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1

INDIAN RIVER LAGOON CCMP PUBLIC PARTICIPATION INITIATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of public involvement within the Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program (IRLNEP) was to develop the public consensus necessary to ensure long-term support for, and implementation of, the Indian River Lagoon Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan (CCMP). Consens...

2

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

3

NAME: Indian River Lagoon LOCATION: Brevard and Indian River Counties, Florida  

E-print Network

, and planting red and white mangroves. Invasive species will be removed using the basal bark and cut stump: 47.5 acres NON-FEDERAL SPONSOR(S): Marine Resources Council Florida Department of Transportation (DOT of estuarine habitat in the Indian River Lagoon by removing invasive species, such as Brazilian pepper

US Army Corps of Engineers

4

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida(SEERS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

5

Smithsoniarhynches, a new genus of interstitial Gnathorhynchidae (Platyhelminthes: Kalyptorhynchia) from Mosquito Lagoon and Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus of marine, interstitial schizorhynch (Platyhelminthes: Kalyptorhynchia) is described from sediment collected in Mosquito Lagoon and Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Smithsoniarhynches is char- acterized by the presence of proboscis hooks constructed of ten individual spine-like teeth that emerge separately from a basal plate. Histology and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to reveal addi- tional details of

Rick Hochberg

2004-01-01

6

Mercury level in fish caught in Indian River Lagoon higher than it should be?  

E-print Network

Mercury level in fish caught in Indian River Lagoon higher than it should be? Harbor Branch launches new study of humans who eat fish and live around the estuary By Scott Wyland Tuesday, May 22, 2012 INDIAN RIVER COUNTY -- A 20-year-old man fishes local waters every day for his meals and scoffs

Belogay, Eugene A.

7

Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence of flushing. Coordinated studies of circulation through the Haulover Canal, Ponce Inlet and Sebastian Inlet would aid in understanding the genesis of future bloom events.;

Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

2012-12-01

8

Feeding Habits of Indian River Lagoon Bottlenose Dolphins Assessed Using Stable Isotope and Fatty Acid Signature Analysis  

E-print Network

Feeding Habits of Indian River Lagoon Bottlenose Dolphins Assessed Using Stable Isotope and Fatty, isotopic signatures, and fatty acid signatures of bottlenose dolphins and their presumed prey in the Indian River Lagoon system of Florida, with the ultimate goal of interpreting bottlenose dolphin feeding habits

9

Biodiversity of Saline and Brakish Marshes of the Indian River Lagoon: Historic and Current Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) crosses a zone of climatic transition. Historically, marshes dominated saline and brackish environments in the north of the lagoon, while mangroves became important to the south. Distribution of marsh communities was influenced by hydrology, salinity, soil characteristics, and fire, as well as periodic freezes. Marshes of the IRL have been greatly modified since the 1940s. Despite significant modifications, marsh plant species have not been lost from the region, but community and landscape patterns have been greatly modified and ecosystem processes altered.

Schmalzer, Paul A.

1995-01-01

10

Lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to document the presence of the fungal granulomatous skin disease lacaziosis in stranded Indian River Lagoon (IRL) bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). From 1 January 2007 through 31 December 2007, stranded dolphins from the northern part of the IRL were thoroughly examined, and appropriate tissue samples were collected. The intralesional fungal agent (Lacazia loboi) was identified histologically in three bottlenose dolphins. Histologically, lacaziosis has been previously documented in IRL dolphins inhabiting the southern portion of the lagoon. Our findings suggest that the disease occurs throughout the lagoon. Enhanced monitoring of the prevalence of lacaziosis in dolphins throughout the IRL is needed to assess changes in population health. PMID:19617500

Durden, Wendy Noke; St Leger, Judy; Stolen, Megan; Mazza, Teresa; Londono, Catalina

2009-07-01

11

Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce: The Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Florida's Indian River Lagoon (IRL) is recognized as possibly the most biologically diverse estuarine system in the continental US. The Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce manages the IRL Species Inventory Project, which includes an online database of taxonomic, ecological, and life history information of species in the estuary. Researchers, educators, and resource managers are encouraged to make use of the IRL Species Inventory Project, which will be expanded as research continues. The database includes a search engine with helpful tips, species reports; alphabetized species lists, detailed descriptions of IRL habitats, and more. A photo gallery has been recently added, featuring the work of local photographers.

1998-01-01

12

Scales of temporal and spatial variability in the distribution of harmful algae species in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) monitoring effort in the Indian River Lagoon. The goal of the study was to describe spatial and temporal variability in the distribution, frequency of occurrence, and composition of HABs, along with an examination of potential driving factors, such as hydrologic conditions and nutrient concentrations. Six sampling sites in the

Edward J. Phlips; Susan Badylak; Mary Christman; Jennifer Wolny; Julie Brame; Jay Garland; Lauren Hall; Jane Hart; Jan Landsberg; Margaret Lasi; Jean Lockwood; Richard Paperno; Doug Scheidt; Ariane Staples; Karen Steidinger

2011-01-01

13

Seagrass Depth Limits in the Indian River Lagoon (Florida, U.S.A.): Application of an Optical Water Quality Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance in terms of the inherent optical properties of optically important water quality parameters was calibrated near two seagrass beds in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, U.S.A. One of the seagrass sites was near the outflow of a canal discharging highly coloured water, and is regularly inundated by a plume of

C. L. Gallegos; W. J. Kenworthy

1996-01-01

14

A Continuation of Base-Line Studies for Environmentally Monitoring Space Transportation Systems at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 3, Part 1: Ichthyological Survey of Lagoonal Waters. [Indian River lagoon system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ichthyological species in the Indian River lagoonal system likely to be affected by NASA's aerospace activities at the Kennedy Space Center were surveyed. The importance of the fish found to inhabit the waters in the area is analyzed.

Snelson, F. F., Jr.

1980-01-01

15

A comparison of mercury in estuarine fish between Florida Bay and the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of mercury (Hg) in fish were compared between two Florida estuaries, the Indian River Lagoon and Florida Bay.\\u000a The objective was to determine if differences in Hg concentration exist and to attempt to relate those differences to sources\\u000a of Hg. Five hundred and thirteen estuarine fish were collected and analyzed for Hg concentration. Fish species collected were\\u000a black drum,

Douglas G. Strom; Gregory A. Graves

2001-01-01

16

Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon.  

PubMed

Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%). Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations. PMID:23840535

Stolen, Megan; St Leger, Judy; Durden, Wendy Noke; Mazza, Teresa; Nilson, Erika

2013-01-01

17

Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon  

PubMed Central

Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%). Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations. PMID:23840535

Stolen, Megan; St. Leger, Judy; Durden, Wendy Noke; Mazza, Teresa; Nilson, Erika

2013-01-01

18

Water-quality monitoring and biological integrity assessment in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Status, trends, and loadings (1988--1994)  

SciTech Connect

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) system that extends from Ponce DeLeon inlet to Jupiter inlet is comprised of three interconnected estuarine lagoons: The Mosquito Lagoon (ML), the Banana River Lagoon (BRL), and the Indian River Lagoon. The declines in both the aerial coverage and species diversity of seagrass communities within the IRL system are believed to be due in part to continued degradation of water quality. Large inflows of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)-laden storm-water from urban areas an agricultural land have been correlated with higher chlorophyll a production in the central, south central, and the south segments of the lagoon. In a system as large and complex as the lagoon, N and P limitations are potentially subject to significant spatial and temporal variability. Total Kjeidahl nitrogen (TN) was higher in the north and lower in the south. The reverse pattern was observed for total P (TP), i.e., lowest in the north and highest at the south ends of the IRL. This increased P concentration in the SIRL appears to have a significantly large effect on chlorophyll a production compared with the other segments, as indicated by stepwise regression statistics. This relationship can be expressed as follows: South IRL [chlorophyll a] = {minus}8.52 + 162.41 [orthophosphate] + 7.86 [total nitrogen] + 0.38 [turbidity]; R{sup 2} = 0.98**.

Sigua, G.C.; Steward, J.S.; Tweedale, W.A.

2000-02-01

19

Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms Cultured from Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) Inhabiting Estuarine Waters of Charleston, SC and Indian River Lagoon, FL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from estuarine waters of Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) and Charleston, SC (CHS) were cultured to screen for microorganism\\u000a colonization and to assess antibiotic sensitivity. Swabs (n = 909) were collected from the blowhole, gastric fluid, and feces\\u000a of 171 individual dolphins The most frequently cultured organisms were Plesiomonas shigelloides (n = 161), Aeromonas hydrophila (n = 144), Escherichia coli (n = 85), and

Adam M. Schaefer; Juli D. Goldstein; John S. Reif; Patricia A. Fair; Gregory D. Bossart

2009-01-01

20

Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of Indian River. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared. PMID:12647149

Feller, Ilka C; Whigham, Dennis F; McKee, Karen L; Lovelock, Catherine E

2003-02-01

21

Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of Indian River. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared.

Feller, I.C.; Whigham, D.F.; McKee, K.L.; Lovelock, C.E.

2003-01-01

22

Measures of Water Quality in Merrit Island National Wildlife Refuge Impoundments and Adjacent Indian River Lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to conduct preliminary investigations to determine appropriate sampling strategies to measure the flux of dissolved nutrients (specifically, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, and PO4(3-)) and suspended particulate matter (TSS) between impoundments and the IRL in preparation for an intensive three-year monitoring program. In addition to nutrients and TSS, a variety of common water quality indicators were also measured during these preliminary studies. Six impoundments and a single restored marsh were selected for study. Over a month long period, water samples were collected weekly at selected impoundment culverts. Water was collected in duplicate as independent grab samples from both the lagoon side and within the perimeter ditch directly adjacent to the culverts. Water quality indicators inside and outside the marsh impoundments were different. Ammonium, salinity, bacteria, and chlorophyll-a were higher inside the impoundments as expected possibly as a result of the great affect of evaporation on impoundment water. Water quality indicators responded rapidly both inside and outside the impoundments as exemplified by the increase in NH4(+)-N concentrations during a horseshoe crab die-off. Water quality indicators were high variable during the month in which water samples were collected. Because the impoundments are widely spaced it is logistically unrealistic to sample each of the impoundments and associated seagrass beds on a single day, sampling must be stratified to allow patterns of material movement and the annual flux of materials to and from the impoundments to be determined.

Blum, Linda K.

2000-01-01

23

The role of freshwater inflow in lagoons, rivers, and bays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different freshwater inflow volumes on benthic communities and water column\\u000a dynamics in different estuary classes. Benthic and water column spatial dynamics were contrasted in lagoons (with no direct\\u000a inflow sources), tidal rivers that empty directly into the Gulf of Mexico, and bar-built bay systems (with direct inflow sources)\\u000a along

Terence A. Palmer; Paul A. Montagna; Jennifer Beseres Pollack; Richard D. Kalke; Hudson R. DeYoe

2011-01-01

24

Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo  

PubMed Central

Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds. PMID:17915036

Kumar, Satish; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Sandhu, Jasmeet S; Kumar, Niraj; Behl, Vandana

2007-01-01

25

Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site: Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

26

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

27

Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006-2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43-. High riverine concentrations of nitrate mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer inputs. The DIN : PO43- ratios ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential depletion of PO43- relative to nitrogen in rivers. Chemical weathering in the drainage area might explain the high levels of dissolved silicate. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen. The particulate phosphorus concentrations in the study area were lower than those reported for estuaries worldwide. The particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than the global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas was affected by human activities (e.g., aquaculture, agriculture), and by natural phenomena including typhoons. The nutrient concentrations in coastal waters were low because of dispersion of land-derived nutrients in the sea. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes are magnified by estuarine processes (e.g., regeneration, desorption) in estuaries and Laoyehai Lagoon, but not in Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater inputs were the major sources of nutrients to Xiaohai and Laoyehai lagoons, respectively, and riverine inputs and aquaculture effluents were the major sources for the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem increased with typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, elucidating the important influence of typhoons on small tropical rivers.

Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

2014-01-01

28

Heavy metal contamination of the Sacca di Goro lagoon area (Po River Delta, Northern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lagoon area of the Sacca di Goro, within the Po River delta, is ca. 20 km2 wide, with a mean depth of 1.5 m and a mean salinity of 29%o. It holds a major naturalistic interest as well as an economic one due to the aquaculture activities (mussels and clams). In this lagoon system, the quality of the sea-bottom sediments is crucial not only for the cultivated species, but also for the potential bio-accumulation problems in heavy metals. The definition of the qualitative status of the lagoon sediments is crucial for adopting the best management strategies and the protection of the environmental conditions. We determined the concentration in SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn, Cu, Ga, Nd, S and Sr, of 31 samples homogeneously collected over the lagoon area. This large dataset allowed i) to define the environmental quality of the sediments, ii) to recognise the areas with the higher contamination risk; and iii) to emphasise the local occurrence of polluting phenomena associated to chromium, nickel, vanadium, cobalt, lead, zinc and copper.

Rapti-Caputo, Dimitra

2010-05-01

29

Geohydrology of Indian River County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system are the sources of groundwater used in Indian River County, Florida. About 65% of the groundwater is used for irrigation and is from the Floridan aquifer system. Saline water ranging from slightly saline to brine underlies the fresh groundwater throughout the county and is the chief water quality problem. Transmissivities of the surficial aquifer system in eastern Indian River County range from 1,500 to 11,000 sq ft/d. Yields of wells are as much as 1,200 gal/min. Reported transmissivities for the Floridan aquifer system range from 65,000 to 200,000 sq ft/d. Most wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system flow; flow rates range from 30 to 2,000 gal/min. Chloride concentrations of water in the surficial aquifer system generally are below 100 mg/L, but concentrations often exceed 250 mg/L in water from the Floridan aquifer system. Between 1976 and 1983, average chloride concentrations in water from six wells that tap the surficial aquifer system in the Vero Beach well field increased about 36 mg/L, but were unchanged in four other wells. The increase in chloride concentration probably is related to a well-field pumpage increase from 5.44 million gal/d in 1976 to 8.00 million gal/d in 1983. In most of the County, chloride concentrations of wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system have not changed significantly in the 15-year period, 1968-83. Water levels in the surficial aquifer system declined 15 to 19 ft between 1971 and 1984 in the Vero Beach well field where the larger groundwater withdrawals occur, but have not declined significantly outside heavily pumped areas. Water levels in the Floridan aquifer system have declined 16 to 24 ft in eastern Indian River County in the 50-year period, 1934-84, but declines outside the heavily pumped areas generally have been less than 10 ft during this period. (USGS)

Schiner, G.R.; Laughlin, C.P.; Toth, D.J.

1988-01-01

30

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic  

E-print Network

Salmon Always Goes Up River An American Indian Epic Retold by Rodney Frey 28 September 2000 Salmon ..................................12 Salmon is a great warrior. He's going up the Columbia River; Salmon always goes up river. Salmon to catch the salmon; it's not so good. Salmon goes over, piles up rocks, here and here. He goes up the bank

O'Laughlin, Jay

31

Harmful Algae Records in Venice Lagoon and in Po River Delta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)  

PubMed Central

A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide “updated reference conditions” for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200?cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance. PMID:24683360

Bilani?ovà, Dagmar; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-01-01

32

Harmful algae records in Venice lagoon and in Po River Delta (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).  

PubMed

A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide "updated reference conditions" for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200 cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance. PMID:24683360

Facca, Chiara; Bilani?ovà, Dagmar; Pojana, Giulio; Sfriso, Adriano; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-01-01

33

Effects of extended absence of flooding on the fish assemblages of three floodplain lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Neotropics, a large proportion of fish communities of large rivers use floodplain as habitats for feeding, reproduction, and refuge. An evaluation was made of the effects of extended dry periods on the species richness, abundance and local extinction of fish species in three marginal lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, southeastern Brazil. The studied lagoons fail to

Paulo dos Santos Pompeu; Hugo Pereira Godinho

2006-01-01

34

Seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a data-set of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou and Grand-Lahou) of Ivory Coast (West Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season). The surface waters of the three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, the seasonal variability of CO2 and CH4 seemed to be largely controlled by dilution during the flooding period. The strong correlation of CH4 concentrations with the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) confirm the dominance of a continental sources (from soils) for both CO2 and CH4 in these rivers. The largest CH4 over-saturations and diffusive air-water CH4 fluxes were observed in the Tendo and Aby lagoons that are permanently stratified systems (unlike the other 3 lagoons), leading to anoxic bottom waters favorable for a large CH4 production. In addition, these two stratified lagoons showed low pCO2 values due to high primary production, which suggests an efficient transfer of organic matter across the pycnocline. As a result, the stratified Tendo and Aby lagoons were respectively, a low source of CO2 to the atmosphere and a sink of atmospheric CO2 while the other 3 well-mixed lagoons were strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere but lower sources of CH4 to the atmosphere.

Koné, Y. J. M.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Borges, A. V.

2009-04-01

35

Holocene sedimentary evolution of a mid-ocean atoll lagoon, Maldives, Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on detailed analyses of cores covering the lagoon of Rasdhoo Atoll, Maldives, six carbonate facies, one soil, and one peat facies have been identified. The abundance of carbonate and rare opaque grains was quantified with a point counter. X-ray diffractometry was used to measure mineralogical composition of samples. The statistical delineation of facies using cluster analysis was based on point count, mineralogical, and textural analyses. In decreasing abundance, the six carbonate facies are classified as mollusk-coral-algal floatstone to rudstone (30 %), mollusk-coral-red algae rudstone (23 %), mollusk-coral-algal wackestone to floatstone (23 %), mollusk-coral wackestone (13 %), mollusk-coral mudstone to wackestone (9 %), and mollusk mudstone (2 %). The carbonate facies represent lagoonal background sedimentation, mostly consisting of fine sediments, and event sedimentation depositing transported coarse-grained reefal components. Fifty-seven carbonate samples and one peat sample were dated radiometrically, covering the Holocene transgression from 10 kyrs BP until today. Comparing the sediment accumulation data of the lagoon with two local sea-level curves, three systems tracts can be identified: (1) a lowstand systems tract characterized by karst and soil deposition >10 kyrs BP, (2) a transgressive systems tract with peat and carbonate separated by hiatus 10-6.5 kyrs BP, and (3) a highstand systems tract dominated by carbonate sedimentation 6.5-0 kyrs BP and further divided into three stages (6.5-3, 3-1, and 1-0 kyrs BP). During the Holocene transgression, sedimentation rates increased continuously to a maximum of 1.4 m/kyr during 3-1 kyrs BP. Modern (1-0 kyrs BP) mean sedimentation rates average 0.6 m/kyr. A simple calculation suggests that two processes (background sedimentation and sand apron progradation) will probably fill up the accommodation space of the lagoon during the Holocene highstand, but these processes will not suffice to fill the larger atoll lagoons of the archipelago.

Klostermann, Lars; Gischler, Eberhard

2015-01-01

36

Indian River Research and Education Center 2199 South Rock Road  

E-print Network

Indian River Research and Education Center 2199 South Rock Road Fort Pierce, FL 34945-3138 Phone commitment would impact my ability to serve my existing research and teaching program. Little did I know how with specific goals to (1) enhance application of skills and knowledge learning in nine leadership competencies

Florida, University of

37

76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indian Tribes' Reservation. The land is located on trust land and this Code allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Colorado River Indian Tribes' Reservation. This Code will increase the ability of the tribal government to...

2011-12-13

38

75 FR 39960 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...Secretary's certification of the amendment to the Salt River Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance...Chapter 14, Articles I, II, and III of the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian...

2010-07-13

39

Terrestrial Carbon Inputs from the Colville River to Simpson Lagoon, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, Arctic regions could warm over the next 100 years by as much 3° to 7°C. There is currently a paucity of knowledge about the input of terrestrial carbon into Arctic marginal seas, the potential effects of climate change on that carbon input, and how that input reflects the effects of climate change on Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. This study explores carbon input from the Colville River into its delta and the adjacent Simpson’s Lagoon in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, using core material and land samples taken during an August 2010 field campaign. The Colville is the largest North American river that drains only continuously permafrosted drainage basin, originating in the Brooks Range and flowing over the Alaskan North Slope into the Beaufort Sea. Preliminary X-radiographic analysis of these cores indicates they are well-laminated, with minor bioturbation and no ice-gouging disturbance. Lignin-phenol biomarkers and ?13C analyses of downcore samples indicate that terrestrial carbon inputs in this region are closely linked with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) mode. A negative AO mode during the 1960’s has likely contributed to an increased inputs of terrestrial carbon, while a switch to more positive AO conditions in the 1970’s and 1980’s corresponds with a decreased input of terrestrial carbon relative to other sources. This study also provides the first evidence of laminated sediment cores collected from such shallow regions near the delta and consequently hold great promise for reconstruction of terrestrial ecosystem changes in the Alaskan North Slope over the last millennia. More specifically, factors like terrestrial river runoff, precipitation, sea and landfast ice extent, coastal erosion rates, and permafrost temperatures have varied prior to the instrumental record in the Arctic are examined, and are reflected in the sedimentary organic carbon record. Finally, these reconstruction analyses have the potential to aid in decoupling climate factors such as the influence of anthropogenic climate change and the Arctic Oscillation.

Schreiner, K. M.; Bianchi, T. S.; Allison, M. A.

2010-12-01

40

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2013-07-01

41

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2011-07-01

42

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2012-07-01

43

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2014-07-01

44

Jupiter Courier Pygmy sperm whale found on Indian River beach had no signs of  

E-print Network

Jupiter Courier Pygmy sperm whale found on Indian River beach had no signs of trauma By Elliott -- The adult pygmy sperm whale that died after washing up on Indian River County's beaches on Tuesday had enlarges, reducing blood flow. The animal was reported by people on the beach near the Sea Oaks

Belogay, Eugene A.

45

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2014-07-01

46

78 FR 44590 - Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community-Amendment to Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...134A2100DD/AAK300000/a0t500000.000000] Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...This notice publishes the amendment to the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian Community...Beverage Control Ordinance, Chapter 14, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian...

2013-07-24

47

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2011-07-01

48

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian...

2011-07-01

49

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2012-07-01

50

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2013-07-01

51

40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian...

2010-07-01

52

40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community...project located on the Reservation of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian...

2010-07-01

53

Changes in Terrestrial Organic Carbon Delivery to the Colville River Delta and Adjacent Simpson's Lagoon Over the Late Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colville River in Alaska is the largest river in North America that drains only continuously permafrosted tundra, and as such provides a unique signal of historical changes in one of the world's most vulnerable areas to climate changes. Additionally, the Colville flows into Simpson's Lagoon, a shallow area of the Alaskan Beaufort coast protected by a barrier island chain, lessening the impacts of Arctic storms and ice grounding on sediment mixing. Cores collected from the Colville river delta in August of 2010 were found to be composed of muddy, organic-rich, well-laminated sediments. The 2.5 to 3 meter length of each core spans about one to two thousand years of Holocene history, including the entire Anthropocene and much of the late Holocene. Three cores were sampled for this data set, arranged latitudinally from the mouth of the Colville River east into Simpson's Lagoon. Samples were taken every 2 cm for the entire length of all cores. Bulk analyses including percent organic carbon, percent nitrogen, and stable carbon isotopic analysis were performed, and compound specific analyses including lignin-phenol and algal pigment analyses were performed. These analyses showed significant changes in carbon storage over the past one to two thousand years. There were also significant spatial differences in organic carbon inputs across the ~20km distance between the Colville mouth and the easternmost core. Lignin-phenol concentrations in surface sediments nearest to the river mouth correlated positively with reconstructed Alaskan North Slope temperatures, suggesting more terrestrial organic matter was delivered during higher temperature regimes. Molar C:N ratios and plant pigments correlated negatively and positively, respectively, with reconstructed Alaskan North Slope moisture regime, indicating greater algal inputs during wetter time periods. These data may in part be consistent with observed woody shrub encroachment and increasing expanse of permafrost lakes on the North Slope. Bulk isotope data of the same core showed extremely depleted (up to -34‰) excursions in the top third (i.e. over the past 800 years), and corresponded with increased input of more highly degraded lignin-phenols (as indicated by higher (Ad:Al)v ratios). Alternatively, sediments from the most distal core from the river mouth indicate the majority of organic carbon input to this area of the lagoon was not connected with Colville River outflow, and likely originated from either coastal retreat or was potentially carried into the lagoon from farther east by the Beaufort Gyre. Over the past millennium, the organic carbon input has consistently become more enriched in 13C and less lignin-phenol rich, likely indicating increased input of algal carbon. This data provides the first fine-scale, late Holocene record for this region of the Arctic.

Schreiner, K. M.; Bianchi, T. S.; Allison, M. A.; Miller, A. J.; Marcantonio, F.

2012-04-01

54

Indian and Non-Indian Delinquency: A Self-Report Study of Wind River Reservation Area Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was motivated by 2 concerns: (1) a large proportion of offenses that are committed both by juveniles and adults are never reported or officially recorded; and (2) without detailed information concerning the delinquent acts committed by non-Indian youths in the Wind River Reservation area of Wyoming it is impossible to ascertain whether…

Forslund, Morris A.

55

Brazil The Duck Lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) which reaches peak production during summer. Sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) can be found in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is restricted to Central America). MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

56

Precipitation chemistry - Atmospheric loadings to the surface waters of the Indian River lagoon basin by rainfall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rain volume and chemistry monitoring as part of the Kennedy Space Center Long Term Environmental Monitoring Program included the years 1984-1987 as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Atmospheric deposition in rainfall consisted primarily of sea salt and hydrogen ion, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions. The deposition of nitrogen (a principal plant nutrient) was on the order of 200-300 metric tons per year to the surface waters.

Dreschel, Thomas W.; Madsen, Brooks C.; Maull, Lee A.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, William M., III

1990-01-01

57

Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and

Ilka C. Feller; Dennis F. Whigham; Karen L. McKee; Catherine E. Lovelock

2003-01-01

58

Long-Term Effects of Changing Land Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in a Coastal River and Lagoonal Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region.

Rothenberger, Meghan B.; Burkholder, Joann M.; Brownie, Cavell

2009-09-01

59

Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Band of Ojibwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…

Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.

2010-01-01

60

Independent Scientific Advisory Board for the Council, Columbia River Basin Indian Tribes, and NOAA Fisheries  

E-print Network

Independent Scientific Advisory Board for the Council, Columbia River Basin Indian Tribes, and NOAA Fisheries Independent Scientific Review Panel for the Northwest Power and Conservation Council; 851 SW 6th Protocols Handbook I. Review Background and Questions On April 18th, 2007, the Council asked the ISAB

61

Indian Culture Program. Poplar River School No. 050, Negginan, P.O.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by teachers at the Poplar River School Number 050 (Negginan, Ontario, Canada), this curriculum guide presents a cultural expansion program for: (1) kindergarten students (a unit on community study including such topics as: food, shelter, clothing, medicine, transportation and a unit on "other" Indian cultures "by way of legends"); (2)…

McKay, Rosemary; And Others

62

Estimation of natural streamflow in the Jemez River at the boundaries of Indian lands, central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural streamflow in the Jemez River at the boundaries of Indian lands was estimated from available streamflow records which were adjusted by estimated losses of water due to man-made changes in the hydraulic characteristics of the river basin. The average estimate annual natural streamflow is 53,180 acre-feet at the upstreams boundary of the Jemez Indian Reservation, 53 ,180 acre-feet at the Jemez--Zia Indian Reservation boundary, 55 ,440 acre-feet at the Zia--Santa Ana Indian Reservation boundary , and 46,550 acre-feet at the downstream boundary of the Santa Ana Reservation. (USGS)

Fischer, E.E.; Borland, J.P.

1983-01-01

63

Independent Scientific Advisory Board for the Northwest Power and Conservation Council, Columbia River Basin Indian Tribes, and NOAA Fisheries  

E-print Network

Independent Scientific Advisory Board for the Northwest Power and Conservation Council, Columbia River Basin Indian Tribes, and NOAA Fisheries and Independent Scientific Review Panel for the Northwest..............................................................................................................3 Answers to the four NOAA Questions

64

BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF WATER LEVEL CHANGES IN MARGINAL LAGOONS AT LOWER SÃO FRANCISCO FLOODPLAIN RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in marginal lagoons at the low São Francisco watershed is dependent on water flow of upstream reservoirs. These organisms inhabit the bottom of freshwater ecosystems and their presence\\/absence, abundance and species richness are ecological indicators of water level fluctuations and human impacts in the watershed. The objective of this study was to assess the taxonomic

DÉBORAH OLIVEIRA; VÍCTOR GOMES; MARCOS CALLISTO

65

Fractionation and ecotoxicological implication of potentially toxic metals in sediments of three urban rivers and the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria, West Africa.  

PubMed

The potential environmental impact of sediment-bound Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in three trans-urban rivers in Lagos state and in the Lagos Lagoon was assessed by use of the modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. The quality of the data was checked using BCR CRM 143R and BCR CRM 701. Good agreement was obtained between found and certified/indicative values. Of the rivers, the Odo-Iyaalaro, was generally the most contaminated and the Ibeshe the least. Higher concentrations of metals were generally found in the dry season compared to the wet season. Cadmium and Zn were released mostly in the acid exchangeable step of the sequential extraction, indicating that they have the greatest potential mobility and bioavailability of the analytes studied. Chromium and Cu were associated mainly with the reducible and oxidisable fractions, and Pb predominantly with the reducible and residual fractions. Sediments with the highest pseudototal analyte concentrations also released higher proportions of analytes earlier in the sequential extraction procedure. The study suggests that, during the dry season, potentially toxic metals (PTM) may accumulate in sediments in relatively labile forms that are released and can potentially be transported or bioaccumulate in the rainy season. Application of risk assessment codes and Hankanson potential risk indices indicated that Cd was the element of greatest concern in the Lagos Lagoon system. The study indicated that there is a need to strengthen environmental management and pollution control measures to reduce risk from PTM, but that even relatively simple strategies, such as seasonal restrictions on dredging and fishing, could be beneficial. PMID:25069633

Oyeyiola, Aderonke O; Davidson, Christine M; Olayinka, Kehinde O; Alo, Babajide I

2014-11-01

66

Moxos' Lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a long-standing debate on the anthropogenic origin of Moxos' lagoons. In the late 1990s, an analysis of the orientation of a comprehensive and statistically significant number of lagoons showed that only human action could explain the peculiarities of their geometry and especially their orientation according to a main axis aligned to an azimuth of 50° and its complementary angle. Besides, the absence of distinctive geographical marks in the horizon strongly suggested an astronomical justification for such peculiar pattern. Thus, the lagoons could have been deliberately orientated in agreement with certain stellar positions which may have marked special moments of the local climatic or economic cycle, a fact which might be confirmed in ethno-historic references.

Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Barba, Josep F.

67

Numerical Study of the Circulation and Sediment Transport in the Region of the Southeast American Shelf Under the Influence of the Plata River and the Patos Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the dynamics of the plume formed by waters of the Plata River and the Patos-Mirim Lagoon System. This is due to the impacts of these low-salinity waters on physical, chemical and biological processes in this region. In this work will be present modeling results of sediment transport along the continental shelf between Mar Del Plata (~ 40°S) and Cabo Frio (~ 22°S), in which we explore the impacts of the discharge on the sediment concentration along the shelf. The model used is the ECOMSED (Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Model and SEDiment transport model), in an implementation that presents variable horizontal resolution, with 40 km in the far region and 7 km resolution near the mouth of the Plata River. The vertical resolution has 21 sigma levels. In the preliminary results, we were able to reproduce a standing region that was referred by Framiñan et al. (1996) as the Maximum Turbidity Front. In general, however, part of the sediments are transported out of the estuary onto the adjacent continental shelf. Due the influence of southwest winds, the plume flows more to northeast around the coast up to low latitudes (~ 20°S). In our study we expect to correlate the impact of this northward extension of the plume on the sediment concentration on the shelf.

Mello, R. L.; Campos, E. J.

2007-05-01

68

Improved dissolved oxygen status following removal of exotic weed mats in important fish habitat lagoons of the tropical Burdekin River floodplain, Australia.  

PubMed

The Burdekin delta floodplain, north Queensland, is highly modified for agricultural purposes. Riparian condition is very poor and exotic aquatic weeds dominate waterways. Historically, most streams and lagoons were highly seasonal, but those now used for the delivery of irrigation water maintain elevated flows and increased turbidity and nutrient loading. These factors have aided exotic weed growth and many major lagoons are covered by dense water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) mats which greatly reduce dissolved oxygen levels, one of the most important water quality variables for aquatic fauna. Mechanical harvesting of water hyacinth from several of these lagoons resulted in rapid and substantial increases in dissolved oxygen saturation, and improved suitability of the habitat to support fish species. Decrease in dissolved oxygen as water passes sequentially through weed-infested lagoons, justified the approach of harvesting upstream lagoons first, however, the channels that connect these lagoons remain weed-infested and are still impacting upon downstream oxygen levels. PMID:15757716

Perna, Colton; Burrows, Damien

2005-01-01

69

Effects of the Indian Ocean Temperature on Nile River Flow Volumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egypt and Sudan are heavily dependent on the Nile River for sustaining their populations. In high flow years, the Lake Nasser surface water levels rise and overflows filling surrounding natural depressions and forming additional lakes (Tushka lakes) in peak flow years. The underlying Nubian Aquifer is recharged in high flow yeas, whereas the Nubian groundwater discharges into the Nile in low flow years. Previous studies have shown that the variability in flow volumes in the Nile River can be partially (~30%) accounted for by variations in the intensity of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Other previous studies suggested that rainfall in the upper Blue Nile catchment in Sudan can be linked to changes in the intensity of temperature variations across the Indian Ocean (the Indian Ocean Dipole or IOD). To test which of these events correlate best with Nile flow volumes, Nile flow records in the Blue Nile (above Khartoum), the White Nile (above Kharthoum), and combined flow at Wadi Halfa covering the time period from 1902 to 1962 were analyzed together with SST measurements. Peak and minimum discharge, and quarterly measurement from each gauge were obtained. The intensity of El Nino 3.4 and 4, and of the Indian Ocean Dipole variations from the reconstructed SST dataset hadlSST covering the same time period were used. The best correlation was found to exist between fluctuations in the IOD in the Spring (Apr-May-Jun) preceding the peak flow (usually occurring in August) and maximum discharge at the Blue Nile Gauge above Khartoum (Correlation coefficient of 0.65). Variations in El Nino intensity for the same time period showed lower correlations with peak and base Nile flow in the Blue Nile (0.55). This indicates that the intensity of the Indian Ocean Dipole has been a better predictor than El Nino for peak Nile Flow volume. Results highlight the potential for using the latter relationship for predicting Nile Flow volumes flowing in Lake Nasser and for modeling the corresponding recharge and storage in the Nubian Aquifer under futuristic model climatic scenarios.

Becker, R.; Sultan, M.; Becker, D.

2009-12-01

70

Patterns of Fish Use and Piscivore Abundance within a Reconnected Saltmarsh Impoundment in the Northern Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all saltmarshes in east-central, Florida were impounded for mosquito control during the 1960s. The majority of these\\u000a marshes have since been reconnected to the estuary by culverts, providing an opportunity to effectively measure exchange of\\u000a aquatic organisms. A multi-gear approach was used monthly to simultaneously estimate fish standing stock (cast net), fish\\u000a exchange with the estuary (culvert traps), and

Philip W. Stevens; Clay L. Montague; Kenneth J. Sulak

2006-01-01

71

An appraisal of the water resources of the Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasing interest in expanding the livestock and agricultural operations on the Walker River Indian Reservation, Nev., has prompted the Walker River Paiute Tribe to have the present and available water resources of the reservation appraised and proposed sites for new wells evaluated. Flow of the Walker River into the reservation averages about 113,000 acre-feet a year. Of this amount, about 42,000 acre-feet is used on the reservation, recharging the gound-water system and supplying irrigation water for alfalfa and pasture crops. The water quality of the river water is well suited for these purposes, and the possibility of expanding surface-water use exists. A mathematical model of the ground-water system was constructed to test various assumptions about recharge and discharge rates. The model generated water-level contours that agreed reasonably well with measured water levels, median deviation was 12 feet. With additional data , the model could be used in the future to test the feasibility of evapotranspiration salvage at the seven proposed sites for new stock and irrigation wells. The primary users of ground water on the reservation are phreatophytes and playa surfaces. They allow ground water to be lost to evaporation. About 19,000 acre-feet per year is lost through this mechanism. Domestic and livestock uses account for only about 250 acre-feet per year. Total recharge to the ground-water system amounts to about 30 ,000 acre-feet per year, and the possibility of more extensive use of ground water on the reservation exists. Quality of the ground water in most areas is suitable for all intended purposes. (USGS)

Schaefer, Donald H.

1980-01-01

72

Predation impact on the meiobenthic harpacticoid Canuella perplexa in a lagoon of the Po River Delta, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of predation by juvenile marbled gobies,Pomatoschistus marmoratus, on the meiobenthic harpacticoid copepodCanuella perplexa was investigated at a subtidal station located in a shallow-water, brackish embayment of the Po River delta, northern Italy,\\u000a in summer and fall 1978. In august, predation mainly centered on adults, with a very large number of prey for each predator;\\u000a the energy supplied by

Victor Ugo Ceccherelli; Michele Mistri; Piero Franzoi

1994-01-01

73

Dynamics of microbial planktonic food web components during a river flash flood in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic river flash floods, characteristic of Mediterranean climates, are suspected to greatly affect the functioning of\\u000a microbial food webs. For the first time, the abundance, biomass and diversities of microbial food web components were studied\\u000a before and during 4 consecutive days after a flash flood that occurred in November 2008, in the surface waters of five stations\\u000a along a salinity

David Pecqueur; Francesca Vidussi; Eric Fouilland; Emilie Le Floc’h; Sebastien Mas; Cecile Roques; Christian Salles; Marie-George Tournoud; Behzad Mostajir

2011-01-01

74

ECOLOGY OF THE MAYAN CICHLID, CICHLASOMA UROPHTHALMUS GÜNTHER, IN THE ALVARADO LAGOONAL SYSTEM, VERACRUZ, MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus, has a wide distribution in southeastern Mexico where it inhabits rivers and coastal lagoons. In the Alvarado lagoonal system, Veracruz, it is distributed towards the north in Camaronera Lagoon. The Mayan cichlid shows an affinity for oligohaline to mesohaline sites with submerged vegetation well-oxygenated, deep, and transparent water. The major abundance and biomass of this

Rafael Chávez-López; Mark S. Peterson; Nancy J. Brown-Peterson; Ana Adalia Morales-Gómez; Jonathan Franco-López

2005-01-01

75

Pb210 and Cs137 distribution in Burullus lagoon sediments of Nile river delta, Egypt: sedimentation rate after Aswan High Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the Burullus lagoon deposits of the Nile delta coast and the distribution of Pb-210 and Cs-137. Three\\u000a vibrocores from the lagoon have revealed densely concentrated shell fragments of brackish water origin in the upper (

Zhuang Xu; Alaa Salem; Zhongyuan Chen; Weiguo Zhang; Jing Chen; Zhanghua Wang; Qianli Sun; Daowei Yin

2008-01-01

76

Reproductive biology of Indian Silurid catfish Ompok pabda in river Gomti.  

PubMed

Reproductive biology of an Indian Silurid catfish, Ompok pabda were determined in a moderately impacted tropical River Gomti in India. Samples offish were collected monthly between May 2008 to April 2009 in two zones; upstream site at Mishrikh, Sitapur and midstream site at Lucknow. Length at first maturity calculated through maturity curve was 12.9 cm (males) and 13.9 cm (females) in total length. The gonado-somatic index indicated that spawning generally occurred between June - September and sex ratio showed a predominance of females, representing 54.3% of the total sample. The fecundity was found to vary from 2460 to 5986 nos, with mean of 4330 +/- 799 for the fish with total length of 11.5-20.0 cm. The relationship of fecundity with total length and total body weight of the fish was Log F = 0.374 Log L+ 0.37, r2 = 0.999 and Log F = 0.337 Log W-0.40, r2 = 0.966. The well defined traits of O. pabda from the Ganges basin provide basic information which can be further used for species conservation planning. PMID:24665760

Gupta, Braj Kishor; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Bhardwaj, Sanjay Kumar

2014-03-01

77

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

78

Water Quality Trends in a Coastal Lagoon Impacted by Nonpoint Source Pollution after Implementation of Protective Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality data from two different monitoring periods are used to evaluate the trophic state and effectiveness of various\\u000a protective measures on the restoration of a eutrophic, coastal Mediterranean lagoon. Main protective measures included elimination\\u000a of municipal\\/industrial raw wastewater discharges in the rivers outflowing to the lagoon, sediment\\/erosion control practices\\u000a in the lagoon’s drainage basin (i.e., construction of sediment\\/debris dams

Georgios D. Gikas; Trisevgeni Yiannakopoulou; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis

2006-01-01

79

Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

O'Brien, W. J.

1978-01-01

80

Data report for the geologic and scenic quality evaluation of selected sand and gravel sites on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field studies on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, to inventory and evaluate sand and gravel deposits underlying river terraces on tribal lands along the Wind River. This report contains the results for 12 sites of sand and gravel deposits evaluated for their potential use as aggregate in Portland cement concrete, asphalt, and base course. The report provides the results of: * The USGS geologic studies and engineering tests. * A conclusion and recommendation for the best use of sand and gravel materials. * Calculations of available sand and gravel materials. * A scenic quality landscape inventory and evaluation.

Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Arbogast, Belinda; Lindsey, David A.

2011-01-01

81

Brazil: Duck Lagoon  

... in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is ...

2013-04-18

82

Lockport Sewage Lagoon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

Perry, John

1995-01-01

83

Continuous resistivity profiling and seismic-reflection data collected in April 2010 from Indian River Bay, Delaware  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was carried out in April 2010. This included surveying at higher spatial resolution in the vicinity of a study site at Holts Landing, where intensive onshore and offshore studies were subsequently completed. The total length of continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) survey lines was 145 kilometers (km), with 36 km of chirp seismic lines surveyed around the perimeter of the bay. Medium-resolution CRP surveying was performed using a 50-meter streamer in a baywide grid. Results of the surveying and data inversion showed the presence of many buried paleochannels beneath Indian River Bay that generally extended perpendicular from the shoreline in areas of modern tributaries, tidal creeks, and marshes. An especially wide and deep paleochannel system was imaged in the southeastern part of the bay near White Creek. Many paleochannels also had high-resistivity anomalies corresponding to low-salinity groundwater plumes associated with them, likely due to the presence of fine-grained estuarine mud and peats in the channel fills that act as submarine confining units. Where present, these units allow plumes of low-salinity groundwater that was recharged onshore to move beyond the shoreline, creating a complex fresh-saline groundwater interface in the subsurface. The properties of this interface are important considerations in construction of accurate coastal groundwater flow models. These models are required to help predict how nutrient-rich groundwater, recharged in agricultural watersheds such as this one, makes its way into coastal bays and impacts surface-water quality and estuarine ecosystems.

Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Michael, H.A.; Kroeger, K.D.; Green, Adrian; Bergeron, Emile

2014-01-01

84

Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

85

Canal Velocity Indexing at Colorado River Indian Tribes (CRIT) Irrigation Project in Parker, Arizona Using the SonTek Argonaut SL  

Microsoft Academic Search

An index velocity rating was developed for a SonTek\\/YSI Argonaut Side-Looking (SL) ultrasonic Doppler flow meter installed in the Main Canal of the Colorado River Indian Tribes (CRIT) Irrigation Project in Parker, Arizona. Velocity data collected concurrently with the ultrasonic flow meter and conventional current meter were compared using linear regression techniques. The rating equation for this installation provides a

Stuart W. Styles; Mark Niblack; Beau J. Freeman

2003-01-01

86

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over the next 2 decades.

Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

2014-05-01

87

Research and Teaching: Field Trips and Their Effect on Student Achievement and Attitudes -- A Comparison of Physical Versus Virtual Field Trips to the Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study examined the effect of physical and virtual field trips on undergraduate, nonscience majors. No significant differences were seen in achievement, attitudes, learning styles, interactions between field trip and learning styles, or students' ability to answer questions at different levels. Results imply that both field trips promote learning.

Garner, Lesley C.; Gallo, Michael A.

2005-03-01

88

Assessment of water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1989-94  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to assess ground-water and surface-water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District in northern Palm Beach County from 1989 to 1994. Contamination of the surficial aquifer system and availability of a potable water supply have become of increasing concern. The study consisted of sampling 11 ground-water wells and 14 surface- water sites for determination of major inorganic constituents and physical characteristics, trace metals, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and synthetic organic compounds. Sodium and chloride concentrations exceeded Florida drinking-water standards in ground water at two wells, dissolved- solids concentrations at five ground-water wells and one surface-water site, and color values at all 11 ground-water wells and all 14 surface-water sites. Other constituents also exhibited concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards. Cadmium and zinc concentrations exceeded the standards in ground water at one well, and lead concentrations exceeded the standard in ground water at five wells. Nitrogen and phosphorus specie concentrations did not exceed respective drinking-water standards in any ground-water or surface-water samples. Several synthetic organic compounds were detected at or above 50 micrograms per liter in water samples collected from six ground-water wells and three surface-water sites.

Lietz, A.C.

1996-01-01

89

Ground-water resources of the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The area of this investigation is in the western part of the Wind River Basin and includes parts of the Absaroka, Washakie, Wind River, and Owl Creek Mountains. The purposes of the study were to determine the general hydrologic properties of the rocks in the area and the occurrence and quality c f the water in them. Structurally, the area is a downfolded basin surrounded by upfolded mountain ranges. Igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age are exposed in the mountains: folded sedimentary rocks representing all geologic periods, except the Silurian, crop out along the margins of the basin; and relatively flat-lying Tertiary rocks are at the surface in the central part of the basin. Surficial sand and gravel deposits of Quaternary age occur along streams and underlie numerous terraces throughout the basin. The potential yield and quality of water from most rocks in the area are poorly known, but estimates are possible, based on local well data and on data concerning similar rocks in nearby areas. Yields of more than 1,000 gpm are possible from the rocks comprising the Bighorn Dolomite (Ordovician), Darby Formation (Devonian), Madison Limestone (Mississippian), and Tensleep Sandstone (Pennsylvanian). Total dissolved solids in the water range from about 300 to 3,000 ppm. Yields of as much as several hundred gallons per minute are possible from the Nugget Sandstone (Jurassic? and Triassic?). Yields of 20 gpm or more are possible from the Crow Mountain Sandstone (Triassic) and Sundance Formation (Jurassic). Dissolved solids are generally high but are less than 1,000 ppm near outcrops in some locations. The Cloverly and Morrison (Cretaceous and Jurassic), Mesaverde (Cretaceous) and Lance(?) (Cretaceous) Formations may yield as much as several hundred gallons per minute, but most wells in Cretaceous rocks yield less than 20 gpm. Dissolved solids generally range from 1,000 to 5,000 ppm but may be higher. In some areas, water with less than 1,000 ppm dissolved solids may be available from the Cloverly and Morrison Formations. Tertiary rocks yield a few to several hundred gallons per minute and dissolved solids generally range from 1,000 to 5,000 ppm. Wells in the Wind River Formation (Eocene) yield about 1.-500 gpm of water having dissolved solids of about 200-5,000 ppm. Yields of a few to several hundred gallons per minute are available from alluvium (Quaternary). Dissolved solids range from about 200 to 5,000 ppm. Many parts of the Wind River Irrigation Project have become waterlogged. The relation of drainage problems to geology and the character and thickness of rocks in the irrigated areas are partly defined by sections drawn on the basis of test drilling. The drainage-problem areas are classified according to geologic similarities into five general groups: flood plains, terraces, underfit-stream valleys, slopes, and transitional areas. Drainage can be improved by open drains, buried drains, relief wells, and pumped wells or by pumping from sumps or drains. The methods that will be most successful depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions. In several areas, the most effective means of relieving the drainage problem would be to reduce the amount of infiltration of water by lining canals and ditches and by reducing irrigation water applications to the optimum. Water from underground storage in alluvium could supplement water from surface storage in some areas. A few thousand acre-feet of water per square mile are in storage in some of the alluvium. The use of both surface and underground storage would reduce the need for additional surface-storage facilities and also would alleviate drainage problems in the irrigated areas.

McGreevy, Laurence J.; Hodson, Warren Gayler; Rucker, Samuel J., IV

1969-01-01

90

Rivers, re-entrants, and 3D variations in orogenic wedge development: a case study of the NW Indian Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orogenic wedges are standard elements of collisional plate tectonics, from accretionary prisms to retro-arc basins. Recent study of orogenic wedge development has focused on links between mechanisms of internal deformation and surface processes. Models of orogenic wedges are commonly presented in the cross-section plane, which is generally effective as wedges largely develop via plane strain. The 3rd dimension can be utilized to explore effects of differences in controlling parameters on wedge evolution. We are investigating a stretch of the western Himalayan orogenic wedge that has two prominent changes in along-strike morphology: (1) a tectonic window (the Kullu Window) that appears to be strongly influenced by erosion along the 3rd largest river in the Himalayan system, the Sutlej River and (2) the Kangra Re-entrant, the largest re-entrant along the Himalayan arc. In addition to the along-strike heterogeneity, a key advantage of the proposed study area is its rich stratigraphy, with the most known diversity in the Himalayan arc. The stratigraphic wealth, combined with the along-strike heterogeneity in exposure level, offers a high resolution view of regional structural geometry. Our preliminary reconstructions suggest that the Sutlej River erosion increases the exposure depth and shortening budget across a narrow segment of the orogen, strongly warping the Kullu Window. Previous models have suggested that the out-of-sequence Munsiari thrust is the main structure associated with Kullu window formation, while our work suggests that most of this uplift and warping is accomplished by antiformal stacking of basement thrust horses. Late Miocene ages (U-Pb ages of zircons and Th-Pb ages of monazites) from a leucogranite in the core of the Kullu Window along the Sutlej River further suggests that this segment of the orogen represents a middle ground between plane strain orogenic wedge development and a tectonic aneurysm model. We have constructed a palinspastic reconstruction across the salient to the southeast of the Kangra Re-entrant (revealing ~520 km of Cenozoic shortening from the core of the Tethyan Himalayan synclinorium to the Main Frontal thrust) as well as a deformed cross-section across and to the northeast of the Kangra Re-entrant. The divergence between these two sections develops at ~5 Ma, with less footwall accretion and more overthrusting along the Kangra Re-entrant section until at least ~1-2 Ma. We speculate that the primary cause of this difference is lateral strength variations in supracrustal Indian rocks being incorporated into the growing orogenic wedge. Ongoing research into the evolution of the orogenic wedge here includes low temperature thermochronology and the development of a three-dimensional palinspastic reconstruction using 3DMove software, which provides an opportunity to better harness stratigraphic and structural complexity in restorable models.

Webb, A. G.; Yu, H.; Hendershott, Z.

2010-12-01

91

Modeling hydrodynamics in the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional depth-averaged model for tide propagation is used to determine the respective impact of several forcings on water mass circulation in the Ebrié lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire). This lagoon is connected to the Atlantic through a narrow artificial channel and supplied with freshwater by a major river. A real tide is imposed at the seaward boundary through the main harmonic components. Tides propagate from the mouth of the channel. The tidal amplitude decreases with distance from the sea connection while the shallow water depth deforms the tidal wave. A large asymmetry in water circulation shows up throughout the lagoon: very limited to the western part of the lagoon, correlated with the freshwater discharge in the eastern part, fully tide-controlled in the central part. The trade winds (south-west direction) have been verified as an important driving force, acting in the whole lagoon and generating a set-up of the tide amplitude in the area of Abidjan harbour.

Brenon, I.; Mondé, S.; Pouvreau, N.; Maurin, J. C.

2004-06-01

92

Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.

NONE

1995-03-01

93

Freshwater inflows and seasonal forcing strongly influence macrofaunal assemblages in Mediterranean coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons of the Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain) are part of the Ebro Delta Natural Park managed by regional government authorities. Coastal lagoons have persistently received freshwater inputs from the Ebro River from May to November that have altered their natural ecology and hydrological cycle. In this study, we evaluate the seasonal effect of contrasting salinity regimes (polyhaline in the Tancada lagoon, mesohaline in the Encanyissada and oligohaline in the Clot lagoon) on the composition, abundance, species richness, alpha diversity and biomass of benthic macrofauna communities, and we assess the relative contribution of local environmental variables to the observed patterns. Additional sampling was conducted in the largest lagoon (Encanyissada) in order to assess variability at lower spatial scale. At both spatial scales (i.e., among-lagoon and within-lagoon), species richness and diversity tended to increase at higher salinities, particularly in summer. At the assemblage level, significantly different groupings were also found among lagoons and among zones of the Encanyissada lagoon, with more distinctive differences also in summer. Environmental factors accounted for up to 56-60% of the variation in macrofaunal assemblages at both spatial scales, with salinity and temperature accounting for the largest contributions (approx. 14% and 10%, respectively), whereas biomass was mostly controlled by temperature and nutrients. Distinctive oxygen and organic matter levels across the lagoons were also associated with the freshwater influx and displayed significant contributions to observed patterns. Our study shows that the low salinity regime and/or other factors related to long-term inputs of freshwater shape the community of macrofauna within the lagoons, a central trophic resource for most of the local species of fish and aquatic birds. Restoration of these systems to their natural hydrological functioning without further inputs of freshwater and higher marine connectivity is suggested as the more appropriate management.

Prado, Patricia; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles

2014-06-01

94

Current Patterns and the Distribution of Benthic Habitats in a Coastal Lagoon of Mauritius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceanography around Mauritius (in the Western Indian Ocean) remains largely unstudied, hence there is an acute scarcity of marine environmental data for management purposes. Rigorous water depth and current measurements were made on a system of grids inside Le Morne lagoon (in the south western part of Mauritius) in March–April 2000 to generate semi-quantitative models of general flow pattern

D. Daby

2006-01-01

95

Strontium isotopic-paleontological method as a high-resolution paleosalinity tool for lagoonal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined strontium isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) and paleontological method is newly applied to a modern lagoon in Egypt's Nile River delta to test its applicability as a paleosalinity proxy. Analyses of 22 surficial samples collected throughout the lagoon include 81 Sr isotopic analyses of mollusks, foraminifera, ostracods, barnacles, bryozoans, serpulid worm tubes, pore water, and gypsum crystals. Two salinity groups are distinguished in each sample: a lower salinity group (˜1 ppt) mixed with a higher salinity group (˜3 10 ppt) that, respectively, are interpreted as the modern biocoenosis and an older relict fauna. The relict fauna denotes higher salinity conditions in the lagoon prior to closure of the Aswan High Dam (1964), and the modern fauna records freshening of the lagoon. Recent decreased salinity is a response to regulated Nile River flow and increased discharge into Manzala of fresh water via canals and drains. Quantification of this short-term salinity change holds promise for study of modern lagoons in other world settings, and may provide paleoclimatic information for older lagoon sequences in the Nile River delta and the geologic record.

Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Stanley, Daniel Jean; Patterson, R. Timothy

1998-11-01

96

Late Holocene sedimentation in a high Arctic coastal setting: Simpson Lagoon and Colville Delta, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic coastal environments near major river outfalls, like Simpson Lagoon, Alaska and the adjacent Colville River Delta, potentially contain high-resolution sediment records useful in elucidating late Holocene Arctic sediment transport pathways and coupled terrestrial-ocean evidence of paleoclimate variability. This study utilizes a multi-tracer geochronology approach (137Cs, 239,240Pu, and 14C) tailored for high-latitude environments to determine the age models for cores collected from Simpson Lagoon, and to date seismic boundaries in shallow acoustic reflection data (CHIRP) to examine late Holocene infill patterns. Modern (~100 y) sediment accumulation rates range from <0.02 to 0.46±0.04 cm y-1, with a primary depocenter in western Simpson Lagoon adjacent to the Colville Delta and a secondary depocenter in eastern Simpson Lagoon. CHIRP reflectors, age-constrained by 14C analysis, reveal rapid late Holocene (0-3500 y BP) transgression consistent with high modern shoreline retreat rates. The western depocenter contains >5 m of late Holocene interbedded sediments, likely derived primarily from the Colville River, with onset of accumulation occurring prior to ~3500 y BP. A paleo-high in central Simpson Lagoon, separating the two depocenters, was subaerially exposed prior to ~600 y BP. The millimeters-per-year sedimentation rates across the lagoon, coupled with the undisturbed, interbedded sediment record, indicate that these settings hold great potential to develop new Arctic paleoenvironmental records.

Hanna, Andrea J. M.; Allison, Mead A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Marcantonio, Franco; Goff, John A.

2014-02-01

97

Variability of Organic Matter Processing in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of plant organic matter processing was studied experimentally in a shallow coastal lagoon (Tancada lagoon, average depth: 37 cm, area: 1.8 km2) in the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain). To determine the effect of hydrology and sediment characteristics on plant organic matter processing, leaves of Phragmites australis at the end of its vegetative cycle and whole plants of Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande, just abscised, were enclosed in litter bags. Two different mesh sizes (100 m and 2 mm) were used to study the effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition. The bags were placed in the water column and approximately 15 cm above the sediment at 6 different locations in the lagoon. The experiment was performed twice, in autumn-winter and spring-summer. The effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition rate was not significant in Tancada lagoon. Breakdown rates showed spatial differences only in spring-summer. In the autumn-winter experiment, the effect of strong wind masked the effects of environmental variables and hydrology on decomposition rate. In the spring-summer experiment, characterised by high stability of the water column, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration in the water column and organic matter in the sediment were the main factors determining the variability of organic matter processing. A positive relationship was calculated between P. australis decomposition rate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in spring-summer (r2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). (

Menéndez, Margarita; Hernández, Oliver; Sanmartí, Neus; Comín, Francisco A.

2004-11-01

98

Mercury methylation and demethylation in Hg-contaminated lagoon sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) transformation activities and sulfate (SO42-) reduction were studied in sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea region as part of the "MIRACLE" project. The lagoons, which are sites of clam (Tapes philippinarum) farming, have been receiving excess Hg from the Isonzo River for centuries. Marano Lagoon is also contaminated from a chlor-alkali plant. Radiotracer methods were used to measure mercury methylation (230Hg, 197Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation (14C-MeHg) and SO42- reduction (35S) in sediment cores collected in autumn, winter and summer. Mercury methylation rate constants ranged from near zero to 0.054 day-1, generally decreased with depth, and were highest in summer. Demethylation rate constants were much higher than methylation reaching values of ˜0.6 day-1 in summer. Demethylation occurred via the oxidative pathway, except in winter when the reductive pathway increased in importance in surficial sediments. Sulfate reduction was also most active in summer (up to 1600 nmol mL-1 day-1) and depth profiles reflected seasonally changing redox conditions near the surface. Methylation and demethylation rate constants correlated positively with SO42- reduction and pore-water Hg concentrations, and inversely with Hg sediment-water partition coefficients indicating the importance of SO42- reduction and Hg dissolution on Hg cycling. Hg transformation rates were calculated using rate constants and concentrations of Hg species. In laboratory experiments, methylation was inhibited by amendments of the SO42--reduction inhibitor molybdate and by nitrate. Lagoon sediments displayed a dynamic seasonal cycle in which Hg dissolution in spring/summer stimulated Hg methylation, which was followed by a net loss of MeHg in autumn from demethylation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) tended to be responsible for methylation of Hg and the oxidative demethylation of MeHg. However, during winter in surficial sediments, iron-reducing bacteria seemed to contribute to methylation and Hg-resistant bacteria increased in importance in the reductive demethylation of MeHg. The high rates of MeHg demethylation in lagoon sediments may diminish the accumulation of MeHg.

Hines, Mark E.; Poitras, Erin N.; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Emili, Andrea; Žižek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena

2012-11-01

99

Swine lagoon biogas utilization system  

SciTech Connect

A project was conceived to design and build a system to recover methane from pig manure with covered anaerobic lagoon technology. Covered lagoon technology lends itself both to new lagoon construction and to retrofit designs on existing anaerobic lagoons. A two cell passive in-ground digester/lagoon system was designed for a 600 sow feeder pig farm. The digester was covered with a flexible fabric cover made of 30 mil XR-5. The biogas has 1,100 ppm hydrogen sulfide. For the first month of operation 473 cubic feet of biogas per hour has been recovered from the digester 24 hours per day. At this gas flow the engine turns an induction generator to produce 17.1 KW per hour. A little over 80% of the farm`s electrical needs are generated with methane from swine manure. On an annual basis there will be 150,000 KWh of electricity produced from 4.3 million cubic feet of biogas.

Gettier, S.W.; Roberts, M. [Carroll`s Foods of Va., Inc., Waverly, VA (United States)

1994-12-31

100

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K takes you on a trip down Idaho's Snake River near 1000 Springs and Blur Heart Springs while it explains how rivers are formed, their uses, and how they make valleys, canyons and even plains.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-04

101

Development of spit-lagoon complexes in response to Little Ice Age rapid sea-level changes in the central Guilan coast, South Caspian Sea, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Guilan coast along the Iranian Caspian coastline is characterized by sandy beaches and the development of spit-lagoon complexes, which are prone to preserve past sea-level fluctuations. The morphology of three spit-lagoon complexes along the central Guilan coast was studied using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and sediment sequences to understand the effects of past sea-level changes on spit-lagoon development. The results showed the prominent role of coastal setting in conditioning the development of spit-lagoon formation in response to sea-level change. When the Caspian Sea experienced a highstand in the Little Ice Age, the coast of central Guilan recorded fluctuations in sedimentation which are reflected, for example, by river avulsion and beach ridge formation depending on physical setting. In the western half of the central Guilan, eastward longshore currents and strong wave action on a W-E coastline coupled with sea-level changes shaped the Anzali spit-lagoon complex; while in the eastern part of the studied area river avulsion and changing the coastline orientation are responsible for development of the Amirkola and Kiashahr spit-lagoon complexes under the same sea-level fluctuations. Although sea-level change has a major role in spit-lagoon development, an increase in the frequency of storms, changes in sediment supply due to more precipitation, and river avulsion are other players in spit-lagoon development in the central Guilan during the Little Ice Age and more recent times.

Naderi Beni, A.; Lahijani, H.; Moussavi Harami, R.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Shah-Hosseini, M.; Kabiri, K.; Tavakoli, V.

2013-04-01

102

77 FR 3241 - Intent To Hold North Dakota Task Force Meeting as Established by the Missouri River Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Missouri River watershed, control and remove sediment from the Missouri River, protect recreation on the Missouri River from sedimentation, and protect Indian and non-Indian historical and cultural sites along the Missouri River from erosion. DATES:...

2012-01-23

103

Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU

D. J. Altman; K. H. Lombard; T. C. Hazen

1997-01-01

104

Ecological risk assessment of pesticide residues in coastal lagoons of Nicaragua.  

PubMed

A detailed investigation on the contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphorous pesticides of the coastal lagoon system of Chinandega district, Nicaragua, allowed the identification of contaminant sources and lagoon areas currently more contaminated. The discharge of rivers into the lagoons is the main transport pathway of pesticide residues; whereas atmospheric depositions are likely to be the main pathway for the introduction of PCBs into the lagoons. Analysis of water samples indicates widespread contamination with soluble organophosphorous compounds, such as dichlorvos, up to 410 ng L(-1), diazinon, up to 150 ng L(-1), and chlorpyrifos, up to 83 ng L(-1). Analyses of suspended matter for low solubility organochlorine (OC) compounds revealed very high concentrations of toxaphene, up to 17,450 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), total DDTs up to 478 ng g(-1), Aroclor 1254, up to 119 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations for other compounds. Lagoon sediments contain high concentrations also of toxaphene, from 7.9 to 6,900 ng g(-1) (dw), and DDTs, from 1.5 to 321 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations of chlorpyrifos, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane and other residues. Concentrations of OCs in soft tissues of clams are statistically correlated with the concentrations of the same compounds in bottom sediments, indicating that sediments are a source of contaminants to biota. In some areas of the lagoon system, concentration of residues in sediments are far above recommended threshold guideline values for protection of aquatic life, and may cause acute and chronic toxic effects on more sensitive aquatic species. Despite the ban on the use of toxaphene and DDT, residues of these compounds are still entering the lagoons due to erosion of, and leaching from, agriculture soils in the region. Measures for protection of the lagoon ecosystem are discussed. PMID:12400931

Carvalho, Fernando P; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cattini, Chantal; Tolosa, Immaculada; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Lacayo, Martha; Cruz, Adela

2002-10-01

105

The United States and the Betrayal of Indian Water Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are (1) the effects of the Reclamation Projects upon the American Indians and non-Indians and of the power plants upon the Indians; and (2) the implications of the Winters Doctrine, the Eagle River Decision, the trustee-client relationship between the Indians of the United States and the National Water Commission Report. (NQ)

Martone, Rosalie

1974-01-01

106

Estrogenic potential of the Venice, Italy, lagoon waters.  

PubMed

The exposure of the Venice lagoon (Italy) to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) from different sources was investigated. Spatial and time distribution of EDC concentrations were determined in four sampling sessions (December 2001-May 2002) by solid phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with mass spectrometry detection via electrospray interface (SPE-HPLC-ESI-MS), which allowed identification of natural (estradiol, estrone) and synthetic estrogenic compounds, both steroidal (ethinylestradiol, mestranol) and nonsteroidal (benzophenone, bisphenol-A, nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate carboxylate). No significant differences in the EDC distribution were observed between stations located near selected sources (raw sewage from the historical center of Venice, treated municipal and industrial effluents from sewage treatment plants, and areas undergoing the inflow of rivers). While synthetic nonsteroidal analytes were recorded in the 1 to 1040 ng/L range (average concentration: 34 ng/L), steroidal EDC (estradiol, ethinylestradiol) concentrations were lower (1-125 ng/L; average concentration: 8 ng/L). The estrogenic activity of lagoon waters was estimated in terms of estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQ) by applying the estradiol equivalency factors (EEFs). Steroidal EDCs (estradiol, ethinylestradiol) contributed >97% to the total potential estrogenicity of the waters, which accounted for 4 to 172 ng/L (average: 25 ng/L), as total EEQs. These levels are likely to pose adverse effects on the Venice lagoon aquatic organisms. PMID:15352475

Pojana, Giulio; Bonfà, Angela; Busetti, Francesco; Collarin, Anna; Marcomini, Antonio

2004-08-01

107

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EXISTING LAGOONS, PETERBOROUGH, NEW HAMPSHIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

Although wastewater treatment lagoons are used extensively, little operational data is currently available for evaluating the performance capabilities of lagoons. This report presents data gathered during a one-year period of monitoring the lagoon system at Peterborough, New Hamp...

108

Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for

J Kammerbauer; J Moncada

1998-01-01

109

Styles of lode gold mineralization contributing to the placers of the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, Yukon Territory, Canada as deduced from microchemical characterization of placer gold grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1978 and 2009, approximately 430,000 oz of placer gold were obtained from the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, which equates to roughly 20% of the production for the entire Yukon Territory during that period. The area is unglaciated, exposure is poor, and there are few known lode gold occurrences present. The technique of microchemical characterization of placer gold grains has been applied to illuminate the style(s) of source mineralization and their relationship to placer gold from the Klondike gold district immediately to the north. A total of 2,613 placer gold grains from 22 localities were characterised in terms of the Au, Ag, Cu, and Hg content of their alloy and associated suite of opaque mineral inclusions. A combination of alloy and inclusion mineralogy was used to define gold signatures which augmented the previous classification of orogenic gold in the Klondike. Gold type 3b (8-25% Ag) is the main component of the placers in lower Dominion Creek but is augmented and eventually replaced by type 3a gold (10-40% Ag) in placers in the main Indian River valley, probably through erosion of gold-bearing veins in the valley floor. Type 4 gold exhibits highly variable Ag which may contain Hg to a maximum of 11 wt.%. This gold type also hosts a distinctive inclusion assemblage of complex polymetallic sulphides, tellurides, sulfotellurides, and sulfosalts and has previously been ascribed to local low sulfidation epithermal mineralization. Placer gold in drainages radiating from Eureka Dome exhibits various proportions of types 3 and 4 gold depending on location, but type 3 gold forms the major component in Black Hills Creek and northerly flowing tributaries of the Indian River with the exception of Eureka and Montana creeks. Type 5 gold is found only in placers in the middle and lower Indian River. It is distinguished by slightly elevated (0.05-0.17%) Cu in the gold alloy, together with low (5-9%) Ag contents. Inclusions of Bi minerals, Cr-bearing magnetite and molybdenite within type 5 gold suggest derivation from an intrusion-related source. Candidates for such a source include undiscovered lode occurrences associated with Cretaceous age intrusions to the south of the Indian River, or deformed Cu-Au (-Mo) porphyry occurrences which are known to be present in the same area. This analysis of placer gold has indicated that the contribution of low sulfidation epithermal gold from Eureka Creek to the larger placers of the Indian River is minor. Consequently, the placer gold inventory of the Indian River is primarily orogenic in origin. Similarly, the characterization of placer gold in Blackhills Creek strongly suggests an orogenic source. This study has demonstrated for the first time that orogenic lode gold mineralization extends a considerable distance to the south of the southern Klondike goldfield. This information contributes to the regional models of gold mineralization in an area which is currently the focus of intensive exploration.

Chapman, Robert John; Mortensen, James Keith; Lebarge, William P.

2011-12-01

110

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2011-10-01

111

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2014-10-01

112

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2010-10-01

113

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2013-10-01

114

50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a...must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian tribe's treaty fishing places...

2012-10-01

115

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features pages to more than twenty NASA radar images of the world's major river systems. The image pages contain a brief description of the respective processes and setting, and are available for download. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing.

Rich Pavlovsky

116

INTRODUCTION The lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Lamel-  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION The lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Lamel- libranchia: Cardiidae) is a euryhaline that the main limiting abiotic factor for this cockle was its intolerance to air exposure provoked by tides exposed to tides, currents and waves (Brock 1979). The pelagic larval stage of the lagoon cockle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

THE PALAEARCTIC WADER POPULATION OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pringle, J. S. & Cooper, J. 1975. The Palaearctic wader population of Langebaan Lagoon. Ostrich 46:213-218.Monthly counts of Palaearctic waders were made at high tide in three areas of Langebaan Lagoon, southwestern Cape, during 1973 and 1974. A total of sixteen species was observed. The five commonest species, in order of abundance, were Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Grey Plover Squalarola

J. S. Pringle; J. Cooper

1975-01-01

118

Rare charophytes in Scotland's coastal saline lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently collected data comparing the distribution and performance of the rare lagoonal charophyte Lamprothamnium papulosum across a number of UK coastal lagoon sites, including nine sites in the Western Isles, is presented. The surveys revealed that the species occurred over a wide range of salinities but was absent from sites with high phosphorus concentrations. The sites in the Western Isles

Ainsley Martin; Laurence Carvalho; Alexander J. Downie

2002-01-01

119

Origin and transport of terrestrial organic matter from the Oder lagoon to the Arkona Basin, Southern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the origin and the transport of terrestrial organic matter from the River Oder to sediments in the Pomeranian Bight (Southern Baltic Sea) by using lignin as a molecular tracer. Approximately 40% of the organic carbon in Pomeranian Bight sediments are land-derived and the contribution of Oder lagoon organic carbon does not decrease significantly with increasing distance to land.

Anja Miltner; Kay-Christian Emeis

2000-01-01

120

The water quality of the Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal: from the observations to the implementation of a numerical model.  

PubMed

Ria de Aveiro is a very important area of the Portuguese coast, which has been under an increasing anthropogenic pressure for several decades and, contributes to the degradation of the lagoon's water quality. This work presents both a characterisation of the water quality of the Ria de Aveiro lagoon, using physical, chemical and biological experimental data, and an implementation of a numerical model for the water quality of the lagoon. The ultimate goal is to obtain an accurate numerical model able to simulate major water quality features of the lagoon under the influence of different forcing conditions. Data analysis reveals good correlations between the salinity and almost all the water quality variables as well as between the different variables. The maximum biochemical oxygen demand concentration (BOD) depends on the light intensity, the temperature and the river inputs. The main vulnerable areas of the lagoon, from the water quality point of view, seem to be the far end of the main channels, where low dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) and high BOD concentrations are observed. The numerical model of the Ria de Aveiro has reproduced both winter-spring and spring-summer events related to the lagoon water quality as well as its main pattern. Both data and modelling results show that the BOD5 concentrations (where the subscript '5' means that the BOD measurements were conducted for five days, without inhibitor of nitrification) are driven by the river influence, during the winter-spring period, and by the biological activity during the spring-summer period. The DO concentrations show high values in the spring-summer period and smaller concentrations in the winter-spring period at the far end of the lagoon. The application of the model to the study of scenarios has demonstrated the role of nutrients and light in the phytoplankton growth, the relationship between DO and phytoplankton concentrations, as well as the effect of the BOD degradation in the ammonia (NH4) regeneration. PMID:15996728

Lopes, J F; Dias, J M; Cardoso, A C; Silva, C I V

2005-12-01

121

The Kayapo Indians Struggle in Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article addresses how the livelihood of the Kayapo Indians is threatened by: revived plans for several hydroelectric dams along the Xingu River, increased pollution from agricultural runoff, and the illegal invasion of territorial lands.

Ava Goodale (Cornell University;)

2004-01-01

122

Land application of poultry lagoon effluent  

E-print Network

This research studied the effects of three poultry lagoon effluent application rates on two Sol 'I types and two vegetation systems. The purpose of this research was to determine the environmental impacts from the land application of effluent from...

Aldrich, Lance John

1996-01-01

123

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.  

PubMed

A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3 ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6 ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109 ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

2014-07-15

124

Spatial Distribution and Ecophysiological Characteristics of Macrophytes in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution biomass and photosynthesis of three species of rooted macrophytes, Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande, Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Zostera noltii Hornem and a floating macroalga Chaetomorpha linum Kütz, were studied in Buda lagoon (River Ebro delta, NE Spain) during spring (May), summer (July) and autumn (October) 1995. Buda lagoon was characterized by a marked gradient of conductivity due to freshwater discharges from rice fields from June to October and by seawater input due to the regression of the delta of the River Ebro during the last 10 years. A typical spatial distribution was observed: monospecific stands of P. pectinatus developed near freshwater inputs in the inner part of the lagoon and mixed stands of R. cirrhosa and P. pectinatus developed in transitional zones between freshwater and seawater influence. The part of the lagoon where the influence of seawater was highest was covered by dense mixed stands of Z. noltii, R. cirrhosa and C. linum. Maximum biomass and production of P. pectinatus were reached in July (biomass of 501 gDW m -2, and maximum photosynthetic rates, Pm, of 14 mgO 2 g -1 DW h -1 ). Maximum biomass of R. cirrhosa and Z. noltii (456·5 and 250 gDW m -2 respectively) and photosynthetic rate of R. cirrhosa (23·9 mgO 2 g -1DW h -1) occurred in May, whereas no significant differences in production were detected between May and July in Z. noltii. Maximum C. linum production was reached in October (5·4 mgO 2 g -1DW h -1). In October P. pectinatus coverage and production decreased, which was related to high turbidity and density of benthivorous fish due to freshwater inflows. Implications of lower freshwater inflow and higher seawater intrusion in the spatial distribution of aquatic macrophytes in this coastal lagoon are discussed.

Menéndez, M.; Hernandez, O.; Comin, F. A.

2002-09-01

125

How to Love Your LagoonHow to Love Your Lagoon Educate Yourself  

E-print Network

(IRLNEP) is to protect this ecologically significant estuary that is threatened by degradation caused quality of life, the unique nature of this biodiverse estuary and the interconnectedness of the lagoon a boat or a paddleboard and enjoy the most biodiverse estuary in North America! Enjoy Your Lagoon #12

Fernandez, Eduardo

126

The fate of Mediterranean lagoons under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model (SHYFEM) has been applied to 10 Mediterranean lagoons and a comparison study between the lagoons has been carried out. The lagoons are the lagoons of Venice, Marano-Grado, Varano and Lesina in the Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras lagoon in Sardinia, and the lagoons of Ganzirri and Faro in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain and the Nador lagoon in Morocco. These lagoons give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. The lagoons range from a leaky type of lagoons to a choked type. The number of inlets ranges from just one in the Nador lagoon to 6 in the case of the Marano-Grado lagoons. Tidal range is from nano-tidal to micro-tidal. The depth ranges from an average depth of 1 m to up to 40 meters. The model is a finite element model, especially suited to shallow water basins with complicated geometric and morphologic variations. The model can compute the basic hydrodynamics, dispersion of tracers, temperature and salinity evolution, sediment transport and ecological parameters. Building on an earlier study that focused on the classification of Mediterranean lagoons based on hydrodynamics, exchange rates and renewal time, this study is concerned with the changes in physical parameters under climate change. Data from IPCC has been used to simulate the changes in renewal time, salinity and temperature of all lagoons, with respect to the control simulation. Whenever possible downscaled data for the Mediterranean basin have been used. Sea level rise scenarios are taken from the last IPCC report. The model has been applied in its 3D version and the chosen setup allows a comparison between results in the different lagoons. Results indicate that the differences of renewal time between all studied lagoons become smaller. This means that leaky lagoons become less leaky and choked lagoons less choked. What concerns temperature and salinity, changes occurring in the sea are amplified inside lagoons. All lagoons show an increase of temperature higher than the one found outside in the sea. Salinity changes are also enhanced. This study shows how numerical modeling can be a useful tool to study the hydrodynamic changes forecasted to happen in transitional water bodies like lagoons.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Bellafiore, Debora; Bajo, Marco

2014-05-01

127

2014-2015 HUNTING GUIDE TO INDIAN BAYOU WELCOME TO INDIAN BAYOU  

E-print Network

of the Atchafalaya River. Indian Bayou is located in the heart of the Atchafalaya Basin and offers some of the finest of management under an antler restriction for white-tailed deer. It is your responsibility to know the hunting

US Army Corps of Engineers

128

Indian Legends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

129

Phytoplankton variation and its relation to nutrients and allochthonous organic matter in a coastal lagoon on the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In tropical and subtropical zones, coastal lagoons are surrounded by mangrove communities which are a source of high quantity organic matter that enters the aquatic system through litter fall. This organic matter decomposes, becoming a source of nutrients and other substances such as tannins, fulvic acids and humic acids that may affect the composition and productivity of phytoplankton communities. Sontecomapan is a coastal lagoon located in the southern Gulf of Mexico, which receives abundant litter fall from mangrove. To study the phytoplankton composition and its variation in this lagoon from October 2002 to October 2003, we evaluated the concentrations of dissolved folin phenol active substances (FPAS) as a measure of plant organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH, O 2, N-NH 4+, N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-, Si-SiO 2, and phytoplanktonic cell density in different mangrove influence zones including the three main rivers that feed the lagoon. Nutrients concentrations depended on freshwater from rivers, however these varied seasonally. Concentrations of P-PO 43-, N-NH 4+ and FPAS were the highest in the dry season, when maximum mangrove litter fall is reported. Variation of these nutrients seemed to depend on the internal biogeochemical processes of the lagoon. Blooms of diatoms ( Skeletonema spp., Cyclotella spp. and Chaetoceros holsaticus) and dinoflagellates ( Peridinium aff. quinquecorne, Prorocentrum cordatum) occurred seasonally and in the different mangrove influence zones. The high cell densities in these zones and the occurrence of certain species and its ordination along gradient of FPAS in a canonical correspondence analysis, suggest that plant organic matter (i.e. mangrove influence) may contribute to phytoplankton dynamics in Sontecomapan lagoon.

Aké-Castillo, José A.; Vázquez, Gabriela

2008-07-01

130

Accuracy of lagoon gas emissions using an inverse dispersion method  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions. These include those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish ...

131

DECAY OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER LAGOONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Estrogenic activity of wastewater held in municipal lagoons was monitored over an ~ three month period, using the MCF-7 cell line in a modified E-screen. One lagoon was emptied and refilled with fresh wastewater effluent over a one month period to reach levels equivalent to a second lagoon that had...

132

PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactivation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. ach lagoon was filled with 7.56 m3 of anaerob...

133

Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons.  

PubMed

Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low ?g/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river. PMID:23314119

Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Kelly, Walton R

2013-02-15

134

Diabetic Nephropathy in American Indians, with a Special Emphasis on the Pima Indians  

PubMed Central

Diabetes affects American Indians disproportionately compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the United States and is almost exclusively type 2 diabetes. Much of our knowledge about diabetes in American Indians comes from studies in a few tribes. The most extensively studied American Indians are the Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, who participated in a longitudinal study of diabetes and its complications between 1965 and 2007. They have one of the highest reported incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the world, and kidney disease attributable to diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In this article, we examine the course, determinants, and trends of diabetic kidney disease in American Indians, with special emphasis on studies conducted in the Pima Indians. We also review therapeutic strategies for managing diabetic kidney disease. PMID:18990306

Pavkov, Meda E.; Knowler, William C.; Hanson, Robert L.; Nelson, Robert G.

2012-01-01

135

Exploring new issues for coastal lagoons monitoring and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons are productive and highly vulnerable ecosystems, but their management is still problematic mostly because they constitute transitional interface between terrestrial and marine domains. The "4th European Conference on Coastal Lagoon Research - Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems, South North comparisons", was focused on the scientific research on coastal lagoons and the management for their conservation and sustainable use. Selected contributions were considered in this special issue of Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science "Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems" as they deal with three important aspects for coastal lagoons management: (1) the design of monitoring programmes using biological compartments, (2) the ecosystem functioning and the impacts of perturbations and (3) ecosystem trajectories particularly after ecosystem restoration. Here we introduce the selected papers published in this issue, place these contributions in the perspective of the science-management interface and discuss new issues for coastal lagoon management.

Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; De Wit, Rutger

2012-12-01

136

Mercury in the sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea): Sources, distribution and speciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 ?g g-1) to west (0.7 ?g g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (<16 ?m), as a consequence of transport and dispersion from the fluvial source through littoral and tidal currents. However, speciation analyses highlighted the presence of Hg sulphides in the coarse sandy fraction of sediments from the eastern area, as expected given the origin of the sedimentary material. Unlike Hg, the distribution of MeHg (0.47-7.85 ng g-1) does not show a clear trend. MeHg constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably good correlation between MeHg normalized to humic acid (HA) content and humic ?13C indicates that MeHg is preferentially associated with autochthonous ?13C-enriched HAs in lagoon surface sediments, suggesting that the structure of "marine" HAs, less refractory and less aromatic, could favor MeHg binding and/or production. In the context of the potential hazard of Hg and MeHg accumulation in reared clams, the choice of a site for the extension of farming activities inside the Marano and Grado Lagoon is dependent on several factors and cannot be decided solely on the basis of the total Hg content in the sediment.

Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Berto, Daniela; Faganeli, Jadran; Giani, Michele; Horvat, Milena; Koron, Neža; Rampazzo, Federico

2012-11-01

137

Mercury Concentrations in Coastal Sediment from Younger Lagoon, Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Younger Lagoon Reserve, located in northern Monterey Bay, is one of the few relatively undisturbed wetlands that remain along the Central Coast of California. This lagoon system provides protected habitat for more than 100 bird species and for populations of fish, mammals, and invertebrates. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations in water within Younger Lagoon appear to vary with rainfall conditions and range from about 5-15 pM. These concentrations are similar to HgT in water from six nearby lagoon systems. However, Younger Lagoon contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (~1 mM) and monomethylmercury (MMHg, ~1 pM) relative to our comparison lagoon sites (DOC < 0.5 mM and MMHg < 0.5 pM). We attribute Younger Lagoon's high DOC and MMHg to its restricted connection to the ocean and minor riverine contribution. Coastal lagoons in this region typically form at the mouth of streams. They behave as small estuaries during the wet season when surface water discharge keeps the mouth of the stream open to the ocean, and then transition into lagoons in the dry season when a sand berm develops and effectively cuts off surface water exchange. At Younger Lagoon, the sand berm remains intact throughout the year, breaching only during particularly high tides or intense rain events. Therefore, the lagoon's connection to nearshore seawater is primarily via surface water - groundwater interaction through the sand berm. Because Younger Lagoon is largely isolated from a surface water connection with the ocean, runoff from upgradient urban and agricultural land has an enhanced impact on water (and presumably sediment) quality. As a result, the lagoon is eutrophic and experiences annual algal blooms. Groundwater surveys suggest surface water, groundwater, and coastal seawater are hydraulically connected at Younger Lagoon, and mixing among these water masses appears to influence water geochemistry. To date, no chemical analyses have been conducted on sediment from Younger Lagoon. To address this data gap we collected sediment samples during a February 2013 field campaign. One set of sediment samples is from the bottom of the lagoon along a transect perpendicular to the shoreline and another set is from an approximately 1 m depth profile on the lagoon side of the sand berm (depth of the groundwater table at the time of collection). These samples are being analyzed for HgT, MMHg, and total organic carbon (TOC) and will provide a first glimpse into the distribution of mercury species and organic carbon in sediments from the Younger Lagoon Reserve. We will also collect and analyze sediment samples from another lagoon site with comparable watershed characteristics.

Hohn, R. A.; Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Richardson, C. M.; Merckling, J.; Johnson, C.; Flegal, A. R.

2013-12-01

138

Seasonal change in a filter-feeding bivalve Musculista senhousia population of a eutrophic estuarine lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filter-feeding bivalves often predominate the benthic biomass of estuaries, although their population size may drastically fluctuate due to physical and biological disturbances. To examine the recovery of a mussel population after periods of severe predation and anoxia, and to estimate the amount of nutrients removed from the system through mussel production, we surveyed, over 2 years, the Musculista senhousia population in the estuarine lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan. Predation by diving ducks ( Aythya fuligula, Aythya ferina and Aythya marila) during winter dramatically reduced the mussel biomass in both years, but recruitment of juvenile mussels sustained the population. Anoxia during the second summer severely reduced the mussel population, resulting in less biomass than in the autumn of the previous year. Potential annual removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the lagoon water through burial of M. senhousia shells under oxic conditions was estimated to be 7.1 and 5.1 tons, respectively. These are equivalent to 0.7% and 4.9% of the nitrogen and phosphorous annual load entering the lagoon via the main river. Under anoxic conditions, removal would decrease to only 5.6% of the potential amount.

Yamamuro, Masumi; Hiratsuka, Jun'ichi; Ishitobi, Yu

2000-10-01

139

Spatial and seasonal variation of water quality in an impacted coastal lagoon (Obidos Lagoon, Portugal).  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of silicate, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen in Obidos lagoon was obtained by surveying five sites in eight campaigns, between October 2004 and October 2006. A confined inner branch of the lagoon showed higher availability of ammonium (1.2-81 micromol l(-1)), phosphate (1.9-17 micromol l(-1)), silicate (0.85-86 micromol l(-1)) and chlorophyll a (0.30-18 microg l(-1)) than other sites (0.47-25 micromol l(-1), 0.10-3.9 micromol l(-1), 0.47-25 micromol l(-1), 0.25-11 microg l(-1), respectively). According to several trophic classification tools, that branch is considered eutrophic to polytrophic, emphasising its deteriorated conditions, while the rest of the lagoon is of better quality. In autumn/winter nutrients were inversely correlated to salinity (r > 0.93) reflecting the freshwater inputs enriched in nitrogen and phosphorous compounds to the inner branch. In warmer periods, dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped during the night, and sediments of the branch become an important source of ammonium and phosphate. The low DIN:P ratio (median = 10) obtained in the branch, which suggests an excess of phosphate, that increased in warmer periods and changed the limiting nutrient in the entire lagoon. These results emphasize the spatial heterogeneity of water quality in Obidos lagoon, its seasonal variability, and the importance of recognising these distributions before defining homogenous water body on the scope of Water Framework Directive. PMID:18512123

Pereira, Patrícia; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Franco, Vanda; Nogueira, Marta

2009-06-01

140

Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon  

SciTech Connect

The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

1997-03-31

141

Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon (KDL), which is located at the southwest of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet and dry season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl-) and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater). Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (>95%) was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to salt water intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify contributions of different water sources in the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon which is a highly dynamic and heterogeneous groundwater dependent ecosystem.

Stumpp, C.; Ekdal, A.; Gönenc, I. E.; Maloszewski, P.

2014-07-01

142

Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan lagoon (KDL), which is located at the south-west of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet- and dry-season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl-) and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater). Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (> 95%) was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to saltwater intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify highly dynamic and heterogeneous contributions of different water sources in the Köycegiz-Dalyan lagoon.

Stumpp, C.; Ekdal, A.; Gönenc, I. E.; Maloszewski, P.

2014-12-01

143

Bioaccumulation of mercury in reared and wild Ruditapes philippinarum of a Mediterranean lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marano and Grado lagoon, one of the largest wetlands in the Mediterranean Sea, has been subject to mercury contamination by industrial and mining activities. This must be considered a severe threat for Manila clam harvesting, which is an important fishing and commercial activity in the area. Contamination levels and potential risk for human consumption both in reared and wild clams collected from the lagoon were assessed by analyzing total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contents. In addition, relationships between THg and MeHg in sediments and in the bivalves were investigated. Increased bioaccumulation of THg but not of MeHg with increasing size of wild clam populations was observed at most sites. Higher concentrations both of THg (605 ± 210 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (147 ± 37 ng g-1 ww) were detected in the eastern lagoon where the highest THg contents in sediments were observed as a consequence of the long-term supply of cinnabar rich suspended material from the Isonzo river. The variation of Hg content in seeded Manila clams during growth was monitored over a period of 18 months at two sites of the western sector of the lagoon. Results showed that the two areas were suitable for clam farming, with THg levels in reared bivalves always lower than the 0.5 mg kg-1 ww European Community limit. At the same time, as clams grew bigger in size, their THg and MeHg concentrations decreased, becoming lower than in the starting seeded pool. Reared clams presented lower THg (84 ± 55 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (44.1 ± 24.6 ng g-1 ww) content than wild clams of the same commercial size (>30 mm). Based on a precautionary approach, intake of Hg and MeHg with the estimated clam consumption does not seem to constitute a risk for human health in the studied area.

Giani, Michele; Rampazzo, Federico; Berto, Daniela; Maggi, Chiara; Mao, Andrea; Horvat, Milena; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano

2012-11-01

144

Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons. (USGS)

Bobay, K.E.

1988-01-01

145

Tracing endocrine disrupting chemicals in a coastal lagoon (Sacca di Goro, Italy): Sediment contamination and bioaccumulation in Manila clams.  

PubMed

The Water Framework Directive, recently amended with new priority substances (2013/39/EU), is meant to regulate the health status of European aquatic environments, including transitional waters. Despite the ecological and economic importance of transitional water bodies and, in particular, of coastal lagoons, a relevant example of this type of environments, little is known about their contamination by priority substances, particularly by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, a wide array of priority substances, all with recognised disrupting properties, was investigated in the Sacca di Goro Lagoon (Adriatic Sea, Italy), which receives freshwater from the Po River after draining the most urbanised and industrialised Italian regions. Flame retardants, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, natural and synthetic steroids, personal care products and legacy pollutants were investigated both in sediments and in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum collected from three sites in the lagoon. Sediments showed that most of the chemicals analysed could reach the lagoon ecosystem but their concentrations were below existing quality guidelines. Clams essentially reflected this condition although some concern was raised by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): the limit for the sum of six congeners set for biota in the European Directive (2013/39/EU) to protect human health was exceeded 4-5 times. No significant biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were calculated. Nonylphenol, tonalide, PBDE, polychlorinated biphenyls and bisphenol A were the most abundant chemicals in clam tissues. PMID:25546459

Casatta, Nadia; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Roscioli, Claudio; Viganò, Luigi

2015-04-01

146

Indian Podophyllum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Indian Podophyllum is very rich in a resin of cathartic action, it has been the subject of several botanical, chemical\\u000a and pharmacological investigations, and has been admitted to the British Pharmacopoeia but not yet to that of the United States.

Ramgopal Chatterjee

1952-01-01

147

Indian Orphanages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

Holt, Marilyn Irvin

148

Genetic divergence in natural populations of bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Osteoglossiformes: Notopteridae) from five Indian rivers, analyzed through mtDNA ATPase6/8 regions?  

PubMed Central

The present study characterized 842 bp fragment of mitochondrial ATP synthase 6 and 8 (ATPase6/8) genes in Notopterus notopterus. In all, 97 samples of N. notopterus were collected from five distant rivers; viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi representing 4 river basins in India. The analysis of variation revealed presence of 23 haplotypes in ATPase6/8 gene with haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.899 and nucleotide diversity (?) of 0.00336. The within population variation which was 41.78% of the total variation of 58.22% was found among population. The Fst value of 0.582 (P < 0.05) of the total population was found significant. The results concluded that the polymorphism in ATPase6/8 gene is a potential marker that is important for determining genetic divergence of wild N. notopterus populations. The findings reveal common ancestry of mahanadi population with the populations in rivers of Indo-Gangetic region. However, long evolutionary isolation must be responsible for the high genetic divergence between N. notopterus in Mahanadi and other regions. PMID:25606374

Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K.; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K.; Punia, Peyush; Dwivedi, Arvind K.; Gupta, B.K.; Luhariya, Rupesh K.; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R.M.; Jena, J.K.

2013-01-01

149

1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

150

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2012-10-01

151

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2013-10-01

152

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2010-10-01

153

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2014-10-01

154

43 CFR 417.5 - Duties of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs with respect to Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROCEDURAL METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTING COLORADO RIVER WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES WITH LOWER BASIN CONTRACTORS AND OTHERS...water users on said Indian Reservations concerning water conservation measures and operating practices in the...

2011-10-01

155

Wyoming Indians, Unit II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the land.…

Robinson, Terry

156

The Role of Terrestrial Inputs of Organic Matter in Arctic Lagoons: Comparative Studies from Open-Water and Ice-Covered Periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems of the Arctic receive extraordinarily large quantities of terrestrial organic matter through river discharge and shoreline erosion. This organic matter, both in dissolved and particulate form, may provide an important carbon and energy subsidy that supports and maintains heterotrophic activity and food webs in coastal waters, especially in the lagoons. Recent food web studies using stable isotopes confirm the significant assimilation of terrestrial organic matter, based on the depletion in both 13C and 15N content of invertebrate and vertebrate consumers collected in eastern Beaufort Sea lagoons vs. offshore waters. Our current work specifically focuses on a set of 12 field sites along the eastern Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast, from Barter Island to Demarcation Bay. To examine linkages between biological communities and organic matter inputs from land, we compared sites ranging from lagoons to open coastal systems that receive differing amounts of freshwater runoff and also differ markedly in their exchange characteristics with shelf waters. Our temporal and spatial effort included field sampling during the ice covered period in a number of lagoons characterized by differences in their exchange characteristics with the nearshore shelf. Our preliminary chemical and biological measurements, the first of their kind in arctic coastal lagoons, reveal that lagoon benthos can become hypersaline (43) and net heterotrophic (values to 30% oxygen saturation) during winter, before rebounding during the period of ice break-up to net autotrophic (>100% saturation) under continued hypersaline conditions. Measurements of water and sediment chemistry, benthic and water column community characteristics, and natural abundance isotopic tracers promise to reveal the dynamic nature of these productive lagoon ecosystems under different hydrologic conditions. The possible role of terrestrially derived carbon to arctic estuarine food webs is especially important in view of the current warming trend in the arctic environment and the role of advective processes that transport carbon along the nearshore shelf.

Dunton, K. H.; McClelland, J. W.; Connelly, T.; Linn, S.; Khosh, M.

2012-12-01

157

Trust and Survival: "AWOL Hunkpapa Indian Family Prisoners of War at Fort Sully, 1890-1891"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hundred twenty five Hunkpapa Indians fled from the Grand River Camp on the Standing Rock Reservation to the Cheyenne River Reservation to council with Big Foot's band when Sitting Bull was killed on December 15, 1890. These Indian families did not contribute to the number of fatalities at Wounded Knee because they were being held by the U.S.…

Wojcik, Eva

2008-01-01

158

Seasonal variations of heavy metals content in muscle and viscera of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon in Taiwan.  

PubMed

As a natural lagoon, rich in biological resources including fish, crabs, and bivalves, Da-Peng Bay Lagoon receives the discharges from the neighboring rivers, Kao-ping, Dong-gang, and Lin-Bian, which have harmed the ecology and reduced the water quality of the lagoon. This study analyzes seasonal variation of heavy metals concentration (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the muscle and viscera of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon. Data from this study may provide information on the use of Perna viridis as a bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in the lagoon. The heavy metals concentrations were greater in viscera than in muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis. Results showed that the mussel is capable of accumulating high contents of Cu and Zn. Generally, the order of concentrations in the muscle by season was Zn > Cu > Cr or As. In viscera, the general order of concentrations was Zn > Cu > Pb or Cr or As. Mercury was not detected in winter and spring in muscle and viscera. Cadmium displayed significant variation with season. There was also significant correlation between tissue concentration and heavy metals, including Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, and As. PMID:25208662

Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Wen-Der; Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M; Lu, Ming-Chun

2014-01-01

159

DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: PROTECTION OF WASTEWATER LAGOON INTERIOR SLOPES  

EPA Science Inventory

A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...

160

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING SEVEN CELL LAGOON SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the lagoon system and to evalu...

161

Environmental enhancement of swine lagoons through influent treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. Failure of these lagoons during tropical storms in North Carolina along with major public environmental concerns led to a permanent state moratorium of construction of new anaerobic lag...

162

CONTROL OF ODORS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS TREATING FOOD PROCESSING WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic lagoons are used for the treatment of meat packing wastes in most areas of the country. They are a relatively low cost means of achieving BOD reduction. Although lagoon effluent is not suitable for stream discharge, it is amenable to further treatment or to land applica...

163

EVALUATION OF A TREATMENT LAGOON FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of a two year study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a 143 MG facultative lagoon for treating combined sewer overflow and polishing secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent. The lagoon performance was evaluated for changes in the deg...

164

Comparing bacteria inside and outside swine lagoon effluent spray fields.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Swine manure lagoon effluent is a valuable resource in the Mid South US and is applied as fertilizer for hay. Levels of nutrients have been widely studied in lagoon effluent and in fertilized soil and levels of fecal bacteria in effluent, including potential human pathogens, are also known. Less i...

165

A combined wind wavetidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy  

E-print Network

A combined wind wave­tidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy L. Carniello and A. Defina Department March 2005; accepted 1 June 2005; published 27 October 2005. [1] A numerical model that combines wind between waves and tide propagation. The combined wind wave­tidal model is applied to the Venice lagoon

Fagherazzi, Sergio

166

Influence of local and global environmental parameters on the composition of cyanobacterial mats in a tropical lagoon.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mat communities thrive widely and year round in coral reefs and tropical lagoons, with periodic massive development of benthic blooms. We studied the diversity and spatiotemporal variation of the cyanobacterial dominance in mats of the shallow lagoon of La Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning-sequencing approaches targeting the 16S rRNA gene, combined with macromorphological and micromorphological characterization of corresponding phenotypes. The mat-forming cyanobacteria were highly diversified with at least 67 distinct operational taxonomic units identified in the lagoon, encompassing the entire morphological spectrum of the phylum Cyanobacteria, but with striking dominance of Oscillatoriales and Nostocales. It appeared also that selective pressures acting at different geographical scales have an influence on the structure and composition of these mats dominated by cyanobacteria. First, large changes were observed in their diversity and composition in relation to local changes occurring in their environment. Second, from the data obtained on the richness and composition of the mats and from the comparison with similar studies in the world, tropical mats seem to display wider cyanobacterial richness than in temperate and cold areas. Moreover, these tropical mats share more species with mats in other tropical regions than with those in temperate and cold climatic regions, suggesting that marine cyanobacteria in biofilms and mats display a biogeographic structure. PMID:25260923

Echenique-Subiabre, Isidora; Villeneuve, Aurélie; Golubic, Stjepko; Turquet, Jean; Humbert, Jean-François; Gugger, Muriel

2015-02-01

167

Indian Health Disparities  

MedlinePLUS

... Indian and Alaska Native race on state death certificates; 2006-2008 rates.) Given the higher health status ... Indian and Alaska Native race on state death certificates. American Indian and Alaska Native age-adjusted death ...

168

Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to < 1 per thousand. These changes reflect the increasing use of synthetic fertilizers (delta15N approximately 0 per thousand) from the 1960s to the present. Sediments from Ghar El Melh show a similar trend, with %N more than tripling, %OM increasing by 50%, and delta15N declining from 6 per thousand to 2 per thousand since 1965. These changes are consistent with the increasing use of water from a nearby river for crop irrigation and agricultural fertilizer use. Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and environmental managers that eutrophication has had dramatic impacts on the coastal ecosystems, particularly at the Egyptian and Tunisian sites. PMID:21830712

Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

2011-07-01

169

Trophic functioning and nutrient flux in a highly productive tropical lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiku Lagoon is a highly productive tropical lagoon with high fishery yields. Trophic networks and stoichiometrically linked water-salt-nutrient budgets were constructed to relate the functioning of the food web to nonconservative behavior of nutrients in the lagoon. Network analysis showed that the lagoon is more dependent on phytoplankton than detritus and periphyton to generate food sources for consumers. Nevertheless, detritivory

Hsing-Juh Lin; Jia-Jang Hung; Kwang-Tsao Shao; Fancy Kuo

2001-01-01

170

Historical flux of mercury associated with mining and industrial sources in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "MIRACLE" Project was established in order to assess the feasibility of clam farming and high levels of sediment mercury (Hg) contamination coexisting in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy. This lagoon has been subjected to Hg input from both industrial waste (chlor-alkali plant) and long-term mining activity (Idrija mine, NW Slovenia). One of the subtasks of the "MIRACLE" Project was to determine the historical evolution of Hg accumulation in the lagoon's bottom sediments. Thirteen 1-m deep sediment cores were collected from the subtidal and intertidal zones, plus one in a saltmarsh, all of which were then analyzed for total Hg content and several physicochemical parameters. Sedimentation rate assessments were performed by measuring short-lived radionuclides (excess 210Pb and 137Cs). For most of the analyzed cores, natural background levels of Hg were observed at depths of 50-100 cm. In the eastern area, Hg contamination was found to be at its maximum level at the core top (up to 12 ?g g-1) as a consequence of the long-term mining activity. The vertical distribution of Hg was related to the influence of the single-point contamination sources, whereas the grain-size variability or organic matter content seemed not to affect it. In the western area, Hg content at the surface was found not to exceed 7 ?g g-1 and contamination was recorded only in the first 20-30 cm. Geochronological measurements showed that the depositional flux of Hg was influenced by anthropogenic inputs after 1800, when mining activity was more intense. After 1950, Hg in the surface sediment, most remarkable in the central-western sector, seemed to also be affected by the discharge of the Aussa River, which delivers Hg from the chlor-alkali plant. In 1996, Hg mining at Idrija ceased, however the core profiles did not show any subsequent decreasing trend in terms of Hg flux, which implies the system retaining some "memory" of contamination. Thus, in the short term, a decrease in Hg inputs into the nearby Gulf of Trieste and the lagoon seems unlikely. A preliminary rounded-down gross estimate of total Hg "trapped" in the lagoon's sediments amounted to 251 t. Such a quantity, along with the complexity of the lagoon ecosystem, suggests that an in toto reclamation of the sediments at the lagoon scale is unfeasible, both economically and environmentally.

Covelli, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Acquavita, Alessandro; Piani, Raffaella; Emili, Andrea

2012-11-01

171

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean (IO) dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, respectively) precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline, respectively) precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr), precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole modes, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

2014-02-01

172

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean (IO) dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins respectively) precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline respectively) precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr), precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agricultural sector due to its reliance of consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole models, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

2014-01-01

173

Fisheries in coastal lagoons: An assumed but poorly researched aspect of the ecology and functioning of coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons are considered to be among the most productive ecosystems in the world. Many of them support important fisheries, and some of them maintain intensive and extensive aquacultural exploitations. Their particular features, such as shallowness, relative isolation and protection from the sea, and the presence of boundaries with strong physical and ecological gradients help explain this high productivity. Despite the fact that coastal lagoons are among the most studied ecosystems in the world, our knowledge on fisheries in coastal lagoons or why some lagoons capable of maintaining profitable fisheries seem inadequate for intensive aquaculture remains limited. Scarce, too, is our knowledge of the characteristics of target species, their exploitation status, and the ecological processes that are affected by fisheries or that influence them, including the impact of human activities or climatic change. Here, we review present day knowledge on lagoon fisheries and analyse gaps in the science, stressing the need for adequate management of these important resources.

Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción

2012-09-01

174

How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while expected impacts of climate changes on the Thau system were expected to be linked to water balance depletion in the catchment, the main threats are now linked to the impact on water quality of the introduction of the Rhône river waters within the system. This study is conducted in the CLIMB EU-FP7 project (2010-2014).

La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

2014-05-01

175

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951-2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well-informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under a changing climate.

Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

2015-01-01

176

Late-Holocene to recent evolution of Lake Patria, South Italy: An example of a coastal lagoon within a Mediterranean delta system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Patria is a mesoaline coastal lagoon that develops along the coastal zone of the Volturno River plain (Campania, South Italy). The lagoon is a saline to brackish water body, ca. 2.0 long, and 1.5 km wide, with an average water depth of 1.5 m, reaching a maximum of ca. 3.0 m. The freshwater input into the lagoon is provided by a series of fresh to brackish water channels and small springs, landwards, while a permanent connection with the Tyrrhenian Sea is provided by a channel, 1.5 km long and a few meters wide. Drilling data from 12 boreholes acquired in the study area indicate that Lake Patria is a man-modified remnant of a larger lagoonal area that developed during the last millennia along the Campania coastal zone within an alluvial delta system at the mouth of the paleo-Volturno River. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analyses of drill cores suggest that the lower Volturno delta plain developed in the last 6000 years. Depositional conditions during this period were dominated by flood-plain and alluvial plain settings, with transition to coastal bars and associated back-barrier coastal lagoons. Lake Patria started evolving at an early stage of the Volturno delta plain formation as a consequence of foreshore deposits damming-up by littoral drift. The first marine layers display a radiocarbon age of ca. 4.8 ka BP and overlie a substrate represented by volcaniclastic deposits, originated by the Campi Flegrei, and associated paleosols. The lagoonal succession cored at Lake Patria may be interpreted as the result of a dynamic equilibrium between marine influence and riverine input into the lagoonal system through time, and has been tentatively correlated with the major climatic changes that occurred during Mid-Late Holocene. Insights into the recentmost evolution of the coastal lagoon of Lake Patria are provided by the GIS-based analysis of the physiographic changes of the region conducted on a series of historical topographic maps dating back to the early XVII century. Particularly, the superposition of historical cartography reveals the secular trends in the change of coastal environments and the role of human modification of natural habitats over the last 400 years.

Sacchi, M.; Molisso, F.; Pacifico, A.; Vigliotti, M.; Sabbarese, C.; Ruberti, D.

2014-06-01

177

Increased Bioavailability of Mercury in the Lagoons of Lomé, Togo: The Possible Role of Dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations\\u000a were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to\\u000a the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives\\u000a major waste inputs,

Kissao Gnandi; Seunghee Han; M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon; Magali Porrachia; Dimitri D. Deheyn

2011-01-01

178

Indian Studies Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A product of the Indian Studies Curriculum Committee and the Indian Studies Staff, this manual on the Indians of Southeast Alaska constitutes a useable classroom tool designed for the cross-cultural program in the Juneau School District. Objectives of this Indian Studies Program are identified as: to increase knowledge, awareness, and positive…

Peck, Cy, Sr.; And Others

179

American Indians Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

Snipp, C. Matthew

180

Study of water chlorophyl content in the Venice Lagoon through hyperspectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the HICO Project (http://hico.coas.oregonstate.edu/), a number of radiance and reflectance images of the Venice Lagoon were used to evaluate the possibility of performing quick and reliable mapping of water quality parameters. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO™) is the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer specifically designed to sample the coastal areas, with 128 spectral bands, a 90 m spatial resolution, full spectral coverage (380 to 960 nm sampled at 5.7 nm) and a very high signal-to-noise ratio to resolve the complexity of the coastal ocean. Eutrophication is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. The concentration of chlorophyll-a found in water can be used to trace the abundance of planktonic algae in rivers, lakes or lagoons. The Venice Lagoon, famous worldwide, represents one of the most fragile and vulnerable ecosystems, which is being constantly threatened by factors of stress, both human and natural, such as erosion, presence of urban and agricultural sources of pollution, stress from fishing, pollution produced by the industrial area of Porto Marghera and by the city of Venice itself, downwash of sediments from the hinterland and eutrophication. Traditional methods of water quality estimation are often time consuming and involve periodical sampling and plenty of laboratory analyses. In this study the possibility of using imaging spectroscopy to rapidly obtain raster-based maps of chlorophyll concentration by comparing the results obtained through five different literature bio-optical models, which permit the retrieval of mathematical relations between the water's spectral properties and physicochemical parameters; pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and chlorophyll concentration. Evaluation of performances is achieved by comparing the hyperspectral based maps with maps of kriged concentration values, provided by the Magistrato delle Acque di Venezia (http://www.magisacque.it/sama/sama_monitoraggi1.htm) and collected by the network of SAMANET sensors.

Garfagnoli, Francesca; Bizzaro, Beatrice; Moretti, Sandro

2013-04-01

181

Indian Parliament  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With one of the largest parliamentary bodies in the world, it is not surprising that the Web site for the Indian Parliament contains a staggering amount of information about its operations, its members, bills, budget proposals, and other important governmental proceedings. Visitors will want to begin by browsing through the section on the president of India (currently this is Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam) to learn about his recent statements and speeches, along with information about the beautiful presidential palace and the exquisite Mughal Garden. The other sections of the site are also compelling, and include areas devoted to the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People), where guests can read recent debates (some of which are only available in Hindi), and learn about the members of each body. Additionally, there is a frequently asked questions area that answers some basic queries about the organization and history of the Parliament.

182

Materials Developed from American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop (Tacoma, Washington, April 25-29, 1977). Book One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials presented in this resource guide are the direct result of an American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Development Workshop. Activities consist of nine flannelboard stories (including The Fire War, How Coyote Made the Columbia River, Legend of the Mayan Moon God); two games (American Indian Games and Indian Picture Symbol Checkerboard);…

Disney, Dick, Comp.

183

Influence of net ecosystem metabolism in transferring riverine organic carbon to atmospheric CO 2 in a tropical coastal lagoon (Chilka Lake, India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the Chilka Lake, Asia’s largest brackish lagoon on the east coast of India,\\u000a revealed, for the first time, strong seasonal and spatial variability associated with salinity distribution. The lake was\\u000a studied twice during May 2005 (premonsoon) and August 2005 (monsoon). It exchanges waters with the sea (Bay of Bengal) and\\u000a several rivers open

G. V. M. Gupta; V. V. S. S. Sarma; R. S. Robin; A. V. Raman; M. Jai Kumar; M. Rakesh; B. R. Subramanian

2008-01-01

184

White pelicans swim in the lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

White pelicans search for a meal in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The habitat of white pelicans are marshy lakes along the Pacific and Texas coasts, wintering chiefly in coastal lagoons such as this one. They often capture fish cooperatively, forming a long line, beating their wings and driving the prey into shallow water. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

1999-01-01

185

ELECTROFLOTATION OF DAIRY MANURE LAGOON WATER: CHEMICAL & MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lagoons are important tools for manure management in dairy and livestock operations but are potential sources of transmission of human or animal pathogens and present potential environmental hazards from release of nitrogen and phosphorus. Electroflotation technology utilizes electrolytic gas genera...

186

Relative sea level rise and Venice lagoon wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past century, the Venice lagoon has experienced a high rate of wetland loss and a strong net export of sediments;\\u000a currently the local Authority is running several projects for beneficial use of dredging materials. From March 1993 until\\u000a March 1995 the accretionary response of wetlands in the lagoon to changing water levels was studied. Vertical accretion, short\\u000a term

J. W. Day; D. Are; G. Cecconi

1998-01-01

187

Drivers of pCO2 dynamics in two contrasting coral reef lagoons: The influence of submarine groundwater discharge (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon chemistry of coral reef lagoons can be highly variable over short time scales. While much of the diel variability in seawater carbon chemistry is explained by biological processes, external sources such as river and groundwater seepage may deliver large amounts of organic and inorganic carbon to coral reefs and represent a poorly understood feedback to ocean acidification. Here, we assess the impact of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on pCO2 variability in two coral reef lagoons with distinct SGD driving mechanisms. Diel variability of pCO2 in the two ecosystems was explained by a combination of biological drivers and SGD inputs. In Rarotonga, a South Pacific volcanic island, SGD was driven primarily by a steep terrestrial hydraulic gradient, and the lagoon was influenced by the high pCO2 (5,501 ?atm) of the fresh groundwater. In Heron Island, a Great Barrier Reef coral cay, SGD was dominated by seawater recirculation through sediments (i.e. tidal pumping) and pCO2 was mainly impacted through the stimulation of biological processes. The Rarotonga water column had a relatively higher average pCO2 (549 ?atm) than Heron Island (471 ?atm). However, pCO2 exhibited a greater diel range in Heron Island (778 ?atm) than in Rarotonga (507 ?atm). The Rarotonga lagoon received 31.2 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 from SGD, while the Heron Island lagoon received 12.3 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1. Over the course of this study both systems were sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (3.00 to 9.67 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1), with SGD-derived CO2 contributing a large portion to the air-sea CO2 flux. The relationship between both water column pH and aragonite saturation state (?Ar) and radon (222Rn) concentrations indicate that SGD may enhance the local acidification of some coral reef lagoons. Studies measuring the carbon chemistry of coral reefs (e.g. community metabolism, calcification rates) may need to consider SGD-derived CO2.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D.; Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B.

2013-12-01

188

Historical evolution of a micro-tidal lagoon simulated by a 2-D schematic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal transitional environments such as estuaries, coastal inlets and tidal lagoons are the result of the interaction of several exogenous forcing factors (e.g. tidal regime, local wind and wave climate, sea-level rise, sediment supply) many of which are, in principle, variable in time over historical and geological timescales. Besides the natural variability of the external constraints, human interventions in some components of the system can either directly or indirectly affect long-term sediment dynamics in the whole system. In this paper the evolution of a schematic tidal basin, with non-uniform sediments and subject to geological and anthropogenic processes, is reproduced by means of a two dimensional morphodynamic model and qualitatively compared to the events which historically took place in the Venice Lagoon during the last four centuries; the trend for the next 200 years is also investigated. In particular, the effect on both morphology and bottom composition of river diversion, jetty construction, human-induced subsidence and channel dredging are presented and discussed.

Bonaldo, D.; Di Silvio, G.

2013-11-01

189

A study of lagoonal and estuarine processes in the area of Merritt Island encompassing the space center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to determine the marine biology and dynamic oceanographic properties of the Indian River in Florida. One of the major areas of concentration involved the compilation of a taxonomic list of marine animals in the river. An important conclusion of the study is that diversity of the benthic community is substantially higher than expected. The effect of major climatic factors on the diversity and structure of the benthic community is analyzed.

1974-01-01

190

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

191

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

192

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

193

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-09-28

194

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

195

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

196

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

197

Spreading and autoecology of the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the lagoons of the north-western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, an invasive Rhodophyta recently recorded in the Po Delta lagoons (May 2008), was also found in the Venice lagoon in March 2009 and successively in Pialassa della Baiona (Emilia-Romagna Region) in May 2009. The species has colonized the eutrophic and confined areas of Venice by pleustophytic tangled populations (5-15 kg fwt m-2), replacing the allochthonous species whereas it is absent in the areas characterized by low nutrient availability and high water exchange. In contrast, in the Po Delta lagoons and in Pialassa della Baiona it is present everywhere, also with high water renewal, because of the eutrophication caused by the Po river and the industrial area of Ravenna. This study presents the autoecology and distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the above environments, according to their different eutrophication status, showing its relationship with physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in water column, pore-water, surface sediments and particulate matter collected by traps in a station of the Venice lagoon (Teneri) sampled monthly during one year. Furthermore, we give new information on its morphology and the high dimorphism between female and male gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.

Sfriso, A.; Wolf, M. A.; Maistro, S.; Sciuto, K.; Moro, I.

2012-12-01

198

Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

comparison study between 10 Mediterranean lagoons has been carried out by means of the 3-D numerical model SHYFEM. The investigated basins are the Venice and Marano-Grado lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lesina and Varano lagoons in the Southern Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras Lagoon in Sardinia, the Ganzirri and Faro lagoons in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain, and the Nador Lagoon in Morocco. This study has been focused on hydrodynamics in terms of exchange rates, transport time scale, and mixing. Water exchange depends mainly on the inlet shape and tidal range, but also on the wind regimes in the case of multi-inlet lagoons. Water renewal time, which is mostly determined by the exchange rate, is a powerful concept that allows lagoons to be characterized with a time scale. In the case of the studied lagoons, the renewal time ranged from few days in the Marano-Grado Lagoon up to 1 year in the case of the Mar Menor. The analysis of the renewal time frequency distribution allows identifying subbasins. The numerical study proved to be a useful tool for the intercomparison and classification of the lagoons. These environments range from a leaky type to a choked type of lagoons and give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. Mixing efficiency turns out to be a function of the morphological complexity, but also of the forcings acting on the system.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Bellafiore, Debora; Ghezzo, Michol; Bajo, Marco

2014-04-01

199

Paleoreconstruction of Particulate Organic Carbon Inputs to the High-Arctic Colville River Delta, Beaufort Sea, Alaska  

E-print Network

was determined to come from a variety of sources through the use of a three end-member mixing model and sediment biomarker concentrations. These sources include the Colville River in the western area of the Lagoon near the river mouth, marine sources in areas...

Schreiner, Kathryn 1983-

2013-01-09

200

Dynamics of fipronil in Oleo Lagoon in Jataí Ecological Station, São Paulo-Brazil.  

PubMed

Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole pesticide widely used to protect sugar-cane crops from insect pests. After reaching the environment, this insecticide may have several fates. This research aimed to propose a kinetic model to describe the fate of commercial fipronil Regent 800WG in the sediment-water interface of the Oleo Lagoon in the Mogi-Guaçu river floodplain, situated within the Jataí Ecological Station, by means of a microcosm scale experiment. Results showed that a small fraction of the pesticide is quickly dragged to the sediment while most of it remains in the water column. Biodegradation proves to be an important fipronil degradation route, especially when microorganisms capable of using fipronil as sole carbon source increase their population, as a function of exposure time. Biodegradation rates were higher in the sediment than in the water column. PMID:20079520

Peret, André Moldenhauer; Oliveira, Luciana Fontes; Bianchini, Irineu; Seleghim, Mirna Helena Regali; Peret, Alberto Carvalho; Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido

2010-03-01

201

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dolphin glides through the water looking for fish in the turn basin, which is located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. Dolphins inhabit the waters, known as the Indian River Lagoon, around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

202

The Indian Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

Strong, Augusta

1969-01-01

203

Recent contamination of mercury in an estuarine environment (Marano lagoon, Northern Adriatic, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marano Lagoon, in the northern Adriatic Sea (Italy), has been affected by mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial and mining activities. It has been estimated that 186,000 kg of Hg were deliberately discharged into the main drainage system (Aussa-Corno River) by a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) from 1940s to 1984. The lagoon has also experienced a secondary long-term Hg input, originated from mining activity in Idrija (Slovenia), due to the supply of fluvial suspended particles carried by the Isonzo River in the Gulf of Trieste. Since local fishing activities are extensively conducted, there is great concern on the risk posed by potentially harmful effects of Hg to the trophic chain. Present inputs of this metal, both in dissolved (52.4-4.1 ng L -1) and particulate (130.8-3.4 ng L -1) phases, were preliminary investigated in the water column. Although direct discharge of Hg from the CAP no longer exists, the metal is still released from the source area into freshwaters, and its distribution and abundance is controlled by the salt-wedge circulation system, which is tide-influenced. Remobilization from bottom sediments can also be a secondary source of Hg into the aquatic environment. A speciation technique, used to investigate the main binding sites and phase associations of Hg in sediments (5.69-0.82 ?g g -1), evidenced the presence of mobile (1.8-11%) and potentially available species for methylation processes. The results are particularly important if related to resuspension effects caused by natural events and anthropogenic activities. Preliminary considerations on Hg behaviour in this estuarine environment are reported.

Covelli, Stefano; Acquavita, Alessandro; Piani, Raffaella; Predonzani, Sergio; De Vittor, Cinzia

2009-04-01

204

Indians in Minneapolis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The League of Women Voters of Minneapolis decided in May of 1967 to examine public and private agencies in the city of Minneapolis to determine agency perception of Indian problems, and to assess how well the various agencies were dealing with problems related to the Indian population of the city. In addition, 100 Indians were randomly selected…

Woods, Richard G.

205

Urban American Indian Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document begins by dispelling several misperceptions about American Indians that are especially pernicious to older American Indians living in cities, and then goes on to discuss what is known about urban American Indian elders and the implications for planning and service delivery for Area Agencies on Aging and contractor agencies. It notes…

Kramer, Josea

206

Nevada Indians Speak.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anthology presents Indian works which reflect the attitudes of the native Indian people of the State of Nevada, commencing with the possible first White-Indian contact in the 1820's when Anglo American fur trappers and Mexican traders entered the Great Basin. The writer points out in the Preface that no effort has been made to exclude native…

Forbes, Jack D., Ed.

207

Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

Wilson, James

208

Indian Calendars Akhil Doegar  

E-print Network

Indian Calendars Akhil Doegar :: Akshay Prasad Supervisor :: Associate Professor Helmer Aslaksen Section Topic 1. Introduction 2. Astronomical Background 3. Solar Calendar 4. Indian Solar Calendar 5. Regional Variations in Indian Solar Calendar 6. Luni-Solar Calendar 6.1 Amanta Calendar 6.2 Tithi 6

Aslaksen, Helmer

209

Indian Studies Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1973 the Montana Legislature enacted the Indian Studies Law which required that by July 1, 1979 all certified personnel in schools on or in the vicinity of Montana's Indian reservations must have received training in the history, traditions, customs, values, beliefs, ethics, and contemporary affairs of American Indians, particularly the Montana…

Montana State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena.

210

Linking DNRA community structure and activity in a shallow lagoonal estuarine system  

PubMed Central

Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and denitrification are two nitrate respiration pathways in the microbial nitrogen cycle. Diversity and abundance of denitrifying bacteria have been extensively examined in various ecosystems. However, studies on DNRA bacterial diversity are limited, and the linkage between the structure and activity of DNRA communities has yet to be discovered. We examined the composition, diversity, abundance, and activities of DNRA communities at five sites along a salinity gradient in the New River Estuary, North Carolina, USA, a shallow temporal/lagoonal estuarine system. Sediment slurry incubation experiments with 15N-nitrate were conducted to measure potential DNRA rates, while the abundance of DNRA communities was calculated using quantitative PCR of nrfA genes encoding cytochrome C nitrite reductase, commonly found in DNRA bacteria. A pyrosequencing method targeting nrfA genes was developed using an Ion Torrent sequencer to examine the diversity and composition of DNRA communities within the estuarine sediment community. We found higher levels of nrfA gene abundance and DNRA activities in sediments with higher percent organic content. Pyrosequencing analysis of nrfA genes revealed spatial variation of DNRA communities along the salinity gradient of the New River Estuary. Percent abundance of dominant populations was found to have significant influence on overall activities of DNRA communities. Abundance of dominant DNRA bacteria and organic carbon availability are important regulators of DNRA activities in the eutrophic New River Estuary. PMID:25232351

Song, Bongkeun; Lisa, Jessica A.; Tobias, Craig R.

2014-01-01

211

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

212

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

1997-01-01

213

Dynamic modelling of nitrification in an aerated facultative lagoon.  

PubMed

Faced with the need to improve ammonia removal from lagoon wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated in Quebec, Canada, mechanistic modelling has been proposed as a tool for explaining the seasonal nitrification phenomenon and to evaluate optimization and upgrade scenarios. A lagoon model that includes a modified activated sludge biokinetic model and that assumes completely mixed conditions in the water column and sediments has been applied to simulate 3 years of consecutive effluent data for a lagoon from the Drummondville WWTP. Successful prediction of results from this plant indicates that the seasonal nitrification is determined by temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the water column and washout driven by a well-mixed water column. Results also indicate that sediments contribute to the ammonia load in the lagoon effluent, particularly in spring and early summer. Sensitivity analyses performed with the model indicate that the nitrification period could be prolonged by increasing DO concentrations in the lagoon and that bioaugmentation would be particularly effective in spring and early summer. Limitations of the model are discussed, as well as ways to improve the hydraulic model. PMID:17689585

Houweling, Dwight; Kharoune, Lynda; Escalas, Antoni; Comeau, Yves

2008-01-01

214

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California  

E-print Network

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California ACRES: 28.3 acres NON-FEDERAL SPONSORS: City of Long Beach Friends of Colorado Lagoon PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Colorado Lagoon is a 28 of visitors from communities within and surrounding the City of Long Beach, California. There are over 700

US Army Corps of Engineers

215

Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution  

E-print Network

Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution by Steve Ress UNL Water livestock waste lagoons may not be significant contributors to groundwater pollution. "This is particularly of groundwater pollution from livestock waste lagoons, Spalding said. Samples also were analyzed for nitrogen

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

216

Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons  

E-print Network

Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons Emmanuel Charles-Dominique ABSTRACT: Catch efficiencies of two commonly used fishing gears. in Ivory Coast lagoons, purse seine fisheries are well developed in Ivory Coast lagoons, yielding from 10,000 to 20,000 tons of commercially

217

Benthic biogeochemical cycling of mercury in two contaminated northern Adriatic coastal lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research recognized most of the Northern Adriatic coastal lagoon environments as contaminated by mercury (Hg) from multiple anthropogenic sources. Among them, the Pialassa Baiona (P.B.) Lagoon, located near the city of Ravenna (Italy), received between 100 and 200 tons of Hg, generated by an acetaldehyde factory in the period 1957–1977. Further east, the Grado Lagoon has been mainly affected

Stefano Covelli; Andrea Emili; Alessandro Acquavita; Neza Koron; Jadran Faganeli

2011-01-01

218

Benthic Respiration and Inorganic Nutrient Fluxes in the Estuarine Region of Patos Lagoon (Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ benthic flux chamber experiments were performed during late austral spring and early summer of 1996 at eleven nearshore locations in the southern Patos Lagoon, Brazil. The Patos Lagoon is the largest lagoonal system in South America and is a very important nursery ground for local fin fish and shell fish fisheries. These are the first benthic flux measurements

L. F. NIENCHESKI; R. A. JAHNKE

2002-01-01

219

Lagoon of Venice ecosystem: Seasonal dynamics and environmental guidance with uncertainty analyses and error subspace  

E-print Network

Lagoon of Venice ecosystem: Seasonal dynamics and environmental guidance with uncertainty analyses the seasonal ecosystem dynamics of the Lagoon of Venice and provide guidance on the monitoring and management stochastic ecosystem modeling components are developed to represent prior uncertainties in the Lagoon

Leonard, John J.

220

A system for estimating bowen ratio And evaporation from waste lagoons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A low cost system was deployed above a swine waste lagoon to obtain estimates of Bowen ratios and characterize lagoon temperatures. The system consisted of humidity and temperature sensors and anemometers deployed above the lagoon, water temperature sensors, and a meteorological station located by t...

221

Seagrasses and sediment response to the changing physical forcing in a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria de Aveiro is an estuary - coastal lagoon system connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a channel with a cross-sectional area that has steadily increased over more than one century. Local ocean tides, with amplitudes of 1-3 m, are today transmitted to the lagoon by the single, engineered inlet channel and propagate to the end of the lagoon

J. Figueiredo da Silva; R. W. Duck; M. J. Pereira; J. B. Catarino

2003-01-01

222

Indian River School District Science Curriculum Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph includes guidelines for science courses in grades seven, eight, and nine, and for biology, chemistry and physics. Seventh grade Environmental Life Science is lab-oriented and based on a variety of student experiences. Course objectives are presented as well as the course outline. A multitext approach, with a suggested textbook list,…

Banks, Dennis E.; And Others

223

PNW RIVER REACH FILE DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Federal and state agencies, and NW Indian Tribes has produced a 1:100,000-scale River Reach data layer for the Pacific Northwest that will serve water-resource management applications for the next decade or more. The Pacific N...

224

Spring and Summer Proliferation of Floating Macroalgae in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon (Tancada Lagoon, Ebro Delta, NE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 10 years, a drastic change in the structure of the community of primary producers has been observed in Tancada Lagoon (Ebro Delta, NE Spain). This consisted of a decrease in the abundance of submerged rooted macrophyte cover and a spring and summer increase in floating macroalgae. Two spatial patterns have been observed. In the west part of the lagoon, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, dominated during winter and decreased progressively in spring when Cladophora sp. reached its maximum development. In the east part of the lagoon, higher macroalgal diversity was observed, together with lower cover in winter and early spring. Cladophora sp., Gracilaria verrucosa Papenfuss and Chondria tenuissima Agardh, increased cover and biomass in summer. Maximum photosynthetic production was observed in spring for G. verrucosa (10·9 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) and C. tenuissima (19·0 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) in contrast with Cladophora sp. (15·9 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) and Chaetomorpha linum (7·2 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) which reached maximum production in summer. Increased conductivity from reduced freshwater inflow, and higher water temperatures during periods of lagoon isolation, mainly in summer, were the main physical factors associated with an increase in floating macroalgal biomass across the lagoon. Reduced nitrogen availability and temperature-related changes in carbon availability during summer were related to a decrease in abundance of C. linum and increases in G. verrucosa and Cladophora sp.

Menéndez, M.; Comín, F. A.

2000-08-01

225

Cockacoeske, Weroansqua of the Pamunkeys, and Indian Resistance in Seventeenth-Century Virginia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In August 1676 Nathaniel Bacon brought his campaign to "ruin and extirpate all Indians in general" to the Green Dragon Swamp on the upper Pamunkey River. While there, he attacked and massacred nearly fifty Pamunkey Indians, who had been at peace with the government of Virginia for thirty years. Having once formed the backbone of the mighty…

Schmidt, Ethan A.

2012-01-01

226

Leadership Preferences of Indian and Non-Indian Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 86 Indian and non-Indian volleyball competitors, non-Indian players indicated significantly greater preferences for leadership that involved democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, or social support. Indians may adapt their behavior by participating in non-Indian games, without changing their traditional value orientations. Contains 22…

Malloy, D. C.; Nilson, R. N.

1991-01-01

227

Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 ? M in 1987 to 2.7 ? M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

2007-05-01

228

State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

Not Available

1994-06-01

229

HYDROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COASTAL LAGOONS AT HUGH TAYLOR BIRCH STATE RECREATION AREA, FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The author presents initial results of an ongoing study of Southeast Florida coastal lagoon lakes. Objectives include presenting environmental conditions within and adjacent to the lagoons under a variety of hydrologic conditions and to determine water-quality changes in ground water and surface water and how these changes in water quality affect lagoonal biological communities within the lagoons.

Brock, Robert J.

1987-01-01

230

Sediment biogeochemical differences in two pristine Mediterranean coastal lagoons (in Italy) characterized by different phanerogam dominance-A comparative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate functional differences in two Italian coastal lagoons (Caprolace and Fogliano, Tyrrhenian Sea) characterized by the dominance of two different seagrass species: Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson in the Caprolace lagoon and Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande in the Fogliano lagoon. 2. A monitoring system was set up in both lagoons in order to (i)

A. SIGNORINI; G. MASSINI; G. MIGLIORE; M. TOSONI; C. VARRONE; G. IZZO

2008-01-01

231

Spatio-temporal variation of CO2 emission from Chilika Lake, a tropical coastal lagoon, on the east coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical Carbon cycling was studied in Asia's largest brackish lagoon, Chilika on the east coast of India. Systematic time-series observations were made at 35 hydrologically different stations over the entire lagoon. The first of these kinds of measurements reveal, inter and intra annual variability of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). A comparative analysis of pCO2, CO2 flux over four years (2005, 2009, 2010 and 2011) showed that the northern part of the lagoon maintained the highest levels of pCO2, with maximum CO2 efflux to the atmosphere associated with peak monsoon period. The high pCO2 corresponded to a significant decrease in pH (˜0.8) from the low to high flow periods. Higher bacterial abundance (1.55 ± 0.28 × 109 cells L-1) and bacterial respiration (185.31 ± 105.37 ?g C L-1 d-1), suggested high levels of organic carbon decomposition during the high flow period. In contrast, the southern sector was least affected by river discharge, with low pCO2 values and CO2 flux as in the dry period. The central part and outer channel of the lagoon had intermediate characteristics. During high flow, the air-water CO2 flux from the entire lagoon was estimated to be 31.2 mol C m-2 y-1, which was comparatively very high with respect to the mean CO2 emission from the entire subtropical and tropical estuaries. Highest CO2 flux (65.98 mol C m-2 y-1) was observed in the northern sector, followed by the outer channel (17.61 mol C m-2 y-1), central sector (15.69 mol C m-2 y-1) and southern sector (14.44 mol C m-2 y-1). The northern part of Chilika lagoon being an important river-influenced region was responsible for the biological transformation of organic carbon to inorganic carbon and emitting CO2 to the atmosphere. Such a sectoral approach would reveal zonal influences of CO2 within a water body along with conditions leading to sink or a source.

Muduli, Pradipta R.; Kanuri, Vishnu Vardhan; Robin, R. S.; Charan Kumar, B.; Patra, Sivaji; Raman, A. V.; Nageswarara Rao, G.; Subramanian, B. R.

2012-11-01

232

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Maldives: waves and disaster affected by shape of coral reefs and islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Maldives, 39 islands are significantly damaged among 200 inhabited islands and nearly a third of the Maldivian people are severely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 26 December 2004. We surveyed tsunami impact in 43 islands by measuring island topography and run-up height, interview to local people and mapping of the flooded and destructed areas. The differences in tsunami height and disaster corresponding to the atoll shape and island topography are observed. In the northern atolls, atoll rims consist of many ring-shaped reefs, i.e. miniature atolls called `faro', and interrupted many channels between them. The interrupted atoll rim may play an important role to reducing tsunami run-up height. Severe damage was not observed in the eastern coast of the islands. Beach ridge also contribute to the protection against tsunami. However, in some islands, houses beside the lagoon are damaged by backwashing floodwater from the lagoon. Water marks show the run-up height of -1.8m above MSL. The lagoon water-level seems to set-up by tsunami which permeates into the lagoon through the interrupted atoll rim. The disaster was severe at the southern atolls of Meemu, Thaa and Laamu. The higher run-up heights of up to 3.2m above MSL and enormous building damages were observed at the islands on the eastern atoll rims. The continuous atoll rim of these atolls may reinforce tsunami impact at the eastern islands. In addition, tsunami surge washed the islands totally because of low island topography without beach ridge. Significant floodwater from lagoon was not observed in these atolls. It seems the lagoon water-level was not set-up largely. The continuous atoll rim reduces the tsunami influence to the lagoon and the western side of the atolls. The continuity of atoll rim is probably the major factor to cause the difference in water movement, i.e. tsunami run-up and lagoon set-up, which affects the disaster in the islands. Beach ridge contribute to reduce the tsunami impact to the settlement and agricultural land. Our results may elucidate secure atoll and island type to mitigate the risk of future tsunamis on atoll nations/districts in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean.

Kan, H.; Ali, M.; Riyaz, M.

2005-12-01

233

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts  

PubMed Central

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

234

Lagoon Seepage Testing Procedures for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory Butte County, Idaho April 2014  

SciTech Connect

The lagoon seepage testing procedures are documented herein as required by the Wastewater Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16.493). The Wastewater Rules and Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 require that the procedure used for performing a seepage test be approved by IDEQ prior to conducting the seepage test. The procedures described herein are based on a seepage testing plan that was developed by J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) and has been accepted by several IDEQ offices for lagoons in Idaho.

Alan Giesbrecht

2014-05-01

235

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

236

Benthic Primary Production Budget of a Caribbean Reef Lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico)  

PubMed Central

High photosynthetic benthic primary production (P) represents a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reef systems. However, benthic P budgets of specific ecosystem compartments such as macrophyte-dominated reef lagoons are still scarce. To address this, we quantified individual and lagoon-wide net (Pn) and gross (Pg) primary production by all dominant functional groups of benthic primary producers in a typical macrophyte-dominated Caribbean reef lagoon near Puerto Morelos (Mexico) via measurement of O2 fluxes in incubation experiments. The photosynthetically active 3D lagoon surface area was quantified using conversion factors to allow extrapolation to lagoon-wide P budgets. Findings revealed that lagoon 2D benthic cover was primarily composed of sand-associated microphytobenthos (40%), seagrasses (29%) and macroalgae (27%), while seagrasses dominated the lagoon 3D surface area (84%). Individual Pg was highest for macroalgae and scleractinian corals (87 and 86 mmol O2 m?2 specimen area d?1, respectively), however seagrasses contributed highest (59%) to the lagoon-wide Pg. Macroalgae exhibited highest individual Pn rates, but seagrasses generated the largest fraction (51%) of lagoon-wide Pn. Individual R was highest for scleractinian corals and macroalgae, whereas seagrasses again provided the major lagoon-wide share (68%). These findings characterise the investigated lagoon as a net autotrophic coral reef ecosystem compartment revealing similar P compared to other macrophyte-dominated coastal environments such as seagrass meadows and macroalgae beds. Further, high lagoon-wide P (Pg: 488 and Pn: 181 mmol O2 m?2 lagoon area d?1) and overall Pg:R (1.6) indicate substantial benthic excess production within the Puerto Morelos reef lagoon and suggest the export of newly synthesised organic matter to surrounding ecosystems. PMID:24367570

Naumann, Malik S.; Jantzen, Carin; Haas, Andreas F.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Wild, Christian

2013-01-01

237

48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

2010-10-01

238

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

239

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

240

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

241

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

242

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

243

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

244

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment...approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the...

2010-11-09

245

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

246

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

247

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

248

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

249

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

250

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

251

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

252

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

253

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

254

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

255

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

256

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

257

78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs...

2013-07-23

258

76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2011-03-01

259

Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to <2% compared to 53% in winter. Four Hg-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 ?g ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation. However, during winter, Hg-resistant bacteria that are capable of degrading MeHg via the mer-catalyzed reductive pathway increase in importance.

Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

2012-11-01

260

REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM TREATED ANAEROBIC SWINE LAGOONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need for treatment technologies that can eliminate environmental problems associated with anaerobic lagoons. These technologies must be able to capture nutrients, kill pathogens and reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors. To meet these needs, a full-scale wastewater treatment plan...

261

Enhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons  

E-print Network

to demand into high­value demand­following power; and second, it can simultaneously serve as a tidal powerEnhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons David J.C. MacKay Cavendish/3/07 Summary The principle that the net energy delivered by a tidal pool can be increased by pumping extra

MacKay, David J.C.

262

Enhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons  

E-print Network

to demand into high-value demand-following power; and second, it can simultaneously serve as a tidal powerEnhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons David J.C. MacKay Cavendish/3/07 Summary The principle that the net energy delivered by a tidal pool can be increased by pumping extra

MacKay, David J.C.

263

Distribution and stability of eelgrass beds at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial change in eelgrass meadows, Zostera marina L., was assessed between 1978 and 1987 and between 1987 and 1995 at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Change in total extent was evaluated through a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1978 Landsat multi-spectral scanner image and 1987 black and white aerial photographs. A ground survey in 1995 was used to assess spatial change from 1987. Eelgrass beds were the predominant vegetation type in the lagoon, comprising 44-47% (15000-16000 ha) of the total area in 1978 and 1987. Izembek Lagoon contains the largest bed of seagrass along the Pacific Coast of North America and largest known single stand of eelgrass in the world. There was a high degree of overlap in the spatial distribution of eelgrass among years of change detection. The overall net change was a 6% gain between, 1978 and 1987 and a <1% gain between 1987 and 1995. The lack of significant change in eelgrass cover suggests that eelgrass meadows in Izembek Lagoon have been stable during the 17-year period of our study.

Ward, D.H.; Markon, C.J.; Douglas, D.C.

1997-01-01

264

Tidal Inlet and Lagoon on the San Andreas Fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bolinas Lagoon, located on the California coast about 24 kilometers north of San Francisco's Golden Gate (Figure 1), sits astride the San Andreas Fault and waits to die, a victim of many of the same types of human interventions that negatively impact other coastlines of the world. It is now almost certain that additional human intervention is the only means

Donald D. Treadwell; Ronald M. Noble; Orville T. Magoon

265

WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

266

Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

1987-05-01

267

Distribution and stability of eelgrass beds at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial change in eelgrass meadows, Zostera marina L., was assessed between 1978 and 1987 and between 1987 and 1995 at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Change in total extent was evaluated through a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1978 Landsat multi-spectral scanner image and 1987 black and white aerial photographs. A ground survey in 1995 was used to

David H. Ward; Carl J. Markon; David C. Douglas

1997-01-01

268

LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS AND AMPHIBIAN DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations and Amphibian Development. Dumont, J. N.* and Slagle, S., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, and Hutchins, S. R., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NRMRL/SPRD), Ada, OK. There is some evidence that confined anima...

269

IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON  

E-print Network

IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON USING AN HYPERSPECTRAL phosphorus concentrations. A reflectance determination coefficient of 0.49 was obtained from the 467 to 529 phosphorus distribution map. In 1995 the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USCOE) developed the CH3D-WES and CE

Gilbes, Fernando

270

Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Profiles of Anaerobic Swine Lagoon Effluent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibi...

271

An integrated physical and biological model for anaerobic lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k–? model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function

Binxin Wu; Zhenbin Chen

2011-01-01

272

ISOLATION OF SALMONELLA BACTERIOPHAGES FROM SWINE WASTE LAGOONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lagoons on nine Mississippi hog farms were tested for the presence of lytic Salmonella-specific phages. Lytic phages are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Salmonella-killing phages were isolated using an enrichment method or directly from clarified filtered effluent. Enrichment samples were tre...

273

Antibiotic resistant bacterial profiles of anaerobic swine lagoon effluent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. To better understand this, more data is ne...

274

Evaluation of eutrophication in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria Formosa is a shallow mesotidal lagoon on the south coast of Portugal, with natural biogeochemical cycles essentially regulated by tidal exchanges at the seawater boundaries and at the sediment interface. Existing data on nutrients in the water column and the sediment, together with chlorophyll a and oxygen saturation in the water column, are compared using different models for

A. Newton; J. d. Icely; M. Falcao; A. Nobre; J. p. Nunes; J. g. Ferreira; C. Vale

2003-01-01

275

The evolution of the Lagoon of Venice as a paradigm of anthropogenic alteration of ecosystems: a palaeoenvironmental reconstruction through wide-area acoustic surveys and core sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagoon of Venice (Italy) is the unique result of natural and anthropogenic changes. Through the centuries, human activities, steadily modified its environment, bringing it to the point that the Lagoon of Venice is itself a signature of human activities. Moreover, the historical city of Venice, a world heritage site, is threatened by flooding caused by sea level rises, so much so that major modifications of the lagoon inlets are ongoing in order to protect it. For these reasons, the Lagoon of Venice is at the same time a paradigm of a relatively circumscribed ecosystem in which the Anthropocene has started long ago, and a sensitive testbed of the environmental changes that are taking place at the global level. In this context, a large geophysical survey was carried out to explore the Holocene sediments in order to establish the natural evolution of the lagoon and the impact of human activities. The survey is the basis of an interdisciplinary study that has allowed the reconstruction of ancient landscapes of the lagoon from before its origin to present days. In particular, thanks to acoustic and geologic investigation of the lagoon sub-bottom, and by crossing our data with the environmental records provided by archaeological findings and by the city's historical archives, we could distinguish different phases of the lagoon evolution and evaluate the weight of human-induced changes We first mapped the position and the depth of the alluvial plain that was flooded during the last marine transgression, about 6000 years before present (BP), when the lagoon originated. Then, we mapped the areal extension of a dense network of palaeochannels and palaeosurfaces corresponding to different hydrological conditions and relative mean sea levels. Using many radiocarbon dating and the acoustical sub-bottom reconstruction, we could establish an average sedimentation rate of about 1 mm/year from 2500 and 1500 BP and 0.5 mm/year from 1500 BP up to present and an average migration rate of the natural channels ranging from 10 to 20 m/century with a filling rate between 0.5 and 2.5 mm/year. As a further result of this investigation, we found a general simplification of the morphologies over the centuries with a drastic reduction of the number of channels and salt marshes. This simplification can be explained by natural causes such as the general increase of the mean sea level, and by human activities such as artificial river diversion and inlet modifications causing a reduced sediment supply and a change of the hydrodynamics. Finally, we observed that this tendency accelerated dramatically in the last century as a consequence of the construction of a deep industrial canal, dredged between 1961 and 1969 to allow navigation of large containers. These results can contribute to planning effective environmental strategies for the Lagoon of Venice.

Madricardo, Fantina; Donnici, Sandra

2013-04-01

276

Wetlands of the Attawapiskat River mouth, James Bay, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Attawapiskat River is one of the major rivers entering James Bay, Canada. Wetlands of the lower 12 km portion of the river\\u000a were studied between the Cree Indian village of Attawapiskat and James Bay. This portion contains both freshwater, freshwater\\u000a tidal and brackish\\/saline wetlands along a gradient downstream to the river mouth. Due to the high flow of fresh

Walter A. Glooschenko; I. Peter Martini

1983-01-01

277

2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map Showing Progress for the Fiscal Year 1927. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1927. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, District #4, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 29, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

278

Water sources, mixing and evaporation in the Akyatan lagoon, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Akyatan lagoon, located southeast of Turkey along the Mediterranean coast, is a choked and hypersaline lagoon, and hosts a large and specific biodiversity including endangered sea turtles and migrating birds. Physicochemical properties of this lagoon were investigated by measuring temperature, salinity, and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of its waters at a seasonal scale during years 2006 and 2007. Winter and spring seasons were dominated by mixing processes between freshwaters and Mediterranean seawater. The majority of spring season waters are formed by evapoconcentration of brackish water at moderate temperatures of 22 ± 2 °C. During summer, hypersaline waters result from evaporation of seawater and brackish waters formed during spring. Evaporation over the Akyatan lagoon reaches up to 76 wt% based on salinity measurements and operated with a dry (relative humidity of 0.15-0.20) and hot (44 ± 6 °C) air. These residual waters were characterized by the maximal seasonal isotopic enrichment in both deuterium and 18O relative to VSMOW. During autumn, most lagoonal waters became hypersaline and were formed by evaporation of waters that had isotopic compositions and salinities close to that of seawater. These autumnal hypersaline waters result from an air humidity close to 0.45 and an atmospheric temperature of evaporation of 35 ± 5 °C, which are responsible for up to 71 wt% of evaporation, with restricted isotopic enrichments relative to VSMOW. During the warm seasons, the combination of air humidity, wind velocity and temperature were responsible for a large kinetic component in the total isotopic fractionation between water liquid and water vapour.

Lécuyer, C.; Bodergat, A.-M.; Martineau, F.; Fourel, F.; Gürbüz, K.; Nazik, A.

2012-12-01

279

Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons.  

PubMed

Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling ofN is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms that produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase. For denitrification, the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide can be catalyzed by two forms of nitrite reductases, and N,O can be reduced by nitrous oxide reductase encoded by the gene nosZ The objectives of this investigation were to (i) quantify the abundance of the amoA, nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes; (ii) evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on their abundances; and (iii) evaluate their abundance relative to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). Samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and collected from eight typical, commercial anaerobic, swine wastewater lagoons located in the Carolinas. The four genes assayed in this study were present in all eight lagoons. Their abundances relative to total bacterial populations were 0.04% (amoA), 1.33% (nirS), 5.29% (nirK), and 0.27% (nosZ). When compared with lagoon chemical characteristics, amoA and nirK correlated with several measured variables. Neither nirS nor nosZ correlated with any measured environmental variables. Although no gene measured in this study correlated with actual or potential DEA, nosZ copy numbers did correlate with the disparity between actual and potential DEA. Phylogenetic analysis ofnosZdid not reveal any correlations to DEA rates. As with other investigations, analyses of these genes provide useful insight while revealing the underlying greater complexity of N cycling within swine waste lagoons. PMID:21520768

Ducey, Thomas F; Shriner, Anthony D; Hunt, Patrick G

2011-01-01

280

Cofán Indians’ Monitoring of Freshwater Turtles in Zábalo, Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cofán Indians of Aguarico and Zábalo Rivers in Ecuador in 1990 began a turtle recuperation effort by raising turtle hatchlings (Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis) in small pools. To evaluate the effectiveness of this program, the Cofán developed and tested three methods to document changes in the populations of turtles. The first method consisted of interviews with people from

Wendy R. Townsend; A. Randall Borman; Eduardo Yiyoguaje; Luis Mendua

2005-01-01

281

WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, LITTLE SALMON RIVER, ADAMS COUNTY, IDAHO, 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This survey was conducted to determine the point source impact of treatment sewage discharged from the New Meadows Wastewater Treatment lagoons on the Little Salmon River (17060210). Water quality data was collected semiannually from June 1970 to May 1975. Some of this data is ...

282

Salinity and eutrophication management by in situ continuous real-time monitoring and 3D modelling (hydrodynamics coupled with water quality): the case of the Berre lagoon (Mediterranean, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berre lagoon is one of the biggest Mediterranean lagoon. It is located in the South East of France. It's a shallow semi-confined ecosystem (mean depth 6.5 m, depths greater than 8 m being restricted in the central and South parts). Its only connection to the Mediterranean Sea is the Caronte channel in the South West which allows tidal-driven water exchanges. The lagoon receives fresh water and nutrients from natural tributaries (Arc and Touloubre rivers) that drain high anthropised catchment basins. Moreover, a hydroelectric power plant became the main tributary of the lagoon since 1966: it discharged a mean of 3.3 x109 m3 of fresh water per year (equivalent to 3.4 times the volume of the lagoon) and a mean of 525 000 tons of suspended matter per year, during the period 1966 - 1993. As a consequence, the Berre lagoon became particularly unstable, showing considerable salinity drop and variations (2 to 30) depending on seasonal electricity needs. Nutrients loads by both anthropised rivers and power plant led to frequent colored waters and development of macroalgae. Haline stratification favored anoxia and led to benthos disappearance. Changes were observed in Zostera sp. meadows too. In 2004, the European Court of Justice condemned the French State for not respecting the Athens Protocol (advocating Mediterranean protection against telluric pollution) and requested managing strategies. The hydroelectric power plant (Electricité de France EDF) is not allowed from now on to discharge more than 1.2 x109 m3 of fresh water per year. Besides, EDF has to respect severe salinity constraints favorable to the establishment of a balanced ecosystem. In this context, EDF started an in situ continuous monitoring of the lagoon: CTD probes have been installed at 10 stations and currents have been measured in the Caronte channel. Moreover, the three central buoys have been real time remote transmitting to control instantaneously the impact of fresh water discharge on salinity. Since 2008, these three buoys have been also equipped with nitrate, chlorophyll and oxygen probes. Thanks to these measurements, a 3D hydrodynamic model (TELEMAC©) has been developped and validated to better qualify and quantify the relationships between the salinity of the lagoon, the fresh water inputs (from the powerplant and from the rivers), the water exchanges through the Caronte channel and the wind mixing. This model is currently used by the electricity producer to manage fresh water discharges complying with salinity indicators fixed by the European Court of Justice. Then, a biogeochemical model (DelWAQ©) coupled with the hydrodynamic model has been developped to understand the ecosystem functioning and to assess the hydroelectric powerplant implication in the eutrophication of the lagoon. Simulations reproduce quite well: 1/ the seasonal variations of nutrients, 2/ biogeochemical processes, 3/ anoxia events in connection with stratification periods at deep stations and 4/ are able to calculate nutrients budgets over a year. The results show that high primary production rates are based on high dynamical mineralization processes. The allochtonous nutrients sources are not sufficient to feed the phytoplanktonic demand (less than 1%). This models coupling is the only way to compile the physical and biogeochemical variables and processes. It's a tool aiming at a better assessment of the high complexity of the lagoon nutrients cycles. It will help us to understand the powerplant implication for the eutrophication with respect to the anthropised rivers. Moreover we would be able to test various managing scenarii (e.g. drop of nutrients loads) and to suggest new rehabilitation strategies.

Martin, Laurent; Emma, Gouze

2010-05-01

283

Statistical Evaluation of Environmental Contamination, Distribution and Source Assessment of Heavy Metals (Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury) in Some Lagoons and an Estuary Along the Coastal Belt of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental pollution investigation was carried out to determine the concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium\\u000a (Cd), and mercury (Hg) (heavy metals) in the surface water and river water bed sediments of lagoons and estuaries along the\\u000a coastal belt of Ghana. The study assessed the environmental pollution situation and evaluated their sources and distribution\\u000a of these metals. The total

C. K. Adokoh; E. A. Obodai; D. K. Essumang; Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; A. Asabere-Ameyaw

284

Indian Education in Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maine Department of Education assumed the responsibility for the education of Indian children living on Indian reservations on July 1, 1966. This report provides information on the present status of the program. Information is provided on number of schools, school enrollment for the 1969-1970 school year, characteristics of the teaching staff,…

Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

285

Indians of Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma's present-day Indian culture and civilization, it is noted, are very much pronounced, with more than 68 tribes still proudly embracing their identities. Oklahoma is shown to be the melting pot of Indian America on a map indicating the original homelands of some of the many tribes that settled in the State. The historical development and…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

286

Indian Ocean proposed drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tentative plans for the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) are for the drilling vessel SEDCO\\/BP 471 (Eos, March 13, 1984, p. 97) to work in the Indian Ocean during all or parts of 1987 and 1988. The Indian Ocean Advisory Panel of ODP solicits letters of intent or proposals for possible scientific ocean drilling during that period. All areas within the

Joseph R. Curray

1984-01-01

287

Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be carefully monitored so that appropriate responses can be timely to mitigate the impacts from global change. References: Eisenreich, S.J. (2005). Climate Change and the European Water Dimension - A report to the European Water Directors. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, European Comission-Joint Research Centre. Ispra, Italy. 253pp. Kerr, R. (2008). Global warming throws some curves in the Atlantic Ocean. Science, 322, 515. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K., Tignor, M., Miller, H. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996pp. Lloret, J., Marín, A., Marín-Guirao, L. (2008). Is coastal lagoon eutrophication likely to be aggravated by global climate change? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 78, 403-412. Snoussi, M., Ouchani, T., Niazi, S. (2008). Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 77, 206-213.

Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

2009-04-01

288

The Chemehuevi Indians of Southern California. Malki Museum Brochure No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The only local tribe to migrate into California during recorded history, the Chemehuevi Indians had one of the largest tribal areas in California, though their population probably never exceeded 800. Today most live on the Colorado River Reservation, where they share membership with the Colorado River tribes. First mentioned in a priest's report…

Miller, Ronald Dean; Miller, Peggy Jeanne

289

Indians in Indian Fiction: The Shadow of the Trickster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies mythic dimension of protagonists in novels by American Indian authors Scott Momaday and James Welch. Illustrates discrepancies between White readers' beliefs about Indians and Indian myths of the trickster and how mythologies affect interpretation of the novels. Contrasts use of myth by Indian authors Leslie Silko and Gerald Vizenor. (LFL)

Velie, Alan R.

1984-01-01

290

Coral reefs of the Mascarenes, Western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

The reefs of the Mascarenes differ in structure and stage of development. Mauritius is the oldest island, bound by a discontinuous fringing reef and small barrier reef, with large lagoon patch reefs. Rodrigues has nearly continuous fringing reefs bounding an extensive lagoon with deep channels and few patch reefs. Reunion, the youngest island, has short stretches of narrow fringing reefs along southwestern coasts. The islets of St Brandon are bound to the east by an extensive arc of fringing reef. Reef mapping of the Mascarenes using satellite imagery provides an estimate of 705 km2 of shallow reef habitats. These areas have been modified over geological time by changes in sea level, ocean-atmosphere disturbances and biological and chemical forcing. Further modification has resulted from historical changes in land-use patterns. Recent economic development has placed many of these reefs at risk from anthropogenic impact. The reefs of the Mascarenes have escaped mass mortality from bleaching to date, which increases their conservation significance within the wider Indian Ocean. The reefs are poorly protected. A case study shows how a geographic information system incorporating reef-habitat maps can help formulate and demonstrate Marine Protected Area boundaries. PMID:15598634

Turner, John; Klaus, Rebecca

2005-01-15

291

New Indian Tribalism. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this paper are to identify the problems Washington State Indians face and to provide considerations that might assist in promoting the welfare and well-being of American Indians. It is stated that the major barrier to the Indian's success in American society is the attitude of the Anglo towards the Indian. Thus, the programs and…

Beckmann, Kathleen

292

Some Resources in Indian Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the resources in the literature by and about the American Indian and lists numerous anthologies and bibliographies in this area. More than 40 publications are listed, including "Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian,""American Indian Almanac,""Ethnographic Bibliography of North America,""American Indian Prose…

Marken, Jack W.

293

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

294

Resources for American Indian Rehabilitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory is intended to provide a comprehensive listing of organizational and informational resources related to the rehabilitation needs of American Indians with disabilities. The guide is divided into two sections. The first section contains lists of American Indian organizations, American Indian centers, Bureau of Indian Affairs offices,…

Thomason, Timothy C., Ed.

295

Spatial and temporal dynamic of trophic relevant parameters in a subtropical coastal lagoon in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal lagoons are ecologically and economically important environments but a relative low number of studies were carried\\u000a out in subtropical and permanently closed coastal lagoons. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal and spatial dynamic\\u000a of trophic relevant water quality parameters in the small, deep and freshwater Peri coastal lagoon, South Brazil. During the\\u000a 19 sampled months (March\\/2008–September\\/2009) spatial

Mariana Coutinho Hennemann; Mauricio Mello Petrucio

296

Hydrology of Okarito Lagoon and the inferred effects of selective logging in Okarito Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Okarito Lagoon (43° 11?S, 170° 14?E) is a small (20 km) shore?parallel, predominantly subtidal estuary, deepest near the landward end, and linked to the sea by two subtidal channels incised through shallow subtidal and intertidal flats which occupy the southern third of the lagoon. Tides at sea vary from 2.1m (spring) to 1.2 m (neap), but in the lagoon the

J. M. Macpherson

1981-01-01

297

Recent evolution of fishery and land reclamation in Curonian and Lesina lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of fishery and land reclamation in Lesina (Italy) and Curonian (Lithuania\\/Russia) lagoons was analysed as an\\u000a example of recent trends in European coastal lagoons. Social and political changes were considered, addressing resource exploitation\\u000a and inherent impacts on ecosystems. In both lagoons, the mismanagement of the fish stock led to the depletion of fish resources\\u000a and to the decline

Paolo Breber; Ram?nas Povilanskas; Aušrin? Armaitien?

2008-01-01

298

Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its hydrogeologic control in a reef lagoon setting, but is likely to occur in many similar coastal settings. Ignoring geologic complexity can result in mischaracterization of SGD and other coastal groundwater processes at many spatial scales.

Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.

2014-09-01

299

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part II: The Indian Tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part II of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Documents are included relative to the Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, and the Red Cliff bands of Lake Superior Chippewa…

Fay, George E., Comp.

300

Paleoenvironmental changes for past 700 years and paleoclimatic changes by solar activity in Nakaumi Lagoon, southwestern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence shows that solar activity influences climate on a global scale. In the mid-latitude region, climate change is expected to change precipitation patterns. Concurrently, variation in solar activity may influence phytoplankton productivity. It seems that these changes should be recorded in sediment and organic matter deposits in coastal lagoons. In this study, we discuss the relationship between climate change and solar activity in the mid-Holocene in the northern hemisphere mid-latitude region based on high-resolution sedimentologic and geochemical analysis of core collected from Nakaumi Lagoon. This lagoon is located on the Sea of Japan side of southwest Japan, and is a brackish-water lake of ~86 square kilometers. 12Nk-6C core is 219.5cm in length, and consist of mud with shell fragment at most horizons. Samples were collected at 1cm intervals from these cores, and grain size analysis and C,N,S element analyses were carried out. Total organic carbon (TOC) content declines step-wise from base of the core (1.7%). TOC content is lowest (1.2%) at 40cm, and increases above this horizons. Total sulfur (TS) content shows similar pattern of change to TOC content. TS content has a peak (2.6%) at 22cm. The rapid increase of TOC content and TS content are consider to be affected by human activity. Mean grain size and TOC/TN ratio (C/N ratio) tends to coarse and increase above 80cm, probably reflects the modification of the Iinashi River channel in AD1665. C/N ratio has a peak (11) at approximately 50cm, and mean grain size also shows coarse value at this horizons. It is consider that reflects big flood in AD 1840. The pattern of Variation in TOC, TS, C/N ratio and Mean grain size are synchronized, and relatively similar to variation in atmospheric radiocarbon 14C (Delta 14C) and therefore with solar activity. This pattern may therefore reflect climate change driven at least in part by solar activity. Coarser grain size in Nakaumi Lagoon sediments reflects flood events that bring a greater sediment load into the lake. Increased flood event frequency in the temperate zone is associated with warmer climates.

Okazaki, Y.; Seto, K.

2012-12-01

301

Developing Age Models to Utilize High Arctic Coastal Sediments for Paleoclimate Research: Results from the Colville Delta and Simpson Lagoon, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment cores collected from Simpson Lagoon on the inner Beaufort Sea shelf adjacent to the Colville River delta, AK are being utilized to develop new, high-resolution (sub-decadal scale) archives of the 0-3,000 year Arctic paleoclimate record necessary to assess natural and anthropogenic climate variability. An imperative first step for developing a new paleoclimate archive is to establish methodologies for constraining the age-depth relationship. Naturally occurring and bomb-produced radioisotopes have been utilized in sediments to constrain downcore variability of accumulation rates on 100-103 y timescales, but this methodology is complicated by low activities of many of these tracers at high latitudes. The present study utilizes the combination of a (1) multi-tracer approach and a (2) tailored measurement strategy to overcome this limitation. 210Pb and 137Cs analyses were conducted on the fine (<32?m) sediment fraction to maximize measurable activity and to minimize radioisotope activity variability resulting from changes in grain size: 137Cs geochronologies proved more reliable in this setting and revealed mm/y sediment accumulation in the lagoon. To corroborate the 137Cs results, 239,240Pu activities were analyzed for selected sites using ICP-MS which has ultra-low detection limits, and yielded accumulation rates that matched the Cs geochronology. Age model development for the remainder of the core lengths (>~100 y in age) were completed using radiocarbon dating of benthic foraminifera tests, which proved the only datable in situ carbon available in this sediment archive. These dates have been used to constrain the ages of acoustic reflectors in CHIRP subbottom seismic records collected from the lagoon. Using this age control, spatial patterns of lagoonal sediment accumulation over the last ~3 ky were derived from the CHIRP data. Two depocenters are identified and validate combining age-dated coring with high-resolution seismic profiling to identify areas of the highest temporal resolution for Arctic paleoclimate research in coastal sediments.

Miller, A. J.; Allison, M. A.; Bianchi, T. S.; Marcantonio, F.

2012-12-01

302

Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons  

SciTech Connect

An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

1999-11-01

303

Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

1985-02-01

304

Indian Policy and Westward Expansion  

E-print Network

, Indian wars, the Pacific railroad project, the extension of the frontier, schemes for the civilization of the Indians, etc., are topics in Western history which are more or less unrelated in the form in which they have usually been treated. Indian.... CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Position of the Indian Country—Time during which problem developed—Factors determining Indian policy: Settlement of the Pacific Coast, Transcontinental lines of communication and transportation, Westward expansion in the Trans...

Malin, James Claude

1921-11-01

305

Indian concepts on sexuality  

PubMed Central

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

306

Coastal lagoons and their evolution: A hydromorphological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a geoscience perspective, coastal lagoons are essentially ephemeral features which are part of a continuum of coastal environments. Their natural hydromorphological evolution is seldom if ever permitted to take place as a consequence of human action; either directly by engineering interventions, to maintain or create navigable inlets, or indirectly due to activities within their catchment areas. The hydromorphological impacts of historical, contemporary and proposed engineering activities in coastal lagoons around in the world are reviewed and from these a powerful exemplar is that of the Aveiro system in Portugal. Here, two centuries of channelization, jetty and breakwater construction and progressive dredging have transformed a then fluvially dominant system into one that is today tidally dominant. Both the tidal range and tidal prism have increased along with the extent of saline intrusion. The associated stresses imposed by increased tidal currents have, in turn, led to important changes in the sedimentary regime and to the loss of almost all seagrass species which were once abundant in the system. This, along with observations from other related case studies, raises important questions regarding the concept of lagoon ecosystem 'health' and the baseline or reference conditions to which it is assessed.

Duck, Robert W.; da Silva, José Figueiredo

2012-09-01

307

Missouri River InfoLINK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Listed among the "Endangered Rivers" of 1999, the Missouri River drains one-sixth of the United States's surface water; management decisions regarding the Missouri River affect a wide range of wildlife, as well as millions of Americans from Missouri to Montana. The Missouri River InfoLINK, housed at the USGS-BRD Columbia Environmental Research Center, "was created for these stakeholders who want to understand how the river functions and make informed decisions about the river's future use and management." To that end, the site offers sections for the public as well as the scientist. For background information on current research, see the Science section (includes a large bibliography and research summaries); for a wide array of background information (some of which is technical), see the River section. In addition, the site offers summary data (soil attributes, agricultural products, the 1990 Census, etc.), beautiful maps showing county boundaries, basin-wide maps (depicting general geography, watersheds and rivers, average runoff, ecoregions, physiographic regions, Indian tribal lands, dams and reservoirs, and agriculture), or local maps (1:100,000 quadrangle maps of the 1993 flood extent, wetlands, etc.), and much more. This is an outstanding site, rich in information of varying complexity.

308

The Salt River Project of Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information on the history of the Salt River community, its Native American Indian culture, and the impacts of water usage by and for humans. Activities topics include energy, electricity, and water energy, usage and safety. Historical references to the Salt River valley are integrated into resource materials. Resources are available free of charge for teachers and students and must be requested via email.

1996-01-01

309

Indian Language Information Retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the proliferation of the Internet in south Asia over the last decade, the availability of digital documents in Indian languages has increased considerably. The need for effective information access methods for these languages is being increasingly felt. Although Indian language information retrieval (ILIR) research is in a relatively nascent stage (especially with regard to large-scale quantitative evaluation), several research efforts in this area have been reported in the recent past. This chapter reviews the current state of the art in mono-lingual and cross-lingual information access in Indian languages and outlines a recent project that aims to create a comprehensive, end-to-end IR system for Indian languages, along with a standardized evaluation framework (in the spirit of TREC, CLEF, or NTCIR) that will provide a sound empirical basis for further work.

Majumder, Prasenjit; Mitra, Mandar

310

Indian Summer for Wayfarers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

Kaltenbronn, Kyra

1977-01-01

311

76 FR 58076 - Designation of The Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian Mujahidin, Also Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM), as a Specially...Mujahedeen, also known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF- IM),...

2011-09-19

312

76 FR 58076 - Designation of the Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian Mujahidin, Also Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM), as a Foreign...Mujahedeen, also known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM)....

2011-09-19

313

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

314

Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm/day to 2.4 mm/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), which accounted for over 99 percent of the soluble nitrogen, ranged from 10 ppm to 3500 ppm. On average, nitrogen concentrations in swine lagoons were about five times higher than those at cattle feedlots. The chemical flux density (flux boundary condition) was estimated from the seepage rate and the corresponding waste chemistry data from each lagoon. Results showed that ammonium-N export was between 0.02 and 1.06 kg NH4-N m-2 yr^{-1} with an overall average of about 0.3 kg NH4-N m^{-2} yr^{-1}$ . Similar data are available for other soluble compounds. Soil cores were collected beneath eight lagoons that had been operated from 12 to 25 years. Results showed that NH4-N was strongly adsorbed by the soil clay particles and that nitrogen concentrations often decreased to background levels at 3 m beneath the lagoon. Other ions, such as chloride, penetrated to much lower depths at all locations. The 'reservoir' of NH4-N that exists beneath older lagoons could convert to nitrate and move to lower depths after lagoon closure. Data suggest that the properties if the soil beneath lagoons, the concentration of the waste, the seepage rate, and the depth to groundwater are the crucial factors that affect the risk of groundwater contamination.

Ham, J. M.; DeSutter, T. M.

2001-05-01

315

On the applicability of the tidal prism - inlet area relationship to Northern Adriatic Sea lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tidal prism-inlet area relationship, well-known as the "O'Brien-Jarrett-Marchi law", relates inlet cross-sectional area to its tidal prism (water volume flowing through the considered inlet during a characteristic tidal cycle), thus embodying the complex relation between the channel morphological characteristics and the related hydrodynamic features. Our work is mainly focused on the correct application of this relationship to the lagoons of the Northern Adriatic Sea, in order to analyse the applicability of the above recalled law to lagoons characterized by a dynamic behaviour, with non-negligible effects of tidal propagation. In particular, we integrate the dataset collected by Jarrett (1976) with the data concerning the Venice lagoon and the Delta Po lagoons. First, we investigate the modifications in tidal prism and inlet area induced by the most invasive anthropic interventions carried out within Venice lagoon during the last two centuries. To this purpose, we use a fully-coupled 2D finite element hydrodynamic model to analyse the hydrodynamic behaviour of five morphological configurations representative of the lagoon morphological evolution from 1811 to 2003. The analysis shows that the lagoons characterized by a quasi-static hydrodynamic behaviour, such as Delta Po lagoons and the more recent morphological configurations of Venice lagoon, are better described by the O'Brien-Jarrett-Marchi relationship when compared to the past morphological configurations of Venice lagoon, which are characterized by a dynamic behaviour. Finally, we compare the results obtained by analysing natural lagoons with those obtained by considering data collected within laboratory physical models, and critically discuss them on the basis of theoretical interpretations of the tidal prism-inlet area relationship recently proposed by several authors. This application highlights the need to compare data on the basis of a "modified tidal prism" which takes into account the "scale effects" characterizing physical models.

Stefanon, Luana; D'Alpaos, Andrea; D'Alpaos, Luigi

2013-04-01

316

River discharge, sediment transport and exchange in the Tana Estuary, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on sediment transport and exchange dynamics in the 27km2 Tana Estuary located at Kipini in the north Kenya coast. The estuary is drained by the Tana River, which contributes more than 50% of the total river discharges into the Kenyan sector of the Indian Ocean. The study involved measurement of river discharges, estuarine flood–ebb tidal discharges, total

J. U. Kitheka; M. Obiero; P. Nthenge

2005-01-01

317

Classification of Australian Clastic Coastal Depositional Environments Based Upon a Quantitative Analysis of Wave, Tidal, and River Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical assessment of wave, tide, and river power was carried out using a database of 721 Australian clastic coastal deposi- tional environments to test whether their geomorphology could be pre- dicted from numerical values. The geomorphic classification of each environment (wave- and tide-dominated deltas, wave- and tide-domi- nated estuaries, lagoons, strand plains, and tidal flats) was established independently from

P. T. Harris; A. D. Heap; S. M. Bryce; R. Porter-Smith; D. A. Ryan; D. T. Heggie

2002-01-01

318

A multi-proxy approach to tsunami deposit characterization: searching wetlands and lagoons at the Mexican Pacific coast for a record of tsunami inundations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is extremely important to integrate historic accounts with geologic evidence of past tsunamis to fully understand hazards to the highly populated Mexican coast. We aim to complete a record of tsunami events using a multi- proxy approach to identify tsunami deposits recovered from marsh lagoonal sediments on the Guerrero coast of Mexico. Core samples from nine study sites on tropical wetlands show distinct stratigraphic changes with depth, indicating clear rapid change in depositional environments over time. Core sequences recovered include evidence of land level changes and three probable tsunamis based on stratigraphic, granulometric, geochemical, and microfossil analysis (diatoms and pollen) of marsh sediments. Radiocarbon data indicate that the sediment units cored are up to ca. 6161+/- 53 yr BP. A probable tsunami event and coseismic subsidence dates back at 3800 yr BP. Discrete sand units fining up show sharp erosional contacts at the base, medium to poor sorting, fine to coarse sand, with clay/mud rip-up clasts. However, traces of these apparent tsunami deposits are not extensive over a large area and we could not correlate them from one site to another. We hypothesize that the distribution and preservation of tsunami deposits in these tropical lagoonal marshes and wetlands might be controlled by mangrove vegetation fringing coastal lagoons and estuaries. Recent observations after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami showed that mangroves may dissipate tsunami energy and result in flumed-shape sediment deposition. If this is the case, finding tsunami deposits over extensive areas in mangrove marshes and wetlands would prove very challenging.

Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Cundy, A.; Kostoglodov, V.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Morales, E.; Metcalfe, S.

2007-05-01

319

Evidence of North Africa?s Green Revolution Preserved in Sedimentary Organic Matter Deposited in Three Coastal Lagoons.  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the dep...

320

Project summary. PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE (EPA/600/S2-89/015)  

EPA Science Inventory

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactlvation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was filled with 7.56 mL of ...

321

Microbiological quality of effluents from anaerobic swine manure lagoons in Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Confined swine feeding operations in Mississippi and most of the southeastern USA routinely flush manure from pits beneath confinement barns into open anaerobic storage lagoons. Lagoon effluent is reused for pit flushing and eventually land applied as fertilizer for grass hay. The fertilizer quali...

322

MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS AT WASTE TREATMENT LAGOON-ATMOSPHERIC INTERFACE  

E-print Network

MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS AT WASTE TREATMENT LAGOON-ATMOSPHERIC INTERFACE of ammonia are approximately 75 Tg N/yr (1 Tg = 1012g). The major global source is excreta from domestic in North Carolina (NC). Proteins and nitrogen rich compounds in the lagoon are converted to ammonia

Aneja, Viney P.

323

REMOVAL OF ESTROGENIC COMPOUNDS IN DAIRY WASTE LAGOONS BY FERRATE (VI): OXIDATION/COAGULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferrate (VI)is used as a means of breaking down and/or removing steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE), to minimize the amount of SE entering groundwater/watersheds. Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for EC (estrogenic content) and assayed using High Performance Liquid Chrom...

324

Evaluation of the utility of water quality based indicators of estuarine lagoon condition in NSW, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental indicators must have a predictable relationship with stressors to be of value in ecological assessments. We evaluated the information provided by commonly implemented monitoring indicators as a means of assessing of the level of ecological impact experienced by coastal lagoons in New South Wales, Australia. Existing data for environmental variables in coastal lagoons were correlated with independent estimates of

Peter Scanes; Geoff Coade; Maria Doherty; Ross Hill

2007-01-01

325

Ecological implications of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of Burullus Lagoon of Nile Delta, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Ni) from three short sediment cores collected from Burullus lagoon of the Nile delta, Egypt. 210Pb and 137Cs measurement is applied to understand sedimentation rate and related chronology. Remarkably low isotopic activities and intensive bioturbation in the lagoonal sediments rendered age

Zhongyuan Chen; Alaa Salem; Zhuang Xu; Weiguo Zhang

2010-01-01

326

GEOTEXTILE FILTRATION PERFORMANCE FOR LAGOON SLUDGES AND LIQUID ANIMAL MANURES DEWATERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance and control of liquid levels in anaerobic lagoons and storage ponds is enhanced by pretreatment with liquid-solid separation or periodic removal of accumulated sludges. Until local disposal or nutrient recycling options become available, sludges can be contained, dewatered, and stored using geotextile filtration. A geotextile filtration testing method termed a hanging-bag test was used to treat dairy lagoon sludge,

K. B. Cantrell; J. P. Chastain; K. P. Moore

327

ABATEMENT OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM SWINE LAGOONS USING POLYMER-ENHANCED SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effects of solid-liquid separation of liquid swine manure on ammonia emissions from lagoons. This determination was done at full-scale in two contiguous swine production units that had similar animal production management. One of these units was maintained as a control using the anaerobic lagoon treatment method. In the second production unit, solids were

A. A. Szögi; M. B. Vanotti

328

Nitrification and Denitrification Communities Associated with a Semi-Permeable Swine Waste Lagoon Biocover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emission from swine waste lagoons presents a serious environmental challenge to pork producers. Semi-permeable swine waste lagoon biocovers have been developed to serve as a physical barrier and as an attachment site for biofilm development, but microbial analysis of the biocover technology...

329

Induction of Purple Sulfur Bacterial Growth in Dairy Wastewater Lagoons by Circulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aims: To determine if circulation of diary wastewater induces the growth of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). Methods and Results: Two dairy wastewater lagoons that were similar in size, geographic location, number and type of cattle loading the lagoons were chosen. The only obvious diffe...

330

Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genetic Variation across Calving Lagoons in Eastern North Pacific Gray Whales (Eschrichtius robustus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification

S. ELIZABETH ALTER; S ERGIO FLORES RAMIREZ; S ERGIO NIGENDA; J ORGE URBAN RAMIREZ; L ORENZO ROJAS BRACHO; STEPHEN R. PALUMBI

2008-01-01

331

Responses of coastal lagoon plant communities to different forms of nutrient enrichment—a mesocosm experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out an enrichment experiment to quantify the effects of different forms of nutrients on the plant communities characteristic of lagoons common along the north east coast of the USA. ‘Lagoon’ mesocosms were enriched with phosphate alone, nitrate alone, nitrate plus phosphate, or ammonium plus phosphate. Nitrogen and phosphorus were added at loadings of 8200 ?mol m?2 day?1 and

D. I. Taylor; S. W. Nixon; S. L. Granger; B. A. Buckley; J. P. McMahon; H.-J. Lin

1995-01-01

332

Nickel bioaccumulation in bivalves from the New Caledonia1 lagoon: Seawater and food exposure2  

E-print Network

Caledonian lagoon is submitted to intense heavy metal input from land-based Ni22 mining. Therefore, the use- 1 - 1 Nickel bioaccumulation in bivalves from the New Caledonia1 lagoon: Seawater and food programmes of the metal contamination. The24 tropical oysters Isognomon isognomon and Malleus regula

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

333

Ecology of an isolated mangrove lagoon (Playa Medina, Venezuela) and its potential  

E-print Network

Ecology of an isolated mangrove lagoon (Playa Medina, Venezuela) and its potential use as sewage conditions of a coastal mangrove lagoon in Venezuela which is completely isolated from the sea, lacking any is to relate some of the effects of disconnection, with the potential use of the mangrove as a sewage pond

Vegas Vlarrúbia, Teresa

334

THE DIET OF THE CURLEW SANDPIPER AT LANGEBAAN LAGOON, SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puttick, G. M. 1978. The diet of the Curlew Sandpiper at Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa. Ostrich 49:158-167.Nereid worms (mainly Ceratonereis erythraensis) and the hydrobiid gastropod Assiminea globulus were the most important prey items throughout the year for Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferruginea feeding at Langebaan Lagoon. Other important items were the amphipod Urothoe grimaldi, the crabs Hymenosoma orbiculare and Cleistostoma edwardsii

Gillian M. Puttick

1978-01-01

335

Late-Summer Abundance and Distribution of Marine Birds in Kasegaluk Lagoon, Chukchi Sea, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas drilling programs in the Alaska Chukchi Sea were carried out on leases offshore from Kasegaluk Lagoon in 1989-91, and further exploration and development activities in this area are likely in future years. We conducted aerial surveys between late July and early September 1989-91 to determine the distribution and abundance of marine birds in the Kasegaluk Lagoon area.

STEPHEN R. JOHNSON; DAVID A. WIGGINS; PETER F. WAINWRIGHT

336

Seagrasses and sediment response to changing physical forcing in a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria de Aveiro is an estuary-coastal lagoon system connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a channel with a cross-sectional area that, for more than a century, has increased steadily, partly because of dredging over the last 50 years. Local ocean tides, with amplitudes of up to 3 m, are today transmitted to the lagoon by the single, engineered inlet

J. Figueiredo da Silva; R. W. Duck; J. B. Catarino

2004-01-01

337

MARINE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF YAP LAGOON UNIVERSITY OF GUAM MARINE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

MARINE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF YAP LAGOON Edited by Roy T. Tsu · UNIVERSITY OF GUAM MARINE LABORATORY of Yap, drawn by Leonor Lange-Moore. #12;MARINE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF YAP LAGOON Edi ted by ROY T. TSUDA to Office of Planning and Statistics Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands University of Guam Marine

Mcilwain, Jenny

338

A multidisciplinary study of the immediate effects of mechanical clam harvesting in the Venice Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pranovi F., Da Ponte F., Raicevich S., and Giovanardi O., 2004. A multidisciplinary study of the immediate effects of mechanical clam harvesting in the Venice Lagoon. e ICES Journal of Marine Science 61: 43e52. In the Venice Lagoon, clam (Tapes philippinarum) harvesting is carried out mainly by means of a gear locally called ''rusca'', developed by local fishermen. The rusca

F. Pranovi; F. Da Ponte; S. Raicevich; O. Giovanardi

2004-01-01

339

REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM SWINE LAGOONS USING ALTERNATIVE WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need for treatment technologies that can effectively address environmental concerns associated with ammonia emissions from anaerobic lagoons, typically used to manage manure. To meet this need, we conducted a study to determine the effects of water quality improvement in swine lagoons on ...

340

Methane and ammonia emissions from New Mexico dairy lagoons in summer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gaseous emissions of concern from commercial dairy operations include methane and ammonia. Dairy wastewater lagoons are sources of emission for both these gases. We quantified emissions of methane and ammonia from a lagoon system at a commercial open lot dairy in eastern New Mexico using open path l...

341

Morphological equilibrium of short channels dissecting the tidal flats of coastal lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium bed profile of tidal channels dissecting the tidal flats of coastal lagoons is studied within a rational one-dimensional framework. A general analytical solution is obtained which expresses the bed profile in terms of a modified longitudinal coordinate, accounting implicitly for channel convergence and adjacent shoals. For values of the relevant parameters typical of costal lagoons, inertia and friction

Marco Toffolon; Stefano Lanzoni

2010-01-01

342

Removal of Estrogenic Compounds in Dairy Waste Lagoons by Ferrate (VI): Oxidation/Coagulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferrate(VI) was used to break down and/or remove steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE). Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for estrogenic content (EC) and assayed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Effects of varying...

343

River restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is

Ellen Wohl; Paul L. Angermeier; Brian Bledsoe; G. Mathias Kondolf; Larry MacDonnell; David M. Merritt; Margaret A. Palmer; N. LeRoy Poff; David Tarboton

2005-01-01

344

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water in the turn basin, east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and more looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

345

A summary of preliminary studies of sedimentation and hydrology in Bolinas Lagoon, Marin County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating sedimentary and hydrologic conditions in Bolinas Lagoon, a 1,100-acre lagoon 15 miles northwest of San Francisco. The program began in May 1967 and will continue into 1970. Only the study results analyzed before June 1968 are summarized in the report. Two series of measurements of suspended-sediment load and water discharge in the lagoon inlet showed that much of the suspended sediment is sand and that the average velocity was as much as 4.7 feet per second. Littoral drift near the inlet was generally toward the inlet, whereas farther from the inlet the pattern is irregular. Circulation velocities in the lagoon decrease rapidly away from the inlet, but probably remain high enough to erode bottom sediment along the channels. In most of the lagoon median size of bottom sediment was fine sand. Sediment was derived chiefly from Monterey Shale.

Ritter, John R.

1970-01-01

346

The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication.  

PubMed

Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication. PMID:19703693

Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

2009-12-01

347

Winter-summer nutrient composition linkage to algae-produced toxins in shellfish at a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current work examines the linkage of pronounced winter-summer fluctuations on the nutrient composition with phytoplankton assemblages and mussel toxicity produced by the presence of toxic dinoflagellates. The work was performed at the Óbidos lagoon, a coastal eutrophic ecosystem that is permanently connected to an area characterized by frequent upwelling episodes. The lagoon and adjoining coastal area exhibit recurrent incidents of diarrhetic and paralytic shellfish poisoning. The conclusions are based on: (1) inorganic and organic nutrients at five sites of the lower, middle and upper Óbidos lagoon, and inorganic nutrients at two sites of the adjacent coastal area; biannual campaigns were performed in winter and summer between 2006 and 2010; (2) phytoplankton assemblages at three sites of the lagoon (located at lower and upper areas) in winter and summer of 2009; (3) algae-derived toxicity of wild mussels from the lower lagoon and coastal area, on a 1-2 week time scale, over 2006 and 2009. Nutrient molar ratios in Óbidos lagoon contrast between winter and summer. The lower median ratios DIN:P (31 and 0.8) and Si:P (11 and 3.3) in summer reflect the excess of phosphate. Excess was mainly attributed to phosphorus regeneration in sediments of the upper lagoon with accentuated symptoms of eutrophication. Dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus were also higher in summer, particularly in this area. No significant winter-summer differences were recorded for nutrient ratios in the adjacent coastal area. Phytoplankton assemblages pointed to a winter-summer contrast characterized by a shift of non-siliceous-based phytoplankton to diatoms. The toxic dinoflagellate species (Gymnodinium catenatum, Dinophysis cf. acuminata and Dinophysis acuta), presumably imported from the adjacent coast following upwelling episodes in summer, were observed in the lower lagoon. In summer of the two surveyed years, toxins produced by dinoflagellates occurred in mussels from the lower lagoon and coastal area. However, mussel toxicity in the lagoon exceeded values of the coastal area suggesting that high cell density of toxic dinoflagellates resulted from favourable nutrient conditions. We conclude that connectivity between eutrophic lagoons and upwelling systems stimulates the increase of toxic algae and consequently enhancing shellfish toxicity.

Pereira, Patrícia; Botelho, Maria João; Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Moita, Maria Teresa; Gonçalves, Célia

2012-10-01

348

Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by establishing…

Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

2005-01-01

349

A Look at Indian Control of Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The opportunity for American Indians to learn in their own way, a way of deep cultural roots and implications, must be provided in schools rather than using the educational psychology which dominates today's classrooms. The importance of adopting an Indian philosophy is stressed in this policy statement by the National Indian Brotherhood. (See…

Weitz, Jacqueline M.

1974-01-01

350

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

351

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

352

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

353

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

354

Algal fossils from a late precambrian, hypersaline lagoon.  

PubMed

Organically preserved algal microfossils from the Ringwood evaporite deposit in the Gillen Member of the Bitter Springs Formation (late Precambrian of central Australia) are of small size, low diversity, and probable prokaryotic affinities. These rather primitive characteristics appear to reflect the stressful conditions that prevailed in a periodically stagnant, hypersaline lagoon. This assemblage (especially in comparison with the much more diverse assemblages preserved in the Loves Creek Member of the same formation) illustrates the potential utility of Proterozoic microbiotas for basin analysis and local stratigraphic correlation and demonstrates the need to base evolutionary considerations and Precambrian intercontinental biostratigraphy on biotas that inhabited less restricted environments. PMID:17790847

Oehler, D Z; Oehler, J H; Stewart, A J

1979-07-27

355

Organocopper complexes during roxarsone degradation in wastewater lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Organoarsenical-containing animal feeds that promote growth and resistance to parasites are mostly excreted unchanged, ending\\u000a up in nearby wastewater storage lagoons. Earlier work documented the partial transformation of organoarsenicals, such as,\\u000a 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (roxarsone) to the more toxic inorganic arsenate [As(V)] and 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic\\u000a acid (3-AHPAA). Unidentified roxarsone metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass

Syam S. Andra; Konstantinos C. Makris; Shahida Quazi; Dibyendu Sarkar; Rupali Datta; Stephan B. H. Bach

2010-01-01

356

Floods in the Skunk River basin, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains require information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitudes and frequency, and flood profiles for the Skunk River and some of its tributaries. It covers the Skunk -- South Skunk Rivers to Ames, and the lower reaches of tributaries as flows: Squaw Creek, 8.2 miles; Indian Creek, 11.6 miles; North Skunk River, 83.2 miles; Cedar Creek, 55.8 miles; and Big Creek, 21.7 miles.

Heinitz, Albert J.; Wiitala, Sulo Werner

1978-01-01

357

A Mechanism Relating the Indian Ocean SSTs, ENSO, and the Nile Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is associated with ElNino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Fluctuations of the Indian Ocean Sea Surface temperature (SST) are also associated with the Nile flow. Here, we investigate the intermediate role of Indian Ocean SSTs in the teleconnection between Nile flow and ENSO. Using the partial coherency analysis, we show that connection between the North and Middle of Indian Ocean SSTs and Nile flow is driven by ENSO. However, the South of Indian Ocean SSTs have an independent role from ENSO in shaping variability of Nile flow. This independence allows for indices of SSTs over the South of Indian Ocean and ENSO to explain about 60% of the variability of the Nile flow when they are used together. During ElNino events, the SSTs over the Indian Ocean increase following the warming of the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), which forces a Matsuno-Gill circulation with enhanced westerlies winds over Indian Ocean that decreases the convergence of boundary layer air over the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin. On the other hand, the increased SSTs over South of Indian Ocean generate a cyclonic motion, which has a similar effect on the convergence of boundary layer air over the UBN. The proposed mechanism has an important implication in understanding the potential climate change impacts on the Nile flow induced by warming of over Indian Ocean and provide new indices for Nile flow forecast models.

Siam, M.; Eltahir, E. A.

2012-12-01

358

American Indian Policy Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Arizona State University, the American Indian Policy Institute collaborates with tribal governments and American Indian communities on issues that affect them and also works to nurture innovation for American Indian sustainability. The site offers a wealth of reports, news articles, publications, conference programs, and other items that will be of interest to scholars. The Reports & Publications area contains thoughtful missives such as "Tribes and Energy within Arizona" and "Land Use Challenges and Choices for the 21st Century." The Award-Winning First Innovations area offers up a host of best practices designed to introduce sustainability entrepreneurship in Native American communities. Additionally, the Projects & Initiatives area offers detailed program information about tribal planning summits and financial management seminars.

359

Indian Child Welfare in Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

360

The Revolution in Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though the educational achievement of American Indians during the last 10 years has been impressive, indications are that it will be some time before Indian people have an equal educational opportunity with the majority population. To understand the statistics and social indicators of the revolution in Indian education, it is necessary to examine…

Chavers, Dean

361

White Control of Indian "Education."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper is about White control of Indian education; how Euro-Canadian missionaries and government agents worked hand-in-hand in their relentless attempts to transform Indian people into their own image. The shrill and persistent theme of Euro-Canadians was how best to civilize and Christianize the Indians. Controlled situations in school and in…

LaRocque, Emma D.

362

The Indian in American History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The treatment of American Indians is discussed historically with reference to the 4 principal methods used to create or perpetuate false impressions: obliteration, defamation, disembodiment, and disparagement. Indian contributions to American civilization are cited in contrast with historical references to Indians in textbooks. The author suggests…

Vogel, Virgil J.

363

Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

364

[Presidential Message on Indian Affairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Nixon's message pointed out the deprivation and the injustices which the American Indians have suffered for centuries. It was noted that now is the time to break with the past and create conditions for a new era in which the Indian future is determined by Indian acts and decisions. The relationship between the Federal Government and the…

Nixon, Richard

365

Facts about American Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

American Indian College Fund, 2010

2010-01-01

366

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

367

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2012-12-28

368

SLN COURSE # COURSE AND DESCRIPTION CR DAYS/TIMES PLACE INSTRUCTOR 10175 AIS 202 A Contemporary Indian Experience 5  

E-print Network

and the U.S. as a whole are explored, as well as the 'Anti-Indian Casino' movement. Tribal, government A Changing Rivers of Puget Sound 5 MW 11:30 - 12:50 PM JHN 127 Colonnese, T Collins, B Updegrave, C Turn over and ecological evolution of Puget Sound rivers, their geologic origins, hydro-geomorphic processes

Kaminsky, Werner

369

48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian Organizations, Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises, and Native Hawaiian...

2010-10-01

370

Association of American Indian cultural identity with physical activity  

PubMed Central

Objective Cultural factors are associated with health behaviors among American Indians. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to investigate whether cultural identity, defined as the primary language spoken at home, is associated with (1) higher total physical activity levels and (2) levels of leisure-time physical activity recommended for health benefits in a diverse sample of American Indians. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 5,207 American Indian adults 18 to 82 years. Participants resided on the Oglala Sioux (n = 2,025) and Cheyenne River Sioux (n = 1,528) reservations in South Dakota, and the Gila River Indian Community (n = 1,654) in Arizona. Results Bicultural participants in South Dakota, but not Arizona, reported significantly higher total physical activity compared to the English-only group (p < 0.05). About 35% of English only speakers, 39% of American Indian/Alaska Native only speakers, and 39% of participants speaking both languages met the 150 minutes/week activity threshold. Odds of being sufficiently active were higher among bicultural respondents in both regions when compared to respondents endorsing only English, controlling for socio-demographic and health-related covariates (p < 0.05). Conclusion Bicultural respondents among tribal members in South Dakota had significantly higher total physical activity, and higher levels of sufficient leisure-time activity in both South Dakota and Arizona, compared to those who spoke either language exclusively. Interventions that encourage American Indians to develop their bicultural efficacy and to draw on resources for healthy living that may be available in all the cultures with which they identify are recommended. PMID:24620441

Duncan, Glen E.; McDougall, Casey L.; Dansie, Elizabeth; Garroutte, Eva; Buchwald, Dedra; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

371

Relationship between benthic foraminiferal assemblages and environmental factors in atoll lagoons of the central Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foraminiferal assemblages were studied in ten atoll lagoons in the central Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia, in order to determine which environmental factors influence their distribution. Among geomorphological conditions, the degree of aperture has a major influence on lagoonal communities. Cluster and factor analyses reveal a clear contrast between the foraminiferal associations located in the peripheral and central areas of the lagoons, showing the effect of the vicinity of coral reef, and a limited post-mortem transport of species from the periphery toward the center of the lagoons. The rarity of planktonic species indicates limited penetration of the lagoon by planktonic forms, including planktonic stages of benthic colonizers. Colonization of these remote lagoons, even those with a high degree of aperture, may thus require long periods. Therefore, the Holocene transgression that flooded the deeper lagoons before the shallower ones, allowing a longer colonization period, may have contributed to the higher species richness of foraminifera within them.

Bicchi, E.; Debenay, J.-P.; Pagès, J.

2002-09-01

372

Position Announcement Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce  

E-print Network

Position Announcement Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Marine Education Aid Description The Smithsonian Marine Ecosystems Exhibit in Fort Pierce, Florida is located on the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), one

Mathis, Wayne N.

373

INDIAN ETHOS, INDIAN CULTURE AND INDIAN MANAGEMENT: TOWARDS NEW FRONTIERS IN MANAGEMENT THINKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, Indian concepts have acquired a new prominence at the global level. Its roots go back to 1960s, when several Indian Spiritual Movements (ISMs) acquired a worldwide acceptance and presence. TM, ISKCON, Brahma Kumaries, SRF (Self-Realization Fellowship), Art of Living, etc. are a few illustrations. Many new movements are emerging and Indian cultural ideas and concepts are finding

Subhash Sharma

374

Successional pattern of phytoplankton (>55 microm) in Lekki lagoon, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Lagoons are dominant features along large stretches of the West Africa coast. These freshwater environments are very valuable areas where phytoplankton constitute the basis of aquatic food webs. In order to know the effects of environmental variables on phytoplankton, a study of the successional pattern of phytoplankton in Lekki lagoon was carried out monthly for two years (June 2003-May 2005). Phytoplankton samples were collected from 12 stations using a plankton net of 55 microm mesh, and samples preserved in 4% unbuffered formalin. Besides, surface water samples were taken for physico-chemical analysis. For each year, the seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton followed different patterns. Phytoplankton abundance was higher during the dry season (November-April) for the two annual cycles. The diatoms (Aulacoseira granulata and A. granulata var angustissima) and blue green algaes, Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia tennuissima and Trichodesmium lacustre showed this trend by being the abundant species in some of these months. For the rainy season, the green alga Mougeotia sp. dominated. The replacement of one form by another throughout seasonal cycles was probably controlled by the changes in environmental variables such as rainfall, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus. PMID:22458215

Adesalu, Taofikat Abosede; Nwankwo, Dike Ikegwu

2012-03-01

375

Vibrio Trends in the Ecology of the Venice Lagoon  

PubMed Central

Vibrio is a very diverse genus that is responsible for different human and animal diseases. The accurate identification of Vibrio at the species level is important to assess the risks related to public health and diseases caused by aquatic organisms. The ecology of Vibrio spp., together with their genetic background, represents an important key for species discrimination and evolution. Thus, analyses of population structure and ecology association are necessary for reliable characterization of bacteria and to investigate whether bacterial species are going through adaptation processes. In this study, a population of Vibrionaceae was isolated from shellfish of the Venice lagoon and analyzed in depth to study its structure and distribution in the environment. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was developed on the basis of four housekeeping genes. Both molecular and biochemical approaches were used for species characterization, and the results were compared to assess the consistency of the two methods. In addition, strain ecology and the association between genetic information and environment were investigated through statistical models. The phylogenetic and population analyses achieved good species clustering, while biochemical identification was demonstrated to be imprecise. In addition, this study provided a fine-scale overview of the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Venice lagoon, and the results highlighted a preferential association of the species toward specific ecological variables. These findings support the use of MLSA for taxonomic studies and demonstrate the need to consider environmental information to obtain broader and more accurate bacterial characterization. PMID:24487545

Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Cardazzo, Barbara; Facco, Pierantonio; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca

2014-01-01

376

Metals in tissues of fish from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the metal concentrations in muscle, liver, gonad, and gill of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758), and keeled mullet (Liza carinata Valenciennes, 1836) from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean region. So, the levels of cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc in tissues of specimens from the lagoon were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Concentrations of metals in muscles of the examined species ranged from 0.10 to 0.47 mg kg(-1) for cadmium, 0.10 to 0.43 mg kg(-1) for cobalt, 0.17 to 0.72 mg kg(-1) for chromium, 0.62 to 1.03 mg kg(-1) for copper, 28.9 to 52.3 mg kg(-1) for iron, 0.75 to 0.96 mg kg(-1) for manganese, 0.11 to 0.57 mg kg(-1) for nickel, 0.19 to 0.47 mg kg(-1) for lead, and 6.01 to 13.9 mg kg(-1) for zinc, respectively. Additionally, metal concentrations in muscles of fish were assessed for human uses according to provisional tolerable weekly intake and provisional tolerable daily intake. PMID:19680760

Türkmen, Aysun; Türkmen, Mustafa; Tepe, Yalçin; Cekiç, Mustafa

2010-09-01

377

Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence  

SciTech Connect

Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

378

77 FR 38035 - Boundary Establishment for the Allegheny National Wild and Scenic River, Allegheny National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...establishment for the Allegheny National Wild and Scenic River. This document was published before sufficient consultation with the Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Information may be obtained by contacting Operations Staff...

2012-06-26

379

Annual characterisation of four Mediterranean coastal lagoons subjected to intense human activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study the annual variability of the physico-chemical parameters of four coastal lagoons subjected to intense human activity was characterised. The trophic state indices (TSI) of Carlson (1977) and the water quality index TRIX of Vollenweider et al. (1998) were tested and compared with the water quality categories proposed by the European Environmental Agency (2009). All the parameters were sampled monthly from May 2004 to July 2005. There were important differences in the annual variability of the physico-chemical parameters between the lagoons, reflecting the importance of human-induced pressures and the heterogeneity of these environments. The lagoons were in a eutrophic/hypereutrophic state most of the year. Trophic state indices classified the lagoons in a bad or poor trophic state most of the year, and they were not able to discriminate the effect of secondary variables such as freshwater releases, ground waters fluxes or water renewal. Nitrogen was the limiting factor in the lagoon with a higher exchange rate with the sea, while phosphorous was the limiting factor in the other lagoons, due to the high nitrogen external loads and the poor water renewal. The need for developing indices specifically designed for coastal lagoons in order to asses their trophic state is discussed.

Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Rieradevall, Maria; Farrés-Corell, Roser; Newton, Alice

2012-12-01

380

Indian Education in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pictorial publication briefly discusses Indian education in Canada. Discussed are: nursery schools and kindergartens; elementary and secondary schools; teaching staff--preschool instructors, teacher aides, classroom assistants, teachers, and principals; guidance staff--guidance and social counsellors, and home and school coordinators; support…

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

381

Early Indian People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

Doermann, Elisabeth

1979-01-01

382

South Dakota Indian Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed in this American Indian bibliography are 310 books and pamphlets dating from 1894 to 1971. Entries are arranged under the following headings: Art and Music, Bibliography, Culture, Fiction, Government Relations, History, Language, and Religion and Mythology. Also included is a list of publishers and addresses, containing 111 entries. (HBC)

South Dakota State Library, Pierre.

383

American Indian Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

understanding of the Native American tribal nations in North America. All of the United States at one time was American Indian land; however, most of it was transferred gradually to the United States of America. Treaties and other legal agreements with the United States, at various times in our history, have given

Saldin, Dilano

384

Indians of the Northwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

385

American Indian Recipes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

386

American Indian Heritage Month  

E-print Network

into the "human condition" are obvious. You are encouraged to bring your lunch to this mid- day performance: American Indian Studies and the Anthropology Club Contact: Nick Copeland, ncopel@vt.edu Monday, October 28 Studies, the Anthropology Club and Multicultural Programs and Services Contact: Sam Cook, sacook2@vt

Virginia Tech

387

Identification and characterisation of potential sources of nitrate pollution in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) applying a multi-isotope approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic composition of nitrate (?15N, ?18O and ?17O), boron (?11B) and water (?2H and ?18O) were used to identify and characterize of multiple nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and part of its catchment area. The stable isotopes in nitrate measured by the denitrifier method have been adopted to differentiate among nitrate coming from agriculture (synthetic and natural fertilizers), airborne nitrate and nitrate from nitrification processes in soils. Boron isotopes have been used to identify the impact of domestic wastewaters to the aquatic system using the LA-MC-ICP-MS method. The combined use of NO3 and B isotopes has proved to be an effective means in identifying multiple nitrate pollution sources because these isotopes co-migrate in many environmental settings, their isotopes are fractionated by different environmental processes, and because wastewater and fertilizers may have distinct isotopic signatures for N and B. The stable isotopes of water have been used to calculate mixing ratios between sea and fresh water as well as to estimate the mean altitude of the recharge area of surface waters. Additionally, the stable isotopes of sulphate (?34S and ?18O) have been adopted to trace natural and anthropogenic sources of sulphur in agricultural watersheds as well as in coastal systems. In order to characterize the chemical composition of the different water types the concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, PO43-, total phosphorus and total boron have been analyzed. Moreover, the physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, salinity and temperature have been measured. To identify the origins and fate of nitrate a water monitoring program was implemented in the Marano lagoon and part of its catchment area. The water monitoring program involved the collection of water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater up-welling line, groundwater, sewer pipe and open sea on a quarterly interval from 2009 to 2010.

Saccon, P.; Leis, A.; Marca, A.; Kaiser, J.; Campisi, L.; Böttcher, M. E.; Savarino, J.; Escher, P.; Eisenhauer, A.; Erbland, J.

2012-04-01

388

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gray and a white pelican glide down to the water near a dolphin and cormorant in the turn basin to search for a meal in the fish- teeming water. Sea gulls also approach. The turn basin, which is east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

2000-01-01

389

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hundreds of birds, especially gray and white pelicans and cormorants, cover the water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. The basin is teeming with fish, attracting the crowd for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

2000-01-01

390

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and one of several dolphins looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

391

Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

2000-01-01

392

Amazon River  

... the Rio Solimoes and the Rio Negro converge to form the Amazon River. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... date:  Jul 23, 2000 Images:  Amazon River location:  South America thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-17

393

Amazon River  

article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View Larger Image ... Flowing over 6450 kilometers eastward across Brazil, the Amazon River originates in the Peruvian Andes as tiny mountain streams that ...

2013-04-17

394

Prudhoe Bay COLVILLE RIVER  

E-print Network

Fairbanks Juneau Tok Nome Circle Barrow Prudhoe Bay TANANA RIVER LOWER YUKON KOYUKUK RIVER COPPER RIVER COLVILLE RIVER SUSITNA RIVER BARROW ALASKA CENTRAL YUKON NORTON SOUND UPPER YUKON RIVER PORCUPINE RIVER UPPER KUSKOKWIM RIVER NUSHAGAK RIVER LOWER KUSKOKWIM RIVER PRUDHOE BAY CANADA KOBUK- SELAWIK

395

Influence of CDOM and particle composition on ocean color of the Eastern New Caledonia Lagoon during the CALIOPE cruises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean color of tropical lagoons is dependent on bathymetry and bottom type, as well as input of coastal living and mineral particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The New Caledonia lagoon lies in the Southwestern Tropical Pacific around 21° 30'S and 166° 30'E, with a great marine biodiversity in UNESCO Heritage coral reefs, benthic sea grass, and benthic communities. They are largely connected to the open ocean in the southern and eastern parts, but only by narrow passes in the southwest part. The trophic state is linked to spatial variations in flushing times. High run offs due to rain carrying abundant chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particle loads may greatly impact the functioning of ecosystems while rivers and sewage effluents may induce localized impacts. Two oceanographic cruises (CALIOPE 1 in 2011 and CALIOPE 2 in 2014) were carried out off the Eastern Coast of New Caledonia during a calm dry period and during high winds, respectively. Multi- and hyper-spectral marine reflectance was measured with a SIMBADA instrument and a TRIOS radiometer system, together with inherent optical properties (total and CDOM absorption coefficients with a PSICAM, in situ absorption and scattering with an AC9, backscattering with a Hydroscat-6). Fluorescence of CDOM (EEM/PARAFAC) was measured on collected 0.2 ?m filtered samples. In 2014, Satlantic and FieldSpec hyper-spectral radiometers were available for in-water profiling of upwelling radiance and downwelling irradiance and above-water reflectance measurements, respectively. Inherent and apparent optical data from the two cruises are compared and used to estimate ocean color algorithms performance and evaluate a Linear Matrix Inversion method, providing tools for remote sensing on this highly under-sampled coastal region of New Caledonia.

Dupouy, Cécile; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Tedetti, Marc; Martias, Chloe; Murakami, Hiroshi; Doxaran, David; Lantoine, Francois; Rodier, Martine; Favareto, Luciane; Kampel, Milton; Goutx, Madeleine; Frouin, Robert J.

2014-11-01

396

Escherichia coli pollution in a Baltic Sea lagoon: a model-based source and spatial risk assessment.  

PubMed

Tourism around the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon, at the southern Baltic coast, has a long tradition, is an important source of income and shall be further developed. Insufficient bathing water quality and frequent beach closings, especially in the Oder river mouth, hamper tourism development. Monitoring data gives only an incomplete picture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sources, spatial transport patterns, risks and does neither support an efficient bathing water quality management nor decision making. We apply a 3D ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model to analyse pollution events and to obtain spatial E. coli pollution maps based on scenario simulations. Model results suggests that insufficient sewage treatment in the city of Szczecin is the major source of faecal pollution, even for beaches 20km downstream. E. coli mortality rate and emission intensity are key parameters for concentration levels downstream. Wind and river discharge play a modifying role. Prevailing southwestern wind conditions cause E. coli transport along the eastern coast and favour high concentration levels at the beaches. Our simulations indicate that beach closings in 2006 would not have been necessary according to the new EU-Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The implementation of the new directive will, very likely, reduce the number of beach closings, but not the risk for summer tourists. Model results suggest, that a full sewage treatment in Szczecin would allow the establishment of new beaches closer to the city (north of Dabie lake). PMID:23337127

Schippmann, Bianca; Schernewski, Gerald; Gräwe, Ulf

2013-07-01

397

Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct margins. Raised Quaternary lagoons parallel to the big lagoon on Isla Angel de la Guarda are partly obscured by flood damage, but still easily mapped from aerial photos. These features suggest that Isla Angel de la Guarda experienced Quaternary uplift similar in scale to many other gulf islands on which marine terraces are preserved. Closed lagoons around the Gulf of California represent a stable oligotrophic ecosystem affected by extreme aridity and hypersalinity, punctuated episodically by the injection of floodwater from tropical storms. The taxonomic and geographic ranges of microbial communities throughout the larger region remain to be explored.

Johnson, Markes E.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Backus, David H.; González, Maria R.

2012-07-01

398

Heart River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Heart River meeting the Missouri River. The Heart River is toward the back of the photo. Also in the photo is the Bank of North Dakota, along with the Liberty Memorial Bridge and to the left the Expressway Bridge. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

399

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault,  

E-print Network

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault, Wind River Basin, Fremont County Wyoming Robert G. McWilliams, Professor Emeritus, Department Indian Meadows and lower Wind River Formations. Love (1987) described in detail this fold-thrust fault

Lee Jr., Richard E.

400

Temporal shifts in reef lagoon sediment composition, Discovery Bay, Jamaica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5 km wide), deep (up to 56 m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much of the southern section of the bay with surficial sediments presently composed of up to 35 weight% non-carbonate. Cores recovered from sites on the western side of the bay provide a stratigraphic record of this history of bauxite contamination across water depths from 5 to 25 m. The bauxite-influenced upper sediment horizons are clearly visible in each core from the distinctive red-brown colouration of the sediment. These sediments are composed of approximately 10% non-carbonate (bauxite) and have Fe contents of around 2-3000 ?g/g (up to 7000 ?g/g). The thickness of this upper bauxite-contaminated sequence increases down transect (approximately 18 cm in the shallowest core, to around 47 cm in the deepest core), and in each core overlies a sequence of 'clean' lagoon carbonates. These typically are poorly sorted carbonate sands with variable amounts of coral rubble. Down-core data on CaCO 3 and Fe content provide a chemical record of decreasing sediment contamination with depth, with the lower 'clean' carbonates composed of only around 2% non-carbonate and <700 ?g/g Fe. Down-core sediment-constituent data also indicate significant changes in sediment production at the shallowest sites. At depths of 5 and 10 m, sediment assemblages have shifted from diverse assemblages of coral, mollusc, Amphiroa and Halimeda in the clean lagoon sands, to assemblages dominated by Halimeda and Amphiroa within the surficial sediments. At the deeper sites, no major down-core shifts in sediment constituents occur. These sites thus record a rather complex history of changes in sediment composition and chemistry. Clear shifts in chemistry and stratigraphy occur in all the cores and reflect progressive bauxite contamination in the near-surface horizons. These inputs, however, do not appear to have directly affected carbonate production, since the major constituent changes appear to be a response to more regional declines in coral community and reef status.

Perry, Christopher T.; Taylor, Kevin G.; Machent, Philip G.

2006-03-01

401

The effects of resuspension on the fate of Hg in contaminated sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy): Short-term simulation experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Adriatic Sea, Italy) represent one of the world's most major repositories of mercury (Hg). Its presence is a direct consequence of the historical mining activity in nearby Idrjia (Slovenia), as well as significant discharges from a chlor-alkali plant into the Aussa-Corno river system, which connects to the lagoon. Previous studies have shown that sediment acts as secondary source of Hg species to the overlying water column in natural conditions. However, evidence for the effects of resuspension on the dynamics of Hg species is still lacking. The work reported in this paper formed part of the multidisciplinary "MIRACLE" project, aimed at identifying areas at low risk of Hg bioaccumulation in commercial Manila Clams, an important part of the local economy in this region. The effect of resuspension on the cycling of inorganic mercury (IHg), reactive mercury (RHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) between the sediment and water column was investigated in a mesocosm study. Two experiments were conducted in October 2009 and September 2010 based on material collected from sites heavily impacted by Hg and periodically subjected to dredging activities. Designed to mimic the resuspension of particles, both experiments revealed that the release of Hg species from the solid to the dissolved phase became negligible quickly after the event. MeHg values did not change according to total mercury (THg), suggesting that the enhancement of methylation processes may occur. The findings reported in this paper may be useful for the local management of dredging and fishing activities, although mass balance calculations showed that the total flux of Hg species are trivial compared to lagoon-wide processes.

Acquavita, Alessandro; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Predonzani, Sergio; Koron, Neža; Carrasco, Luis

2012-11-01

402

The present environmental scenario of the Nador Lagoon (Morocco).  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a multivariate approach (waters, sediments, microfauna) concerning the environmental state of the Nador Lagoon (NE Morocco). The normal water quality parameters (salinity, pH, nutrients) of the dominant marine flows are altered by local fecal water effluents, urban discharges, sewages derived from a water treatment station, and residues originated in a slaughterhouse. The geochemical analyses carried out in surficial sediment samples show very high concentrations of all metals studied near an old iron mine and moderate contents between Nador and its treatment station. Ostracods are good bioindicators of these environmental impacts, with the presence of a highly brackish assemblage in the quieter, more confined areas or the appearance of opportunistic species under hypoxic conditions. In addition, these microcrustaceans are absent in polluted bottom sediments or areas with high hydrodynamic gradients, whereas they decrease in both density and diversity if the subaerial exposure increases. PMID:16624276

Ruiz, F; Abad, M; Olías, M; Galán, E; González, I; Aguilá, E; Hamoumi, N; Pulido, I; Cantano, M

2006-10-01

403

Effects of Climate Change on Microbial Community Structure and Function in the Antarctic Glacier Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the dramatic effects of global warming is the retreat of glaciers. This phenomenon has intensified in the last two decades. Postglacial areas are quickly colonised by various groups of organisms. Auto- and heterotrophic microorganisms play an especially vital role in these processes. They thrive in shallow glacial lagoons which often form in front of retreating glaciers. These reservoirs are characterised by high dynamics of physicochemical parameters, including: salinity, temperature and concentrations of organic compounds and nutrients. The conducted microbiological studies have revealed rich structural and functional diversity of bacteria occurring in the ecosystem of Ecology Lagoon situated on King George Island. Bacteria found on the surface of algae and stones in the shore zone of the lagoon showed particularly intense metabolic activity. A molecular analysis has indicated that unique taxonomic groups of bacteria occur in the ecosystem of Ecology Lagoon.

?wi?tecki, Aleksander; Górniak, Dorota; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Zdanowski, Marek; Borsuk, Piotr; ?muda-Baranowska, Magdalena; Grzesiak, Jakub

2010-01-01

404

Use of Shallow Lagoon Habitats by Nekton of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

EPA Science Inventory

We compared nekton use of prominent habitat types within a lagoonal system of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). These habitat types were defined by combinations of structure (cover type) and location (distance from shore) as: Spartina edge (...

405

Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

406

ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

407

The contribution of benthic macrofauna to the nutrient filter in coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Human activities in coastal areas have increased the occurrence of eutrophication events, especially in vulnerable ecosystems such as coastal lagoons. Although we have a general knowledge of the consequences of eutrophication in these ecosystems, some efforts need to be made to understand biotic feedbacks that could modify the response of the environment to nutrient enrichment. The plant-mediated 'coastal filter' is one of the main factors that determine lagoonal efficiency in processing excess nutrients. In this context, the present paper examined the relative contribution of benthic macrofauna to the 'coastal filter' of a Mediterranean lagoon. The analysis of macrofaunal assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon led to a clear differentiation between shallow areas of net nutrient recycling and exportation and deeper areas of net retention. These differences enhance nutrient removal from the water column, thus increasing the ecosystem's resistance to eutrophication. PMID:21967864

Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

2011-12-01

408

Indian scales and inventories  

PubMed Central

This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

Venkatesan, S.

2010-01-01

409

INDIAN PEAKS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.

Pearson, Robert C.; Speltz, Charles N.

1984-01-01

410

Wind Induced Resuspension in a Shallow Tropical Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In shallow environments, particle resuspension can induce large ecological effects. Under some certain conditions of fetch, wind velocity, bathymetry and bed roughness, resuspension is generated by wind induced waves. During December 1991, a shallow station (1 m depth) in the north shore of a tropical lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire) was investigated in order to study the impact of wind induced resuspension on the ecosystem. In this area, Austral Trade winds are dominant almost all year long, and their velocity shows a marked diel pattern. During the survey, three sequences were distinguished: a period of Austral Trade winds (with possible resuspension), a period of Boreal Trade winds (no wind induced waves at the station) and a period of transitional Trade winds. Only Austral Trade winds with a speed >3 m s -1 allowed particle resuspension. For chlorophyll, mineral seston and ammonia, significantly higher values were noted during the windy sequences. Conductivity and water colour varied in relation to tides. Granulometric and mineralogical analyses showed that only the 0-3 cm superficial level of the sediment was involved in resuspension. This process induced several effects: (1) an increase of suspended matter concentration in the water and thus a light attenuation due to a higher turbidity, (2) a distribution in the whole water column of nutrients from the pore water, (3) a modification of the sediment granulometric characteristics and (4) an increase in the food available for planktonic filter feeders since algal cells were periodically resuspended in the whole water column. Wind induced resuspension occurred in 10% of the Ebrié lagoon. In this area, the daily alternate of resuspension-sedimentation sequence is then a major factor controlling the productivity of a system which is potentially highly productive (high nutrient load, favourable climatic conditions) yet characterized by high turbidity. These observations can be generalized to comparable systems in the tropical area.

Arfi, R.; Guiral, D.; Bouvy, M.

1993-06-01

411

West Indian Orchidaceae Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York Botanical Garden has recently placed online this searchable database of West Indian Orchids. Containing approximately 5,200 specimen records for the family Orchidacese (from the New York Botanical Garden's collection), the database may be searched by Family, Collector, Country, Taxon, State/Province, and other select fields. Typical returns provide information on Specimen name (scientific name), Location, Collector, Description, and Habitat.

412

River history and tectonics.  

PubMed

The analysis of crustal deformation by tectonic processes has gained much from the clues offered by drainage geometry and river behaviour, while the interpretation of channel patterns and sequences benefits from information on Earth movements before or during their development. The interplay between the two strands operates at many scales: themes which have already benefited from it include the possible role of mantle plumes in the breakup of Gondwana, the Cenozoic development of drainage systems in Africa and Australia, Himalayan uplift in response to erosion, alternating episodes of uplift and subsidence in the Mississippi delta, buckling of the Indian lithospheric plate, and changes in stream pattern and sinuosity along individual alluvial channels subject to localized deformation. Developments in remote sensing, isotopic dating and numerical modelling are starting to yield quantitative analyses of such effects, to the benefit of geodymamics as well as fluvial hydrology. PMID:22474680

Vita-Finzi, C

2012-05-13

413

Heavy metals in water, sediment and tissues of Liza saliens from Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon, Portugal.  

PubMed

Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon is an ecosystem of great ecological importance that is located on the northwest coast of Portugal and has been degraded as a result of industrial and anthropogenic activities. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) were measured in water, sediment and in tissues (liver and muscle) of Liza saliens, which is the dominant fish from the lagoon. Comparisons between metal concentrations in water and sediments were made with those in tissues of fish caught at the lagoon. Metals in water were quantified predominantly bound to particulate and equalled or exceeded the limit of chronic reference values. Metal concentrations in sediments varied among sampled sites. The relative order of concentrations was "Zn > Cu approximately Pb > Cr" the same pattern observed for metals in water. Metals in fish tissues showed higher concentrations in liver (262 mg CuxKg(-1) and 89 mg ZnxKg(-1)) than in muscle (<3 mg CuxKg(-1) and 26 mg ZnxKg(-1)), while Pb and Cr were not detected. These results suggest that Cu and Zn are the metals of major concern in the lagoon. Mullet detritivorous feeding habits, bioaccumulation pattern and the high sediment metals concentrations relative to the water suggest that sediments can be the most important source of contamination in this ecosystem. The positive relationship found between Cu in liver and fish length demonstrates that time of exposure is a crucial factor in bioaccumulation. Condition indices (K and HSI) in mullets from the lagoon were higher compared to mullets from sea, suggesting abnormal condition in the lagoon population. We conclude that metals chronic exposure in the lagoon can impose considerable fish stress. The results also show that the lagoon is an area of environmental concern. PMID:17447151

Fernandes, C; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A; Cabral, D; Salgado, M A

2008-01-01

414

A geochemical analytical approach for the evaluation of heavy metal distribution in lagoon sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim, and Scope  Italian lagoon environments are of great importance due either to their frequency and distribution along the coasts or to\\u000a their management. Agriculture, urban and industrial activities in lagoon catchments can be sources of heavy metal (HM) pollution\\u000a by direct waste dumping, atmospheric deposition of fumes or, simply, as a consequence of a lack of natural water recharge.

Renata Pacifico; Paola Adamo; Carlo Cremisini; Fabio Spaziani; Luciano Ferrara

2007-01-01

415

A Trophic Model of a Sandy Barrier Lagoon at Chiku in Southwestern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the ECOPATH 3.0 software system, a balanced trophic model of a sandy barrier lagoon with intensive fishery activities at Chiku in tropical Taiwan was constructed. The lagoon model comprised 13 compartments. Trophic levels of the compartments varied from 1·0 for primary producers and detritus to 3·6 for piscivorous fish. Hanging-cultured oysters accounted for 39% of the harvestable fishery biomass

H.-J Lin; K.-T. Shao; S.-R. Kuo; H.-L. Hsieh; S.-L. Wong; I.-M Chen; W.-T. Lo; J.-J Hung

1999-01-01

416

Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Two Swine Production Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance (tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA) were found in total DNA extracted from water of two lagoons. These

J. C. Chee-Sanford; R. I. Aminov; I. J. Krapac; N. Garrigues-Jeanjean; R. I. Mackie

2001-01-01

417

Indian Converts Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First published in 1727, the remarkable book "Indian Converts, or Some account of the lives and dying speeches of a considerable number of the Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard" is now available in full online. Written by Experience Mayhew, the book provides remarkable insights into the lives and culture of four generations of Native Americans in colonial America. This digitized version was created at Reed College, and visitors can look through all four sections of the work, which include "Indian Ministers" and "Pious Children." Throughout the work, Mayhew details the books that different age groups were reading, provides insights into early New England pedagogy and childrearing practices, and also describes each individual in terms of their own genealogy and personal history. The truly fantastic thing about the site is that it also contains an archive with over 600 images and documents that further contextualize the work. Also, the site contains study guides designed for classroom use that cover artifact analysis, genealogy, and reading gravestones.

418

Indian and Chinese cosmologies reconsidered.  

PubMed

Indian and Chinese cosmic elements are five. They originate from a common source, Bralrma in Indian and Thai-chi in Chinese. The first created element is Mu = Tree, not wood, and life-form itself, immovable but moves everything else = Akaska in Indian cosmology. Dryness = Metal in Chinese, Moisture = Earth. Fire as Heat and Water as Cold, are common to both systems. PMID:3895884

Mahdihassan, S

1985-01-01

419

Tropical river flow and rainfall reconstructions from coral luminescence: Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall and river flow in northeast Queensland, Australia, are highly seasonal and show high interannual and decadal variability that is modulated by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Reconstructions of October–September freshwater input to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon and October–September Queensland rainfall are developed from visual assessment of the occurrence and intensity of luminescent

Janice M. Lough

2007-01-01

420

7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian...

2010-01-01

421

76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of no action...On November 18, 2010, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) issued a Notice of...

2011-10-12

422

77 FR 43111 - Indian Gaming; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Correction...notice that the Tribal-- State Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-23

423

Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in Mugil cephalus from seven coastal lagoons of NW Mexico.  

PubMed

The increasing order of the mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the tissues of Mugil cephalus of seven coastal lagoons of Sinaloa State (NW Mexico) was liver > gills > muscle, while for Pb it was gills > muscle ? liver. There were no differences between the mean concentrations of Cd and Pb of the three tissues determined in the samples of the seven lagoons and, although there were some significant differences, there was no indication of a latitude-related trend in the distribution of Cu and Zn: the Cu content of the muscle tended to be higher in the northern than in the southern lagoons, although in the case of the gills the highest and lowest mean values indicated an opposite trend, with the highest and lowest values in one southern and one northern lagoon. In the case of the liver, there were no differences and no indication of a regional trend. There were no differences in the mean Zn contents of muscle and gills; in the case of the liver, one of the lagoons of the central part of the state had a significantly higher value than one of the southern lagoons and all the rest had similar values. In addition, there was no clear indication of season-related differences in any of the three tissues. According to our results, the metal contents of the muscle of this species are not of concern for human health, since the allowable ingestion would be in the order of 0.9 kg/day. PMID:21210210

Frías-Espericueta, Martin G; Osuna-López, J Isidro; Jiménez-Vega, Martha A; Castillo-Bueso, Daniel; Muy-Rangel, Maria D; Rubio-Carrasco, Werner; López-López, Gabriel; Izaguirre-Fierro, Gildardo; Voltolina, Domenico

2011-11-01

424

Rates of sediment supply and sea-level rise in a large coastal lagoon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laguna Madre, Texas, is 3-7 km wide and more than 190 km long, making it one of the longest lagoons in the world. The lagoon encompasses diverse geologic and climatic regions and it is an efficient sediment trap that accumulates clastic sediments from upland, interior, and oceanic sources. The semi-arid climate and frequent tropical cyclones historically have been responsible for the greatest volume of sediment influx. On an average annual basis, eolian transport, tidal exchange, storm washover, mainland runoff, interior shore erosion, and authigenic mineral production introduce approximately one million m3 of sediments into the lagoon. Analyses of these sediment transport mechanisms and associated line sources and point sources of sediment provide a basis for: (1) estimating the long-term average annual sediment supply to a large lagoon; (2) calculating the average net sedimentation rate; (3) comparing introduced sediment volumes and associated aggradation rates with observed relative sea-level change; and (4) predicting future conditions of the lagoon. This comparison indicates that the historical average annual accumulation rate in Laguna Madre (<1 mm/yr) is substantially less than the historical rate of relative sea-level rise (~4 mm/yr). Lagoon submergence coupled with erosion of the western shore indicates that Laguna Madre is being submerged slowly and migrating westward rather than filling, as some have suggested.

Morton, R.A.; Ward, G.H.; White, W.A.

2000-01-01

425

Water quality of Mediterranean coastal plains: conservation implications from the Akyatan Lagoon, Turkey.  

PubMed

The water quality of the Akyatan Lagoon was characterized using hydrochemical methodology. The lagoon is located on the Mediterranean coast and is the largest wetland ecosystem in Turkey. In addition, the lagoon is classified as a hyper-salinity wetland. Water samples were collected monthly between December 2007 and November 2008. Eleven stations within the lagoon were determined, and triplicate grab samples were obtained from each station to characterize water quality as follows: T °C, pH, total alkalinity (TAlk), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), and main anions, including chloride (Cl(-)), nitrates (NO3 (-)), and sulfate (SO4 (2-)). Results from selected stations indicated varying TDS, EC, salinity, and Cl(-) concentrations, from 20,892 to 175,824 mg/L, from 35.7 to 99.6 mS/cm, from 22.3 to 71.0 ppt, and from 14,819 to 44,198 mg Cl(-)/L, respectively. Data indicated that the spatial distribution of water quality parameters was significantly affected by freshwater input via the constructed drainage channels which collect water from a catchment area and discharge water into the lagoon as a point source, thus preventing drainage water to reach the lagoon as a nonpoint source. PMID:25079087

Demir Yetis, Aysegul; Selek, Zeliha; Seckin, Galip; Davutluoglu, Orkun I

2014-11-01

426

Living in a coastal lagoon environment: photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms of key marine macroalgae.  

PubMed

The physiological status of Cystoseira compressa, Padina pavonica and Palisada tenerrima was studied by in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, pigment content, stoichiometry (C:N), accumulation of UV photoprotectors and antioxidant activity; comparing their photosynthetic response in a coastal lagoon (Mar Menor) and in Mediterranean coastal waters. In general, the specimens reached their highest ETRmax in spring in the Lagoon, but in summer in the Mediterranean, coinciding with their maximum biomass peak. The species exhibited a dynamic photoinhibition. Except C. compressa, they showed a lower decrease in Fv/Fm and higher recovery rates in the Mediterranean populations when exposed to high irradiance. The higher salinity and temperature of the lagoon could impair the photoprotection mechanisms. The acclimation to lagoon environments is species-specific and involves complex regulatory mechanisms. The results underline the importance of N in repair, avoidance, quenching and scavenging mechanisms. In general, Lagoon specimens showed higher pigment concentration. Although xanthophylls play important photo-protective and antioxidant roles, the observed trend is more likely to be explained by the higher temperatures reached in the lagoon compared to Mediterranean. Therefore the studied photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms can be effective not only for high irradiance, but also for higher temperatures in a climate change scenario, but are highly dependent on nutrient availability. PMID:25164017

García-Sánchez, Marta; Korbee, Nathalie; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Marcos, Concepción; Figueroa, Félix L; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

2014-10-01

427

Levels of platinum group metals in selected species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Chonophorus lateristriga, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Crassostrea tulipa) in some estuaries and lagoons along the coast of Ghana.  

PubMed

The use of some biota as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the levels of platinum group metals (PGMs) in some selected species along the coastal belt of Ghana, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The result was processed to evaluate pollution indices in order to map the distribution of the metals in those species in the lagoons and estuaries along the costal belt of Ghana. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron Cichlidae), brown goby (Chonophorus lateristriga Gobiidae), shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Palaemonidae), and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae) in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration of 0.13 ?g/g (dry weight) Pd. From the pollution indices, most of the sampling sites registered mean contamination factor (CF) values between 1.20 and 3.00 for Pt, Pd, and Rh. The pollution load index (PLI) conducted also gave an average pollution index between 0.79 and 2.37, indicating progressive contamination levels. The results revealed that anthropogenic sources, industrial and hospital effluent, etc., together with vehicular emissions, could be the contributing factors to the deposition of PGMs along the Ghanaian coast. PMID:20953547

Essumang, D K; Adokoh, C K; Boamponsem, L

2010-01-01

428

Indian Ocean analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality control of data as research bodies are replaced by operational bodies in the Global Ocean Observing System.

Meyers, Gary

1992-01-01

429

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Pine River Project area, Southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, 1988-89  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1988-89, water, bottom sediment, biota, soil, and plants were sampled for a reconnaissance investigation of the Pine River Project area in southwestern Colorado. Irrigation drainage does not seem to be a major source of dissolved solids in streams. Concentrations of manganese, mercury, and selenium exceeded drinking-water regulations in some streams. The maximum selenium concentration in a stream sample was 94 microg/L in Rock Creek. Irrigation drainage and natural groundwater are sources of some trace elements to streams. Water from a well in a nonirrigated area had 4,800 microg/L of selenium. Selenium concentrations in soil on the Oxford Tract were greater in areas previously or presently irrigated than in areas never irrigated. Some forage plants on the Oxford Tract had large selenium concentrations, including 180 mg/km in alfalfa. Most fish samples had selenium concentrations greater than the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile. Selenium concentrations in aquatic plants, aquatic inverte- brates, and small mammals may be of concern to fish and wildlife because of possible food-chain bioconcentration. Selenium concentrations in bird samples indicate selenium contamination of biota on the Oxford Tract. Mallard breasts had selenium concentrations exceeding a guideline for human consumption. The maximum selenium concentration in biota was 50 microg/g dry weight in a bird liver from the Oxford Tract. In some fish samples, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc exceeded background concentrations, but concentrations were not toxic. Mercury concentrations in 16 fish samples exceeded the background concentration. Ten mercury concentrations in fish exceeded a guideline for mercury in food for consumption by pregnant women.

Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Thompson, A.L.; Formea, J.J.; Wickman, D.W.

1993-01-01

430

25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained or upon...

2010-04-01

431

25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.  

...5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained or upon...

2014-04-01

432

25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained or upon...

2011-04-01

433

Reconstruction of palaeohydrological conditions in a lagoon during the 2nd Zechstein cycle through simultaneous use of ?D values of individual n-alkanes and ?18O and ?13C values of carbonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time ?18O and ?13C values from carbonates and ?D values of individual n-alkanes were used to reconstruct palaeohydrological conditions in a lagoon at the southern margin of the Central European Zechstein Basin (CEZB). A 12-m core covering the complete Ca2 interval and adjacent anhydrites (A1 and A2) was analyzed for ?18O and ?13C values of dolomitized carbonates and ?D values of individual n-alkanes. ?18Ocarb values (+2‰ to +5‰ vs. VPDB) were strongly influenced by evaporation and temporal freshwater input into the lagoon. The ?13Ccarb values (-1‰ to +4‰ vs. VPDB) were controlled mainly by changes in primary production. Both isotopic ratios show an inverse relationship throughout most of the core, contradicting diagenetic alteration, since ?13Ccarb values are not altered significantly during dolomitization. Assuming a temperature range of 35 40 °C in the lagoon, ?18Ocarb values of +2.5‰ to +8‰ (vs. VSMOW) for the lagoonal water can be reconstructed. The lagoon may have desiccated twice during the Ca2 interval, as indicated by very high ?18Ocarb and low ?13Ccarb values, coinciding with increasing amount of anhydrite in the analyzed sample. These events seem to reflect not just local but a regional intra-Ca2 cyclicity. Measured ?D values of the short-chain n-alkanes, namely n-C16 and n-C18 which are widely used as indicators for photosynthetic bacterial and algal input, reflect the isotopic composition of the lagoonal water. Assuming constant fractionation during incorporation of hydrogen into lipids of -160‰, an average ?D value of +70‰ (vs. VSMOW) can be reconstructed for the lagoonal water, accounting for very arid conditions. The long-chain n-alkanes n-C27, n-C28, n-C29 and n-C30, thought to be derived from the leaf waxes of terrestrial higher plants, were shown to be depleted in D relative to the short-chain alkanes, therefore indicating a different hydrogen source. Terrestrial plants in arid areas mainly use water supplied by precipitation. By using a smaller fractionation of -120‰ due to evaporation processes in the leaves, reconstructed values vary between -74‰ and -9‰ (vs. VSMOW). These values are not indicating extremely arid conditions, implying that the long-chain n-alkanes were transported trough wind and/or rivers into the lagoon at the Zechstein Sea coast. ?Dwater values, reconstructed using the n-C16 alkane and ?18O water values, independently reconstructed on the same sample using the temperature dependant fractionation for dolomites are good agreement and suggest high amounts of evaporation affecting the coastal lagoon. Altogether, our results indicate that hydrogen isotopic ratios of n-alkanes give information on their origin and are a useful proxy for palaeoclimatic reconstruction.

Sachse, Dirk; Radke, Jens; Gaupp, Reinhard; Schwark, Lorenz; Lüniger, Guido; Gleixner, Gerd

2004-09-01

434

Phytoplankton biomass and primary production in semi-enclosed reef lagoons of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton biomass and primary production rates within semi-enclosed reef lagoons of the central Great Barrier Reef were compared with adjacent shelf waters. Chlorophyll concentrations and surface primary production rates were usually higher in lagoons although seasonal differences were only significant during the summer. Nitrate concentrations were higher in lagoons than in shelf waters year-round. Nano- (10–20 µm size fraction), however,

Miles J. Furnas; Alan W. Mitchell; Malvern Gilmartin; Noelia Revelante

1990-01-01

435

Thoughts on the Indian Dilemma: Backgrounding the "Indian Problem"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the core of the Indians' problem is the inability of their community to achieve a sense of control over its own destiny, and explores ways in which the Indians can organize to gain the necessary internal cohesion, resources, and capabilities in order to create a satisfactory position within American society. (JM)

Muskrat, Joseph

1973-01-01

436

6. CLOSEUP OF U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE AND U.S. RECLAMATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. CLOSE-UP OF U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE AND U.S. RECLAMATION SERVICE BENCHMARKS ON TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN T3S, R5E, S14 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Flood Water Canal, North Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

437

76 FR 48693 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indians requested 2011-12 special migratory bird hunting...proposed off-reservation special migratory bird hunting...Voigt Intertribal Task Force of the GLIFWC (for the...Member Tribes of the Task Force are: the Bad River...electronic calls, during the special light-goose...

2011-08-08

438

Change of seed germination rate with storage time of Santalum album L. (Indian sandalwood) seeds  

E-print Network

Change of seed germination rate with storage time of Santalum album L. (Indian sandalwood) seeds Y of accommodating 100 seeds per bed. Cleaned river sand was used as the germination media that was filled.5 cm. In order to avoid the common fungal attacks on sandalwood seeds, the seeds and the germination

439

The Battle of Honey Springs: The Civil War Comes to Indian Territory. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Union Army troops marched south through Indian territory on July 17, 1863, to face the Confederate Army forces in a battle that would help determine whether the Union or the Confederacy would control the West beyond the Mississippi River. The Confederate troops that these soldiers faced in the Battle of Honey Springs concealed themselves among the…

Adkins, Mike; Jones, Ralph

440

Implementation of a ground truth process for development of a submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) mapping protocol using hyperspectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocol development for science based mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) requires comprehensive ground truth data describing the full range of variability observed in the target. The Indian River Lagoon, Florida, extends along 250 km of the east central Florida coast adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. The lagoon crosses the transition zone between the Caribbean and Carolinian zoogeographic provinces making

Carlton R. Hall; Charles R. Bostater Jr.; Robert W. Virnstein

2006-01-01

441

Temporal Variability of Carbon and Nutrient Budgets from a Tropical Lagoon in Chiku, Southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical processes and budgets of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from the semi-enclosed Chiku Lagoon were constructed through periodic observations and modelling. During the investigation, samples were mostly collected bimonthly, and hydrochemical properties, inorganic and organic nutrients (DIN, DON, DIP, DOP, Dsi (dissolved silica)) and organic carbon (DOC, POC) from waters associated with the lagoon were measured. The water exchange time of Chiku Lagoon ranges from 1·0 d (June 1997) to 8·5 d (January 1997) with an annual mean of 5·0 d. The residence time of nutrients varies with water exchange time, and is about 2-5 d longer than the water exchange time. Terrestrial inputs and lagoon distributions of nutrients varied in time and space based on the time scale of sampling. Thus, carbon and nutrient budgets were prepared for each sampling period and then combined to form annual budgets, which differed significantly from those modelled from annual means of various parameters. The annual removal of terrestrial nutrient inputs to the lagoon system is 69·4, 47·0, 27·7 and 42·0%, respectively, for DIN, DON, DIP and DOP. Consequently, the nonconservative flux of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (?DIP) from the lagoon is around -0·1 mole m -2 yr -1, that is equivalent to an internal organic carbon sink of 11 mol C m -2 yr -1. This organic carbon budget indicates that the lagoon is an autotrophic system where photosynthesis exceeds respiration ( p-r> 0). This carbon sink is one of largest reported from world's lagoons, and its large size may result from the abundant nutrients in the lagoon. However, although the Chiku Lagoon is estimated to remove 4·7 mol C m -2 yr -1 carbonate through oyster calcification, it emits an equivalent amount of CO 2 into the system. Despite net nitrogen fixation being observed during some periods, denitrification exceeds nitrogen fixation throughout the period of observation [( nfix-denit)=-1·4 mole N m -2 yr -1].

Hung, J.-J.; Kuo, F.

2002-05-01

442

Dynamics of Kudoa camarguensis (myxosporean) infection in two gobiid species, Pomatoschistus microps and P. minutus (Teleostei: Pisces), in the Rh?ne River delta, France.  

PubMed

The occurrence of the myxosporean parasite Kudoa camarguensis was surveyed monthly during 1997 in a brackish-water lagoon of the Rh?ne River delta (France). K. camarguensis was found on its typical host, Pomatoschistus microps, and on an additional host, P. minutus. Prevalence and mean abundance were higher in the typical host than in the additional host due to differences in the temporal occupancy of the lagoon by the 2 species. The temporal occurrence of this myxosporean parasite is discussed in relation to the migratory habits of P. minutus and the sedentary habits of P. microps. PMID:12078985

Pampoulie, C

2002-05-10

443

O processo de alcoolização em populações indígenas do Alto Rio Negro e as limitações do CAGE como instrumento de screening para dependência ao álcool* The process of alcoholization among the indian population of the Upper Rio Negro river and CAGE's limitations as a screening instrument for alcohol dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Through a qualitative and interdisciplinary investigation as to the theoretical validity of CAGE as a screening instrument for alcohol dependence among the Upper Rio Negro Indian population, the use of alcohol as a theme among culturally diverse groups is approached by studying the assignment of meanings to drinking and the answers given to CAGE by the interviewed Indians. Methods:

MAXIMILIANO LOIOLA PONTE DE SOUZA; JÚLIO CÉSAR SCHWEICKARDT; LUÍZA GARNELO

444

Dissecting the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau : a study of landslides, erosion and river incision in a transient landscape  

E-print Network

The eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau is characterized by large rivers dissecting regional topography that has been uplifted in association with the continued convergence of the Indian subcontinent and Eurasia. In this ...

Ouimet, William Burke

2007-01-01

445

The distribution of salinity and main forcing effects in the Berre lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results from previous studies in lagoons and well mixed estuaries indicate that salt transport is primarily in response to advection associated with freshwater outflow, tidal diffusion, and to shear effects arising from spatial correlations of vertical and especially transverse deviations in salinity and current speed (Smith, 1994). Therefore, the inflow of fresh and salt water into coastal lagoons is an important factor influencing the structure and function of lagoonal ecosystems worldwide (Lirman et al., 2007). The predominance of marine or freshwater inflow leads to the different ecosystems. Among several lagoons located along the Mediterranean shore of France, the Berre lagoon has been under intense anthropogenic pressure for several decades (Delpy et al., 2012). Moreover, the salinity level of the Berre lagoon was varying dramatically from the 19th century up to now. In this work, a special attention is focused on the salinity variation in the Berre lagoon due to the three dominant abiotic forcing mechanisms, i.e., incoming sea tide, runoff from a hydropower and a strong wind. Four different model scenarios were considered in order to examine the impact of each forcing mechanism or combined effects, i.e. : (a) tide only, (b) runoff only, (c) combined tide and runoff, and (d) an N-NW wind, tide and runoff together. Numerical modeling and interpretation of numerical results are based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic model MARS3D. It is found that the strongest negative impact is related to the huge hydropower runoffs, inducing the desalinization of the surface and subsurface waters not only in the centre of the lagoon, but also in the entire water column in the coastal seagrass recolonization zones. In the absence of wind, the huge inputs of freshwater from the hydropower lead to a haline stratification and thus, to anoxic conditions, making most of the lagoon unproductive. On the contrary, strong winds play a positive role on the salinity level of the Berre lagoon by destroying rapidly (in a few hours) the vertical stratification, thereby reducing the risk of anoxia. The results from these model scenarios are useful to further understand the ecosystem of the Berre lagoon and to help the designers of seagrass restoration program. References Delpy F., Pagano M., Blanchot J., Carlotti F., Thibault-Botha D. : Man-induced hydrological changes, metazooplankton communities and invasive species in the Berre Lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64 (9) : 1921-32, 2012. Lirman D., Serafy J.E. : Documenting Everglades restoration impacts on Biscayne Bay's shallowest benthic habitats. First Annual Report. CERP Monitoring and Assessment Plan Component : Activity Number 3.2.3.3. Miami, FL, 2008. Smith N.P. : Water, salt and heat balance of coastal lagoons. In B. Kjerfve (ed.), Coastal Lagoon Processes. (pp. 69-101). Amsterdam : Elsevier, 1994.

Roux, Bernard; Alekseenko, Elena; Chen, Paul Gang; Kharif, Christian; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique

2014-05-01

446

California Indian Food and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

2001

447

Acoustics of the Indian Drum  

E-print Network

This article investigates as to how the Indian Drums are able to produce harmonics. In particular, it looks at the density distribution on an Indian Drum, the Tabla, and shows that it is the form of the density distribution that results in harmonics.

Siddharth S Malu; Advaith Siddharthan

2000-01-20

448

DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN  

E-print Network

DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN SOCIETIES: An Essay in Comparative Pragmatics THESIS SUBMITTED and complexity are presented in the first part of the thesis, as a basis of comparison with the decision-makingSl).cietal organization in the Plains and surrounding area. #12;DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN SOCIETIES: An Essay

White, Douglas R.

449

A Better Day for Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vesting Congress with implied powers over American Indians produces attitudes and assumptions which are extremely influential. There are seven such controlling assumptions: Congress is presumed to act in good faith toward Indians; the belief that past policies were based upon some intelligent criteria that incorporated an understanding of…

Deloria, Vine, Jr.

450

Indians of the Eastern Seaboard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief history is presented of Indian tribes living along the eastern seaboard of the United States from the time of contact of these tribes with the first European settlers to the present day. Early Indian-white relationships are discussed, as well as relationships established between the various tribes themselves. An historical presentation of…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

451

The Indian Heritage of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book nominated for the National Book Award, the author presents the past, present, and future of the Indians of North, Central, and South America with current archaeological findings which add to the knowledge about Indians. As noted, the volume contains information from the works of a large number of people who, since the time of…

Josephy, Alvin M., Jr.

452

American Indians of the Southwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for both the specialist and nonspecialist, the book provides a synthesis of Southwestern Indian culture based on long familiarity with the people. Chapter 1 describes the physical aspects of American Indians, land and Aboriginal inhabitants, and development of socio-religious patterns. Chapter II is about Pueblo Peoples (Tanoans,…

Dutton, Bertha P.

453

Indian Calendars Leow Choon Lian  

E-print Network

1 Indian Calendars Leow Choon Lian An academic exercise presented in partial fulfillment Bases of Calendars 1 Chapter 2 Classification of Calendars 8 Chapter 3 The Indian Calendars 11 3) Overview 13 3.2 The Solar Calendars 16 3.3 The National Calendar 26 3.4 The Lunisolar Calendars 29 (a

Aslaksen, Helmer

454

78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Wiyot Tribe and...

2013-09-06

455

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork...

2013-10-22

456

Connections of Yenisei River discharge to sea surface temperatures, sea ice, and atmospheric circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the connections of Yenisei River discharge to sea surface temperatures (SSTs), atmospheric circulation, and Arctic sea ice coverage using historical records for the time period of 1936–1995. We found that Yenisei River discharge is negatively associated with SSTs over the northern North Atlantic and is positively correlated with SSTs over the tropical South Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

Hengchun Ye; Daqing Yang; Xuebin Zhang; Tingjun Zhang

2003-01-01

457

Connections of Yenisei River discharge to sea surface temperatures, sea ice, and atmospheric circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the connections of Yenisei River discharge to sea surface temperatures (SSTs), atmospheric circulation, and Arctic sea ice coverage using historical records for the time period of 1936-1995. We found that Yenisei River discharge is negatively associated with SSTs over the northern North Atlantic and is positively correlated with SSTs over the tropical South Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

Hengchun Ye; Daqing Yang; Xuebin Zhang; Tingjun Zhang

2003-01-01

458

Sediment characteristics and transportation dynamics of the Ganga River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding of river systems that have experienced various forcing mechanisms such as climate, tectonics, sea level fluctuations and their linkages is a major concern for fluvial scientists. The 2525-km-long Ganga River derives its fluvial flux from northern part of the Indian subcontinent and drops in the Ganga–Brahmaputra delta and the Bengal fan regions. This paper presents a study of the

Munendra Singh; Indra Bir Singh; German Müller

2007-01-01

459

Omaha Indian Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Library of Congress website houses the digitized Omaha Indian Music collection. Featuring a pithy Collection Overview and links to contextualizing elements, such as Historical Eras and Related Collections and Exhibits, the site makes accessible an important cultural tradition. Of course, the exhibit itself really shines. The multiformat ethnographic field collection contains dozens of wax cylinder recordings from the 1890s, as well as modern recordings of pow-wows and performances. Additionally, black and white photographs and contemporary films exhibit dances and celebrations, while interviews with tribal members elucidate the various cultural practices.

460

Historicizing Indian psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

Basu, Amit Ranjan

2005-01-01

461

American Indians and Crime  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, released in 1999 by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, measures and characterizes the rate of violent crimes experienced by Native Americans in the US, who as the report concludes, are victimized by violent crime at more than twice the rate of US residents in general. The data collection was garnered from a variety of government sources and presents statistics on the involvement of drugs, alcohol, and weapons in crimes; the relationship between victim and offender; the rate of crime reporting by victims; and the physical and financial damage incurred by victims. The report also summarizes data on American Indians in the criminal justice system.

1999-01-01

462

New Caledonia surface lagoon chlorophyll modeling as coastal reef area health indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major part of the New Caledonia (NC) lagoon was classified as UNESCO Natural Site of Humanity Patrimony. Indeed, 22 175 km2 of tropical coral lagoon area exhibit high biodiversity. The NC lagoon is semi enclosed and connected to the Coral Sea through a barrier reef segmented by narrow passes. The environment is oligotrophic, due to important flush during trade winds events, and bathymetry is highly variable. In order to predict eutrophication events, we used an extension of a 3D coupled physical-biogeochemical model recently developed on NC south western lagoon. The model is based on the Nitrogen and Carbon cycles, relating the variable stoechiometry of the elements in each biological compartment. The ecological model was developed to include an explicit description of the microbial loop. The resulting coupled model, forced by tide, wind, light, temperature and freshwater inputs, was used to calculate phytoplankton biomass, bacterial production, dissolved organic matter concentrations and nutrient recycling. Here we present results issued from the 3D coupled model ECO3M_LAGOON (biogeochemical, LOPB-IRD) and MARS3D (regional physical model, IFREMER-IRD) describing spatial and temporal interactions between water motion and biology, on larger domain including reef barrier and water exchanges through ocean-lagoon interface. To validate physical processes in the lagoon we used in situ data collected during field cruise (ValHyBio 2008, La Niña episode). Surface chlorophyll concentrations are compared with water color data from ValHyBio cruise and satellite data (MODIS/MERIS) corrected from bathymetry effects.

Fuchs, R.; Pinazo, C.; Douillet, P.; Dupouy, C.; Faure, V.; Mangin, A.

2010-10-01

463

Primary production dynamics in a pristine groundwater influenced coastal lagoon of the Yucatan Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dzilam lagoon is a shallow (0.6 m mean depth) ecosystem with 9.4 km 2 surface area, located in the north coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, and connected to the Gulf of Mexico through a permanent inlet. Freshwater input is possible through numerous sinkholes distributed throughout the lagoon, which also represent a continuous source of nitrate and silicate. The low anthropogenic influence has maintained a pristine condition in Dzilam lagoon, manifested in a spatial heterogeneity of water quality and primary production strongly related to the environmental fluctuations. To determine the annual variability of primary production and identify the factors controlling it, 12 monthly samplings were undertaken at six stations, from September 1998 to August 1999. Thus, physical-chemical parameters, inorganic nutrients concentrations, chlorophyll- a, phytoplankton production and seagrass biomass were measured. The water residence time in Dzilam lagoon is higher during dry season due to the significant evaporation rate, and shorter in rainy season because of increase in precipitation and volume of groundwater discharge. The multivariate analysis results suggest that the salinity gradient, changes in aquatic vegetation biomass, and the remineralized nutrients in sediments constitute key processes depicting the water quality and net primary production in Dzilam lagoon. Furthermore, the biogeochemical benthic processes, combined with a longer stay of phytoplankton cells within the lagoon, enhanced primary production in the water column during dry season, as opposite as rainy period, when the inferior water residence time yielded lower production values. The seagrasses ( Halodule wrightii and Ruppia maritima) showed the highest biomass (110.5 g dw/m 2/d) in dry season, while the lowest recordings were observed during cold fronts, with a salient belowground contribution (rhizomes and roots). Seagrasses and phytoplankton participation to the total primary production in Dzilam lagoon were seasonally alternated, yielding a high primary productivity along the annual cycle. Despite of this complementary arrangement, the submerged aquatic vegetation displayed an overall higher contribution during the year (65%) relate to phytoplankton.

Medina-Gómez, Israel; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.

2006-06-01

464

Marshall Islands Fringing Reef and Atoll Lagoon Observations of the Tohoku Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 generated a tsunami which caused significant impacts throughout the Pacific Ocean. A description of the tsunami within the lagoons and on the surrounding fringing reefs of two mid-ocean atoll islands is presented using bottom pressure observations from the Majuro and Kwajalein atolls in the Marshall Islands, supplemented by tide gauge data in the lagoons and by numerical model simulations in the deep ocean. Although the initial wave arrival was not captured by the pressure sensors, subsequent oscillations on the reef face resemble the deep ocean tsunami signal simulated by two numerical models, suggesting that the tsunami amplitudes over the atoll outer reefs are similar to that in deep water. In contrast, tsunami oscillations in the lagoon are more energetic and long lasting than observed on the reefs or modelled in the deep ocean. The tsunami energy in the Majuro lagoon exhibits persistent peaks in the 30 and 60 min period bands that suggest the excitation of closed and open basin normal modes, while energy in the Kwajalein lagoon spans a broader range of frequencies with weaker, multiple peaks than observed at Majuro, which may be associated with the tsunami behavior within the more irregular geometry of the Kwajalein lagoon. The propagation of the tsunami across the reef flats is shown to be tidally dependent, with amplitudes increasing/decreasing shoreward at high/low tide. The impact of the tsunami on the Marshall Islands was reduced due to the coincidence of peak wave amplitudes with low tide; however, the observed wave amplitudes, particularly in the atoll lagoon, would have led to inundation at different tidal phases.

Ford, Murray; Becker, Janet M.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Song, Y. Tony

2014-12-01

465

Hydrologic characteristics of lagoons at San Juan, Puerto Rico, during an October 1974 tidal cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flow and water-quality changes were studied during a period of intense rainfall in the San Juan Lagoon system. The study covered a 25-hour period beginning 0900 hours 22 October, 1974. Precipitation during the study period averaged 70 millimeters. Sampling stations were located at Boca de Cangrejos, the main ocean outlet; Canal Pinones between Laguna de Pinones and Laguna La Torrecilla; Canal Suarez between Laguna San Jose, connects to Laguna La Torrecilla; and Cano de Martin Pena between Laguna San Jose and Bahia de San Juan. In addition water-elevation recording gages were installed at each lagoon. Water samples from the canal stations were analyzed for organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and suspended sediment. Specific-conductance measurements were used with the chemical data to estimate the runoff contributions of nutrients. Runoff into the lagoon, system during the study period was about 2.8 million cubic meters, or about 70 percent of the average precipitation. The runoff contributed chemical loadings to the lagoons of 95,000 kilograms total-organic carbon; 2,700 kilograms of total phosphorus; and 10,000 kilograms of total Khjeldhal nitrogen. A comparison with a prior study during which there was no significant rain, show that dry-period loadings are less than 10 percent of the wet-period loadings. At the end of the study period the system had not reached equilibrium, and the lagoons retained 80 percent of the water inflows from 50 to 90 percent of the chemical loads. Nearly 95 percent of the water outflows occurred at the Boca de Cangrejos sea outlet. The three lagoons and interconnecting canals form a very complex hydraulic system that is difficult to study using traditional techniques. A model of the system will facilitate management to improve the quality of water in the lagoons.

Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Ellis, S.R.

1983-01-01

466

The Unare lagoon - A recent example of sequence stratigraphic control in reservoir patterns  

SciTech Connect

The Unare lagoon constitutes a barred coastal lagoon formed during the Holocene transgression on a moderate wave energy, microtidal coast. An extensive surface sampling and core drill program has been carried out in the lagoon in order to develop a reservoir sedimentology and sequence stratigraphic model applicable to similar subsurface deposits. During the rapid Halocene sea level rise, more than 70 m of fluvial and delta plain sediments have aggraded behind the landward stepping coastal barrier. These sediments are truncated seaward by a transgressive wave ravinement surface, and are capped by widespread lagoonal muds which accumulated between 8300 and 7250 yBP. These muds constitute the Holocene Maximum Flooding Surface which preceded the onset of the post Holocene stillstand (c. 500[approximately] yBP), probably as a result of the high rate of sediment supply and the confined nature of the lagoon which acted as an efficient sediment trap. During the post Holocene stillstand, a fluvial-dominated delta has prograded across the lagoon and attained the coastal barrier. This delta constitutes a Highstand Systems Tract. The major reservoir sands comprise distributary channel meanderbelts and the transgressive barrier. The channels form sand ribbons 5-7 m thick, and up to 2 km wide. The barrier and shoreface sands forms a strike-elongate deposits less than 5 m thick, up to 150-600 m wide, and 5-10 km long. The lagoonal facies of the Maximum Flooding Surface form a good reservoir seal overlying the aggrading transgressive fluvial and delta plain sands and muds.

Bejarano, C. (Corpoven, S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

467

Mississippi River  

article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001   ... 794 x 390 South TIFF: 1024 x 724 The Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca Minnesota to the Gulf of ... lower valley occurred in 1927 and the largest in the upper Mississippi in 1993. In April 2001 another flooding event in the upper ...

2014-05-15

468

American Indian Resources Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website offers a directory of briefly annotated links to resources and Websites in Native American Studies, Texts, Culture, Literature and Background, History, Representations, Languages, and Nations. Students and researchers can find information here on everything from the representation of Laguna women in Leslie Marmon Silko's fiction to the Bureau of Indian Affairs's official definition of a "tribe," to dozens of links for Native American law and advocacy issues. All of the pages we visited had been updated in the past few months, and the site links to a page by Elaine Cubbins, graduate student at University of Arizona, "Techniques for Evaluating American Indian Web Sites," that not only serves to give a sense of the inclusion criteria of the site's authors, but provides a kind of tutorial for doing Web research related to Native Americans or Native American issues. The Website is authored by Will Karkavelas of Osaka University and is part of his larger site, Multicultural Resources, offering similar directories for African-American and Hawaiian studies.

469

Indian Education -- Alberta, 1975-76.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprised of tabular statistics regarding the American Indian student enrollment of Alberta, Canada, this annual report presents the following: (1) total enrollment statistics (a comparative table designating Indian enrollment for each year from 1937 to 1975 in Indian Federal, Indian residential, and provincial schools; a 1975 enrollment summary…

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

470

New Potentials for Modern Indian Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently American Indians have experienced an unprecedented renaissance in community spirit. Capitalizing upon this spirit, Indian economic development should be directed toward particular community needs, utilizing Indian leadership to determine needed training and development programs. There is no question but that the majority of Indian

Heath, Wallace G.

471

Indian Giving: Federal Programs for Native Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at highlighting American Indian reservation conditions, outlining the scope of Federal aid to Indians, and suggesting the nature of future Indian problems and choices, this book attempts to assess the current socioeconomic status of the Indian community and its relationship with the Federal Government. Specifically, this book provides both…

Levitan, Sar A.; Johnston, William B.

472

Washington Irving and the American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some modern scholars feel that Washington Irving vacillated between romanticism and realism in his literary treatment of the American Indian. However, a study of all his works dealing with Indians, placed in context with his non-Indian works, reveals that his attitude towards Indians was intelligent and enlightened for his time. (CM)

Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr.

1979-01-01

473

American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

474

Effective Showcase Projects: Office of Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Education Programs supplement state, local, and tribal education efforts to improve the quality of Indian education and assure parental and community participation. Each year, the Office of Indian Education, assisted by the six regional Indian Education Technical Assistance Centers, selects effective projects to be showcased at the…

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Indian Education Programs.

475

[Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].  

PubMed

Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco State, and it also constitutes the more complete reference on the detailed size composition of a set of dominant species in a coastal lagoon in the central Mexican Pacific. PMID:24912349

González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

2014-03-01

476

Transport of (137)Cs, (241)Am and Pu isotopes in the Curonian Lagoon and the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Activities of (137)Cs, (241)Am and (239,240)Pu were analyzed with special emphasis on better understanding of radionuclide transport from land via the Neman River estuaries to the Baltic Sea and behavior in the marine environment. Although activity concentrations of (137)Cs in water samples collected the Baltic Sea were almost 100 times higher as compared to the Curonian Lagoon, its activities in the bottom sediments were found to be comparable. Activity (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu and atom (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios indicated a different contribution of the Chernobyl-originated Pu to the suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediments. The largest amount of the Chernobyl-derived Pu was found in the smallest suspended matter particles of 0.2-1 ?m in size collected in the Klaipeda Strait in 2011-2012. The decrease of characteristic activity (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu and atom (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios towards the global fallout ones in surface soil and the corresponding increase of plutonium (Pu) ratios in the suspended particulate matter and bottom sediments have indicated that the Chernobyl-derived Pu, primarily deposited on the soil surface, was washed out and transported to the Baltic Sea. Behavior of (241)Am was found to be similar to that of Pu isotopes. PMID:24144889

Lujanien?, G; Remeikait?-Nikien?, N; Garnaga, G; Jokšas, K; Šilobritien?, B; Stankevi?ius, A; Šem?uk, S; Kulakauskait?, I

2014-01-01

477

Altered transcription levels of endocrine associated genes in two fisheries species collected from the Great Barrier Reef catchment and lagoon.  

PubMed

The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is chronically exposed to agricultural run-off containing pesticides, many of which are known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here, we measure mRNA transcript abundance of two EDC biomarkers in wild populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus maculatus). Transcription levels of liver vitellogenin (vtg) differed significantly in both species amongst sites with different exposures to agricultural run-off; brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) revealed some differences for barramundi only. Exposure to run-off from sugarcane that contains pesticides is a likely pathway given (i) significant associations between barramundi vtg transcription levels, catchment sugarcane land use, and river pesticide concentrations, and (ii) consistency between patterns of coral trout vtg transcription levels and pesticide distribution in the GBR lagoon. Given the potential consequences of such exposure for reproductive fitness and population dynamics, these results are cause for concern for the sustainability of fisheries resources downstream from agricultural land uses. PMID:25617679

Kroon, Frederieke J; Hook, Sharon E; Jones, Dean; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Henderson, Brent; Smith, Rachael; Warne, Michael St J; Turner, Ryan D; McKeown, Adam; Westcott, David A

2015-03-01

478

Ecosystem impacts of three sequential hurricanes (Dennis, Floyd, and Irene) on the United States' largest lagoonal estuary, Pamlico Sound, NC  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three sequential hurricanes, Dennis, Floyd, and Irene, affected coastal North Carolina in September and October 1999. These hurricanes inundated the region with up to 1 m of rainfall, causing 50- to 500-year flooding in the watershed of the Pamlico Sound, the largest lagoonal estuary in the United States and a key West Atlantic fisheries nursery. We investigated the ecosystem-level impacts on and responses of the Sound to the floodwater discharge. Floodwaters displaced three-fourths of the volume of the Sound, depressed salinity by a similar amount, and delivered at least half of the typical annual nitrogen load to this nitrogen-sensitive ecosystem. Organic carbon concentrations in floodwaters entering Pamlico Sound via a major tributary (the Neuse River Estuary) were at least 2-fold higher than concentrations under prefloodwater conditions. A cascading set of physical, chemical, and ecological impacts followed, including strong vertical stratification, bottom water hypoxia, a sustained increase in algal biomass, displacement of many marine organisms, and a rise in fish disease. Because of the Sound's long residence time (???1 year), we hypothesize that the effects of the short-term nutrient enrichment could prove to be multiannual. A predicted increase in the frequency of hurricane activity over the next few decades may cause longer-term biogeochemical and trophic changes in this and other estuarine and coastal habitats.

Paerl, H.W.; Bales, J.D.; Ausley, L.W.; Buzzelli, C.P.; Crowder, L.B.; Eby, L.A.; Fear, J.M.; Go, M.; Peierls, B.L.; Richardson, T.L.; Ramus, J.S.

2001-01-01

479

Late-Quaternary paleoenvironmental evolution of Lesina lagoon (southern Italy) from subsurface data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated sedimentological and micropaleontological (foraminifers and ostracods) analyses of two 55 m long borehole cores (S3 and S4) drilled in the subsurface of Lesina lagoon (Gargano promontory—Italy) has yielded a facies distribution characteristic of alluvial, coastal and shallow-marine sediments. Stratigraphic correlation between the two cores, based on strong similarity in facies distribution and AMS radiocarbon dates, indicates a Late Pleistocene to Holocene age of the sedimentary succession. Two main depositional sequences were deposited during the last 60-ky. These sequences display poor preservation of lowstand deposits and record two major transgressive pulses and subsequent sea-level highstands. The older sequence, unconformably overlying a pedogenized alluvial unit, consists of paralic and marine units (dated by AMS radiocarbon at about 45-50,000 years BP) that represent the landward migration of a barrier-lagoon system. These units are separated by a ravinement surface (RS1). Above these tansgressive deposits, highstand deposition is characterised by progradation of the coastal sediments. The younger sequence, overlying an unconformity of tectonic origin, is a 10 m-thick sedimentary body, consisting of fluvial channel sediments overlain by transgressive-regressive deposits of Holocene age. A ravinement surface (RS2), truncating the transgressive (lagoonal and back-barrier) deposits in core S4, indicates shoreface retreat and landward migration of the barrier/lagoon system. The overlying beach, lagoon and alluvial deposits are the result of mid-Holocene highstand sedimentation and coastal progradation.

Ricci Lucchi, Marianna; Fiorini, Flavia; Luisa Colalongo, Maria; Vittorio Curzi, Pietro

2006-01-01

480

Modelling ocean-lagoon interaction during upwelling processes in the South West of New Caledonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2005, wind-driven 'sporadic' coastal upwelling events have been identified off the southwestern reef of New Caledonia. Several studies have described the main physical processes and induced surface patterns using 1D and 3D modelling, as well as in situ measurements. Previous models were applied at the mesoscale wi