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1

Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

Water., United S.

2

INDIAN RIVER LAGOON IR, 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the Indian River Lagoon Program's last implementation review, the NEP through the local sponsorship of the St. Johns River Water Management District, has seen a three-fold increase in implementation funding from $6.7 million in 1999, to $21.3 million in FY 2003. This fundin...

3

INDIAN RIVER LAGOON WETLANDS INITIATIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Wetlands Initiative is a broad research effort to compare the effects of various restoration and management strategies on a variety of wetland functions, flora, and fauna. It involves managing a selected group of impoundments under various management strategies ...

4

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

5

Antifungal defenses of seagrasses from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the antifungal chemical defenses and physiological responses of five seagrasses collected from nearshore seagrass beds from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, against a panel of co-occurring marine fungi isolated from nearby coastal communities. Whole plant tissues from Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme prevented overgrowth by three of the seven fungi used in this study. Organic extracts

Cliff Ross; Melany P. Puglisi; Valerie J. Paul

2008-01-01

6

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida(SEERS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

7

Benthic Fluxes of Radium in Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine three radium isotopes (224Ra, 223Ra and 226Ra) as a sediment-water interface tracer in upper Indian River Lagoon. Benthic fluxes are estimated using lagoon budgets, benthic chambers and pore water profiles. The lagoon budget approach estimates range from ~20 dpm/m2-d for 224Ra to ~7 dpm/ m2-d for 223Ra to zero for 226Ra. Benthic Chamber flux estimates determined over an 8 hour time period are statistically no different than zero for all three isotopes. Pore water profile flux estimates are low with 0.5 dpm/m2-d for 224Ra to 0.2 dpm/m2-d for 223Ra and zero for 226Ra. Benthic flux estimates correlate with the regeneration rates of the individual isotopes. Radium-224 has the largest flux value and is the isotope with the fastest regeneration rates due to a short half-life. The isotope with the slowest regeneration rate (226Ra) due to a 1600-year half-life, cannot be distinguished from zero in any of the estimates. The short half-life of 224Ra and 223Ra, allow for the examination of exchange processes at the sediment-water interface that cannot be achieved with the long-lived radium isotope (226Ra).

Smoak, J. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.

2002-12-01

8

Mercury level in fish caught in Indian River Lagoon higher than it should be?  

E-print Network

Mercury level in fish caught in Indian River Lagoon higher than it should be? Harbor Branch launches new study of humans who eat fish and live around the estuary By Scott Wyland Tuesday, May 22, 2012 INDIAN RIVER COUNTY -- A 20-year-old man fishes local waters every day for his meals and scoffs

Belogay, Eugene A.

9

Watershed scale assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus loadings in the Indian River Lagoon basin, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing evidence that the ecological and biological integrity of the lagoon has declined during the last 50 years, probably due to the decline in water quality. Establishment of a watershed scale seagrass-based nutrient load assessment is the major aim of water quality management in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). Best estimate loadings incorporate wet and dry deposition,

Gilbert C. Sigua; Wendy A. Tweedale

2003-01-01

10

Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence of flushing. Coordinated studies of circulation through the Haulover Canal, Ponce Inlet and Sebastian Inlet would aid in understanding the genesis of future bloom events.;

Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

2012-12-01

11

Biodiversity of Saline and Brakish Marshes of the Indian River Lagoon: Historic and Current Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) crosses a zone of climatic transition. Historically, marshes dominated saline and brackish environments in the north of the lagoon, while mangroves became important to the south. Distribution of marsh communities was influenced by hydrology, salinity, soil characteristics, and fire, as well as periodic freezes. Marshes of the IRL have been greatly modified since the 1940s. Despite significant modifications, marsh plant species have not been lost from the region, but community and landscape patterns have been greatly modified and ecosystem processes altered.

Schmalzer, Paul A.

1995-01-01

12

Controls on Water Levels and Salinity in a Barrier Island Mangrove, Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined controls on water levels and salinity in a mangrove on a carbonate barrier island along the Indian River Lagoon,\\u000a east-central Florida. Piezometers were installed at 19 sites throughout the area. Groundwater was sampled at 17 of these sites\\u000a seasonally for three years. Head measurements were taken at the other two sites at 15-minute intervals for one year. Water

Christina E. Stringer; Mark Cable Rains; Sarah Kruse; Dennis Whigham

2010-01-01

13

Feeding Habits of Indian River Lagoon Bottlenose Dolphins Assessed Using Stable Isotope and Fatty Acid Signature Analysis  

E-print Network

Feeding Habits of Indian River Lagoon Bottlenose Dolphins Assessed Using Stable Isotope and Fatty. Recently, the use of naturally occurring carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes has evolved into a powerful for stable isotopic and fatty acid signatures using standard methodologies. Consistent with their different

14

A Tale of Two Inlets: Tidal Currents at Two Adjacent Inlets in the Indian River Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tidal currents and hydrography at two adjacent inlets of the Indian River Lagoon estuary (Florida) were recently measured using a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system. Although the two inlets—Sebastian Inlet and Port Canaveral Inlet—are separated by only 60 km, their characteristics and dynamics are quite unique. While Sebastian Inlet is a shallow (~4 m), curved inlet with a free connection to the estuary, Port Canaveral Inlet is dominated by a deep (~13 m), straight ship channel and has limited connectivity to the Banana River through a sector gate lock. Underway measurements of tidal currents were obtained using a bottom tracking acoustic Doppler current profiler; vertical casts of hydrography were obtained with a conductivity-temperature-depth profiling instrument; and continuous underway measurements of surface water hydrography were made using a Portable SeaKeeper system. Survey transects were performed to elucidate the along-channel variability of tidal flows, which appears to be significant in the presence of channel curvature. Ebb and flood tidal currents in Sebastian Inlet routinely exceeded 2.5 m/s from the surface to the bed, and an appreciable phase lag exists between tidal stage and current magnitude. The tidal currents at Port Canaveral Inlet were much smaller (~0.2 m/s) and appeared to be sensitive to meteorological forcing during the study period. Although the lagoon has free connections to the ocean 145 km to the north and 45 km to the south, Sebastian Inlet likely drains much of the lagoon to its north, an area of ~550 sq. km.

Webb, B. M.; Weaver, R. J.

2012-12-01

15

Comparative visual function in predatory fishes from the Indian River Lagoon.  

PubMed

Visual temporal resolution and spectral sensitivity of three coastal teleost species (common snook [Centropomus undecimalis], gray snapper [Lutjanus griseus], and pinfish [Lagodon rhomboides]) were investigated by electroretinogram. Temporal resolution was quantified under photopic and scotopic conditions using response waveform dynamics and maximum critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFmax). Photopic CFFmax was significantly higher than scotopic CFFmax in all species. The snapper had the shortest photoreceptor response latency time (26.7 ms) and the highest CFFmax (47 Hz), suggesting that its eyes are adapted for a brighter photic environment. In contrast, the snook had the longest response latency time (36.8 ms) and lowest CFFmax (40 Hz), indicating that its eyes are adapted for a dimmer environment or nocturnal lifestyle. Species spectral responses ranged from 360 to 620 nm and revealed the presence of rods sensitive to dim and twilight conditions, as well as multiple cone visual pigments providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Collectively, our results demonstrate differences in visual function among species inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon system, representative of their unique ecology and life histories. PMID:23629879

McComb, D Michelle; Kajiura, Stephen M; Horodysky, Andrij Z; Frank, Tamara M

2013-01-01

16

Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon  

PubMed Central

Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%). Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations. PMID:23840535

Stolen, Megan; St. Leger, Judy; Durden, Wendy Noke; Mazza, Teresa; Nilson, Erika

2013-01-01

17

Water-quality monitoring and biological integrity assessment in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Status, trends, and loadings (1988--1994)  

SciTech Connect

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) system that extends from Ponce DeLeon inlet to Jupiter inlet is comprised of three interconnected estuarine lagoons: The Mosquito Lagoon (ML), the Banana River Lagoon (BRL), and the Indian River Lagoon. The declines in both the aerial coverage and species diversity of seagrass communities within the IRL system are believed to be due in part to continued degradation of water quality. Large inflows of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)-laden storm-water from urban areas an agricultural land have been correlated with higher chlorophyll a production in the central, south central, and the south segments of the lagoon. In a system as large and complex as the lagoon, N and P limitations are potentially subject to significant spatial and temporal variability. Total Kjeidahl nitrogen (TN) was higher in the north and lower in the south. The reverse pattern was observed for total P (TP), i.e., lowest in the north and highest at the south ends of the IRL. This increased P concentration in the SIRL appears to have a significantly large effect on chlorophyll a production compared with the other segments, as indicated by stepwise regression statistics. This relationship can be expressed as follows: South IRL [chlorophyll a] = {minus}8.52 + 162.41 [orthophosphate] + 7.86 [total nitrogen] + 0.38 [turbidity]; R{sup 2} = 0.98**.

Sigua, G.C.; Steward, J.S.; Tweedale, W.A.

2000-02-01

18

Seasonal and Spatial Variation in Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Values of Aquatic Macrophytes within the Indian River Lagoon, FL, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) is a biologically diverse estuary located at the boundary between sub-tropical and warm-temperate marine waters on Florida`s Atlantic coast. Increased residential, agricultural and commercial development along the IRL has drastically changed the nutrient load of freshwater sources emptying into the lagoon, which has in turn impacted the local ecosystem. The degree of development is heterogeneously distributed along the length of the IRL, creating distinct zones of high and low nutrient loading. We examined the effect of these spatially distinct changes in nutrient content on the IRL ecosystem by collecting specimens of seagrass and marine algae from several sites spanning a north-south transect within the IRL and analyzing the carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotope composition of these marine macrophytes. Aquatic plant tissue stable isotope values are strongly influenced by the stable isotope composition of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nitrogen (DIN) pools, which in turn show distinct differences between anthropogenic and natural sources. Thus, the ?13C and ?15N values of marine macrophytes can aid in monitoring the human impact on environmental quality by serving as proxies for the relative contribution and influence of anthropogenic, terrestrial and marine nutrients within the IRL. Large spatial and seasonal differences in stable isotope values were detected among both plant types. A north-south gradient in carbon and nitrogen isotope values was found in the IRL with ?13C values lowest and ?15N values highest towards the northern end of the lagoon. Comparison of this gradient with water quality data collected by the IRL monitoring program suggests that these isotope values are strongly correlated with salinity. To the north of the IRL, freshwater influx from natural rivers and man-made canals lower salinity levels and introduce large amounts of DIC and DIN from anthropogenic sources. In contrast, the southern stretch of the lagoon is more strongly impacted by marine influx via several inlets into the lagoon. The magnitude of the difference in vegetation isotope values from different ends of the lagoon was also found to fluctuate seasonally and was correlated with the timing of freshwater dumping from canals into the IRL during the fall and winter seasons.

Clementz, M.; Tuross, N.

2006-12-01

19

Estimating the Submarine Groundwater Discharge Flux of Rare Earth Elements to the Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA, Using the 1-D Vertical - Flow Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the sources and sinks of trace elements like the rare earth elements (REE) in the oceans has important implications for quantifying their global geochemical cycles, their application as paleoceanographic tracers, and in discerning the geochemical reactions that mobilize, sequester, and fractionate REEs in the environment. This understanding is critical for neodymium (Nd) because radiogenic Nd isotopes are commonly used in paleoceanographic studies over glacial-interglacial to million year time scales. The submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) flux of each REE for the Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA, was calculated using a modified form of the 1-dimensional vertical-flow equation that accounts for diffusion, advection, and non-local mass transfer processes. The SGD REE flux is comprised of two sources: a near shore, heavy REE (HREE) enriched advective source chiefly composed of terrestrial SGD, and a light REE (LREE) and middle REE (MREE) enriched source that originates from reductive dissolution of Fe (III) oxides/hydroxides in the subterranean estuary. This SGD flux mixture of REE sources is subsequently transported by groundwater seepage and bioirrigation to the overlying lagoon water column. The total SGD flux of REEs reveals that the subterranean estuary of the Indian River Lagoon is a source for LREE and MREEs, and a sink for the HREEs, to the local coastal ocean. The calculated SGD flux of Nd presented in this study is estimated at 7.69×1.02 mmol/day, which is roughly equivalent to the effective local river flux to the Indian River Lagoon. Although our re-evaluated SGD flux of Nd to the Indian River Lagoon is lower than estimates in our previous work, it nonetheless represents a substantial input to the coastal ocean.

Chevis, D. A.; Johannesson, K. H.; Burdige, D.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.

2013-12-01

20

Risk Factors for Colonization of E. coli in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

PubMed Central

Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48?hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48?hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings. PMID:21977048

Schaefer, Adam M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A.; Reif, John S.

2011-01-01

21

Measures of Water Quality in Merrit Island National Wildlife Refuge Impoundments and Adjacent Indian River Lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to conduct preliminary investigations to determine appropriate sampling strategies to measure the flux of dissolved nutrients (specifically, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, and PO4(3-)) and suspended particulate matter (TSS) between impoundments and the IRL in preparation for an intensive three-year monitoring program. In addition to nutrients and TSS, a variety of common water quality indicators were also measured during these preliminary studies. Six impoundments and a single restored marsh were selected for study. Over a month long period, water samples were collected weekly at selected impoundment culverts. Water was collected in duplicate as independent grab samples from both the lagoon side and within the perimeter ditch directly adjacent to the culverts. Water quality indicators inside and outside the marsh impoundments were different. Ammonium, salinity, bacteria, and chlorophyll-a were higher inside the impoundments as expected possibly as a result of the great affect of evaporation on impoundment water. Water quality indicators responded rapidly both inside and outside the impoundments as exemplified by the increase in NH4(+)-N concentrations during a horseshoe crab die-off. Water quality indicators were high variable during the month in which water samples were collected. Because the impoundments are widely spaced it is logistically unrealistic to sample each of the impoundments and associated seagrass beds on a single day, sampling must be stratified to allow patterns of material movement and the annual flux of materials to and from the impoundments to be determined.

Blum, Linda K.

2000-01-01

22

Field trips and their effect on student achievement in and attitudes toward science: A comparison of a physical versus a virtual field trip to the Indian River Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical and virtual field trips on students' achievement in estuarine ecology and their attitudes toward science. The study also assessed the effect of students' learning styles, the interaction between group membership and learning styles, and the effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy. Working with a convenient sample of 67 freshmen and sophomore non-science majors, students were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (physical, n = 32 and virtual, n = 35). Prior to treatment, students' learning styles were determined, students were pre-assessed on the two targeted measures, and all students attended four consecutive, in-class, 75-minute lectures on estuarine ecology and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). Pre-assessed data indicated no significant differences between the groups on the two dependent measures. On the weekend following the lecture series, the physical field trip group engaged in a set of predetermined activities at the IRL for 2 hours in the morning. Later that afternoon, the virtual field trip group participated in a 2-hour virtual trip to the IRL that exactly matched the physical field trip activities. This virtual trip incorporated the CD-ROM The Living Lagoon: An Electronic Field Trip. Following each trip, students were post-assessed using the same pre-assessment instruments. MANCOVA results indicated no significant differences on all research factors (i.e., group membership, learning style, and group-learning style interaction). Data analysis also revealed that there was no significant effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's taxonomy. These findings imply that educators can integrate virtual field trips that are structured in the same manner as their corresponding physical field trips without significantly impacting student achievement or attitudes.

Garner, Lesley Cochran

23

THE NEOTROPICAL RIVER OTTER Lutra longicaudis IN IBERÁ LAGOON, ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neotropical river otter has suffered intense hunting pressure in Argentina. Over the last two decades, hunting has decreased. A survey was carried out in an area where otters appear to be abundant, the Iberá Swamps and Lagoons Reserve, where the government has concentrated conservation efforts. A good population was found here and in several other lagoons in the reserve,

Anibal Parera

24

75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country...System (NPDES) general permits for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in Indian...issuance of the NPDES general permit for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in...

2010-08-31

25

Identification of pollution of Tapeng Lagoon from neighbouring rivers using multivariate statistical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon and three neighbouring rivers (the Kaoping River, Tungkang River and Lingbeng River) in Taiwan, Republic of China. Canonical discriminant analysis was applied to identify the source of pollution in neighbouring rivers outside Tapeng Lagoon. The two constructed discriminant functions showed a marked contribution to all discriminant variables, and the total nitrogen,

Shao-Wei Liao; Hwa-Sheng Gau; Wen-Liang Lai; Jen-Jeng Chen; Chang-Gai Lee

2008-01-01

26

Identification of pollution of Tapeng Lagoon from neighbouring rivers using multivariate statistical method.  

PubMed

This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon and three neighbouring rivers (the Kaoping River, Tungkang River and Lingbeng River) in Taiwan, Republic of China. Canonical discriminant analysis was applied to identify the source of pollution in neighbouring rivers outside Tapeng Lagoon. The two constructed discriminant functions showed a marked contribution to all discriminant variables, and the total nitrogen, algae, dissolved oxygen and total phosphate were combined as the nutrient effect factor. The recognition capacities of the two discriminant functions were 95.6% and 4.4%, respectively. The water quality in the Kaoping River most strongly controlled the water quality in Tapeng Lagoon. Disassembling the oyster frames and fishery boxes had improved the water quality markedly. The methodology and results provide useful information concerning watershed management and may be applicable to other basins with similar properties that are experiencing similar coastal environmental issues. PMID:17482340

Liao, Shao-Wei; Gau, Hwa-Sheng; Lai, Wen-Liang; Chen, Jen-Jeng; Lee, Chang-Gai

2008-07-01

27

Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo  

PubMed Central

Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds. PMID:17915036

Kumar, Satish; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Sandhu, Jasmeet S; Kumar, Niraj; Behl, Vandana

2007-01-01

28

Homologue and isomer distribution of dioxins observed in water samples collected from Kahokugata Lagoon and inflowing rivers, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples were collected at 17 sites in Kahokugata Water Basin, a closed water basin in central Japan. We determined the concentration of dioxins of the water samples. Linear relationships between toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of dioxin and concentrations of suspended solid (SS) were obtained at sites in Kahokugata Lagoon and in the rivers flowing into the lagoon. Homologue composition

Hitoshi Kakimoto; Hideo Oka; Yoshiaki Miyata; Yumiko Yonezawa; Akiko Niikawa; Hirohisa Kyudo; Ning Tang; Akira Toriba; Ryoichi Kizu; Kazuichi Hayakawa

2006-01-01

29

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic  

E-print Network

..................................12 Salmon is a great warrior. He's going up the Columbia River; Salmon always goes up river. SalmonSalmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic Retold by Rodney Frey 28 September 2000 Salmon of the river, to Spider's camp. Spider is making a dip-net; it's not so good. "What are you doing?" Salmon says

O'Laughlin, Jay

30

Heavy metal contamination of the Sacca di Goro lagoon area (Po River Delta, Northern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lagoon area of the Sacca di Goro, within the Po River delta, is ca. 20 km2 wide, with a mean depth of 1.5 m and a mean salinity of 29%o. It holds a major naturalistic interest as well as an economic one due to the aquaculture activities (mussels and clams). In this lagoon system, the quality of the sea-bottom sediments is crucial not only for the cultivated species, but also for the potential bio-accumulation problems in heavy metals. The definition of the qualitative status of the lagoon sediments is crucial for adopting the best management strategies and the protection of the environmental conditions. We determined the concentration in SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn, Cu, Ga, Nd, S and Sr, of 31 samples homogeneously collected over the lagoon area. This large dataset allowed i) to define the environmental quality of the sediments, ii) to recognise the areas with the higher contamination risk; and iii) to emphasise the local occurrence of polluting phenomena associated to chromium, nickel, vanadium, cobalt, lead, zinc and copper.

Rapti-Caputo, Dimitra

2010-05-01

31

The influence of lagoon on neighboring rivers by water and sediment quality.  

PubMed

Canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) was applied in order to distinguish the water-quality and the sediment-quality parameters from neighboring rivers, and to recognize similarities of water and sediment properties between a lagoon and neighboring rivers. Two set of constructed discriminant functions showed a marked contribution to most of the discriminant variables. In water, the significant parameters - the total nitrogen, algae, dissolved oxygen and total phosphate - were combined as the nutrient effect factor. The recognition capacities of the two discriminant functions were 95.6 and 4.4%, respectively; the Kaoping River showed the most similarities with the water quality in Dapeng Bay; in sediment, the significant parameters porosity, Cd, Cr, Al, and Pb were combined as the heavy metal effect factor. The recognition capacities were 82.6 and 17.4%, respectively, but the sediment properties in these three rivers had no significant similarity with the Dapeng Bay. PMID:20453320

Lai, W L; Chen, J J; Chung, C Y; Lee, C G; Liao, S W

2010-01-01

32

Harmful Algae Records in Venice Lagoon and in Po River Delta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)  

PubMed Central

A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide “updated reference conditions” for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200?cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance. PMID:24683360

Bilanicova, Dagmar; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-01-01

33

Effects of extended absence of flooding on the fish assemblages of three floodplain lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Neotropics, a large proportion of fish communities of large rivers use floodplain as habitats for feeding, reproduction, and refuge. An evaluation was made of the effects of extended dry periods on the species richness, abundance and local extinction of fish species in three marginal lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, southeastern Brazil. The studied lagoons fail to

Paulo dos Santos Pompeu; Hugo Pereira Godinho

2006-01-01

34

Effects of water level, abiotic and biotic factors on bacterioplankton abundance in lagoons of a tropical floodplain (Paraná River, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to assess the influence of basic limnological variables on bacterioplankton abundance in twenty lagoons in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Twelve abiotic (depth, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), water transparency, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity and total inorganic carbon), and two biotic (chlorophyll-a and rotifers abundance) limnological

P. Carvalho; S. M. Thomaz; L. M. Bini

2003-01-01

35

Sources of terrigenous inputs to surface sediments of the Colville River Delta and Simpson's Lagoon, Beaufort Sea, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The provenance of sediments and particulate organic carbon (POC) in the Colville River delta and adjacent Simpson's Lagoon, in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, was investigated using a variety of bulk and molecular techniques, including stable and radiocarbon isotopes, neodymium isotopes, algal pigments, and lignin-phenols. Additionally, stable carbon isotopes and lignin-phenols were analyzed on four different density fractions from sediments. The Colville River, the largest river in North America with a watershed exclusively located in the high-Arctic tundra, was an important source of terrestrial POC to the western edge of the Lagoon, shown by extremely old radiocarbon ages (fraction modern of 0.165 ± 0.001 close to the river mouth up to 0.418 ± 0.002 farther away). Stations without northern protective barrier islands had large amounts of marine POC input, and evidence of benthic microalgae was found in one area of the Lagoon (chlorophyll-a concentration 35.0 µg gOC-1 in the high-algal biomass area compared to 1 to 7 µg gOC-1 outside of it). Stations in the middle and eastern end of the Lagoon showed significant sediment input from coastal erosion (input of peat-indicating non-lignin-phenols 0.079 mg (100mgOC)-1 in the eastern lagoon compared to 0.022 mg (100mgOC)-1 near the Colville delta), and on the eastern end of the Lagoon there was evidence of input of Mackenzie River POC, shown with neodymium isotopes and also COP. POC inputs derived from rivers, coastal erosion, and marine productivity were quantified using a ternary mixing model and showed that fluvial supply and coastal erosion were the dominant carbon sources to the Lagoon. This constitutes the first study of POC delivery by the Colville River into a nearshore region and illustrates that continued warming of the high Arctic tundra will likely lead to increased riverine POC delivery to this region of the world.

Schreiner, Kathryn M.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Allison, Mead A.; Hanna, Andrea J. M.

2013-06-01

36

Holocene sedimentary evolution of a mid-ocean atoll lagoon, Maldives, Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on detailed analyses of cores covering the lagoon of Rasdhoo Atoll, Maldives, six carbonate facies, one soil, and one peat facies have been identified. The abundance of carbonate and rare opaque grains was quantified with a point counter. X-ray diffractometry was used to measure mineralogical composition of samples. The statistical delineation of facies using cluster analysis was based on point count, mineralogical, and textural analyses. In decreasing abundance, the six carbonate facies are classified as mollusk-coral-algal floatstone to rudstone (30 %), mollusk-coral-red algae rudstone (23 %), mollusk-coral-algal wackestone to floatstone (23 %), mollusk-coral wackestone (13 %), mollusk-coral mudstone to wackestone (9 %), and mollusk mudstone (2 %). The carbonate facies represent lagoonal background sedimentation, mostly consisting of fine sediments, and event sedimentation depositing transported coarse-grained reefal components. Fifty-seven carbonate samples and one peat sample were dated radiometrically, covering the Holocene transgression from 10 kyrs BP until today. Comparing the sediment accumulation data of the lagoon with two local sea-level curves, three systems tracts can be identified: (1) a lowstand systems tract characterized by karst and soil deposition >10 kyrs BP, (2) a transgressive systems tract with peat and carbonate separated by hiatus 10-6.5 kyrs BP, and (3) a highstand systems tract dominated by carbonate sedimentation 6.5-0 kyrs BP and further divided into three stages (6.5-3, 3-1, and 1-0 kyrs BP). During the Holocene transgression, sedimentation rates increased continuously to a maximum of 1.4 m/kyr during 3-1 kyrs BP. Modern (1-0 kyrs BP) mean sedimentation rates average 0.6 m/kyr. A simple calculation suggests that two processes (background sedimentation and sand apron progradation) will probably fill up the accommodation space of the lagoon during the Holocene highstand, but these processes will not suffice to fill the larger atoll lagoons of the archipelago.

Klostermann, Lars; Gischler, Eberhard

2014-08-01

37

Indian River Research and Education Center 2199 South Rock Road  

E-print Network

Indian River Research and Education Center 2199 South Rock Road Fort Pierce, FL 34945-3138 Phone commitment would impact my ability to serve my existing research and teaching program. Little did I know how with specific goals to (1) enhance application of skills and knowledge learning in nine leadership competencies

Florida, University of

38

Water Quality during Development and Apportionment of Pollution from Rivers in Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan. Factor analysis was conducted to explain the characteristics and the variation in the quality of water during the disassembly of oyster frames and fishery boxes. The result shows that the most important latent factors in Tapeng Lagoon are the ocean factor, primary productivity factor, and the fishery pollution factor. Canonical

Shao-Wei Liao; Wen-Liang Lai; Jen-Jeng Chen; Jia-Yuh Sheu; Chang-Gai Lee

2006-01-01

39

Climate change impact assessment on hydrology of Indian river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the National Communication (NATCOM) project undertaken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, the present study has been taken up to quantify the impact of the cl i- mate change on the water resources of Indian river systems. The study uses the HadRM2 daily weather data to determine the spatio-temporal water availabil- ity in

A. K. Gosain; Sandhya Rao; Debajit Basuray

40

Terrestrial Carbon Inputs from the Colville River to Simpson Lagoon, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, Arctic regions could warm over the next 100 years by as much 3° to 7°C. There is currently a paucity of knowledge about the input of terrestrial carbon into Arctic marginal seas, the potential effects of climate change on that carbon input, and how that input reflects the effects of climate change on Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. This study explores carbon input from the Colville River into its delta and the adjacent Simpson’s Lagoon in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, using core material and land samples taken during an August 2010 field campaign. The Colville is the largest North American river that drains only continuously permafrosted drainage basin, originating in the Brooks Range and flowing over the Alaskan North Slope into the Beaufort Sea. Preliminary X-radiographic analysis of these cores indicates they are well-laminated, with minor bioturbation and no ice-gouging disturbance. Lignin-phenol biomarkers and ?13C analyses of downcore samples indicate that terrestrial carbon inputs in this region are closely linked with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) mode. A negative AO mode during the 1960’s has likely contributed to an increased inputs of terrestrial carbon, while a switch to more positive AO conditions in the 1970’s and 1980’s corresponds with a decreased input of terrestrial carbon relative to other sources. This study also provides the first evidence of laminated sediment cores collected from such shallow regions near the delta and consequently hold great promise for reconstruction of terrestrial ecosystem changes in the Alaskan North Slope over the last millennia. More specifically, factors like terrestrial river runoff, precipitation, sea and landfast ice extent, coastal erosion rates, and permafrost temperatures have varied prior to the instrumental record in the Arctic are examined, and are reflected in the sedimentary organic carbon record. Finally, these reconstruction analyses have the potential to aid in decoupling climate factors such as the influence of anthropogenic climate change and the Arctic Oscillation.

Schreiner, K. M.; Bianchi, T. S.; Allison, M. A.

2010-12-01

41

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2011-07-01

42

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2013-07-01

43

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2012-07-01

44

More Indian River residents living below poverty level, Census report says  

E-print Network

is high, which is causing poverty to rise," said Florida Atlantic University Associate ProfessorMore Indian River residents living below poverty level, Census report says By Keona Gardner Thursday, September 22, 2011 INDIAN RIVER COUNTY -- The county's poverty level is at a three-year high

Belogay, Eugene A.

45

Changes in Terrestrial Organic Carbon Delivery to the Colville River Delta and Adjacent Simpson's Lagoon Over the Late Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colville River in Alaska is the largest river in North America that drains only continuously permafrosted tundra, and as such provides a unique signal of historical changes in one of the world's most vulnerable areas to climate changes. Additionally, the Colville flows into Simpson's Lagoon, a shallow area of the Alaskan Beaufort coast protected by a barrier island chain, lessening the impacts of Arctic storms and ice grounding on sediment mixing. Cores collected from the Colville river delta in August of 2010 were found to be composed of muddy, organic-rich, well-laminated sediments. The 2.5 to 3 meter length of each core spans about one to two thousand years of Holocene history, including the entire Anthropocene and much of the late Holocene. Three cores were sampled for this data set, arranged latitudinally from the mouth of the Colville River east into Simpson's Lagoon. Samples were taken every 2 cm for the entire length of all cores. Bulk analyses including percent organic carbon, percent nitrogen, and stable carbon isotopic analysis were performed, and compound specific analyses including lignin-phenol and algal pigment analyses were performed. These analyses showed significant changes in carbon storage over the past one to two thousand years. There were also significant spatial differences in organic carbon inputs across the ~20km distance between the Colville mouth and the easternmost core. Lignin-phenol concentrations in surface sediments nearest to the river mouth correlated positively with reconstructed Alaskan North Slope temperatures, suggesting more terrestrial organic matter was delivered during higher temperature regimes. Molar C:N ratios and plant pigments correlated negatively and positively, respectively, with reconstructed Alaskan North Slope moisture regime, indicating greater algal inputs during wetter time periods. These data may in part be consistent with observed woody shrub encroachment and increasing expanse of permafrost lakes on the North Slope. Bulk isotope data of the same core showed extremely depleted (up to -34‰) excursions in the top third (i.e. over the past 800 years), and corresponded with increased input of more highly degraded lignin-phenols (as indicated by higher (Ad:Al)v ratios). Alternatively, sediments from the most distal core from the river mouth indicate the majority of organic carbon input to this area of the lagoon was not connected with Colville River outflow, and likely originated from either coastal retreat or was potentially carried into the lagoon from farther east by the Beaufort Gyre. Over the past millennium, the organic carbon input has consistently become more enriched in 13C and less lignin-phenol rich, likely indicating increased input of algal carbon. This data provides the first fine-scale, late Holocene record for this region of the Arctic.

Schreiner, K. M.; Bianchi, T. S.; Allison, M. A.; Miller, A. J.; Marcantonio, F.

2012-04-01

46

Studies on the toxic elements and organic degradation products in aquatic bodies and sediments around Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Haulover Canal and Mosquito Lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work during the first year ending September, 1975, is reported. Indian River, Haulover Canal, Mosquito Lagoon, and other aquatic areas of discharge around Kennedy Space Center (KSC) were studied. The presentation and interpretation of data on water and sediment samples collected from Haulover Canal and Mosquito Lagoon are included. The field and laboratory data are presented and tentative conclusions were drawn in the various aspects of the study. An attempt was made to correlate the physical, chemical, and biological parameters.

Ghuman, G. S.; Menon, M. P.; Emeh, C. O.

1975-01-01

47

Morphostratigraphic framework of the Venice Lagoon (Italy) by very shallow water VHRS surveys: Evidence of radical changes triggered by human-induced river diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is mainly based on a wide Very High Resolution Seismic (VHRS) survey that utilized an ad hoc technique designed for investigations in very shallow waters (about 1 m depth). This method allowed the acquisition of excellent images of the subsurface down to 15-20 m b.s.l. with a resolution of about 10 cm. Buried geomorphological features, such as fluvial channel-levee systems and tidal channels, were imaged for the first time in the shallows and provided new insight into the Holocene evolution of the southern lagoon basin. Furthermore, the new seismic data were used to reconstruct the morphostratigraphic framework of the Venice Lagoon. We provide an Upper Quaternary morphostratigraphic model of the Venice Lagoon and present some evidence of radical changes resulting from human-induced river diversion in the sedimentary regime and in the morphological setting of the southern basin that has occurred over the last millennium.

Tosi, Luigi; Rizzetto, Federica; Zecchin, Massimo; Brancolini, Giuliano; Baradello, Luca

2009-05-01

48

Hydrodynamics and Eutrophication Model Study of Indian River and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Indian River and Rehoboth Bay are two shallow bodies that form part of the Delaware Inland Bays system. The Bays are subject to eutrophication problems that accompany agricultural, commercial, and recreational development in the coastal zone. A hydrodynam...

B. Bunch, C. F. Cerco, H. Wang, M. A. Cialone

1994-01-01

49

AAACCOMPLISHMENTSCCOMPLISHMENTSCCOMPLISHMENTS 2012201220122012 FAU Harbor Branch Research Highlights INDIAN RIVER LAGOON OBSERVATORY PROGRAM ESTABLISHED  

E-print Network

on the premise that one species' trash is another's treasure. The multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system and "waste" products. Each species represents a different trophic (feeding) level and feed on what other species in the system leave behind. The goal is to improve the sustainability of aquaculture by minimizing

Fernandez, Eduardo

50

Relationships Between Vegetation and Ground Conductivity in a Mangrove Near Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, an electromagnetic induction survey was conducted with the EM-31 to assess the spatial variability of ground conductivity, a proxy for groundwater salinity, in a mangrove on North Hutchinson Island, Florida, a carbonate barrier island. A previous study established a relationship between ground conductivities and pore-water salinities, but data points are not spaced closely enough to properly observe the potential effect of mangrove vegetation on ground conductivities. We present here apparent conductivities measured along five profiles that traverse the field site; data were inverted to obtain ground conductivity for the vadose and saturated zones. The vegetation types are dense black mangrove, scrubby black mangrove and salt pan (little or no vegetation). At this site, average water-table levels were 0.2 m below ground level. The mangrove roots systems extend to .6 m to 1 m below the ground surface. Sampled pore-water conductivities range from near freshwater to hypersaline. Effective depth measurements range from 2 m to 5.5 m for the EM31. The average vadose-zone ground conductivities derived from inversion of the data are 1400 mS/m, but range from 75 mS/m to 12,000mS/m. The average saturated -zone ground conductivities are 1900 mS/m, and range more narrowly from 820 mS/m to 2400 mS/m. These large conductivity values mean the low-induction number assumption is not satisfied so true conductivity values are larger than what is measured, but spatial distribution and variability is still observable. There is a larger degree of variability observed in the vadose zone than the saturated zone, but the saturated zone generally has higher conductivity values associated with it; which is controlled by saline-hypersaline groundwater. The density of mangrove vegetation shows a strong correlation with ground conductivity variability in both zones-- vegetated areas have more variability than salt pan areas. This is due to root systems removing salt and water from the ground but excreting the salts at the leaves, which eventually returns to the ground. Salt pans, lacking vegetation, have evenly distributed ground conductivities.

McNiff, C. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Rains, M. C.; Stringer, C. E.

2013-12-01

51

Impacts to a Coastal River and Estuary from Rupture of a Large Swine Waste Holding Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tracked a swine waste spill (4.13 ? 107 L) into a small receiving river and estuary. After 2 d, a 29-kin freshwater segment that the wastes had traversed was anoxic, with ca. 4000 dead fish floating and hung in shoreline vegetation. Suspended solids, nutrients, and fecal coliforms were 10- to 100-fold higher at the plume's edge (71.7 mg SS\\/L,

JoAnn M. Burkholder; Michael A. Mallin; Howard B. Glasgow; L. Michael Larsen; Matthew R. McIver; G. Christopher Shank; Nora Deamer-Melia; David S. Briley; Jeffrey Springer; Brant W. Touchette; Elle K. Hannon

1997-01-01

52

Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Grade Nine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching guide presents social studies activities to help ninth graders learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Based on the Indian River County environment in Florida, it is part of a series for teachers, students, and community members. The introduction describes the county's geography, natural resources,…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

53

Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Band of Ojibwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…

Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.

2010-01-01

54

Jupiter Courier Pygmy sperm whale found on Indian River beach had no signs of  

E-print Network

sand for 800 yards, moving 100 feet at time. Then they lifted the still-breathing animal up stairs -- The adult pygmy sperm whale that died after washing up on Indian River County's beaches on Tuesday had Wednesday. Test results could take weeks. "We hope nothing unusual is going on" this year, he said

Belogay, Eugene A.

55

BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF WATER LEVEL CHANGES IN MARGINAL LAGOONS AT LOWER SÃO FRANCISCO FLOODPLAIN RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in marginal lagoons at the low São Francisco watershed is dependent on water flow of upstream reservoirs. These organisms inhabit the bottom of freshwater ecosystems and their presence\\/absence, abundance and species richness are ecological indicators of water level fluctuations and human impacts in the watershed. The objective of this study was to assess the taxonomic

DÉBORAH OLIVEIRA; VÍCTOR GOMES; MARCOS CALLISTO

56

Sustainability of Mediterranean Deltaic and Lagoon Wetlands with Sea-Level Rise: The Importance of River Input  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a decadal trend of accretionary dynamics in the wetlands of several northwestern Mediterranean deltas and a lagoon\\u000a system, all of them with high rates of wetland loss. Wetland vertical accretion and surface elevation change were measured\\u000a at 55 riverine, marine, and impounded sites in four coastal systems: the Ebro delta, Spain; the Rhône delta, France; and the

John Day; Carles Ibáñez; Francesco Scarton; Didier Pont; Philippe Hensel; Jason Day

2011-01-01

57

After Celilo Falls: The Dalles Dam, Indian fishing rights, and federal energy policy on the mid-Columbia River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dalles Dam drowned Celilo Falls, the most significant Indian fishing site on the Columbia River, in 1957. Before 1957, the site seasonally drew thousands of Indian to its basalt outcroppings to dipnet for salmon. The Yakima, Umatilla, Warm Springs, and Nez Perce confederated tribes, and unaffiliated river Indians negotiated with the federal government for compensation for their lost fishing stations as well as for homes at Celilo Village located in the path of the dam's reservoir. This paper traces the course of negotiations between the federal government and Indian people, and the impact of negotiations on treaty fishing rights on the Columbia River. It puts negotiations in a larger context that includes Indian resistance to encroachment of their treaty rights at Celilo, non-native resistance to the proposed Dalles Dam, and federal Indian policy of the 1930s--1960s. Drawing from the files of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Amy Corps of Engineers, newspaper articles, and government reports, I conclude that the Army Corps did not incorporate native or non-native opposition into their plans but only recorded it "for the record" and proceeded with development. Even so, the persistence of Indians who struggled to retain control of their fisheries and community during a period of tremendous social and economic upheaval is an important part of the history of the Pacific Northwest.

Barber, Katrine Elise

58

Fractionation and ecotoxicological implication of potentially toxic metals in sediments of three urban rivers and the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria, West Africa.  

PubMed

The potential environmental impact of sediment-bound Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in three trans-urban rivers in Lagos state and in the Lagos Lagoon was assessed by use of the modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. The quality of the data was checked using BCR CRM 143R and BCR CRM 701. Good agreement was obtained between found and certified/indicative values. Of the rivers, the Odo-Iyaalaro, was generally the most contaminated and the Ibeshe the least. Higher concentrations of metals were generally found in the dry season compared to the wet season. Cadmium and Zn were released mostly in the acid exchangeable step of the sequential extraction, indicating that they have the greatest potential mobility and bioavailability of the analytes studied. Chromium and Cu were associated mainly with the reducible and oxidisable fractions, and Pb predominantly with the reducible and residual fractions. Sediments with the highest pseudototal analyte concentrations also released higher proportions of analytes earlier in the sequential extraction procedure. The study suggests that, during the dry season, potentially toxic metals (PTM) may accumulate in sediments in relatively labile forms that are released and can potentially be transported or bioaccumulate in the rainy season. Application of risk assessment codes and Hankanson potential risk indices indicated that Cd was the element of greatest concern in the Lagos Lagoon system. The study indicated that there is a need to strengthen environmental management and pollution control measures to reduce risk from PTM, but that even relatively simple strategies, such as seasonal restrictions on dredging and fishing, could be beneficial. PMID:25069633

Oyeyiola, Aderonke O; Davidson, Christine M; Olayinka, Kehinde O; Alo, Babajide I

2014-11-01

59

Effects of flow releases on macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Adirondack Mountains of Northern New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of flow releases (daily during spring and four times weekly during summer) from a small impoundment on macroinvertebrate assemblages in the lower Indian River and upper Hudson River of northern New York were assessed during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Community indices, feeding guilds, dominant species and Bray—Curtis similarities at three sites on the Indian River, below a regulated impoundment, were compared with those at four control sites on the Cedar River, below a run-of-the-river impoundment of comparable size. The same indices at four less-likely affected sites on the Hudson River, below the mouth of the Indian River, were compared with those at an upstream control site on the Hudson River. Results show that the function and apparent health of macroinvertebrate communities were generally unaffected by atypical flow regimes and/or altered water quality at study reaches downstream from both dams in the Indian, Cedar and Hudson Rivers. The lentic nature of releases from both impoundments, however, produced significant changes in the structure of assemblages at Indian and Cedar River sites immediately downstream from both dams, moderate effects at two Indian River sites 2.4 and 4.0 km downstream from its dam, little or no effect at three Cedar River sites 7.2-34.2 km downstream from its dam, and no effect at any Hudson River site. Bray—Curtis similarities indicate that assemblages did not differ significantly among sites within similar impact categories. The paucity of scrapers at all Indian River sites, and the predominance of filter-feeding Simulium gouldingi and Pisidium compressum immediately below Abanakee dam, show that only minor differences in dominant species and trophic structure of macroinvertebrate communities occurred at affected sites in the Indian River compared to the Cedar River. Thus, flow releases had only a small, localized effect on macroinvertebrate communities in the Indian River.

Baldigo, B. P.; Smith, A. J.

2011-01-01

60

Wisconsin Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

61

Effects of the Indian Ocean Temperature on Nile River Flow Volumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egypt and Sudan are heavily dependent on the Nile River for sustaining their populations. In high flow years, the Lake Nasser surface water levels rise and overflows filling surrounding natural depressions and forming additional lakes (Tushka lakes) in peak flow years. The underlying Nubian Aquifer is recharged in high flow yeas, whereas the Nubian groundwater discharges into the Nile in low flow years. Previous studies have shown that the variability in flow volumes in the Nile River can be partially (~30%) accounted for by variations in the intensity of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Other previous studies suggested that rainfall in the upper Blue Nile catchment in Sudan can be linked to changes in the intensity of temperature variations across the Indian Ocean (the Indian Ocean Dipole or IOD). To test which of these events correlate best with Nile flow volumes, Nile flow records in the Blue Nile (above Khartoum), the White Nile (above Kharthoum), and combined flow at Wadi Halfa covering the time period from 1902 to 1962 were analyzed together with SST measurements. Peak and minimum discharge, and quarterly measurement from each gauge were obtained. The intensity of El Nino 3.4 and 4, and of the Indian Ocean Dipole variations from the reconstructed SST dataset hadlSST covering the same time period were used. The best correlation was found to exist between fluctuations in the IOD in the Spring (Apr-May-Jun) preceding the peak flow (usually occurring in August) and maximum discharge at the Blue Nile Gauge above Khartoum (Correlation coefficient of 0.65). Variations in El Nino intensity for the same time period showed lower correlations with peak and base Nile flow in the Blue Nile (0.55). This indicates that the intensity of the Indian Ocean Dipole has been a better predictor than El Nino for peak Nile Flow volume. Results highlight the potential for using the latter relationship for predicting Nile Flow volumes flowing in Lake Nasser and for modeling the corresponding recharge and storage in the Nubian Aquifer under futuristic model climatic scenarios.

Becker, R.; Sultan, M.; Becker, D.

2009-12-01

62

Variability of Organic Matter Processing in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability of plant organic matter processing was studied experimentally in a shallow coastal lagoon (Tancada lagoon, average depth: 37 cm, area: 1.8 km2) in the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain). To determine the effect of hydrology and sediment characteristics on plant organic matter processing, leaves of Phragmites australis at the end of its vegetative cycle and whole plants

Margarita Menéndez; Oliver Hernández; Neus Sanmartí; Francisco A. Comín

2004-01-01

63

Effects of recreational flow releases on natural resources of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Central Adirondack Mountains, New York, 2004-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), and Cornell University carried out a cooperative 2-year study from the fall of 2004 through the fall of 2006 to characterize the potential effects of recreational-flow releases from Lake Abanakee on natural resources in the Indian and Hudson Rivers. Researchers gathered baseline information on hydrology, temperature, habitat, nearshore wetlands, and macroinvertebrate and fish communities and assessed the behavior and thermoregulation of stocked brown trout in study reaches from both rivers and from a control river. The effects of recreational-flow releases (releases) were assessed by comparing data from affected reaches with data from the same reaches during nonrelease days, control reaches in a nearby run-of-the-river system (the Cedar River), and one reach in the Hudson River upstream from the confluence with the Indian River. A streamgage downstream from Lake Abanakee transmitted data by satellite from November 2004 to November 2006; these data were used as the basis for developing a rating curve that was used to estimate discharges for the study period. River habitat at most study reaches was delineated by using Global Positioning System and ArcMap software on a handheld computer, and wetlands were mapped by ground-based measurements of length, width, and areal density. River temperature in the Indian and Hudson Rivers was monitored continuously at eight sites during June through September of 2005 and 2006; temperature was mapped in 2005 by remote imaging made possible through collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology. Fish communities at all study reaches were surveyed and characterized through quantitative, nearshore electrofishing surveys. Macroinvertebrate communities in all study reaches were sampled using the traveling-kick method and characterized using standard indices. Radio telemetry was used to track the movement and persistence of stocked brown trout (implanted with temperature-sensitive transmitters) in the Indian and Hudson Rivers during the summer of 2005 and in all three rivers during the summer of 2006. The releases had little effect on river temperatures, but increased discharges by about one order of magnitude. Regardless of the releases, river temperatures at all study sites commonly exceeded the threshold known to be stressful to brown trout. At most sites, mean and median water temperatures on release days were not significantly different, or slightly lower, than water temperatures on nonrelease days. Most differences were very small and, thus, were probably not biologically meaningful. The releases generally increased the total surface area of fast-water habitat (rapids, runs, and riffles) and decreased the total surface area of slow-water habitat (pools, glides, backwater areas, and side channels). The total surface areas of wetlands bordering the Indian River were substantially smaller than the surface areas bordering the Cedar River; however, no channel geomorphology or watershed soil and topographic data were assessed to determine whether the releases or other factors were mainly responsible for observed differences. Results from surveys of resident biota indicate that the releases generally had a limited effect on fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Indian River and had no effect on communities in the Hudson River. Compared to fish data from Cedar River control sites, the impoundment appeared to reduce total density, biomass, and richness in the Indian River at the first site downstream from Lake Abanakee, moderately reduce the indexes at the other two sites on the Indian River, and slightly reduce the indexes at the first Hudson River site downstream from the confluence with the Indian River. The densities of individual fish populations at all Indian River sites were also reduced, but related effects on fish populations in the Hudson River were less evident. Altho

Baldigo, B.P.; Mulvihill, C.I.; Ernst, A.G.; Biosvert, B.A.

2011-01-01

64

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

65

Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

66

78 FR 1792 - Special Local Regulations, Stuart Sailfish Regatta, Indian River; Stuart, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket Number USCG-2012-0150] RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Stuart Sailfish Regatta, Indian...the docket number USCG-2012-0150 in the ``SEARCH...the docket number USCG-2012-0150 in the ``SEARCH...United States during the Stuart Sailfish Regatta....

2013-01-09

67

78 FR 18475 - Special Local Regulations; Stuart Sailfish Regatta, Indian River; Stuart, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...100 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0150] RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Stuart Sailfish Regatta, Indian...high-speed boat races. The Stuart Sailfish Regatta will...part of docket USCG-2012-0150. To view documents...Special Local Regulations; Stuart Sailfish Regatta,...

2013-03-27

68

Data report for the geologic and scenic quality evaluation of selected sand and gravel sites on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field studies on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, to inventory and evaluate sand and gravel deposits underlying river terraces on tribal lands along the Wind River. This report contains the results for 12 sites of sand and gravel deposits evaluated for their potential use as aggregate in Portland cement concrete, asphalt, and base course. The report provides the results of: * The USGS geologic studies and engineering tests. * A conclusion and recommendation for the best use of sand and gravel materials. * Calculations of available sand and gravel materials. * A scenic quality landscape inventory and evaluation.

Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Arbogast, Belinda; Lindsey, David A.

2011-01-01

69

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over the next 2 decades.

Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

2014-05-01

70

Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, Fisheries Resource Management, Yakima Indian Nation1983 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook to the Yakima River system. In January, 1983, 100,000 fish raised at Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery were transported to Nile Springs Rearing Ponds on the Naches River. These fish were allowed a volitional release as smolts in April. An additional 100,000 smolts were transported from Leavenworth Hatchery in April and immediately released to the Upper Yakima River. Relative survival of smolts from their points of release to a trap at Prosser (RM48) was 1.69:1 for fish from Nile Springs, versus the trucked smolts. The fish from Nile Springs arrived at Prosser and McNary Dam approximately 1 week earlier than the transported fish. To better determine the magnitude and location of releases, distribution and abundance studies were undertaken. There is a decrease in abundance from upstream areas over time, indicating a general downstream movement. In the Naches System, the lower Naches River is heavily utilized by juvenile spring chinook during the early summer. A preliminary study evaluated physical limitations of production. On a single evening 67 fish were killed on diversion screens at Chandler Canal. This constituted 5.7% of the wild spring chinook entering the canal and 8.2% of the fall chinook. The larger hatchery spring chinook sustained a 2.3% loss. Adult returns resulted in 443 redds in the Yakima System, with 360 in the Yakima River and 83 in the Naches System.

Wasserman, Larry

1984-02-01

71

Age and growth in the indian major carp Labeo rohita (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from tropical rivers of Ganga basin, India.  

PubMed

Labeo rohita is a member of the Indian major carp species and originally an inhabitant of the Ganga river network in India. It is among the top ten aquaculture species of the world. Since there is a lack of information on the growth pattern of the wild populations of this species, this study aimed at evaluating the pattern of age and growth, to support the development of effective management plans. A total of 1082 samples of L. rohita were obtained from May 2009 to July 2012 in six drainages of the Ganga basin. Scales of the fish were used to determine the age and growth by analyzing the annual rings growth. Out of six populations, a maximum 8+ age classes were recorded from two rivers (Betwa and Sharda). The back-calculated lengths at 8+ age class ranged from 86.22 cm to 91.66 cm. However, for the rest of rivers up to 7+ age classes were recorded. Among growth parameters, specific rate of length increase (C(l)) and specific rate of weight increase (Cw) showed decreasing trend, and three distinct life stages of L. rohita were recorded based on growth constant data (C(lt)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the back-calculated length data set of six populations indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05). All three populations showed significant variation in length attainment during 1+ and 3+ age groups, while two populations showed significant variation in length attainment during the 2+ and 7+ age classes. Additionally, analysis of age frequency at different length intervals indicated that with increase in age class, number of fish samples was reduced. Since the pattern of life history traits of L. rohita have not been attempted in the recent past; therefore, this study will guide fisheries biologists about the current stock structure of this fish across different spatial scale of the Ganga basin. PMID:24432546

Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Gusain, Om Prakash; Dwivedi, Arvind Kumar; Joukrushna, Jena

2013-12-01

72

Channel Characteristics and Planform Dynamics in the Indian Terai, Sharda River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sharda River creates and maintains the ecologically diverse remnant patches of rare Terai ecosystem in northern India. This study used repeat satellite imagery and geographic information system analysis to assess the planform dynamics along a 60 km length of the Sharda River between 1977 and 2001 to understand the altered dynamics and its plausible causes in this data-poor region. Analyses revealed that the Sharda River has undergone significant change corresponding to enhanced instability in terms of increased number of neck cut-offs and consistent occurrence of avulsions in subsequent shorter assessment periods. An increased channel area (8 %), decreased sinuosity (15 %), increased braiding intensity, and abrupt migrations were also documented. The river has migrated toward the east with its west bankline being more unstable. The maximum shifts were 2.85 km in 13 years (1977-1990), 2.33 km in next 9 years (1990-1999), and a substantial shift of 2.39 km in just 2 years (1999-2001). The altered dynamics is making the future of critical wildlife habitats in Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and North Kheri Forest Division precarious and causing significant economic damage. Extensive deforestation and expansion of agriculture since the 1950s in the catchment area are presumed to have severely impacted the equilibrium of the river, which urgently needs a management plan including wildlife habitat conservation, control, and risk reduction. The present study provides a strong foundation for understanding channel changes in the Sharda River and the finding can serve as a valuable information base for effective management planning and ecological restoration.

Midha, Neha; Mathur, Pradeep K.

2014-01-01

73

SEWAGE LAGOON DESIGN USING WETLANDS AND OTHER UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES  

E-print Network

#12;L L llF L L L SEWAGE LAGOON DESIGN USING WETLANDS AND OTHER UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES TO ACHIEVE Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Abatement Office 224 West Esplanade North Vancouver, B.C. V7M 3H7 under the Fraser River Action Plan through its Fraser Pollution Abatement Office. Environment Canada

74

Phytoplankton assemblages in lateral lagoons of a large tropical reservoir.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyse the composition and ecological attributes of the phytoplankton assemblages in four lateral lagoons and in the main channel of Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, SE Brazil). Fieldwork was carried out in September and November/2004 and January, March, May and August/2005. A total of 283 taxa was identified. Zygnemaphyta was the most specious group, followed by Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Higher richness, abundance and biomass were observed in the lagoons when compared with the river-reservoir sampling point, especially during the rainy period. Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae dominated numerically. Cryptomonas brasiliensis Castro, Bicudo and Bicudo was the main species of the phytoplankton in terms of abundance and frequency of occurrence. The dynamics of the most important taxa are discussed and the results showed that the phytoplankton assemblages are mainly influenced by meteorological factors and nutrient availability (the main driving forces). Correlation analyses indicated that the assemblage abundance was limited by nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus). The phytoplankton abundance influenced positively the zooplankton abundance, what indicates the prevalence of bottom-up control routes in the lateral lagoons system. The results validate the hypotheses that lateral lagoons have a prominent ecological role on the phytoplankton diversity, as already previously demonstrated for fish and zooplankton. Therefore, the incorporation of the lateral lagoons in environmental programmes should be a target strategy for the conservation of the regional aquatic biota, minimising the negative impact of the dam. PMID:23644798

Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

2013-02-01

75

Field Trips and Their Effect on Student Achievement and Attitudes: A Comparison of Physical versus Virtual Field Trips to the Indian River Lagoon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of physical and virtual field trips on undergraduate, nonscience majors. No significant differences were seen in achievement, attitudes, learning styles, interactions between field trip and learning styles, or students' ability to answer questions at different levels. Results imply that both field trips promote…

Garner, Lesley C.; Gallo, Michael A.

2005-01-01

76

Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.

NONE

1995-03-01

77

Spring breakup and flushing of an Arctic lagoon estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simpson Lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from the Beaufort Sea by a chain of low-lying barrier islands. Narrow channels are found between the barrier islands, one of which, the Egg Island Channel, is a major connection between the lagoon and the Beaufort Sea. The Kuparuk River produces great quantities of springtime floodwaters which overflow the still-frozen lagoon. This paper examines the relationships between these floodwaters and the character of the water within the lagoon. Measurements of temperature, salinity, sea level, and currents have been made in Egg Island Channel during 1978 and 1979. Meltwater from the Kuparuk River was observed on satellite images to overflow the 2-m-thick bottomfast ice of the lagoon in late May and early June. These floodwaters flush saline (>40‰) water out the 5-m deep channel and replace it with freshwater at 0°C. Analysis of satellite images for several years shows that overflow occurs on May 31 with a standard deviation of 8 days. Sea level rose 64 cm above mean at peak flood in 1978. Subsequently, channel waters warmed to 8°C in late June and were flushed by cold (˜0°C, saline (˜24‰) water from the Beaufort Sea in mid-July. Flooding in 1979 was anomalously early, providing additional insight into the flushing process. The return of seawater to the channel is due to wind-driven currents following the clearing of bottomfast ice in the lagoon. Satellite image analysis shows that ice-free conditions occur by July 10 with a standard deviation of 8 days.

Mattehews, J. B.; Stringer, W. J.

1984-03-01

78

Indian Summer  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

79

Environmental heterogeneity patterns and assessment of trophic levels in two Mediterranean lagoons: Orbetello and Varano, Italy.  

PubMed

The management of coastal lagoons is of particular interest due to their high economical importance. In spite of their great productivity, coastal lagoons are often impacted by human pressure which produces water eutrophication. The aim of this paper is to assess the trophic state of the two Mediterranean lagoons taking into account chemical-physical parameters, nutrient concentrations and biological parameters. Two Italian lagoons, Orbetello and Varano (respectively located in Tyrrhenian and Adriatic coast, Italy) were studied between May 2003 and April 2005. Both these systems receive treated urban outflows, agricultural effluents and rivers freshwater inputs. Field collected data showed that studied lagoons were characterized by different human and natural pressures. Orbetello showed the highest water eutrophication, highlighted by the trophic index values, while Varano showed lower eutrophication levels except for the summertime. The values of physical, chemical and biological parameters measured in Orbetello and Varano lagoons indicate that a wide spatial and seasonal gradient of the water characteristics was established during the study period, but in particular in winter. This gradient, typical of estuarine systems, was essentially due to the mixing of freshwater, seawater and anthropogenic inputs. Orbetello lagoon seemed much more affected by the urban impact and the fish-farming activities than Varano lagoon, but the latter showed a greater agriculture activities impact as showed by the remote sensing images. PMID:18550150

Specchiulli, Antonietta; Focardi, Silvia; Renzi, Monia; Scirocco, Tommaso; Cilenti, Lucrezia; Breber, Paolo; Bastianoni, Simone

2008-09-01

80

Evaluation of TRMM rainfall estimates over a large Indian river basin (Mahanadi)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper examines the quality of satellite-based precipitation estimates for the Lower Mahanadi River Basin (Eastern India). The considered data sets known as 3B42 and 3B42-RT (version 7/7A) are routinely produced by the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) from passive microwave and infrared recordings. While the 3B42-RT data are disseminated in real time, the gage-adjusted 3B42 data set is published with a delay of some months. The quality of the two products was assessed in a two-step procedure. First, the correspondence between the remotely sensed precipitation rates and rain gage data was evaluated at the sub-basin scale. Second, the quality of the rainfall estimates was assessed by analyzing their performance in the context of rainfall-runoff simulation. At sub-basin level (4000 to 16 000 km2) the satellite-based areal precipitation estimates were found to be moderately correlated with the gage-based counterparts (R2 of 0.64-0.74 for 3B42 and 0.59-0.72 for 3B42-RT). Significant discrepancies between TRMM data and ground observations were identified at high intensity levels. The rainfall depth derived from rain gage data is often not reflected by the TRMM estimates (hit rate < 0.6 for ground-based intensities > 80 mm day-1). At the same time, the remotely sensed rainfall rates frequently exceed the gage-based equivalents (false alarm ratios of 0.2-0.6). In addition, the real time product 3B42-RT was found to suffer from a spatially consistent negative bias. Since the regionalization of rain gage data is potentially associated with a number of errors, the above results are subject to uncertainty. Hence, a validation against independent information, such as stream flow, was essential. In this case study, the outcome of rainfall-runoff simulation experiments was consistent with the above-mentioned findings. The best fit between observed and simulated stream flow was obtained if rain gage data were used as model input (Nash-Sutcliffe Index of 0.76-0.88 at gages not affected by reservoir operation). This compares to the values of 0.71-0.78 for the gage-adjusted TRMM 3B42 data and 0.65-0.77 for the 3B42-RT real-time data. Whether the 3B42-RT data are useful in the context of operational runoff prediction in spite of the identified problems remains a question for further research.

Kneis, D.; Chatterjee, C.; Singh, R.

2014-01-01

81

Identification of Pollution Level of Coastal Waters in the Lagoons of Narta and Oricum, Through the Phisical-Chemical and Bacteriological Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research represents data about Narta and Oricum lagoon. Narta lagoon is situated in the south side of Vjosa river overflowing in Adriatik sea and Oricum lagoon is the next one,situated in the south side of Vlora bay.They represent very important habitats because of their turistical value and the use of them for fishing.Therefore it is important toknow the quality

Muharrem Shehu; I. Qemali

2010-01-01

82

Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

1992-01-01

83

Deep Inside the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is one of the brightest galactic HII regions. While 9 Sgr (O4) and the adjoining OB cluster NGC 6530 have been well studied, the low-mass population has been difficult to identify. Based on the number of optically visible OB stars, we predict that a deep ACIS-I exposure of the Lagoon nebula region will reveal >1500 X-ray

Marc Gagne

2002-01-01

84

Pollution indicator species of macrobenthos in a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history differences and effects of physicochemical changes on macrobenthos of coastal lagoons were studied for 2 yr'at one site in the sewage-polluted, moderately enriched Sykes Creek and a comparison site in the less-polluted Banana River, Florida, USA. Monthly and bi-monthly quantitative sediment samples for faunal analyses were taken from the natural substratum, and recolonization of defaunated sediments set out

Raymond E. Grizzle

1984-01-01

85

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa... Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa...emissions from an Energy Project at the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River...

2012-07-01

86

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

... Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa... Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa...emissions from an Energy Project at the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River...

2014-07-01

87

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa... Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa...emissions from an Energy Project at the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River...

2013-07-01

88

Mercury methylation and demethylation in Hg-contaminated lagoon sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) transformation activities and sulfate (SO42-) reduction were studied in sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea region as part of the "MIRACLE" project. The lagoons, which are sites of clam (Tapes philippinarum) farming, have been receiving excess Hg from the Isonzo River for centuries. Marano Lagoon is also contaminated from a chlor-alkali plant. Radiotracer methods were used to measure mercury methylation (230Hg, 197Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation (14C-MeHg) and SO42- reduction (35S) in sediment cores collected in autumn, winter and summer. Mercury methylation rate constants ranged from near zero to 0.054 day-1, generally decreased with depth, and were highest in summer. Demethylation rate constants were much higher than methylation reaching values of ˜0.6 day-1 in summer. Demethylation occurred via the oxidative pathway, except in winter when the reductive pathway increased in importance in surficial sediments. Sulfate reduction was also most active in summer (up to 1600 nmol mL-1 day-1) and depth profiles reflected seasonally changing redox conditions near the surface. Methylation and demethylation rate constants correlated positively with SO42- reduction and pore-water Hg concentrations, and inversely with Hg sediment-water partition coefficients indicating the importance of SO42- reduction and Hg dissolution on Hg cycling. Hg transformation rates were calculated using rate constants and concentrations of Hg species. In laboratory experiments, methylation was inhibited by amendments of the SO42--reduction inhibitor molybdate and by nitrate. Lagoon sediments displayed a dynamic seasonal cycle in which Hg dissolution in spring/summer stimulated Hg methylation, which was followed by a net loss of MeHg in autumn from demethylation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) tended to be responsible for methylation of Hg and the oxidative demethylation of MeHg. However, during winter in surficial sediments, iron-reducing bacteria seemed to contribute to methylation and Hg-resistant bacteria increased in importance in the reductive demethylation of MeHg. The high rates of MeHg demethylation in lagoon sediments may diminish the accumulation of MeHg.

Hines, Mark E.; Poitras, Erin N.; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Emili, Andrea; Žižek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena

2012-11-01

89

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2010-07-01

90

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2013-07-01

91

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2012-07-01

92

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2011-07-01

93

Swine lagoon biogas utilization system  

SciTech Connect

A project was conceived to design and build a system to recover methane from pig manure with covered anaerobic lagoon technology. Covered lagoon technology lends itself both to new lagoon construction and to retrofit designs on existing anaerobic lagoons. A two cell passive in-ground digester/lagoon system was designed for a 600 sow feeder pig farm. The digester was covered with a flexible fabric cover made of 30 mil XR-5. The biogas has 1,100 ppm hydrogen sulfide. For the first month of operation 473 cubic feet of biogas per hour has been recovered from the digester 24 hours per day. At this gas flow the engine turns an induction generator to produce 17.1 KW per hour. A little over 80% of the farm`s electrical needs are generated with methane from swine manure. On an annual basis there will be 150,000 KWh of electricity produced from 4.3 million cubic feet of biogas.

Gettier, S.W.; Roberts, M. [Carroll`s Foods of Va., Inc., Waverly, VA (United States)

1994-12-31

94

Control of submarine groundwater discharge patterns and salinity by a low-permeability paleochannel cap at Indian River Bay, Delaware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication in coastal bays has made it necessary to better understand nutrient sources in these settings. Because groundwater often has elevated nutrient levels with respect to surface water, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) may be an important source of nutrients to coastal bays. To understand the pathways of SGD and how bayfloor geology and hydrology affect them, we examined the geology, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at Indian River Bay, DE. Marine geophysical tools were used to identify the hydrogeologic framework and geometry of a shore-perpendicular freshwater plume beneath the bay. Shallow chirp seismic data outlined a low-permeability paleochannel infill, which is 150m across and 2-3m thick at the center, thinning towards the channel flanks. Offshore continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data show a low-salinity plume generally co-located with, but extending beyond the edges of, this low-permeability cap. Salinity data from 12 offshore wells with multi-level sampling ports verify the general extent of the plume indicated by CRP data. Using Lee-type seepage meters, 565 direct measurements of SGD were made between July 2010 and June 2011. These data show that the paleochannel feature generally controls nearby fresh SGD (FSGD), preventing discharge at the shoreline and causing diffuse freshened or brackish discharge at the channel flanks. In the adjoining interfluve, where the low-K cap is absent, fresh discharge appears focused and decreases monotonically from the shoreline, as predicted by theory. Saline SGD did not follow this trend and comprised the majority of the discharge. The measured maximum FSGD was 33cm/d compared to 198cm/d for recirculated baywater. SGD salinity ranged from 0-33ppt, with an average of 26.9ppt; the average surface baywater salinity was 28.4ppt. Seepage salinity patterns correlate spatially with CRP survey results. To assess the potential for saline SGD driven by interactions of surface water flowing over deployed seepage meters, bay surface current velocities were measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Currents ranged from 0-20 cm/s with an average of 3-6 cm/s, which would produce an estimated discharge of <6 cm/d, less than the average measured saline flux (9.2 cm/d). This indicates that other factors are driving the large saline SGD component at this site. During spring tides, both fresh and saline SGD rates at low tide are twice those at high tide, indicating a strong tidal influence on SGD. Though SGD is difficult to measure due to inherent geologic heterogeneity, temporal forcing factors and current/bathymetry interactions, extensive direct seepage data and correlated geophysical and well data show that the low-permeability paleochannel cap confines and controls fresh and saline groundwater flowpaths to the bay. By quantifying the effects of this cap we can develop better estimates of water and chemical fluxes into the bay.

Russoniello, C. J.; Fernandez, C.; Bratton, J. F.; Krantz, D.; Banaszak, J.; Andres, A. S.; Konikow, L. F.; Michael, H. A.

2011-12-01

95

PERFORMANCE OF AERATED LAGOONS IN NORTHERN CLIMATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies of cold climate aerated lagoons conducted by the Arctic Environmental Research Station, Fairbanks, Alaska are reported. Conclusions are based on these studies, observations of full scale aerated lagoons operating in Alaska and reports on lagoons in the northern tier of th...

96

Nutrient inputs to a Lagoon through submarine groundwater discharge: The case of Laoye Lagoon, Hainan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with inputs of nutrients in certain regions may play a significant role in controlling water quality in the coastal regions. In this paper, we have determined four naturally occurring radium isotope (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra) activities and nutrient concentrations in surface water, coastal groundwater and river water in the mixing zone of Laoye Lagoon to estimate the fluxes of SGD by several models. The activities of the four radium isotopes of ground water were considerably greater than those in surface water samples. Using a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio (AR) model, we estimated the average lagoon water age to be 3.2 days, which was comparable with the flushing time of 4.0 days. Based on the excess radium isotopes and the water age of the lagoon, the estimated fluxes of SGD (in 106 m3/d) ranged from 2.64 to 5.32 with an average of 4.11. Moreover, we used Si balance to evaluate the flux of SGD (4.8 × 106 m3/d) which was close to the result calculated by radium. The SGD-derived nutrient fluxes (in mol/d) were DIN = 1.7 × 105, PO43 - = 5.2 × 102, and SiO3 = 5.3 × 104. Furthermore, we applied the biogeochemical budget approach using SiO3 as a tracer to evaluate the impact of SGD. The differences between the results estimated by radium and SiO3 may indicate different pathways for the input of nutrients.

Ji, Tao; Du, Jinzhou; Moore, Willard S.; Zhang, Guosen; Su, Ni; Zhang, Jing

2013-02-01

97

The Lagoon Nebula M8  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is a well known H h region in the constellation of Sagittarius. It is one of the most studied objects in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and has been examined at all wavelengths from the radio to the gamma ray region. This study will concentrate on the optical region using CCD images taken through filters centered at

Anthony Williams

1997-01-01

98

Bellechester, Minnesota, USA, lagoon collapses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bellechester, Minnesota, is a small community of approximately 155 residents located on the county line between Goodhue and Wabasha counties in southeast Minnesota's karst region. Bellechester is served by a 21-year-old wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) consisting of three waste-stabilization ponds. On 28 April 1992 six sinkholes were discovered to have drained cell 2 of the WWTF resulting in the loss of approximately 8.7×106 1 of partially treated effluent and about 600 m3 of soil into previously undetected subsurface voids of unknown dimensions. In the week following the collapse, approximately 200 water wells located within a 5-km radius of the WWTF were sampled in an after-the-fact, emergency sampling program. Twelve samples with elevated fecal coliform levels, 18 samples with nitrate-nitrogen greater than the 10 mg/1 standard, and no samples with elevated chlorides were found. However, the elevated levels could not be unambiguously attributed to the WWTF collapse. This is the third WWTF to fail by sinkhole collapse in southeast Minnesota since 1974. All three collapsed lagoons have been located in similar geomorphic and stratigraphic settings. However, at least two lagoons have collapsed in the adjacent area in northeast Iowa, and these lagoons are located at different stratigraphic positions. Twenty-two WWTFs constructed in southeast Minnesota's karst region in the last 25 years have been identified as subject to potential sinkhole collapse. An unknown but significant number of manure storage lagoons, flood control structures, etc., have also been constructed in the karst region and are at risk. Public agencies are beginning to develop plans to deal with the risk associated with existing and future waste lagoons in this environment. The critical hydrogeologic parameters that can be used to prioritize the risk of collapse at existing facilities include: (1) the lithology of the first bedrock beneath each lagoon, (2) the thickness of surficial materials between the lagoon and the bedrock surface, (3) the presence and construction of liners (seepage rate), and (4) the proximity to existing sinkholes.

Alexander, E. C.; Broberg, J. S.; Kehren, A. R.; Graziani, M. M.; Turri, W. L.

1993-12-01

99

The attenuation of tidal and subtidal oscillations in the Patos Lagoon estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single, long and narrow channel that usually connects choked coastal lagoons to the ocean can serve as a natural hydraulic low-pass filter that reduces or eliminates tidal and subtidal effects inside the lagoon. This study proposes an alternative method of estimating the attenuation of the tidal and subtidal oscillations throughout the Patos Lagoon estuary. The attenuation is estimated for conditions of contrasting river runoff and weather (summer and winter). A high-pass/low-pass filter (fast fourier transformation technique - FFT) is applied to time series of sea-surface elevation (SSE) measured at the mouth of the Patos Lagoon. The resulting high-frequency (tidal) and low-frequency (subtidal) signals are used in independent simulations to force the TELEMAC-2D model. Attenuation of the tidal and subtidal signals throughout the estuary is estimated by applying cross-spectral analysis between the model-generated SSE time series at different locations throughout the estuary and the filtered SSE time series measured at the mouth. Results from the proposed method suggest that: (1) the low-frequency (subtidal) oscillations are less attenuated and propagate further than the high-frequency (tidal) oscillations in the Patos Lagoon estuary; (2) the filtering capability of the Patos Lagoon estuary is expected to follow a seasonal pattern, although further investigations on an interannual time scale are recommended in order to confirm this hypothesis; (3) the influence of the oceanic boundary processes on the SSE dynamics of the lagoon is restricted to the lower estuary. Further inland, the local forcing generated by the wind and freshwater input is likely to be the main forcing effect controlling the dynamics of the system. The proposed method proved to be an efficient and alternative way of estimating the attenuation of energy in the tidal and subtidal bands throughout the access channel of a choked coastal lagoon located in an area of reduced tidal influence.

Fernandes, E. H. L.; Mariño-Tapia, I.; Dyer, K. R.; Möller, O. O.

100

Impacts of climate change on water resources in watersheds of four European lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrologic impacts of projected climate change were assessed for the drainage areas of four European lagoons: the Ria de Aveiro lagoon in Portugal, the Mar Menor lagoon in Spain, the Vistula lagoon in Poland and Kaliningrad region and the Tyligulski lagoon in Ukraine. The eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was applied to each of the four case study areas individually, considering basin-specific characteristics and management settings. All four watersheds were calibrated and validated towards river discharge at one or more gauges, reaching satisfactory to very good modelling results, depending on the quality and availability of input data (i.e. observed climate and discharge data). For the assessment of climate change impacts we forced the four model set-ups with scenario data from the ENSEMBLES project. Therefore a set of 15 climate scenarios, all running until the end of the 21st century, was applied to SWIM for one reference and three future periods of 30 years each. We evaluated the long-term changes of total freshwater inflow to the four lagoons and compared the results considering average trends and uncertainties induced by the different climate scenarios. The comparison not only shows differences in the magnitude of potential impacts among the four regions but also differences in the direction of change. In Spain and Portugal an average decrease in discharge of about -5% and -15% can be expected, while at the same time the total inflow to the Vistula and the Tyligulski lagoon is projected to increase by 18% and 20% on average by the end of the century. The agreement of climate projections among scenarios is varies between regions and in consequence the uncertainty in model outputs also differs between the four case studies. In the watershed of the Tyligulski lagoon the projected changes in river discharge vary between -70% and 120%, whereas the results for the Ria de Aveiro lagoon range between -1% and -27% for the last three decades of the century. We concluded that the outputs of such kind of impacts intercomparison can add a very valuable contribution to integrated lagoons management in a pan-European context.

Stefanova, Anastassi; Hesse, Cornelia; Krysanova, Valentina

2014-05-01

101

Benthic biogeochemical cycling of mercury in two contaminated northern Adriatic coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research recognized most of the Northern Adriatic coastal lagoon environments as contaminated by mercury (Hg) from multiple anthropogenic sources. Among them, the Pialassa Baiona (P.B.) Lagoon, located near the city of Ravenna (Italy), received between 100 and 200 tons of Hg, generated by an acetaldehyde factory in the period 1957-1977. Further east, the Grado Lagoon has been mainly affected by a long-term Hg input from the Idrija mine (western Slovenia) through the Isonzo River since the 16th century. Hg cycling at the sediment-water interface (SWI) of the two lagoons was investigated and compared by means of an in situ benthic chamber, estimating diffusive Hg and Methyl-Hg fluxes in the summer season. Major chemical features in porewaters (Fe, Mn, H 2S, dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC), nutrients) and in the solid phase (C org, N and S) were also explored to understand the general biogeochemical conditions of the system in response to benthic respiration. The daily integrated flux for the methylated Hg form was extremely low in P.B. Lagoon, accounting for only 7% of the corresponding flux calculated for the Grado Lagoon. Despite a higher sedimentary Hg content in the P.B. Lagoon (14.4-79.0 ?g g -1) compared to the Grado Lagoon (10.7-12.5 ?g g -1), the in situ fluxes of Hg in the two experimental sites appeared similar. A selective sequential extraction procedure was applied to the solid phase, showing that the stable crystalline mineral phase cinnabar (HgS) is the predominant Hg fraction (about 50%) in the Grado Lagoon surface sediments. Conversely, Hg mobilization and sequestration in the P.B. Lagoon is related to the extremely anoxic redox conditions of the system where the intense sulfate reduction, by the release of sulfur and the formation of sulfides, limits the metal recycling at the SWI and its availability for methylation processes. Thus, the environmental conditions at the SWI in the P.B. Lagoon seem to represent a natural "barrier" for the potential risk of Hg transfer to the aquatic trophic chain.

Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Faganeli, Jadran

2011-10-01

102

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K takes you on a trip down Idaho's Snake River near 1000 Springs and Blur Heart Springs while it explains how rivers are formed, their uses, and how they make valleys, canyons and even plains.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-04

103

Indian Control of Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the Federal Government of Canada has the legal responsibility for Indian education, only Indian people can develop a philosophy of education based on Indian values. A conflict of cultural values, which is imposed through education, causes many drop-outs and failures among young Indians. Indian children must be able to preserve their own…

Manuel, George

104

Computational modelling of large aerated lagoon hydraulics.  

PubMed

A good understanding of the hydraulic performance of aerated lagoons is required for their design and operation. A comprehensive numerical procedure has been developed for the three-dimensional computational modelling of the flow in large lagoons including high-speed floating mechanical surface aerators. This paper describes the procedure that consists of separate aerator modelling, then applying the obtained results as boundary data for a full lagoon model. A model application to an industrial aerated lagoon serves as an example of flow analysis. Post processing of the results by calculating the local average residence time (age of fluid) provides a powerful and intuitive technique to visualize and analyse the lagoon performance. The model has been verified by comparing the local average residence time predictions with measurements from a dye study. It is shown that the numerical modelling proposed is feasible and constitutes an effective new tool in improving the performance and design of industrial lagoons. PMID:17418879

Pougatch, Konstantin; Salcudean, Martha; Gartshore, Ian; Pagoria, Philip

2007-05-01

105

Morphodynamics of intermittent coastal lagoons in Southern Spain: Zahara de los Atunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons are valuable water bodies since they are of great ecological and economic interest throughout the world. Their existence is controlled by variations in sea level and the geological substrate of their location. Their morphology is linked to local topography, alternation of high and low pressure, the presence of a river, as well as tidal regime. All these factors influence lagoons along the coastline in the south of Spain. The main morphological characteristics of such lagoons are the following: intermittence, one-dimensional morphology, small size, shallow waters, high area/depth ratio, no flood- or ebb tide deltas, overwash of their low barriers during storms, high evaporation rates and feeding by rivers. Effective management of these systems requires the evaluation not only of their hydrodynamics and opening and closure rate, but also the prediction of possible future scenarios as a response to meteorological events. This paper describes the behavior of a coastal lagoon in Zahara de los Atunes (Cádiz) by means of a numerical model implemented with the objective of serving as a tool for optimizing the coastal zone management. Although the coastal lagoon at Zahara de los Atunes is closed most of the year, it is artificially opened at the beginning of the summer. The results of our study showed that during this period, the lagoon is flood-dominated with a pumping-mode response. It naturally tends to close since it is a trap for littoral drift sediments. The precise date of closure depends on the events that take place during the autumn, which determine whether the sediments deposited in the inlet by the littoral drift are flushed out by the river flow or flushed in by the waves.

Moreno, Isabel María; Ávila, Alberto; Losada, Miguel Ángel

2010-09-01

106

Residual circulation and sediment distribution in the Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport models have been developed and applied to the Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal. The application consisted in the study of the residual circulation, the residence time as well as the sediment dynamics in the lagoon. High residence time for particles situated at the far end of the main channels points out that they are retained for a long time and tend to remain there, with high probability of being deposited into the bed. Low residence time for the central areas implies that the particles are flushed out more rapidly toward the lagoon mouth, revealing that the water and the particles exchange are very effective there. Although the residual circulation due to the rivers induces an overall transport toward the lagoon mouth, the residual circulations due to the winds induce particular circulation patterns (clockwise or counter-clockwise eddies) at some locations of the lagoon, depending on the wind direction. It was found that the suspended sediment concentrations along the main channels are induced by tidal asymmetries (resulting in areas of ebb and flood dominance), as well as by the wind stress and rivers runoff effects. They contribute, in general, to increase the sediment export toward the ocean, although the wind stress may induce currents and circulations in the opposite direction of the tidal currents. High turbid zones are observed for strong tidal currents, associated with tidal asymmetries, as well as with high rivers runoff. The erosion-deposition budget indicates a tendency for sediment accumulation at important areas of the lagoon, namely the shallow ones.

Lopes, José Fortes; Dias, João Miguel

2007-12-01

107

Hypersaline lagoons as conservation habitats: macro-invertebrates at Muni Lagoon, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey on the aquatic ecology of Muni Lagoon was carried out during the period December 1993 to July 1994. Samples of zooplankton, aufwuchs and benthos were taken from a number of stations, representative of the different habitat types that occurred in the lagoon. The aquatic invertebrate fauna of the lagoon is listed and the temporal and spatial distribution of

Chris Gordon

2000-01-01

108

Polarization in the Lagoon nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A V-band polarimetric survey of stars associated with the Lagoon nebula was conducted. The data were combined with existing photometric and spectroscopic observations in order to investigate the alignment of magnetic field lines with identifiable symmetry axes and to evaluate the nature of dust in the immediate vicinity. Although stars are not in general highly polarized, electric vectors align with the minor axis of the Lagoon nebula, perpendicular to the major axis of the spatial distribution of massive stars. The observations indicate that the collapse of the molecular cloud progenitor was inhibited along directions perpendicular to magnetic field lines. Considering the low polarization efficiency and the high ratio of total to selective extinction, smaller grains of intranebular dust appear to have been destroyed.

Mccall, Marshall L.; Richer, Michael G.; Visvanathan, N.

1990-01-01

109

Polarization in the Lagoon nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A V-band polarimetric survey of stars associated with the Lagoon nebula was conducted. The data were combined with existing photometric and spectroscopic observations in order to investigate the alignment of magnetic field lines with identifiable symmetry axes and to evaluate the nature of dust in the immediate vicinity. Although stars are not in general highly polarized, electric vectors align with the minor axis of the Lagoon nebula, perpendicular to the major axis of the spatial distribution of massive stars. The observations indicate that the collapse of the molecular cloud progenitor was inhibited along directions perpendicular to magnetic field lines. Considering the low polarization efficiency and the high ratio of total to selective extinction, smaller grains of intranebular dust appear to have been destroyed.

McCall, Marshall L.; Richer, Michael G.; Visvanathan, N.

1990-07-01

110

Deep Inside the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is one of the brightest galactic HII regions. While 9 Sgr (O4) and the adjoining OB cluster NGC 6530 have been well studied, the low-mass population has been difficult to identify. Based on the number of optically visible OB stars, we predict that a deep ACIS-I exposure of the Lagoon nebula region will reveal >1500 X-ray sources, most of them classical and weak-line T-Tauri stars. At the heart of this region is the Hourglass Nebula, its exciting O7 star Herschel 36, an ultra-compact HII region, a dense cluster of infrared objects and a ridge of 850um emission cores: signposts of active star formation. By matching infrared sources with X-ray selected Class I, II and III YSOs, we will signficantly increase our census of low-mass stars in galactic HII regions.

Gagne, Marc

2002-09-01

111

Deep Inside the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a pair of deep X-ray images of the Lagoon Nebula and the NGC 6530 star-forming region obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The ACIS images reveal 1542 X-ray sources in the combined field of view, most of these likely associated with classical and weak-line T-Tauri stars. Approximately 1200 X-ray sources have 2MASS JHK-band counterparts. The Chandra data reveal

P. J. Castro; M. Gagne; N. F. Tothill; M. A. Kenworthy; M. J. McCaughrean

2004-01-01

112

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

1991-07-01

113

Eutrophication, water management, and the functioning of dutch estuaries and coastal lagoons  

SciTech Connect

A number of European rivers (especially the Rhine) have a prevailing influence on the nutrient cycling of most Dutch estuaries. Owing to the increased loading of the estuaries with nitrogen and phosphorous compounds, effects of eutrophication on the biological communities are most evident in the tidal Western Wadden Sea and in a nontidal brackish lagoon, Veerse Meer. Whether the relation between changed nutrient loadings and changed biomass and production of primary and secondary producers in the turbid tidal Dutch ecosystems should be considered as a causal relation is questionable. The very widespread practice of lagoon modification confuses the effects of nutrient loading. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Nienhuis, P.H. (Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Yerseke (Netherlands))

1992-12-01

114

Distribution of foraminifera in the barrier reef and lagoon of British Honduras  

E-print Network

silts and/or olaye, often with admiztures of sand ox shell material. The laxgest living and total foraminiferal populations were found to oocur on the leeward side of mangrove and ooral- sand cays on the barrier reef and near the effluents of oertain... rivers in the lagoon. The xmallest living and total populations on the barzier reef were found in azeas geographically x'emote fzom mangzove ox' coral-sand cays. In the lagoon the smallest living populations occurred olose to the barrier reef while...

Cebulski, Donald Edward

2012-06-07

115

Sediment characteristics and water quality in the two hyper-saline lagoons along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two hyper-saline Shoaiba lagoons, Khawr ash Shaibah al Masdudah (northern lagoon) and Khawr ash Shaibah al Maftuhah (southern lagoon) have a unique environmental set-up because no rivers or wadis flow into the lagoons and therefore detrital material to the lagoons is lacking and most of the sediments are indigenous carbonates. The biogenic material is mostly derived from coral debris, coralline algae and molluscs abundant in gravel and sand size fractions. The evaporite deposits from the adjoining sabkhas are transported to the lagoon during tidal cycles. Carbonate is abundant in the form of aragonite and High Mg-calcite indicating carbonate to be recent and formed under shallow water conditions. In general, the sediments are the result of the mechanical breakdown of molluscs and coral reefs by either human activity or by coral boring marine organisms and physical processes such as tidal and wind generated currents. Strong currents dominate only the deeper part at the entrance of the lagoons that causes the winnowing of the finer sediments, and its transportation during flooding and ebbing. Shallow depths averaging 3 m, wind and tidal stirring are the main forces preventing the lagoons from developing stratification resulting in a well-mixed body of water. The shallow depth of the lagoons keep the turbidity levels higher, whereas salinity as high as 52 ‰ and water temperature as high as 38 °C helps in the formation of halite at the periphery. The cyclical inundation of sabkhas by a thin sheet of water during tidal cycles is important in understanding the ecological consequence. Mangrove stands in the lagoons act as a source of nutrients to the flora and fauna inhabiting the lagoons. The configurations of the mouth of the lagoons influence the tidal currents, including the sediment and water movement. The tidal current is enhanced as it enters the lagoons, in response to the funneling effect caused by the narrow channel. The current diffuses as the entrance widens. In the case of Khawr ash Shaibah al Masdudah the mouth is wide and it faces the open sea directly, whereas the mouth of Khawr ash Shaibah al Maftuhah, although narrower, the tidal current is only strong until the channel to the lagoon bends almost 90° where the tidal current dissipates, resulting in the restricted water and sediment movement in the lagoon. The coarser sediments are stained gray-black because of a reducing environment and formation of authigenic pyrite. Stagnant condition prevails inside the lagoons because of insufficient exchange of water with the open sea and lack of rainfall causes hyper-saline conditions. Higher salinity values were evident in the shallow waters, whereas oxygen saturation ranged between 77 % (southern lagoon) and 107 % (northern lagoon) which could be attributed to the complex nature of the southern lagoon. Reactive phosphate and nitrite concentrations in the surface waters were low and in many locations under the detection limit reflecting the oligotrophic behaviour of the Red Sea and limited supply of nutrients from adjacent areas. There is an abundant presence of trace metals especially in fine sediments that has the tendency to adsorb the metals more efficiently. There is an inverse correlation between heavy metals and carbonate content in the sediments, and much stronger particularly with Cr, V and Co. The Landsat ETM identifies two depth zones in the lagoons and shows the effects of the influence of flooding and ebbing on the sediment distribution and the extent of the water cover seasonally.

Rasul, Najeeb; Al-Farawati, Radwan; Al-Harbi, Omer; Naser Qutub, Abdul

2013-04-01

116

The impact of human activities on the flushing properties of a semi-enclosed lagoon: Xiaohai, Hainan, China.  

PubMed

In this study, a Lagrangian particle tracking model driven by hydrodynamic fields was used to investigate the changes of flushing properties in Xiaohai Lagoon resulting from natural evolution and influences of human activities. Comparisons of residence times between 1936 and 2001 indicate that the flushing efficiency of the lagoon has deteriorated greatly during the past seven decades. Over this period, the average residence time of the lagoon has increased from 45 to 71 days, an increase of 59%. The Lagrangian residual velocity has decreased from 1936 to 2001 in the large portions of the lagoon, and the spatial distribution pattern of the residual current has changed significantly. The well-developed horizontal circulations in 1936 disappeared. Instead, the horizontal Lagrangian residual velocity showed uniformly seaward motion with reduced velocity in 2001. Human activities have incurred great impacts on the deterioration of flushing efficiency. The reduction of river inflow imposed the most significant impact, causing an increase of average residence time by 33%. The land reclamation in the lagoon came as the second most significant factor, causing an increase of 15%. Closure of the North Opening had posed minor impact. The model results suggest that restoring the river inflow, as well as the dredging of the tidal channel and the inner lagoon, should be the top proprieties for future water quality management. PMID:17889933

Gong, Wenping; Shen, Jian; Jia, Jianjun

2008-02-01

117

Holocene eolian activation as a proxy for broad-scale landscape change on the Gila River Indian Community, Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eolian sediments are common within the middle Gila River Valley, southern Arizona, and reflect variability in eolian and fluvial processes during the late Holocene. This study focuses on deciphering the stratigraphic record of eolian deposition and associated luminescence dating of quartz extracts by single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocols. Stratigraphic assessment coupled with luminescence ages indicates that there are four broad eolian depositional events at ca. 3145 ± 220 yr, 1950-1360 yr, 800 ± 100 yr, and 690-315 yr. This nascent chronology, correlated with regional archeological evidence and paleoclimate proxy datasets, leads to two general conclusions: (1) loess deposits, transverse-dune formation and sand-sheet deposition in the late Holocene are probably linked to flow variability of the Gila River, though the last two events are concordant with regional megadroughts; and (2) the stability of eolian landforms since the 19th century reflects the lack of eolian sediment supply during a period of fluvial incision, resulting in Entisol formation on dunes. The prime catalyst of eolian activity during the late Holocene is inferred to be sediment supply, driven by climate periodicity and variable flow within the Gila River catchment.

Wright, David K.; Forman, Steven L.; Waters, Michael R.; Ravesloot, John C.

118

Easy Guide to Breastfeeding for American Indian and Alaska Native Families  

MedlinePLUS

... as obesity and diabetes. The people of Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, working together with the ... Council of Arizona Gailyn Lewis, Genesis Program, Gila River Pima Indian Community Priscilla Lopez, MCH Coordinator, Tohono ...

119

THE PALAEARCTIC WADER POPULATION OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pringle, J. S. & Cooper, J. 1975. The Palaearctic wader population of Langebaan Lagoon. Ostrich 46:213-218.Monthly counts of Palaearctic waders were made at high tide in three areas of Langebaan Lagoon, southwestern Cape, during 1973 and 1974. A total of sixteen species was observed. The five commonest species, in order of abundance, were Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Grey Plover Squalarola

J. S. Pringle; J. Cooper

1975-01-01

120

9. Indian Gap Run Aqueduct, reconstructed isometric detail of bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Indian Gap Run Aqueduct, reconstructed isometric detail of bridge framing by Willie Graham and Mark R. Wenger, 3/4', 1991 - North River Canal System, Indian Gap Run Aqueduct, West side of Buena Vista, Buena Vista, Roanoke City, VA

121

Styles of lode gold mineralization contributing to the placers of the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, Yukon Territory, Canada as deduced from microchemical characterization of placer gold grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1978 and 2009, approximately 430,000 oz of placer gold were obtained from the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, which equates to roughly 20% of the production for the entire Yukon Territory during that period. The area is unglaciated, exposure is poor, and there are few known lode gold occurrences present. The technique of microchemical characterization of placer gold grains has been applied to illuminate the style(s) of source mineralization and their relationship to placer gold from the Klondike gold district immediately to the north. A total of 2,613 placer gold grains from 22 localities were characterised in terms of the Au, Ag, Cu, and Hg content of their alloy and associated suite of opaque mineral inclusions. A combination of alloy and inclusion mineralogy was used to define gold signatures which augmented the previous classification of orogenic gold in the Klondike. Gold type 3b (8-25% Ag) is the main component of the placers in lower Dominion Creek but is augmented and eventually replaced by type 3a gold (10-40% Ag) in placers in the main Indian River valley, probably through erosion of gold-bearing veins in the valley floor. Type 4 gold exhibits highly variable Ag which may contain Hg to a maximum of 11 wt.%. This gold type also hosts a distinctive inclusion assemblage of complex polymetallic sulphides, tellurides, sulfotellurides, and sulfosalts and has previously been ascribed to local low sulfidation epithermal mineralization. Placer gold in drainages radiating from Eureka Dome exhibits various proportions of types 3 and 4 gold depending on location, but type 3 gold forms the major component in Black Hills Creek and northerly flowing tributaries of the Indian River with the exception of Eureka and Montana creeks. Type 5 gold is found only in placers in the middle and lower Indian River. It is distinguished by slightly elevated (0.05-0.17%) Cu in the gold alloy, together with low (5-9%) Ag contents. Inclusions of Bi minerals, Cr-bearing magnetite and molybdenite within type 5 gold suggest derivation from an intrusion-related source. Candidates for such a source include undiscovered lode occurrences associated with Cretaceous age intrusions to the south of the Indian River, or deformed Cu-Au (-Mo) porphyry occurrences which are known to be present in the same area. This analysis of placer gold has indicated that the contribution of low sulfidation epithermal gold from Eureka Creek to the larger placers of the Indian River is minor. Consequently, the placer gold inventory of the Indian River is primarily orogenic in origin. Similarly, the characterization of placer gold in Blackhills Creek strongly suggests an orogenic source. This study has demonstrated for the first time that orogenic lode gold mineralization extends a considerable distance to the south of the southern Klondike goldfield. This information contributes to the regional models of gold mineralization in an area which is currently the focus of intensive exploration.

Chapman, Robert John; Mortensen, James Keith; Lebarge, William P.

2011-12-01

122

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

...IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH...with various tribes and other water users on the Indian Reservations listed in Article II (D) of said Supreme...advanced by said tribes and other water users on said Indian...

2014-10-01

123

Aerated Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student manual contains the textual material for a unit which focuses on the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. Topic areas discussed include: (1) characteristics of completely mixed aerated lagoons; (2) facultative aerated lagoons; (3) aerated oxidation ponds; (4) effects of temperature on aerated lagoons; (5)…

Andersen, Lorri

124

Deep Inside the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a pair of deep X-ray images of the Lagoon Nebula and the NGC 6530 star-forming region obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The ACIS images reveal 1542 X-ray sources in the combined field of view, most of these likely associated with classical and weak-line T-Tauri stars. Approximately 1200 X-ray sources have 2MASS JHK-band counterparts. The Chandra data reveal three populations of stars: (1) a large population of relatively soft X-ray sources associated with the 2-Myr old cluster NGC 6530, (2) a population of hard, variable X-ray sources to the south first discussed by Damiani et al. (2004) and probably associated with low-mass YSO's, and (3) a compact cluster of 80 hard X-ray sources within 1' of the very young O star Herschel 36. The soft X-ray emission from Her 36 (O7 V), the ionizing source of the Hourglass Nebula, is typical of many O stars. The two hard X-ray source populations are spatially coincident with ridges of enhanced far-infrared emission seen in 850-micron SCUBA maps of the Lagoon Nebula region. This research is supported through NASA/SAO grant GO3-4014.

Castro, P. J.; Gagne, M.; Tothill, N. F.; Kenworthy, M. A.; McCaughrean, M. J.

2004-05-01

125

Integrated water pollution assessment of the Ebrié Lagoon, Ivory Coast, West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An environmental pollution assessment of the Ebrié lagoon, the largest coastal ecosystem in Western Africa, was executed by applying the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) framework. The domestic and industrial activities in Abidjan and agricultural activities in the wider catchment area were identified as the main driving forces. Two-thirds of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) loads and 95% of total nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) loads of Abidjan are from domestic effluents, with industry making up the rest. Outside of the direct influence of Abidjan, nutrient levels in the lagoon are governed by the influx of nutrients from the rivers Comoé, Mé and Agnéby, with nutrient land runoff as the key factors. Total annual N loads to the lagoon for 2000 are estimated at 33 kt, of which 45% from urban sources, 42% from land runoff and 13% from atmospheric deposition. Estimates for P are 2.5 kt, 39%, 48% and 13%, respectively. Scenario analysis has shown that autonomous growth, without pollution reduction measures, would result in an estimated five-fold increase in nutrient inputs to the lagoon over the period 1980-2050. Nutrient concentrations in the lagoon would consequently increase by a factor of 3 1/2, which could escalate to a dramatic level of eutrophication for the complete system. Pollution reduction policies aimed at non-point sources would be most effective in reducing nutrient concentrations. Point-source pollution reduction would improve conditions around Abidjan, but not substantially in the other sections of the lagoon. The approach taken in this study has proven efficient under conditions of relative data scarceness, and sufficiently reliable to allow for policy level conclusions to be drawn.

Scheren, P. A. G. M.; Kroeze, C.; Janssen, F. J. J. G.; Hordijk, L.; Ptasinski, K. J.

2004-01-01

126

Spatial variability of epiphyton communities structure in a temperate estuarine lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The midsummer epiphyton community structure on common reed stems was investigated in different zones of the Curonian Lagoon (south-eastern Baltic). Epiphyton was characterized by dominance of diatoms and cyanobacteria. The shading effects of phytoplankton or reed belts density and phosphorus concentrations mainly contributed to differences in epiphyton amount and species taxonomic composition. Epiphyton algae and cyanobacteria abundance increased toward river run-off. The highest biomass and dominance of diatoms were observed in the zones with higher phosphorus concentrations.

Karosiene, Jurate; Paskauskas, Ricardas

2012-12-01

127

Eutrophication, water management, and the functioning of Dutch estuaries and coastal lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of major European rivers (especially the Rhine) have a prevailing influence on the nutrient cycling of most Dutch\\u000a estuaries. Owing to the increased loading of the estuaries with nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, effects of eutrophication\\u000a on the biological communities are most evident in the tidal Western Wadden Sea and in a nontidal brackish lagoon, Veerse Meer.\\u000a Whether the

Pieter H. Nienhuis

1992-01-01

128

Uranium in prehistoric Indian pottery  

E-print Network

Analysis 13 Compositional Studies of Archaeological Artifacts. . . 14 III. Indian Tribes of the Trans-Pecos Area. IV. Evolution of Pottery in the Trans-Pecos Area Types of Pottery in the Trans-Pecos Area V. Experimental Details Principles... and geographic origin of the pigment. 17 CHAPTER III INDIAN TRIBES OF THE TRANS-PECOS AREA" The general area included in this study is the area enclosed by the Rio Grande and Pecos Rivers, known as the Trans-Pecos area. A large number of Indian tribes...

Filberth, Ernest William

2012-06-07

129

Spatial Distribution and Ecophysiological Characteristics of Macrophytes in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution biomass and photosynthesis of three species of rooted macrophytes, Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande, Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Zostera noltii Hornem and a floating macroalga Chaetomorpha linum Kütz, were studied in Buda lagoon (River Ebro delta, NE Spain) during spring (May), summer (July) and autumn (October) 1995. Buda lagoon was characterized by a marked gradient of conductivity due to freshwater discharges from rice fields from June to October and by seawater input due to the regression of the delta of the River Ebro during the last 10 years. A typical spatial distribution was observed: monospecific stands of P. pectinatus developed near freshwater inputs in the inner part of the lagoon and mixed stands of R. cirrhosa and P. pectinatus developed in transitional zones between freshwater and seawater influence. The part of the lagoon where the influence of seawater was highest was covered by dense mixed stands of Z. noltii, R. cirrhosa and C. linum. Maximum biomass and production of P. pectinatus were reached in July (biomass of 501 gDW m -2, and maximum photosynthetic rates, Pm, of 14 mgO 2 g -1 DW h -1 ). Maximum biomass of R. cirrhosa and Z. noltii (456·5 and 250 gDW m -2 respectively) and photosynthetic rate of R. cirrhosa (23·9 mgO 2 g -1DW h -1) occurred in May, whereas no significant differences in production were detected between May and July in Z. noltii. Maximum C. linum production was reached in October (5·4 mgO 2 g -1DW h -1). In October P. pectinatus coverage and production decreased, which was related to high turbidity and density of benthivorous fish due to freshwater inflows. Implications of lower freshwater inflow and higher seawater intrusion in the spatial distribution of aquatic macrophytes in this coastal lagoon are discussed.

Menéndez, M.; Hernandez, O.; Comin, F. A.

2002-09-01

130

Heavy-metal pollution of sediments from Szczecin Lagoon and the Gdansk Basin, Poland.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Pb, Th, U, REE, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Si, P, S, Ti, Cr and Ba were determined in the <63 microm fraction of bottom sediments of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Gdansk Basin, Baltic Sea, by ICP-MS, ICP-AES and XRF methods. Sediment samples from the Szczecin Lagoon displayed somewhat higher concentrations of P, Mn, Cr, Cu and possibly Cd, Pb and Zn in those collected in October 1997 after the exceptional flooding of the Oder River than in those collected in December 2000. The data suggest that the flood resulted in the enhanced transport of redox-sensitive and anthropogenic elements in the Oder River and their subsequent redeposition mainly in the western part of Szczecin Lagoon. The sediments of the Szczecin Lagoon also appear to be the most polluted with heavy metals within the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Baltic Sea. Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu are anthropogenically enriched in top layers of sediment cores from the Gdansk Basin, but the decrease of these elements with depth in the core is not systematic. The rare earth element (REE) patterns in sediments from both these areas do not appear to have been greatly modified during transport from their source into the southern Baltic. Factor analysis (FA) of the compositional data shows that sediments from Szczecin Lagoon can be divided into three main groups depending on their composition. It is concluded that clay minerals and organic matter build aggregates and flocs, which effectively concentrate trace metals and sink down to form a 'fluffy layer'. PMID:15325172

Glasby, G P; Szefer, P; Geldon, J; Warzocha, J

2004-09-01

131

Basic cytogenetics and physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal genes in Hoplias malabaricus (Osteichthyes, Characiformes, Erythrinidae) from isolated natural lagoons: a conserved karyomorph along the Iguaçu river basin.  

PubMed

Erythrinidae include Neotropical teleost fish that are widely distributed in South America. Hoplias Gill, 1903 include two large groups: H. malabaricus Bloch, 1794 and H. lacerdae Miranda Ribeiro, 1908. Hoplias malabaricus is characterized by remarkable karyotype diversity, with some karyomorphs widely distributed geographically while others are more restricted to certain river basins. Cytogenetic analyzes were performed in a population of Hoplias malabaricus from the Wildlife Refuge of Campos de Palmas, the Iguaçu River basin. The specimens showed diploid number of 42 chromosomes (24m+18sm) without differentiated sex chromosomes system. The impregnation by silver nitrate showed multiple AgNORs. Seven pairs (4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20 and 21) carrying 18S rDNA were detected by FISH. Heterochromatin was verified in the centromeric and pericentromeric region of most chromosomes and the terminal region of some pairs. FISH with 5S rDNA probes showed two chromosome pairs carrying these sites in the interstitial region (8 and 14). The data obtained in this study are similar to those found for two other populations of H. malabaricus already studied in the basin of the Iguaçu River, confirming the hypothesis that this species is natural, not having been introduced, as well as having an intrinsic characteristic, such as the largest number of sites of 18S rDNA. PMID:25349672

Gemi, Gisele; Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Treco, Fernando Rodrigo; Paiz, Leonardo Marcel; Moresco, Rafaela Maria; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan

2014-01-01

132

Basic cytogenetics and physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal genes in Hoplias malabaricus (Osteichthyes, Characiformes, Erythrinidae) from isolated natural lagoons: a conserved karyomorph along the Igua?u river basin  

PubMed Central

Abstract Erythrinidae include Neotropical teleost fish that are widely distributed in South America. Hoplias Gill, 1903 include two large groups: H. malabaricus Bloch, 1794 and H. lacerdae Miranda Ribeiro, 1908. Hoplias malabaricus is characterized by remarkable karyotype diversity, with some karyomorphs widely distributed geographically while others are more restricted to certain river basins. Cytogenetic analyzes were performed in a population of Hoplias malabaricus from the Wildlife Refuge of Campos de Palmas, the Iguaçu River basin. The specimens showed diploid number of 42 chromosomes (24m+18sm) without differentiated sex chromosomes system. The impregnation by silver nitrate showed multiple AgNORs. Seven pairs (4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20 and 21) carrying 18S rDNA were detected by FISH. Heterochromatin was verified in the centromeric and pericentromeric region of most chromosomes and the terminal region of some pairs. FISH with 5S rDNA probes showed two chromosome pairs carrying these sites in the interstitial region (8 and 14). The data obtained in this study are similar to those found for two other populations of H. malabaricus already studied in the basin of the Iguaçu River, confirming the hypothesis that this species is natural, not having been introduced, as well as having an intrinsic characteristic, such as the largest number of sites of 18S rDNA.

Gemi, Gisele; Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Treco, Fernando Rodrigo; Paiz, Leonardo Marcel; Moresco, Rafaela Maria; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan

2014-01-01

133

Macroinvertebrates associated with Chara in a tropical coastal lagoon (Imboassica lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imboassica lagoon is an urban coastal lagoon located in the municipality of Macaé (RJ), which has been exposed to a process of artificial eutrophication through the inflow of untreated sewage, as well as artificial openings of the sandbar that separates it from the ocean, provoking drastic modifications in this ecosystem. The sampling for the analysis of the community of macroinvertebrates

Edélti Faria Albertoni; Cleber Palma-Silva; Francisco de Assis Esteves

2001-01-01

134

Spend a "Semester by the Sea" (SBTS) at FAU's Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute in Fort Pierce, Florida on the shores of the Indian River Lagoon, one of the most biologically diverse  

E-print Network

, oysters, aquaculture, coral, seagrass, mangroves, macroalgae, and marine natural products drug discovery of three core courses (12 credits) and one elective course (3 or 4 credits). Ocean Discovery (students typically take 1-2 electives) Ocean Discovery (3 credits), BSC 4930 Aquaculture

Fernandez, Eduardo

135

Spend a "Semester by the Sea" (SBTS) at FAU's Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute in Fort Pierce, Florida on the shores of the Indian River Lagoon, one of the most biologically diverse  

E-print Network

, oysters, aquaculture, coral, seagrass, mangroves, macroalgae, and marine natural products drug discovery (students typically take 1-2 electives) Ocean Discovery for Undergraduates (2 credits), BSC 4930L

Fernandez, Eduardo

136

New observations on philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) in marine fishes from the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the Indian River Lagoon of Florida (Usa), with first description of the male of Caranginema americanum.  

PubMed

The following 3 species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) were recorded from marine fishes off Florida: Caranginema americanum Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza and Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 from the subcutaneous tissue of the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) (Carangidae); Philometra charlestonensis Moravec, de Buron, Baker and González-Solís, 2008 from the gonads (ovaries) of the scamp Mycteroperca phenax Jordan and Swain (Serranidae); and Philometra sp. (only subgravid females) from the gonads (ovaries) of the Atlantic needlefish Strongylura marina (Walbaum) (Belonidae). The male of C. americanum , the type species of Caranginema Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza, and Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 , is described for the first time. Its general morphology is similar to that of males of Philometra and Philometroides species. The males of C. americanum are mainly characterized by an elongate body, 3.13-3.28 mm long, a markedly elongate esophagus, and spicules and a gubernaculum 69-75 µm and 48-51 µm long, respectively. The present findings of C. americanum and P. charlestonensis represent new geographical records. The gonad-infecting Philometra sp. from S. marina probably belongs to an undescribed species. PMID:22017549

Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah

2012-04-01

137

The Kayapo Indians Struggle in Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article addresses how the livelihood of the Kayapo Indians is threatened by: revived plans for several hydroelectric dams along the Xingu River, increased pollution from agricultural runoff, and the illegal invasion of territorial lands.

Ava Goodale (Cornell University;)

2004-01-01

138

Helium and carbon isotopes in Indian diamonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helium and carbon isotope measurements in Indian diamonds (from Andhra Pradesh) were carried out using samples that included mined diamonds from primary kimberlite source rocks and alluvial diamonds from river gravel. The He and C isotope concentrations in diamonds from these two sources were compared, and the Indian diamonds were compared to those from other regions. Results indicate that most

R. Wiens; D. Lal; H. Craig

1990-01-01

139

Osceola. The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Osceola was the guiding spirit and moving force behind the Second Seminole War. In 1830, when it became the official policy of the United States government to move all the Eastern Indians to a new Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, the Seminoles resisted. Under Osceola's leadership, a thousand Seminole warriors held off the entire…

Johnson, Robert Proctor

140

Metal ions in water and sediments of the Pom-Atasta Lagoon, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Temperature, salinity, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the surface water of the Pom-Atasta Lagoon at 15 stations during 5 sampling events from September 1996--May 1997. Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ag, Fe, Co, and Ba were also determined in the water and sediments at 15 stations during the study period. The values of salinity, turbidity, and TSS were related to the inputs of river water into the lagoon. Metals in the water and sediments showed no spatial variation. Seasonality in the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, and Ba in the water was found and may be related to the resuspension of sediments in the lagoon. The concentrations of metals in sediments did not give significant seasonal variation. Metals in sediments were not correlated with the iron, suggesting an anthropogenic source of metals in the Pom-Atasta Lagoon. The concentrations of dissolved Pb were above the value recommended by the National Water Commission of Mexico.

Vazquez, G.F.; Enciso, G.; Morales, J.W. [UNAM, Distrito Federal (Mexico). Instituto de Ciencias Del Mar y Limnologia] [UNAM, Distrito Federal (Mexico). Instituto de Ciencias Del Mar y Limnologia; Sharma, V.K. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Nischt, S.L.; Domingo, G.L. [PEMEX, Campeche (Mexico)] [PEMEX, Campeche (Mexico)

1999-07-01

141

Environmental Responses of a Tropical Coastal Lagoon System to Hydrological Variability: Mundaú-Manguaba, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mundaú-Manguaba complex in north-eastern Brazil is a 79 km 2 shallow tropical coastal lagoon system, consisting of two interconnected waterbodies and a channel system linked to the ocean. Mundaú-Manguaba is similar to many tropical lagoon systems in Latin America. The system is characterized by semidiurnal tides, which are reduced in amplitude by more than 88% as compared to the coastal ocean. The lagoons experience a distinct rainy (winter) and dry (summer) season. Anthropogenic inputs from sugar-cane processing and urban growth pose environmental management problems. During the dry season, urban and industrial pollution frequently produce eutrophic conditions in both lagoons. During flood discharge, sudden salinity drops occur in Lagoa Mundaú, causing mass mortality of the abundant estuarine mussel ( Mytella falcata) every few years. River discharge controls the oceanward transport of salts and pollutants and produces low salinity in Lagoa Manguaba during the entire year. This is true in Lagoa Mundaú during the rainy season, while currents and salt dispersion in Lagoa Mundaú are tidally driven during the dry season. The tide advects ocean water into the system, mixes the water column, and produces strong currents in the channels. Winds modify the magnitude of currents in Lagoa Manguaba.

Oliveira, Arno M.; Kjerfve, Björn

1993-12-01

142

Temporal and spatial changes in the composition and structure of helminth component communities in European eels Anguilla anguilla in an Adriatic coastal lagoon and some freshwaters in Italy.  

PubMed

The composition and diversity of the helminth component communities in eels Anguilla anguilla were determined in three separate localities in Italy: an Adriatic coastal lagoon, Comacchio and two freshwater localities, the River Po and the Lake Piediluco. Data from Comacchio lagoon were analysed over 15 years to determine whether community composition and diversity changed significantly overtime. The community was species rich (nine species, all marine except Proteocephalus macrocephalus) and was dominated by a suite of digeneans: Deropristis inflata, Helicometra fasciata, Lecithochirium musculus and Bucephalus anguillae. The community showed little change in composition over the period, but the relative abundance and dominance of the species did alter. By contrast, the component communities in the freshwater localities were species poor and the dominant species were freshwater acanthocephalans, Pomphorhyncus laevis in River Po and Acanthocephalus rhinensis in Lake Piediluco. The helminth community of Lake Piediluco with five species was richer than that of the River Po with only three species, but was poorer than that of Comacchio lagoons. Similarity indices between samples from Comacchio were high; between the lagoon and the freshwater localities and between the two freshwater localities, similarity indices were very low. Helminth component community structure in coastal lagoons was comparable across Europe. The helminth community in the River Po was similar to those in the River Tiber and other European rivers whilst that in Lake Piediluco was similar to that in other European lakes. Levels of the pathogenic Anguillicoloides crassus in swim bladders were consistently lower in prevalence and abundance in the coastal lagoons than in freshwater localities. This suggests that this parasite may have little impact on migrating eels if they are indeed primarily of marine origin and so it may be of little importance in the recent decline of eel populations throughout Europe. PMID:24135871

Dezfuli, Bahram Sayyaf; Giari, Luisa; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Lanzoni, Mattia; Rossi, Remigio; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Kennedy, Clive Russell

2014-01-01

143

Waiting for rain: Baseline geomorphic analysis of the upper Carmel River watershed following the Basin Complex and Indians Fire of June - July, 2008  

E-print Network

after a fire, whereby soil, rock, and debris move downslopesurficial debris, are removed by fire (Fig. 3). Dry raveldebris, eventually creating new complex fish habitat. The Basin Complex and Indians Fire

Richmond, Sarah F

2008-01-01

144

Trends in salinity and inorganic nitrogen compounds in the Berre lagoon (1994-2011) bacterial activities and nitrogen budgets.  

PubMed

The Berre lagoon receives freshwater from two natural rivers but the implementation of the hydroelectric power plant led to strong changes in the ecosystem structure and functioning. Sediments are important sites for nitrogen cycling because the O(2) sharp gradient allows oxic nitrification as well as anoxic denitrification and anammox to operate in close proximity. Seasonal and short-term variations in the coastal nitrogen processes were quantified at two stations: SA1 located in the northern part of the lagoon directly under the inflows of freshwater and SA3 in the southern part of the lagoon influenced mainly by the marine water inflows. Results revealed that most of the nitrate formed by nitrification was denitrified. Total denitrification was the main N(2) removal process. The high primary production based on N-NH(4)(+) might be explained by mineralization rates, while the primary production based on N-NO(3)(-) was not fully explained by nitrification. PMID:23276532

Zaghmouri, Imen; Michotey, Valerie D; Guasco, Sophie; Raimbault, Patrick; Garcia, Nicole; Bernard, Guillaume; Bonin, Patricia C

2013-02-15

145

Facultative Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The textual material for a unit on facultative lagoons is presented in this student manual. Topic areas discussed include: (1) loading; (2) microbial theory; (3) structure and design; (4) process control; (5) lagoon start-up; (6) data handling and analysis; (7) lagoon maintenance (considering visual observations, pond structure, safety, odor,…

Andersen, Lorri

146

Phytoplankton variation and its relation to nutrients and allochthonous organic matter in a coastal lagoon on the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In tropical and subtropical zones, coastal lagoons are surrounded by mangrove communities which are a source of high quantity organic matter that enters the aquatic system through litter fall. This organic matter decomposes, becoming a source of nutrients and other substances such as tannins, fulvic acids and humic acids that may affect the composition and productivity of phytoplankton communities. Sontecomapan is a coastal lagoon located in the southern Gulf of Mexico, which receives abundant litter fall from mangrove. To study the phytoplankton composition and its variation in this lagoon from October 2002 to October 2003, we evaluated the concentrations of dissolved folin phenol active substances (FPAS) as a measure of plant organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH, O 2, N-NH 4+, N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-, Si-SiO 2, and phytoplanktonic cell density in different mangrove influence zones including the three main rivers that feed the lagoon. Nutrients concentrations depended on freshwater from rivers, however these varied seasonally. Concentrations of P-PO 43-, N-NH 4+ and FPAS were the highest in the dry season, when maximum mangrove litter fall is reported. Variation of these nutrients seemed to depend on the internal biogeochemical processes of the lagoon. Blooms of diatoms ( Skeletonema spp., Cyclotella spp. and Chaetoceros holsaticus) and dinoflagellates ( Peridinium aff. quinquecorne, Prorocentrum cordatum) occurred seasonally and in the different mangrove influence zones. The high cell densities in these zones and the occurrence of certain species and its ordination along gradient of FPAS in a canonical correspondence analysis, suggest that plant organic matter (i.e. mangrove influence) may contribute to phytoplankton dynamics in Sontecomapan lagoon.

Aké-Castillo, José A.; Vázquez, Gabriela

2008-07-01

147

Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons.  

PubMed

Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low ?g/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river. PMID:23314119

Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Kelly, Walton R

2013-02-15

148

Seasonal Short-Lived Radium Activity in the Venice Lagoon: The Role of Residence Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium is considered to be an excellent tracer of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and, therefore, has been used in many studies of this process in the past decade. Comprehensive surveys of excess 223,224Ra activity were completed in the surface waters of the Venice Lagoon over 6 seasons in order to quantify seasonal variation of SGD into the lagoon. The mass balance of radium found that SGD was 5-26 times greater than total river discharge (35.5 m3 s-1), and that total SGD could differ by almost an order of magnitude pending season. Several possible parameters, which may cause the seasonal variation, were tested. These included precipitation events, average tidal elevation, average tidal excursion, wind speed and direction, yet none provided a satisfactory explanation for the difference. Residence time based on a hydrodynamic model, however, was very strongly correlated with the observed variation. When the average residence time in the lagoon was low (5 days) the SGD was calculated to be 930 m3 s-1 and when the average residence time was high (9 days) the SGD was quantified as 160 m3 s-1. Radioactive decay is already accounted for in the mass balance model and therefore this correlation must be explained by another process. The Venice Lagoon is characterized by low residence time during periods of spring tides and bora or northerly winds, both of which create exceptionally strong currents in the Venice Lagoon. The currents as well as the large tidal excursion which occurs at spring tides drive a recirculation of seawater through the surface sediments, which greatly increases short-lived Ra activity in the surface waters. This evidence suggests, therefore, that short-lived Ra mass balance studies, which are based on a single survey, may under or overestimate the mean annual SGD pending the hydrodynamics of the investigated location.

Rapaglia, J.; Ferrarin, C.; Zaggia, L.; Umgiesser, G.; Zuppi, G.; Manfe', G.

2008-12-01

149

The Lagoon Nebula M8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is a well known H h region in the constellation of Sagittarius. It is one of the most studied objects in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and has been examined at all wavelengths from the radio to the gamma ray region. This study will concentrate on the optical region using CCD images taken through filters centered at select wavelengths. These wavelengths are important to understanding the physics of the nebula and include emission lines of the following ions: O(sup ++) at lambda(lambda)4363,5007, N(sup +) at lambda(lambda)5755,6584, S(sup +) at lambda(lambda)6717,6731 and H(sup +) at lambda(lambda)4861,6563. The first two sets of lines are used to determine the electron temperature (Te) of the nebula, the next pair is used to calculate the electron density (Ne) and the final pair is used to determine the amount of light which is scattered due to dust in the nebula. The CCD images used in this study were obtained at San Pedro Matir Observatory in Baja, Mexico, using the 2.12 meter telescope. The images were reduced using the Image Reduction Analysis Facility (IRAF). Corrections to the raw data included bias subtraction, dark subtraction, cosmic ray removal and corrections for flat field differences. Additional steps were necessary to produce the final images, which are Te and Ne maps of the nebula. These steps will be discussed. The maps show variations in temperature and density on a pixel-by-pixel level. The O(sup ++) images clearly show high ionization regions in the nebula near the ionizing stars, as expected, Some of the most dramatic variations can be seen in the sulfur images. Clumps, ridges and arcs of high density material are clear and well defined. These maps are used to better understand the physical conditions in M8 and the chemical abundances in the nebula.

Williams, Anthony

1997-02-01

150

Mercury Concentrations in Coastal Sediment from Younger Lagoon, Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Younger Lagoon Reserve, located in northern Monterey Bay, is one of the few relatively undisturbed wetlands that remain along the Central Coast of California. This lagoon system provides protected habitat for more than 100 bird species and for populations of fish, mammals, and invertebrates. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations in water within Younger Lagoon appear to vary with rainfall conditions and range from about 5-15 pM. These concentrations are similar to HgT in water from six nearby lagoon systems. However, Younger Lagoon contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (~1 mM) and monomethylmercury (MMHg, ~1 pM) relative to our comparison lagoon sites (DOC < 0.5 mM and MMHg < 0.5 pM). We attribute Younger Lagoon's high DOC and MMHg to its restricted connection to the ocean and minor riverine contribution. Coastal lagoons in this region typically form at the mouth of streams. They behave as small estuaries during the wet season when surface water discharge keeps the mouth of the stream open to the ocean, and then transition into lagoons in the dry season when a sand berm develops and effectively cuts off surface water exchange. At Younger Lagoon, the sand berm remains intact throughout the year, breaching only during particularly high tides or intense rain events. Therefore, the lagoon's connection to nearshore seawater is primarily via surface water - groundwater interaction through the sand berm. Because Younger Lagoon is largely isolated from a surface water connection with the ocean, runoff from upgradient urban and agricultural land has an enhanced impact on water (and presumably sediment) quality. As a result, the lagoon is eutrophic and experiences annual algal blooms. Groundwater surveys suggest surface water, groundwater, and coastal seawater are hydraulically connected at Younger Lagoon, and mixing among these water masses appears to influence water geochemistry. To date, no chemical analyses have been conducted on sediment from Younger Lagoon. To address this data gap we collected sediment samples during a February 2013 field campaign. One set of sediment samples is from the bottom of the lagoon along a transect perpendicular to the shoreline and another set is from an approximately 1 m depth profile on the lagoon side of the sand berm (depth of the groundwater table at the time of collection). These samples are being analyzed for HgT, MMHg, and total organic carbon (TOC) and will provide a first glimpse into the distribution of mercury species and organic carbon in sediments from the Younger Lagoon Reserve. We will also collect and analyze sediment samples from another lagoon site with comparable watershed characteristics.

Hohn, R. A.; Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Richardson, C. M.; Merckling, J.; Johnson, C.; Flegal, A. R.

2013-12-01

151

A geomorphic study of lagoonal landforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform an analysis of the observational morphological structure of a tidal landscape aimed at examining key assumptions on the geomorphological evolution of wetlands, lagoons, estuarine areas and tidal environments in general. The issues addressed pertain to the statistical measures and the morphodynamic implications of topological or metric properties of the observed landforms, in particular their scale-dependent (or invariant) characters

Alessandra Feola; Enrica Belluco; Andrea D'Alpaos; Stefano Lanzoni; Marco Marani; Andrea Rinaldo

2005-01-01

152

Mercury in the sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea): Sources, distribution and speciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 ?g g-1) to west (0.7 ?g g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (<16 ?m), as a consequence of transport and dispersion from the fluvial source through littoral and tidal currents. However, speciation analyses highlighted the presence of Hg sulphides in the coarse sandy fraction of sediments from the eastern area, as expected given the origin of the sedimentary material. Unlike Hg, the distribution of MeHg (0.47-7.85 ng g-1) does not show a clear trend. MeHg constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably good correlation between MeHg normalized to humic acid (HA) content and humic ?13C indicates that MeHg is preferentially associated with autochthonous ?13C-enriched HAs in lagoon surface sediments, suggesting that the structure of "marine" HAs, less refractory and less aromatic, could favor MeHg binding and/or production. In the context of the potential hazard of Hg and MeHg accumulation in reared clams, the choice of a site for the extension of farming activities inside the Marano and Grado Lagoon is dependent on several factors and cannot be decided solely on the basis of the total Hg content in the sediment.

Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Berto, Daniela; Faganeli, Jadran; Giani, Michele; Horvat, Milena; Koron, Neža; Rampazzo, Federico

2012-11-01

153

Seasonal change in a filter-feeding bivalve Musculista senhousia population of a eutrophic estuarine lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filter-feeding bivalves often predominate the benthic biomass of estuaries, although their population size may drastically fluctuate due to physical and biological disturbances. To examine the recovery of a mussel population after periods of severe predation and anoxia, and to estimate the amount of nutrients removed from the system through mussel production, we surveyed, over 2 years, the Musculista senhousia population in the estuarine lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan. Predation by diving ducks ( Aythya fuligula, Aythya ferina and Aythya marila) during winter dramatically reduced the mussel biomass in both years, but recruitment of juvenile mussels sustained the population. Anoxia during the second summer severely reduced the mussel population, resulting in less biomass than in the autumn of the previous year. Potential annual removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the lagoon water through burial of M. senhousia shells under oxic conditions was estimated to be 7.1 and 5.1 tons, respectively. These are equivalent to 0.7% and 4.9% of the nitrogen and phosphorous annual load entering the lagoon via the main river. Under anoxic conditions, removal would decrease to only 5.6% of the potential amount.

Yamamuro, Masumi; Hiratsuka, Jun'ichi; Ishitobi, Yu

2000-10-01

154

Establishing the wave climate influence on the morphodynamics of a coastal lagoon inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphologic changes in estuaries and coastal lagoons are very complex and constitute a challenging task in coastal research. The bathymetric changes result from the combined action of tides, waves, rivers discharge and wind stress in the area of interest. Additionally, an accurate knowledge of the sediment transport is essential to achieve a good morphological characterization. This work establishes the influence of the wave climate on the morphodynamics of the Ria de Aveiro lagoon inlet by analysing the numerical results of the morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D. The numerical simulations considered a realistic coupled forcing of tidal currents and waves. The computed sediment fluxes and bathymetric changes are analysed and compared with the erosion and accretion trends obtained from the numerical simulations forced only by tidal currents, in order to establish the wave climate influence. The final bathymetry and the corresponding changes are compared with bathymetric data collected through surveys. It is concluded that: (a) the morphodynamics of the study area is dominated by the wave regime in the lagoon inlet and nearshore areas, while in the inner areas is tidally dominated; and (b) the inclusion of the wave regime forcing constitutes an improvement in order to accurately reproduce the local morphodynamics.

Plecha, Sandra; Silva, Paulo A.; Oliveira, Anabela; Dias, João M.

2012-05-01

155

Ecosystem level assessment of the Grand Calumet Lagoons, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Calumet Lagoons make up the eastern section of the Grand Calumet River (GCR), Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal and nearshore Lake Michigan Area of Concern (AOC). The GCR AOC is the only one of the 42 Great Lakes Areas of Concern identified by the International Joint Commission with all 14 designated uses classified as impaired. Included within the boundaries of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU), is the central section of the Grand Calumet Lagoons. A number of biotic and abiotic factors were tested to determine the effects of an industrial landfill that borders the lagoons to assess the potential impact on park resources. Analysis included water quality testing, assessments of macroinvertebrate, fish, algae and aquatic plant communities and contaminant concentrations in water, sediment and plant and fish tissue. Surface water testing found very few contaminants, but significantly higher nutrient levels were found in the water column closest to the landfill. Macroinvertebrate, aquatic plant and fish communities all showed significant impairment in relationship to their proximity to the landfill. Aquatic plant growth habit became limited next to the landfill with certain growth habits disappearing entirely. Aquatic plants collected close to the landfill had high concentrations of several heavy metals in their stems and shoots. Using the index of biotic integrity (IBI), fish community assessment indicated impairment in the areas adjacent to the landfill. Sediments tested at one site had over 12% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from this site had whole fish tissue concentrations over 1 mg/kg PAH.

Stewart, P.M. [National Biological Service, Porter, IN (United States)

1995-12-31

156

Characterization of Salmonella Bacteriophages Isolated from Swine Lagoon Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Salmonella bacteriophages that had been originally isolated from swine manure lagoons were characterized and compared to each other\\u000a and to well-known Salmonella phages P22 and Felix 01. Host ranges of the lagoon phages were similar to each other in spot tests on reference strains of\\u000a Salmonella, but differed slightly from each other on a panel of Salmonella lagoon strains.

Michael R. McLaughlin; Rodney A. King

2008-01-01

157

Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon (KDL), which is located at the southwest of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet and dry season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl-) and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater). Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (>95%) was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to salt water intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify contributions of different water sources in the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon which is a highly dynamic and heterogeneous groundwater dependent ecosystem.

Stumpp, C.; Ekdal, A.; Gönenc, I. E.; Maloszewski, P.

2014-07-01

158

Coral extension rates in the NW Indian Ocean I: reconstruction of 20th century SST variability and monsoon current strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, only a few coral proxy studies have investigated coral growth as an indicator of climate variability. This study\\u000a presents the first extension-rate record (Porites lutea) from the Maldives (NW Indian Ocean), inferred from skeletal ?18O chronology for the lagoon of Rasdhoo Atoll (4°N\\/73°W) in the central area of the Maldives, influenced by the Indian monsoon.\\u000a The record spans

David Storz; Eberhard Gischler

2011-01-01

159

The Lagoon Nebula and its Vicinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon Nebula is an HII region in the Sagittarius Arm, about 1.3 kpc away, associated with the young (1--3 Myr) open cluster NGC 6530, which contains several O stars and several dozen B stars. Lower-mass cluster members, detected by X-ray and Halpha emission, and by near-IR excess, number more than a thousand. Myr-old star formation is traced by the

N. F. H. Tothill; M. Gagné; B. Stecklum; M. A. Kenworthy

2008-01-01

160

Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon  

SciTech Connect

The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

1997-03-31

161

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

1991-07-01

162

Long-term water monitoring in two Mediterranean lagoons as an indicator of land-use changes and intense precipitation events (Adra, Southeastern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent historical times the Adra river delta, a detrital coastal aquifer of nearly 32 km 2 located in a semi-arid, mountainous area of SE Spain, has undergone different changes caused by human activity. Within this context, both the river dynamics in the plain and the geomorphology of the coastline have at various times resulted in the formation of small lagoons. At present only two small (<0.5 km 2) lagoons exist, at the eastern edge of the aquifer, which, although closely surrounded by commercial market-garden greenhouses, are protected under international agreements. During the last 30 years of the twentieth century traditional agricultural irrigation techniques have undergone significant changes to improve their efficiency. Surface-water resources in the Adra river basin are regulated via the Beninar reservoir. In addition, the use of groundwater is increasing progressively. Both these factors affect the recharge of the coastal aquifer. To monitor these changes measurements of electrical conductivity and water level fluctuations have been recorded in these lagoons for the last 35 years (1975-2010). A comparison of the hydrochemical characteristics of the water in the lagoons and of the surrounding groundwater from 2003 to 2010 shows marked differences induced by the different hydrological dynamics in each lagoon, as well as by the hydrogeological impact of changes in land use in the delta. The increase in water demand is a consequence of the extension of irrigated areas from the fluvio-deltaic plain to its slopes, originally occupied by unirrigated crops. A reduction in irrigation return-flow is linked to the use of new irrigation techniques. These modifications affect both the recharge regime of the aquifer and its water quality. Moreover, extreme precipitation events, which are characteristic of Mediterranean semi-arid environments, can affect the lagoons' hydrological dynamics to a considerable extent. One such example is the unusually rainy period from January to March 2010 (>600 mm). This event, along with other effects, has dramatically lowered the salinity of the water in both lagoons. This case study reveals the extreme vulnerability of deltaic environments and also how lagoons can reflect anthropogenic changes over the whole river basin.

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Miguel; Benavente, José; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Paracuellos, Mariano

2011-02-01

163

The Lagoon Nebula and its Vicinity  

E-print Network

The Lagoon Nebula is an HII region in the Sagittarius Arm, about 1.3 kpc away, associated with the young (1-3 Myr) open cluster NGC 6530, which contains several O stars and several dozen B stars. Lower-mass cluster members, detected by X-ray and H-alpha emission, and by near-IR excess, number more than a thousand. Myr-old star formation is traced by the optically-visible HII region and cluster; observations of infrared and submillimetre-wave emission, and of optical emission features, indicate ongoing star formation in several locations across the Lagoon. The most prominent of these are the Hourglass Nebula and M8E. Submillimetre-wave observations also reveal many clumps of dense molecular gas, which may form the next generation of stars. The complex structure of the region has been shaped by the interaction of the underlying molecular gas with multiple massive stars and episodes of star formation. NGC 6530 is the oldest component, with the newest stars found embedded in the molecular gas behind the cluster and at its southern rim. A degree to the east of the Lagoon, Simeis 188 is a complex of emission and reflection nebulae, including the bright-rimmed cloud NGC 6559; the presence of H-alpha emission stars suggests ongoing star formation.

N. F. H. Tothill; Marc Gagné; B. Stecklum; M. A. Kenworthy

2008-09-19

164

The Lagoon Nebula and its Vicinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagoon Nebula is an HII region in the Sagittarius Arm, about 1.3 kpc away, associated with the young (1--3 Myr) open cluster NGC 6530, which contains several O stars and several dozen B stars. Lower-mass cluster members, detected by X-ray and H? emission, and by near-IR excess, number more than a thousand. Myr-old star formation is traced by the optically-visible HII region and cluster; observations of infrared and submillimetre-wave emission, and of optical emission features, indicate ongoing star formation in several locations across the Lagoon. The most prominent of these are the Hourglass Nebula and M8 E. Submillimetre-wave observations also reveal many clumps of dense molecular gas, which may form the next generation of stars. The complex structure of the region has been shaped by the interaction of the underlying molecular gas with multiple massive stars and episodes of star formation. NGC 6530 is the oldest component, with the newest stars found embedded in the molecular gas behind the cluster and at its southern rim. A degree to the east of the Lagoon, Simeis 188 is a complex of emission and reflection nebulae, including the bright-rimmed cloud NGC 6559; the presence of H? emission stars suggests ongoing star formation.

Tothill, N. F. H.; Gagné, M.; Stecklum, B.; Kenworthy, M. A.

2008-12-01

165

Bioaccumulation of mercury in reared and wild Ruditapes philippinarum of a Mediterranean lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marano and Grado lagoon, one of the largest wetlands in the Mediterranean Sea, has been subject to mercury contamination by industrial and mining activities. This must be considered a severe threat for Manila clam harvesting, which is an important fishing and commercial activity in the area. Contamination levels and potential risk for human consumption both in reared and wild clams collected from the lagoon were assessed by analyzing total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contents. In addition, relationships between THg and MeHg in sediments and in the bivalves were investigated. Increased bioaccumulation of THg but not of MeHg with increasing size of wild clam populations was observed at most sites. Higher concentrations both of THg (605 ± 210 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (147 ± 37 ng g-1 ww) were detected in the eastern lagoon where the highest THg contents in sediments were observed as a consequence of the long-term supply of cinnabar rich suspended material from the Isonzo river. The variation of Hg content in seeded Manila clams during growth was monitored over a period of 18 months at two sites of the western sector of the lagoon. Results showed that the two areas were suitable for clam farming, with THg levels in reared bivalves always lower than the 0.5 mg kg-1 ww European Community limit. At the same time, as clams grew bigger in size, their THg and MeHg concentrations decreased, becoming lower than in the starting seeded pool. Reared clams presented lower THg (84 ± 55 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (44.1 ± 24.6 ng g-1 ww) content than wild clams of the same commercial size (>30 mm). Based on a precautionary approach, intake of Hg and MeHg with the estimated clam consumption does not seem to constitute a risk for human health in the studied area.

Giani, Michele; Rampazzo, Federico; Berto, Daniela; Maggi, Chiara; Mao, Andrea; Horvat, Milena; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano

2012-11-01

166

Indian Orphanages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

Holt, Marilyn Irvin

167

Influence of hydrological seasonality on sandbank benthos: algal biomass and shrimp abundance in a large neotropical river  

E-print Network

in the Cinaruco were driven by the hydrological regime. During the highwater periods, river sites in the main channel and lagoon sites were similar in water physicochemical variables and algal biomass. In contrast, physicochemical variables and algal biomass...

Montoya Ceballos, Jose Vicente

2009-05-15

168

77 FR 32985 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, Indian Arts and Crafts Board...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana; Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation of Montana; Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe of the Cheyenne...

2012-06-04

169

The Role of Terrestrial Inputs of Organic Matter in Arctic Lagoons: Comparative Studies from Open-Water and Ice-Covered Periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems of the Arctic receive extraordinarily large quantities of terrestrial organic matter through river discharge and shoreline erosion. This organic matter, both in dissolved and particulate form, may provide an important carbon and energy subsidy that supports and maintains heterotrophic activity and food webs in coastal waters, especially in the lagoons. Recent food web studies using stable isotopes confirm the significant assimilation of terrestrial organic matter, based on the depletion in both 13C and 15N content of invertebrate and vertebrate consumers collected in eastern Beaufort Sea lagoons vs. offshore waters. Our current work specifically focuses on a set of 12 field sites along the eastern Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast, from Barter Island to Demarcation Bay. To examine linkages between biological communities and organic matter inputs from land, we compared sites ranging from lagoons to open coastal systems that receive differing amounts of freshwater runoff and also differ markedly in their exchange characteristics with shelf waters. Our temporal and spatial effort included field sampling during the ice covered period in a number of lagoons characterized by differences in their exchange characteristics with the nearshore shelf. Our preliminary chemical and biological measurements, the first of their kind in arctic coastal lagoons, reveal that lagoon benthos can become hypersaline (43) and net heterotrophic (values to 30% oxygen saturation) during winter, before rebounding during the period of ice break-up to net autotrophic (>100% saturation) under continued hypersaline conditions. Measurements of water and sediment chemistry, benthic and water column community characteristics, and natural abundance isotopic tracers promise to reveal the dynamic nature of these productive lagoon ecosystems under different hydrologic conditions. The possible role of terrestrially derived carbon to arctic estuarine food webs is especially important in view of the current warming trend in the arctic environment and the role of advective processes that transport carbon along the nearshore shelf.

Dunton, K. H.; McClelland, J. W.; Connelly, T.; Linn, S.; Khosh, M.

2012-12-01

170

Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in freshwater lagoons and among marine migrant species.

Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María

2013-11-01

171

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING SEVEN CELL LAGOON SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the lagoon system and to evalu...

172

EVALUATION OF A TREATMENT LAGOON FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of a two year study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a 143 MG facultative lagoon for treating combined sewer overflow and polishing secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent. The lagoon performance was evaluated for changes in the deg...

173

Bottom Communities of Semyachik Lagoon (Kronotskii Biosphere Reserve, Eastern Kamchatka)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom communities of Potamogeton filiformis,Zostera marina+ Z. japonica+ Macoma balthica, Enteromorpha prolifera, and a stony block–boulder intertidal community were distinguished in Semyachik Lagoon. The macrobenthos associated with these communities is described. Generally, the biomass and occurrence frequency indices of the macrozoobenthic communities of the lagoon are an order of magnitude lower than those of macrophytobenthic communities (Kafanov, Plekhov, 1998); therefore,

A. I. Kafanov; S. P. Plekhov

2001-01-01

174

Pressures and effects on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon  

E-print Network

SESSION 2 Pressures and effects on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon Chair: Terry Done Rapporteur: Chris Crossland Keynote Paper: Biological oceanography of the Great Barrier Reef M Furnas* and A Mitchell Soft-bottom benthic communities and processes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon D Alongi (Paper

Marsh, Helene

175

ROCK FILTERS FOR REMOVAL OF ALGAE FROM LAGOON EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to show that rock filtration was an effective, low cost unit process for removing algae from lagoon effluents and correspondingly upgrading lagoon treatment. Sedimentation is the primary mechanism of algal removal within rock filter. The settling...

176

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE AERATED LAGOON SYSTEM AT WINDBER, PENNSYLVANIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Publicly-owned wastewater treatment lagoons are in extensive use throughout the United States today. However, the long term data needed to conduct a proper evaluation of lagoon design to meet Federal Secondary Treatment Standards have been lacking. This report presents the data c...

177

Teacher from the Black Lagoon & Other Story Books  

E-print Network

Teacher from the Black Lagoon & Other Story Books Dear Teacher: We have created the following study the Black Lagoon & other Story Books as meaningful as possible. For many, it will be their first time to the performers and the rest of the audience. This performance highlights seven favorite children's stories

Hutcheon, James M.

178

CONTROL OF ODORS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS TREATING FOOD PROCESSING WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic lagoons are used for the treatment of meat packing wastes in most areas of the country. They are a relatively low cost means of achieving BOD reduction. Although lagoon effluent is not suitable for stream discharge, it is amenable to further treatment or to land applica...

179

29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN BEND POND LABELLED 'SETTLING BASIN,' STEAM/DIESEL PLANT AND OTHER FEATURES. 1951 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

180

Schooling Experiences of Central California Indian People across Generations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study took a post-colonialist lens to record, examine and document schooling experiences of California Indian people across several generations representing three Central Valley tribes: the Mono, the Tachi Yokuts of Santa Rosa Rancheria, and the Tule River Tribe. Past and present perceptions of Indian schooling were elicited…

Williams, Tara

2012-01-01

181

1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

182

Seasonal variations of heavy metals content in muscle and viscera of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon in Taiwan.  

PubMed

As a natural lagoon, rich in biological resources including fish, crabs, and bivalves, Da-Peng Bay Lagoon receives the discharges from the neighboring rivers, Kao-ping, Dong-gang, and Lin-Bian, which have harmed the ecology and reduced the water quality of the lagoon. This study analyzes seasonal variation of heavy metals concentration (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the muscle and viscera of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon. Data from this study may provide information on the use of Perna viridis as a bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in the lagoon. The heavy metals concentrations were greater in viscera than in muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis. Results showed that the mussel is capable of accumulating high contents of Cu and Zn. Generally, the order of concentrations in the muscle by season was Zn > Cu > Cr or As. In viscera, the general order of concentrations was Zn > Cu > Pb or Cr or As. Mercury was not detected in winter and spring in muscle and viscera. Cadmium displayed significant variation with season. There was also significant correlation between tissue concentration and heavy metals, including Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, and As. PMID:25208662

Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Wen-Der; Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M; Lu, Ming-Chun

2014-01-01

183

Toward homogenization of Mediterranean lagoons and their loss of hydrodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagoons are considered to be the most valuable systems of the Mediterranean coastal area, with crucial ecological, historical, economical, and social relevance. Climate change strongly affects coastal areas and can deeply change the status of transitional areas like lagoons. Herein we investigate the hydrological response of 10 Mediterranean lagoons to climate change by means of numerical models. Our results suggest that Mediterranean lagoons amplify the salinity and temperature changes expected for the open sea. Moreover, numerical simulations indicate that there will be a general loss of intralagoon and interlagoon variability of their physical properties. Therefore, as a result of climate change, we see on Mediterranean lagoons an example of a common process that in future may effect many coastal environments: that of homogenization of the physical characteristics with a tendency toward marinization.

Ferrarin, Christian; Bajo, Marco; Bellafiore, Debora; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Umgiesser, Georg

2014-08-01

184

Navajo Indians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's learn about Utah History! Let's learn about the Navajo Indians. Learning Objective After reading and researching information about the Navajo tribe, students will be able understand the culture and traditions of this tribe and make comparisons to their own culture, by researching, writing about and creating Navajo jewelry and completing a cultural comparison worksheet. Grades 3 4th Grade Content Area(s) Social Studies Content Targets History, culture ...

Chamberlain, Keshia

2009-11-28

185

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2013-10-01

186

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2010-10-01

187

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2011-10-01

188

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2012-10-01

189

[Temporal and spatial variation of shorebirds in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Jalisco, during three non-breeding seasons].  

PubMed

Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation programs. The aim of this work was to describe shorebirds temporal and spatial distribution in Barra de Navidad lagoon during three non-breeding seasons (1999-2000, 2006-2007 and 2008-2009). For this, monthly censuses were performed from November-April with the purpose of registering all the shorebirds species. We were able to identify 19 shorebirds species (three residents and 16 winter visitors), of which Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa and Tringa semipalmata were the most abundant. The greater number of species was registered for November, December and March of the first and third seasons. The greater number of individuals was registered when birds were feeding during low tides, mainly in December, January and February of the first and third seasons. At low tide, there was a great number of species and individuals in zone C. This area had muddy substrates that were exposed during low tides and were used to feed. Barra de Navidad lagoon provided suitable habitats for feeding and resting for resident and migratory birds. Twelve of the 19 species were considered as priority within the Mexican bird conservation strategy. However, these habitats are threatened by human activities performed in the nearby areas of the lagoon that may have negative consequences for the distribution, abundance and conservation of these species. PMID:23025100

Hernández, Salvador; Serrano, Sergio; Hernández, Xóchitl A; Robles, María Isabel

2012-09-01

190

Elucidating terrestrial nutrient sources to a coastal lagoon, Chincoteague Bay, Maryland, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term non-linear ecosystem-scale changes in water quality and biotic communities in coastal lagoons have been associated with intensification of anthropogenic pressures. In light of incipient changes in Johnson Bay (an embayment of Chincoteague Bay, Maryland-Virginia, USA), examination of nitrogen sources was conducted through synoptic water quality monitoring, stable nitrogen isotope signatures (?15N) of in situ bioindicators, and denitrification estimates. These data were placed in the context of long-term and broader spatial analyses. Despite various watershed protection efforts, multiyear summer time studies (2004-2007) suggested that high levels of terrestrially derived nutrients still enter Johnson Bay. Total nitrogen concentrations in Johnson Bay were 132% the concentrations in the broader Chincoteague Bay during the late 1970s (mean 2004-2007 was 40.0 - 73.2 ?M). Comparing total nitrogen concentrations in Johnson Bay to St. Martin River (consistently the most eutrophic region of these coastal bays), Johnson Bay has increased from 62.5% to 82.5% of the concentrations in St. Martin River during the late 1970s. Though specific sources of nitrogen inputs have not yet been definitively identified, the long-term increase in total nitrogen concentrations occurred despite increased and continued conservation and protection measures. We suggest that investigating nutrient sources can reveal potentially ineffective nutrient policies and that this knowledge can be applied towards other coastal lagoons.

Fertig, B.; O'Neil, J. M.; Beckert, K. A.; Cain, C. J.; Needham, D. M.; Carruthers, T. J. B.; Dennison, W. C.

2013-01-01

191

The Lagoon Nebula and its Vicinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon Nebula is an HII region in the Sagittarius Arm, about 1.3 kpc\\u000aaway, associated with the young (1-3 Myr) open cluster NGC 6530, which contains\\u000aseveral O stars and several dozen B stars. Lower-mass cluster members, detected\\u000aby X-ray and H-alpha emission, and by near-IR excess, number more than a\\u000athousand. Myr-old star formation is traced by the

N. F. H. Tothill; Marc Gagne; B. Stecklum; M. A. Kenworthy

2008-01-01

192

Trust and Survival: "AWOL Hunkpapa Indian Family Prisoners of War at Fort Sully, 1890-1891"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hundred twenty five Hunkpapa Indians fled from the Grand River Camp on the Standing Rock Reservation to the Cheyenne River Reservation to council with Big Foot's band when Sitting Bull was killed on December 15, 1890. These Indian families did not contribute to the number of fatalities at Wounded Knee because they were being held by the U.S.…

Wojcik, Eva

2008-01-01

193

The Lagoon Nebula and its Vicinity  

E-print Network

The Lagoon Nebula is an HII region in the Sagittarius Arm, about 1.3 kpc away, associated with the young (1-3 Myr) open cluster NGC 6530, which contains several O stars and several dozen B stars. Lower-mass cluster members, detected by X-ray and H-alpha emission, and by near-IR excess, number more than a thousand. Myr-old star formation is traced by the optically-visible HII region and cluster; observations of infrared and submillimetre-wave emission, and of optical emission features, indicate ongoing star formation in several locations across the Lagoon. The most prominent of these are the Hourglass Nebula and M8E. Submillimetre-wave observations also reveal many clumps of dense molecular gas, which may form the next generation of stars. The complex structure of the region has been shaped by the interaction of the underlying molecular gas with multiple massive stars and episodes of star formation. NGC 6530 is the oldest component, with the newest stars found embedded in the molecular gas behind the cluster a...

Tothill, N F H; Stecklum, B; Kenworthy, M A

2008-01-01

194

Increased Bioavailability of Mercury in the Lagoons of Lomé, Togo: The Possible Role of Dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations\\u000a were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to\\u000a the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives\\u000a major waste inputs,

Kissao Gnandi; Seunghee Han; M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon; Magali Porrachia; Dimitri D. Deheyn

2011-01-01

195

How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while expected impacts of climate changes on the Thau system were expected to be linked to water balance depletion in the catchment, the main threats are now linked to the impact on water quality of the introduction of the Rhône river waters within the system. This study is conducted in the CLIMB EU-FP7 project (2010-2014).

La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

2014-05-01

196

Geography and the French and Indian War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The military action in the French and Indian War was focused around specific geographic locations of strategic importance. This activity is intended to clarify why these particular spots were deemed so important. Indeed, the military plans of the French and the British were in agreement about which geographic areas held the key to victory. To answer the questions below you will need to study the maps! The French and Indian War began with the dispute over control of the Forks of the Ohio, an area the French, British and Indians all recognized as critically important. Fort Duquesne (later known as Fort Pitt) was situated where the Allegheny River and Monongahela River join to form the Ohio ...

Myers, Mr.

2010-11-30

197

78 FR 41057 - Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana; Public Meetings...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 2305-036] Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana; Public Meetings Soliciting Comments on the Draft...organizations, affected Indian tribes, the public, the license applicants, and...

2013-07-09

198

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean (IO) dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, respectively) precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline, respectively) precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr), precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole modes, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

2014-02-01

199

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean (IO) dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins respectively) precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline respectively) precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr), precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agricultural sector due to its reliance of consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole models, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

2014-01-01

200

Confederated Tribes Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007.  

SciTech Connect

The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2007-January 31, 2008) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Camp Creek, Greasewood Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying five fish passage barriers on four creeks, (2) planting 1,275 saplings and seeding 130 pounds of native grasses, (3) constructing two miles of riparian fencing for livestock exclusion, (4) coordinating activities related to the installation of two off-channel, solar-powered watering areas for livestock, and (5) developing eight water gap access sites to reduce impacts from livestock. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at all existing easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the life of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety of fisheries monitoring techniques and habitat assessments used to determine existing conditions and identify factors limiting anadromous salmonid abundance. Proper selection and implementation of the most effective site-specific habitat restoration plan, taking into consideration the unique characteristics of each project site, and conducted in cooperation with landowners and project partners, was of paramount importance to ensure each project's success.

Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

2008-12-02

201

Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian Values" relates…

Bryde, John F.

202

Air--sea gaseous exchange of PCB at the Venice lagoon (Italy).  

PubMed

Water bodies are important storage media for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and this function is increased in coastal regions because their inputs are higher than those to the open sea. The air-water interface is extensively involved with the global cycling of PCBs because it is the place where they accumulate due to depositional processes and where they may be emitted by gaseous exchange. In this work the parallel collection of air, microlayer and sub-superficial water samples was performed in July 2005 at a site in the Venice lagoon to evaluate the summer gaseous flux of PCBs. The total concentration of PCBs (sum of 118 congeners) in air varies from 87 to 273 pg m(-3), whereas in the operationally defined dissolved phase of microlayer and sub-superficial water samples it varies from 159 to 391 pg L(-1). No significant enrichment of dissolved PCB into the microlayer has been observed, although a preferential accumulation of most hydrophobic congeners occurs. Due to this behaviour, we believe that the modified two-layer model was the most suitable approach for the evaluation of the flux at the air-sea interface, because it takes into account the influence of the microlayer. From its application it appears that PCB volatilize from the lagoon waters with a net flux varying from 58 to 195 ng m(-2)d(-1) (uncertainty: +/-50-64%) due to the strong influence of wind speed. This flux is greater than those reported in the literature for the atmospheric deposition and rivers input and reveals that PCB are actively emitted from the Venice lagoon in summer months. PMID:17706251

Manodori, L; Gambaro, A; Moret, I; Capodaglio, G; Cescon, P

2007-10-01

203

Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed  

SciTech Connect

Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

2000-04-01

204

VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense ultraviolet light, are responsible for making the nebula glow brightly. But the Lagoon Nebula is also home to much younger stellar infants. Newborn stars have been detected in the nebula that are so young that they are still surrounded by their natal accretion discs. Such new born stars occasionally eject jets of matter from their poles. When this ejected material ploughs into the surrounding gas short-lived bright streaks called Herbig-Haro objects [3] are formed, making the new-borns easy to spot. In the last five years, several Herbig-Haro objects have been detected in the Lagoon Nebula, so the baby boom is clearly still in progress here. Notes [1] This survey, one of six VISTA surveys currently in progress, will image the central parts of the Milky Way many times over a period of five years and will detect huge numbers of new variable objects. [2] Bart Bok was a Dutch-American astronomer who spent most of his long career in the United States and Australia. He first noticed the dark spots that now bear his name, in star formation regions and speculated that they may be associated with the earliest stages of star formation. The hidden baby stars were only observed directly when infrared imaging was possible several decades later. [3] Although not the first to see such objects, the astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro were the first to study the spectra of these strange objects in detail and realise that they were not just clumps of gas and dust that reflected light, or glowed under the influence of the ultraviolet light from young stars, but were a new class of objects associated with star formation. More information The science team for VVV includes Dante Minniti (Universidad Catolica, Chile), Phil Lucas (University of Hertfordshire, UK), Ignacio Toledo (Universidad Catolica) and Maren Hempel (Universidad Catolica). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, D

2011-01-01

205

The Patos Lagoon hydrodynamics during an El Niño event (1998)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TELEMAC-2D, a two-dimensional depth-averaged finite element flow model, has been chosen for modelling the hydrodynamics of the Patos Lagoon during the 1998 El Niño event. The model is initially calibrated against measurements carried out between 20 and 29/10/98, and good agreement is achieved between measured and predicted longitudinal velocities. Model validation is carried out by comparing measurements and predictions for one reference station in the estuarine area for the period between 23/05 and 06/06/98. Results indicate an excellent agreement between measurements and predictions, and the model is considered calibrated and validated for the Patos Lagoon hydrodynamics. A study of the Patos Lagoon hydrodynamics under the El Niño extreme conditions shows that the local and non-local wind effects associated with the freshwater discharge at the top of the lagoon promote longitudinal and lateral set-up/set-down mechanisms that influence the circulation. Results indicate that velocities in the lagoon and estuary during the extreme conditions observed in the El Niño period are much stronger than the normal periods. The response of the Patos Lagoon entrance to the local and non-local forcing is studied for the first time in terms of the inflow and outflow of water in the system. Results indicate that during the 1998 El Niño event the non-local forcing dominated, promoting exchanges that represent around 7% of the lagoon initial volume in the simulation. Strong freshwater discharges at the top of the lagoon combined with pressure gradients due to changes in elevation generated by the local and non-local wind favours the predominant seawards flow at the mouth, with outflows in the order of 5000 m3 s-1. The strong outflow observed during the El Niño extreme flow conditions generates huge plumes of freshwater into the adjacent coastal area.

Fernandes, E. H. L.; Dyer, K. R.; Moller, O. O.; Niencheski, L. F. H.

2002-07-01

206

Hydraulic regime-based zonation scheme of the Curonian Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to delineate the spatial zonation of the Curonian Lagoon based on the hydraulic regime and the sediment\\u000a characteristics. A finite element hydrodynamic model has been applied to the Curonian Lagoon to simulate the circulation patterns\\u000a for three years. With the help of a transport diffusion model the salinity distribution and the residence times of

Ferrarin Christian; Razinkovas Arturas; Gulbinskas Saulius; Umgiesser Georg; Bli?džiut? Lina

2008-01-01

207

Characterization of lagoon gases by an electronic nose  

E-print Network

CHARACTERIZATION OF LAGOON GASES BY AN ELECTRONIC NOSE A Thesis by JANE CATHERINE WOODCOCK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1997 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering CHARACTERIZATION OF LAGOON GASES BY AN ELECTRONIC NOSE A Thesis by JANE CATHERINE WOODCOCK Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Woodcock, Jane Catherine

2012-06-07

208

Sources and Distribution of Particulate Organic Matter of a Tropical Estuarine-Lagoon System from NE Brazil as Indicated by Lipid Biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, we evaluated the origin of organic matter in the tropical estuarine-lagoon system of Mundaú–Manguaba,\\u000a NE Brazil, by considering the bulk (organic carbon and chlorophyll-a) and lipidic (n-alcohols and sterols) composition of suspended particles. Water samples were collected in August 2006 from\\u000a 24 stations covering the salinity gradient from the rivers down to the sea outlet. Chlorophyll-a

Talitha L. F. Costa; Michelle P. Araújo; Bastiaan A. Knoppers; Renato S. Carreira

2011-01-01

209

Drivers of pCO2 dynamics in two contrasting coral reef lagoons: The influence of submarine groundwater discharge (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon chemistry of coral reef lagoons can be highly variable over short time scales. While much of the diel variability in seawater carbon chemistry is explained by biological processes, external sources such as river and groundwater seepage may deliver large amounts of organic and inorganic carbon to coral reefs and represent a poorly understood feedback to ocean acidification. Here, we assess the impact of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on pCO2 variability in two coral reef lagoons with distinct SGD driving mechanisms. Diel variability of pCO2 in the two ecosystems was explained by a combination of biological drivers and SGD inputs. In Rarotonga, a South Pacific volcanic island, SGD was driven primarily by a steep terrestrial hydraulic gradient, and the lagoon was influenced by the high pCO2 (5,501 ?atm) of the fresh groundwater. In Heron Island, a Great Barrier Reef coral cay, SGD was dominated by seawater recirculation through sediments (i.e. tidal pumping) and pCO2 was mainly impacted through the stimulation of biological processes. The Rarotonga water column had a relatively higher average pCO2 (549 ?atm) than Heron Island (471 ?atm). However, pCO2 exhibited a greater diel range in Heron Island (778 ?atm) than in Rarotonga (507 ?atm). The Rarotonga lagoon received 31.2 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 from SGD, while the Heron Island lagoon received 12.3 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1. Over the course of this study both systems were sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (3.00 to 9.67 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1), with SGD-derived CO2 contributing a large portion to the air-sea CO2 flux. The relationship between both water column pH and aragonite saturation state (?Ar) and radon (222Rn) concentrations indicate that SGD may enhance the local acidification of some coral reef lagoons. Studies measuring the carbon chemistry of coral reefs (e.g. community metabolism, calcification rates) may need to consider SGD-derived CO2.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D.; Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B.

2013-12-01

210

The Lagoon Saga goes on: Proplyds and other remarkable Objects seen in WFPC2 Images of the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectacular WFPC2 images of the Lagoon Nebula have attracted much attention since our STScI press release in January 1997. The level of detail revealed by Hubble was rarely obtained before for a giant stellar nursery except for the Orion Nebula. The Lagoon Nebula (also called M8, NGC 6523) is 1.5 kpc from us, about 10 times more distant from

A. Caulet

1997-01-01

211

Heavy-metal pollution assessment in the coastal lagoons of Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Jacarepaguá lagoon receives the waste from 239 industries and domestic sewage. Bottom sediment analysis revealed that metal pollution is not spread over the lagoons but restricted to the discharge areas of the main metal-carrier rivers. Metal concentrations in superficial water showed the following concentrations values in ng/ml: Zn, 9.63+/-3.59; Pb, 0.61+/-0.43; Cu, 0.94+/-0.45; Mn, 12.7+/-8.0. Metal concentration in fish (average of seven different species) presented the following results, in mg/kg wet weight: Cr, 0.08+/-0.01; Cu, 0.4+/-0.15; Zn, 4.6+/-3.4; Fe, 2.4+/-1.3; Mn, 0.4+/-0.3. These results imply, considering fish consumption rate and the RfD (USEPA Reference Dose), that the local population is not exposed to undue health risks. Metal concentrations in the water may, however, increase due to their dissolution induced by pH and redox changes in the sediments. PMID:15091655

Fernandes, H M; Bidone, E D; Veiga, L H; Patchineelam, S R

1994-01-01

212

Historical evolution of a micro-tidal lagoon simulated by a 2-D schematic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal transitional environments such as estuaries, coastal inlets and tidal lagoons are the result of the interaction of several exogenous forcing factors (e.g. tidal regime, local wind and wave climate, sea-level rise, sediment supply) many of which are, in principle, variable in time over historical and geological timescales. Besides the natural variability of the external constraints, human interventions in some components of the system can either directly or indirectly affect long-term sediment dynamics in the whole system. In this paper the evolution of a schematic tidal basin, with non-uniform sediments and subject to geological and anthropogenic processes, is reproduced by means of a two dimensional morphodynamic model and qualitatively compared to the events which historically took place in the Venice Lagoon during the last four centuries; the trend for the next 200 years is also investigated. In particular, the effect on both morphology and bottom composition of river diversion, jetty construction, human-induced subsidence and channel dredging are presented and discussed.

Bonaldo, D.; Di Silvio, G.

2013-11-01

213

Materials Developed from American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop (Tacoma, Washington, April 25-29, 1977). Book One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials presented in this resource guide are the direct result of an American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Development Workshop. Activities consist of nine flannelboard stories (including The Fire War, How Coyote Made the Columbia River, Legend of the Mayan Moon God); two games (American Indian Games and Indian Picture Symbol Checkerboard);…

Disney, Dick, Comp.

214

Metagenomics-based analysis of viral communities in dairy lagoon wastewater.  

PubMed

Microbial populations, especially those of viruses, are poorly studied in dairy wastewater treatment operations. Here we report signature nucleic acid metagenomic sequences obtained by pyrosequencing viromes of virus-like particles that were extracted from two dairy waste treatment lagoons. The lagoons are operated in series, with Lagoon I being used as the primary stage and Lagoon II as the secondary stage of wastewater treatment. An average of 2000 sequences was obtained from each lagoon. More than 300 signatures from each lagoon matched sequences in the virus database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). We utilized a bioinformatics approach and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the viral diversity and presence of potential viral pathogens within the lagoons. Our results showed differences in viral community compositions between Lagoon I and Lagoon II, suggesting that the viral community changes significantly in the transition of water between the two lagoons. Furthermore, the diverse viral community in the lagoon samples contained signature sequences of a variety of bacterial, plant, and animal viruses. Bacteriophage sequences dominated the viral community metagenomes in both lagoons. Ultimately these results can be used to identify viral bioindicators to rapidly assess wastewater treatment quality and the potential impacts of dairy operations on watersheds. Our viral metagenomic sequences have been submitted to GenBank (GPID 65805) and can provide insight into the composition and structure of viral communities within wastewaters of dairy lagoon systems. PMID:23220059

Alhamlan, F S; Ederer, M M; Brown, C J; Coats, E R; Crawford, R L

2013-02-15

215

Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

comparison study between 10 Mediterranean lagoons has been carried out by means of the 3-D numerical model SHYFEM. The investigated basins are the Venice and Marano-Grado lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lesina and Varano lagoons in the Southern Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras Lagoon in Sardinia, the Ganzirri and Faro lagoons in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain, and the Nador Lagoon in Morocco. This study has been focused on hydrodynamics in terms of exchange rates, transport time scale, and mixing. Water exchange depends mainly on the inlet shape and tidal range, but also on the wind regimes in the case of multi-inlet lagoons. Water renewal time, which is mostly determined by the exchange rate, is a powerful concept that allows lagoons to be characterized with a time scale. In the case of the studied lagoons, the renewal time ranged from few days in the Marano-Grado Lagoon up to 1 year in the case of the Mar Menor. The analysis of the renewal time frequency distribution allows identifying subbasins. The numerical study proved to be a useful tool for the intercomparison and classification of the lagoons. These environments range from a leaky type to a choked type of lagoons and give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. Mixing efficiency turns out to be a function of the morphological complexity, but also of the forcings acting on the system.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Bellafiore, Debora; Ghezzo, Michol; Bajo, Marco

2014-04-01

216

Response of early Ruppia cirrhosa litter breakdown to nutrient addition in a coastal lagoon affected by agricultural runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of early Ruppia cirrhosa Petagna (Grande) litter decomposition to external nitrogen and phosphorus availability in La Tancada (Ebro River, NE Spain), a coastal lagoon that receives agricultural freshwater runoff from rice fields has been examined. Recently abscised dead R. cirrhosa stems were collected and 25 g of fresh weight was placed in litter bags with a mesh size of 100 ?m and 1 mm. These bags were fertilised by adding nitrogen (N), a mixture of nitrogen plus phosphorus (N + P), or phosphorus (P), or were left untreated (CT). Macroinvertebrates were retrieved from the bags and the ash-free dry weight, and carbon, and N and P content of the remaining plant material were measured after 0, 3, 7, 14, 22 and 32 days. Litter decomposition rates, k (day -1), were estimated using a simple exponential model. Litter decay was clearly accelerated by the addition of P in the fine (100 ?m) litter bags (0.042), but when N was added alone (0.0099) the decomposition rate was lower than in the CT treatments (0.022). No significant difference was observed between the N (0.0099-0.018) and N + P (0.0091-0.015) treatments in either the fine or the coarse (1 mm) litter bags. These results could be attributed to the relatively high availability of external (environmental) and internal (detritus contents) N. No significant effect of macro invertebrates was observed in the CT treatment or under N or P or N + P addition. The ratio between the decomposition rates in coarse and fine litter bags (k c/k f) was lower in disturbed Tancada lagoon (0.82) than in Cesine lagoon (2.11), a similar Mediterranean coastal water body with almost pristine conditions. These results indicate that, in addition to data on macroinvertebrate community structure, decomposition rates could also be used to assess water quality in coastal lagoons.

Menéndez, Margarita

2009-05-01

217

Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the conference examining the processes responsible for the development of the river breaching from the initial stages to a wide-open river flow and subsequent closure.

Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.

2012-12-01

218

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

219

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

220

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

221

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

222

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

223

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

224

Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates in a restricted Mediterranean lagoon (Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing were investigated in the restricted Bizerte Lagoon in 2002 and 2004. The\\u000a 2002 study, carried out at one station from January to October, showed significant seasonal variations in phytoplankton dynamics.\\u000a High growth rates (0.9–1.04 day?1), chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations (6.6–6.8 ?g l?1) and carbon biomass (392–398 ?g C l?1) were recorded in summer (July), when several chain-forming diatoms had intensively proliferated and

A. Sakka Hlaili; B. Grami; Hassine Hadj Mabrouk; M. Gosselin; D. Hamel

2007-01-01

225

Clam farming generates CO2: A study case in the Marinetta lagoon (Italy).  

PubMed

Respiration and calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) production by the farmed short-neck clam Ruditapes philippinarum were calculated to assess their importance as carbon dioxide (CO(2)) sink/source in a lagoon of the Po Delta River (Italy). Biomass and calcimass were established by monthly harvests during a 1-year period (2009). The ratio of CO(2) released to CaCO(3) precipitated was calculated as a function of the near-bottom temperature. From our estimates, R. philippinarum sequestered [Formula: see text] for shell formation, but the CO(2) fluxes due to respiration and calcification resulted 22.7 and 5.56 [Formula: see text] , respectively. Clam farming seems therefore to be a significant additional source of CO(2) to seawater. PMID:22846887

Mistri, Michele; Munari, Cristina

2012-10-01

226

A study of lagoonal and estuarine processes in the area of Merritt Island encompassing the space center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to determine the marine biology and dynamic oceanographic properties of the Indian River in Florida. One of the major areas of concentration involved the compilation of a taxonomic list of marine animals in the river. An important conclusion of the study is that diversity of the benthic community is substantially higher than expected. The effect of major climatic factors on the diversity and structure of the benthic community is analyzed.

1974-01-01

227

The Indian Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

Strong, Augusta

1969-01-01

228

Recent contamination of mercury in an estuarine environment (Marano lagoon, Northern Adriatic, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marano Lagoon, in the northern Adriatic Sea (Italy), has been affected by mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial and mining activities. It has been estimated that 186,000 kg of Hg were deliberately discharged into the main drainage system (Aussa-Corno River) by a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) from 1940s to 1984. The lagoon has also experienced a secondary long-term Hg input, originated from mining activity in Idrija (Slovenia), due to the supply of fluvial suspended particles carried by the Isonzo River in the Gulf of Trieste. Since local fishing activities are extensively conducted, there is great concern on the risk posed by potentially harmful effects of Hg to the trophic chain. Present inputs of this metal, both in dissolved (52.4-4.1 ng L -1) and particulate (130.8-3.4 ng L -1) phases, were preliminary investigated in the water column. Although direct discharge of Hg from the CAP no longer exists, the metal is still released from the source area into freshwaters, and its distribution and abundance is controlled by the salt-wedge circulation system, which is tide-influenced. Remobilization from bottom sediments can also be a secondary source of Hg into the aquatic environment. A speciation technique, used to investigate the main binding sites and phase associations of Hg in sediments (5.69-0.82 ?g g -1), evidenced the presence of mobile (1.8-11%) and potentially available species for methylation processes. The results are particularly important if related to resuspension effects caused by natural events and anthropogenic activities. Preliminary considerations on Hg behaviour in this estuarine environment are reported.

Covelli, Stefano; Acquavita, Alessandro; Piani, Raffaella; Predonzani, Sergio; De Vittor, Cinzia

2009-04-01

229

Giant Twisters in the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image reveals a pair of one-half light-year long interstellar 'twisters,' eerie funnels and twisted-rope structures in the heart of the Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8) which lies 5,000 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius. The central hot star, O Herschel 36 (lower right), is the primary source of the ionizing radiation for the brightest region in the nebula, called the Hourglass. Analogous to the spectacular phenomena of Earth tornadoes, the large difference in temperature between the hot surface and cold interior of the clouds, combined with the pressure of starlight, may produce strong horizontal shear to twist the clouds into their tornado-like appearance. Though the spiral shapes suggest the clouds are 'twisting,' future observations will be needed, perhaps with Hubble's next generation instruments, with the spectroscopic capabilities of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) or the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), to actually measure velocities. These color-coded images are the combination of individual exposures taken in July and September, 1995 with Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) through three narrow-band filters (red light ionized sulphur atoms, blue light, double ionized oxygen atoms, green light, ionized hydrogen).

1995-01-01

230

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

231

Quantification of Water, Salt and Nutrient Exchange Processes at the Mouth of A mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vassova lagoon is a typical Mediterranean (small, shallow, micro-tidal, well-mixed) coastal lagoon, receiving limited seasonal freshwater inflows from direct precipitation and underground seepage. An intensive study was carried out in order to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the intra-tidal and residual transport of water, salt, nutrients and chlorophyll at the mouth of this lagoon and to assess the lagoon's flushing

Georgios K. Sylaios; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis; Christos Akratos; Kiriaki Haralambidou

2006-01-01

232

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

1997-01-01

233

National Indian Education Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

Harvey, Karen Kay

2006-01-01

234

Urban American Indian Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document begins by dispelling several misperceptions about American Indians that are especially pernicious to older American Indians living in cities, and then goes on to discuss what is known about urban American Indian elders and the implications for planning and service delivery for Area Agencies on Aging and contractor agencies. It notes…

Kramer, Josea

235

American Indian Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quick look at the literature in American Indian studies reveals that it is divided about equally between historical research and studies of contemporary American Indians, reflecting the strong influence of history and anthropology in the field. American Indian studies overlaps many disciplines. Characterized as an "area study," it is unified by…

Snipp, C. Matthew

236

American Indian Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

American Indian Studies Certificate American Indian Studies at UWM The Certificate in American understanding of the Native American tribal nations in North America. All of the United States at one time was American Indian land; however, most of it was transferred gradually to the United States of America

Saldin, Dilano

237

Nevada Indians Speak.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anthology presents Indian works which reflect the attitudes of the native Indian people of the State of Nevada, commencing with the possible first White-Indian contact in the 1820's when Anglo American fur trappers and Mexican traders entered the Great Basin. The writer points out in the Preface that no effort has been made to exclude native…

Forbes, Jack D., Ed.

238

Minnesota Indian Resources Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second edition of the directory of organizations operating in the Indian communities throughout the State of Minnesota is an attempt to compile all current information on resources available to the Minnesota Indian. The introductory section discusses the problems faced by the Indian American in urban sectors with reference to their life styles…

Mayer, Catherine M., Comp.; And Others

239

Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

Wilson, James

240

Food web structure of two Mediterranean lagoons under varying degree of eutrophication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food web structure and functioning of two north-western Mediterranean lagoons exhibiting contrasting degrees of eutrophication and marine influences were compared through ?13C and ?15N analysis of major potential food sources and consumers. The Lapalme Lagoon is well preserved and has kept a natural and temporary connection with the open sea. Conversely, the Canet Lagoon is heavily eutrophicated and its

Antoine Carlier; Pascal Riera; Jean-Michel Amouroux; Jean-Yves Bodiou; Martin Desmalades; Antoine Grémare

2008-01-01

241

Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution  

E-print Network

Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution by Steve Ress UNL Water livestock waste lagoons may not be significant contributors to groundwater pollution. "This is particularly of groundwater pollution from livestock waste lagoons, Spalding said. Samples also were analyzed for nitrogen

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

242

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California  

E-print Network

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California ACRES: 28.3 acres NON-FEDERAL SPONSORS: City of Long Beach Friends of Colorado Lagoon PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Colorado Lagoon is a 28 of visitors from communities within and surrounding the City of Long Beach, California. There are over 700

US Army Corps of Engineers

243

THE BIOLOGY OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON: A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SHELTER FROM WAVE ACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of the Saldanha Bay-Langebaan Lagoon system are described and it is shown that there are graded changes in wave action, substratum, temperature and salinity between the bay and the head of the lagoon. None the less the lagoon is not an estuary but a sheltered inlet of the sea.Two transects of rocky shores and four transects of

J. H. Day

1959-01-01

244

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dolphin glides through the water looking for fish in the turn basin, which is located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. Dolphins inhabit the waters, known as the Indian River Lagoon, around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

245

Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 ? M in 1987 to 2.7 ? M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

2007-05-01

246

Sediment biogeochemical differences in two pristine Mediterranean coastal lagoons (in Italy) characterized by different phanerogam dominance-A comparative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate functional differences in two Italian coastal lagoons (Caprolace and Fogliano, Tyrrhenian Sea) characterized by the dominance of two different seagrass species: Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson in the Caprolace lagoon and Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande in the Fogliano lagoon. 2. A monitoring system was set up in both lagoons in order to (i)

A. SIGNORINI; G. MASSINI; G. MIGLIORE; M. TOSONI; C. VARRONE; G. IZZO

2008-01-01

247

HYDROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COASTAL LAGOONS AT HUGH TAYLOR BIRCH STATE RECREATION AREA, FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The author presents initial results of an ongoing study of Southeast Florida coastal lagoon lakes. Objectives include presenting environmental conditions within and adjacent to the lagoons under a variety of hydrologic conditions and to determine water-quality changes in ground water and surface water and how these changes in water quality affect lagoonal biological communities within the lagoons.

Brock, Robert J.

1987-01-01

248

Relative role of climatic factors and anthropogenic actions in the water quality and ecological dynamics of the Aveiro lagoon (Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aveiro lagoon harbours one of the largest saltmarshes in Europe, with a significant role of ecological services, supporting at the same time several economic activities that might impact its water and ecological quality. Besides the pressures associated with human activities, the impacts of climate change in estuarine ecosystems are also matter of concern worldwide. In this context, understanding the systems' natural variability, the impacts of climate change and the relative role of anthropogenic pressures is essential to ensure estuarine ecosystems' long-term management. Thus, this study evaluates the influence of climatic factors and anthropogenic pressures on the water quality and ecological dynamics of the Aveiro lagoon based on an integrated approach. This approach combines the analysis of long time series from the past 25 years and high-resolution numerical modelling of future scenarios of climate change (increase in air temperature, changes in the precipitation regimes and sea level rise) and anthropogenic interventions (dredging, a marina construction and emergency by-pass wastewater discharges) in the lagoon. The analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of variability of the water and ecological quality in the Aveiro lagoon at different scales, based on historical data from 1985 to 2010 complemented by the campaigns performed, suggested a combined influence of the climatic variability and anthropogenic interventions. Future scenarios of climate change and anthropogenic interventions simulated revealed a larger influence of climate change when compared with the analysed anthropogenic actions. The most important variations from the reference scenario are predicted for the sea level rise scenarios, followed by the changes in the hydrological regimes scenarios, putting in evidence the main role of circulation (tide and river flow) in establishing the water quality and ecological dynamics in the lagoon. A significant decrease of chlorophyll a and nutrients is predicted in the downstream and middle areas of the channel due to sea level rise, while a significant salinity increase is predicted upstream. These changes may promote modifications in the communities' distribution and composition, affecting the food web and promoting a progression further upstream of the marine species. Results also suggest that the identified effects may be more important in shallow estuaries.

Rodrigues, Marta; Oliveira, Anabela; Queiroga, Henrique; Brotas, Vanda; Fortunato, André B.; Manso, Maria Dolores

2013-04-01

249

Radon Indicates Hydrological Connection between the Ocean and Lagoon, Santa Cruz, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagoons are common along the coastline of Santa Cruz, CA. In the summer dry season, Corcoran Lagoon in Santa Cruz, California is separated from the ocean by a 100 meter long sand berm. Because sand is a porous medium, water can flow through the berm with a maximum calculated speed of 0.427 meters per hour at Corcoran Lagoon. Previous studies have shown that radon can be used as an indicator of submarine groundwater discharge into the ocean and that discharge into the ocean fluctuates as a function of tide. We used similar techniques in the lagoon to measure 222Rn as groundwater stored in the berm is pushed into the lagoon by the advancing tide. We also measured the salinity of water stored in the berm water at three temporary wells and compared it to seawater and lagoon water at the same time as our radon measurements. As the tide advanced, we observed a radon and salinity increase near the midpoint of the lagoon. The highest salinity measurements, which were higher than both the ocean and the lagoon, were recorded in the berm at the temporary well nearest to the lagoon. These data indicate that the berm stores high salinity and radon rich groundwater which is then pushed into the lagoon with a rising tide which demonstrates the hydrological connection between the lagoon and the ocean.

Vattadi, N.; Foley, N.; Lecher, A.; Murray, J.

2013-12-01

250

Dating sediment cores from Hudson River marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several methods for determining sediment accumulation rates in the Hudson River estuary. One involves the analysis of the concentration of certain radionuclides in sediment core sections. Radionuclides occur in the Hudson River as a result of: natural sources, fallout from nuclear weapons testing and low level aqueous releases from the Indian Point Nuclear Power Facility. The following radionuclides

R. Robideau; R. F. Bopp

1993-01-01

251

Planning Project in Juvenile Delinquency: Prevention and Control of Delinquency Among Indian Youth in Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was conducted in an effort to ascertain the magnitude and dimensions of the delinquency problem among the American Indian youths from the Wind River Reservation (Wyoming). During the summer of 1971 data were obtained from the records of the Court of Indian Offenses, the Tribal police, the juvenile officer on the reservation, the Riverton…

Forslund, Morris A.; Meyers, Ralph E.

252

Cockacoeske, Weroansqua of the Pamunkeys, and Indian Resistance in Seventeenth-Century Virginia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In August 1676 Nathaniel Bacon brought his campaign to "ruin and extirpate all Indians in general" to the Green Dragon Swamp on the upper Pamunkey River. While there, he attacked and massacred nearly fifty Pamunkey Indians, who had been at peace with the government of Virginia for thirty years. Having once formed the backbone of the mighty…

Schmidt, Ethan A.

2012-01-01

253

ENTERIC VIRUS REMOVAL IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT LAGOON SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Indigenous enteric virus removal from raw wastewater was examined in facultative and partially aerated treatment lagoon systems at paired sites in the southwest, southeast, and north central regions of the U.S. The virus samples were concentrated from large wastewater volume usin...

254

Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

1987-05-01

255

Decline of Ulva growth in the lagoon of Venice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causes and effects of the remarkable regression of the macroalga Ulva rigida C. Ag. in the central part of the Venice lagoon since 1990 are reported. Climatic changes triggered the progressive reduction of Ulva coverage and production (?80% in 1993; ?95% in 1995) until its almost complete disappearance in 1996. Grazers, especially Gammaridae, controlled 70% of the current biomass production,

Adriano Sfriso; Antonio Marcomini

1996-01-01

256

eschweizerbartxxx Macrophyte biomass in a Mediterranean lagoon 243  

E-print Network

Biomass of Ruppia cirrhosa and Potamogeton pectinatus in a Mediterranean brackish lagoon, Lake Ichkeul: The biomass of the macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande and their energy in the Ichkeul ecosystem during the study period is estimated at 5306 kJ/m². Key words: Potamogeton pectinatus

Boudouresque, Charles F.

257

Enhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons  

E-print Network

to demand into high­value demand­following power; and second, it can simultaneously serve as a tidal powerEnhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons David J.C. MacKay Cavendish/3/07 Summary The principle that the net energy delivered by a tidal pool can be increased by pumping extra

MacKay, David J.C.

258

Enhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons  

E-print Network

to demand into high-value demand-following power; and second, it can simultaneously serve as a tidal powerEnhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons David J.C. MacKay Cavendish/3/07 Summary The principle that the net energy delivered by a tidal pool can be increased by pumping extra

MacKay, David J.C.

259

A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

260

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose

V. E. Noshkin

1997-01-01

261

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF TEMPERATURE IN TWO COASTAL LAGOONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With in situ continuous recording thermographs, year-long surface-temperature time series were gener- ated at four points in San Quintin Bay and at three points in Estero de Punta Banda. During spring and summer, upwelling events were clearly detected at the mouth of San Quintin Bay. Upwelled waters propa- gate throughout San Quintin Bay by tidal currents. In both coastal lagoons

JOSUE ALVAREZ-BORREGO; SAUL ALVAREZ-BORREGO

1982-01-01

262

Evaluation of eutrophication in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria Formosa is a shallow mesotidal lagoon on the south coast of Portugal, with natural biogeochemical cycles essentially regulated by tidal exchanges at the seawater boundaries and at the sediment interface. Existing data on nutrients in the water column and the sediment, together with chlorophyll a and oxygen saturation in the water column, are compared using different models for

A. Newton; J. d. Icely; M. Falcao; A. Nobre; J. p. Nunes; J. g. Ferreira; C. Vale

2003-01-01

263

A combined wind wavetidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy  

E-print Network

A combined wind wave­tidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy L. Carniello and A. Defina Department of Hydraulic, Maritime, Environmental and Geotechnics Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy S, Environmental and Geotechnics Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy Received 30 August 2004; revised 8

Fagherazzi, Sergio

264

Modelling Zostera marina and Ulva spp. in a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have implemented new modules of seagrass and macroalgae in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The modules were tested using a version of ERSEM coupled with the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) in San Quintin Bay (SQB), a coastal lagoon in Baja California, Mexico. As we are working in a region where horizontal advective transport of nutrients is

Leslie Aveytua-Alcázar; Victor F. Camacho-Ibar; Alejandro J. Souza; J. I. Allen; Ricardo Torres

2008-01-01

265

Metals in tissues of fish from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to investigate the metal concentrations in muscle, liver, gonad, and gill of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758), and keeled mullet (Liza carinata Valenciennes, 1836) from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean region. So, the levels of cadmium, cobalt, chromium,\\u000a copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc in tissues of specimens from

Aysun Türkmen; Mustafa Türkmen; Yalç?n Tepe; Mustafa Çekiç

2010-01-01

266

WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

267

Fuzzy prediction of the algal blooms in the Orbetello lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orbetello lagoon is a shallow brackish waterbody subject to intense and diverse eutrophication (phytoplankton, macroalgae and macrophytes). Periodically a large amount of algae must be artificially removed, their collection and disposal representing a considerable management cost. This paper describes the design of a bloom predictor based on the daily fluctuations of simple water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen,

Stefano Marsili-libelli

2004-01-01

268

Estimation of bottom ammonium affinity in the New Caledonia lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium affinity of New Caledonia lagoon benthic communities was measured during the course of 33 in situ enrichment experiments, in order to estimate the contribution of benthos to ammonium fluxes. Ammonium chloride was injected into enclosures pushed into the sediment, in order to obtain a concentration of 20–22 µmol l-1 in the enclosed water which approximated the interstitial water content.

G. Boucher; J. Clavier; C. Garrigue

1994-01-01

269

Distributional patterns of fishes in an Alaskan Arctic Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summer, the fish community of Simpson Lagoon and adjacent coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea was dominated by two marine species (Arctic cod, fourhorn sculpin) and three anadromous species (Arctic and least cisco, Arctic char). The anadromous species remained in the relatively warm and brackish waters near shore and demonstrated an affinity for shoreline edges, particularly the mainland shoreline

P. C. Craig; W. B. Griffiths; L. Haldorson; H. McElderry

1985-01-01

270

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

271

The evolution of the Lagoon of Venice as a paradigm of anthropogenic alteration of ecosystems: a palaeoenvironmental reconstruction through wide-area acoustic surveys and core sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagoon of Venice (Italy) is the unique result of natural and anthropogenic changes. Through the centuries, human activities, steadily modified its environment, bringing it to the point that the Lagoon of Venice is itself a signature of human activities. Moreover, the historical city of Venice, a world heritage site, is threatened by flooding caused by sea level rises, so much so that major modifications of the lagoon inlets are ongoing in order to protect it. For these reasons, the Lagoon of Venice is at the same time a paradigm of a relatively circumscribed ecosystem in which the Anthropocene has started long ago, and a sensitive testbed of the environmental changes that are taking place at the global level. In this context, a large geophysical survey was carried out to explore the Holocene sediments in order to establish the natural evolution of the lagoon and the impact of human activities. The survey is the basis of an interdisciplinary study that has allowed the reconstruction of ancient landscapes of the lagoon from before its origin to present days. In particular, thanks to acoustic and geologic investigation of the lagoon sub-bottom, and by crossing our data with the environmental records provided by archaeological findings and by the city's historical archives, we could distinguish different phases of the lagoon evolution and evaluate the weight of human-induced changes We first mapped the position and the depth of the alluvial plain that was flooded during the last marine transgression, about 6000 years before present (BP), when the lagoon originated. Then, we mapped the areal extension of a dense network of palaeochannels and palaeosurfaces corresponding to different hydrological conditions and relative mean sea levels. Using many radiocarbon dating and the acoustical sub-bottom reconstruction, we could establish an average sedimentation rate of about 1 mm/year from 2500 and 1500 BP and 0.5 mm/year from 1500 BP up to present and an average migration rate of the natural channels ranging from 10 to 20 m/century with a filling rate between 0.5 and 2.5 mm/year. As a further result of this investigation, we found a general simplification of the morphologies over the centuries with a drastic reduction of the number of channels and salt marshes. This simplification can be explained by natural causes such as the general increase of the mean sea level, and by human activities such as artificial river diversion and inlet modifications causing a reduced sediment supply and a change of the hydrodynamics. Finally, we observed that this tendency accelerated dramatically in the last century as a consequence of the construction of a deep industrial canal, dredged between 1961 and 1969 to allow navigation of large containers. These results can contribute to planning effective environmental strategies for the Lagoon of Venice.

Madricardo, Fantina; Donnici, Sandra

2013-04-01

272

The Indian as American  

E-print Network

, had anything to do with Indians. Wherever American characteristics developed, they were not Indian characteristics. Most of the large-scale schemes we use to explain how Americans got that way similarly fail when applied to the Indian, because he... doctrinaire or systematic views as well. Millennialism, for instance, is understood to be a theological formalization of related ideas. Millenarian thinking antedates settlement, but it is interesting to see how closely it is tied over the centuries...

Levine, Stuart

1965-01-01

273

Biological control of trace metal and organometal benthic fluxes in a eutrophic lagoon (Thau Lagoon, Mediterranean Sea, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ benthic chamber experiments were conducted in the Thau Lagoon that allowed the simultaneous determination of the benthic exchanges of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and U) and mercury species (iHg and MMHg). Fluxes of organotin compounds (MBT, DBT and TBT) were also investigated for the first time. The benthic incubations were performed during two campaigns at

M. Monperrus; E. Tessier; D. Amouroux; L. Chauvaud; G. Thouzeau; F. Jean; E. Amice; J. Grall; A. Leynaert; J. Clavier; O. F. X. Donard

2007-01-01

274

Dissolved and particulate heavy metals distribution in coastal lagoons. A case study from Mar Chiquita Lagoon, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon is located on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, and it has been declared a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB). This coastal lagoon constitutes an estuarine environment with a very particular behaviour and it is ecologically important due to its biological diversity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution and geochemical behaviour of several heavy metals in this coastal system, focusing on their distribution in both the dissolved phase (<0.45 ?m) and the suspended particulate matter. Therefore, the general hydrochemical parameters (salinity, temperature, turbidity, pH and dissolved oxygen) and concentration of total particulate and dissolved metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cr and Mn) were measured along 2 years (2004-2006) at two different sites. As regards their distribution, hydrological parameters did not present any evidence of deviation with respect to historical values. Suspended particulate matter showed no seasonal variation or any relationship with the tide, thus indicating that in this shallow coastal lagoon neither tides nor freshwater sources regulate the particulate matter input. Heavy metals behaviour, both in dissolved and particulate phases did not reveal any relationship with tide or seasons. Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon showed a large input of dissolved and particulate metals, which is probably due to intensive agriculture within the drainage basin of this system.

Beltrame, María Ornela; De Marco, Silvia G.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

2009-10-01

275

Indian medical journals.  

PubMed

Although Indian doctors produce half the articles published from the third world, little has been written about Indian medical journals. We examined 75 of the 113 serious English-language journals published in India. Of the 22 included in the Cumulated Index Medicus only 8 were judged by Indian and foreign referees to be of international standard. A survey of Indian authors indicated that foreign journals were chosen for the best papers because of their wider circulation, better refereeing practices, and punctuality. More than 98% of medical articles from India probably go unnoticed by the international medical community. PMID:1351561

Sahni, P; Reddy, P P; Kiran, R; Reddy, K S; Pande, G K; Nundy, S

1992-06-27

276

48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

2010-10-01

277

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

278

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

279

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

280

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

281

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

282

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

283

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

284

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

285

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

286

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

287

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

288

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

289

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

290

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

291

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

292

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

293

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

294

75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February...

2010-02-23

295

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

296

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

297

Toxicity of contaminants in lagoons and pannes of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants in water and sediments of lagoons and pannes were 2--90 times greater at sites adjacent to slag and coal piles than those at reference sites. One site (Lagoon-US5) had sediments with very high concentrations of toxic organics (e.g. naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzofuran). Although analyses indicated a gradient of contaminant concentration with distance from their sources, toxicity assays were somewhat equivocal. With the exception of less reproduction in Ceriodaphnia at one lagoon site (US3 = 0.55 of reference), survival of fathead minnows and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia in lagoon and panne waters varied independently of the contaminant concentration. In fact, there was better Ceriodaphnia reproduction in water from two contaminated sites (Lagoon-US5, Panne-WP1) than in water from reference sites. Fathead minnow survival, Ceriodaphnia survival, Ceriodaphnia reproduction, amphipod survival, and amphipod growth varied among sites in toxicity assays with sediments, 100% mortality of fatheads at Lagoon-US5, 100% mortality of Ceriodaphnia at Lagoon-US3, and less survival of fathead minnows at Lagoon-US3 indicate possible toxicity from contaminants in sediments at these sites. Of all organisms and end-points tested, Ceriodaphnia survival seemed to be most closely associated with concentrations of contaminants in lagoon water and sediments. Amphipod survival also varied with contaminants in sediments, however, survival in sediments of contaminated sites ranged only from 0.90--0.93 of reference sites. Although the results are not consistent among organisms, toxicity assays indicate that sediments from the lagoon site with the highest contaminants (Lagoon-US5) and possibly those from another contaminated lagoon site (Lagoon-US3) could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Water and sediments from contaminated panne sites do not appear to be toxic to aquatic test organisms.

Gillespie, R.; Speelman, J. [Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Stewart, P.M. [National Biological Service, Porter, IN (United States). Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

1995-12-31

298

Seasonal Effects of Indian Ocean Freshwater Forcing in a Regional Coupled Model* International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii  

E-print Network

Seasonal Effects of Indian Ocean Freshwater Forcing in a Regional Coupled Model* HYODAE SEO form 30 July 2009) ABSTRACT Effects of freshwater forcing from river discharge into the Indian Ocean-ocean strat- ification and increases the SST near the river mouths where the freshwater forcing is largest

Xie, Shang-Ping

299

25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

2010-04-01

300

The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

Bunge, Robert P.

1978-01-01

301

Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian has a beautiful online exhibit, Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian which is meant to accompany the in situ exhibition in Washington D.C. and New York. Scholder's work is the subject of much debate in the world of Native Art, as his work has no obvious Native American imagery in it and he oftentimes denied he was Native American. By clicking on "Biography" near the top of the page, a list of links, "The Early Years", "The IAIA Years", and "The 70s and After" will appear. Below these links a clickable timeline also appears which advances when rolled over with the mouse. Another way to get an introduction to Scholder's life and the exhibit is to click on the "Podcasts" link near the top of the page. The first podcast listed is "Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian". Visitors should also not miss looking at his bold and sometimes disturbing paintings and sculptures, under the "Works" tab near the top of the page. They can be viewed by either D.C. or New York displays, as well as by "Curator's Choice", which is the default view. Each piece of work is also accompanied by commentary offered by the curators. Just click on the artwork, and under the bottom right hand corner of the image is a speaker to click on, complete with the name of the curator doing the commentary.

2008-01-01

302

Salinity and eutrophication management by in situ continuous real-time monitoring and 3D modelling (hydrodynamics coupled with water quality): the case of the Berre lagoon (Mediterranean, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berre lagoon is one of the biggest Mediterranean lagoon. It is located in the South East of France. It's a shallow semi-confined ecosystem (mean depth 6.5 m, depths greater than 8 m being restricted in the central and South parts). Its only connection to the Mediterranean Sea is the Caronte channel in the South West which allows tidal-driven water exchanges. The lagoon receives fresh water and nutrients from natural tributaries (Arc and Touloubre rivers) that drain high anthropised catchment basins. Moreover, a hydroelectric power plant became the main tributary of the lagoon since 1966: it discharged a mean of 3.3 x109 m3 of fresh water per year (equivalent to 3.4 times the volume of the lagoon) and a mean of 525 000 tons of suspended matter per year, during the period 1966 - 1993. As a consequence, the Berre lagoon became particularly unstable, showing considerable salinity drop and variations (2 to 30) depending on seasonal electricity needs. Nutrients loads by both anthropised rivers and power plant led to frequent colored waters and development of macroalgae. Haline stratification favored anoxia and led to benthos disappearance. Changes were observed in Zostera sp. meadows too. In 2004, the European Court of Justice condemned the French State for not respecting the Athens Protocol (advocating Mediterranean protection against telluric pollution) and requested managing strategies. The hydroelectric power plant (Electricité de France EDF) is not allowed from now on to discharge more than 1.2 x109 m3 of fresh water per year. Besides, EDF has to respect severe salinity constraints favorable to the establishment of a balanced ecosystem. In this context, EDF started an in situ continuous monitoring of the lagoon: CTD probes have been installed at 10 stations and currents have been measured in the Caronte channel. Moreover, the three central buoys have been real time remote transmitting to control instantaneously the impact of fresh water discharge on salinity. Since 2008, these three buoys have been also equipped with nitrate, chlorophyll and oxygen probes. Thanks to these measurements, a 3D hydrodynamic model (TELEMAC©) has been developped and validated to better qualify and quantify the relationships between the salinity of the lagoon, the fresh water inputs (from the powerplant and from the rivers), the water exchanges through the Caronte channel and the wind mixing. This model is currently used by the electricity producer to manage fresh water discharges complying with salinity indicators fixed by the European Court of Justice. Then, a biogeochemical model (DelWAQ©) coupled with the hydrodynamic model has been developped to understand the ecosystem functioning and to assess the hydroelectric powerplant implication in the eutrophication of the lagoon. Simulations reproduce quite well: 1/ the seasonal variations of nutrients, 2/ biogeochemical processes, 3/ anoxia events in connection with stratification periods at deep stations and 4/ are able to calculate nutrients budgets over a year. The results show that high primary production rates are based on high dynamical mineralization processes. The allochtonous nutrients sources are not sufficient to feed the phytoplanktonic demand (less than 1%). This models coupling is the only way to compile the physical and biogeochemical variables and processes. It's a tool aiming at a better assessment of the high complexity of the lagoon nutrients cycles. It will help us to understand the powerplant implication for the eutrophication with respect to the anthropised rivers. Moreover we would be able to test various managing scenarii (e.g. drop of nutrients loads) and to suggest new rehabilitation strategies.

Martin, Laurent; Emma, Gouze

2010-05-01

303

Status of the Mussel Fauna of the Poteau River and Implications for Commercial Harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Poteau River, a major tributary of the Arkansas River, flows through the Ouachita Uplands of eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas. The river has been harvested for mussels, historically by the Caddo Indians and recently for the pearl industry. We documented the current distribution and abundance of mussels in the river, compared this with historical distributions and examined whether the

CARYN C. VAUGHN; DANIEL E. SPOONER

2004-01-01

304

Indians of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

305

Contemporary American Indian Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his keynote address to the Fifth Annual American Indian Studies Consortium in 2005 David Wilkins began by commenting on earlier attempts to formally organize such a gathering in ways that might help establish and accredit Indian studies programs. He said he had the sense that the thrust of earlier meetings "was really an opportunity for Native…

Larson, Sidner

2009-01-01

306

INDIAN BACKGROUNDS Patuxent Wildlife  

E-print Network

of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 138 #12;#12;INDIAN BACKGROUNDS of the Patuxent Wildlife Research of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 138 #12; Exhibit the Indian hunted with spear and arrow to supply the necessities of life--food, clothing, and shelter

307

The Omaha Indians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly recounting the history of the Omaha American Indians, this article makes a plea for relocation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs local Agency in Macy near the Omaha reservation, suggesting that the Returned Students movement is a response to this need for the Agency's relocation. (JC)

Springer, W. F.

1976-01-01

308

An American Indian Anthology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anthology is intended to be a discovery for the many Americans whose superficial knowledge of the American Indians has been derived from history books, Hollywood films, and other stereotyped views of the Indian culture. Understanding and appreciation of a particular culture can be found in the stories and poetry of the people. This small…

Tvedten, Benet, Comp.

309

Photosynthetic pigments of Zoster a noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa in some Albanian lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the coastal lagoons of Adriatic Sea Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa are plants with seeds and flowers, that colonizes the sandy bottom of lagoons. They are capable to produce oxygen with very weak light. Characterization of photosynthetic pigments of eelgrass Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa, were performed during the period 2002-2008 in some Adriatic lagoons: Kune-Vaini, Patog, Karavasta and Narta. Dynamics of chlorophylls and carotenoids during the vegetation period of these plants were characterized. As a result, the chlorophyll content of Zoostera noltii taken from the Kune- Vain lagoon is higher than at plants collected from the other lagoons. The photosynthetic pigment content of the Zostera noltii plants is higher than of Ruppia cirrhosa. The differences on the distribution of these species in the analyzed lagoons are represented in this presentation.

Ylli, Arjana; Babani, Fatbardha; Stamo, Iliriana

2010-01-01

310

Black Hawk. The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Born in 1767, Black Hawk was the last great war leader of the Sauk Indians, who lived in the Rock River valley in Illinois. By age 25, he was a famed warrior and leader of his people who raided neighboring tribes until a period of peace and prosperity began about 1800. Various treaties of which the Sauk knew and understood very little deprived the…

Cunningham, Maggi

311

Indian Heritage: A Selected Book List for All Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book list, a sampling of resources from the Denver Public Library, pertains to the Indians of North America, especially those west of the Mississippi River. The annotated list is divided into two main parts: "Adult and Young Adult Books, Films, and Records" and "Children's Books, Films, and Records." The bulk of the list is adult and young…

Denver Public Library, CO.

312

Reclamation of Indian Historical Icons and Indian Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reclamation of Indian Historical Icons and Indian Identity studies how aboriginal artists-playwrights, filmmakers, and authors-use their art to take back appropriated Indian historical icons from their place in the colonizers' imperialist history, and to create representations of Indians that counteract the stereotypical ones created by the colonizers. Sherman Alexie and Monique Mojica work in a number of different genres, and

Danijela Jovic

2002-01-01

313

Indians in Indian Fiction: The Shadow of the Trickster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies mythic dimension of protagonists in novels by American Indian authors Scott Momaday and James Welch. Illustrates discrepancies between White readers' beliefs about Indians and Indian myths of the trickster and how mythologies affect interpretation of the novels. Contrasts use of myth by Indian authors Leslie Silko and Gerald Vizenor. (LFL)

Velie, Alan R.

1984-01-01

314

Iron in water near wastewater lagoons in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

High dissolved-iron concentrations have been noted in water in wells used to monitor effluent that percolates from wastewater disposal lagoons near Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park. The concentration of dissolved iron in water in a well increased from 80 ..mu..g\\/l (micrograms per liter) before a nearby lagoon was used for disposal of effluent to 17,000 ..mu..g\\/l after the lagoon

Cox

1978-01-01

315

Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its hydrogeologic control in a reef lagoon setting, but is likely to occur in many similar coastal settings. Ignoring geologic complexity can result in mischaracterization of SGD and other coastal groundwater processes at many spatial scales.

Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.

2014-09-01

316

Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

317

Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

318

Fiji's Great Astrolabe Lagoon: baseline study and management issues for a pristine marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Astrolabe Lagoon (18°45?S,178°32?E), located some 70km south of Suva, the capital of Fiji, is a marine environment in relatively pristine condition, impacted only by low human populations on small islands. The Great Astrolabe Reef which encloses the Lagoon is a barrier reef composed of oceanic ribbon reefs. A baseline study of the Lagoon was carried out in 1989–92

R. J. Morrison; Milika R. Naqasima

1999-01-01

319

Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

1985-02-01

320

A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments.  

PubMed

A sampler was needed for a spatial and temporal study of microbial and chemical stratification in a large swine manure lagoon that was known to contain zoonotic bacteria. Conventional samplers were limited to collections of surface water samples near the bank or required a manned boat. A new sampler was developed to allow simultaneous collection of multiple samples at different depths, up to 2.3 m, without a manned boat. The sampler was tethered for stability, used remote control (RC) for sample collection, and accommodated rapid replacement of sterile tubing modules and sample containers. The sampler comprised a PVC pontoon with acrylic deck and watertight enclosures, for a 12 VDC gearmotor, to operate the collection module, and vacuum system, to draw samples into reusable autoclavable tubing and 250-mL bottles. Although designed primarily for water samples, the sampler was easily modified to collect sludge. The sampler held a stable position during deployment, created minimal disturbance in the water column, and was readily cleaned and sanitized for transport. The sampler was field tested initially in a shallow fresh water lake and subsequently in a swine manure treatment lagoon. Analyses of water samples from the lagoon tests showed that chemical and bacterial levels, pH, and EC did not differ between 0.04, 0.47, and 1.0 m depths, but some chemical and bacterial levels differed between winter and spring collections. These results demonstrated the utility of the sampler and suggested that future manure lagoon studies employ fewer or different depths and more sampling dates. PMID:24549945

McLaughlin, M R; Brooks, J P; Adeli, A

2014-07-01

321

Kinematics of the Hourglass Region in the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hourglass region, ionized solely by the star Herschel 36, represents the brightest part of the Lagoon nebula. In this paper, we present new kinematic observations of the region in [N II] 6583 Å emission line using an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer in the spectrographic mode. We find both asymmetric and symmetric line profiles with large linewidths of 22-40 km\\/s towards

A. Chakraborty; B. G. Anandarao

1997-01-01

322

Three Band Submillimetre Mapping of the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon Nebula, M8, has been mapped at 450 micron, 850 micron, and 1.3 mm, using SCUBA and the IRAM 30-m telescope. The large-scale maps (~20' × 10') show clumpy structures surrounding the hii region, extending as far as M8E. The core sizes are around 15 arcsec --30 arcsec (0.1--0.3 pc), with temperatures of 10--40 K. The mass spectrum of

N. F. H. Tothill; G. J. White

2000-01-01

323

Far-infrared observations of the Lagoon Nebula \\/M8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-beam far-infrared photometry is used to estimate the dust temperature and mass, geometry, and energetics of the Lagoon Nebula (M8). Most of the data can be explained in terms of the visible star cluster, NGC 6530, heating a dense molecular cloud that lies behind it. The source M8E, however, may be heated internally, and appears to be a likely site

H. A. Thronson Jr.; R. F. Loewenstein; G. M. Stokes

1979-01-01

324

Intense molecular emission from the Lagoon nebula, M8  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery is reported of the second strongest source of mm and submm wavelength CO line emission, towards M8, the Lagoon Nebula in Sagittarius. The ~31Msun_ molecular core has dimensions ~0.2x0.3pc and is centred on the O7V star Herschel 36 (H36), near the Hourglass Nebula in the core of M8. Emission from the CO line wings extends to the north

G. J. White; N. F. H. Tothill; H. E. Matthews; W. H. McCutcheon; M. Huldtgren; M. J. McCaughrean

1997-01-01

325

New Hergig-Haro objects in the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the discovery of five new Herbig-Haro (HH) objects in the Lagoon Nebula (M8), as part of the search for evidences of ongoing star formation in the region using optical wide-field narrow-band imaging obtained at ESO Observatory in La Silla (Chile). Based on the analysis of the [S II] and Halpha images, we study in detail the morphology of

J. I. Arias; R. H. Barbá

2006-01-01

326

Far-infrared observations of the Lagoon Nebula (M8)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-beam far-infrared photometry is used to estimate the dust temperature and mass, geometry, and energetics of the Lagoon Nebula (M8). Most of the data can be explained in terms of the visible star cluster, NGC 6530, heating a dense molecular cloud that lies behind it. The source M8E, however, may be heated internally, and appears to be a likely site

R. F. Loewenstein; G. M. Stokes

1979-01-01

327

Comparative study of wastewater lagoon with and without water hyacinth  

SciTech Connect

A facultative sewage lagoon completely covered with water hyacinths had significant improvement in effluent quality. BOD 5 and total suspended solids (TSS) were 23 and b mg/L respectively. Without water hyacinths, the effluent BOD5 and TSS were 52 and 77 mg/L, respectively. The effluent total organic C concentration was reduced from 72 to 40 mg/L with water hyacinth coverage.

McDonald, R.C.; Wolverton, B.C.

1980-01-01

328

A variational Data Assimilation algorithm to better estimate the salinity for the Berre lagoon with Telemac3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berre lagoon is a receptacle of 1000Mm3 where salty sea water meets fresh water discharged by the hydroelectric plant at Saint-Chamas and by natural tributaries (Arc and Touloubre rivers). Improving the quality of the simulation of the hydrodynamics of the lagoon with TELEMAC 3D, EDF R&D at LNHE aims at optimizing the operation of the hydroelectric production while preserving the lagoon ecosystem. To do so and in a collaborative framework with CERFACS, a data assimilation (DA) algorithm is being implemented, using the Open-Palm coupler, to make the most of continuous (every 15 min) and in-situ salinity measurements at 4 locations in the lagoon. Preliminary studies were carried out to quantify the difference between a reference simulation and the observations on a test period. It was shown that the model is able to relatively well represent the evolution of the salinity field at the observating stations, given some adjustements on the forcing near Caronte. Still, discrepancies up to several g/l remain and could be corrected with the DA algorithm. Additionally, some numerical features should be fixed to insure the robustness of the code with respect to compiling plateforms and parallel computing. Similarly to the meteorological and oceanographic approaches, the observations are used sequentially to update the hydrodynamical state. More specifically, a 3D-FGAT algorithm is used to correct the salinity state at the beginning of an assimilation window. This variational algorithm lies on the hypothesis that the tangent linear physics can be approximated by a persistent model over a chosen time window. Sensitivity tests on a reference run showed that in order to cope with this constraint, the analysis time window should be at most 3h. For instance, it was show that a local positive salinity increment of 0.5 g/l introduced at -5m is dissipated by the numerical model over 1 day (physical and numerical diffusion mostly) (Figure a). Using an average estimate of the difference between the reference integration and the observation, a sequential (hourly) and local correction is applied to the salinity state to mimic the upcoming DA scheme as illustrated in Figure b ; the difference between simulation and observation (OmB) is reduced at each cycle (OmA). To further this study, major work is expected for the modeling of the background error covariance matrix that allows to spread the salinity correction from observation points to the whole state vector.

Ricci, S. M.; Piacentini, A.; Riadh, A.; Goutal, N.; Razafindrakoto, E.; Zaoui, F.; Gant, M.; Morel, T.; Duchaine, F.; Thual, O.

2012-12-01

329

Indian Music for the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian Music for the Classroom presents the different styles of Indian music and their cultural contexts, with chapters on Indian culture and sound, Indian classical vocal and instrumental music, folk music, film music, and traditional popular musics. From Hindi-Pop to bhangra to the Urdu ghazal, the book covers them all, as well as national songs, children's songs, and the devotional

Natalie Rose Sarrrazin

2009-01-01

330

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

331

Coastal lagoons and their evolution: A hydromorphological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a geoscience perspective, coastal lagoons are essentially ephemeral features which are part of a continuum of coastal environments. Their natural hydromorphological evolution is seldom if ever permitted to take place as a consequence of human action; either directly by engineering interventions, to maintain or create navigable inlets, or indirectly due to activities within their catchment areas. The hydromorphological impacts of historical, contemporary and proposed engineering activities in coastal lagoons around in the world are reviewed and from these a powerful exemplar is that of the Aveiro system in Portugal. Here, two centuries of channelization, jetty and breakwater construction and progressive dredging have transformed a then fluvially dominant system into one that is today tidally dominant. Both the tidal range and tidal prism have increased along with the extent of saline intrusion. The associated stresses imposed by increased tidal currents have, in turn, led to important changes in the sedimentary regime and to the loss of almost all seagrass species which were once abundant in the system. This, along with observations from other related case studies, raises important questions regarding the concept of lagoon ecosystem 'health' and the baseline or reference conditions to which it is assessed.

Duck, Robert W.; da Silva, José Figueiredo

2012-09-01

332

Developing Age Models to Utilize High Arctic Coastal Sediments for Paleoclimate Research: Results from the Colville Delta and Simpson Lagoon, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment cores collected from Simpson Lagoon on the inner Beaufort Sea shelf adjacent to the Colville River delta, AK are being utilized to develop new, high-resolution (sub-decadal scale) archives of the 0-3,000 year Arctic paleoclimate record necessary to assess natural and anthropogenic climate variability. An imperative first step for developing a new paleoclimate archive is to establish methodologies for constraining the age-depth relationship. Naturally occurring and bomb-produced radioisotopes have been utilized in sediments to constrain downcore variability of accumulation rates on 100-103 y timescales, but this methodology is complicated by low activities of many of these tracers at high latitudes. The present study utilizes the combination of a (1) multi-tracer approach and a (2) tailored measurement strategy to overcome this limitation. 210Pb and 137Cs analyses were conducted on the fine (<32?m) sediment fraction to maximize measurable activity and to minimize radioisotope activity variability resulting from changes in grain size: 137Cs geochronologies proved more reliable in this setting and revealed mm/y sediment accumulation in the lagoon. To corroborate the 137Cs results, 239,240Pu activities were analyzed for selected sites using ICP-MS which has ultra-low detection limits, and yielded accumulation rates that matched the Cs geochronology. Age model development for the remainder of the core lengths (>~100 y in age) were completed using radiocarbon dating of benthic foraminifera tests, which proved the only datable in situ carbon available in this sediment archive. These dates have been used to constrain the ages of acoustic reflectors in CHIRP subbottom seismic records collected from the lagoon. Using this age control, spatial patterns of lagoonal sediment accumulation over the last ~3 ky were derived from the CHIRP data. Two depocenters are identified and validate combining age-dated coring with high-resolution seismic profiling to identify areas of the highest temporal resolution for Arctic paleoclimate research in coastal sediments.

Miller, A. J.; Allison, M. A.; Bianchi, T. S.; Marcantonio, F.

2012-12-01

333

River Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... About Low Vision & Blindness > Vision Disorders > River Blindness River Blindness What Is River Blindness? River blindness is an eye and skin disease caused by a tiny worm called onchocerca volvulus, ...

334

Wetlands of the Attawapiskat River mouth, James Bay, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Attawapiskat River is one of the major rivers entering James Bay, Canada. Wetlands of the lower 12 km portion of the river\\u000a were studied between the Cree Indian village of Attawapiskat and James Bay. This portion contains both freshwater, freshwater\\u000a tidal and brackish\\/saline wetlands along a gradient downstream to the river mouth. Due to the high flow of fresh

Walter A. Glooschenko; I. Peter Martini

1983-01-01

335

Indian concepts on sexuality.  

PubMed

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

336

The effect of floods on sediment contamination in a microtidal coastal lagoon: the lagoon of Lesina, Italy.  

PubMed

The effects on the microtidal lagoon of Lesina of runoff and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities were investigated combining chemical analyses of pollutants [11 metals and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs)], determination of organic matter and grain size, and performance of innovative ecotoxicological tests. For metals, enrichment factors >3 for arsenic, nickel, and copper (Cu) were observed in the eastern zone of the lagoon, which is affected by nearby urban activities with discharge of water and domestic waste and by agricultural input with waters rich in fertilizers. Cu was correlated with no other metal, and its high concentrations (?77 µg g(-1)) may result from the use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyards. Total PAHs (2,230 ± 3,150 ng g(-1)) displayed a wide range of concentrations with hot spots near freshwater inputs from the part of the catchment area exploited for wheat crops. Pyrolitic contamination also emerged, with higher-mass PAH congeners, such as asphalt, bitumen or coal, usually present in higher fractions as the dominant components. Ecotoxicological evaluations recorded moderate to high toxicity levels; the innovative MOT test bioassay showed good discriminatory ability because it identified a lagoon area whose inputs mainly depend on agricultural activities and which is impacted by metals rather than PAHs. Floods during periods of heavy rain and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities may impact vulnerable systems, such as the lagoon of Lesina, where the presence of hot spots with remarkably high pollution values was observed. PMID:24862981

D'Adamo, Raffaele; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto; Fabbrocini, Adele

2014-10-01

337

The Lagoon Saga goes on: Proplyds and other remarkable Objects seen in WFPC2 Images of the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectacular WFPC2 images of the Lagoon Nebula have attracted much attention since our STScI press release in January 1997. The level of detail revealed by Hubble was rarely obtained before for a giant stellar nursery except for the Orion Nebula. The Lagoon Nebula (also called M8, NGC 6523) is 1.5 kpc from us, about 10 times more distant from us than the planetary nebula Helix, 3 times more distant from us than the Orion Nebula, and at about the same distance as the Egg Nebula (M16). In these three regions, Hubble revealed several thousands cometary knots (CK) in Helix, many partially ionized globules (PIGs) and protoplanetary disks (proplyds) in Orion, and the evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs) in M16. Those objects contain small dense gas cores, externally ionized, leading sometimes to the formation of a star. In this poster, we use the WFPC2 observations of the Lagoon Nebula in all filters available (nebular emission lines, and continuum blue and red light) for a detailed investigation of remarkable objects identified in those images (Bok globules, bow shocks around stars, ionized cusps, wisps, rings, knots and jets). In an early phase of the study, one candidate proplyd close to the ionizing star Herschel 36 was identified and described briefly in the ST-ECF Newsletter (number 24, March 1997, pages 12--13). A complete analysis of the ``proplyd" is given here. Then, the poster consists of: a) color views of whole field; b) identification of many remarkable objects; c) individual presentation with continuum subtracted emission line images, contour maps, flux diagrams i.e. band-fluxes as function of wavelength; and finally, d) a comparison between the Lagoon objects and CKs, PIGs, proplyds, EGGS identified in other nebulae. A movie is being prepared for projection at this meeting.

Caulet, A.

1997-05-01

338

Groundwater and porewater as a major source of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by radon) and shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1. Both sources of TA were important on a reef wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependant on the time of day. On a daily basis, groundwater can contribute approximately 70% to 80% of the TA taken up by corals within the lagoon. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water-column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

2012-11-01

339

Indian Policy and Westward Expansion  

E-print Network

, Indian wars, the Pacific railroad project, the extension of the frontier, schemes for the civilization of the Indians, etc., are topics in Western history which are more or less unrelated in the form in which they have usually been treated. Indian.... CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Position of the Indian Country—Time during which problem developed—Factors determining Indian policy: Settlement of the Pacific Coast, Transcontinental lines of communication and transportation, Westward expansion in the Trans...

Malin, James Claude

1921-11-01

340

Seasonal Variation of the Macrozoobenthic Community Structure at Low Salinities in a Mediterranean Lagoon (Monolimni Lagoon, Northern Aegean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrozoobenthic community structure and dynamics at low salinities (0.3-6 psu) in a Mediterranean lagoon (Monolimni lagoon) were investigated. Samples were collected monthly from February 1998 to February 1999 at two sampling stations. Community structure was analyzed by means of uni- and multivariate methods. 21 taxa were collected; the amphipod Corophium orientale and the gastropod Ventrosia maritima dominated the assemblages. Total abundance peaked (50,000-60,000 individuals m-2) in mid or late autumn. Community structure showed an almost even seasonal periodicity; seasonal changes were mainly derived from the intense variation in abundance of most species and the non-occurrence of a few ones (e.g. Corophium insidiosum, Polydora ciliata) in spring and summer. Non- occurrence, which led to a depression of the most diversity indices, was possibly the only direct impact of the extremely low salinities (~0.3 psu) on community structure. The main structuring factors of the community in the deeper outer part of the lagoon were water temperature and depth, and in the innermost part, where a Ruppia maritima meadow occurred, were water temperature and predation pressure by crabs (Carcinus aestuarii) and gobies (Knipowitchia caucasica). A temporary decline in total abundance in summer followed an increase in abundance of these predators. (

Kevrekidis, Theodoros

2004-09-01

341

Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

2013-04-01

342

Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities  

PubMed Central

Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with “Caucasoid” populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

2013-01-01

343

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

344

Indian Summer for Wayfarers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

Kaltenbronn, Kyra

1977-01-01

345

Ancestral Murray River on the Lacepede Shelf, southern Australia: Late Quaternary migrations of a major river outlet and strandline development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Murray River drains the 1.06 × 10 km Murray–Darling Basin and discharges into the sea at the Murray mouth in southeast South Australia. The outlet faces the 180 km-wide Lacepede Shelf and forms part of a wave-dominated beach barrier\\/lagoon complex, the largest of its type on the Australian coast. Global glacial cycles during the Pleistocene produced lowered sea-levels and exposure of

P. J. Hill; P. De Deckker; C. von der Borch; C. V. Murray-Wallace

2009-01-01

346

A Comprehensive Evaluation of OEO Community Action Programs on Six Selected American Indian Reservations. Report 4 - Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) Community Action Programs (CAP) on 6 selected American Indian reservations (Gila River and Papago, Arizona; Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico; Pine Ridge, South Dakota; Turtle Mountain, North Dakota, and White Earth Chippewa, Minnesota) are evaluated. After considering the development of Indian

Smith, James G. E.; And Others

347

Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture  

PubMed Central

The Siddis (Afro-Indians) are a tribal population whose members live in coastal Karnataka, Gujarat, and in some parts of Andhra Pradesh. Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the Siddis to India from Africa about 300–500 years ago; however, there is little information about their more precise ancestral origins. Here, we perform a genome-wide survey to understand the population history of the Siddis. Using hundreds of thousands of autosomal markers, we show that they have inherited ancestry from Africans, Indians, and possibly Europeans (Portuguese). Additionally, analyses of the uniparental (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA) markers indicate that the Siddis trace their ancestry to Bantu speakers from sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate that the admixture between the African ancestors of the Siddis and neighboring South Asian groups probably occurred in the past eight generations (?200 years ago), consistent with historical records. PMID:21741027

Shah, Anish M.; Tamang, Rakesh; Moorjani, Priya; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mustak, Mohammed S.; Bhaskar, L.V.K.S.; Reddy, Alla G.; Gadhvi, Dharmendra; Gai, Pramod B.; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2011-01-01

348

Late Quaternary history of the Nouméa lagoon (New Caledonia, South West Pacific) as depicted by seismic stratigraphy and multibeam bathymetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barrier reef tract of New Caledonia is the second largest in the world enclosing lagoons of variable width. The Late Quaternary evolution of these barrier reefs and lagoons is poorly known. A recent high resolution seismic and multibeam bathymetry survey was carried out in the south-western lagoon from shoreline to open ocean across the barrier reef pass systems to

P. Le Roy; G. Cabioch; B. Monod; Y. Lagabrielle; B. Pelletier; B. Flamand

2008-01-01

349

WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOON MICROORGANISM REMOVAL EFFICIENCY AND EFFLUENT DISINFECTION WITH CHLORINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project had two major objectives: (1) to evaluate the amenability of algae-laden lagoon effluent to chlorine disinfection; and (2) to evaluate the performance of a multi-cell lagoon system in removing coliform bacteria by natural means without the need for disinfection. Resu...

350

Wind-Driven Surficial Oxygen Transfer and Dinitrogen Gas Emission from Treatment Lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surficial oxygen transfer plays an important role, when analyzing the complex biochemical and physical processes responsible for ammonia and dinitrogen gas emission in animal waste treatment lagoons. This paper analyzes if currently known nitrogen biochemical pathways can explain the enigmatic dinitrogen gas emissions recently observed from the treatment lagoons, based on the amount of wind-driven oxygen that can be transferred

K. S. Ro; P. G. Hunt; M. E. Poach

2006-01-01

351

Hydrodynamic studies and modelization for aerated lagoons and waste stabilization ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

All attempts to model a wastewater treatment process necessarily require knowledge of the reactor hydraulic mixing characteristics. However, very few tracer experiments have been conducted on full-scale facilities, especially aerated lagoons and waste stabilization ponds. Several equations based on a dispersion model have been proposed to estimate the hydrodynamic behavior of ponds and lagoons. This paper compares these equations with

Th. Nameche; J. L. Vasel

1998-01-01

352

Dynamics of copper and zinc sedimentation in a lagooning system receiving landfill leachate.  

PubMed

This study characterises the sediment dredged from a lagooning system composed of a settling pond and three lagoons that receive leachates from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in France. Organic carbon, carbonate, iron oxyhydroxides, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were measured in the sediment collected from upstream to downstream in the lagooning system. In order to complete our investigation of sedimentation mechanisms, leachates were sampled in both dry (spring) and wet (winter) seasonal conditions. Precipitation of calcite and amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides and sedimentation of organic matter occurred in the settling pond. Since different distributions of Zn and Cu concentrations are measured in sediment samples collected downstream in the lagooning system, it is suggested that these elements were not distributed in a similar way in the leachate fractions during the first stage of treatment in the settling pond, so that their sedimentation dynamics in the lagooning system differ. In the lagoons, it was found that organic carbon plays a major role in Cu and Zn mobility and trapping. The presence of macrophytes along the edges provided an input of organic matter that enhanced Cu and Zn scavenging. This edge effect resulted in a two-fold increase in Cu and Zn concentrations in the sediment deposited near the banks of the lagoons, thus confirming the importance of vegetation for the retention of Cu and Zn in lagooning systems. PMID:23810321

Guigue, Julien; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Denimal, Sophie; Steinmann, Marc; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Grisey, Hervé

2013-11-01

353

The effects of trawling on the properties of surface sediments in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of trawling for clams in two differently impacted areas of the Lagoon of Venice were investigated. The Lagoon has an area of 55,000 hectares and the trawling of clams (Tapes phippinarum) has important socio-economic and environmental implications for the area. Bottom trawling has been shown to have large disruptive effects on the structure of benthic communities but the

R. Aspden; S. Vardy; R. Perkins; I. Davidson; D. M. Paterson

2003-01-01

354

Characterization of atmospheric ammonia emissions from swine waste storage and treatment lagoons  

E-print Network

measured during each season (summer, fall, winter, and spring) using a dynamic flow through chamber system. Measured lagoon physicochemical parameters included surface lagoon temperature (T C, 15 cm below surface Carolina based on current inventories for NH3-N emissions published by the North Carolina Division of Air

Aneja, Viney P.

355

Late-Summer Abundance and Distribution of Marine Birds in Kasegaluk Lagoon, Chukchi Sea, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas drilling programs in the Alaska Chukchi Sea were carried out on leases offshore from Kasegaluk Lagoon in 1989-91, and further exploration and development activities in this area are likely in future years. We conducted aerial surveys between late July and early September 1989-91 to determine the distribution and abundance of marine birds in the Kasegaluk Lagoon area.

STEPHEN R. JOHNSON; DAVID A. WIGGINS; PETER F. WAINWRIGHT

356

Santa Giusta Lagoon (Sardinia): phytoplankton and nutrients before and after waste water diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to assess the effect of the diversion of waste water on the trophic status of the Stagno di Santa Giusta, a hypertrophic lagoon on the centre-western coast of Sardinia. The data available (1990, 1992-1994) before the diversion (1995) were compared with those collected from 1995 to 1999. The lagoon has an area of about

Nicola SECHI; Fatima FIOCCA; Antonietta SANNIO; Antonella LUGLIÈ

2001-01-01

357

Effects of the Sand Bar Breaching on Typha domingensis (PERS.) in a Tropical Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal lagoons are usually subjected to several kinds of human impacts, especially eutrophication. The breaching of the sand bar, which separates the lagoon from the ocean, by human action, is a common process used to decrease the negative effects of eutrophication. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effects of the artificial sand bar breaching on the populations

Anderson M. dos Santos; André M. Amado; Murilo Minello; Vinicius F. Farjalla; Francisco A. Esteves

2006-01-01

358

THE DIET OF THE CURLEW SANDPIPER AT LANGEBAAN LAGOON, SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puttick, G. M. 1978. The diet of the Curlew Sandpiper at Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa. Ostrich 49:158-167.Nereid worms (mainly Ceratonereis erythraensis) and the hydrobiid gastropod Assiminea globulus were the most important prey items throughout the year for Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferruginea feeding at Langebaan Lagoon. Other important items were the amphipod Urothoe grimaldi, the crabs Hymenosoma orbiculare and Cleistostoma edwardsii

Gillian M. Puttick

1978-01-01

359

The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon: A Convergent Struggle against Fascism, 1942-1944  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee originated as an ad hoc committee and evolved to a broad-based movement for legal justice on behalf of seventeen youth convicted of murder and assault charges in connection with the Sleepy Lagoon case in Los Angeles in January 1943. This essay chronicles the multidimensional organizing to shift public opinion in…

Barajas, Frank P.

2006-01-01

360

Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genetic Variation across Calving Lagoons in Eastern North Pacific Gray Whales (Eschrichtius robustus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification

S. ELIZABETH ALTER; S ERGIO FLORES RAMIREZ; S ERGIO NIGENDA; J ORGE URBAN RAMIREZ; L ORENZO ROJAS BRACHO; STEPHEN R. PALUMBI

2008-01-01

361

Survival of Salmonella enterica in Aerated and Nonaerated Wastewaters from Dairy Lagoons.  

PubMed

Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. PMID:25358096

Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z

2014-01-01

362

A summary of preliminary studies of sedimentation and hydrology in Bolinas Lagoon, Marin County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating sedimentary and hydrologic conditions in Bolinas Lagoon, a 1,100-acre lagoon 15 miles northwest of San Francisco. The program began in May 1967 and will continue into 1970. Only the study results analyzed before June 1968 are summarized in the report. Two series of measurements of suspended-sediment load and water discharge in the lagoon inlet showed that much of the suspended sediment is sand and that the average velocity was as much as 4.7 feet per second. Littoral drift near the inlet was generally toward the inlet, whereas farther from the inlet the pattern is irregular. Circulation velocities in the lagoon decrease rapidly away from the inlet, but probably remain high enough to erode bottom sediment along the channels. In most of the lagoon median size of bottom sediment was fine sand. Sediment was derived chiefly from Monterey Shale.

Ritter, John R.

1970-01-01

363

Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different environmental factors acting upon the shell assemblages. These results suggest that tsunamigenic shell deposits can be identified based on their taphonomic characteristics when compared to beach and storm deposits in the same setting. Our data indicates that the following diagnostic taphonomic characteristics may indicate a tsunamigenic deposit: 1) presence/absence of articulated bivalves, 2) increased percentage of fragmented valves, 3) increased percentage of angular fragments, and 4) the large number of offshore bivalves in the lagoon. This study highlights the potential benefits and opportunity for using bivalve taphonomy as a useful indicator of paleotsunami deposits, particularly in protected coastal embayments in arid regions where stratified deposits might not readily preserve. This technique holds potential, as shell deposits are easy to identify in the field by non-experts, is very low cost, and analysis uses simple, easily applicable and recognizable taphonomic characteristics. Furthermore, this proxy can be used for risk assessment purposes in coastal areas with a seismic history but lacking a paleotsunami record. Further testing of this hypothesis should be conducted along the Omani coastline, particularly in the lagoons along the Eastern promontory. Key Words: tsunami, taphonomy, Oman, bivalve

Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.

2007-05-01

364

Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C30-C32, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5?(H)- and 5?(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17?(H),21?(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C30-C33 hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

Grimalt, J. O.; Yruela, I.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Toja, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Albaigés, J.

1991-09-01

365

Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon  

SciTech Connect

A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C{sub 30}-C{sub 32}, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5{alpha}(H)- and 5{beta}(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17{beta}(H), 21{beta}(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C{sub 30}-C{sub 33} hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J. (CID-CISC, Barcelona (Spain)); Yruela, I.; Saizjimenez, C. (CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)); Toja, J. (Univ. of Sevilla (Spain)); Leeuw, J.W. De. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1991-09-01

366

Consistency of temporal and habitat-related differences among assemblages of fish in coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consistency of habitat-related differences in coastal lagoon fish assemblages was assessed across different spatial and temporal scales. Multimesh gillnets were used to sample assemblages of fish on a monthly basis for 1-year in three habitats (shallow seagrass, shallow bare and deep substrata) at two locations (>1 km apart), in each of two coastal lagoons (approximately 500 km apart), in southeastern Australia. A total of 48 species was sampled with 34 species occurring in both lagoons and in all three habitats; species caught in only one lagoon or habitat occurred in low numbers. Ten species dominated assemblages and accounted for more than 83% of all individuals sampled. In both lagoons, assemblages in the deep habitat consistently differed to those in the shallow strata (regardless of habitat). Several species were caught more frequently or in larger numbers in the deep habitat. Assemblages in the two shallow habitats did not differ consistently and were dominated by the same species and sizes of fish, possibly due to habitat heterogeneity and the scale and method of sampling. Within each lagoon, very few between location differences in assemblages within each habitat were observed. Consistent differences in assemblages were detected between lagoons for the shallow bare and deep habitats, indicating there were some intrinsic differences in ichthyofauna between lagoons. Assemblages in spring differed to those in summer, which differed to those in winter for the shallow bare habitat in both lagoons, and the deep habitat in only one lagoon. Fish-habitat relationships are complex and differences in the fish fauna between habitats were often temporally inconsistent. This study highlights the need for greater testing of habitat relationships in space and time to assess the generality of observations and to identify the processes responsible for structuring assemblages.

Gray, Charles A.; Rotherham, Douglas; Johnson, Daniel D.

2011-12-01

367

Far-infrared observations of the Lagoon Nebula /M8/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-beam far-infrared photometry is used to estimate the dust temperature and mass, geometry, and energetics of the Lagoon Nebula (M8). Most of the data can be explained in terms of the visible star cluster, NGC 6530, heating a dense molecular cloud that lies behind it. The source M8E, however, may be heated internally, and appears to be a likely site of very recent star formation. The associated molecular cloud may be the location of future stellar formation activity as well.

Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Loewenstein, R. F.; Stokes, G. M.

1979-01-01

368

Three Band Submillimetre Mapping of the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagoon Nebula, M8, has been mapped at 450 micron, 850 micron, and 1.3 mm, using SCUBA and the IRAM 30-m telescope. The large-scale maps (~20' × 10') show clumpy structures surrounding the hii region, extending as far as M8E. The core sizes are around 15 arcsec --30 arcsec (0.1--0.3 pc), with temperatures of 10--40 K. The mass spectrum of the cores is derived, together with estimates of the likely errors. The problems of measuring cores in regions of high-mass star formation are noted.

Tothill, N. F. H.; White, G. J.

369

Investigation of lagoon lakes in Kocacay delta by using remote sensing method.  

PubMed

Coasts are areas that are under the influence of the interaction of the air, water and land and attract attention with the abundance of their natural resources and therefore are subjected to excessive usage. This excessive usage may disturb the sensitive balance of the coast ecosystem. In this study, the changes in Arapçiftligi, Poyraz, Dalyan lakes area found in Kocacay delta located in the south coast of Marmara sea was evaluated between the periods of 2000 to 2007 with remote sensing method. These lakes, located on the shores, have a very sensitive naturally dynamic balance and very importance in terms of natural surroundings and the coastal zones management plan. It must be known the change of the lakes mentioned above area according to years. Research and applications have demonstrated the advantages of remote sensing and geographic information system techiques on river,delta, lake, lagoon lake, sensitivite areas in a lakeshore, coastal erosion etc. monitoring and management. In the study, we benefited from Erdas and Intergraph-Geomedia 6.1 image processing and GIS, and also from AutoCAD 2007 and NetCAD 4.0 computer-aided design (CAD) software. For 2000, 2001, 2005 and 2007 years (4 number) Landsat-5 TM satellite images belonging to the region were used. As a result of the study, Arapçiftligi, Dalyan and Poyraz lake areas, number of islets that are seen in the lakes were given in respect to years. Arapçiftligi lake shrank 29.5% in size in the years 2000 and 2007. The fact that the lake continued to get smaller in size even in periods of high precipitation may be due to the sediment flowing from the agricultural fields established close to the lake area. Dalyan and Poyraz lakes lost 60% in terms of their surface area in the years 2000 and 2007. In 2000-2001 periods, Dalyan and Poyraz lakes increased in size by 3.2%. The reason for this could be the excessive precipitation and the fact that the seawater from Marmara sea seeps into the lake. Protection of the natural balance of the lagoons can be possible by using a monitoring programme to be set in connection with a healthy, systematic and manageable data system. PMID:23424854

Irtem, Emel; Sacin, Yener

2012-04-01

370

The potential for water hyacinth to improve the quality of Bogota River water in the Muña Reservoir: comparison with the performance of waste stabilization ponds.  

PubMed

The potential application of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in organic matter degradation, sedimentation, nutrient and heavy metal absorption and sulfur reduction in the Muña Reservoir has been tested in experimental lagoons. The lagoons were operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 6, 9 and 15 days. One lagoon was covered with Water Hyacinth, which is naturally growing in the Muña Reservoir, while another lagoon was operated as a conventional oxidation pond. The Water Hyacinth lagoon had better removal efficiencies for almost all parameters measured: BOD5, total suspended solids, COD, nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals. The oxidation lagoon was facultative for HRT of 9 and 15 days, and anoxic when operated at 6 days HRT. At HRT of 15 days the water quality in the effluent of the covered lagoon corresponded to 12 mg/l of BOD, 6 mg/l of suspended solids and 0.8 mg/l of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide levels in the Muña reservoir can be substantially reduced at HRT higher than 15 days in both lagoons. The uncovered lagoon had better hydrogen sulfide removal during the day but presents high levels at night. If the hydraulic retention time in the Muña reservoir is increased, the water quality of the Bogota river can be substantially improved for all the HRTs tested in the pilot units. HRT seems to give a better prediction of overall effluent water quality than surface loading. More research is needed in order to define the optimum water hyacinth density in the Muña reservoir to determine its influence on the water quality of the effluent. The influence is expected to be negative due to an internal increase of BOD, solids, nutrients and metals loads due to plant decay. PMID:11833723

Giraldo, E; Garzón, A

2002-01-01

371

Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian folk story; "How the Animals…

Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

372

Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by establishing…

Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

2005-01-01

373

SEDIMENTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE SHENGLI RIVER-CHANGSHE MOUNTAIN OIL SHALE (CHINA): RELATIONSHIPS WITH OIL SHALE FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a new oil shale belt was discovered in the Changshe Mountain area, northern Tibet, China. This belt, combined with the oil shale zone found in the Shengli River area, represents a large marine oil shale resource in China. Three facies associations have been recognized concerning the deposition of oil shale in the Qiangtang basin: fluvial-delta, tidal flat-lagoon and shallow

XIUGEN FU; JIAN WANG; FUWEN TAN; YUHONG ZENG

2009-01-01

374

Classification of Australian Clastic Coastal Depositional Environments Based Upon a Quantitative Analysis of Wave, Tidal, and River Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical assessment of wave, tide, and river power was carried out using a database of 721 Australian clastic coastal deposi- tional environments to test whether their geomorphology could be pre- dicted from numerical values. The geomorphic classification of each environment (wave- and tide-dominated deltas, wave- and tide-domi- nated estuaries, lagoons, strand plains, and tidal flats) was established independently from

P. T. Harris; A. D. Heap; S. M. Bryce; R. Porter-Smith; D. A. Ryan; D. T. Heggie

2002-01-01

375

Association of American Indian Physicians  

MedlinePLUS

... Today. If you are an American Indian or Alaska Native physician become an AAIP member today and ... building assistance and services to American Indian and Alaska Native communities and students. Capacity Building Assistance Program ...

376

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

377

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

378

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

379

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

380

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Amendment allows for multi- player games on video lottery terminals (VLTs). Dated: November 1, 2010. Larry Echo Hawk, Assistant Secretary--Indian...

2010-11-09

381

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water in the turn basin, east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and more looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

382

Missouri River InfoLINK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Listed among the "Endangered Rivers" of 1999, the Missouri River drains one-sixth of the United States's surface water; management decisions regarding the Missouri River affect a wide range of wildlife, as well as millions of Americans from Missouri to Montana. The Missouri River InfoLINK, housed at the USGS-BRD Columbia Environmental Research Center, "was created for these stakeholders who want to understand how the river functions and make informed decisions about the river's future use and management." To that end, the site offers sections for the public as well as the scientist. For background information on current research, see the Science section (includes a large bibliography and research summaries); for a wide array of background information (some of which is technical), see the River section. In addition, the site offers summary data (soil attributes, agricultural products, the 1990 Census, etc.), beautiful maps showing county boundaries, basin-wide maps (depicting general geography, watersheds and rivers, average runoff, ecoregions, physiographic regions, Indian tribal lands, dams and reservoirs, and agriculture), or local maps (1:100,000 quadrangle maps of the 1993 flood extent, wetlands, etc.), and much more. This is an outstanding site, rich in information of varying complexity.

383

The American Indian: A Microcourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

Glick, Norman; And Others

384

The Promise of Indian Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promising practices were shared during the American Indian School-to-Work Conference (Seattle, Washington, May 2000). Successful programs included such elements as emphasis on Indian cultural values, partnerships with local businesses and tribal colleges, cooperation among Indian school-to-work programs, community service, and connections to…

Stone, Patricia Mackey

2000-01-01

385

The Indian Mineral Development Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

Houle, Antoinette

1986-01-01

386

American Indians in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief draws on data from the 1980 and 1990 censuses and other sources to profile American Indian demographic trends and educational experiences. Highlights for 1988-90 include the following: (1) the American Indian population reached 1.9 million in 1990, up 38 percent from 1980; (2) the high school dropout rate for American Indians was 35.5…

O'Brien, Eileen M.

1992-01-01

387

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2012-12-28

388

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

389

Directory of American Indian Tribes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory provides general information on American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and lands. The information was compiled from several resources including the "Federal Register," the Bureau of Indian Affairs, "The Native American Almanac" (A. Hirschfelder, M. K. de Montano), the "Atlas of North American Indian Tribes" (Carl Waldman), the…

Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff. Inst. for Human Development.

390

Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

391

Facts about American Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

American Indian College Fund, 2010

2010-01-01

392

Metals in tissues of fish from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the metal concentrations in muscle, liver, gonad, and gill of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758), and keeled mullet (Liza carinata Valenciennes, 1836) from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean region. So, the levels of cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc in tissues of specimens from the lagoon were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Concentrations of metals in muscles of the examined species ranged from 0.10 to 0.47 mg kg(-1) for cadmium, 0.10 to 0.43 mg kg(-1) for cobalt, 0.17 to 0.72 mg kg(-1) for chromium, 0.62 to 1.03 mg kg(-1) for copper, 28.9 to 52.3 mg kg(-1) for iron, 0.75 to 0.96 mg kg(-1) for manganese, 0.11 to 0.57 mg kg(-1) for nickel, 0.19 to 0.47 mg kg(-1) for lead, and 6.01 to 13.9 mg kg(-1) for zinc, respectively. Additionally, metal concentrations in muscles of fish were assessed for human uses according to provisional tolerable weekly intake and provisional tolerable daily intake. PMID:19680760

Türkmen, Aysun; Türkmen, Mustafa; Tepe, Yalçin; Cekiç, Mustafa

2010-09-01

393

Temporal changes of a macrobenthic assemblage in harsh lagoon sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An opportunistic macrobenthic assemblage was studied from 2001 to 2003 in a central area of the Cabras lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy), known to be affected by environmental disturbances (i.e. organic over-enrichment of sediments, and episodic events of hypoxia/anoxia and sulphide development). We identified recurrent seasonal changes in this macrobenthic assemblage, with a general impoverishment in summer and a recovery in winter/spring. The nereids Neanthes succinea and Hediste diversicolor were found to replace the spionid Polydora ciliata as the most dominant species in the summer for 3 consecutive years. Occasional, unsynchronized appearances of small-sized deposit feeders, such as Tubificidae, Capitella cf. capitata, chironomid larvae and Hydrobia spp., were observed in winter/spring. We suggest that these changes are driven by the interplay of environmental conditions (worse in summer) with numerous biotic factors. This includes different tolerance levels of taxa to low oxygen concentrations and sulphides, variability in larval supply and post-larval transport, as well as competition for space and food between and within different functional groups, and facilitation through animal bioturbation and sediment reoxidation. A conceptual model is proposed to demonstrate how environmental conditions and biotic interactions may control the benthic assemblage in such a harsh lagoon environment.

Como, Serena; Magni, Paolo

2009-08-01

394

Subtidal Variability in the Virginia Coast Reserve Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virginia Coastal Reserve (VCR) lagoon is a ~ 65 km X 15 km body of water (depth 1-2 m) west of Chesapeake Bay, and bounded by solid land on the west and a barrier island chain to the east. Inlets between the barrier islands allow communication with the Atlantic continental shelf. We examine data from four water level gauges and three meteorological stations around the estuary. Spectra of water level variations show that the estuary is dominated by the M2 tide, and tidal constituents determined by a least squares fit reveal tide heights are O(0.5 m). Winds are generally light (~ 1-2 m/s), with isolated events in the range 4-6 m/s. We have low-pass filtered these wind and sea level observations. Sea level differences between different gages reveal that there is no east-west or north-south wind-induced water level set-up in response to the wind fluctuations with periods longer than two days. Instead, the VCR undergoes an estuary-wide sea level change, which seems loosely correlated with the wind. We show evidence from stations external to the VCR and simple analytical arguments that the lagoon is remotely forced by meteorological events on the continental shelf.

Mied, R. P.; Handler, R.; Snow, C.; Fusina, R.; Porter, J.

2009-12-01

395

Indian indigenous healers.  

PubMed

Indian perceptions of the practices of their indigenous healers and of doctors were investigated by interviewing 86 outpatients or their accompanying family member from a local psychiatric hospital's outpatient unit. Among the findings were: that relatively more healers than doctors revealed their diagnoses to the patient; and that the healers, when they did diagnose, did so in terms of 'trick' and 'evil' and treatment was largely with ashes, amulets and holy water. Surprisingly, relatively more patients appear to believe in the effectiveness of the doctors' treatment rather than the healers'. The results are discussed within the framework of the Indian concept of health and illness and further research possibilities are suggested. PMID:3738660

Bhana, K

1986-08-16

396

Geochemical behavior of heavy metals in differents environments in Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon - RJ/Brazil.  

PubMed

The accelerated urbanisation without a planning, brought several environmental problems to Rio de Janeiro coastal zone, especially in areas such as Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon, which receives a great amount of untreated sewage every day. To assess the nature, potentially sources and extent of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon, sediments from the surrounding streets, from the entrance of the main canal that drains to the lagoon and from the bottom of the lagoon were collected and analysed by a modified selective extraction procedure in order to study the geochemical partitioning and bioavailability of Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb in these three compartments. The present study verified an increase in the Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the north of the Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon. Despite the different levels of oxidation between the sediments accumulated in the streets and in the bottom of the lagoon, the geochemical partitioning of the heavy metals did not show any pattern of variation for the metals, except for the element Cu. No concentrations were found in the soluble phase of samples collected in the surfacial sediments of the lagoon, suggesting no bioavailability of heavy metals. PMID:21670872

Fonseca, Estefan M; Baptista Neto, José A; Fernandez, Marcos A; McAlister, John; Smith, Bernard

2011-06-01

397

River discharge, sediment transport and exchange in the Tana Estuary, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on sediment transport and exchange dynamics in the 27km2 Tana Estuary located at Kipini in the north Kenya coast. The estuary is drained by the Tana River, which contributes more than 50% of the total river discharges into the Kenyan sector of the Indian Ocean. The study involved measurement of river discharges, estuarine flood–ebb tidal discharges, total

J. U. Kitheka; M. Obiero; P. Nthenge

2005-01-01

398

Coral reef sedimentation on Rodrigues and the Western Indian Ocean and its impact on the carbon cycle.  

PubMed

Coral reefs in the southwest Indian Ocean cover an area of ca. 18,530 km2 compared with a global reef area of nearly 300,000 km2. These regions are important as fishing grounds, tourist attractions and as a significant component of the global carbon cycle. The mass of calcium carbonate stored within Holocene neritic sediments is a number that we are only now beginning to quantify with any confidence, in stark contrast to the mass and sedimentation rates associated with pelagic calcium carbonate, which have been relatively well defined for decades. We report new data that demonstrate that the reefs at Rodrigues, like those at Reunion and Mauritius, only reached a mature state (reached sea level) by 2-3 ka: thousands of years later than most of the reefs in the Australasian region. Yet field observations show that the large lagoon at Rodrigues is already completely full of carbonate detritus (typical lagoon depth less than 1 m at low spring tide). The presence of aeolian dunes at Rodrigues indicates periodic exposure of past lagoons throughout the Pleistocene. The absence of elevated Pleistocene reef deposits on the island indicates that the island has not been uplifted. Most Holocene reefs are between 15 and 20 m in thickness and those in the southwest Indian Ocean appear to be consistent with this observation. We support the view that the CO2 flux associated with coral-reef growth acts as a climate change amplifier during deglaciation, adding CO2 to a warming world. southwest Indian Ocean reefs could have added 7-10% to this global flux during the Holocene. PMID:15598626

Rees, Siwan A; Opdyke, Bradley N; Wilson, Paul A; Fifield, L Keith

2005-01-15

399

Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of minimizing toxicity and reducing wastewater parameters. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metal concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, which received municipal waste. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In a definitive seven-day chronic test with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was 20%, and the IC{sub 50} for reproduction was 22.3%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC and IC{sub 50} were 80 and 71.8%, respectively. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. The NOEC was 80% and the IC{sub 50} was 75.9. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. A 7-day embryo larval test conducted with Pimephales promelas yielded similar results. NOEC values increased through the lagoon system and were 2.5, 40.0, 40.0 and 100%, respectively. Acute TIE procedures implicated both metals and ammonia as primary toxicants. In all tests a sequential reduction in toxicity was observed through the lagoons. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

400

Spatial impact of the Oder river plume on water quality along the south-western Baltic coast.  

PubMed

The Oder (Odra) river is the most important nutrient source and pollutant for the south-western Baltic Sea. Adjacent German-Polish coastal waters, the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon and the Oder (Pomeranian) Bight therefore suffer from severe eutrophication and water quality problems. At the same time, summer (bathing) tourism is the most important economical factor in this coastal zone, especially on the islands of Usedom and Wolin. On the basis of model simulations and remote sensing data we analysed the spatial extent and variability of the Oder river plume in the lagoon and the Balic Sea in common summer situations and during the extreme Oder flood in August 1997. Water quality shows pronounced gradients between coastal waters and open Baltic Sea. In the lagoon, it usually takes more than 6 weeks until Oder water enters the large western bay, the Kleines Haff. During transport, degradation, transformation and sedimentation processes alter the water quality and prevent the inner coast of Usedom from direct impact of polluted Oder water. Ongoing nutrient supply promotes intensive algal proliferation in all parts of the lagoon and contributes to the low water transparency. Oder water passing the lagoon and entering the Baltic Sea is transported over long distances in narrow bands along the shore. Under easterly winds the water quality near well-known spas on Usedom is reduced due to Oder river plume impact. Upwelling effects can have negative impact on water quality, too. Intensive blooms of potentially toxic blue-green algae species, are the rule in the lagoon and frequent in the Oder Bight in summer. They are a hazard and limit the acceptance of swimming beaches at the inner coast of Usedom. Practical consequences of variable water quality gradients e.g. on hygienic water sampling are discussed. PMID:11759158

Schernewski, G; Neumann, T; Podsetchine, V; Siegel, H

2001-11-01

401

Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct margins. Raised Quaternary lagoons parallel to the big lagoon on Isla Angel de la Guarda are partly obscured by flood damage, but still easily mapped from aerial photos. These features suggest that Isla Angel de la Guarda experienced Quaternary uplift similar in scale to many other gulf islands on which marine terraces are preserved. Closed lagoons around the Gulf of California represent a stable oligotrophic ecosystem affected by extreme aridity and hypersalinity, punctuated episodically by the injection of floodwater from tropical storms. The taxonomic and geographic ranges of microbial communities throughout the larger region remain to be explored.

Johnson, Markes E.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Backus, David H.; González, Maria R.

2012-07-01

402

Asian Indian Immigrant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is an attempt to understand various theories that explain mental health issues of Asian Indian immigrant women. It further explores depression as a threat to mental health and also examines the various supports to mental health. The literature will delve into the ways in which systems deter or promote members of the chosen population in the maintenance

Sweta Tewary

2005-01-01

403

Indian Migration and Assimilation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper's stated purpose is to provide a better understanding of the migration adaptation process so that policies may later be developed that will minimize the amount of attitude change required for adaptation of the Indian to urban industrial life. Th...

R. Weinstein

1970-01-01

404

The Urban Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents six articles that provide a glimpse of the uniqueness of American Indian cultural conflict, focusing on aspects of the culture which warrant special attention. Since there are over 100 tribes, an effort was made to enumerate commonalities amongst the tribal cultures in looking at issues raised in the urban areas throughout…

Hanson, Winona DuBray

405

American Indian Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Pai-ute weapon, described by Mr. Mason in your last number (p. 107), although extremely interesting and quite new to me, appears scarcely sufficiently characteristic of a war weapon to form an exception to the statement of Schoolcraft, that the clubs of the North American Indians as a rule are curved. It would be interesting if it could be ascertained

1875-01-01

406

Indians of New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

407

Indian Reservation Water Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian tribes have uncertain claims to sizable water rights in the western states. State and federal officials are seeking to convert these rights to fixed entitlements in order to make clear to other users the amount of water legally available in various water systems. Two important questions are whether the tribes can find ways to put their rights to use

Richard B. Collins

1986-01-01

408

The Indian Space Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Indian Space program aimed at providing operation space services in communications and remote sensing and using state-of-the-art space technologies is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the development and operation of satellites and launch vehicles for providing these space services.

Talapatra, Dipak C.

1993-01-01

409

American Indian Recipes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

410

Indian Health Disparities  

MedlinePLUS

... MORTALITY DISPARITY RATES American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) in the IHS Service Area 2006-2008 ... Age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 population) AI/AN Rate 2006-2008 U.S. All Races Rate - ...

411

Indian School Days.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age from 4 to…

Johnston, Basil H.

412

Indian Astronomy: History of  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

2002-01-01

413

Indians as Archaeologists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a cooperative program between Fort Belknap College, in northern Montana, and an archeological firm designed to provide Native American students with hands-on experience in research and excavation of Indian artifacts. Reviews benefits of the partnership with respect to student experience and knowledge of ancient cultures. (MAB)

Badhorse, Beverly

1993-01-01

414

Indians of the Northwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

415

Environmental flow for Monsoon Rivers in India: The Yamuna River as a case study  

E-print Network

We consider the flows of Monsoon Rivers in India that will permit the river to perform all its natural functions. About 80% of the total flow for Indian rivers is during the monsoon and the remaining 20% is during the non monsoon period. By carrying out a case study of the river Yamuna in Delhi we find that at least 50% of the virgin monsoon (July to September) flow is required for the transport of the full spectrum of soil particles in the river sediment. A similar flow is needed for adequate recharge of the floodplain aquifers along river. For the non monsoon period (October to June) about 60% of the virgin flow is necessary to avoid the growth of still water algae and to support river biodiversity.

Soni, Vikram; Singh, Diwan

2013-01-01

416

Spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblages in a coastal lagoon of the Biosphere Reserve La Encrucijada, Chiapas, Mexico.  

PubMed

Composition and abundance of the ichthyofauna in estuarine and coastal lagoon systems of the South Pacific in Mexico have been scarcely studied. In particular, there is a lack of information on how environmental variables determine the spatio-temporal structure of fish assemblages in those habitats. In this study, fishes were sampled by drop net during twelve months (May 2004 - April 2005) in 22 sites distributed along the Carretas-Pereyra lagoon, located in the Biosphere Reserve La Encrucijada, Chiapas, Mexico. We recorded 11,797 individuals (40 species, in 30 genera and 21 families). Dormitator latifrons was the most dominant species in terms of the Importance Value index, IV (23.05%), followed by Lile gracilis (10.31%), Poecilia sphenops (8.60%) and Poecilia butleri (7.30%). D. latifrons also accounted for more than one half of the total biomass (50.14%). Species richness and Shannon-Wiener's diversity indexes showed similar temporal fluctuations, reaching their highest values during the dry season. The system evidenced temporal variations in salinity, having observed four different regimes: freshwater, oligohaline, mesohaline and polyhaline. Mean richness and diversity indexes achieved their highest values during the mesohaline period. On the other hand, mean abundances (CPUE) were highest during the freshwater period. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that salinity and temperature were the most important environmental parameters affecting associations of fishes in terms of their abundances. Correlation analyses revealed that among the environmental variables measured in this study, transparency showed the most significant negative correlation with fish richness and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index. At a local scale, results suggest that spatial and temporal distribution of fish assemblages are determined by differences in the regimes of salinity and transparency, primarily driven by freshwater input from rivers. PMID:19256428

Velázquez-Velázquez, Ernesto; Vega-Cendejas, M Eugenia; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge

2008-06-01

417

Indian aerosols: present status.  

PubMed

This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

2002-12-01

418

Escherichia coli pollution in a Baltic Sea lagoon: a model-based source and spatial risk assessment.  

PubMed

Tourism around the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon, at the southern Baltic coast, has a long tradition, is an important source of income and shall be further developed. Insufficient bathing water quality and frequent beach closings, especially in the Oder river mouth, hamper tourism development. Monitoring data gives only an incomplete picture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sources, spatial transport patterns, risks and does neither support an efficient bathing water quality management nor decision making. We apply a 3D ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model to analyse pollution events and to obtain spatial E. coli pollution maps based on scenario simulations. Model results suggests that insufficient sewage treatment in the city of Szczecin is the major source of faecal pollution, even for beaches 20km downstream. E. coli mortality rate and emission intensity are key parameters for concentration levels downstream. Wind and river discharge play a modifying role. Prevailing southwestern wind conditions cause E. coli transport along the eastern coast and favour high concentration levels at the beaches. Our simulations indicate that beach closings in 2006 would not have been necessary according to the new EU-Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The implementation of the new directive will, very likely, reduce the number of beach closings, but not the risk for summer tourists. Model results suggest, that a full sewage treatment in Szczecin would allow the establishment of new beaches closer to the city (north of Dabie lake). PMID:23337127

Schippmann, Bianca; Schernewski, Gerald; Gräwe, Ulf

2013-07-01

419

Bacterial Source Tracking to Support the Development and Implementation of Watershed Protection Plans for the Lampasas and Leon Rivers: Lampasas River Watershed Final Report  

E-print Network

tributaries of the Leon River have been listed as impaired for bacteria (1221A ? Resley Creek, 1221B ? South Leon River, 1221D ? Indian Creek, 1221F ? Walnut Creek). LEO 09, Leon River at CR431 near Jonesboro, Hamilton County 4 Figure 1.... Figure 2. 2011Texas drought monitor maps. Source: http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu 7 Six sites within the LRW had no flowing water 25% - 50% the time. These included: Indian Creek (LEO 3), South Leon River (LEO 04), Resely Creek (LEO 6), Pecan...

Gregory, L.; Casarez, E.; Truesdale, J.; Di Giovanni, G.; Owen, T.; Wolfe, J.

2013-04-25

420

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hundreds of birds, especially gray and white pelicans and cormorants, cover the water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. The basin is teeming with fish, attracting the crowd for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

2000-01-01

421

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gray and a white pelican glide down to the water near a dolphin and cormorant in the turn basin to search for a meal in the fish- teeming water. Sea gulls also approach. The turn basin, which is east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

2000-01-01

422

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

423

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and one of several dolphins looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

424

75 FR 36414 - American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive...Description The Indian Health Service (IHS) is accepting...American Indians into Psychology Program. This...

2010-06-25

425

The effects of resuspension on the fate of Hg in contaminated sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy): Short-term simulation experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Adriatic Sea, Italy) represent one of the world's most major repositories of mercury (Hg). Its presence is a direct consequence of the historical mining activity in nearby Idrjia (Slovenia), as well as significant discharges from a chlor-alkali plant into the Aussa-Corno river system, which connects to the lagoon. Previous studies have shown that sediment acts as secondary source of Hg species to the overlying water column in natural conditions. However, evidence for the effects of resuspension on the dynamics of Hg species is still lacking. The work reported in this paper formed part of the multidisciplinary "MIRACLE" project, aimed at identifying areas at low risk of Hg bioaccumulation in commercial Manila Clams, an important part of the local economy in this region. The effect of resuspension on the cycling of inorganic mercury (IHg), reactive mercury (RHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) between the sediment and water column was investigated in a mesocosm study. Two experiments were conducted in October 2009 and September 2010 based on material collected from sites heavily impacted by Hg and periodically subjected to dredging activities. Designed to mimic the resuspension of particles, both experiments revealed that the release of Hg species from the solid to the dissolved phase became negligible quickly after the event. MeHg values did not change according to total mercury (THg), suggesting that the enhancement of methylation processes may occur. The findings reported in this paper may be useful for the local management of dredging and fishing activities, although mass balance calculations showed that the total flux of Hg species are trivial compared to lagoon-wide processes.

Acquavita, Alessandro; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Predonzani, Sergio; Koron, Neža; Carrasco, Luis

2012-11-01

426

[Seasonal dynamics of genus Alexandrium (potentially toxic dinoflagellate) in the lagoon of Bizerte (North of Tunisia) and controls by the abiotic factors].  

PubMed

Some species of the genus Alexandrium are known as potential producers of saxitoxin, a neurotoxin that causes the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) syndrome. Blooming of these species, especially in shellfish farms can affect the aquaculture production and harm human health. Seasonal dynamics of Alexandrium spp. abundance in relationship to environmental factors was investigated from November 2007 to February 2009 at six stations in the Bizerte lagoon, an important shellfish farming area situated in SW Mediterranean. The sampling stations represented different hydrological and trophic conditions: one station TJ (Tinja) is affected by the river plume; two stations (Chaara [Ch] and Canal [Ca]) are influenced by marine inflow (particularly in summer), industrial and urban effluents; and the three other stations (Menzel Abdelrahmen [MA], Menzel Jemil [MJ] and Douaouda [Do]) are located close to shellfish farms. Cell abundance of Alexandrium spp. varied among stations and months. Species of this genus showed a sporadic appearance, but they reached high concentration (0.67-7 × 10(5)cells L(-1)). Maximal cell density was detected in autumn (November 2007; station MA), at salinity of 37.5, temperature of 16 °C and NH(4)(+) level of 55.45 ?M. During this month, Alexandrium spp. abundance accounted for a large fraction (61%) of the harmful phytoplankton. The statistical analysis revealed that Alexandrium concentrations were positively correlated with N:P ratio and NH4+ levels. Thus, the eutrophic waters of the lagoon favour the growth of Alexandrium, which seemed to have preference for N-nutrient loading from antrophogenic activities, as ammonium. Blooms of these potential harmful algae may constitute a potential threat in this coastal lagoon of the southern Mediterranean. Consequently, it is necessary to be well vigilant and to do regular monitoring of Alexandrium species. PMID:22721562

Bouchouicha Smida, Donia; Sahraoui, Inès; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Sakka Hlaili, Asma

2012-06-01

427

Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Ghar El Melh lagoon, Tunisia.  

PubMed

The concentrations of 20 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 12 superficial sediments collected from The Ghar El Melh lagoon. Sediment samples were extracted by Soxhlet and analyzed by Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The concentrations of PCBs, as sum of the 20 congeners, ranged from not detected to 3.987 ng/g on a dry weight basis, with a predominance of highly chlorinated (penta- and hepta-chlorobiphenyls) congeners. No significant correlation was found between the total PCB concentrations and organic carbon content suggesting that sediment organic carbon content did not play an important role in controlling the PCBs levels in the sediments. PCB levels in sediments were compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (ERM-ERL indexes) for evaluation probable toxic effects on marine organism. The PCBs concentrations were lower than ERM and ERL values for all the collected samples. PMID:21465108

Ameur, W Ben; Trabelsi, S; El Bedoui, B; Driss, M R

2011-05-01

428

Kinematics of the Hourglass Region in the Lagoon Nebula.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hourglass region, ionized solely by the star Herschel 36, represents the brightest part of the Lagoon nebula. In this paper, we present new kinematic observations of the region in [N II] 6583 Å emission line using an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer in the spectrographic mode. We find both asymmetric and symmetric line profiles with large linewidths of 22-40 km/s towards the regions of the Hourglass and Herschel 36. The H II region of the Hourglass reveals a notable expansion up to -18 km/s with respect to the star. Our kinematic data suggest a particular orientation of the cavities created by the H II region expanding into the parent molecular cloud. Relatively higher velocities of -30 to -50 km/s are observed south of Herschel 36, indicating the presence of low density regions and champagne flow.

Chakraborty, A.; Anandarao, B. G.

1997-10-01

429

New Hergig-Haro objects in the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of five new Herbig-Haro (HH) objects in the Lagoon Nebula (M8), as part of the search for evidences of ongoing star formation in the region using optical wide-field narrow-band imaging obtained at ESO Observatory in La Silla (Chile). Based on the analysis of the [S II] and Halpha images, we study in detail the morphology of these objects and attempt to identify their potential driving sources among the population of T Tauri stars and embedded sources in the surroundings. Some of the new HH objects appear to be parsec-scale outflows and we derive large dynamical ages for them. The obtained results conclusively demonstrate the existence of very young stars in M8 going through the accreting phase of their formation.

Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.

430

ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

431

Ferric hydroxide and ferric hydroxysulfate precipitation by bacteria in an acid mine drainage lagoon  

E-print Network

Ferric hydroxide and ferric hydroxysulfate precipitation by bacteria in an acid mine drainage communities growing in an acid mine drainage lagoon sediment has confirmed that microorganisms were also: Ferrihydrite; Ferric hydroxysulfate; Bacteria; Biomineralization; Acid mine drainage Contents 1. Introduction

Konhauser, Kurt

432

NAME: Grassy Flats Estuarine Habitat Restoration Project LOCATION: Lake Worth Lagoon, Florida, USA  

E-print Network

by maximizing carbon sequestration and allowing for a natural succession of habitat types as sea level risesNAME: Grassy Flats Estuarine Habitat Restoration Project LOCATION: Lake Worth Lagoon, Florida, USA

US Army Corps of Engineers

433

Seasonal Variability in Mercury Speciation within Select Coastal Lagoons of Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons may play an important role in mercury biogeochemical cycling at the land-sea margin. Along the coast of California, these systems are seasonally dynamic, behaving as estuaries during the wet season and as lagoons in the dry season when ephemeral sand berms develop and isolate terrestrial freshwater from direct exchange with the ocean. As a consequence, many lagoons become eutrophic in the dry season and are characterized by high nutrient and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Because monomethylmercury (MMHg) production can be mediated by anaerobic bacteria, coastal lagoons are a potential source of biologically available MMHg that may be transported to the nearshore environment via submarine groundwater discharge. To evaluate the importance of coastal lagoons at the land-sea margin, we quantified total mercury (HgT) and MMHg concentrations in surface water and coastal seawater from six sites during dry and wet season conditions, including one storm event. Additionally, we conducted a tidal study at one lagoon in which we sampled surface water, seawater, and groundwater over a 10-hour period during a falling tide (+1.63 to 0.00 m). Groundwater was collected using a multi-port piezometer screened at depths ranging from 1 m to a few centimeters below the lagoon's sediment-water interface. This enabled us to characterize surface water - groundwater interaction. During wet season conditions, the average unfiltered HgT (U-HgT) concentration in surface water at the tidal study lagoon was 13 pM and did not fluctuate in response to tidal changes. Filtered (< 0.45 ?m) HgT (F-HgT) concentrations in the lagoon were similar to U-HgT concentrations during high tide and decreased to 8 pM during low tide. Groundwater F-HgT concentrations were about 1.5 pM at a depth of 1 m and systematically increased at shallower depths, reaching approximately 6 pM near the surface. These data indicate F-HgT exchange between the lagoon and groundwater to a depth of at least 1 m. Seawater HgT was typically < 5 pM. MMHg concentrations in surface water at this lagoon during the dry season ranged from 2 to 5 pM, suggesting enhanced methylmercury production.

Ganguli, P. M.; Conaway, C. H.; Dimova, N. T.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Kehrlein, N. C.; Flegal, A. R.

2011-12-01

434

Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Two Swine Production Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance (tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA) were found in total DNA extracted from water of two lagoons. These

J. C. Chee-Sanford; R. I. Aminov; I. J. Krapac; N. Garrigues-Jeanjean; R. I. Mackie

2001-01-01

435

Survey of Levels of Phthalate Ester Plasticizers in a Sewage Lagoon Effluent and a Receiving Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, samples from a sewage treatment lagoon and those from a receiving stream were analyzed for their phthalate\\u000a esters content. Knowledge of the distribution of ubiquitous phthalate esters in the sewage lagoon and the receiving stream\\u000a was necessary because of the reports of their subtle toxicity to aquatic biota and humans. Liquid–liquid extraction, Clean-up\\u000a experiment and High Performance

A. O. Ogunfowokan; N. Torto; A. A. Adenuga; E. K. Okoh

2006-01-01

436

Do lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations promote nitrous oxide supersaturation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal wastewater lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent the latest tendency in global animal farming, severely impacting the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions, including nitrous oxide (N2O). We hypothesized that lagoon wastewater could be supersaturated with N2O as part of incomplete microbial nitrification\\/denitrification processes, thereby regulating the N2O partitioning in the gaseous phase. The objectives of this study

Konstantinos C. Makris; Dibyendu Sarkar; Syam S. Andra; Stephan B. H. Bach; Rupali Datta

2009-01-01

437

Biomass, production and heterotrophic activity of bacterioplankton in the Great Astrolabe Reef lagoon (Fiji)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass, production and heterotrophic activity of bacterioplankton were determined for two weeks in the Great Astrolabe Reef\\u000a lagoon, Fiji. Bacterial and Bacterial activities were distributed homogeneously throughout the water column (20 to 40?m deep)\\u000a and varied little from site to site inside the lagoon. Bacterioplankton biomass and production also varied little over a diel\\u000a period with coefficients of variation of

J.-P. Torréton

1999-01-01

438

The fish fauna of three North African lagoons: specific inventories, ecological status and production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the ecological and biological status of fisheries in three coastal lagoons in the southern Mediterranean\\u000a region: Merja Zerga in Morocco, Ghar El Melh in Tunisia and Lake Manzala in Egypt. Despite similarities in some ecological\\u000a characteristics, the three lagoons’ respective fisheries show differences in specific composition, in population structure\\u000a and in their production both in qualitative and

M. M. Kraïem; L. Chouba; M. Ramdani; M. H. Ahmed; J. R. Thompson; R. J. Flower

2009-01-01

439

Investigation of residence time and groundwater flux in Venice Lagoon: comparing radium isotope and hydrodynamical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four naturally-occurring isotopes of radium were coupled with a previously evaluated hydrodynamic model to determine the apparent age of surface waters and to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Venice Lagoon, Italy.Mean apparent age of water in the Venice Lagoon was calculated using the ratio of 224Ra to 228Ra determined from 30 monitoring stations and a mean pore

John Rapaglia; Christian Ferrarin; Luca Zaggia; Willard S. Moore; Georg Umgiesser; Ester Garcia-Solsona; Jordi Garcia-Orellana; Pere Masqué

2010-01-01

440

Effects of shrimp-farm effluents on the food web structure in subtropical coastal lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous studies have reported the negative effects of shrimp aquaculture on water quality, little is known about the ecological effects of these practices in coastal lagoons and near-shore marine habitats. The impact of shrimp-farm effluents on the food webs of an impacted subtropical coastal lagoon in the Gulf of California was evaluated through measurements of isotopic (?13C, ?15N) signatures

L. Serrano-Grijalva; S. Sánchez-Carrillo; D. G. Angeler; R. Sánchez-Andrés; M. Álvarez-Cobelas

2011-01-01

441

Geological criteria for the selection of unconfined dredged material disposal sites in estuaries and lagoons  

E-print Network

GEOLOGIC CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF UNCONFINED DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITES IN ESTUARIES AND LAGOONS A Thesis ROBERT MICHAEL MCHAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the rectuirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Ma jor Sub j ect: Geology GEOLOGIC CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF UNCONFINED DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITES IN ESTUARIES AND LAGOONS A Thesis ROBERT MICHAEL MCHAM Approved as to style and content by...

McHam, Robert Michael

2012-06-07

442

A geochemical analytical approach for the evaluation of heavy metal distribution in lagoon sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim, and Scope  Italian lagoon environments are of great importance due either to their frequency and distribution along the coasts or to\\u000a their management. Agriculture, urban and industrial activities in lagoon catchments can be sources of heavy metal (HM) pollution\\u000a by direct waste dumping, atmospheric deposition of fumes or, simply, as a consequence of a lack of natural water recharge.

Renata Pacifico; Paola Adamo; Carlo Cremisini; Fabio Spaziani; Luciano Ferrara

2007-01-01

443

Characterization of atmospheric ammonia emissions from swine waste storage and treatment lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of atmospheric ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, where NH3-N 5 (14\\/17)NH3) from an anaerobic ;2.5 ha (1 ha 5 10,000 m 2 ) commercial hog waste storage lagoon were measured during the summer of 1997 through the spring of 1998 in order to study the seasonal variability in emissions of NH3-N and its relationship to lagoon physicochemical properties. Ammonia-nitrogen fluxes were measured

Viney P. Aneja; J. P. Chauhan; J. T. Walker

2000-01-01

444

An evaluation of the USEPA calculations of greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic lagoons.  

PubMed

On 10 Apr. 2009, USEPA proposed and on 30 Oct. 2009 USEPA finalized reporting thresholds for a wide range of human-derived sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) as a first step in establishing emission limits in the United States. The only on-farm source category that required monitoring under the proposed and final rule was methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (NO(2)) emissions from manure storage facilities. Our objective was to assess, through a literature review, the methodology used by USEPA to estimate current CH(4) emissions from uncovered anaerobic lagoons and the proposed methodology for reporting those emissions under the proposed rule. A review of the performance of uncovered anaerobic lagoons indicates that they are more effective at degrading volatile solids (VS) than predicted using parameters provided by USEPA that had been developed for anaerobic digesters. We also documented errors in the USEPA- and International Panel on Climate Change-estimated methane conversion factors for uncovered anaerobic lagoons. We suggest estimating CH(4) emissions from anaerobic lagoons based on VS degraded in the lagoon and B' (m(3) CH(4) generated kg(-1) VS destroyed). Our estimate of CH(4) released from uncovered anaerobic lagoons indicated the regulatory operation size threshold could be at least 65% smaller than predicted by USEPA in the proposed rule. Our calculated estimate of CH(4) emissions was substantially greater than the few estimates of CH(4) loss based on direct measurements on uncovered anaerobic lagoons. More research is needed before it will be possible to provide definitive estimates of CH(4) loss from uncovered anaerobic lagoons. PMID:20400573

Lory, John A; Massey, R E; Zulovich, J M

2010-01-01

445

Abundances, distribution, and sources of trace metals in Nakaumi–Honjo coastal lagoon sediments, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom sediments from Nakaumi Lagoon and the Honjo Area in southwest Japan were analyzed to determine their geochemical compositions\\u000a and to assess potential impacts by comparison with sediment quality guidelines. Present-day water quality was also assessed.\\u000a Results showed that the water quality of Nakaumi Lagoon and the Honjo area contrasts between their upper and lower parts.\\u000a Average abundances of As,

Faruque Ahmed; M. Hawa Bibi; Koji Seto; Hiroaki Ishiga; Takehiko Fukushima; Barry P. Roser

2010-01-01

446

Trophic state and water turn-over time in six choked coastal lagoons in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of total phosphorus and chlorophyll-a concentration, nutrient loading, and water turn-over time in six shallow choked lagoons along the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, established that water turn-over time is related to the trophic state of the lagoons with additional anthropogenic nutrient loading affecting this relationship. Turnover time was calculated as a flushing half-life from

Bastiaan Knoppers; Björn Kjerfve; Jean-Pierre Carmouze

1991-01-01

447

Dynamics of phytoplankton and picoplankton over a tidal cycle in a subtropical lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of a tidal cycle on the distribution of autotrophic plankton were investigated in a hyper-eutrophic lagoon\\u000a designated as a scenic area. Results showed that the highest concentrations of picoplankton and phytoplankton were found in\\u000a the middle and inner part of the lagoon, irrespective of the tides. The MDS result also revealed that phytoplankton communities,\\u000a dominated by Ceratium furca,

Kwee Siong Tew; Pei-Jie Meng; Hung-Jen Lee; Yi-Xiu Ye; Jimmy Kuo; Lee-Shing Fang; Wei-Rung Chou

2010-01-01

448

Indian Education Revisited: A Personal Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A veteran American Indian educator describes his experiences as a student, teacher, and administrator in Indian schools; the formation of the National Indian Education Association; and the events that influenced his views about the progress of "Indian education." He foresees positive changes in American Indian education and teacher education that…

Demmert, William G., Jr.

1999-01-01

449

Diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives  

MedlinePLUS

... in American Indians and Alaska Natives Diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives American Indians/Alaska Natives (from the Office on Women’s ... as one of the health conditions common among American Indians/Alaska Natives. American Indian Health: An informational ...

450

78 FR 49120 - Courts of Indian Offenses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to add the following Indian tribes to the list of...established Courts of Indian Offenses (also known...Valley Band of Goshute Indians. Adding these tribes...and the Quapaw Tribe of Indians. On March 3, 2013...Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs. [FR...

2013-08-13

451

Water quality of Mediterranean coastal plains: conservation implications from the Akyatan Lagoon, Turkey.  

PubMed

The water quality of the Akyatan Lagoon was characterized using hydrochemical methodology. The lagoon is located on the Mediterranean coast and is the largest wetland ecosystem in Turkey. In addition, the lagoon is classified as a hyper-salinity wetland. Water samples were collected monthly between December 2007 and November 2008. Eleven stations within the lagoon were determined, and triplicate grab samples were obtained from each station to characterize water quality as follows: T °C, pH, total alkalinity (TAlk), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), and main anions, including chloride (Cl(-)), nitrates (NO3 (-)), and sulfate (SO4 (2-)). Results from selected stations indicated varying TDS, EC, salinity, and Cl(-) concentrations, from 20,892 to 175,824 mg/L, from 35.7 to 99.6 mS/cm, from 22.3 to 71.0 ppt, and from 14,819 to 44,198 mg Cl(-)/L, respectively. Data indicated that the spatial distribution of water quality parameters was significantly affected by freshwater input via the constructed drainage channels which collect water from a catchment area and discharge water into the lagoon as a point source, thus preventing drainage water to reach the lagoon as a nonpoint source. PMID:25079087

Demir Yetis, Aysegul; Selek, Zeliha; Seckin, Galip; Davutluoglu, Orkun I

2014-11-01

452

Non-steady-state modelling of faecal coliform removal in deep tertiary lagoons.  

PubMed

In Noirmoutier, a French island off the Atlantic coast, secondary effluents flow into a series of four lagoons, 1.4-2.8 m deep, and are reused for agricultural irrigation. The excess water is disposed of to the sea. The aim of this study was to provide a model capable of predicting the microbiological quality of the water pumped for irrigation or discharged to the sea. Meteorological variables, flow rates, physical-chemical characteristics and faecal coliform (FC) contents were monitored for a year and a half. The hydraulic pattern of each lagoon was assumed to be that of completely mixed reactor because of the calculated dispersion numbers and the wind mixing effect. Coliform decay was assumed to follow first order kinetics in each lagoon. Die-off coefficients were calculated in each lagoon using a non-steady-state model. The main bacterial removal mechanism was shown to be solar irradiation. Empirical equations were established to calculate die-off coefficients as a function of received solar energy and temperature. FC die-off rates were higher in the first lagoon and then decreased successively in those following. FC numbers in the different lagoons were predicted with reasonable accuracy in spite of high variation in inlet water quality. The model will facilitate the prediction of water quality under various climatic conditions and different water reuse scenarios and will help to optimise reclamation and storage facilities. PMID:12171406

Xu, P; Brissaud, F; Fazio, A

2002-07-01

453

Taxonomical and numerical comparison of epipelic algae from Balik and Uzun lagoon, Turkey.  

PubMed

The epipelic algae of Balik lagoon and Uzun lagoon were investigated from May 2003 to December 2004. A total of 106 taxa were identified. Of these, 85 were found in Balik lagoon and 78 were found in Uzun lagoon. Water temperature of the lagoons ranged from 6.5 to 24.5 degrees C during the sampling period. Conductivity hardness, dissolved oxygen an pH values varied between 0.70 and 8.00 mS, 26.00 and 86.60 degrees f, 3.50 and 9.00 mg l(-1) and 7.82 and 8.70 respectively. Nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, chloride, phosphate phosphorus and sulphate concentrations in the water were also measured and ranged from 0.01 to 0.14, 0.01 to 0.24, 2.41 to 48.70, 0.01 to 0.12 and 54.00 to 104.40 mg l(-1) respectively Species richness (d), diversity (Shannon - Weaver, H') and evennes (J') were calculated for epipelic algae and the findings showed similar oscillations throughout the research period. Cluster analyses and multidimensional scaling (MDS) revealed a similar distribution pattern of epipelic algal flora in both lagoons. PMID:20143705

Gonulol, Arif; Ersanli, Elif; Baytut, Ozgur

2009-09-01

454

75 FR 28757 - Security Zone; Potomac River, Washington Channel, Washington, DC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indian Tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities...Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use. We have determined...adverse effect on the supply, distribution, or use of energy. The...Potomac River, Washington Channel, Washington, DC....

2010-05-24

455

75 FR 10446 - Security Zone; Potomac River, Washington Channel, Washington, DC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities...Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use. We have determined...adverse effect on the supply, distribution, or use of energy. The...Potomac River, Washington Channel, Washington, DC....

2010-03-08

456