecca C. Mcdonald; B. C. Wolverton

1980-01-01

219

Hydrodynamic and nutrient modeling in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USEPA WASP5 modeling system was applied to simulate and evaluate the relationships between external and internal nutrient loadings and water quality of Vistonis lagoon, North Greece for a 2-year time period. The hydrodynamic model DYNHYD5 was calibrated to estimate daily lagoon water level. The water quality models TOXI5 and EUTRO5 were calibrated and verified using meteorological data from a

Georgios D. Gikas; Trisevgeni Yiannakopoulou; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis

2009-01-01

220

Salt River Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Humanity's resourcefulness inspired two attempts to draw life out of the desolation of Central Arizona's Salt River Valley over the past 1,500 years. Building over the remains of an irrigation culture left behind by lost Indian tribe, the Hohokam, federal...

R. Autobee

2011-01-01

221

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

222

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

223

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

224

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

225

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-09-28

226

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

227

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

228

Influence of net ecosystem metabolism in transferring riverine organic carbon to atmospheric CO 2 in a tropical coastal lagoon (Chilka Lake, India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the Chilka Lake, Asia’s largest brackish lagoon on the east coast of India,\\u000a revealed, for the first time, strong seasonal and spatial variability associated with salinity distribution. The lake was\\u000a studied twice during May 2005 (premonsoon) and August 2005 (monsoon). It exchanges waters with the sea (Bay of Bengal) and\\u000a several rivers open

G. V. M. Gupta; V. V. S. S. Sarma; R. S. Robin; A. V. Raman; M. Jai Kumar; M. Rakesh; B. R. Subramanian

2008-01-01

229

Second order tidally induced flow in the inlet of a coastal lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current meter data obtained in Indian River Inlet and Indian River Bay, Delaware are analyzed to compute second order low-frequency tidal flow and tidally induced mean flow in the system. Results from least-squares harmonic analysis show that nonlinearly induced M4 currents in the inlet and bay occur at order 10 -1 of the M2 amplitudes, indicating weak nonlinearity in the system. Tidally rectified mean flow computed from Mm and Msf is ˜3 cm s -1, which is of the same order of magnitude as the observed mean current. The estimated low-frequency tidal flow and the tidally induced mean flow agree well with scalings computed for the inlet and with results found by Münchow et al. [Münchow, A., Masse, A.K., Garvine, R.W., 1992. Astronomical and nonlinear tidal currents in a coupled estuary shelf system. Continental Shelf Research 12, 471-498] in Delaware Bay.

Eguiluz, Ana; Wong, Kuo-Chuin

2005-08-01

230

Indian Education Project: An Abridgment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthesizing two priority proposals identified by the Indian Education Project of Michigan, this report outlines a proposal for establishing an Indian Education Center (staffed by American Indians and advised by a University Advisory Committee made up of Indian parents and the Indian community) to meet the needs of Indian students and…

Stevenson, Sharon

231

Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

comparison study between 10 Mediterranean lagoons has been carried out by means of the 3-D numerical model SHYFEM. The investigated basins are the Venice and Marano-Grado lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lesina and Varano lagoons in the Southern Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras Lagoon in Sardinia, the Ganzirri and Faro lagoons in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain, and the Nador Lagoon in Morocco. This study has been focused on hydrodynamics in terms of exchange rates, transport time scale, and mixing. Water exchange depends mainly on the inlet shape and tidal range, but also on the wind regimes in the case of multi-inlet lagoons. Water renewal time, which is mostly determined by the exchange rate, is a powerful concept that allows lagoons to be characterized with a time scale. In the case of the studied lagoons, the renewal time ranged from few days in the Marano-Grado Lagoon up to 1 year in the case of the Mar Menor. The analysis of the renewal time frequency distribution allows identifying subbasins. The numerical study proved to be a useful tool for the intercomparison and classification of the lagoons. These environments range from a leaky type to a choked type of lagoons and give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. Mixing efficiency turns out to be a function of the morphological complexity, but also of the forcings acting on the system.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Bellafiore, Debora; Ghezzo, Michol; Bajo, Marco

2014-04-01

232

Unlocking Indian Maritime Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Indian navy has undergone several periods of expansion in its short history which have signaled significant change in the Indian Ocean region. It is currently undergoing another. This thesis examines the current expansion, and interprets it in light o...

D. Rahn

2006-01-01

233

Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates in a restricted Mediterranean lagoon (Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing were investigated in the restricted Bizerte Lagoon in 2002 and 2004. The\\u000a 2002 study, carried out at one station from January to October, showed significant seasonal variations in phytoplankton dynamics.\\u000a High growth rates (0.9–1.04 day?1), chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations (6.6–6.8 ?g l?1) and carbon biomass (392–398 ?g C l?1) were recorded in summer (July), when several chain-forming diatoms had intensively proliferated and

A. Sakka Hlaili; B. Grami; Hassine Hadj Mabrouk; M. Gosselin; D. Hamel

2007-01-01

234

Response of early Ruppia cirrhosa litter breakdown to nutrient addition in a coastal lagoon affected by agricultural runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of early Ruppia cirrhosa Petagna (Grande) litter decomposition to external nitrogen and phosphorus availability in La Tancada (Ebro River, NE Spain), a coastal lagoon that receives agricultural freshwater runoff from rice fields has been examined. Recently abscised dead R. cirrhosa stems were collected and 25 g of fresh weight was placed in litter bags with a mesh size of 100 ?m and 1 mm. These bags were fertilised by adding nitrogen (N), a mixture of nitrogen plus phosphorus (N + P), or phosphorus (P), or were left untreated (CT). Macroinvertebrates were retrieved from the bags and the ash-free dry weight, and carbon, and N and P content of the remaining plant material were measured after 0, 3, 7, 14, 22 and 32 days. Litter decomposition rates, k (day -1), were estimated using a simple exponential model. Litter decay was clearly accelerated by the addition of P in the fine (100 ?m) litter bags (0.042), but when N was added alone (0.0099) the decomposition rate was lower than in the CT treatments (0.022). No significant difference was observed between the N (0.0099-0.018) and N + P (0.0091-0.015) treatments in either the fine or the coarse (1 mm) litter bags. These results could be attributed to the relatively high availability of external (environmental) and internal (detritus contents) N. No significant effect of macro invertebrates was observed in the CT treatment or under N or P or N + P addition. The ratio between the decomposition rates in coarse and fine litter bags (k c/k f) was lower in disturbed Tancada lagoon (0.82) than in Cesine lagoon (2.11), a similar Mediterranean coastal water body with almost pristine conditions. These results indicate that, in addition to data on macroinvertebrate community structure, decomposition rates could also be used to assess water quality in coastal lagoons.

Menéndez, Margarita

2009-05-01

235

Spreading and autoecology of the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the lagoons of the north-western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, an invasive Rhodophyta recently recorded in the Po Delta lagoons (May 2008), was also found in the Venice lagoon in March 2009 and successively in Pialassa della Baiona (Emilia-Romagna Region) in May 2009. The species has colonized the eutrophic and confined areas of Venice by pleustophytic tangled populations (5-15 kg fwt m-2), replacing the allochthonous species whereas it is absent in the areas characterized by low nutrient availability and high water exchange. In contrast, in the Po Delta lagoons and in Pialassa della Baiona it is present everywhere, also with high water renewal, because of the eutrophication caused by the Po river and the industrial area of Ravenna. This study presents the autoecology and distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the above environments, according to their different eutrophication status, showing its relationship with physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in water column, pore-water, surface sediments and particulate matter collected by traps in a station of the Venice lagoon (Teneri) sampled monthly during one year. Furthermore, we give new information on its morphology and the high dimorphism between female and male gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.

Sfriso, A.; Wolf, M. A.; Maistro, S.; Sciuto, K.; Moro, I.

2012-12-01

236

Nevada Indians Speak.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anthology presents Indian works which reflect the attitudes of the native Indian people of the State of Nevada, commencing with the possible first White-Indian contact in the 1820's when Anglo American fur trappers and Mexican traders entered the Great Basin. The writer points out in the Preface that no effort has been made to exclude native…

Forbes, Jack D., Ed.

237

National Indian Education Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

Harvey, Karen Kay

2006-01-01

238

American Indian Language Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for the National Center for Bilingual Research, the document provides information on the "state of the art" in American Indian language education and presents a full picture of the situation exploring concepts (e.g., self-determination, Indian language diversity) and concerns (e.g., tribal reluctance to see Indian language instruction…

Leap, William

239

Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

Wilson, James

240

Big Lagoon Wetland and Creek Restoration Project. Part II. Feasibility Analysis Report, February 27, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Park Service (NPS), in collaboration with Marin County and the San Francisco Zen Center, is developing conceptual restoration design alternatives for the project site known as Big Lagoon. The Big Lagoon site includes the wetlands, floodplain,...

2004-01-01

241

Clam farming generates CO2: A study case in the Marinetta lagoon (Italy).  

PubMed

Respiration and calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) production by the farmed short-neck clam Ruditapes philippinarum were calculated to assess their importance as carbon dioxide (CO(2)) sink/source in a lagoon of the Po Delta River (Italy). Biomass and calcimass were established by monthly harvests during a 1-year period (2009). The ratio of CO(2) released to CaCO(3) precipitated was calculated as a function of the near-bottom temperature. From our estimates, R. philippinarum sequestered [Formula: see text] for shell formation, but the CO(2) fluxes due to respiration and calcification resulted 22.7 and 5.56 [Formula: see text] , respectively. Clam farming seems therefore to be a significant additional source of CO(2) to seawater. PMID:22846887

Mistri, Michele; Munari, Cristina

2012-10-01

242

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

243

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

1997-01-01

244

Dynamic modelling of nitrification in an aerated facultative lagoon.  

PubMed

Faced with the need to improve ammonia removal from lagoon wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated in Quebec, Canada, mechanistic modelling has been proposed as a tool for explaining the seasonal nitrification phenomenon and to evaluate optimization and upgrade scenarios. A lagoon model that includes a modified activated sludge biokinetic model and that assumes completely mixed conditions in the water column and sediments has been applied to simulate 3 years of consecutive effluent data for a lagoon from the Drummondville WWTP. Successful prediction of results from this plant indicates that the seasonal nitrification is determined by temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the water column and washout driven by a well-mixed water column. Results also indicate that sediments contribute to the ammonia load in the lagoon effluent, particularly in spring and early summer. Sensitivity analyses performed with the model indicate that the nitrification period could be prolonged by increasing DO concentrations in the lagoon and that bioaugmentation would be particularly effective in spring and early summer. Limitations of the model are discussed, as well as ways to improve the hydraulic model. PMID:17689585

Houweling, Dwight; Kharoune, Lynda; Escalas, Antoni; Comeau, Yves

2008-01-01

245

Geochemical characterization of seaplane lagoon sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station  

SciTech Connect

Our objective in the characterization of sediments from Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station (NAS) was to determine the geochemical interactions that control the partitioning of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc between the sediments and the porewaters. Our approach was to collect several cores at the east outfall location of the Seaplane Lagoon. We determined the porewater chemistry by (1) making in situ micro-electrode measurements, (2) extracting porewaters, and (3) modeling geochemical reactions. We determined the sediment chemistry by measuring (1) elemental abundance, (2) mineralogy, and (3) trace-element speciation. This information should help the US Navy determine the long-term hazard of the sediments if they are left in place and the short-term hazard if they are dredged. We did not fully examine the geochemistry of sediments from the West Beach Landfill Wetlands site, because these sediments were distinct from the Seaplane Lagoon sediments. Our initial motivation for studying the Landfill Wetlands site was to determine the trace-element geochemistry in Seaplane Lagoon sediments that had been dredged and then disposed in the Landfill Wetlands. Unfortunately, the location of these dredged sediments is unknown. The cores we sampled were not from the Seaplane Lagoon.

Bono, A; Carroll, S; Esser, B; Luther, G W; O'Day, P; Randall, S

1999-08-16

246

Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm\\/day to 2.4 mm\\/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm\\/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N),

J. M. Ham; T. M. DeSutter

2001-01-01

247

Recent contamination of mercury in an estuarine environment (Marano lagoon, Northern Adriatic, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marano Lagoon, in the northern Adriatic Sea (Italy), has been affected by mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial and mining activities. It has been estimated that 186,000 kg of Hg were deliberately discharged into the main drainage system (Aussa-Corno River) by a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) from 1940s to 1984. The lagoon has also experienced a secondary long-term Hg input, originated from mining activity in Idrija (Slovenia), due to the supply of fluvial suspended particles carried by the Isonzo River in the Gulf of Trieste. Since local fishing activities are extensively conducted, there is great concern on the risk posed by potentially harmful effects of Hg to the trophic chain. Present inputs of this metal, both in dissolved (52.4-4.1 ng L -1) and particulate (130.8-3.4 ng L -1) phases, were preliminary investigated in the water column. Although direct discharge of Hg from the CAP no longer exists, the metal is still released from the source area into freshwaters, and its distribution and abundance is controlled by the salt-wedge circulation system, which is tide-influenced. Remobilization from bottom sediments can also be a secondary source of Hg into the aquatic environment. A speciation technique, used to investigate the main binding sites and phase associations of Hg in sediments (5.69-0.82 ?g g -1), evidenced the presence of mobile (1.8-11%) and potentially available species for methylation processes. The results are particularly important if related to resuspension effects caused by natural events and anthropogenic activities. Preliminary considerations on Hg behaviour in this estuarine environment are reported.

Covelli, Stefano; Acquavita, Alessandro; Piani, Raffaella; Predonzani, Sergio; De Vittor, Cinzia

2009-04-01

248

Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the conference examining the processes responsible for the development of the river breaching from the initial stages to a wide-open river flow and subsequent closure.

Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.

2012-12-01

249

A water-quality model for the Lagoon of Venice, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-quality model for the Lagoon of Venice is proposed. The model is based on the results of an existing, deterministic, hydraulic-dispersive model of the Lagoon to provide the distribution of salinity and residence time in the Lagoon of Venice. This model has been implemented by Magistrato alle Acque di Venezia and Consorzio Venezia Nuova to evaluate the environmental impact

Giuseppe Bendoricchio; Gabriella De Boni

2005-01-01

250

The control of nitrate and ammonium concentrations in a coral reef lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

One Tree Reef lagoon is surrounded by an emergent rim which restricts exchange between lagoonal waters and the surrounding ocean. For this reason, the loss rate of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) through mixing processes is slow in the central lagoon compared to rates of advective input, uptake, regeneration and loss to the atmosphere. We present some hypotheses concerning the importance

Annamarie I. Hatcher; Carol A. Frith

1985-01-01

251

Seagrasses and sediment response to the changing physical forcing in a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria de Aveiro is an estuary - coastal lagoon system connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a channel with a cross-sectional area that has steadily increased over more than one century. Local ocean tides, with amplitudes of 1-3 m, are today transmitted to the lagoon by the single, engineered inlet channel and propagate to the end of the lagoon

J. Figueiredo da Silva; R. W. Duck; M. J. Pereira; J. B. Catarino

2003-01-01

252

THE BIOLOGY OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON: A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SHELTER FROM WAVE ACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of the Saldanha Bay-Langebaan Lagoon system are described and it is shown that there are graded changes in wave action, substratum, temperature and salinity between the bay and the head of the lagoon. None the less the lagoon is not an estuary but a sheltered inlet of the sea.Two transects of rocky shores and four transects of

J. H. Day

1959-01-01

253

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dolphin glides through the water looking for fish in the turn basin, which is located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. Dolphins inhabit the waters, known as the Indian River Lagoon, around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

254

WISCONSIN INDIAN HUNTING PATTERNS, 1634–1836  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wisconsin's Native Americans (1634–1836) hunted for subsistence and for the fur trade. Major river valleys within the broad forest-oak savanna ecotone were preferred hunting destinations. Locations of specific family or tribal hunting grounds often changed, however, because of population migrations or opportunism of individual hunters. Indian use of wildlife for the fur trade reflected the price of pelts, species'fertility, and

JEANNE KAY

1979-01-01

255

Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

1995-06-01

256

Sediment biogeochemical differences in two pristine Mediterranean coastal lagoons (in Italy) characterized by different phanerogam dominance-A comparative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate functional differences in two Italian coastal lagoons (Caprolace and Fogliano, Tyrrhenian Sea) characterized by the dominance of two different seagrass species: Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson in the Caprolace lagoon and Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande in the Fogliano lagoon. 2. A monitoring system was set up in both lagoons in order to (i)

A. SIGNORINI; G. MASSINI; G. MIGLIORE; M. TOSONI; C. VARRONE; G. IZZO

2008-01-01

257

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.  

PubMed

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

258

Fisheries habitat evaluation in tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Annual report, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1987 the Northwest Power Planning Council amended the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, directing the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund, ''a baseline stream survey of tributaries located on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation...

K. L. Lillengreen T. Skillingstad A. T. Scholz

1993-01-01

259

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, INDIAN CREEK (CANYON COUNTY), IDAHO 1976-1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian Creek drainage (17050114) is located in the Boise River Basin of Southwest Idaho. This study was concerned with the portion of Indian Creek near the Nampa and Caldwell urban areas. Major land uses in the area are associated with urban development and irrigated agricu...

260

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

261

Indian River School District Science Curriculum Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph includes guidelines for science courses in grades seven, eight, and nine, and for biology, chemistry and physics. Seventh grade Environmental Life Science is lab-oriented and based on a variety of student experiences. Course objectives are presented as well as the course outline. A multitext approach, with a suggested textbook list,…

Banks, Dennis E.; And Others

262

48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

2013-10-01

263

76 FR 80347 - Applications for New Awards; Indian Education-Demonstration Grants for Indian Children  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Awards; Indian Education--Demonstration Grants for Indian Children AGENCY: Office...Information: Indian Education--Demonstration Grants for Indian Children Notice inviting...under the Indian Education--Demonstration Grants for Indian Children program, CFDA...

2011-12-23

264

Spatio-temporal variation of CO2 emission from Chilika Lake, a tropical coastal lagoon, on the east coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical Carbon cycling was studied in Asia's largest brackish lagoon, Chilika on the east coast of India. Systematic time-series observations were made at 35 hydrologically different stations over the entire lagoon. The first of these kinds of measurements reveal, inter and intra annual variability of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). A comparative analysis of pCO2, CO2 flux over four years (2005, 2009, 2010 and 2011) showed that the northern part of the lagoon maintained the highest levels of pCO2, with maximum CO2 efflux to the atmosphere associated with peak monsoon period. The high pCO2 corresponded to a significant decrease in pH (˜0.8) from the low to high flow periods. Higher bacterial abundance (1.55 ± 0.28 × 109 cells L-1) and bacterial respiration (185.31 ± 105.37 ?g C L-1 d-1), suggested high levels of organic carbon decomposition during the high flow period. In contrast, the southern sector was least affected by river discharge, with low pCO2 values and CO2 flux as in the dry period. The central part and outer channel of the lagoon had intermediate characteristics. During high flow, the air-water CO2 flux from the entire lagoon was estimated to be 31.2 mol C m-2 y-1, which was comparatively very high with respect to the mean CO2 emission from the entire subtropical and tropical estuaries. Highest CO2 flux (65.98 mol C m-2 y-1) was observed in the northern sector, followed by the outer channel (17.61 mol C m-2 y-1), central sector (15.69 mol C m-2 y-1) and southern sector (14.44 mol C m-2 y-1). The northern part of Chilika lagoon being an important river-influenced region was responsible for the biological transformation of organic carbon to inorganic carbon and emitting CO2 to the atmosphere. Such a sectoral approach would reveal zonal influences of CO2 within a water body along with conditions leading to sink or a source.

Muduli, Pradipta R.; Kanuri, Vishnu Vardhan; Robin, R. S.; Charan Kumar, B.; Patra, Sivaji; Raman, A. V.; Nageswarara Rao, G.; Subramanian, B. R.

2012-11-01

265

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

266

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

267

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

268

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

269

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

270

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

271

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

272

75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February...

2010-02-23

273

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

274

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

275

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

276

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

277

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

278

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

279

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

280

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

281

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

282

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

283

78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs...

2013-07-23

284

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

285

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

286

Benthic Primary Production Budget of a Caribbean Reef Lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico)  

PubMed Central

High photosynthetic benthic primary production (P) represents a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reef systems. However, benthic P budgets of specific ecosystem compartments such as macrophyte-dominated reef lagoons are still scarce. To address this, we quantified individual and lagoon-wide net (Pn) and gross (Pg) primary production by all dominant functional groups of benthic primary producers in a typical macrophyte-dominated Caribbean reef lagoon near Puerto Morelos (Mexico) via measurement of O2 fluxes in incubation experiments. The photosynthetically active 3D lagoon surface area was quantified using conversion factors to allow extrapolation to lagoon-wide P budgets. Findings revealed that lagoon 2D benthic cover was primarily composed of sand-associated microphytobenthos (40%), seagrasses (29%) and macroalgae (27%), while seagrasses dominated the lagoon 3D surface area (84%). Individual Pg was highest for macroalgae and scleractinian corals (87 and 86 mmol O2 m?2 specimen area d?1, respectively), however seagrasses contributed highest (59%) to the lagoon-wide Pg. Macroalgae exhibited highest individual Pn rates, but seagrasses generated the largest fraction (51%) of lagoon-wide Pn. Individual R was highest for scleractinian corals and macroalgae, whereas seagrasses again provided the major lagoon-wide share (68%). These findings characterise the investigated lagoon as a net autotrophic coral reef ecosystem compartment revealing similar P compared to other macrophyte-dominated coastal environments such as seagrass meadows and macroalgae beds. Further, high lagoon-wide P (Pg: 488 and Pn: 181 mmol O2 m?2 lagoon area d?1) and overall Pg:R (1.6) indicate substantial benthic excess production within the Puerto Morelos reef lagoon and suggest the export of newly synthesised organic matter to surrounding ecosystems.

Naumann, Malik S.; Jantzen, Carin; Haas, Andreas F.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Wild, Christian

2013-01-01

287

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose

V. E. Noshkin

1997-01-01

288

Distributional patterns of fishes in an Alaskan Arctic Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summer, the fish community of Simpson Lagoon and adjacent coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea was dominated by two marine species (Arctic cod, fourhorn sculpin) and three anadromous species (Arctic and least cisco, Arctic char). The anadromous species remained in the relatively warm and brackish waters near shore and demonstrated an affinity for shoreline edges, particularly the mainland shoreline

P. C. Craig; W. B. Griffiths; L. Haldorson; H. McElderry

1985-01-01

289

DISTRIBUTION OF RECENT SEDIMENTS IN SALDANHA BAY AND LANGEBAAN LAGOON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment distribution in Saldanha Bay is wave controlled and can be related to the energy levels created by the refraction pattern. Four energy zones are distinguished in the inner bay: a centrally exposed zone, two marginal semi-exposed zones, a sheltered zone in the north and a bay\\/lagoon transitional zone in the south. Sediment is supplied on the abrasion platform of

B. W. Flemming

1977-01-01

290

Wastewater Stabilization Lagoon Effluent Upgrading with Modified Intermittent Sand Filters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field studies were performed to evaluate the use of intermittent sand filters (ISF) modified with an overlay of corn stalk residue for upgrading wastewater lagoon effluent. An unmodified control filter was also evaluated. Hydraulic loading of 4700 m3/ha-d...

D. E. Modesitt G. W. Shaffer

1982-01-01

291

LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS AND AMPHIBIAN DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations and Amphibian Development. Dumont, J. N.* and Slagle, S., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, and Hutchins, S. R., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NRMRL/SPRD), Ada, OK. There is some evidence that confined anima...

292

A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

293

WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

294

Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

1987-05-01

295

Fuzzy prediction of the algal blooms in the Orbetello lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orbetello lagoon is a shallow brackish waterbody subject to intense and diverse eutrophication (phytoplankton, macroalgae and macrophytes). Periodically a large amount of algae must be artificially removed, their collection and disposal representing a considerable management cost. This paper describes the design of a bloom predictor based on the daily fluctuations of simple water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen,

Stefano Marsili-libelli

2004-01-01

296

Performance Evaluation of an Existing Seven Cell Lagoon System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the l...

C. A. Macko E. J. Middlebrooks J. H. Reynolds R. E. Swiss

1977-01-01

297

The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

Bunge, Robert P.

1978-01-01

298

Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to <2% compared to 53% in winter. Four Hg-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 ?g ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation. However, during winter, Hg-resistant bacteria that are capable of degrading MeHg via the mer-catalyzed reductive pathway increase in importance.

Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

2012-11-01

299

Dissolved and particulate heavy metals distribution in coastal lagoons. A case study from Mar Chiquita Lagoon, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon is located on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, and it has been declared a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB). This coastal lagoon constitutes an estuarine environment with a very particular behaviour and it is ecologically important due to its biological diversity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution and geochemical behaviour of several heavy metals in this coastal system, focusing on their distribution in both the dissolved phase (<0.45 ?m) and the suspended particulate matter. Therefore, the general hydrochemical parameters (salinity, temperature, turbidity, pH and dissolved oxygen) and concentration of total particulate and dissolved metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cr and Mn) were measured along 2 years (2004-2006) at two different sites. As regards their distribution, hydrological parameters did not present any evidence of deviation with respect to historical values. Suspended particulate matter showed no seasonal variation or any relationship with the tide, thus indicating that in this shallow coastal lagoon neither tides nor freshwater sources regulate the particulate matter input. Heavy metals behaviour, both in dissolved and particulate phases did not reveal any relationship with tide or seasons. Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon showed a large input of dissolved and particulate metals, which is probably due to intensive agriculture within the drainage basin of this system.

Beltrame, María Ornela; De Marco, Silvia G.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

2009-10-01

300

Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian has a beautiful online exhibit, Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian which is meant to accompany the in situ exhibition in Washington D.C. and New York. Scholder's work is the subject of much debate in the world of Native Art, as his work has no obvious Native American imagery in it and he oftentimes denied he was Native American. By clicking on "Biography" near the top of the page, a list of links, "The Early Years", "The IAIA Years", and "The 70s and After" will appear. Below these links a clickable timeline also appears which advances when rolled over with the mouse. Another way to get an introduction to Scholder's life and the exhibit is to click on the "Podcasts" link near the top of the page. The first podcast listed is "Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian". Visitors should also not miss looking at his bold and sometimes disturbing paintings and sculptures, under the "Works" tab near the top of the page. They can be viewed by either D.C. or New York displays, as well as by "Curator's Choice", which is the default view. Each piece of work is also accompanied by commentary offered by the curators. Just click on the artwork, and under the bottom right hand corner of the image is a speaker to click on, complete with the name of the curator doing the commentary.

2008-01-01

301

75 FR 12686 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bullards Ferry Bridge, Coquille River, Bandon, OR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...effect on one or more Indian tribes, on the relationship between...Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution of...Federal Government and Indian tribes. Energy Effects We have analyzed...follows: Sec. 117.876T Coquille River. The draws of the...

2010-03-17

302

Indians of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

303

Indian Ocean Geopolitics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strong deterrent and stability in the Indian Ocean is the obscure island of Diego Garcia in the middle of the Indian Ocean. It sits astride all of the oil lanes to and from the Persian Gulf, the major source of oil. Diego Gracia is now a small naval com...

J. H. Hayes

1975-01-01

304

The Tarascan Indian House.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan introduces K-grade three students to Mexican Indian architecture. Students will become familiar with the cultural context of the Indian treasure house; discuss the use of wood as the sole building material; compare the treasure house with present day structures; and create miniature treasure houses using wood materials. (GEA)

Quinn, Joyce

1989-01-01

305

Exploration strategy in Keg River carbonates of northwestern Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of reservoir quality and seal capacity of the Middle Devonian Keg River carbonate reservoirs in northwestern Alberta requires facies studies of rock units of the Keg River Formation and of the overlying Muskeg and Sulphur Point formations. Using lithologic criteria, faunal type, and stratigraphic positions, the entire sequence is subdivided into ten major facies. The system used is that of standard facies belts with second-order modification to Wilson's terminology. These facies are (from basin to land): basin, open sea shelf, toe of slope, foreslope, organic buildup, shoal lime sand, open lagoon, restricted lagoon, tidal flats, and sabkha evaporites. The upper member of the Keg River Formation is the main hydrocarbon reservoir in the study area. It consists of floatstone, rudstone, and boundstone with wackestone, packstone, and grainstone matrix. The principal faunal constituents are crinoids, brachiopods, stromatoporoids, corals, and stachyodes. The reservoir porosity is of primary intergranular and intragranular and secondary vugular textures. The upper Keg River member is composed of two major facies: patch reefs and banks. Both facies are formed in an open lagoon environment fronted by Presqu'ile barrier to the west-northwest. Water depth was the main factor in controlling the distribution of the bank and patch reef facies. Patch reefs were developed in areas of deeper water, whereas banks were formed in shallower areas of the open lagoon. Recent analogs of the Keg River buildups are found on the Bermuda Platform and Belize Shelf. A direct relationship exists between the thickness of overlying anhydrites of the Muskeg Formation and hydrocarbon occurrences in the Keg River Formation. Generally in areas where patch reefs are developed, the thickness of the anhydrite is more than 30 ft. However, areas of bank are covered by less than 30 ft of anhydrite.

Majid, A.H.

1987-05-01

306

Indian Heritage: A Selected Book List for All Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book list, a sampling of resources from the Denver Public Library, pertains to the Indians of North America, especially those west of the Mississippi River. The annotated list is divided into two main parts: "Adult and Young Adult Books, Films, and Records" and "Children's Books, Films, and Records." The bulk of the list is adult and young…

Denver Public Library, CO.

307

Salinity and eutrophication management by in situ continuous real-time monitoring and 3D modelling (hydrodynamics coupled with water quality): the case of the Berre lagoon (Mediterranean, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berre lagoon is one of the biggest Mediterranean lagoon. It is located in the South East of France. It's a shallow semi-confined ecosystem (mean depth 6.5 m, depths greater than 8 m being restricted in the central and South parts). Its only connection to the Mediterranean Sea is the Caronte channel in the South West which allows tidal-driven water exchanges. The lagoon receives fresh water and nutrients from natural tributaries (Arc and Touloubre rivers) that drain high anthropised catchment basins. Moreover, a hydroelectric power plant became the main tributary of the lagoon since 1966: it discharged a mean of 3.3 x109 m3 of fresh water per year (equivalent to 3.4 times the volume of the lagoon) and a mean of 525 000 tons of suspended matter per year, during the period 1966 - 1993. As a consequence, the Berre lagoon became particularly unstable, showing considerable salinity drop and variations (2 to 30) depending on seasonal electricity needs. Nutrients loads by both anthropised rivers and power plant led to frequent colored waters and development of macroalgae. Haline stratification favored anoxia and led to benthos disappearance. Changes were observed in Zostera sp. meadows too. In 2004, the European Court of Justice condemned the French State for not respecting the Athens Protocol (advocating Mediterranean protection against telluric pollution) and requested managing strategies. The hydroelectric power plant (Electricité de France EDF) is not allowed from now on to discharge more than 1.2 x109 m3 of fresh water per year. Besides, EDF has to respect severe salinity constraints favorable to the establishment of a balanced ecosystem. In this context, EDF started an in situ continuous monitoring of the lagoon: CTD probes have been installed at 10 stations and currents have been measured in the Caronte channel. Moreover, the three central buoys have been real time remote transmitting to control instantaneously the impact of fresh water discharge on salinity. Since 2008, these three buoys have been also equipped with nitrate, chlorophyll and oxygen probes. Thanks to these measurements, a 3D hydrodynamic model (TELEMAC©) has been developped and validated to better qualify and quantify the relationships between the salinity of the lagoon, the fresh water inputs (from the powerplant and from the rivers), the water exchanges through the Caronte channel and the wind mixing. This model is currently used by the electricity producer to manage fresh water discharges complying with salinity indicators fixed by the European Court of Justice. Then, a biogeochemical model (DelWAQ©) coupled with the hydrodynamic model has been developped to understand the ecosystem functioning and to assess the hydroelectric powerplant implication in the eutrophication of the lagoon. Simulations reproduce quite well: 1/ the seasonal variations of nutrients, 2/ biogeochemical processes, 3/ anoxia events in connection with stratification periods at deep stations and 4/ are able to calculate nutrients budgets over a year. The results show that high primary production rates are based on high dynamical mineralization processes. The allochtonous nutrients sources are not sufficient to feed the phytoplanktonic demand (less than 1%). This models coupling is the only way to compile the physical and biogeochemical variables and processes. It's a tool aiming at a better assessment of the high complexity of the lagoon nutrients cycles. It will help us to understand the powerplant implication for the eutrophication with respect to the anthropised rivers. Moreover we would be able to test various managing scenarii (e.g. drop of nutrients loads) and to suggest new rehabilitation strategies.

Martin, Laurent; Emma, Gouze

2010-05-01

308

The American Indian Development Bank?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

Pottinger, Richard

1992-01-01

309

Storytelling the American Indian Way.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the storytelling program at the Department of American Indian Studies, San Diego State University, which has involved Indian elders and storytellers, students, and both Indian and non-Indian children and adults from the local community. Includes a Wyandot tale that warns against jealousy, bitterness, and revenge. (SV)

Trafzer, Clifford E.

1989-01-01

310

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

311

Photosynthetic pigments of Zoster a noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa in some Albanian lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the coastal lagoons of Adriatic Sea Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa are plants with seeds and flowers, that colonizes the sandy bottom of lagoons. They are capable to produce oxygen with very weak light. Characterization of photosynthetic pigments of eelgrass Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa, were performed during the period 2002-2008 in some Adriatic lagoons: Kune-Vaini, Patog, Karavasta and Narta. Dynamics of chlorophylls and carotenoids during the vegetation period of these plants were characterized. As a result, the chlorophyll content of Zoostera noltii taken from the Kune- Vain lagoon is higher than at plants collected from the other lagoons. The photosynthetic pigment content of the Zostera noltii plants is higher than of Ruppia cirrhosa. The differences on the distribution of these species in the analyzed lagoons are represented in this presentation.

Ylli, Arjana; Babani, Fatbardha; Stamo, Iliriana

2010-01-01

312

Statistical Evaluation of Environmental Contamination, Distribution and Source Assessment of Heavy Metals (Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury) in Some Lagoons and an Estuary Along the Coastal Belt of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental pollution investigation was carried out to determine the concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium\\u000a (Cd), and mercury (Hg) (heavy metals) in the surface water and river water bed sediments of lagoons and estuaries along the\\u000a coastal belt of Ghana. The study assessed the environmental pollution situation and evaluated their sources and distribution\\u000a of these metals. The total

C. K. Adokoh; E. A. Obodai; D. K. Essumang; Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; A. Asabere-Ameyaw

313

Factors structuring temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities in a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal).  

PubMed

The present work aimed to identify the main environmental drivers shaping temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities within a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Sediments in the Óbidos lagoon showed a gradient of increasing metal contamination from the inlet area to inner branches. The mid-lower lagoon area exhibited an intermediate contaminated condition between the inlet and upstream areas, suggesting that the effects of the organic loadings into the lagoon may be reflected until this area. This transitional feature was corroborated by biological data, with macrobenthic assemblages displaying characteristics of down- and upstream areas. Macrobenthic abundance peaked in winter, which was associated with a higher nutrient availability (mainly ammonium) and the proliferation of green macroalgae in mid-lower and inner lagoon areas. However, massive macroalgae growth resulted in a sharp decrease of macrobenthic diversity and abundance in spring, particularly where the higher amounts of decaying algae were detected. Higher dissimilarities between assemblages were detected during winter (and spring, for trophic composition), while in summer, differences were highly attenuated. The least contaminated area (close to the sea inlet) experienced smaller temporal variations for environmental variables, as well as the lowest temporal biological variability. This area was dominated by carnivores, which were related with increased salinity. Deposit-feeders were numerically dominant in the lagoon, being generally spread within organically enriched sandy and muddy areas. The high concentration of chlorophyll a and suspended particulate matter in water was reflected in the abundance of deposit-feeders/suspension-feeders, taking benefit of the high primary productivity. On the other hand, deposit-feeders/herbivores responded to the decay of macroalgae mats in the sediment. Biological associations varied with the biological data used (taxonomic versus trophic group composition; abundance versus biomass), highlighting the relevance of the combination of different data analysis' approaches. In general, BIOENV analysis indicated total phosphorus, biomass of Ulva, metals and organic carbon and nitrogen as being significantly influencing benthic patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies in ecological behaviours of some taxa were also detected in the present study stressing the need for additional studies on the relationships between macrobenthic communities and environmental variables. Implications of the present results for monitoring studies are discussed. PMID:21236484

Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Patrícia; Pereira, Fábio; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Gaspar, Miguel B

2011-03-01

314

Status of the Mussel Fauna of the Poteau River and Implications for Commercial Harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Poteau River, a major tributary of the Arkansas River, flows through the Ouachita Uplands of eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas. The river has been harvested for mussels, historically by the Caddo Indians and recently for the pearl industry. We documented the current distribution and abundance of mussels in the river, compared this with historical distributions and examined whether the

CARYN C. VAUGHN; DANIEL E. SPOONER

2004-01-01

315

Estimation of bottom ammonium affinity in the New Caledonia lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonium affinity of New Caledonia lagoon benthic communities was measured during the course of 33 in situ enrichment experiments, in order to estimate the contribution of benthos to ammonium fluxes. Ammonium chloride was injected into enclosures pushed into the sediment, in order to obtain a concentration of 20 22 ?mol l-1 in the enclosed water which approximated the interstitial water content. Ammonium kinetic uptake was then followed for two hours. Grey-sand bottom displayed the highest affinity for ammonium, but white-sand and muddy bottom affinity was of the same order of magnitude. Macrophytes, and microphytes (when macrophytes are absent), account for the bulk of ammonium bottom uptake. As a result, grey-sand bottoms with their dense macrophyte cover represent a sink for water column nitrogen and play a key role in nutrient cycling of the lagoon.

Boucher, G.; Clavier, J.; Garrigue, C.

1994-01-01

316

An integrated physical and biological model for anaerobic lagoons.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k-? model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function of temperature. A test of the model applicability is conducted in a covered lagoon digester operated under tropical climate conditions. The commercial CFD software, ANSYS-Fluent, is employed to solve the integrated model. The simulation procedures include solving fluid flow and heat transfer, predicting local resident time based on the converged flow fields, and calculating the BOD reduction and methane production. The simulated results show that monthly methane production varies insignificantly, but the time to achieve a 99% BOD reduction in January is much longer than that in July. PMID:21339067

Wu, Binxin; Chen, Zhenbin

2011-04-01

317

Prokaryotic diversity in one of the largest hypersaline coastal lagoons in the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Araruama Lagoon is an environment characterized by high salt concentrations. The low raining and high evaporation rates in\\u000a this region favored the development of many salty ponds around the lagoon. In order to reveal the microbial composition of\\u000a this system, we performed a 16S rRNA gene survey. Among archaea, most clones were related to uncultured environmental Euryarchaeota.\\u000a In lagoon water,

M. M. Clementino; R. P. Vieira; A. M. Cardoso; A. P. A. Nascimento; C. B. Silveira; T. C. Riva; A. S. M. Gonzalez; R. Paranhos; R. M. Albano; A. Ventosa; O. B. Martins

2008-01-01

318

Hydrological characteristics of three North African coastal lagoons: insights from the MELMARINA project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological and hydrodynamic characteristics are important controls in all wetlands including coastal lagoons. Enhanced understanding\\u000a of lagoon functioning can be obtained through the acquisition and interpretation of hydrological, meteorological and related\\u000a data. The MELMARINA Project investigated links between hydrological and ecological conditions within North African coastal\\u000a lagoons. It employed three primary sites: Merja Zerga in Morocco, Ghar El Melh in

J. R. Thompson; R. J. Flower; M. Ramdani; F. Ayache; M. H. Ahmed; E. K. Rasmussen; O. S. Petersen

2009-01-01

319

Hatching rhythms and dispersion of decapod crustacean larvae in a brackish coastal lagoon in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mar Chiquita, a brackish coastal lagoon in central Argentina, is inhabited by dense populations of two intertidal grapsid\\u000a crab species,Cyrtograpsus angulatus andChasmagnathus granulata. During a preliminary one-year study and a subsequent intensive sampling programme (November–December 1992), the physical\\u000a properties and the occurrence of decapod crustacean larvae in the surface water of the lagoon were investigated. The lagoon\\u000a is characterized by

K. Anger; E. Spivak; C. Bas; D. Ismael; T. Luppi

1994-01-01

320

Modeling Interaction of Fluid and Salt in an Aquifer\\/Lagoon System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to simulate the dynamic interaction between a saline lagoon and a ground water system, a numerical model for two-dimensional, variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, coupled flow and solute transport (SIFEC) was modified to allow the volume of water and mass of salt in the lagoon to vary with each time step. The modified SIFEC allows the stage of a lagoon to

Katsuyuki Fujinawa; Takahiro Iba; Yohichi Fujihara; Tsugihiro Watanabe

2009-01-01

321

Indian concepts on sexuality  

PubMed Central

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

322

[Indian workers in Oman].  

PubMed

Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable savings. Working and living conditions are difficult: the hours are long, the weather is hot, housing conditions are primitive and provide no relief from the heat, the food supply is the minimum required, and almost no diversions are available. There are no unions even among Omani workers, and troublemakers are quickly repatriated. The Indian embassy occasionally intercedes for workers, brief work stoppages may occur if pay is delayed, and some conflicts are settled individually. Resistence among Indian workers may take less visible forms, especially absenteeism and requests for leave. PMID:12280376

Longuenesse, E

1985-01-01

323

Comparative study of wastewater lagoon with and without water hyacinth  

SciTech Connect

A facultative sewage lagoon completely covered with water hyacinths had significant improvement in effluent quality. BOD 5 and total suspended solids (TSS) were 23 and b mg/L respectively. Without water hyacinths, the effluent BOD5 and TSS were 52 and 77 mg/L, respectively. The effluent total organic C concentration was reduced from 72 to 40 mg/L with water hyacinth coverage.

McDonald, R.C.; Wolverton, B.C.

1980-01-01

324

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Venice Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sediment cores were collected in the Venice Lagoon: two from mud flats (E, F) and one from the San Giuliano Canal (I1), which borders the industrial district. Samples were analysed for the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants by the U.S. EPA. Sediment chronologies were established using both 137Cs and 210Pb activity-depth profiles, and confirmed by

M. Frignani; L. G. Bellucci; M. Favotto; S. Albertazzi

2003-01-01

325

Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons  

SciTech Connect

An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

1999-11-01

326

Isolation of Salmonella Bacteriophages from Swine Effluent Lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophages (phages) associated with Salmonella were collect- ed from nine swine manure lagoons in Mississippi. Phages were isolated by an enrichment protocol or directly from effluent. For enrichment, chloroform-treated samples were filtered (0.22 mm) and selectively enriched by adding a cocktail of Salmonella strains in trypticase soy broth. After overnight incubation at 35C, chloroform was added and samples stored at

M. R. McLaughlin; M. F. Balaa; J. Sims; R. King

2006-01-01

327

Benthic nutrient remineralization in a coastal lagoon ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ measurements of the exchange of ammonia, nitrate plus nitrite, phosphate, and dissolved organic phosphorus between sediments\\u000a and the overlying water column were made in a shallow coastal lagoon on the ocean coast of Rhode Island, U.S.A. The release\\u000a of ammonia from mud sediments in the dark (20–440 ?mol per m2 per h) averaged ten times higher than from

Barbara L. Nowicki; Scott W. Nixon

1985-01-01

328

Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

1985-02-01

329

A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments.  

PubMed

A sampler was needed for a spatial and temporal study of microbial and chemical stratification in a large swine manure lagoon that was known to contain zoonotic bacteria. Conventional samplers were limited to collections of surface water samples near the bank or required a manned boat. A new sampler was developed to allow simultaneous collection of multiple samples at different depths, up to 2.3 m, without a manned boat. The sampler was tethered for stability, used remote control (RC) for sample collection, and accommodated rapid replacement of sterile tubing modules and sample containers. The sampler comprised a PVC pontoon with acrylic deck and watertight enclosures, for a 12 VDC gearmotor, to operate the collection module, and vacuum system, to draw samples into reusable autoclavable tubing and 250-mL bottles. Although designed primarily for water samples, the sampler was easily modified to collect sludge. The sampler held a stable position during deployment, created minimal disturbance in the water column, and was readily cleaned and sanitized for transport. The sampler was field tested initially in a shallow fresh water lake and subsequently in a swine manure treatment lagoon. Analyses of water samples from the lagoon tests showed that chemical and bacterial levels, pH, and EC did not differ between 0.04, 0.47, and 1.0 m depths, but some chemical and bacterial levels differed between winter and spring collections. These results demonstrated the utility of the sampler and suggested that future manure lagoon studies employ fewer or different depths and more sampling dates. PMID:24549945

McLaughlin, M R; Brooks, J P; Adeli, A

2014-07-01

330

Indian craniometric variability and affinities.  

PubMed

Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with "Caucasoid" populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

2013-01-01

331

Crustacean fish parasites from Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

The present study is the first investigation on ectoparasites of commercial important fish from Segara Anakan, a brackish water lagoon located at the southern coast of Java, Indonesia. Eight economically important marine fish species (Mugil cephalus, Siganus javus, Scatophagus argus, Caranx sexfasciatus, Lutjanus johnii, Eleutheronema tetradactylum, Johnius coitor, and Epinephelus coioides) were examined for crustacean parasites. Prevalence and intensity data for each parasite species are given, together with an analysis of the origin and possible transmission pathways. A highly divers copepod fauna consisting of 23 different species and two isopods was found. All fish species were at least infested with two copepod species, with the exception of L. johnii, S. argus, and M. cephalus. With seven and six species, respectively, they harboured the most species-rich ectoparasite fauna. The copepods Ergasilus sp. 3 and Caligus acanthopagri on S. argus showed the highest prevalence (78.6) and intensity [17.8 (1-233) and 5.3 (1-22)] of infestation. The recorded parasite fauna is represented by marine, brackish water, and probably also freshwater components. The brackish water environment of Segara Anakan does not prevent disease outbreaks due to parasitic copepods by preventing pathogenic marine or freshwater species to enter the lagoon. This might cause fish health problems if the Segara Anakan Lagoon would be developed for finfish mariculture in future. PMID:17219222

Yuniar, Asri T; Palm, Harry W; Walter, Thorsten

2007-05-01

332

Heavy metal contamination in the seaweeds of the Venice lagoon.  

PubMed

The concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As) were determined in seven seaweeds of environmental and commercial relevance (Ulva rigida C. Ag., Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft, L. Irvine and Farnham, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe., Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Suringar, Fucus virsoides J. Agardh, Cystoseira barbata (Good. et Wood.) Ag.) collected in four sampling sites in the lagoon of Venice, in spring and autumn 1999. Metals were extracted using hot concentrated acids in a Microwave Digestion Rotor and analysed by absorption spectrophotometry using a flame mode for Fe and Zn and a graphite furnace for Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni and As. High contamination levels, especially for Pb, were detected in Ulva and to a lesser extent in Gracilaria. Brown seaweeds, especially Cystoseira was highly contaminated by As. The least contaminated genera with all metals except As were Porphyra and Undaria. A concentration decrease for Zn and Cd was observed from the inner parts of the central lagoon, close to the industrial district, towards the lagoon openings to the sea. PMID:11999620

Caliceti, M; Argese, E; Sfriso, A; Pavoni, B

2002-04-01

333

75 FR 81176 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Rainey River, Rainer, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...operating procedures for the Canadian National Railway Bridge across the Rainey River at Mile...Indian Tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal...sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that are developed or...

2010-12-27

334

Paleoenvironmental changes for past 700 years and paleoclimatic changes by solar activity in Nakaumi Lagoon, southwestern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence shows that solar activity influences climate on a global scale. In the mid-latitude region, climate change is expected to change precipitation patterns. Concurrently, variation in solar activity may influence phytoplankton productivity. It seems that these changes should be recorded in sediment and organic matter deposits in coastal lagoons. In this study, we discuss the relationship between climate change and solar activity in the mid-Holocene in the northern hemisphere mid-latitude region based on high-resolution sedimentologic and geochemical analysis of core collected from Nakaumi Lagoon. This lagoon is located on the Sea of Japan side of southwest Japan, and is a brackish-water lake of ~86 square kilometers. 12Nk-6C core is 219.5cm in length, and consist of mud with shell fragment at most horizons. Samples were collected at 1cm intervals from these cores, and grain size analysis and C,N,S element analyses were carried out. Total organic carbon (TOC) content declines step-wise from base of the core (1.7%). TOC content is lowest (1.2%) at 40cm, and increases above this horizons. Total sulfur (TS) content shows similar pattern of change to TOC content. TS content has a peak (2.6%) at 22cm. The rapid increase of TOC content and TS content are consider to be affected by human activity. Mean grain size and TOC/TN ratio (C/N ratio) tends to coarse and increase above 80cm, probably reflects the modification of the Iinashi River channel in AD1665. C/N ratio has a peak (11) at approximately 50cm, and mean grain size also shows coarse value at this horizons. It is consider that reflects big flood in AD 1840. The pattern of Variation in TOC, TS, C/N ratio and Mean grain size are synchronized, and relatively similar to variation in atmospheric radiocarbon 14C (Delta 14C) and therefore with solar activity. This pattern may therefore reflect climate change driven at least in part by solar activity. Coarser grain size in Nakaumi Lagoon sediments reflects flood events that bring a greater sediment load into the lake. Increased flood event frequency in the temperate zone is associated with warmer climates.

Okazaki, Y.; Seto, K.

2012-12-01

335

A variational Data Assimilation algorithm to better estimate the salinity for the Berre lagoon with Telemac3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berre lagoon is a receptacle of 1000Mm3 where salty sea water meets fresh water discharged by the hydroelectric plant at Saint-Chamas and by natural tributaries (Arc and Touloubre rivers). Improving the quality of the simulation of the hydrodynamics of the lagoon with TELEMAC 3D, EDF R&D at LNHE aims at optimizing the operation of the hydroelectric production while preserving the lagoon ecosystem. To do so and in a collaborative framework with CERFACS, a data assimilation (DA) algorithm is being implemented, using the Open-Palm coupler, to make the most of continuous (every 15 min) and in-situ salinity measurements at 4 locations in the lagoon. Preliminary studies were carried out to quantify the difference between a reference simulation and the observations on a test period. It was shown that the model is able to relatively well represent the evolution of the salinity field at the observating stations, given some adjustements on the forcing near Caronte. Still, discrepancies up to several g/l remain and could be corrected with the DA algorithm. Additionally, some numerical features should be fixed to insure the robustness of the code with respect to compiling plateforms and parallel computing. Similarly to the meteorological and oceanographic approaches, the observations are used sequentially to update the hydrodynamical state. More specifically, a 3D-FGAT algorithm is used to correct the salinity state at the beginning of an assimilation window. This variational algorithm lies on the hypothesis that the tangent linear physics can be approximated by a persistent model over a chosen time window. Sensitivity tests on a reference run showed that in order to cope with this constraint, the analysis time window should be at most 3h. For instance, it was show that a local positive salinity increment of 0.5 g/l introduced at -5m is dissipated by the numerical model over 1 day (physical and numerical diffusion mostly) (Figure a). Using an average estimate of the difference between the reference integration and the observation, a sequential (hourly) and local correction is applied to the salinity state to mimic the upcoming DA scheme as illustrated in Figure b ; the difference between simulation and observation (OmB) is reduced at each cycle (OmA). To further this study, major work is expected for the modeling of the background error covariance matrix that allows to spread the salinity correction from observation points to the whole state vector.

Ricci, S. M.; Piacentini, A.; Riadh, A.; Goutal, N.; Razafindrakoto, E.; Zaoui, F.; Gant, M.; Morel, T.; Duchaine, F.; Thual, O.

2012-12-01

336

The Chemehuevi Indians of Southern California. Malki Museum Brochure No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The only local tribe to migrate into California during recorded history, the Chemehuevi Indians had one of the largest tribal areas in California, though their population probably never exceeded 800. Today most live on the Colorado River Reservation, where they share membership with the Colorado River tribes. First mentioned in a priest's report…

Miller, Ronald Dean; Miller, Peggy Jeanne

337

American Indians by Reservations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data from the 1970 Census on the American Indian population living on reservations. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, relationship to head of household, families by...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

338

Depression in Indian history.  

PubMed

This write up on some aspects of Indian history of depression touches briefly on references to some aspects of depression in Ayurveda, in philosophical texts and in the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. PMID:11002619

Rao, A V

2000-05-01

339

Indian Summer for Wayfarers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

Kaltenbronn, Kyra

1977-01-01

340

Tourism and Indian Exploitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cursory review of Federal support to the Eastern Cherokees shows that the Cherokee Historical Association and not the Cherokee Indians are the recipients and beneficiaries of many Federal grants. (JC)

French, Lawrence

1977-01-01

341

Developing Age Models to Utilize High Arctic Coastal Sediments for Paleoclimate Research: Results from the Colville Delta and Simpson Lagoon, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment cores collected from Simpson Lagoon on the inner Beaufort Sea shelf adjacent to the Colville River delta, AK are being utilized to develop new, high-resolution (sub-decadal scale) archives of the 0-3,000 year Arctic paleoclimate record necessary to assess natural and anthropogenic climate variability. An imperative first step for developing a new paleoclimate archive is to establish methodologies for constraining the age-depth relationship. Naturally occurring and bomb-produced radioisotopes have been utilized in sediments to constrain downcore variability of accumulation rates on 100-103 y timescales, but this methodology is complicated by low activities of many of these tracers at high latitudes. The present study utilizes the combination of a (1) multi-tracer approach and a (2) tailored measurement strategy to overcome this limitation. 210Pb and 137Cs analyses were conducted on the fine (<32?m) sediment fraction to maximize measurable activity and to minimize radioisotope activity variability resulting from changes in grain size: 137Cs geochronologies proved more reliable in this setting and revealed mm/y sediment accumulation in the lagoon. To corroborate the 137Cs results, 239,240Pu activities were analyzed for selected sites using ICP-MS which has ultra-low detection limits, and yielded accumulation rates that matched the Cs geochronology. Age model development for the remainder of the core lengths (>~100 y in age) were completed using radiocarbon dating of benthic foraminifera tests, which proved the only datable in situ carbon available in this sediment archive. These dates have been used to constrain the ages of acoustic reflectors in CHIRP subbottom seismic records collected from the lagoon. Using this age control, spatial patterns of lagoonal sediment accumulation over the last ~3 ky were derived from the CHIRP data. Two depocenters are identified and validate combining age-dated coring with high-resolution seismic profiling to identify areas of the highest temporal resolution for Arctic paleoclimate research in coastal sediments.

Miller, A. J.; Allison, M. A.; Bianchi, T. S.; Marcantonio, F.

2012-12-01

342

Groundwater and porewater as a major source of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by radon) and shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1. Both sources of TA were important on a reef wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependant on the time of day. On a daily basis, groundwater can contribute approximately 70% to 80% of the TA taken up by corals within the lagoon. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water-column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

2012-11-01

343

Indian allotment water rights  

SciTech Connect

Allotted tribal lands create troublesome questions for western water lawyers. The author reviews the history of basic Indian reservation water rights created by the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Winters v. United States. He then explains the disposition of those rights when reservation lands are allotted. Finally, he discusses the difficult issues that arise when allotted lands pass from the federal trust, become subject to state law, and are transferred to non-Indians.

Collins, R.B.

1985-01-01

344

2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map Showing Progress for the Fiscal Year 1927. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1927. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, District #4, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 29, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

345

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part II: The Indian Tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part II of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Documents are included relative to the Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, and the Red Cliff bands of Lake Superior Chippewa…

Fay, George E., Comp.

346

Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

2013-04-01

347

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, LITTLE SALMON RIVER, ADAMS COUNTY, IDAHO, 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This survey was conducted to determine the point source impact of treatment sewage discharged from the New Meadows Wastewater Treatment lagoons on the Little Salmon River (17060210). Water quality data was collected semiannually from June 1970 to May 1975. Some of this data is ...

348

Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm/day to 2.4 mm/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), which accounted for over 99 percent of the soluble nitrogen, ranged from 10 ppm to 3500 ppm. On average, nitrogen concentrations in swine lagoons were about five times higher than those at cattle feedlots. The chemical flux density (flux boundary condition) was estimated from the seepage rate and the corresponding waste chemistry data from each lagoon. Results showed that ammonium-N export was between 0.02 and 1.06 kg NH4-N m-2 yr^{-1} with an overall average of about 0.3 kg NH4-N m^{-2} yr^{-1}$ . Similar data are available for other soluble compounds. Soil cores were collected beneath eight lagoons that had been operated from 12 to 25 years. Results showed that NH4-N was strongly adsorbed by the soil clay particles and that nitrogen concentrations often decreased to background levels at 3 m beneath the lagoon. Other ions, such as chloride, penetrated to much lower depths at all locations. The 'reservoir' of NH4-N that exists beneath older lagoons could convert to nitrate and move to lower depths after lagoon closure. Data suggest that the properties if the soil beneath lagoons, the concentration of the waste, the seepage rate, and the depth to groundwater are the crucial factors that affect the risk of groundwater contamination.

Ham, J. M.; DeSutter, T. M.

2001-05-01

349

The water quality of the Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal: From the observations to the implementation of a numerical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ria de Aveiro is a very important area of the Portuguese coast, which has been under an increasing anthropogenic pressure for several decades and, contributes to the degradation of the lagoon’s water quality. This work presents both a characterisation of the water quality of the Ria de Aveiro lagoon, using physical, chemical and biological experimental data, and an implementation of

J. F. Lopes; J. M. Dias; A. C. Cardoso; C. I. V. Silva

2005-01-01

350

Characterizing sources of groundwater to a tropical coastal lagoon in a karstic area using radium isotopes and water chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra) and water chemistry were used to identify two chemically distinct sources of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Celestún Lagoon, Yucatán, Mexico. Low salinity groundwater discharging from springs within the lagoon has previously been identified and extensively sampled for nutrient concentrations. However, a second type of groundwater discharging into the lagoon was detected during

Megan B. Young; Meagan Eagle Gonneea; Derek A. Fong; Willard S. Moore; Jorge Herrera-Silveira; Adina Paytan

2008-01-01

351

Project summary. PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE (EPA/600/S2-89/015)  

EPA Science Inventory

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactlvation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was filled with 7.56 mL of ...

352

Evidence of North Africa?s Green Revolution Preserved in Sedimentary Organic Matter Deposited in Three Coastal Lagoons.  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the dep...

353

River Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... About Low Vision & Blindness > Vision Disorders > River Blindness River Blindness What Is River Blindness? River blindness is an eye and skin disease caused by a tiny worm called onchocerca volvulus, ...

354

Mechanical clam dredging in Venice lagoon: ecosystem effects evaluated with a trophic mass-balance model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvesting of the invasive Manila clam, Tapes philippinarum, is the main exploitative activity in the Venice lagoon, but the mechanical dredges used in this free-access regime produce a considerable disturbance of the lagoon ecosystem. An ecosystem approach to study the complex effects of clam harvesting was implemented using a trophic mass-balance model. The trophic relations in the ecosystem were quantified

F. Pranovi; S. Libralato; S. Raicevich; A. Granzotto; R. Pastres; O. Giovanardi

2003-01-01

355

Dynamics of copper and zinc sedimentation in a lagooning system receiving landfill leachate.  

PubMed

This study characterises the sediment dredged from a lagooning system composed of a settling pond and three lagoons that receive leachates from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in France. Organic carbon, carbonate, iron oxyhydroxides, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were measured in the sediment collected from upstream to downstream in the lagooning system. In order to complete our investigation of sedimentation mechanisms, leachates were sampled in both dry (spring) and wet (winter) seasonal conditions. Precipitation of calcite and amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides and sedimentation of organic matter occurred in the settling pond. Since different distributions of Zn and Cu concentrations are measured in sediment samples collected downstream in the lagooning system, it is suggested that these elements were not distributed in a similar way in the leachate fractions during the first stage of treatment in the settling pond, so that their sedimentation dynamics in the lagooning system differ. In the lagoons, it was found that organic carbon plays a major role in Cu and Zn mobility and trapping. The presence of macrophytes along the edges provided an input of organic matter that enhanced Cu and Zn scavenging. This edge effect resulted in a two-fold increase in Cu and Zn concentrations in the sediment deposited near the banks of the lagoons, thus confirming the importance of vegetation for the retention of Cu and Zn in lagooning systems. PMID:23810321

Guigue, Julien; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Denimal, Sophie; Steinmann, Marc; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Grisey, Hervé

2013-11-01

356

Biogas Production From A Covered Lagoon Digester And Utilization In A Microturbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will summarize results of data collection from the lagoon-type methane recovery system at the Cal Poly dairy, which has approximately 300 cows, calves and heifers. The project at present consists of a 14,000 cubic meter (4 million gallons) earthen lagoon, with pump and piping to transfer the dilute dairy manure wastewater from the solids separator to the new

357

Ecological implications of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of Burullus Lagoon of Nile Delta, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Ni) from three short sediment cores collected from Burullus lagoon of the Nile delta, Egypt. 210Pb and 137Cs measurement is applied to understand sedimentation rate and related chronology. Remarkably low isotopic activities and intensive bioturbation in the lagoonal sediments rendered age

Zhongyuan Chen; Alaa Salem; Zhuang Xu; Weiguo Zhang

2010-01-01

358

SEEPAGE LOSSES FROM ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS: A SUMMARY OF A FOUR-YEAR INVESTIGATION IN KANSAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seepage losses from animal waste lagoons can affect groundwater quality if liquid effluent is not properly contained within the basin. Seepage rates from 20 anaerobic lagoons were measured using water balance methods. Study locations included 14 swine sites, 5 cattle feedlots, and a single dairy. Seepage results and basin geometry were used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of the

J. M. Ham

2002-01-01

359

Small Mammal Survey at Big Lagoon, Muir Beach, Marin County, CA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Big Lagoon at Muir Beach, in Marin County, California is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) and is a popular destination for park visitors, receiving approximately 440,000 visitors annually. Today, Big Lagoon consists of fragmented h...

J. Y. Takekawa M. A. Bias I. Woo S. A. Demers E. E. Boydston

2003-01-01

360

Recruitment of the clam Ruditapes decussatus in the Lagoon of Thau, mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were investigated in the Mediterranean lagoon of Thau. The periods of release of clam larvae were determined by monitoring the gonad maturity index in samples of adult females. Two massive spawnings were detected. Recruitment, deduced from spat density, was abundant in one part of the lagoon (Etang des

Philippe Borsa; Bertrand Millet

1992-01-01

361

FLOATING COVER SYSTEMS FOR WASTE LAGOONS: POTENTIAL APPLICATION AT OLD INGER SITE, LOUISIANA  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous liquids are impounded in pits, ponds, and lagoons at many uncontrolled hazardous waste sites across the country. As the ranking, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies proceed at these sites, many of the lagoons gradually fill with rainwater and threaten to ov...

362

Nutrient And Particulate Inputs Into The Mar Menor Lagoon (Se Spain) From An Intensive Agricultural Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mar Menor is a Mediterranean coastal lagoon of high conservation interest, but highly threatened by non-point pollution derived from agricultural lands. This is the first comprehensive study that evaluates the inputs into the Mar Menor from a drainage channel and the Albujón wadi, the main watercourse, and their influence on the trophic state of the lagoon. Discharge variation during

J. Velasco; J. Lloret; A. Millan; A. Marin; J. Barahona; P. Abellan; D. Sanchez-Fernandez

2006-01-01

363

Anthropogenic nutrient sources and loads from a Mediterranean catchment into a coastal lagoon: Mar Menor, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mar Menor is a coastal lagoon increasingly threatened by urban and agricultural pressures. The main watercourse draining into the lagoon is the Rambla del Albujón. A fortnightly campaign carried out over one annual cycle enabled us to characterize the treated urban sewage effluents and agricultural sources which contribute to the nutrient fluxes in the watercourse. Multivariate analysis provided information

J. García-Pintado; M. Martínez-Mena; G. G. Barberá; J. Albaladejo; V. M. Castillo

2007-01-01

364

The Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain): A singular natural ecosystem threatened by human activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mar Menor lagoon is one of the most important ecological singularities in the Mediterranean area. At the same time, it is an area where many economic and industrial activities meet. The sum of the impacts of mining, agriculture and urban development in the surroundings to the lagoon during the last decades has affected its ecosystem. In this paper, we

Héctor M. Conesa; Francisco J. Jiménez-Cárceles

2007-01-01

365

PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF THE RESERVOIR AGE IN THE LAGOON OF VENICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon of Venice was formed about 6000 years ago due to the marine transgression associated with the late Pleistocene sea level rise. Already by the time of the Republic of Venice (727 -1797 AD) it was recognized that the future of the city and its many historical buildings was strongly correlated with the future of the lagoon itself. During

U Zoppi; A Albani; A J Ammerman; Q Hua; E M Lawson; R Serandrei Barbero

366

Seasonal Short-Lived Radium Activity in the Venice Lagoon: The Role of Residence Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radium is considered to be an excellent tracer of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and, therefore, has been used in many studies of this process in the past decade. Comprehensive surveys of excess 223,224Ra activity were completed in the surface waters of the Venice Lagoon over 6 seasons in order to quantify seasonal variation of SGD into the lagoon. The mass

J. Rapaglia; C. Ferrarin; L. Zaggia; G. Umgiesser; G. Zuppi; G. Manfe

2008-01-01

367

Metal pollution loading, Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt: Implications for aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

High cultural enrichment factors are found for Hg (13×), Pb (22.1×), and other potentially toxic metals (e.g., Sn, Zn, Cu, Ag) in the upper 20 cm of sediment cores from the southeastern Ginka subbasin of Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt. Cores from other areas of the lagoon show little metal loading. Metal loading followed the closure of the Aswan High

F. R. Siegel; M. L. Slaboda; D. J. Stanley

1994-01-01

368

Water Quality Characteristics at the Estuary of Korle Lagoon in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Korle lagoon is a major run-off water receptacle and outlet from the city of Accra into the Gulf of Guinea. Uncontrolled discharges of domestic wastes and industrial effluents as well as raw sewage (which are washed into the lagoon during high tides), have led to its environment being seriously degraded. Physico-chemical and bacteriological studies were conducted to measure the

A. Y. Karikari; K. A. Asante; C. A. Biney

369

Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by establishing…

Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

2005-01-01

370

A summary of preliminary studies of sedimentation and hydrology in Bolinas Lagoon, Marin County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating sedimentary and hydrologic conditions in Bolinas Lagoon, a 1,100-acre lagoon 15 miles northwest of San Francisco. The program began in May 1967 and will continue into 1970. Only the study results analyzed before June 1968 are summarized in the report. Two series of measurements of suspended-sediment load and water discharge in the lagoon inlet showed that much of the suspended sediment is sand and that the average velocity was as much as 4.7 feet per second. Littoral drift near the inlet was generally toward the inlet, whereas farther from the inlet the pattern is irregular. Circulation velocities in the lagoon decrease rapidly away from the inlet, but probably remain high enough to erode bottom sediment along the channels. In most of the lagoon median size of bottom sediment was fine sand. Sediment was derived chiefly from Monterey Shale.

Ritter, John R.

1970-01-01

371

The physical hydrology of a lagoon system on the Pacific coast of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual hydrological cycle of the Caimanero-Huizache lagoon system on the Pacific coast of Mexico was investigated during 1977-1978. There is a well defined wet season during which the lagoons fill with water derived from fluvial inputs and direct precipitation. Water is lost by evaporation and outflow to the sea, the latter process starting as the wet season progresses and being facilitated by a falling mean sea level. Evaporation exceeds in situ precipitation and during the dry season complete desiccation may be prevented by a now rising mean sea level which promotes the flow of seawater into the lagoon basin. A quantitative estimate of the magnitude of these controlling processes is presented and processes bringing about mixing in the lagoons discussed. A brief comparison is made with other lagoon systems on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

Moore, N. H.; Slinn, D. J.

1984-10-01

372

Pneumococcal Pneumonia among Navajo Indians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Indian Health Service (IHS)-University of New Mexico (UNM) collaborative studies have been in progress at the Gallup Indian Medical Center (GIMC) since July 1971 to determine the feasibility of an antipneumococcal vaccine field trial in the Gallup service...

B. Tempest

1973-01-01

373

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Amendment allows for multi- player games on video lottery terminals (VLTs). Dated: November 1, 2010. Larry Echo Hawk, Assistant Secretary--Indian...

2010-11-09

374

Melvil Dewey and the Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This poem discusses Melvil Dewey's system for organizing information, focusing on information related to American Indians. Suggests instead of grouping all materials on Indians in one place they could be distributed throughout the Dewey system. (LRW)

Roberts, Michael

2002-01-01

375

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

376

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

377

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

378

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

379

Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C30-C32, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5?(H)- and 5?(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17?(H),21?(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C30-C33 hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

Grimalt, J. O.; Yruela, I.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Toja, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Albaigés, J.

1991-09-01

380

Copper complexation capacity in surface waters of the Venice Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total copper (CuT), copper ion activity (pCu) and the copper complexation capacity (CuCC) were determined in samples of seawater collected in July 2003 from the Venice Lagoon. CuT and CuCC showed considerable spatial variability: CuT ranged from 1.8 to 70.0nM, whereas the CuCC varied from 195 to 573nM. pCu values varied from 11.6 to 12.6 and are consistent with those

Francisco Delgadillo-Hinojosa; Alberto Zirino; Cristina Nasci

2008-01-01

381

American Indian Policy Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Arizona State University, the American Indian Policy Institute collaborates with tribal governments and American Indian communities on issues that affect them and also works to nurture innovation for American Indian sustainability. The site offers a wealth of reports, news articles, publications, conference programs, and other items that will be of interest to scholars. The Reports & Publications area contains thoughtful missives such as "Tribes and Energy within Arizona" and "Land Use Challenges and Choices for the 21st Century." The Award-Winning First Innovations area offers up a host of best practices designed to introduce sustainability entrepreneurship in Native American communities. Additionally, the Projects & Initiatives area offers detailed program information about tribal planning summits and financial management seminars.

382

QUESTIONS REGARDING AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT, AMERICAN INDIAN MEANS A SOCIAL-LEGAL GROUP. THE STATISTICS WERE OBTAINED FROM FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SOURCES. IN 1960, THERE WERE OVER 70,000 INDIAN ARRESTS OUT OF FOUR MILLION ARRESTS REPORTED TO THE F.B.I. THE PER CAPITA AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY IS NEARLY SEVEN TIMES THE NATIONAL AVERAGE, NEARLY…

STEWART, OMER C.

383

The American Indian: A Microcourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

Glick, Norman; And Others

384

Facts about American Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

American Indian College Fund, 2010

2010-01-01

385

Title IV: Improving Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Education Act of 1972, Title IV, has improved Native American education by emphasizing Native American control; it comes after 400 years of Euro-American involvement in Indian education during which assimilation was the primary goal. In 1568 Jesuit priests began "civilizing" and Christianizing the "savage" Indians; in 1794 the first…

Barker, Kipp A.

386

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2012-12-28

387

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

388

Flux of nitrogen and sediment in a fringe mangrove forest in terminos lagoon, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen, particulate nitrogen, and total suspended sediments were measured in a fringe mangrove forest using the flume technique during a 15-month period in Terminos Lagoon, Mexico. The 12-m flume extended through a fringe forest from a tidal creek to a basin forest. There was a net import of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (NH +4 and NO -2+NO -3) from the creek and basin forest, while particulate (PN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) were exported to the creek and basin forest. The tidal creek was the principal source of NH +4 (0·53 g m -2 year -1) and NO -2+NO -3 (0·08 g m -2 year -1) to the fringe forest, while the basin forest was the main source of total suspended sediments (TSS; 210 g m -2 year -1). Net export of PN occurred from the fringe forest to the tidal creek (0·52 g m -2 year -1) while less PN was exported to the basin forest (0·06 g m -2 year -1). The decrease in salinity during the rainy season indicated that nutrient concentrations in the tidal creek may have been influenced by inputs from rainfall and river discharge to the lagoon. There was a net import of TSS to the fringe forest from both the creek and basin forests, but the net input was 3·5 times higher at the fringe/basin interface. Particulate material exported from the forest during ebb tides generally had a higher C/N ratio than particulate matter imported into the forest on the flooding tide. This suggested that there was a greater nitrogen demand during ebb tide caused by the export of nitrogen-deficient detritus from fringe and basin mangroves. The exchange of nutrients among the tidal creek, the fringe, and basin forests in Estero Pargo is strongly influenced by seasonal weather forcing, such as winter storms, that can influence the magnitude and direction of water flow. The net annual import of inorganic nitrogen and the export of DON and PN suggest, in contrast to other mangrove systems, that the fringe mangrove forest in Estero Pargo acts as a sink of inorganic nitrogen and as a source of dissolved and particulate nitrogen.

Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Day, John W.; Twilley, Robert R.; Vera-Herrera, Francisco; Coronado-Molina, Carlos

389

A Mechanism Relating the Indian Ocean SSTs, ENSO, and the Nile Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is associated with ElNino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Fluctuations of the Indian Ocean Sea Surface temperature (SST) are also associated with the Nile flow. Here, we investigate the intermediate role of Indian Ocean SSTs in the teleconnection between Nile flow and ENSO. Using the partial coherency analysis, we show that connection between the North and Middle of Indian Ocean SSTs and Nile flow is driven by ENSO. However, the South of Indian Ocean SSTs have an independent role from ENSO in shaping variability of Nile flow. This independence allows for indices of SSTs over the South of Indian Ocean and ENSO to explain about 60% of the variability of the Nile flow when they are used together. During ElNino events, the SSTs over the Indian Ocean increase following the warming of the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), which forces a Matsuno-Gill circulation with enhanced westerlies winds over Indian Ocean that decreases the convergence of boundary layer air over the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin. On the other hand, the increased SSTs over South of Indian Ocean generate a cyclonic motion, which has a similar effect on the convergence of boundary layer air over the UBN. The proposed mechanism has an important implication in understanding the potential climate change impacts on the Nile flow induced by warming of over Indian Ocean and provide new indices for Nile flow forecast models.

Siam, M.; Eltahir, E. A.

2012-12-01

390

Spatial variability in fish species assemblage and community structure in four subtropical lagoons of the Okavango Delta, Botswana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The species assemblage and community structure of four lagoons was assessed through time series data collected between 2001 and 2005 in the Okavango Delta. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of lagoons as fish habitats in the Delta. Therefore, this study assessed the importance of these habitats through determining fish species diversity, composition, relative abundance, and community structure between the lagoons. Forty six species belonging to 11 families and five orders were collected over the study period. Main results showed that Cichlidae was the most important family and had the highest species richness in the lagoons. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were observed in species richness, faunal composition, and diversity among some of the lagoons. Moreover, there were also variations in species composition, and also significant differences in mean length and weight of some selected fish species in the four lagoons. This study showed that lagoons are important repositories of food fish to local communities. Moreover, a management of the fish stocks based on restricting fishing in some lagoons as protected areas is not feasible because of these significant differences in species assemblages between lagoons. Furthermore, lagoons are subject to multiple where most of the lodges are constructed, which makes subsequently makes them vulnerable to pollution. Therefore, the integrity of lagoon habitats needs to be maintained so that their ecosystem functioning (i.e. fish repositories) is maintained.

Mosepele, K.; Mosepele, B.; Bokhutlo, T.; Amutenya, K.

391

Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence  

SciTech Connect

Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

392

Spatiotemporal dynamics of submerged macrophytes in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal and interannual dynamics of the biomass and spatial distribution of a macrophyte meadow were explored in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Albufera des Grau, Balearic Islands) from 2002 to 2007. The dynamics in the main physicochemical variables were also analysed to assess the factors involved in the spatiotemporal variability of the submerged macrophytes. The meadows were dominated by Ruppia cirrhosa, which showed a marked seasonal cycle with winter quiescence and complete annual regrowth. The annual production of R. cirrhosa had high interannual variability and was amongst the highest described for this species in the literature, ranging 327-919 gDW m -2. The spatial distribution of macrophytes was determined by light availability and wave exposure, with the highest abundances found in shallow and gently sloped areas sheltered from the strong northerly winds. The interannual variations in macrophyte descriptors (area of occurrence, average depth of the meadows, and maximum biomass) were mainly related to water turbidity and salinity, but the effect of these variables was constrained to the spring and summer months, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the extent of coverage of R. cirrhosa and the water level at the end of the previous annual cycle was observed, suggesting a positive effect of desiccation on the extent of coverage of the macrophytes. After six years of apparent stability, the macrophytes abruptly disappeared from the lagoon. Although the mechanisms are not clear, this shift was likely attributable to a combination of several factors.

Obrador, Biel; Pretus, Joan Lluís

2010-03-01

393

Successional pattern of phytoplankton (>55 microm) in Lekki lagoon, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Lagoons are dominant features along large stretches of the West Africa coast. These freshwater environments are very valuable areas where phytoplankton constitute the basis of aquatic food webs. In order to know the effects of environmental variables on phytoplankton, a study of the successional pattern of phytoplankton in Lekki lagoon was carried out monthly for two years (June 2003-May 2005). Phytoplankton samples were collected from 12 stations using a plankton net of 55 microm mesh, and samples preserved in 4% unbuffered formalin. Besides, surface water samples were taken for physico-chemical analysis. For each year, the seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton followed different patterns. Phytoplankton abundance was higher during the dry season (November-April) for the two annual cycles. The diatoms (Aulacoseira granulata and A. granulata var angustissima) and blue green algaes, Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia tennuissima and Trichodesmium lacustre showed this trend by being the abundant species in some of these months. For the rainy season, the green alga Mougeotia sp. dominated. The replacement of one form by another throughout seasonal cycles was probably controlled by the changes in environmental variables such as rainfall, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus. PMID:22458215

Adesalu, Taofikat Abosede; Nwankwo, Dike Ikegwu

2012-03-01

394

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water in the turn basin, east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and more looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

395

Minnesota Indian Resources Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Training Center for Community Programs was established at the University of Minnesota to increase understanding of, and to provide opportunity for, the economically disadvantaged. The Center published this directory of services and organizations to provide American Indians with sources of assistance in adjusting to community life in the urban…

Stickney, Avis L., Comp.

396

Indians of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Pima, Papago, Yuma, Maricopa, Mohave, Cocopah, Havasupai, Hualapai, Yavapai, and Paiute Indian tribes of Arizona are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, housing, employment, and economic development taking place on the…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

397

Indians of New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

398

Indians of the Northwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

399

Problems of Indian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…

Linton, Marigold

400

Indian Wisdom Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rather than simply recreating a real or imagined event or experience for entertainment purposes, the wisdom stories of the American Indians were sophisticated teaching devices that kept alive the history and traditions of the tribe at the same time that they instructed the young tribe members in the areas of history, geography, nature study, and…

Blanche, Jerry D.

401

Indian genetic disease database  

PubMed Central

Indians, representing about one-sixth of the world population, consist of several thousands of endogamous groups with strong potential for excess of recessive diseases. However, no database is available on Indian population with comprehensive information on the diseases common in the country. To address this issue, we present Indian Genetic Disease Database (IGDD) release 1.0 (http://www.igdd.iicb.res.in)—an integrated and curated repository of growing number of mutation data on common genetic diseases afflicting the Indian populations. Currently the database covers 52 diseases with information on 5760 individuals carrying the mutant alleles of causal genes. Information on locus heterogeneity, type of mutation, clinical and biochemical data, geographical location and common mutations are furnished based on published literature. The database is currently designed to work best with Internet Explorer 8 (optimal resolution 1440?×?900) and it can be searched based on disease of interest, causal gene, type of mutation and geographical location of the patients or carriers. Provisions have been made for deposition of new data and logistics for regular updation of the database. The IGDD web portal, planned to be made freely available, contains user-friendly interfaces and is expected to be highly useful to the geneticists, clinicians, biologists and patient support groups of various genetic diseases.

Pradhan, Sanchari; Sengupta, Mainak; Dutta, Anirban; Bhattacharyya, Kausik; Bag, Sumit K.; Dutta, Chitra; Ray, Kunal

2011-01-01

402

Great Indian Chiefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief biographies and pen and ink portraits of over 40 chiefs and other distinguised American Indians comprise this book. Each page contains a full page portrait and a biography that notes tribal affiliation, important dates, geographical location, major accomplishments, and dealings with other tribes, white settlers, and the United States or…

Pastron, Allen

403

Indian Reserved Water Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

Bond, Frank M.

1986-01-01

404

Indians of North Carolina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

405

Eastern American Indian Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

Thomas, Robert K.

406

Indian Education in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pictorial publication briefly discusses Indian education in Canada. Discussed are: nursery schools and kindergartens; elementary and secondary schools; teaching staff--preschool instructors, teacher aides, classroom assistants, teachers, and principals; guidance staff--guidance and social counsellors, and home and school coordinators; support…

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

407

Indian School Days.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age from 4 to…

Johnston, Basil H.

408

Impact of tidal inlet and its geomorphological changes on lagoon environment: A numerical model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphological changes of a tidal inlet are governed by complex interactions of tidal currents, waves and sediments. Tidal inlet(s) of the Chilika lagoon (19° 28'-19° 54' N; 85° 06'-85° 35' E) on the east coast of India and its geomorphological changes is linked to the contemporary phase of lagoon transformation such as sedimentation (from riverine discharge, land drainage and decay of macrophytes), choking of the outer channel, northward shifting, closing and opening of inlet(s). These transformations are responsible for decrease in salinity, depth and weak lagoon-sea interaction, which in turn are responsible for decline in water area, increase in vegetated area (macrophyte growth) and decrease in fish productivity. The present study investigates the past and present geomorphological changes of Chilika inlet(s) using historical data, satellite data, field observations and numerical modelling techniques. A numerical model was used to simulate the hydrodynamic conditions and salinity distribution in the lagoon for one inlet and multiple inlets and the results are calibrated with observations. The study suggests that tidal inlet(s) and its geomorphological changes have significant impacts on ebb and flood currents at the inlet(s), salinity distribution in the lagoon, sediment and water exchange between the lagoon and sea. Possible impacts of inlet(s) on ecological conditions of the lagoon environment are discussed.

Panda, U. S.; Mohanty, P. K.; Samal, R. N.

2013-01-01

409

Spatio-temporal dynamics of the nematode Anguillicola crassus in Northeast Tunisian lagoons.  

PubMed

Anguillicola crassus, parasite nematode of the European eel Anguilla anguilla, was recorded for the first time in Tunisia (1999) in the Ichkeul lagoon. Its distribution has since spread toward Bizerte and Ghar El Melh lagoons. The monthly epidemiological survey reveals that A. crassus exists throughout the year in the Ichkeul lagoon. In this lagoon, its prevalence is low in winter (12% in December), with a marked increases in the spring reaching a maximum in March (35%), before it starts to decrease in summer with a minimum in July (4.35%), which in turn is followed by a pronounced new rise in autumn (30% in November). However, mean intensity values do not show such a marked variation. The majority of the values are between 1 and 1.5 parasites per host. In the Bizerte and Ghar El Melh lagoons, the presence of this nematode is limited only to one to three months. Investigations in the Tunis lagoon did not reveal until now the presence of A. crassus. It has been observed that the length of the eel influences the prevalence values: A. crassus becomes less common if the length of the eel increases. Comparatively with the global epidemiological values of A. crassus signalled subsequently (1999) in the Ichkeul lagoon, we note that the present values record a clean increase. PMID:17027639

Gargouri Ben Abdallah, Lamia; Maamouri, Fadhila

2006-10-01

410

The role of connectivity and hydrodynamic conditions in the configuration of ichthyoplankton assemblages in coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons are constituted by species with different gilds and life stories including estuarine residents but also a high percentage of marine stragglers and marine migrants. Previous studies showed that different ichthyoplancton assemblages can be identified inside a lagoon, depending on hydrological conditions, but at the same time a high spatial and temporal variability haven observed. The proposed models to explain lagoon assemblages configuration based on probabilities of colonization from the open sea involves an important stochastic component and introduces some randomness that could lead to that high spatial and temporal variability at short and long-term scales. In this work we analyze the relationship between ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon and the adjacent open sea in the framework of the hydrodynamics of the lagoon and connectivity between sampling stations using hydrodynamic models. The results, show a complex interaction between the different factors that lead to a highly variable system with high accumulated richness and diversity of species, and a large proportion of occasional visitors and stragglers suggesting that the mechanisms of competitive lottery can play an important role in the maintenance of communities of coastal lagoons , where environmental variability occurs in a system with strong differences in colonization rates and connectivity, not only with the open sea, but also between locations within the lagoon.

Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Quispe, Jhoni I.; Umgiesser, Georg; Ghezzo, Michol; De Pascalis, Francesca; Marcos, Concepción

2014-05-01

411

The Salt River Project of Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information on the history of the Salt River community, its Native American Indian culture, and the impacts of water usage by and for humans. Activities topics include energy, electricity, and water energy, usage and safety. Historical references to the Salt River valley are integrated into resource materials. Resources are available free of charge for teachers and students and must be requested via email.

1996-01-01

412

Indian aerosols: present status.  

PubMed

This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

2002-12-01

413

Heavy-metal enrichment in surficial sediments in the Oder River discharge area: source or sink for heavy metals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oder river drains a highly polluted industrial area and enters the Baltic Sea through a system of shallow lagoons. Surficial sediments in the discharge area of the Oder are highly enriched in heavy metals compared to their preindustrial background levels. Pore-water studies in short sediment cores reveal anoxic environments over the entire sediment column, except for a suboxic layer

Thomas Neumann; Thomas Leipe; Graham Shimmield

1998-01-01

414

Classification of Australian Clastic Coastal Depositional Environments Based Upon a Quantitative Analysis of Wave, Tidal, and River Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical assessment of wave, tide, and river power was carried out using a database of 721 Australian clastic coastal deposi- tional environments to test whether their geomorphology could be pre- dicted from numerical values. The geomorphic classification of each environment (wave- and tide-dominated deltas, wave- and tide-domi- nated estuaries, lagoons, strand plains, and tidal flats) was established independently from

P. T. Harris; A. D. Heap; S. M. Bryce; R. Porter-Smith; D. A. Ryan; D. T. Heggie

2002-01-01

415

Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct margins. Raised Quaternary lagoons parallel to the big lagoon on Isla Angel de la Guarda are partly obscured by flood damage, but still easily mapped from aerial photos. These features suggest that Isla Angel de la Guarda experienced Quaternary uplift similar in scale to many other gulf islands on which marine terraces are preserved. Closed lagoons around the Gulf of California represent a stable oligotrophic ecosystem affected by extreme aridity and hypersalinity, punctuated episodically by the injection of floodwater from tropical storms. The taxonomic and geographic ranges of microbial communities throughout the larger region remain to be explored.

Johnson, Markes E.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Backus, David H.; González, Maria R.

2012-07-01

416

River discharge, sediment transport and exchange in the Tana Estuary, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on sediment transport and exchange dynamics in the 27km2 Tana Estuary located at Kipini in the north Kenya coast. The estuary is drained by the Tana River, which contributes more than 50% of the total river discharges into the Kenyan sector of the Indian Ocean. The study involved measurement of river discharges, estuarine flood–ebb tidal discharges, total

J. U. Kitheka; M. Obiero; P. Nthenge

2005-01-01

417

Ecology, changes in fisheries, and energy estimates in the middle stretch of the River Ganges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The River Ganges is the most important of all Indian rivers. It is being harnessed for several onsite and offsite benefits for various sections of society. Through varied man-induced interventions, over the years, the river system has recorded changes in its ecological functions, especially at some stations of the middle stretch viz., Kanpur, Varanasi and Allahabad. An attempt has been

K. K. Vass; R. K. Tyagi; H. P. Singh; V. Pathak

2010-01-01

418

Missouri River InfoLINK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Listed among the "Endangered Rivers" of 1999, the Missouri River drains one-sixth of the United States's surface water; management decisions regarding the Missouri River affect a wide range of wildlife, as well as millions of Americans from Missouri to Montana. The Missouri River InfoLINK, housed at the USGS-BRD Columbia Environmental Research Center, "was created for these stakeholders who want to understand how the river functions and make informed decisions about the river's future use and management." To that end, the site offers sections for the public as well as the scientist. For background information on current research, see the Science section (includes a large bibliography and research summaries); for a wide array of background information (some of which is technical), see the River section. In addition, the site offers summary data (soil attributes, agricultural products, the 1990 Census, etc.), beautiful maps showing county boundaries, basin-wide maps (depicting general geography, watersheds and rivers, average runoff, ecoregions, physiographic regions, Indian tribal lands, dams and reservoirs, and agriculture), or local maps (1:100,000 quadrangle maps of the 1993 flood extent, wetlands, etc.), and much more. This is an outstanding site, rich in information of varying complexity.

419

The Educational Dilemma Facing Urban Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents objectives and programs of a model Indian education project designed to work through local Indian centers to aid urban universities with substantial Indian student populations in the provision of better educational opportunities for urban Indians and improved education of the public concerning the Indians' plight. (SB)

French, Laurence

1979-01-01

420

50 CFR 32.28 - Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditions: 1. We only allow fishing from legal sunrise to legal sunset. 2. We allow salt-water fishing along the Atlantic Ocean and Indian River Lagoon year-round in accordance with State recreational fishing regulations. 3. We...

2013-10-01

421

INDIAN PEAKS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.

Pearson, Robert, C.; Speltz, Charles, N.

1984-01-01

422

Indian fusion test reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion reactor as a volumetric neutron source can serve many applications needed for realizing fusion power reactor. For the Indian energy scenario, such a device can also produce fissile fuel for accelerating the nuclear power production. The Indian Fusion Test Reactor (FTR) is a low fusion gain (Q = 3-5) device to be used as component test facility for qualifying future reactor materials as well as for demonstrating the production of fissile fuel. FTR will be a medium sized tokamak device with a neutron wall load of 0.2 MW/m2. The presently available structural materials can be used for this device and such a device can be realized in ten years time from now. This device should produce about 25-50 kg of fissile fuel in one full-power-year and also produce the tritium needed for its operation. This device will greatly help the nuclear fission power program by producing fissile fuel.

Srinivasan, R.; FTR Team

2012-06-01

423

Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with DDTR contamination in northeast Alabama in the Tennessee River system from Mile 260 to 375 which includes Wilson, Wheeler, and Guntersville Reservoirs. The primary area of interest is the Huntsville Spring Branch - Indian Creek (HSB...

1984-01-01

424

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and one of several dolphins looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

425

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gray and a white pelican glide down to the water near a dolphin and cormorant in the turn basin to search for a meal in the fish- teeming water. Sea gulls also approach. The turn basin, which is east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

2000-01-01

426

West Indian Orchidaceae Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York Botanical Garden has recently placed online this searchable database of West Indian Orchids. Containing approximately 5,200 specimen records for the family Orchidacese (from the New York Botanical Garden's collection), the database may be searched by Family, Collector, Country, Taxon, State/Province, and other select fields. Typical returns provide information on Specimen name (scientific name), Location, Collector, Description, and Habitat.

427

Thunderstorms, Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This large tropical cumulonimbus thunderstorm was photographed in the Indian Ocean south of the Maldive Islands (12.0S, 73.0E). Cumulonimbus clouds are the familiar towering thunderheads that can rise up to as much as 75,000 ft. producing thunderstorms and sometimes tornadoes as well. This particular storm system displays a variety of meteorological phenommena such as towers, overshooting tops, squall lines and areas of high speed downdrafts.

1990-01-01

428

An Assessment of the Expected Impact of a Dredging Project Proposed for Pala Lagoon, American Samoa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses the biological and socio-economic effects of a dredging project proposed for Pala Lagoon, American Samoa. Emphasis is placed on the expected impact the project would have upon the tides and circulation, bacterial contamination, phytopl...

P. Helfrich

1975-01-01

429

Pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera grazing on natural plankton in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia).  

PubMed

In atoll lagoons of French Polynesia, growth and reproduction of pearl oysters are mainly driven by plankton concentration. However, the actual diet of black-lip pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera in these lagoons is poorly known. To fill this gap, we used the flow through chamber method to measure clearance rates of P. margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). We found: (i) that pearl oysters cleared plankton at a rate that was positively related to plankton biovolume, (ii) that nanoflagellates were the main source of carbon for the pearl oysters, and (iii) that the quantity and origin of carbon filtrated by pearl oysters was highly dependent on the concentration and composition of plankton. These results provide essential elements for the comprehension of growth and reproduction variability of pearl oysters in atoll lagoons of French Polynesia. PMID:22560742

Fournier, Jonathan; Dupuy, Christine; Bouvy, Marc; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Charpy, Loïc; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Moullac, Gilles; Le Pennec, Marcel; Cochard, Jean-Claude

2012-01-01

430

The contribution of benthic macrofauna to the nutrient filter in coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Human activities in coastal areas have increased the occurrence of eutrophication events, especially in vulnerable ecosystems such as coastal lagoons. Although we have a general knowledge of the consequences of eutrophication in these ecosystems, some efforts need to be made to understand biotic feedbacks that could modify the response of the environment to nutrient enrichment. The plant-mediated 'coastal filter' is one of the main factors that determine lagoonal efficiency in processing excess nutrients. In this context, the present paper examined the relative contribution of benthic macrofauna to the 'coastal filter' of a Mediterranean lagoon. The analysis of macrofaunal assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon led to a clear differentiation between shallow areas of net nutrient recycling and exportation and deeper areas of net retention. These differences enhance nutrient removal from the water column, thus increasing the ecosystem's resistance to eutrophication. PMID:21967864

Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

2011-12-01

431

ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

432

Project Summary: Spreading Lagooned Sewage Sludge on Farm Land: A Case History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, was required to construct advanced wastewater treatment facilities at the existing Belmont Wastewater Treatment Plant. The most cost effective site for these new treatment facilities was the 10 sludge lagoons containing ...

C. M. Robson L. E. Sommers

1995-01-01

433

Use of Shallow Lagoon Habitats by Nekton of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

EPA Science Inventory

We compared nekton use of prominent habitat types within a lagoonal system of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). These habitat types were defined by combinations of structure (cover type) and location (distance from shore) as: Spartina edge (...

434

National Indian Law Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Law Library (NILL) has worked for over three decades to bring together key resources for Native Americans and their advocates in the field of legal scholarship and service. Today it remains the only entity that offers a comprehensive vision of past and present tribal governmental documents from across the United States. The NILL is based in Boulder, Colorado and its website provides selected documents, information on ongoing activities and the very useful Indian Law News Bulletins. These bulletins are published almost every week and offer succinct and timely information about new developments in Indian Law. Visitors can search through the archives of these bulletins back to 1998, or look through the bulletins for links to germane legal briefs. This same area contains links to digests that cover activities in state courts, federal trial courts, and law review journal articles. Users shouldn't miss the Research By Topic area, which contains links that deal with 20 different themes, including tribal education, health & human services, sacred sites, prisoners' issues, and child welfare.

435

Indian Converts Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First published in 1727, the remarkable book "Indian Converts, or Some account of the lives and dying speeches of a considerable number of the Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard" is now available in full online. Written by Experience Mayhew, the book provides remarkable insights into the lives and culture of four generations of Native Americans in colonial America. This digitized version was created at Reed College, and visitors can look through all four sections of the work, which include "Indian Ministers" and "Pious Children." Throughout the work, Mayhew details the books that different age groups were reading, provides insights into early New England pedagogy and childrearing practices, and also describes each individual in terms of their own genealogy and personal history. The truly fantastic thing about the site is that it also contains an archive with over 600 images and documents that further contextualize the work. Also, the site contains study guides designed for classroom use that cover artifact analysis, genealogy, and reading gravestones.

436

[Seasonal dynamics of genus Alexandrium (potentially toxic dinoflagellate) in the lagoon of Bizerte (North of Tunisia) and controls by the abiotic factors].  

PubMed

Some species of the genus Alexandrium are known as potential producers of saxitoxin, a neurotoxin that causes the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) syndrome. Blooming of these species, especially in shellfish farms can affect the aquaculture production and harm human health. Seasonal dynamics of Alexandrium spp. abundance in relationship to environmental factors was investigated from November 2007 to February 2009 at six stations in the Bizerte lagoon, an important shellfish farming area situated in SW Mediterranean. The sampling stations represented different hydrological and trophic conditions: one station TJ (Tinja) is affected by the river plume; two stations (Chaara [Ch] and Canal [Ca]) are influenced by marine inflow (particularly in summer), industrial and urban effluents; and the three other stations (Menzel Abdelrahmen [MA], Menzel Jemil [MJ] and Douaouda [Do]) are located close to shellfish farms. Cell abundance of Alexandrium spp. varied among stations and months. Species of this genus showed a sporadic appearance, but they reached high concentration (0.67-7 × 10(5)cells L(-1)). Maximal cell density was detected in autumn (November 2007; station MA), at salinity of 37.5, temperature of 16 °C and NH(4)(+) level of 55.45 ?M. During this month, Alexandrium spp. abundance accounted for a large fraction (61%) of the harmful phytoplankton. The statistical analysis revealed that Alexandrium concentrations were positively correlated with N:P ratio and NH4+ levels. Thus, the eutrophic waters of the lagoon favour the growth of Alexandrium, which seemed to have preference for N-nutrient loading from antrophogenic activities, as ammonium. Blooms of these potential harmful algae may constitute a potential threat in this coastal lagoon of the southern Mediterranean. Consequently, it is necessary to be well vigilant and to do regular monitoring of Alexandrium species. PMID:22721562

Bouchouicha Smida, Donia; Sahraoui, Inès; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Sakka Hlaili, Asma

2012-06-01

437

The effects of resuspension on the fate of Hg in contaminated sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy): Short-term simulation experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Adriatic Sea, Italy) represent one of the world's most major repositories of mercury (Hg). Its presence is a direct consequence of the historical mining activity in nearby Idrjia (Slovenia), as well as significant discharges from a chlor-alkali plant into the Aussa-Corno river system, which connects to the lagoon. Previous studies have shown that sediment acts as secondary source of Hg species to the overlying water column in natural conditions. However, evidence for the effects of resuspension on the dynamics of Hg species is still lacking. The work reported in this paper formed part of the multidisciplinary "MIRACLE" project, aimed at identifying areas at low risk of Hg bioaccumulation in commercial Manila Clams, an important part of the local economy in this region. The effect of resuspension on the cycling of inorganic mercury (IHg), reactive mercury (RHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) between the sediment and water column was investigated in a mesocosm study. Two experiments were conducted in October 2009 and September 2010 based on material collected from sites heavily impacted by Hg and periodically subjected to dredging activities. Designed to mimic the resuspension of particles, both experiments revealed that the release of Hg species from the solid to the dissolved phase became negligible quickly after the event. MeHg values did not change according to total mercury (THg), suggesting that the enhancement of methylation processes may occur. The findings reported in this paper may be useful for the local management of dredging and fishing activities, although mass balance calculations showed that the total flux of Hg species are trivial compared to lagoon-wide processes.

Acquavita, Alessandro; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Predonzani, Sergio; Koron, Neža; Carrasco, Luis

2012-11-01

438

Fish and blue crab assemblage structure in a U.S. mid Atlantic coastal lagoon complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in assemblages of organisms in contiguous lagoons is dependent upon component bays and their connections to the\\u000a ocean and terrestrial watersheds. Fish and blue crab assemblage structure of Maryland's coastal lagoon complex, which consists\\u000a of Assawoman, Isle of Wight, Sinepuxent, and Chincoteague Bays, was analyzed for spatial and seasonal patterns for the period\\u000a 1991–2002. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinated sites

Robert F. Murphy; David H. Secor

2006-01-01

439

Biological Oxidation of Dissolved Compounds in Oilfield-Produced Water by a Pilot Aerated Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 19 mo field pilot test in southern California demonstrated the feasibility of the aerated lagoon for biotreating oilfield-produced water containing 20,000 g\\/cu m of total dissolved solids (TDS) after oil removal by induced air flotation. The two-stage pilot lagoon consisted of two 80 cu m plastic-lined steel tanks in series, each filled with 60 cu m fluid. Stage 1

A. H. Beyer; L. L. Palmer; J. Stock

1979-01-01

440

A geochemical analytical approach for the evaluation of heavy metal distribution in lagoon sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim, and Scope  Italian lagoon environments are of great importance due either to their frequency and distribution along the coasts or to\\u000a their management. Agriculture, urban and industrial activities in lagoon catchments can be sources of heavy metal (HM) pollution\\u000a by direct waste dumping, atmospheric deposition of fumes or, simply, as a consequence of a lack of natural water recharge.

Renata Pacifico; Paola Adamo; Carlo Cremisini; Fabio Spaziani; Luciano Ferrara

2007-01-01

441

Facies, dolomitization and karstification of lagoonal carbonates: Triassic of the Northern Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Lagoonal carbonates of the Wetterstein Limestone reflect cyclic sedimentation patterns established in near-reef and far-reef\\u000a environments. The near-reef lagoonal cycles consist of thickly bedded limestones with a predominant gragestone facies intercalated\\u000a with vadose pisolitic crusts revealing a broad spectrum of various textures of vadose diagenesis. Far-reef cycles are composed\\u000a of dasycladacean beds or mudstones intercalated with loferites, stromatolites and peritidal

Rüdiger Henrich

1984-01-01

442

An evaluation of the USEPA calculations of greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic lagoons.  

PubMed

On 10 Apr. 2009, USEPA proposed and on 30 Oct. 2009 USEPA finalized reporting thresholds for a wide range of human-derived sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) as a first step in establishing emission limits in the United States. The only on-farm source category that required monitoring under the proposed and final rule was methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (NO(2)) emissions from manure storage facilities. Our objective was to assess, through a literature review, the methodology used by USEPA to estimate current CH(4) emissions from uncovered anaerobic lagoons and the proposed methodology for reporting those emissions under the proposed rule. A review of the performance of uncovered anaerobic lagoons indicates that they are more effective at degrading volatile solids (VS) than predicted using parameters provided by USEPA that had been developed for anaerobic digesters. We also documented errors in the USEPA- and International Panel on Climate Change-estimated methane conversion factors for uncovered anaerobic lagoons. We suggest estimating CH(4) emissions from anaerobic lagoons based on VS degraded in the lagoon and B' (m(3) CH(4) generated kg(-1) VS destroyed). Our estimate of CH(4) released from uncovered anaerobic lagoons indicated the regulatory operation size threshold could be at least 65% smaller than predicted by USEPA in the proposed rule. Our calculated estimate of CH(4) emissions was substantially greater than the few estimates of CH(4) loss based on direct measurements on uncovered anaerobic lagoons. More research is needed before it will be possible to provide definitive estimates of CH(4) loss from uncovered anaerobic lagoons. PMID:20400573

Lory, John A; Massey, R E; Zulovich, J M

2010-01-01

443

Lagoon-sea exchanges, nutrient dynamics and water quality management of the Ria Formosa (Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical data from the Ria Formosa lagoon are classified according to the EEA 2001 guidelines to provide a frame of reference to evaluate the effect of management during the implementation of the environmental legislative Directives. Water samples from the Ria Formosa lagoon were significantly enriched in nitrogen (NH 4+ NO 2- and NO 3-) with respect to the adjacent coastal waters indicating that inputs from sewage, agricultural runoff and benthic fluxes were not fully assimilated within the lagoon. Tidal flushing was insufficient in the inner areas of the lagoon to remove or effectively dilute these inputs. Enrichment was most severe close to the urban centres of Faro and Olhão, as well as in the Gilão Estuary and the shallow extremities. Dissolved oxygen undersaturation (mean 75% during daylight hours) was associated with the area close to the sewage outlets of Faro. In the shallow west end of the lagoon during summer, dissolved oxygen supersaturation reached 140% during the day but fell to 50% at night. Classification using the EEA (2001) guidelines suggests the system is "poor" or "bad" with respect to phosphate concentrations for the majority of the year and "poor" in nitrogen contamination during the autumn rainy period. Due to the high overall nitrogen load in the lagoon, there is a net export to the coastal waters, especially during November and December, and phosphate only becomes limiting briefly during the spring bloom (April). Therefore, substantial phytoplankton populations may be supported year-round in the lagoon. The consequences of water quality deterioration in the Ria Formosa would negatively affect the lagoon as a regional resource, important for its ecological, economic and recreational value. The industries most affected would be tourism, fisheries and aquaculture. Management options include Urban Waste Water Treatment, dredging, artificial inlets, limits on urban development and changes in agricultural practices.

Newton, Alice; Mudge, Stephen M.

2005-02-01

444

Investigation of residence time and groundwater flux in Venice Lagoon: comparing radium isotope and hydrodynamical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four naturally-occurring isotopes of radium were coupled with a previously evaluated hydrodynamic model to determine the apparent age of surface waters and to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Venice Lagoon, Italy.Mean apparent age of water in the Venice Lagoon was calculated using the ratio of 224Ra to 228Ra determined from 30 monitoring stations and a mean pore

John Rapaglia; Christian Ferrarin; Luca Zaggia; Willard S. Moore; Georg Umgiesser; Ester Garcia-Solsona; Jordi Garcia-Orellana; Pere Masqué

2010-01-01

445

Above and below-ground biomass and production by Thalassia testudinum in a tropical reef lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual (1990–91) mean values of total biomass of Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex König) at three stations in different environments in a Caribbean reef lagoon varied between 573g dry wtm?2 (±167 SD) in a back-reef station, 774g dry wtm?2 (±167 SD) in a coastal fringe and 811g dry wtm?2 (±131 SD) in a mid-lagoon station. Corresponding ratios of mean above-ground to

Brigitta I van Tussenbroek

1998-01-01

446

Do lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations promote nitrous oxide supersaturation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal wastewater lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent the latest tendency in global animal farming, severely impacting the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions, including nitrous oxide (N2O). We hypothesized that lagoon wastewater could be supersaturated with N2O as part of incomplete microbial nitrification\\/denitrification processes, thereby regulating the N2O partitioning in the gaseous phase. The objectives of this study

Konstantinos C. Makris; Dibye