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Sample records for indian white prawn

  1. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas. PMID:20862200

  2. An Indian in White America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Mark; Reyer, Carolyn, Ed.

    In his autobiography, Mark Monroe relates his life experiences as a Lakota Sioux Indian in White America. The book begins with Monroe reminiscing about his happy childhood on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his father Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his father…

  3. Determination of biogenic amines in squid and white prawn by high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Xi; Xu, Jie; Xue, Chang-Hu; Sheng, Wen-Jing; Gao, Rui-Chang; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhao-Jie

    2007-04-18

    A simple method was developed for the determination of biogenic amines in aquatic food products using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn automatic o-phthalaldehyde derivatization and fluorescence detection. The linearity, repeatability, and recovery of the method for seven amines (tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, agmatine, spermidine, and spermine) were evaluated. This optimized method was applied to detect biogenic amines in squid and white prawn during refrigerated storage. Sensory analysis, pH value, and total volatile base nitrogen value were combined to evaluate the freshness quality of these two raw materials. Agmatine and cadaverine in squid, cadaverine, and putrescine in white prawn were the most obviously changed amines during the storage at two different temperatures, and these biogenic amines could be the effective quality indicators for the freshness of the raw aquatic materials. PMID:17381105

  4. Purification and characterization of chitinases from ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jiquan; Song, Fengge; Gui, Tianshu; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we purified two native chitinases from the hepatopancreas of the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using ion-exchange resin chromatography (IEC) and gel filtration. These two chitinases, named EcChi1 and EcChi2, were identified by chitinolytic activity assay and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Their apparent molecular weights were 44 kDa and 65 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The specific activity of EcChi1 and EcChi2 was 1305.97 U·mg-1 and 28.69 U·mg-1. The optimal temperature and pH of EcChi1 were 37 °C and pH 4.0, respectively. Co2+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ had an obvious promoting effect upon chitinase activity of EcChi1. For colloidal chitin, the Km and Vmax values of EcChi1 were 2.09 mg·mL-1 and 31.15 U·mL-1·h-1. PMID:25629456

  5. Antibiotics in South Indian coastal sea and farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Venkatesh; Nagalingam, Arun Kumar; Ranganathan, Hari Prasad; Kandhikuppam, Krishnamoorthy Bharathi; Kothandam, Hari Prasath; Vasu, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Sulphonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics were analysed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sea and farmed prawn (Penaeus monodon) samples obtained from the coastal region of southern India during 2011-2012. Average recoveries were 77-99% and precision was between 1% and 8%. The results revealed that in sea prawn samples neither of the two antibiotics was detected, but in farmed samples from coastal Andhra Pradesh some sulphonamides were detected in a concentration range greater than the maximum residual limit as set by Council Directive 2377/90 EC. PMID:24779904

  6. Immune gene discovery by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of hemocytes in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yafei; Liu, Ping; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian; Chen, Ping

    2013-01-01

    The ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda is one of the most important commercial species in eastern China. However, little information of immune genes in E. carinicauda has been reported. To identify distinctive genes associated with immunity, an expressed sequence tag (EST) library was constructed from hemocytes of E. carinicauda. A total of 3411 clones were sequenced, yielding 2853 ESTs and the average sequence length is 436 bp. The cluster and assembly analysis yielded 1053 unique sequences including 329 contigs and 724 singletons. Blast analysis identified 593 (56.3%) of the unique sequences as orthologs of genes from other organisms (E-value < 1e-5). Based on the COG and Gene Ontology (GO), 593 unique sequences were classified. Through comparison with previous studies, 153 genes assembled from 367 ESTs have been identified as possibly involved in defense or immune functions. These genes are categorized into seven categories according to their putative functions in shrimp immune system: antimicrobial peptides, prophenoloxidase activating system, antioxidant defense systems, chaperone proteins, clottable proteins, pattern recognition receptors and other immune-related genes. According to EST abundance, the major immune-related genes were thioredoxin (141, 4.94% of all ESTs) and calmodulin (14, 0.49% of all ESTs). The EST sequences of E. carinicauda hemocytes provide important information of the immune system and lay the groundwork for development of molecular markers related to disease resistance in prawn species. PMID:23092732

  7. An Investigation into Occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus Outbreak in Traditional Paddy Cum Prawn Fields in India

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K. M.; Mohamed Hatha, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8 mg/L) throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds. PMID:22593673

  8. Reactions to Frustration and Anxiety by Indian and White Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James C.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to determine if Indian and white adolescents differed in their choice of defense mechanisms, a random sampling of tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade students from 22 Oklahoma public schools were given the Defense Mechanism Inventory. Scores for 170 Indian students and 197 white students assessed five categories of defenses: turning…

  9. American Indian and White College Student Preferences for Counselor Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Sandra K.; BigFoot-Sipes, Dolores Subia

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 73 American Indian and 81 white college students to determine preferences for counselor characteristics when facing academic or personal problems. Found both groups most preferred counselor with similar attitudes and values. Similar ethnicity appeared more important to American Indian students. Dissimilar characteristics were consistently…

  10. Indian School: Teaching the White Man's Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael L.

    This book for young people examines the history, purpose, and daily routine of government-operated boarding schools for American Indians and tells the personal stories, often in their own words, of several young students. Chapter 1 describes the journey to Pennsylvania of the first Indian children to attend the Carlisle school in 1879. Chapter 2…

  11. Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in Indian Children: Comparison with UK Indian and White European Children

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Claire M.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Owen, Christopher G.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Cook, Derek G.; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective UK Indian adults have higher risks of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes than Indian and UK European adults. With growing evidence that these diseases originate in early life, we compared cardiometabolic risk markers in Indian, UK Indian and white European children. Methods Comparisons were based on the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort Study (MPBCS), India and the Child Heart Health Study in England (CHASE), which studied 9–10 year-old children (538 Indian, 483 UK Indian, 1375 white European) using similar methods. Analyses adjusted for study differences in age and sex. Results Compared with Mysore Indians, UK Indians had markedly higher BMI (% difference 21%, 95%CI 18 to 24%), skinfold thickness (% difference 34%, 95%CI 26 to 42%), LDL-cholesterol (mean difference 0.48, 95%CI 0.38 to 0.57 mmol/L), systolic BP (mean difference 10.3, 95% CI 8.9 to 11.8 mmHg) and fasting insulin (% difference 145%, 95%CI 124 to 168%). These differences (similar in both sexes and little affected by adiposity adjustment) were larger than those between UK Indians and white Europeans. Compared with white Europeans, UK Indians had higher skinfold thickness (% difference 6.0%, 95%CI 1.5 to 10.7%), fasting insulin (% difference 31%, 95%CI 22 to 40%), triglyceride (% difference 13%, 95%CI 8 to 18%) and LDL-cholesterol (mean difference 0.12 mmol/L, 95%CI 0.04 to 0.19 mmol/L). Conclusions UK Indian children have an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile, especially compared to Indian children. These differences, not simply reflecting greater adiposity, emphasize the need for prevention strategies starting in childhood or earlier. PMID:22558399

  12. The roles of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α-subunit gene from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda in response to salinity stresses.

    PubMed

    Li, Jitao; Ma, Peng; Liu, Ping; Chen, Ping; Li, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NAK) is one important transporter protein and plays a key role in maintaining osmotic homeostasis in low and high salinity acclimation in variety of crustacean species. The ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda is an euryhaline and economic shrimp species in China, but it remains unclear about its mechanism of salinity adaption. In this study, a full-length of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit (α-NAK) cDNA was cloned from E. carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of α-NAK was of 3680 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 3030 bp encoding a polypeptide of 1009 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 112.27 kDa. Eight transmembrane domains and two sites of phosphorylation and ATP binding were identified in E. carinicauda α-NAK. BLAST analysis revealed that the sequence of α-NAK amino acids of E. carinicauda shared more than 75% homologies with those of other crustacean. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that E. carinicauda α-NAK gene could be detected in all the tested tissues with highest expression level in gill. The expression profiles of E. carinicauda α-NAK transcripts were analyzed in gill and hepatopancreas tissues after salinity stresses. The results showed that the expression level of E. carinicauda α-NAK gene in both gill and hepatopancreas reached peak at different time after low and high salinity stresses, and showed different expression profiles. The expression profiles of proPO transcripts in gills after salinity stresses also indicated α-NAK and proPO played synergistic actions for salinity responses in E. carinicauda. These results indicated that E. carinicauda α-NAK involved in stress responses against salinity. PMID:25449370

  13. Responses of three very large inducible GTPases to bacterial and white spot syndrome virus challenges in the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Ding, Zhengfeng; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by cells in response to invasion by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. Very large inducible GTPases (VLIG) are the latest IFN-inducible GTPase family to be discovered and are the largest known GTPases of any species. However, VLIG proteins from invertebrates have yet to be characterized. In this study, three forms of VLIGs designated as MrVLIG1, MrVLIG2, and MrVLIG3 were cloned from the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrVLIG1 has a 5445 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding an 1814-amino acid protein. The complete nucleotide sequence of MrVLIG2 cDNA is 7055 bp long consisting of a 5757 bp ORF encoding a protein with 1918 amino acids. The full length of the MrVLIG3 gene consists of 5511 bp with a 3909 bp ORF encoding a peptide with 1302 amino acids. BLASTP and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the three MrVLIGs are clustered into one subgroup and, together with other vertebrate VLIGs, into a branch. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the mRNAs of the three MrVLIGs were widely expressed in almost all detected tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. They were also detected in the intestine but with relatively low expression levels. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA transcripts of the MrVLIGs in the hepatopancreas were significantly expressed at various time points after infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus. In summary, the three isoforms of VLIG genes participate in the innate immune response of the shrimps to bacterial and viral infections. PMID:26850335

  14. Mortality from Infectious Diseases among New Mexico's American Indians, Hispanic Whites, and Other Whites, 1958-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines ethnic differences in infectious disease-related mortality in New Mexico's American Indian, Hispanic White, and other White populations from 1958-87. Findings indicate that for most infectious causes, American Indians had the highest mortality rates, followed by Hispanics. Discusses the influence of cultural beliefs and medical practices.…

  15. Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31

    SciTech Connect

    Li Li; Xie Xixian; Yang Feng . E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-09-15

    Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity.

  16. Studies on the ingestion characteristics of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Yang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xian-Zhong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Ding, Fu-Jiang

    2000-12-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  17. Locus of Control and Self-Esteem in Indian and White Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James C.

    1978-01-01

    Although self-esteem and locus of control orientation differ for American Indian and White children at all educational levels, internality increases with age and is positively related to self-esteem for both groups. American Indian students have a more external orientation and lower self-esteem than White students. (SB)

  18. Red Tape--White Tape: Federal-Indian Funding Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Richard C.; Agar, Michael H.

    1979-01-01

    Historical, structural, cross-cultural, and communication problems within four federally funded Indian drug abuse treatment programs caused conflict between federal agencies and Indians and within the Indian communities themselves. Many of the problems duplicated those encountered in dealing with alcohol abuse among Indians. (SB)

  19. What We Don't Know "Can" Hurt Them: White Teachers, Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    2006-01-01

    White teachers in Indian schools often find themselves unprepared for their task. They do not understand the history, culture, communities, and learning needs of their students. In this article, the author challenges these educators to become better teachers of Indian children and shares some of the lessons she learned about becoming a better…

  20. RACE, COPING STRATEGIES, AND SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIORS: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS EXAMINING WHITE AND AMERICAN INDIAN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The association between stress exposure and substance use has been the subject of numerous studies. However, no prior study has explored the role of coping strategies in moderating the stress-substance use association for American Indian adolescents. Our preliminary study of coping strategies and substance use among a sample (n=568) of rural American Indian and white adolescents revealed a number of similarities across both groups, but also some important differences. Results of logistic regression analyses revealed that the relationship between an avoidant coping strategy and marijuana use differed for whites and American Indians. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:24041130

  1. Factors Associated With American Indian and White Adolescent Drug Selling in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365

  2. Between Indian and White Worlds: The Cultural Broker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szasz, Margaret Connell, Ed.

    During the five centuries of contact between Native and non-Native peoples of the Americas, thousands of intermediaries have moved across the continents' cultural frontiers. These cultural brokers have included traders, missionaries, persons of mixed race, diplomats, Indian schoolchildren attending missionary or government boarding schools, White…

  3. Our Brother's Keeper: The Indian in White America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Edgar S., Ed.; Hearne, David W., Ed.

    The text describes the American Indian's frustrations with his closed world, which thwarts and penalizes individual and tribal self-realization, which rewards and perpetrates dependency, and which demands alienation from one's heritage as a price for survival. American society is described as arrogant and as attempting to insure that by systematic…

  4. Hollywood Addresses Postwar Assimilation: Indian/White Attitudes in "Broken Arrow."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleiss, Angela

    1987-01-01

    Examines Western films in context of post-World War II attitudes regarding racial equality. Film "Broken Arrow" and Eliott Arnold's novel "Blood Brother," both recounting story of Apache chief Cochise, examined as benchmark works in national racial attitudes. Films generally seen as supporting Indian assimilation into White culture. (TES)

  5. Locus of Control and Self-Esteem in Indian and White Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James C.

    1976-01-01

    The development and relationship of two dimensions of personality, self esteem and locus of control, were examined in a study of 763 fourth, eighth, and twelfth grade Indian and white children selected from 22 Oklahoma public schools. The students were given the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Nowicky-Strickland Locus of Control Scale during…

  6. The White Man's Indian: Stereotypes in Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrasidas, Charalambos

    Before the invention of film, a stereotypical perception of Native Americans was embodied in art, fiction, and entertainment. Stereotyping of Native Americans can be categorized under three major themes: (1) the history of Native Americans compressed and portrayed under a single period of time; (2) Native cultures interpreted through white values;…

  7. Moderating Effects of Perceived Social Benefits on Inhalant Initiation Among American Indian and White Youth

    PubMed Central

    Swaim, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether perceived social benefits moderated the relationship between social influence variables (school attachment, peer inhalant use, perceived family caring, parental monitoring) and stage of inhalant initiation (Study 1), and lifetime inhalant use (Study 2). Participants were 7th–12th grade students attending schools on or near American Indian reservations with comparisons made between American Indian and White students. A total of 3498 American Indian and 1596 White students were surveyed. Differences in mean levels of social influence variables were found across ethnicity and stage of inhalant initiation and lifetime inhalant use. SEM models were evaluated to examine variable relationships for the two studies. For Study 1, social influence variables did not clearly differentiate early versus later inhalant initiators, and perceived social benefits failed to serve as a moderator. More differences were observed between users and non-users across measures of social influence (Study 2). Perceived social benefits generally did not moderate the relationships with two exceptions. Low perceived social benefits provided greater protection against the influence of peers on lifetime inhalant use among White students, while high perceived social benefits increased risk of peer influence among American Indian students. PMID:26962974

  8. The Moderating Effects of Perceived Emotional Benefits on Inhalant Initiation Among American Indian and White Youth

    PubMed Central

    Swaim, Randall C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhalant use co-occurs with emotional distress. Inhalant use may be a means of self-medicating distress, but more recent study focuses on the cognitive appraisal of personal benefits of using substances. Objectives Objectives were to determine whether emotional distress variables predict early versus later initiation of inhalant use, whether such relationships differ between American Indian and white youth, and whether perceived emotional benefits of inhalant use moderates the relationship between emotional distress and stage of inhalant initiation. Methods Data were from a study of 7–12th grade American Indian youth who live on or near reservations. A total of 856 students from 32 schools surveyed from 2009 to 2012, who reported having used inhalants (American Indian = 683; white = 173), were surveyed about age first use of inhalants, levels of emotional distress, and perceived benefits of inhalant use. SEM models were used to assess study objectives. Results Depression and anger did not discriminate between early and later initiation. Lower self-esteem related to earlier initiation, but only among American Indian students. Perceived emotional benefits of inhalant use did not moderate the relationship between self-esteem and stage of initiation. Discussion and Conclusions Among middle school and high school American Indian and white youth living on or near American Indian reservations, emotional distress is not strongly related to stage of inhalant initiation. Scientific Significance These findings raise questions about the timing and strength of relationship between emotional distress and early inhalant initiation. Prospective studies are need to assess this relationship more fully. PMID:26246198

  9. Indian Heart/White Man's Head: Native-American Teachers in Indian Schools, 1880-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gere, Anne Ruggles

    2005-01-01

    The figure of the Native-American teacher remains largely absent in histories of the teaching profession in this country and of the government-operated Indian schools that emerged and flourished at the turn of the last century. At a time when a growing literature is enlarging the understanding of what schooling has meant and means to minority…

  10. American Indian Students' Perceptions of Racial Climate, Multicultural Support Services, and Ethnic Fraud at a Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pewewardy, Cornel; Frey, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationships among perceptions of racial climate, multicultural support services, and ethnic fraud among American Indian college students attending a predominantly White state university. Thirty American Indian undergraduate students responded to a 33-item survey that included questions about their…

  11. Linking 'White Oppression' and HIV/AIDS in American Indian Etiology: Conspiracy Beliefs among AI MSMs and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, Brian Joseph; Keesee, Marguerite

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the use of conspiracy beliefs by American Indian (AI) men who have sex with men and their peers to explain the origins of HIV/AIDS. We found that one-third (N = 15) of the individuals surveyed believed that HIV/AIDS was intentionally created by "Whites, White Christians, or the Federal…

  12. Cultural intersections: a qualitative inquiry into the experience of Asian Indian-White interracial couples.

    PubMed

    Inman, Arpana G; Altman, Abby; Kaduvettoor-Davidson, Anju; Carr, Amanda; Walker, Jessica A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the "lived experience" of Asian Indian (AI)-White couples in interracial marriages. Ten highly educated AI-White professional couples were individually interviewed about their subjective experience of being in an interracial marriage, the challenges and strengths of this marriage, and the potential role of culture in their marriages. Data were analyzed using the Consensual Qualitative Research methodology. Results indicated that the couples' marital experiences were influenced by a complex intersection of ecosystemic factors with significant psychological impacts. These findings highlight shortcomings in drawing simplistic conclusions regarding the success or failure of an interracial marriage and have important implications for theory, research, and clinical practice. PMID:21564064

  13. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard. PMID:25895272

  14. Fifteen-Minute Comprehensive Alcohol Risk Survey: Reliability and Validity Across American Indian and White Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Kominsky, Terrence K; Livingston, Bethany J; Garrett, Brady A; Molina, Mildred Maldonado; Boyd, Misty L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American Indians (AIs) suffer from significant alcohol-related health disparities, and increased risk begins early. This study examined the reliability and validity of measures to be used in a preventive intervention trial. Reliability and validity across racial/ethnic subgroups are crucial to evaluate intervention effectiveness and promote culturally appropriate evidence-based practice. Method: To assess reliability and validity, we used three baseline surveys of high school students participating in a preventive intervention trial within the jurisdictional service area of the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. The 15-minute alcohol risk survey included 16 multi-item scales and one composite score measuring key proximal, primary, and moderating variables. Forty-four percent of the students indicated that they were AI (of whom 82% were Cherokee), including 23% who reported being AI only (n = 435) and 18% both AI and White (n = 352). Forty-seven percent reported being White only (n = 901). Results: Scales were adequately reliable for the full sample and across race/ethnicity defined by AI, AI/White, and White subgroups. Among the full sample, all scales had acceptable internal consistency, with minor variation across race/ethnicity. All scales had extensive to exemplary test–retest reliability and showed minimal variation across race/ethnicity. The eight proximal and two primary outcome scales were each significantly associated with the frequency of alcohol use during the past month in both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal models, providing support for both criterion validity and predictive validity. For most scales, interpretation of the strength of association and statistical significance did not differ between the racial/ethnic subgroups. Conclusions: The results support the reliability and validity of scales of a brief questionnaire measuring risk and protective factors for alcohol use among AI adolescents, primarily members of the

  15. A comparison of risk factors associated with suicide ideation/attempts in American Indian and White youth in Montana.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Karen; Tiesman, Hope; Stewart, Jera; Hobbs, Gerald R; Knox, Sarah S

    2015-01-01

    We examined racial/ethnic and gender-specific associations between suicide ideation/attempts and risky behaviors, sadness/hopelessness, and victimization in Montana American Indian and White youth using 1999-2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in stratified racial/ethnic-gender groups. The primary results of this study show that although the American Indian youth had more statistically significant suicidal thoughts and attempts than the White youth, they had fewer statistically significant predictors compared to the White youth. Sadness/hopelessness was the strongest, and the only statistically significant, predictor of suicide ideation/attempts common across all four groups. The unhealthy weight control cluster was a significant predictor for the White youth and the American Indian/Alaska Native girls; the alcohol/tobacco/marijuana cluster was a significant predictor for the American Indian boys only. Results show important differences across the groups and indicate directions for future research targeting prevention and intervention. PMID:25010183

  16. Welcome to a New World: Experiences of American Indian Tribal College and University Transfer Students at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makomenaw, Matthew Van Alstine

    2012-01-01

    This study utilizes an Indigenous methodology and phenomenological methods to better understand the experiences of eight American Indian tribal college and university (TCU) students who transferred to four-year Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). The participants attended TCUs and PWIs located in the Midwest, a geographic area that is…

  17. Comparative Approach to the Study of a White-Indian-Negro Caste System in Robeson County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Dennis Michael

    Attempting to find empirical evidence to support an hypothesis on the social stratification system in Robeson County, North Carolina, the study theorized that there exists a caste system in which the Lumbee Indians have a status between the dominant whites and subordinate Negro groups. The Lumbees and their relationship to these other groups were…

  18. Crystal methamphetamine use among American Indian and White youth in Appalachia: Social context, masculinity, and desistance

    PubMed Central

    BROWN, RYAN A.

    2010-01-01

    Rural areas and American Indian reservations are hotspots for the use of crystal methamphetamine (“meth”) in the United States, yet there is little ethnographic data describing meth use in these areas. This study draws upon three years of ethnographic work conducted with American Indian and White youth in Appalachia during the height of the meth epidemic. It describes how historical, cultural, and socioeconomic processes influence vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia, and highlights the role of social relationships and meaning-making in facilitating desistance and recovery from meth use. The first section shows how crystal meth filled a particular functional niche in the lives of many young men, alleviating boredom and anomie linked to recent socioeconomic changes and labor opportunities in the region, and intersecting with local understandings of masculinity and forms of military identity. Here, ethnographic and interview data converge to illustrate how social role expectations, recent socioeconomic change, and meth’s pharmacological properties converge to create vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia. The second section draws upon two American Indian narratives of desistance. These youth described recently severed social relationships and acute feelings of social isolation during the initiation of meth use. Both also described dramatic close calls with death that facilitated their eventual desistance from use, involving repaired social relationships and the establishment of new lives and hope. These interviews illustrate how changes in social relationships were linked with both initiation and desistance from meth use, and how religious interpretations of near-death experiences structured narratives of cessation and redemption. PMID:21637733

  19. Trends in Perinatal and Infant Health Disparities Between Rural American Indians and Alaska Natives and Rural Whites

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, David C.; Murowchick, Elise; Larson, Eric H.; Hollow, Walter B.; Sugarman, Jonathan R.; Freeman, William L.; Hart, L. Gary

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined disparities in perinatal care, birth outcomes, and infant health between rural American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) persons and rural Whites over time. Methods. We compared perinatal and infant health measures for 217 064 rural AIAN births and 5 032 533 rural non-Hispanic White births. Results. Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, unadjusted rates of inadequate prenatal care (1985–1987, 36.3%; 1995–1997, 26.3%) and postneonatal death (1985–1987, 7.1 per 1000; 1995–1997, 4.8 per 1000) improved significantly. However, disparities between American Indians and Alaska Natives and Whites in adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of postneonatal death (1985–1987, AOR = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41, 1.71; 1995–1997, AOR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.31, 1.64) and adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) of inadequate prenatal care (1985–1987, ARR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.65, 1.69; 1995–1997, ARR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.81, 1.87) persisted. Conclusions. Despite significant decreases in inadequate prenatal care and postneonatal death among American Indians and Alaska Natives, additional measures are needed to close persistent health gaps for this group. PMID:18703453

  20. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in an American Indian Reservation Community: Results from the White Mountain Apache Surveillance System, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwik, Mary F.; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Walkup, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among the White Mountain Apache Tribe. NSSI has not been studied before in American Indian samples despite associated risks for suicide, which disproportionately affect American Indian youth. Method: Apache case managers collected data through a tribally…

  1. Can the Red Man Help the White Man? A Denver Conference with the Indian Elders (1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Sylvester M., Ed.

    Edited proceedings of the 1968 Denver Conference of Indian Elders (a joint project sponsored by the Myrin Institute with the coorperation of Arrow Incorporated and the Bureau of Indian Affairs) are presented in book form for purposes of exploring the extent to which American Indian philosophy/religion can be utilized to help solve the complex…

  2. Identification of a bacterial pathogen associated with Porites white patch syndrome in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Séré, Mathieu G; Tortosa, Pablo; Chabanet, Pascale; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Sweet, Michael J; Schleyer, Michael H

    2015-09-01

    Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS) is a coral disease recently described in the Western Indian Ocean. This study aimed to isolate and identify potential pathogens associated with PWPS utilizing both culture and nonculture screening techniques and inoculation trials. A total of 14 bacterial strains (those dominant in disease lesions, absent or rare in healthy tissues and considered potential pathogens in a previous study) were cultured and used to experimentally inoculate otherwise healthy individuals in an attempt to fulfil Henle-Koch's postulates. However, only one (P180R), identified as closely related (99-100% sequence identity based on 1.4 kb 16S RNA sequence) to Vibrio tubiashii, elicited signs of disease in tank experiments. Following experimental infection (which resulted in a 90% infection rate), the pathogen was also successfully re-isolated from the diseased tissues and re-inoculated in healthy corals colonies, therefore fulfilling the final stages of Henle-Koch's postulates. Finally, we report that PWPS appears to be a temperature-dependent disease, with significantly higher tissue loss (anova: d.f. = 2, F = 39.77, P < 0.01) occurring at 30 °C [1.45 ± 0.85 cm(2) per day (mean ± SE)] compared to ambient temperatures of 28 and 26 °C (0.73 ± 0.80 cm(2) per day (mean ± SE) and 0.51 ± 0.50 cm(2) per day (mean ± SE), respectively). PMID:26193772

  3. Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xi-Lin; Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Shi, Yong-Hai; Liu, Wen-Cui; Xu, Gui-Rong; Li, Shi-Hua

    1999-06-01

    Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn ( Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn ( P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate ( V, mg/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature, V increased with water temperature and dissolved oxygen content. The V of the above three prawn species increased 0.085 mg/g·h, 0.093 mg/g·h and 0.08 mg/g·h respectively with each °C of rising temperature. The comatose point and stifling point of the juveniles rose obviously at unsuitable temperature.

  4. Report On: Arizona Indian Water Rights Conference (White Mountain Apache Reservation, August 21-23, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Established by the Arizona Legislature in 1953, the Arizona Commission on American Indian Affairs serves as the official link between the tribal autonomies and the State government, its legislature, and elected officials. Its primary purpose has been to study conditions among Indians residing within the State. Among the commission's goals are: (1)…

  5. Bacterial Communities Associated with Porites White Patch Syndrome (PWPS) on Three Western Indian Ocean (WIO) Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Séré, Mathieu G.; Tortosa, Pablo; Chabanet, Pascale; Turquet, Jean; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Schleyer, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    The scleractinian coral Porites lutea, an important reef-building coral on western Indian Ocean reefs (WIO), is affected by a newly-reported white syndrome (WS) the Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS). Histopathology and culture-independent molecular techniques were used to characterise the microbial communities associated with this emerging disease. Microscopy showed extensive tissue fragmentation generally associated with ovoid basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates. Results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed a high variability between bacterial communities associated with PWPS-infected and healthy tissues in P. lutea, a pattern previously reported in other coral diseases such as black band disease (BBD), white band disease (WBD) and white plague diseases (WPD). Furthermore, substantial variations in bacterial communities were observed at the different sampling locations, suggesting that there is no strong bacterial association in Porites lutea on WIO reefs. Several sequences affiliated with potential pathogens belonging to the Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae were identified, mainly in PWPS-infected coral tissues. Among them, only two ribotypes affiliated to Shimia marina (NR043300.1) and Vibrio hepatarius (NR025575.1) were consistently found in diseased tissues from the three geographically distant sampling localities. The role of these bacterial species in PWPS needs to be tested experimentally. PMID:24391819

  6. First description of 'Chalky back' phenomenon in banana prawns (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) and its possible association with Vibrio and Photobacterium species.

    PubMed

    Hatje, Eva; Minniti, Giusi; Stewart, Michael J; Neuman, Christina; Knibb, Wayne; Katouli, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Here we report a newly identified 'Chalky back' phenomenon in banana prawns (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) farmed in North Queensland, Australia. This was characterized by localized white discoloured segmentation of the cervical groove, moreover, after cooking the prawns exploded, making them unfit for commercial sale. Histological examination revealed breakdown of gut and abdominal muscle tissue in some moribund specimens. We selectively isolated Vibrio spp., which are known prawn pathogens, from healthy and Chalky back specimens. Isolated bacteria were identified, typed and tested for the presence of eight virulence genes (VGs), biofilm formation, adherence and cytotoxicity to fish cells. In all, 32 isolates were recovered and identified as Vibrio harveyi, V. owensii, V. sinaloensis-like, V. campbellii, V. shilonii, Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium damselae using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All V. harveyi carried VGs coding for haemolysin, toxR and flagella; formed biofilm; and adhered to both cell lines. This was similar to the V. sinaloensis-like strains that were only isolated from Chalky back specimens. Our data suggest that Vibrio spp. may play a role in the pathogenesis of Chalky back. This study is the first report of Chalky back phenomenon in farmed banana prawns that needs to be closely monitored by the industry. PMID:26825678

  7. Ovarian cancer incidence and mortality in American Indian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white women in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schiff, M; Becker, T M; Smith, H O; Gilliland, F D; Key, C R

    1996-05-01

    Although ethnic and racial differences in ovarian cancer incidence and mortality have been reported worldwide, few published data have addressed the epidemiology of ovarian cancer among U.S. American Indians and Hispanics. We reviewed ovarian cancer incidence and survival data from New Mexico's population-based cancer registry collected from 1969 to 1992, and examined state vital records data for ovarian cancer deaths collected from 1958 to 1992, focusing on ethnic differences in occurrence and outcomes of ovarian malignancies. Non-Hispanic white women had age-adjusted incidence rates that were slightly higher (13.3/100,000) than rates for American Indians (11.4) and Hispanics (10.7) over the 24-year period. Ovarian cancer mortality rates were also higher for non-Hispanic whites than for minority women. Neither incidence rates nor mortality rates for ovarian cancer improved over the span of the study period. In addition, the stage at diagnosis did not shift substantially over time for any of the ethnic groups studied, nor did the distribution of various histopathological types shift proportionately. Only slight improvement was observed in 5-year survival over the time period of the study, with greater gains among younger (50 years old or less) versus older women. Ethnic differences in ovarian cancer incidence and mortality were apparent in our population-based data. However, our analysis indicated no reduction in ovarian cancer incidence or mortality in our state over the past quarter century and only slight improvement in 5-year survival. PMID:9162296

  8. Food sources and carbon dudget of chinese prawn Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Fang

    2002-03-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semi-intensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20 28)×10-3.

  9. Indian Self-Rule. First-Hand Accounts of Indian-White Relations from Roosevelt to Reagan. Current Issues in the American West, Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Kenneth R., Ed.

    Keynote addresses and panel sessions at a conference examining Indian history in the 50 years since the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) are collected in this volume. Part One discusses the Indian New Deal and federal Indian policy from 1933-1945. Part Two deals with 1945-1960 and the federal policy of terminating tribal status. Part…

  10. Consultation with American Indian Sovereign Nations: Current Directions from the White House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Patricia L.; Bevitt, Emogene

    1997-01-01

    Addresses specific National Park Service (NPS) responses to executive memorandum on collaboration with federally recognized tribes, and to Executive Order 13007 on Indian sacred sites: extent of consultation, confidentiality, access, avoiding adverse effects, collaborative planning, notification procedures, training managers, and suggested changes…

  11. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  12. Preterm birth among American Indian/Alaskan natives in Washington and Montana: comparison with non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Melody; Shrestha, Archana; Yazzie, Sheldwin; Jackson, Michael L

    2013-12-01

    Preterm birth is the single most important cause of perinatal mortality in North America. Given that American Indians/Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs) in the United States continue to have adverse birth outcomes, the purpose of this study is to compare the risk of preterm birth among AI/AN mothers to Non-Hispanic White mothers living in Washington and Montana from 2003 to 2009. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted examining the association between AI/AN mothers (self-reported) and the risk of preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks) using birth certificate data from Washington and Montana. All AI/AN singleton lives births (n = 26,648) from residents of Washington and Montana from 2003 to 2009 were identified and included in our study. An identical number of Non-Hispanic White singleton infants (n = 26,648) born to residents of Washington and Montana were randomly selected as a comparison group and logistic regression was used to analyze the data. AI/AN mothers living in Washington and Montana between 2003 and 2009 were 1.34 times (95 % CI 1.25-1.44) as likely to have a preterm birth compared to Non-Hispanic Whites after adjusting for maternal and paternal characteristics as well as pregnancy risk factors. AI/AN mothers residing in Washington and Montana from 2003 to 2009 were at a significantly increased risk of having a preterm birth compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Identifying etiologic differences in preterm birth experienced by AI/ANs is essential in targeting future interventions. PMID:23288503

  13. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus).

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  14. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  15. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the land.…

  16. Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-05-01

    Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

  17. Molecular importance of prawn large heat shock proteins 60, 70 and 90.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Nizam, Faizal; Ravichandran, Gayathri; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arshad, Aziz; Elumalai, Preetham; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the innate immune system of prawn, a comparative molecular approach was proposed to study the crustacean large HSPs 60, 70 and 90. Three different large HSPs were identified from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr) cDNA library during screening. The structural and functional characteristic features of HSPs were studied using various bioinformatics tools. Also, their gene expression and mRNA regulation upon various pathogenic infections was studied by relative quantification using 2(-ΔΔCT) method. MrHSP60 contains a long chaperonin 60 domain at 46-547 which carries a chaperonin 60 signature motif between 427 and 438, whereas MrHSP70 contains a long HSP70 domain at 21-624 and MrHSP90 carries a HSP90 domain at 188-719. The two dimensional analysis showed that MrHSP60 contains more amino acids (52%) in helices, whereas MrHSP70 (40.6%) and MrHSP90 (51.8%) carried more residues in coils. Gene expression results showed significant (P < 0.05) expression of MrHSP60, 70 and 90 in haemocyte, gill and hepatopancreas, respectively. Further, the expression level was up-regulated upon bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophilla and Vibrio harveyi) and viral [white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and M. rosenbergii nodo virus (MrNV)] infections during various time periods. The gene expression results exhibited the potential involvement of these three HSPs in the immune system of prawn. The study indicated the potentiality of these molecules, thereby protecting cells against pathogens as well as severe cellular and environmental stresses in crustaceans. PMID:26631804

  18. Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

  19. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of Fein-Penaeidin from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    PubMed Central

    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Shanthi, Sathappan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Penaeidins are members of a special family of antimicrobial peptide existing in penaeid shrimp and play an important role in the immunological defense of shrimp. Here, we report a penaeidin sequence cloned from the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaus indicus (Fein-Penaeidin). The Fein-Penaeidin open reading frame encodes a 77 amino acid peptide including a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequences of Fein-Penaeidin include a proline rich N-terminal domain and a carboxyl-domain that contains six cysteine residues. Structural analysis revealed an alpha-helix in its secondary structure and the predicted 3D structure indicated two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison with other known peaneidin suggest the gene shows high similarity to that of penaeidin from Peneaus monodon (95%), F. indicus (80%) and Fenneropenaeus chinensis (74%). Fein-Penaeidin was examined in normal and microbial challenged shrimp and was found to be constitutively expressed in haemocytes, Heart, gills, muscles, intestine, hepatopancreas and eyestalk. Bacterial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, inducing expression at 6 h post injection indicating the penaeidin involved in the innate immunity. PMID:24371565

  20. Extraction from prawn shells of substances cryoprotective for Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Shimodori, S; Moriya, T; Kohashi, O; Faming, D; Amako, K

    1989-01-01

    Substances cryoprotective for Vibrio cholerae were detected from prawn shells immersed in phosphate-buffered saline. This cryoprotective activity was heat resistant and sensitive to treatment with trypsin. For the exhibition of its full activity, the presence of Mg ion was indispensable. The cryoprotective activity of this substance was more active than that of other known cryoprotectants, like glycerol or serum. PMID:2604409

  1. Toxicity of rotenone to giant river freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculturists have often suffered predation losses in the production of freshwater giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to the presence of wild fish species in culture ponds. The piscicide rotenone is widely used to remove undesirable fish species from ponds. Although evidence in the t...

  2. Spring Chinook Salmon Production for Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Annual Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Doulas, Speros

    2007-01-01

    This annual report covers the period from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2006. Work completed supports the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) effort to restore a locally-adapted stock of spring Chinook to the Umatilla River Basin. During the year, staff at the Little White Salmon/Willard National Fish Hatchery Complex have completed the rearing of 218,764 Brood Year 2004 spring Chinook salmon for release into the Umatilla River during spring 2006 and initiated production of approximately 220,000 Brood Year 2005 spring Chinook for transfer and release into the Umatilla River during spring 2007. All work under this contract is performed at the Little White Salmon and Willard National Fish Hatcheries (NFH), Cook, WA.

  3. Coral disease in the Indian Ocean: taxonomic susceptibility, spatial distribution and the role of host density on the prevalence of white syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Frisch, Ashley J

    2010-02-24

    Coral diseases, such as white diseases and white syndrome (WS), have caused widespread damage to coral reefs throughout the Caribbean and are increasing in prevalence on Pacific Ocean reefs. The current study confirms that WS is also present on coral reefs in the Indian Ocean and tests whether patterns in taxonomic susceptibility and spatial variability conform to patterns of WS reported in the Pacific Ocean. Underwater surveys at 19 sites around Christmas and Cocos Islands revealed that WS primarily affects Acropora plate corals (A. clathrata, A. cytherea and A. hyacinthus), and prevalence of WS varied significantly across all 3 spatial scales investigated (island, exposure and depth). Approximately 13.0% (range = 0 to 43% per site) of plate corals at Christmas Island sites exhibited WS compared to <1% at the Cocos Islands. At Christmas Island, WS prevalence was greater in shallow (31.5%) than in deeper water (6.7%) and greatest on the northern (leeward) side of the island (31.5%) compared to the more exposed coastlines (0 to 1.5%). Importantly, the spatial distribution of WS was positively correlated with host density, but not with hard coral cover, suggesting a role of host density in WS outbreaks. Overall the present study has established that WS is impacting remote, near-pristine reefs in the Indian Ocean. However, the highly variable spatial distribution of WS illustrates that patterns in disease prevalence, and the subsequent impact on coral reefs, can be location- or region-specific. PMID:20391907

  4. Early attempts at production of prawn cell lines.

    PubMed

    Owens, L; Smith, J

    1999-01-01

    This report describes some unsuccessful attempts to produce continuous cell lines from penaeid prawn tissues in the late 1980s. This information is presented so that others might save time by not repeating the unsuccessful measures that were attempted. The osmolarity of Penaeus monodon haemolymph was measured at 687 mOsmol/kg (N = 10). Of the media tested, the best medium for cell growth and maintenance was shown to be double strength L-15, supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, and 10% prawn muscle extract at 28 degrees C ( approximately 675.5 mOsmol/kg). Prawn muscle extract was made by homogenizing 30 g of prawn muscle in 50/50 ratio of distilled water/autoclaved seawater, clarified stepwise by centrifugation at 2k, 14k, 14k xg for 30 minutes each. The resultant supernatant was heat-inactivated on occasions with no improvement in growth. Preconditioned medium, cholesterol, galactose and trehalose supplements and the use of Cell-Tak did not improve growth conditions, and haemolymph extracts were detrimental to the cells. In addition it was shown that Nunc 25 cm(2) plastic culture flasks were better than Linbro and both were better than glass as substrates. The fate of 101 individual primary cell cultures, established from penaeid prawns, was as follows. Fifteen of the cultures succumbed to bacterial contamination, five became contaminated with fungi, four with thauastrochytrids, four succumbed to presumptive viral autocultures and two to ciliate contamination. Cell cultures derived from heart tissue could be maintained for a mean of 12.7 days (sd 9.7d), those derived from the epidermis 15.6 days (sd 9.0d), ovarian tissue 10 days (sd 2d), lymphoid organ 6.8 days (sd 0.4d), nerve cord and hepatopancreas 2 days. The most persistent cell cultures -- those derived from the heart explants -- contained dividing cells at 40 days, and epidermis cells were still dividing at 30 days. The longest lasting, non- proliferating, but viable, cell cultures were those of

  5. Indian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marilyn Irvin

    With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

  6. Ecology of nonnative Siberian prawn (Palaemon modestus) in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the abundance, distribution, and ecology of the nonnative Siberian prawn Palaemon modestus in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA. Analysis of prawn passage abundance at three Snake River dams showed that populations are growing at exponential rates, especially at Little Goose Dam where over 464,000 prawns were collected in 2015. Monthly beam trawling during 2011–2013 provided information on prawn abundance and distribution in Lower Granite and Little Goose Reservoirs. Zero-inflated regression predicted that the probability of prawn presence increased with decreasing water velocity and increasing depth. Negative binomial models predicted higher catch rates of prawns in deeper water and in closer proximity to dams. Temporally, prawn densities decreased slightly in the summer, likely due to the mortality of older individuals, and then increased in autumn and winter with the emergence and recruitment of young of the year. Seasonal length frequencies showed that distinct juvenile and adult size classes exist throughout the year, suggesting prawns live from 1 to 2 years and may be able to reproduce multiple times during their life. Most juvenile prawns become reproductive adults in 1 year, and peak reproduction occurs from late July through October. Mean fecundity (189 eggs) and reproductive output (11.9 %) are similar to that in their native range. The current use of deep habitats by prawns likely makes them unavailable to most predators in the reservoirs. The distribution and role of Siberian prawns in the lower Snake River food web will probably continue to change as the population grows and warrants continued monitoring and investigation.

  7. Information About Indians of Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toothman, Maryann; Jensen, Denise

    An intermediate or junior high level unit on Indians indigenous to Iowa focuses on history, culture, and cultural conflict between the Indians and white Americans. Many of the materials can be adapted for use in other states or for a more general unit on American Indians. Twenty lessons cover the location of Iowa; prehistoric Iowa; Indian society…

  8. Attitudes toward HPV Vaccination among Rural American Indian Women and Urban White Women in the Northern Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchwald, Dedra; Muller, Clemma; Bell, Maria; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf

    2013-01-01

    Background: American Indian women in the Northern Plains have a high incidence of cervical cancer. We assessed attitudes on vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population. Method: In partnership with two tribal communities, from 2007 to 2009, we surveyed women 18 to 65 years old attending two reservation clinics ("n" =…

  9. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit One: Indian America Before White Settlement. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Unit I for grade six deals with the American Indian in a cross cultural approach. Pupils use case studies to examine the Aztecs, who were later conquered by the Spanish, and the Iroquois, who came into contact with the French and English, as total cultures and draw comparisons between the two. The main part of each resource unit is set up in a…

  10. American Indian/Alaskan Native Undergraduate Retention at Predominantly White Institutions: An Elaboration of Tinto's Theory of College Student Departure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Junghee; Donlan, William; Brown, Eddie F.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports findings from a major public university sponsored study undertaken with the intention of (a) improving university understanding of factors affecting American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) undergraduates' persistence at this institution, and (b) identifying in what areas, and in what manner, this institution could improve…

  11. Beyond the Violence: Indian Agriculture, White Removal, and the Unlikely Construction of the Northern Cheyenne Reservation, 1876-1900

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, James R., III

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-six Cheyenne families followed Little Wolf to his self-imposed exile near Rosebud Creek. To most observers, this blind loyalty to a fallen leader required little explanation. After all, Little Wolf had recently led his people in a costly yet courageous escape from Indian Territory, fighting through the dead of winter back to the Northern…

  12. Evaluation of impingement losses of white perch at the Indian Point Nuclear Station and other Hudson River power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, W.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1980-06-01

    This report evaluates two independent lines of evidence concerning impingement losses of white perch at the power plants on the Hudson River. Based on regression analyses of impingement rate as an index of year-class strength versus year over the period 1972 through 1977, it is concluded that there is little evidence of a statistically significant downward trend. However, an analysis of minimum detectable differences in impingement rates indicates that a long time series of year-class strength would be required to detect even substantial reductions (e.g., 50%). Second, based on our estimates of percent reduction in year-class strength due to impingement (> 20% for the 1974 year class and >15% for the 1975 year class), it is concluded that the level of impingement impact is not acceptable a priori from the point of view of managing the white perch population. Our methodologies and results are compared with those of the utilities, and the bases for the substantial differences in estimate of impingement are discussed. Appendices are included on survival of impinged white perch, impingement rate as an index of population abundance, and ability to detect decreases in population abundance. 57 refs., 29 tabs.

  13. Metal accumulation in the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, in Sydney and Port Hacking estuaries, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lewtas, K L M; Birch, G F; Foster-Thorpe, C

    2014-01-01

    Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between size groups amongst locations. PMID:23852467

  14. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to

  15. Molecular cloning of peroxinectin gene and its expression in response to peptidoglycan and Vibrio harveyi in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Shanthi, Sathappan; Manju, Sivalingam; Rajakumaran, Perumal; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2014-12-01

    The cDNA sequence of peroxinectin was obtained from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus using RT-PCR and RACE. Fenneropenaeus indicus peroxinectin (Fi-Pxn) sequence has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2415 bp encoding a protein of 804 amino acids with 21 residues signal sequence. The mature protein has molecular mass of 89.8 kDa with an estimated pI of 8.6. Two putative integrin-binding motifs, RGD and KGD, were observed at the basic N-terminal and C-terminal part of the mature aminoacid sequence. Fi-Pxn nucleotide sequence comparison showed high homology to mud crab Scylla serrata (89%) and to various vertebrate and invertebrate species. qRT-PCR showed peroxinectin mRNA transcript in haemocytes of F. indicus increased at 6 h post injection of peptidoglycan and Vibrio harveyi. The Fi-Pxn was mainly expressed in the tissues of haemocytes and the heart. The moulting stage responses showed Fi-Pxn expression in premoult stages D0/1 and D0/2. PMID:25072536

  16. The Comprehensive View of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaegi, Gerda

    Relating historical conflicts between Indians and whites, the document explained how education was originally aimed at "civilizing" and domesticating the Canadian Indian. This philosophy, used extensively by church groups that established the original Indian schools, alienated children from both the white society and the educational process.…

  17. Creations of Mystics and Philosophers: The White Man's Perceptions of Northwest Coast Indian Art from the 1930s to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Aldona

    1981-01-01

    Traces and analyzes the societal forces which have affected non-Indian interpretations of Northwest Coast Indian art from its acceptance as art in the 1930s to the shamanic and structural interpretations of more recent years. (CM)

  18. Crustin, a WAP domain containing antimicrobial peptide from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: immune characterization.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Gudimella, Ranganath; Milton, James; Singh, Arun; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Kasi, Marimuthu; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Crustin (MrCrs) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrCrs protein contains a signal peptide region at N-terminus between 1 and 22 and a long whey acidic protein domain (WAP domain) at C-terminus between 57 and 110 along with a WAP-type 'four-disulfide core' motif. Phylogenetic results show that MrCrs is clustered together with other crustacean crustin groups. MrCrs showed high sequence similarity (77%) with crustin from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicas. I-TASSER uses the best structure templates to predict the possible structures of MrCrs along with PDB IDs such as 2RELA and 1FLEI. The gene expressions of MrCrs in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with virus including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila (Gram-negative) and Enterococcus faecium (Gram-positive) were examined using quantitative real time PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCrs gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCrs protein agglutinated with the bacteria considered for analysis at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, except Lactococcus lactis. The bactericidal results showed that the recombinant MrCrs protein destroyed all the bacteria after incubation, even less than 6 h. These results suggest that MrCrs is a potential antimicrobial peptide, which is involved in the defense system of M. rosenbergii against viral and bacterial infections. PMID:23069787

  19. Growing Up Indian: Stories from the Life of Louie Gingras, an 82 Year Old Kootenai Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Louie

    Eleven short stories from the life of Louie Gingras, an 82-year-old Kootenai Indian, illustrate many aspects of Indian culture. Accompanied by black and white drawings, ths stories describe daily life, mission schools, the Carlisle Indian School, Indian medicine, discipline for children, spiritual powers, beliefs, and several ceremonies. The book…

  20. Stability of the WSSV ORF94 VNTR genotype marker during passage in marine shrimp, freshwater crayfish and freshwater prawns.

    PubMed

    Gudkovs, Nicholas; Murwantoko, Murwantoko; Walker, Peter J

    2014-10-16

    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome contains 3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) regions, located in open reading frame (ORF) 75, ORF94 and ORF125, which have been employed for molecular epizootiological studies. A previous report suggested that the ORF 94 VNTR is highly unstable, varying in the number of tandem repeats during single passages from shrimp to other crustaceans. As such rapid variations would have profound implications for the interpretation of molecular epizootiological data, we re-examined the stability of the ORF94 VNTR. Two WSSV isolates with different ORF94 VNTR genotypes (TRS5 and TRS7) were obtained from disease outbreaks in farmed black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in Indonesia. High titre stocks of each virus were produced by injection in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with filtered infected tissue extracts, and the genotypes were confirmed. Each stock (macerated tissue) was then used to feed SPF Pacific white shrimp, freshwater crayfish (Cherax sp.) and freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii through 3 successive passages involving alternative hosts at each level. Taqman real-time PCR was conducted on samples from each group to confirm infection and quantify viral genetic loads. ORF94 VNTR genotype analysis conducted on samples from each of the 43 passage groups indicated no variations in the VNTR number in either genotype TRS5 or genotype TRS7. This finding is contrary to the previous report and suggests that ORF94 VNTR are stable during multiple passages in these crustaceans. PMID:25320037

  1. Characterization of a gC1qR from the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Huang, Xin; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Yan-Ru; Hui, Kai-Min; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    gC1qR, as a multicompartmental and a multifunctional protein, plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a gC1qR homolog (MrgC1qR) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified. MrgC1qR, a 258-amino-acid polypeptide, shares high identities with gC1qR from other species. MrgC1qR gene was expressed in different tissues and was highest expressed in the hepatopancreas. In addition, the MrgC1qR transcript was significantly enhanced after 6 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or post 2 h, 24 h of Vibrio anguillarum challenge compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, recombinant MrgC1qR (rMrgC1qR) had bacterial binding activity, the result also revealed that rMrgC1qR could bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS or PGN, suggesting that MrgC1qRmight function as a pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays showed that rMrgC1qR with GST-tag could bind to rMrFicolin1 or rMrFicolin2 with His-tag. Altogether, these results may demonstrate a role for MrgC1qR in innate immunity in the giant freshwater prawns. PMID:25555810

  2. American Indian Education: Separation, Amalgamation, or What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zephier, Richard

    This essay examines American Indian education from a historical perspective and analyzes the role of the school as an institution in an Indian community. Since the arrival of the white man in America, Indians have faced a world of cultural conflict. Throughout the history of Indian education, their values and way of life have been demeaned. The…

  3. White Nationalism and Native Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stineback, David

    1977-01-01

    Suggesting there has been a nationalistic psychology inherent in white America's relationship with the American Indian, this article asserts that the Puritans and 19th century politicians are alike in their inability to accept the idea that Indians have not wanted to live like the white man. (JC)

  4. In-Depth Tanscriptomic Analysis on Giant Freshwater Prawns

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Shamsudin, Maizatul Izzah; Kang, Yi; Lili, Zhao; Tan, Tian Tian; Kwong, Qi Bin; Liu, Hang; Zhang, Guojie; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Gene discovery in the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) has been limited to small scale data collection, despite great interest in various research fields related to the commercial significance of this species. Next generation sequencing technologies that have been developed recently and enabled whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), have allowed generation of large scale functional genomics data sets in a shorter time than was previously possible. Using this technology, transcriptome sequencing of three tissue types: hepatopancreas, gill and muscle, has been undertaken to generate functional genomics data for M. rosenbergii at a massive scale. De novo assembly of 75-bp paired end Ilumina reads has generated 102,230 unigenes. Sequence homology search and in silico prediction have identified known and novel protein coding candidate genes (∼24%), non-coding RNA, and repetitive elements in the transcriptome. Potential markers consisting of simple sequence repeats associated with known protein coding genes have been successfully identified. Using KEGG pathway enrichment, differentially expressed genes in different tissues were systematically represented. The functions of gill and hepatopancreas in the context of neuroactive regulation, metabolism, reproduction, environmental stress and disease responses are described and support relevant experimental studies conducted previously in M. rosenbergii and other crustaceans. This large scale gene discovery represents the most extensive transcriptome data for freshwater prawn. Comparison with model organisms has paved the path to address the possible conserved biological entities shared between vertebrates and crustaceans. The functional genomics resources generated from this study provide the basis for constructing hypotheses for future molecular research in the freshwater shrimp. PMID:23734171

  5. Correlates of Overweight and Obesity Among American Indian/Alaska Native and Non-Hispanic White Children and Adolescents: National Survey of Children’s Health, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Maria; Irving, Jennifer; Manning, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for overweight and obesity may be different for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, as obesity prevalence among AI/AN children remains much higher. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health, behavioral (child’s sport team participation, vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and computer use), household (parental physical activity, frequency of family meals, rules limiting television viewing, and television in the child’s bedroom), neighborhood (neighborhood support, perceived community and school safety, and presence of parks, sidewalks, and recreation centers in the neighborhood), and sociodemographic (child’s age and sex, household structure, and poverty status) correlates of overweight/obesity (body massindex ≥85th percentile for age and sex) were assessed among 10–17 year-old non-Hispanic white (NHW) and AI/AN children residing in Alaska, Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota (n = 5,372). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.0 % among NHW children and 48.3 % among AI/AN children in this sample. Viewing more than 2 h of television per day (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.0; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.5–2.8), a lack of neighborhood support (aOR = 1.9; 95 % CI = 1.1–3.5), and demographic characteristics were significantly associated with overweight/obesity in the pooled sample. Lack of sport team participation was significantly associated with overweight/obesity only among AI/AN children (aOR = 2.7; 95 % CI = 1.3–5.2). Culturally sensitive interventions targeting individual predictors, such as sports team participation and television viewing, in conjunction with neighborhood-level factors, may be effective in addressing childhood overweight/obesity among AI/AN children. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23229132

  6. A new microsporidium, Potaspora macrobrachium n.sp. infecting the musculature of pond-reared oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhengfeng; Sun, Mengling; Liu, Hongyan; Zhao, Yanhua; Pan, Jianlin; Xue, Hui

    2016-05-01

    This paper described a novel microsporidian infection in the pond-reared oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. A conspicuous symptom of the infection was progressive white opacity associated with the musculature. Although neither bacteria nor viruses were detected in routine diagnostic tests, apparently degenerated microsporidian cells or spores were frequently observed in wet smears of the musculature from diseased prawns. Histological observations also revealed characteristics typical of microsporidian infection throughout the host. Transmission electron microscopy revealed multiple life stages of a microsporidian parasite within the cytoplasm of host muscle cells. In addition, partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was obtained by a nested PCR using microsporidian specific primers. A consensus sequence was then deposited in GenBank (accession no. KU307278) and subjected to a general BLASTn search that yielded hits only for microsporidian sequence records. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was most similar to the fish microsporidian clade containing the genera Kabatana, Microgemma, Potaspora, Spraguea, and Teramicra. The highest sequence identity, 87%, was with Potaspora spp. Based on histological, ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic data, we erected a new species, Potaspora macrobrachium for the novel microsporidium. The description of microsporidium in this important commercial host was fundamental for future consideration of factors affecting stock health and sustainability. PMID:26925527

  7. Genetic diversity of cultured and wild populations of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on microsatellite analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in the Western Hemisphere is primarily, if not entirely, based on thirty-six individual prawn introduced to Hawaii from Malaysia in 1965 and 1966. Little information is available regarding the genetic background or current population status of cult...

  8. Contrasting patterns of habitat use by prawns and crayfish in a headwater marsh of the St. Johns River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, Frank; Babbitt, Kimberly J.; McIvor, Carole C.; Miller, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    We compared seasonal patterns of habitat use by the prawn Palaemonetes paludosus and the crayfish Procambarus alleni in Blue Cypress Marsh Conservation Area, Florida. Prawn densities were similar to those found in other oligotrophic wetlands of southern Florida, whereas crayfish densities were much greater than reported previously for other wetlands in the area. Prawns and crayfish had strikingly different patterns of habitat use. Prawn density and biomass were similar in wet prairies and sloughs, whereas crayfish density and biomass were significantly higher in wet prairies. Within habitats, the abundance of prawns and crayfish generally increased with increasing structural complexity and the abundance of crayfish generally decreased with increasing water depth. Differences in risk of predation, frequency of agonistic encounters, food availability, and other factors likely contributed to observed patterns of habitat use. Because of differences in their ability to burrow and avoid concentration into dry-season refugia, prawns and crayfish responded very differently to seasonal variation in hydrologic conditions. Prawn densities were initially low (following a severe drought) and then increased during much of the study period, whereas crayfish densities were relatively stable throughout the study period. Overall, it appears that prawns are more responsive to antecedent hydrologic conditions and crayfish are more responsive to the availability of suitable habitats such as wet prairies.

  9. The Flood. Second edition. Indian Culture Series DH-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Hap

    The booklet, illustrated with black and white photographs and drawings, contains 16 one to three page versions of the story of the great flood. Versions of the story as told by representatives of the Skokomish Indians of Western Washington, Apache Indians of New Mexico, Athabascan Indians of Alaska, Shasta Indians of California, Yakima Indians of…

  10. Fishing for prawn larvae in Bangladesh: an important coastal livelihood causing negative effects on the environment.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nesar; Troell, Max

    2010-02-01

    Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in Bangladesh has, to a large extent, been dependent on the supply of wild larvae. Although there are 81 freshwater prawn hatcheries in the country, a lack of technical knowledge, inadequate skilled manpower, and an insufficient supply of wild broods have limited hatchery production. Many thousands of coastal poor people, including women, are engaged in fishing for wild prawn larvae along the coastline during a few months each year. On average, 40% of the total yearly income for these people comes from prawn larvae fishing activity. However, indiscriminate fishing of wild larvae, with high levels of bycatch of juvenile fish and crustaceans, may impact negatively on production and biodiversity in coastal ecosystems. This concern has provoked the imposition of restrictions on larvae collection. The ban has, however, not been firmly enforced because of the limited availability of hatchery-raised larvae, the lack of an alternative livelihood for people involved in larvae fishing, and weak enforcement power. This article discusses the environmental and social consequences of prawn larvae fishing and concludes that, by increasing awareness among fry fishers, improving fishing techniques (reducing bycatch mortality), and improving the survival of fry in the market chain, a temporal ban may be a prudent measure when considering the potential negative impacts of bycatch. However, it also suggests that more research is needed to find out about the impact of larvae fishing on nontarget organisms and on the populations of targeted species. PMID:20496649

  11. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

  12. GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression in the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Torres-González, Alejandra M.; Rullan-Matheu, Yarely; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Sosa, María A.

    2010-01-01

    The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a tropical crustacean with characteristics similar to those of lobsters and crayfish. Adult males develop through three morphological types—small (SC), yellow (YC), and blue claws (BC)—with each representing a level in the dominance hierarchy of a group, BC males being the most dominant. We are interested in understanding the role played by neuropeptides in the mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in this type of prawn. SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans, where it has been linked to olfaction, sexual behavior, and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish. We wanted to determine whether Gly-SIFamide plays a role in modulating aggression and dominant behavior in the prawn. To do this, we performed behavioral experiments in which interactions between BC/YC pairs were recorded and quantified before and after injecting Gly-SIFamide directly into the circulating hemolymph of the living animal. Behavioral data showed that aggression among interacting BC/YC prawns was enhanced by injection of Gly-SIFamide, suggesting that this neuropeptide does have a modulatory role for this type of behavior in the prawn. PMID:20040755

  13. A rapid approach to evaluate putative nursery sites for penaeid prawns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew D.; Smith, James A.; Boys, Craig A.; Whitney, Hannah

    2016-08-01

    Identifying nursery habitats for an aquatic species generally requires tracing adult individuals back through time and space to the area or habitat in which they developed as juveniles. We develop and trial a study design and analytical approach to evaluate the suitability of using stable isotopes to trace emigrating prawns to putative nursery sites, and evaluate assumptions inherent in the application of the approach using two penaeid species with Type-II life cycles: Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus and Metapenaeus macleayi. Prawns were collected in putative nursery sites within the Hunter River, Australia, and analysed as composite samples of 6 individuals to provide habitat-specific isotopic signatures. Prawns emigrating from the mouth of the river were used as a proxy for individuals recruiting to the adult population, and assigned to putative nursery sites using a probabilistic mixing model and a simple, distance-based approach. Bivariate (δ15N and δ13C) isotopic data was sufficient to distinguish prawns from different putative nursery sites, and isotopic composition correlated closely with salinity. Approximately 90% of emigrating prawns collected could be assigned to these sites using bivariate isotopic data, and both analytical approaches gave similar results. The design developed here is broadly applicable to a suite of penaeid species, but its application will be most powerful when sampling is also aimed at understanding nursery function by simultaneous monitoring of size structure/growth, density, and trophic relationships within nursery habitats.

  14. Seeing orange: prawns tap into a pre-existing sensory bias of the Trinidadian guppy

    PubMed Central

    De Serrano, Alexandra R.; Weadick, Cameron J.; Price, Anna C.; Rodd, F. Helen

    2012-01-01

    Sensory bias, a predisposition towards certain signals, has been implicated in the origin of mate preferences in some species. A risk associated with these biases is that they can be co-opted by predators as sensory lures. Here we propose that the orange spots on the brown pincers of a diurnal, predatory species of prawn function as lures for Trinidadian guppies, which have a sensory bias for orange. We exposed female guppies to (i) a life-like model of this Trinidadian prawn with orange, green or no spots on the pincers or (ii) a live, novel (non-Trinidadian) crustacean (crayfish), also with spotted pincers. First, we provide evidence that guppies sympatric with the prawn recognized our model as a potential predator. Next, we found that guppies spent more time in the dangerous head region of the model prawn with orange-spotted pincers compared with unspotted pincers. Finally, we show that allopatric, but not sympatric, guppies spent more time in the vicinity of the head of a live crayfish when orange spots were added to its pincers than when brown spots were added. Our results suggest that the orange spots on prawn pincers can act as a sensory lure. PMID:22593111

  15. American Indian History and Writing from Home: Constructing an Indian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fixico, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    If the typical premise of American Indian history is actually the history of Indian-white relations, then the "other" side of the coin must be turned over for understanding an Indian point of view and what is called "writing from home." Conceptually, "writing from home" is the challenge of historians who are American Indian and who write history…

  16. Regulation of essential heavy metals (Cu, Cr, and Zn) by the freshwater prawn macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards)

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayram, K.; Geraldine, P.

    1996-02-01

    Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels. Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous {open_quote}granules{close_quote}, or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins. Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands. However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonlii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals.

  17. Qualitative mathematical models to support ecosystem-based management of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Rothlisberg, Peter C; Loneragan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    A major decline in the catch of the banana prawn [shrimp], Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) merguiensis, occurred over a six-year period in the Weipa region of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Three main hypotheses have been developed to explain this decline: (1) prawn recruitment collapsed due to overfishing; (2) recruitment collapsed due to a change in the prawn's environment; and (3) adult banana prawns were still present, but fishers could no longer effectively find or catch them. Qualitative mathematical models were used to link population biology, environmental factors, and fishery dynamics to evaluate the alternative hypotheses. This modeling approach provides the means to rapidly integrate knowledge across disciplines and consider alternative hypotheses about how the structure and function of an ecosystem affects its dynamics. Alternative models were constructed to address the different hypotheses and also to encompass a diversity of opinion about the underlying dynamics of the system. Key findings from these analyses are that: instability in the system can arise when discarded fishery bycatch supports relatively high predation pressure; system stability can be enhanced by management of fishing effort or stock catchability; catch per unit effort is not necessarily a reliable indicator of stock abundance; a change in early-season rainfall should affect all stages in the banana prawn's life cycle; and a reduced catch in the Weipa region can create and reinforce a shift in fishing effort away from Weipa. Results from the models informed an approach to test the hypotheses (i.e., an experimental fishing program), and promoted understanding of the system among researchers, management agencies, and industry. The analytical tools developed in this work to address stages of a prawn life cycle and fishery dynamics are generally applicable to any exploited natural. resource. PMID:26255373

  18. The effect of copper nanoparticles supplementation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae.

    PubMed

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Saravana Bhavan, Periyakali; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant, metabolic enzyme levels, and non specific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu-NPs (200 nm) were synthesized by facile and environmental friendly hydrothermal method. Cu-NPs were supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diets. These Cu-NPs supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for 90 days. Results showed significant (P<0.05) improvements were observed in survival, growth, digestive enzyme activities, concentrations of biochemical constituents and total and differential haemocytes count of prawns fed with 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed. Prawns fed with 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed showed negative performance. Activity of antioxidants and metabolic enzymes in the muscle and hepatopancreas of prawns showed no significant alterations (P>0.05) prawns fed with up to 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feeds. Whereas, prawns fed with 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed showed significant (P<0.05) elevations in antioxidant and metabolic enzymes activities. Hence, 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) diets may have toxic effect to M. rosenbergii. Hence, present study suggests that 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating better survival, growth and immune response of M. rosenbergii PL. PMID:26854244

  19. Dopaminergic modulation of neuromuscular transmission in the prawn.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M W; Parnas, H; Parnas, I

    1985-01-01

    The action of the putative crustacean neurohormone dopamine was examined in the fast extensor musculature of the prawn with intracellular and extracellular recording techniques. Dopamine produced a concentration-dependent (10(-7)-10(-5) M) decrease in the size of the excitatory junctional potential (e.j.p.). It had no effect on the muscle fibre resting membrane potential or input resistance. High concentrations (10(-5)M) of dopamine had no effect on the amplitude distribution or decay time of quantal unit currents, indicating that the agent does not act by blocking post-synaptic receptors or channels. Bath application of dopamine reduced the quantal content at single release sites with a similar time course and concentration dependence as that observed for the e.j.p. Dopamine had no effect on histograms of synaptic delays determined over a 10 degree C range, indicating that it does not modify the time course of phasic neurosecretion. Twin-impulse facilitation experiments showed a marked decrease in the duration of facilitation in the presence of dopamine. These results are interpreted according to recent theoretical and experimental findings as indicating that the dopamine-induced reduction in transmitter release is produced by a decrease in the entry of Ca during the nerve terminal action potential. PMID:2862279

  20. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; D'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.                            

  1. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A

    2015-08-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite's intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village's river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis. PMID:26195752

  2. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    PubMed Central

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N’Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis. PMID:26195752

  3. Molecular Characterisation of Colour Formation in the Prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Nicole G.; Elizur, Abigail; Brooks, Peter; Kuballa, Anna V.; Anderson, Trevor A.; Knibb, Wayne R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Body colouration in animals can have a range of functions, with predator protection an important aspect of colour in crustaceans. Colour determination is associated with the carotenoid astaxanthin, which is taken up through the diet and stabilised in the tissues by the protein crustacyanin. As a variety of genes are found to play a role in colour formation in other systems, a holistic approach was employed in this study to determine the factors involved in Fenneropenaeus merguiensis colouration. Results Full length F. merguiensis crustacyanin subunit A and C sequences were isolated. Crustacyanin subunit A and C were found in the F. merguiensis transcriptomes of the muscle/cuticle tissue, hepatopancreas, eye stalk and nervous system, using 454 next generation sequencing technology. Custom microarray analysis of albino, light and dark F. merguiensis cuticle tissue showed genes encoding actin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and arginine kinase to be 4-fold or greater differentially expressed (p<0.05) and down-regulated in albinos when compared to light and dark samples. QPCR expression analysis of crustacyanin and total astaxanthin pigment extraction revealed significantly (p<0.05) lower crustacyanin subunit A and C gene transcript copy numbers and total astaxanthin levels in albinos than in the light and dark samples. Additionally, crustacyanin subunit A and C expression levels correlated positively with each other. Conclusions This study identified gene products putatively involved in crustacean colouration, such as crustacyanin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and forms of actin, and investigated differences in gene expression and astaxanthin levels between albino, light and dark coloured prawns. These genes open a path to enhance our understanding of the biology and regulation of colour formation. PMID:23441225

  4. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

  5. Quantification of lectin in freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) hemolymph by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Agundis, C; Pereyra, A; Zenteno, R; Brassart, C; Sierra, C; Vazquez, L; Zenteno, E

    2000-10-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was developed to quantify the lectin present in the hemolymph of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. This method involves the use of murine monoclonal IgG1 with kappa light chain (designated as 3G1) antibodies raised against the purified lectin, the assay that we developed recognized as little as 30 ng/ml of lectin, and was used to measure the lectin concentration in animals at different maturation stages. The highest concentration of lectin was identified in the hemolymph from post-larval prawns and the lowest in molt stage adult animals. The hemagglutination activity of the lectin was four-fold higher in adult than in juvenile specimens, although in all cases N-acetylated sugar residues, such as N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid were inhibitors of the lectin activity, suggesting that lectin plays a role in the transport of N-acetylated sugar in juvenile prawns. Our results indicate that lectin concentration and hemagglutinating activity could be influenced by developmental conditions of the freshwater prawn. PMID:11079370

  6. Desperate Prawns: Drivers of Behavioural Innovation Vary across Social Contexts in Rock Pool Crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Callum; Wilson, Alastair J; Thornton, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Innovative behaviour may allow animals to cope with changes in their environment. Innovative propensities are known to vary widely both between and within species, and a growing body of research has begun to examine the factors that drive individuals to innovate. Evidence suggests that individuals are commonly driven to innovate by necessity; for instance by hunger or because they are physically unable to outcompete others for access to resources. However, it is not known whether the factors that drive individuals to innovate are stable across contexts. We examined contextual variation in the drivers of innovation in rock pool prawns (Palaemon spp), invertebrates that face widely fluctuating environments and may, through the actions of tides and waves, find themselves isolated or in groups. Using two novel foraging tasks, we examined the effects of body size and hunger in prawns tested in solitary and group contexts. When tested alone, small prawns were significantly more likely to succeed in a spatial task, and faster to reach the food in a manipulation task, while hunger state had no effect. In contrast, size had no effect when prawns were tested in groups, but food-deprived individuals were disproportionately likely to innovate in both tasks. We suggest that contextual variation in the drivers of innovation is likely to be common in animals living in variable environments, and may best be understood by considering variation in the perception of relative risks and rewards under different conditions. PMID:26488728

  7. Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

  8. Cypermethrin toxicity to aquatic life: bioassays for the freshwater prawn Palaemonetes argentinus.

    PubMed

    Collins, P; Cappello, S

    2006-07-01

    Cypermethrin (CY) effects were evaluated in freshwater prawn Palaemonetes argentinus, a common member of the aquatic fauna in the vegetated littoral of lotic and lentic environment of La Plata basin. LC50 was calculated, and oxygen uptakes together with ammonia-N excretion were related to biocide concentrations. Behavioral and growth changes were analyzed, and a unique application of CY was evaluated in P. argentinus micropopulations. LC50 and their 95% confidence limit were 0.0031 microg CY L(-1) (0.0023-0.0039) for 24 h and 0.0020 microg CY L(-1) (0.0014-0.0027) for 96 h. Oxygen uptake and ammonia-N excretion increased in the prawns kept in CY solutions. The behavioral effect was hyperactivity. Although prawns in biocide groups have null or negative growth, the intermolt period was 246% larger than in the control group. Moreover, the mortality in the second cycle was 100%. A unique application of pyrethoid provoked high mortality after 50 days. The low concentrations of this biocide affected the survival and altered the prawn metabolic activity, behavioral and ecdysis cycle. These results suggest that juveniles of P. argentinus are much more sensitive to CY pollution than other crustaceans, fish, and tadpoles. PMID:16418889

  9. Desperate Prawns: Drivers of Behavioural Innovation Vary across Social Contexts in Rock Pool Crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Callum; Wilson, Alastair J.; Thornton, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Innovative behaviour may allow animals to cope with changes in their environment. Innovative propensities are known to vary widely both between and within species, and a growing body of research has begun to examine the factors that drive individuals to innovate. Evidence suggests that individuals are commonly driven to innovate by necessity; for instance by hunger or because they are physically unable to outcompete others for access to resources. However, it is not known whether the factors that drive individuals to innovate are stable across contexts. We examined contextual variation in the drivers of innovation in rock pool prawns (Palaemon spp), invertebrates that face widely fluctuating environments and may, through the actions of tides and waves, find themselves isolated or in groups. Using two novel foraging tasks, we examined the effects of body size and hunger in prawns tested in solitary and group contexts. When tested alone, small prawns were significantly more likely to succeed in a spatial task, and faster to reach the food in a manipulation task, while hunger state had no effect. In contrast, size had no effect when prawns were tested in groups, but food-deprived individuals were disproportionately likely to innovate in both tasks. We suggest that contextual variation in the drivers of innovation is likely to be common in animals living in variable environments, and may best be understood by considering variation in the perception of relative risks and rewards under different conditions. PMID:26488728

  10. Sovereignty and Inter-governmental Relations with Arizona Indian Tribes--A Report on the Indian Town Hall (2nd, White Mountain Apache Reservation, August 20-22, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Established by the Arizona legislature in 1953 and serving as official link between tribal autonomies and State government, the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs has recently sponsored its second conference, the proceedings of which constituted this report. Conference participants, forming two panel discussion groups, represented the Ak-Chin,…

  11. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2015-11-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight (P<0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E (P<0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased (P<0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups (P>0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  12. Risk assessment of pesticides used in rice-prawn concurrent systems in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Rico, Andreu; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Van den Brink, Paul J; Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Rashid, Harunur

    2016-10-15

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occupational health hazards posed by the application of pesticides in rice-prawn concurrent systems of south-west Bangladesh and to assess their potential risks for the aquatic ecosystems that support the culture of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Information on pesticide use in rice-prawn farming was collected through structured interviews with 38 farm owners held between January and May of 2012. The risks of the pesticide use to human health were assessed through structured interviews. The TOXSWA model was used to calculate pesticide exposure (peak and time-weighted average concentrations) in surface waters of rice-prawn systems for different spray drift scenarios and a simple first tier risk assessment based on threshold concentrations derived from single species toxicity tests were used to assess the ecological risk in the form of risk quotients. The PERPEST model was used to refine the ecological risks when the first tier assessment indicated a possible risk. Eleven synthetic insecticides and one fungicide (sulphur) were recorded as part of this investigation. The most commonly reported pesticide was sulphur (used by 29% of the interviewed farmers), followed by thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and phenthoate (21%). A large portion of the interviewed farmers described negative health symptoms after pesticide applications, including vomiting (51%), headache (18%) and eye irritation (12%). The results of the first tier risk assessment indicated that chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and malathion may pose a high to moderate acute and chronic risks for invertebrates and fish in all evaluated spray drift scenarios. The higher tier assessment using the PERPEST model confirmed the high risk of cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos for insects and macro- and micro-crustaceans thus indicating that these pesticides may have severe adverse consequences for the prawn

  13. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased ( P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups ( P >0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  14. Great Indian Chiefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastron, Allen

    Brief biographies and pen and ink portraits of over 40 chiefs and other distinguised American Indians comprise this book. Each page contains a full page portrait and a biography that notes tribal affiliation, important dates, geographical location, major accomplishments, and dealings with other tribes, white settlers, and the United States or…

  15. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Natives have 1.5 times the ... Cause of Death (By rank) # American Indian/Alaska Native Deaths American Indian/Alaska Native Death Rate #Non- Hispanic White ...

  16. Feasibility Study of the Coqualeetza Indian Hospital at Sardis, B.C. for an Indian Community Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Consultants, West Vancouver (British Columbia).

    The booklet contains a report of a feasibility study for developing the Coqualeetza Indian Hospital at Sardis, British Columbia, into an Indian community center. As explained, before the white man arrived in Fraser Valley, the Indians knew "Coqualeetza" as the "place for cleansing;" Indian women washed their blankets at this spot, but it was more…

  17. Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (∼3 kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ∼3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3 bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ∼3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable. PMID:21522169

  18. A cadmium metallothionein gene of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis, 1950) and its expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins capable of binding heavy metal ions. A cadmium metallothionein ( EcMT — Cd) cDNA with a 189 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 62 amino acid protein was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. Seventeen cysteines were in the deduced amino acid sequence, and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was revealed in different metallothioneins in other species. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence did not contain any aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), and phenylalanine (Phe). EcMT—Cd mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues (the ovary, muscle, stomach, and hepatopancreas), and its expression profiles in the hepatopancreas were very different when shrimps were exposed to seawater containing either 50 μmol/L CuSO4 or 2.5 μmol/L CdCl 2. The expression of EcMT-Cd was significantly up-regulated in shrimp exposed to CuSO4 for 12 h and down-regulated in shrimps exposed to CdCl2 for 12 h. After 24 h exposure to both metals, its expression was down-regulated. By contrast, at 48 h the EcMT-Cd was up-regulated in test shrimps exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cd was very low or even absent before the zoea stage, and the expression of EcMT-Cd was detected from mysis larvae-I, then its expression began to rise. In conclusion, a cadmium MT exists in E. carinicauda that is expressed in different tissues and during different developmental stages, and responds to the challenge with heavy metal ions, which provides a clue to understanding the function of cadmium MT.

  19. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a novel antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-3 (Fi-Pen3) from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B

    2012-03-20

    A new member of antimicrobial peptide genes of the penaeidin family, penaeidin 3, was cloned from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropeneaus indicus (F. indicus), by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE-PCR) methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of cDNA clone of Indian white shrimp F. indicus Penaeidin 3 (Fi-Pen3) was 243bp long and has an open reading frame which encodes 80 amino acid peptide. The homology analysis of Fi-Pen3 sequence with other Penaeidins 3 shows higher similarity with Penaeus monodon (92%). The theoretical 3D structure generated through ab initio modelling indicated the presence of two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. The signal peptide sequence of Fi-Pen3 is almost entirely homologous to that of other Penaeidin 3 of crustaceans, while differing relatively in the N-terminal domain of the mature peptide. The mature peptide has a predicted molecular weight of 84.9kDa, and a theoretical pI of 9.38. Phylogenetic analysis of Fi-Pen3 shows high resemblance with other Pen-3 from P. monodon, Litopenaeus stylirostris, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus. Fi-Pen3 found to be expressed in haemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, muscles, gills, intestine, and eyestalk with higher expression in haemocytes. Microbial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, up to 6h post injection of Vibrio parahemolyticus. The Fi-Pen3 mRNA expression of F. indicus in the premolt stage (D(01) and D(02)) was significantly up-regulated than the postmolt (A and B) and intermolt stages (C). The findings of the present paper underline the involvement of Fi-Pen3 in innate immune system of F. indicus. PMID:21885268

  20. The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) to physical and chemical stress.

    PubMed

    Tizkar, Babak; Seidavi, Alireza; Ponce-Palafox, Jesús Trinidad; Pourashoori, Parastoo

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquaculture and its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX) to the shock and stress of different physicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland) at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50 mg/kg, AX100 with 100 mg/kg, and AX150 with 150 mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1000L) used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36 org/m2 per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1 g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5 mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05 mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C), ammonia (0.75 mg/L), and reduced oxygen (0.5 mg/L). The time to lethargy and the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed

  1. Total and inorganic arsenic in freshwater fish and prawn in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saipan, Piyawat; Ruangwises, Suthep; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2012-10-01

    Total and inorganic arsenic levels were determined in 120 samples of eight freshwater animal species collected from five distribution centers in the central region of Thailand between January and March 2011. Eight species with the highest annual catch, consisting of seven fish species and one prawn species, were analyzed. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic (on a wet weight basis) ranged from 0.010 μg/g in giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to 0.230 μg/g in striped snakehead (Channa striata). Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) exhibited the highest mean concentrations of total arsenic (0.459 ± 0.137 μg/g), inorganic arsenic (0.121 ± 0.044 μg/g), and percentage of inorganic arsenic (26.2%). Inorganic arsenic levels found in freshwater animals in this study were much lower than the Thai regulatory standard of 2 μg/g. PMID:23043844

  2. Impact of tributyltin on antioxidant and DNA damage response in spermatozoa of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rani, K Umaa; Musthafa, M Saiyad; War, Mehrajuddin; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Shareef, T H Mohamed Ahadhu; Nawas, P Mohideen Askar

    2015-12-01

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on antioxidant [total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and DNA damage levels in the spermatozoa were studied and reported here for the first time in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Three groups of (n = 10 in each group) fishes were exposed to three different nominal concentrations of TBT viz., 1, 2, and 4 mg L(-1) along with control group for 90 days. Significant decrease of antioxidant and increased DNA damage levels were seen at higher doses of 2 and 4 mg L(-1). In prawn, the antioxidant level plays a vital role in sperm protection, activation, differential functions related to the physiology, and reproductive behavior. This study serves as a biomonitoring tool to assess the TBT effects on reproductive behavior of aquatic biota. PMID:26296505

  3. Feasibility of using hydrothermal resources in Malaysian prawn aquaculture. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.I.J.; Rhodes, R.J.; Wannamaker, A.W.

    1982-08-01

    The potential application of geothermal resources in South Carolina for freshwater prawn aquaculture was examined. In coastal S.C. 23 existing geothermal well sites were identified which encompassed an area which ranged from Georgetown to Beaufort. Depth averaged approx. 615 m while temperature averaged approx. 37/sup 0/C. Artesian flow rates varied from 190 to 2650 1/min. Detailed water quality analyses were conducted at 12 sites. In general, major differences from surface waters were in chlorides, fluorides, dissolved solids, ph, alkalinity, and ammonia levels. A detailed replicated laboratory study was conducted to examine the effect of geothermal water on growth and survival of prawns. After 42 days very poor survival was recorded from the various 100% geothermal water treatments. However, 50:50 mixture of shallow well water and geothermal water resulted in a survival rate of 83%, which was similar to the control treatments. Growth was also similar to that observed among the control animals.

  4. Involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of reproduction in the prawn Penaeus indicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.

  5. Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)

    PubMed Central

    Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohamad; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Arip, Masita; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15–250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies. PMID:23569834

  6. Impact of cyclones and aquatic macrophytes on recruitment and landings of tiger prawns Penaeus esculentus in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loneragan, N. R.; Kangas, M.; Haywood, M. D. E.; Kenyon, R. A.; Caputi, N.; Sporer, E.

    2013-07-01

    The cover of seagrasses and macroalgae, landings and fishery-independent measures of spawning stock and recruitment for brown tiger prawns, were monitored immediately following a major cyclone in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia in March 1999. Anecdotal evidence on the extent of seagrass from 1990 to 1998 suggests that the cyclone caused a major, immediate disruption and loss of the seagrass/macroalgal beds (to ≤2% cover), the critical prawn nursery habitat, and mangroves in the shallow inshore waters of the system. Prawn landings and recruitment to the fishery were not affected in the year of the cyclone, but were markedly lower in the two years immediately afterwards and then increased as the cover of macrophytes increased to over 40% in 2003. Tiger prawn landings and catch rates were not affected in Shark Bay, a system 500 km south of Exmouth Gulf that did not experience cyclonic disturbance. Seagrasses in Exmouth Gulf showed a succession of species from small colonising species (Halophila ovalis and Halodule uninervis) to larger, broad-leaved species (Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium) only two years after the cyclone. The recruitment and landings of tiger prawns were correlated significantly with the total cover of macroalgae and seagrass. The large loss of seagrass and macroalgae reduced the settling habitat for postlarvae and the nursery habitat for juvenile tiger prawns, probably leading to the lower recruitment to the fishery. These findings suggest that the extent of seagrass and macroalgae are some of the factors defining the productivity of the tiger prawn fishery in Exmouth Gulf.

  7. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  8. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  9. Isolation of prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein gene and its expression in responding to bacterial and viral infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qianqian; Li, Jian; Duan, Yafei; Li, Jitao; Sun, Ming; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-04-01

    The pattern recognition proteins (PRPs) play a major role in immune response of crustacean to resist pathogens. In the present study, as one of PRPs, lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) gene in the ridge tail white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) ( EcLGBP) was isolated. The full-length cDNA of EcLGBP was 1338 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 366 amino acid residules. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcLGBP shared high similarities with LGBP and BGBP from other crustaceans. Some conservative domains were predicted in EcLGBP sequence. EcLGBP constitutively expressed in most tissues at different levels, and the highest expression was observed in hepatopancreas. With infection time, the cumulative mortality increased gradually followed by the proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The expression of EcLGBP in response to V. parahaemolyticus infection was up-regulated in hemocytes and hepatopancreas, and the up-regulation in hepatopancreas was earlier than that in hemocytes. EcLGBP expression after WSSV infection increased at 3 h, then significantly decreased in both hemocytes and hepatopancreas. The results indicated that EcLGBP was involved in the immune defense against bacterial and viral infections.

  10. Penaeus orientolis prawn freshness rapid determination method based on electronic nose and non-linear stochastic resonance technique

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liu; Yuanyuan, Han; Yanping, Cai; Jiaojiao, Jin; Guohua, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Penaeus orientolis prawn freshness rapid determination method using electronic nose (e-nose) and non-linear data processing technique is studied. E-nose responses to prawns stored at 4°C are measured. Meanwhile, physical/chemical indexes (firmness, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), total viable count (TVC), and human sensory evaluation) are examined to provide freshness references for e-nose analysis. E-nose measurement data is analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), stochastic resonance (SR), and double-layered cascaded serial stochastic resonance (DCSSR). PCA partially discriminates prawns under different storage time. SR and DCSSR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum eigen values discriminate prawns successfully. Multi-variables regressions (MVR) are conducted between physical/chemical indexes and SR/DCSSR output SNR minimal (SNR-Min) values. Results indicate that SNR-Min values present more significant linearity relation with physical/chemical indexes. Prawn freshness forecasting model is developed via Harris fitting regression on DCSSR SNR-Min values. Validating experiments demonstrate that forecasting accuracy of this model is 94.29%. PMID:25551520

  11. Tidal fronts and their influence on prawn postlarvae immigration in Albatross Bay, the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Hua

    1995-06-01

    Studies of dynamics in Albatross Bay, the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, show strong tides of which M2 is the dominant constituent in the region. Tidal fronts are present and they can be modelled by a 2-D tidal model. Density currents have also been observed with seasonal variations due to the influence of wet or dry seasons. This paper reviews the effects of these dynamics on the migration of prawn postlarvae in Albatross Bay and its estuaries. It is found that through its vertical movement triggered by change of salinity the prawn postlarvae can be transported from the coast to the estuary by tides within 2.8 weeks. However, this horizontal displacement mechanism may be destroyed by the tidal front in Albatross Bay. Density currents may alter prawn postlarvae positions in Albatross Bay on a seasonal scale.

  12. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  13. Toxicity Assessment on the Levels of Select Metals in the Critically Endangered Indian White-backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis, in India.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Jayakumar; Subramanian, Muralidharan

    2015-06-01

    To assess the potential contribution of metals to the catastrophic population decline of the White-backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis, their concentrations in various organs was quantified. Liver, kidney, pectoral muscle, gut contents and femur bone were collected from dead birds between 1999 and 2008. These samples were analysed for lead, cadmium, copper and zinc, which were detected in all organs with no significant variation among tissues or between sexes. Moreover, high lead levels in liver (8.56 µg/g wet weight) and kidney (9.31 µg/g wet weight) in some individuals indicate toxic effects. Nonetheless, the levels of most metals measured in the present study may be considered as normal. PMID:25904090

  14. Advanced Placement Courses and American Indian Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment in Advanced Placement (AP) courses and performance on Advanced Placement examinations for American Indians in the U.S. for 2007 was analyzed. Scores on AP examinations, overall and then for five AP courses, were compared to the AP examination scores of White students. In every case, American Indians had AP examination scores that were…

  15. INDIAN INTEGRATION IN NEVADA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAGLUND, E.A.

    THIS DOCUMENT DISCUSSES THE PROBLEM OF DESEGREGATION IN THE NEVADA PUBLIC SCHOOLS. HISTORICALLY, THE INDIAN WAS NOT ABLE TO PARTICIPATE IN THE ENCROACHING CULTURE OF THE WHITE MAN AND LITTLE ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO ENCULTURATE HIM. HE BECAME AN OBJECT OF SUBJUGATION AND EXPLOITATION. AS LATE AS 1930, THE INDIAN DID NOT HAVE THE CAPACITY OR THE NEED TO…

  16. Tecumseh. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraff, Anne

    Tecumseh, famed for his skills as an orator, warrior, military strategist, and leader of his Shawnee people, has been called one of the great American leaders. In 1812 he assembled 3,000 warriors from 32 American Indian tribes in an effort to save the Indian lands from the onslaught of the white soldiers and settlers. It was the largest Indian…

  17. Molecular profiles and pathogen-induced transcriptional responses of prawn B cell lymphoma-2 related ovarian killer protein (BOK).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have reported a molecular characterization of the first B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) related ovarian killer protein (BOK) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). BOK is a novel pro-apoptotic protein of the BCL-2 family that entails in mediating apoptosis to remove cancer cells. A cDNA sequence of MrBOK was identified from the prawn cDNA library and its full length was obtained by internal sequencing. The coding region of MrBOK yields a polypeptide of 291 amino acids. The analysis revealed that MrBOK contains a transmembrane helix at V(261)-L(283) and a putative BCL-2 family domain at V(144)-W(245). MrBOK also possessed four putative BCL-2 homology domains including BH1, BH2, BH3 and weak BH4. The BH3 contains 21 binding sites and among them five residues are highly conserved with the aligned BOK proteins. The homology analysis showed that MrBOK shared maximum similarity with the Caligus rogercresseyi BOK A. The topology of the phylogenetic tree was classified into nine sister groups which includes BOK, BAK, BAX, BAD, BCL-2, BCL-XL, NR13 and MCL members. The BOK protein group further sub-grouped into vertebrate and invertebrate BOK, wherein MrBOK located within insect monophyletic clad of invertebrate BOK. The secondary structural analysis showed that MrBOK contains 11 α-helices (52.2%) which are connected over random coils (47.7%). The 3D structure of MrBOK showed three central helices (α6, α7 and α8) which formed the core of the protein and are flanked on one side by α1, α2 and α3, and on the other side by α4, α5 and α11. MrBOK mRNA is expressed most abundantly (P < 0.05) in ovary compared to other tissues taken for analysis. Hence ovary was selected to study the possible roles of MrBOK mRNA regulation upon bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) and viral [white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus] infection. During bacterial and viral infection, the highest MrBOK mRNA transcription was varied

  18. Cultural Disintegration Perpetuated through Substance Abuse among American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence Armand

    Alcohol, perhaps more than any other factor, symbolizes the degree of cultural disintegration experienced by American Indians today. It has been recognized as a symptom of the numerous cultural adjustments forced upon American Indians since white contact. Indeed, alcohol among Indian groups was prohibited for a far longer period than the…

  19. Sir William Johnson and the Indians of New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Milton W.

    In order to make the vast literature about the history of Indian and white relations in New York readily accessible to teachers, students, and general readers, this booklet brings together the main points of the relationship between the Indians and Sir William Johnson. Johnson is a key figure in the Indian story of New York state during the 1770s.…

  20. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Shih, Chun-Han; Chu, Ta-Jen; Wang, Daryi; Lee, Ying-Chou; Tzeng, Tzong-Der

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan) to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan). All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR) and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR). All FST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan) and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan). UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE) (both located northern Taiwan), and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan). Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago. PMID:26716687

  1. Toxicity of cryoprotectants agents in freshwater prawn embryos of Macrobrachium amazonicum.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Arthur Vinícius Lourenço; Castro, Elias José Teles; Barbosa, Mariana Silva Alves; de Sousa, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins; de Araújo Neto, Manoel Paiva; Filho, Aldeney Andrade Soares; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria

    2015-12-01

    The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ≤ 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl. PMID:25255785

  2. Identification of five anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yili; Tang, Ting; Gu, Jihai; Li, Xiang; Yang, Xue; Gao, Xiaobin; Liu, Fengsong; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-10-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a group of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and antiviral activities mainly found in crustaceans and horseshoe crabs. In the present study, we identified 5 ALF expression sequence tags (ESTs) through analysis of the established M. nipponense transcriptome, and cloned their full-length cDNA sequences using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The 5 ALFs were designated as MnALF1-5, and all of them showed high similarity with their Macrobrachium rosenbergii homologs in the phylogenetic analyses, especially in LPS binding domains. In healthy adult prawns, we found the highest expression of MnALF2 and MnALF4 in haemocytes, and the highest expression of MnALF4 and MnALF3 in intestine. Some isoforms of MnALF were down-regulated but the majority was up-regulated in different prawn tissues upon Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. To conform the expected antimicrobial activities harbored in MnALFs' LPS binding domains, we used a synthesized peptide cMnALF24 that corresponds to the LPS binding domain of MnALF2 as a representative molecule for the antibacterial activity test, and found that cMnALF24 possessed strong and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, but no inhibition activity against fungi; Meanwhile, in the hemolytic test, cMnALF24 showed weak hemolysis activities (around 10%) to the rabbit red blood cells at concentrations of 0.67-33.50 μM. This study provides insights into understanding the antibacterial function of ALFs in the innate immunity of freshwater prawn, and reports a peptide that can be a potential drug candidate with good efficacy against bacterial infection and low toxicity to host cells. PMID:26159095

  3. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ta-Jen; Wang, Daryi; Lee, Ying-Chou; Tzeng, Tzong-Der

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan) to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan). All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR) and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR). All FST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan) and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan). UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE) (both located northern Taiwan), and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan). Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago. PMID:26716687

  4. Cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern New South Wales, Australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanpaeae, Harri T.; Holliday, Jon; Schroeder, Helge; Goddard, Timothy J.; Fister, Richard von; Carmichael, Wayne W

    2005-03-15

    Harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. The microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. The microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. Prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in Australia. Because information regarding effects of cyanobacteria at prawn farms was lacking, we examined diversity of cyanobacteria and toxin production plus bioaccumulation into black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) under both field (northern New South Wales, Australia, December 2001-April 2002) and laboratory conditions. Samples were analyzed for hepatotoxins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum density of cyanobacteria (1 x 10{sup 6} to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l) was reached in April. Cyanobacteria encountered were Oscillatoria sp. (up to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Pseudanabaena sp. (up to 1.8 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Microcystis sp. (up to 3.5 x 10{sup 4} cells/l), and Aphanocapsa sp. (up to 2 x 10{sup 4} cells/l). An uncommon cyanobacterium, Romeria sp. (up to 2.2 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), was also observed. Contrasting earlier indications, toxic Nodularia spumigena was absent. Despite that both Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis sp. are potentially hepatotoxic, hepatotoxin levels in phytoplankton samples remained low (up to 0.5-1.2 mg/kg dw; ELISA) in 2001-2002. ELISA was found suitable not only for phytoplankton but prawn tissues as well. Enzymatic pretreatment improved extractability of hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria (nodularin from N. spumigena as an example), but did not generally increase toxin recovery from prawn hepatopancreas. There were slightly increasing hepatotoxin concentrations in prawn hepatopancreas (from 6-20 to 20-80 {mu}g/kg dw; ELISA) during the

  5. Insights into Sexual Precocity of Female Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense through Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongxia; Li, Xilian; Sun, Yuhang; Hou, Fujun; Zhang, Yufei; Li, Fei; Gu, Zhimin; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is the most prevalent aquaculture species in China. The sexual precocity in this species has received considerable attention in recent years because more and more individuals matured at a small size, which devalues the commercial production. In this study, we developed deep-coverage transcriptomic sequencing data for the ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using next-generation RNA sequencing technology and attempted to provide the first insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of sexual precocity in this species. Results A total of 63,336 unigenes were produced from the ovarian cDNA libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Through BLASTX searches against the NR, STRING, Pfam, Swissprot and KEGG databases, 15,134 unigenes were annotated, accounting for 23.89% of the total unigenes. 5,195 and 3,227 matched unigenes were categorized by GO and COG analysis respectively. 15,908 unigenes were consequently mapped into 332 KEGG pathways, and many reproduction-related pathways and genes were identified. Moreover, 26,008 SSRs were identified from 18,133 unigenes. 80,529 and 80,516 SNPs were yielded from ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, respectively, and 29,851 potential SNPs between these two groups were also predicted. After comparing the ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, 549 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 9 key DEGs that may be related to sexual precocity of M. nipponense were identified. 20 DEGs were selected for validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) and 19 DEGs show consistent expression between QPCR and RNAseq-based differential expression analysis datasets. Conclusion This is the first report on the large-scale RNA sequencing of ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M

  6. Cancer survival among American Indians in western Washington State (United States).

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J R; Dennis, L K; White, E

    1994-09-01

    Cancer survival among American Indians is worse than among other races in some regions of the United States, but has not been studied among American Indians in Washington state. Our purpose was to evaluate cancer survival among American Indians included in the Seattle-Puget Sound Cancer Registry. We compared site-specific survival among American Indians (n = 551) and Whites (n = 110,899) diagnosed from 1974 to 1989 for five cancer sites. For all sites except prostate, the distribution of cancer stage at diagnosis for American Indians was not significantly different from the distribution for Whites, and a similar proportion of American Indians and Whites received cancer treatment. After adjustment for age differences between American Indians and Whites, American Indians experienced poorer survival from prostate, breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. Poorer survival among American Indians persisted after adjustment for differences in cancer stage at diagnosis, lack of cancer treatment, and residence in a non-urban county. The survival experience among American Indians who were recorded as non-American Indians in the cancer registry but who were listed as American Indians in Indian Health Service records was more favorable than that among persons initially coded as American Indians in the cancer registry. We conclude that cancer survival among American Indians in western Washington is poorer than that among Whites in the same region, and that factors other than age, differences in stage at diagnosis, lack of cancer treatment, and residence in non-urban counties account for this. PMID:7999966

  7. The Indian and Education. Monograph No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahenakew, David

    I am an American Indian, and I believe education to be something totally different from what the white man believes it to be, for he sees education as factories, roads, space travel, degrees, high salaries, and a means to be a good life. I cannot separate the white man's education from the political/military strategies practiced against my race…

  8. Changes in the fish fauna of a tropical Australian estuary since 1990 with reference to prawn predators and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, S. J. M.; Griffiths, S. P.; Pillans, R.

    2010-03-01

    As part of a study of the reasons for declining commercial banana prawn catches in the Weipa area of the Gulf of Carpentaria, and in order to assess whether changes in predator numbers may be a factor influencing prawn numbers, the species composition, numbers and biomasses of fishes in the Embley estuary were re-examined in February 2005 for comparison with the results of a study between 1986 and 1990. The new study duplicated previous methods and used the same sampling sites and the same gear employed during February sampling periods from 1986 to 1990. Overall, the species diversity and catch rates, as well as the numbers of penaeid prawn predators had changed little over 20 years. The overall catch rate for 2005 was 37.4 g m -1 h -1, not significantly different from the overall catch rate of 32.8 g m -1 h -1 (SE 6.6) for the period from 1987 to 1989. The results are discussed in relation to environmental factors and climate change, as well as the substantial declines in prawn catches, which had fallen from over 800 tonnes per annum prior to 1998, to about 70 tonnes per annum.

  9. Molecular characterization of a novel ovary-specific gene fem-1 homolog from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke-Yi; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Jing-Yun; Li, Jia-Le; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2016-01-10

    The feminization-1 (fem-1) gene is characterized by one of the most common protein-protein interaction motifs, ankyrin repeat motifs, displays many expression patterns in vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays an essential role in the sex-determination/differentiation pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, a fem-1 homolog, designated as Mnfem-1, was first cloned from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The prawn Mnfem-1 gene consists of six exons and five introns. The full-length cDNA (2603bp) of Mnfem-1 contains an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 622 amino acids. The Mnfem-1 RNA and protein are exclusively expressed in the ovary in adult prawns as revealed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis, respectively. In situ hybridization results showed that strong positive signals were concentrated at the edge of the previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocyte. During embryogenesis, Mnfem-1 is highly expressed in both unfertilized eggs and embryos at cleavage stage and thereafter dropped to a low level from blastula to zoea, indicating that the Mnfem-1 in early embryos is maternal. After hatching, the Mnfem-1 expression significantly increased in the larvae at length of 2cm, an important stage of sex differentiation. Yeast two hybridization results showed that the Mnfem-1 protein can be potentially interactive with cathepsin L and proteins containing the domains of insulinase, ankyrin or ubiquitin. Our results suggested that Mnfem-1 could have roles in prawn ovarian development and sex determination/differentiation. PMID:26367327

  10. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Cassandra L; White, William T; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended. PMID:27218654

  11. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of Fem1b from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Rahman, N M A; Fu, H; Qiao, H; Jin, S; Bai, H; Zhang, W; Jiang, F W; Liang, G; Sun, S; Gong, Y; Jiang, F F; Xiong, Y; Wu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Feminization-1 homolog b (Fem1b) is one of the genes essential for male development and play central roles in sex determination of Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-length Fem1b cDNA from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (MnFem1b) in different tissues and at different developmental stages. Real-time quantitative reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed that the MnFem1b gene was expressed in all investigated tissues, with the highest expression level found in the testes. The results revealed that the MnFem1b gene might play roles in aspects of development of the male prawn phenotype. The RT-qPCR also revealed that MnFem1b mRNA expression was significantly increased at 10 days after metamorphosis. The expression levels in all investigated tissues showed a certain degree of sexually dimorphism, the expression levels in males were significantly higher than those in females (P < 0.05). Notably, the highest expression of MnFem1b was found in the testes. The expression of MnFem1b in different tissues indicates that it plays multiple biological functions in M. nipponense. PMID:27323097

  12. Steroids and genes related to steroid biosynthesis in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Siangcham, Tanapan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2016-03-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is important to many Asian countries due to its high economic value as an aquaculture product. With demand increasing, there is requirement for a better understanding of the biosynthetic components that regulate its growth and reproduction, including steroids, in order to help increase production. Vertebrate-type steroids and their receptors were identified in crustaceans and implicated in reproduction. In this study, we presented the sex steroids estradiol and progesterone by LC-MS/MS in female M. rosenbergii, and reveal steroidogenic-related genes by in silico analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis with other species was performed to confirm their putative role, as well as tissue-specific and quantitative gene expression. We reveal 29 transcripts that encode for steroidogenic-related proteins, including steroidogenic enzymes, a nuclear steroid hormone receptors, and a steroidogenic factor. Moreover, we identified for the first time the presence of steroidogenic factor 1, StAR-related lipid transfer protein, estradiol receptor- and progesterone-like protein in M. rosenbergii. Those targeted for gene expression analysis (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen sulfotransferase and progesterone receptor-like) showed widespread expression within many tissues, and at relatively high levels in the central nervous system (CNS) during ovarian maturation. In summary, we provide further evidence for the existence of steroidogenic pathways in crustaceans, which may be useful for advancing prawn aquaculture. PMID:26774430

  13. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Cassandra L.; White, William T.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended. PMID:27218654

  14. Indian Reservations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weewish Tree, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Answers to questions asked by junior high school students about American Indian reservations are given. The areas covered include nearly every facet of reservation life from the first Federal issuance of particles of land to the American Indians to present conditions on the reservations. (AH)

  15. Indian Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  16. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  17. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    PubMed

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:23362226

  18. Toxicity identification evaluation of landfill leachate using fish, prawn and seed plant.

    PubMed

    Budi, Setia; Suliasih, B Asih; Othman, Mohammad Shuhaimi; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah

    2016-09-01

    The first phase of toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) method comprised of physic-chemical fractionation steps of pH adjustment, pH adjustment followed by filtration, aeration, extraction with solid phase C18 column (SPE), oxidant reduction with sodium thiosulphate and EDTA chelation was conducted to characterize the toxicants of a Malaysian landfill leachate. The battery of organisms test chosen were freshwater fish (Rasbora sumatrana), freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) and tomato seed (Lycoperson esculentum). Toxicity reductions at each step were comparable for all test organisms. The major toxicants present in the leachate were found to be mostly basic in nature and precipitable under acidic conditions as well as containing non-polar organic compounds. A small reduction in toxicity was observed when leachate was treated with sodium thiosulphate in oxidant reduction test indicating the presence of oxidizers. The EDTA chelating step did not significantly reduce toxicity in the test organisms suggesting insignificant level of (toxic) metals. PMID:26459190

  19. The complete mitogenome of the rock pool prawn Palaemon serenus (Heller, 1862) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the rock pool prawn (Palaemon serenus), is sequenced, making it the third for genera of the family Palaemonidae and the first for the genus Palaemon. The mitogenome is 15,967 base pairs in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The P. serenus mitogenome has an AT bias of 58.97% and a base composition of 29.79% for T, 24.14% for C, 29.18% for A, and 16.89% for G. The mitogenome gene order of P. serenus is identical to Exopalaemon carinicauda. PMID:25693708

  20. Gamma irradiation-aided chitin/chitosan extraction from prawn shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlous, M.; Tahtat, D.; Benamer, S.; Nacer Khodja, A.

    2007-12-01

    Chitin and chitosan were extracted from prawn shells. The influence of a 25 kGy irradiation dose on the deproteination process was investigated. The deproteination degree was followed by Lowry-Folin method. The demineralisation degree versus reaction time with 1 N hydrochloric acid solution was followed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Chitin and chitosan obtained were characterised by FTIR spectrometry. The influence of some parameters, such as reaction time, alkaline concentration and temperature on the deacetylation degree was also investigated. The deacetylation degree was evaluated by FTIR spectrometry using the bands at 1320 cm -1 and 1420 cm -1. It was found that the irradiation of the shells at a dose of 25 kGy reduces the time of the deproteination reaction by a factor of three, comparatively to the non-irradiated samples.

  1. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense).

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Tzong-Der; Pao, Yueh-Yang; Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  2. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  3. Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E.; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A.; McWilliam, Sean; Mather, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. Methodology and Principal Findings A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e–5) contig (80%) and singleton (84%) matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. Conclusions The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs. PMID:22174756

  4. An Assessment of Racial Awareness, Preference, and Self Identity Among White and Adopted Non-White Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Rita James

    1974-01-01

    Levels of racial awareness, preferences, and racial identity among non-white children (American Negro, Korean, American Indian) who have been adopted by white families and their white siblings are compared to the reactions of children of the same sex, age range (3-8), and race who have been reared in typical family settings. The major findings are…

  5. Habitat Type Influences the Microhabitat Preference of Juvenile Tiger Prawns ( Penaeus esculentusHaswell and Penaeus semisulcatusDe Haan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, R. A.; Loneragan, N. R.; Hughes, J. M.; Staples, D. J.

    1997-09-01

    The microhabitat preferences of juvenile tiger prawns (3-10 mm carapace length),Penaeus esculentusandPenaeus semisulcatus, were tested in the field at Groote Eylandt, in the western Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. A partitioned apparatus containing live seagrass was used. Both species of prawns selected seagrass (Syringodium isoetifolium) over bare substrate. JuvenileP. esculentus, the most abundant species in this region, were also given paired choices of seagrasses with different leaf morphologies (representing a range of structural complexity) and sediments of different particle size. They selected a seagrass with broad, long leaves (Cymodocea serrulata) over one with narrow, long leaves (S. isoetifolium), which in turn was selected over the seagrasses with narrow, short leaves (Halodule uninervisand shortenedS. isoetifolium). Predation experiments have shown that juvenileP. esculentusare detected and eaten less often in broad, long-leaved seagrass than in narrow, short-leaved seagrass or bare substrate, so their preference for the former may shelter them from predators. No habitat preference was evident forP. esculentuswhen offered a choice between sediments consisting mainly of sand (71% sand particles) and silt (60% of silt and clay). The selection by both species of tiger prawn of seagrass over bare substrate, andP. esculentus's selection of seagrass with long, broad leaves, provides an explanation for the distribution of juvenile tiger prawns in the field. Thus, in the seagrass beds around Groote Eylandt,P. esculentusis more abundant in seagrass with broad, long leaves than in seagrass with short, thin leaves. In addition, its distribution in this region is relatively independent of sediment type. Leaf surface area (or habitat structural complexity) appears to be the main determinant of distribution for juvenileP. esculentus.

  6. The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non

  7. Indians in the American System: Past and Present, Student Book. The Lavinia and Charles P. Schwartz Citizenship Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, Ian; Westbury, Susan

    The purpose of this curriculum unit on citizenship education is to enrich the way students think about American Indians by presenting the history of American Indians and their relationship with white Americans. The first chapter discusses the kinds of ideas people have about Indians, especially stereotypes of Indians being wild, red-colored, and…

  8. A Victim of Its Own Success: The Story of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Fair, 1910-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Josh

    2006-01-01

    The Indian fair is that rare example of a government program for Indians gone terribly right. Implemented by the Office of Indian Affairs on reservations in the early 1900s, Indian fairs allowed Native people to exhibit their crops, livestock, and domestic handiwork in competition for prizes much the same way whites did at their numerous county…

  9. Identification of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense exposed to environmental hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Xuan, Fujun; Ge, Xianping; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Shiyong

    2013-10-25

    Hypoxia represents a major physiological challenge for prawn culture, and the hepatopancreas plays an important role in these processes. Here, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to detect the gene expression profile of the hepatopancreas in M. nipponense in response to hypoxia for 3h and hypoxia for 24h. Gene expression profiling identified 1925 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated by dissolved oxygen availability. Functional categorization of the differentially expressed genes revealed that oxygen transport, electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species generation/scavenging, and immune response were the differentially regulated processes occurring during environmental hypoxia. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using six genes independently verified the tag-mapped results. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed, for the first time, hemocyanin protein expression as significant hypoxia-specific signatures in prawns, which opens the way for in depth molecular studies of hypoxia exposure. The analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in oriental river prawn provides a preliminary basis for a better understanding of the molecular response to hypoxia exposures. PMID:24513331

  10. Expression of biotransformation and oxidative stress genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    PubMed

    Gaume, Béatrice; Dodet, Nathalie; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lemoine, Soazig

    2015-06-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used between 1972 and 1993 in the French West Indies to control the root borer in banana fields. Chlordecone use resulted in long-term pollution of soils, contamination of waters, of aquatic organisms, and of fields. Chlordecone is known to be neurotoxic, to increase prostate cancer, and to have negative effects on cognitive and motor development during infancy. In Guadeloupe, most of the freshwater species living in contaminated rivers exceed the French legal limit of 20 μg·kg(-1) wet weight. In the present study, we chose a transcriptomic approach to study the cellular effects of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an important economical species in Guadeloupe. Quantitative PCR revealed an induction of genes involved in defense mechanism against oxidative stress (catalase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase) in prawns exposed to low environmental concentrations of chlordecone after 12 and 24 h of exposure. In prawns reared in a contaminated farm, transcription of genes involved in the biotransformation process (cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) were induced after 8 days of exposure. Our results provide information on the mechanims of defense induced by chlordecone in aquatic crustacean species. This gene expression study of selected genes should be further strengthened by proteomic analyses and enzymatic activity assays to confirm the response of these biomarkers of stress in crustaceans and to give new insights into the mechanism of toxicity by chlordecone. PMID:24920261

  11. Effect of legume seed extracts on the inhibition of proteolytic activity and muscle degradation of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii).

    PubMed

    Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    Trypsin inhibitors in the extracts from soybean (Glycine max), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and red kidney bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris) varied in amount and molecular weight. The soybean extract had the highest level of trypsin inhibitor with molecular weight (MW) of 21kDa, followed by bambara groundnut extract possessing trypsin inhibitor with MW of 15kDa. Both extracts showed a more effective inhibition towards crude protease extract (CE) from the hepatopancreas of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) than the extracts from adzuki and red kidney beans. Activity staining also reconfirmed the higher inhibitory activity on CE from hepatopancreas by the extracts from both soybean and bambara groundnut. The extracts from all seeds were able to inhibit the degradation of fresh water prawn meat containing CE in a concentration dependent manner. Based on inhibitor study, the extracts from soybean and bambara groundnut can be a potential aid to suppress the muscle softening of fresh water prawn, mediated by trypsin-like proteases released from hepatopancreas, during extended iced storage. PMID:25212342

  12. Spermatophore affects the egg-spawning and egg-carrying behavior in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Kruangkum, Thanapong; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-10-01

    In crustaceans, mating occurs during the ecdysis after female molting. During this period, a male transfers its spermatophore into a female which, in some species, stores the spermatophore for a long period prior to spawning and fertilization. However, in some species including the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the male deposits its spermataphore onto the external surface of the thoracic segment of the female which affects the spawning time and maternal behavior. This study investigated the spawning behavior of the M. rosenbergii females, which was divided into pre-spawning, spawning, and post-spawning phases. It was revealed that mated female prawns with attached spermatophore exhibited an earlier spawning than unmated individuals, leading to assessment of the factors that may elicit this phenomenon. Four groups of female prawns were allocated to groups including mating females with spermatophore still attached, mating females with the spermatophore removed, artificially inseminated females with spermatophores, and an unmated control. There was a significant reduction in the time of egg-spawning in the presence of spermatophores, and the mating activity was also a contributing factor. Furthermore, over 90% of the mated and artificially inseminated females in which spermatophores were deposited carried the eggs in the abdominal brood chamber until completion of embryonic development while others discarded the eggs within 2 days post-spawning. This study implies that the spermatophore may contain ovulation-inducing factors which stimulate an earlier spawning and fostering of brooding behavior. PMID:26388033

  13. A first insight into temperature stress-induced neuroendocrine and immunological changes in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-11-01

    Haemolymph norepinephrine (NE); total haemocyte count (THC); respiratory bursts (RBs); superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytic activity; and prophenoloxidase (proPO)-system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein: LGBP, proPO, peroxinectin: PE, and α2-macroglobulin: α2-M) in haemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were investigated after transferring them from 28 °C to 22 °C, 28 °C, and 34 °C respectively. The results revealed that haemolymph NE, hyaline cells (HCs), and PO activity per granulocyte increased from 30 to 120 min of exposure, and however, RBs and phagocytic activity significantly decreased from 30 to 120 min of exposure as well as granular cells (GCs), semigranular cells (SGCs), and SOD activity decreased from 60 to 120 min of exposure for the prawns subjected to temperature stress. The proPO-system-related gene expression markedly increased with 60-120 min of exposure for the prawns transferred from 28 °C to 22 °C and 34 °C, except α2M at 120 min. These results provide a first insight into the effects of temperature stress on haemolymph NE level and immune functions in prawns and suggest that temperature-stress-induced acute modulation in immunity is associated with the release of haemolymph NE in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26434711

  14. Identification and characterization of differentially expressed transcripts in the gills of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

    2012-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

  15. The Performance of American Indian Children on the Draw-A-Man Test. National Study of American Indian Education, Series III, No. 2, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levensky, Kay

    As a part of the National Study of American Indian Education, this document reports on 1700 American Indian primary school children (representing 14 tribal groups and 12 states) who were administered the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test (DAM) as a measure of mental alertness. A comparison is given of the Indian and white children's scores. It appears…

  16. Indian Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  17. Dorsal transcription factor is involved in regulating expression of crustin genes during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. In this study, we identified a dorsal homolog (MrDorsal) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA of MrDorsal comprised 2533 bp with an open reading frame of 1986 bp, which encoded a peptide of 661 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that MrDorsal contains a Rel homolog domain and an IPT/TIG (i.e., Ig-like, plexin, and transcription factors) domain. The signature sequence of dorsal protein FRYMCEG existed in the deduced amino acid sequence. Sequence analysis showed that MrDorsal shared high similarities with Dorsal from invertebrate species. MrDorsal was abundant in the hemocytes and gills of healthy prawns but minute levels were detected in other tissues. The expression of MrDorsal was significantly upregulated 48 h after the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-) challenge. Knockdown of MrDorsal using double-stranded RNA could suppress the transcription of crustin genes (MrCrustin2 and MrCrustin4) in gills of prawns after 48 h of the WSSV challenge. Results indicated that MrDorsal was involved to regulate the expression of crustin genes and it might play potential important roles during WSSV infection. PMID:27181712

  18. A novel single-domain peptide, anti-LPS factor from prawn: synthesis of peptide, antimicrobial properties and complete molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we reported a complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics features, gene expression, peptide synthesis and its antimicrobial activities of an anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) factor (ALF) cDNA identified from the established cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (named as MrALF). The mature protein has an estimated molecular weight of 11.240 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.46. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrALF contains an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) region between T54 and P77 with two conserved cysteine residues (Cys55 and Cys76) which have an anti-parallel β-sheet confirmation. The β-sheet is predicted as cationic with hydrophobic nature containing a net charge of +5. The depicted AMP region is determined to be amphipathic with a predicted hydrophobic face 'FPVFI'. A highest MrALF gene expression was observed in hemocytes and is up-regulated with virus [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)], bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) and Escherichia coli LPS at various time points. The LPS binding region of MrALF peptide was synthesized to study the antimicrobial property, bactericidal efficiency and hemolytic capacity. The peptide showed antimicrobial activity against both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The bactericidal assay showed that the peptide recognized the LPS of bacterial cell walls and binding on its substrate and thereby efficiently distinguishing the pathogens. The hemolytic activity of MrALF peptide is functioning in a concentration dependant manner. In summary, the comprehensive analysis of MrALF showed it to be an effective antimicrobial peptide and thus it plays a crucial role in the defense mechanism of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24269604

  19. Impacts of trawling on benthic macro-fauna and -flora of the Spencer Gulf prawn fishing grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svane, Ib; Hammett, Zoe; Lauer, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The overall effects of trawling on benthic habitats and their assemblages are dependent on the distribution and intensity of trawl effort. The benthic habitats of the Spencer Gulf prawn trawling grounds are subjected to known variable levels of trawling disturbance recorded from fisher's logbooks. These habitats have not been quantitatively investigated. The aim of the study was firstly to characterise the macro-faunal and -floral assemblages and secondly, to comparatively assess trawl impact by testing the null hypothesis of no differences between five sites exposed to different intensity of trawl effort. The distribution and abundance of benthic macro-fauna and -flora were studied at two sampling resolutions by using beam trawl sampling (˜10,000 m 2) and underwater stereophotography (˜4.5 m 2) at five sites with different levels of trawl disturbance (effort). The results showed that the Spencer Gulf prawn trawling grounds are characterised by sandy sediments with a low content of silt and clay, with the exception of one site with very fine gravel. Biomass, abundance and cover of macro-fauna and -flora were generally low throughout, but with large differences among sites. Biomass, abundance and cover were found to be negatively correlated to both trawl hours from 1994-1998 and during the period of study. ANOSIM and SIMPER analyses using biomass, abundance and percentage cover as variables showed significant differences between sites with eight species or taxonomic groups contributing more than 10% to the observed similarity within sites. The two northern sites were dominated by sponges and the bearded mussel, Trichomya hirsutus, and the southern hammer oyster, Malleus meridianus. Other species that contributed to the similarity within sites were the ascidian, Polycarpa viridis, mobile epifauna (the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, and the western king prawn, Penaeus (Melicertus) latisulcatus) and demersal fish species (Degens leatherjacket, Thamnaconus

  20. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV)

    PubMed Central

    Alinejad, T.; Bin, Kwong Q.; Vejayan, J.; Othman, R.Y.; Bhassu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns. PMID:26106581

  1. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).

    PubMed

    Alinejad, T; Bin, Kwong Q; Vejayan, J; Othman, R Y; Bhassu, S

    2015-09-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns. PMID:26106581

  2. Cultural and Historical Perspectives concerning American Indian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Sandra K.

    This paper discusses the cultural roles of Indian women in the past and the translation of those roles in today's world. Historically, the Indian woman was educated by her mother and other older women to assume duties ranging from wife and mother to respected counselor, medicine woman, and warrior. Contact with White explorers and settlers made…

  3. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Mary C.

    This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…

  4. Blueprints for Indian Education: Improving Mainstream Schooling. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Robin A.

    The Indian Nations At Risk Task Force and the White House Conference on Indian Education suggested systemic reforms that would improve the education of Native students who attend public schools. These reforms focus on fostering intercultural harmony in schools, improving teacher preparation, developing instructional curricula and strategies that…

  5. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the β-actin gene from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda.

    PubMed

    Liang, J P; Wang, Y; Ge, Q Q; Li, J T; Liu, P; Li, J; Nie, G X

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved protein that is found in all eukaryotic cells, and has been widely used as an internal control gene in gene expression studies. In this study, we cloned an actin gene (named Ecβ-actin) from Exopalaemon carinicauda and determined its expression levels. The full-length cDNA of Ecβ-actin was 1335 bp long, comprising a 1131-bp ORF encoding 376 amino acids, a 65-bp 5'-UTR, and a 139-bp 3'-UTR with a poly(A) tail. The A + T content was approximately 79% in the 3'-UTR of the Ecβ-actin mRNA. The 3'-UTR contained two repeats of the AUUUA motif. The putative protein Ecβ-actin showed high identity (97-99%) with other actins from various species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ecβ-actin belongs to Crustacea, although it formed a singleton sub-branch that was located a short distance from crabs and other shrimp species. Ecβ- actin expression was detected in the hepatopancreas, ovary, muscle, gill, stomach, and hemocytes, and was strongly expressed in the hemocytes and ovary of E. carinicauda. Ecβ-actin mRNA expression varied during ovarian development, with high levels observed at stages I and V. Therefore, caution should be taken when using the Ecβ-actin gene as an endogenous control gene. PMID:27173226

  6. Self Destructive Behaviors in American Indian and Alaska Native High School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael L.; Lester, David

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of responses of 10,251 high school students surveyed in the 1997 National School-Based Youth Risk Survey indicated that American Indian males more frequently carried weapons, attempted suicide, and used drugs than did White or Black youths. American Indian females more frequently attempted suicide and used cocaine than did White or Black…

  7. Cancer Incidence, Survival, and Mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horm, John W.; Burhansstipanov, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Overall cancer incidence among southwestern American Indians is less than half that of U.S. whites; Alaska Native and white rates are similar. However, both native groups have elevated rates for specific cancers (stomach, liver, and gallbladder), and Indians have low five-year survival rates. Data tables outline incidence, mortality, and survival…

  8. Blueprints for Indian Education: Research and Development Needs for the 1990s. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahape, Patricia

    Two landmark efforts to describe the condition of American Indian and Alaska Native education nationwide and to call for specific solutions took place in the early 1990s. These efforts were the Indian Nations At Risk Task Force and the White House Conference on Indian Education. This digest summarizes Task Force and Conference recommendations…

  9. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2014-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5–2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

  10. Identification and occurrence of endogenous semicarbazide in prawns and crabs from Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Si; Xu, Hanxiang; Zhang, Shuai; Yan, Zhongyong; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Semicarbazide (SEM) is a side-chain metabolite of the antibiotic drug nitrofurazone (NFZ) and is employed as a conclusive marker for the use of banned NFZ. Recent studies have shown that SEM in aquatic crustaceans can be derived natively or from other sources. The presence and distribution of endogenous SEM within aquatic crustaceans is examined in this paper, which finds that the SEM content varies amongst the muscle, shell, and viscera of various prawn and crab species within the range of 0.35-26.62 ng g(-1). The effects of heating and hypochlorite treatment on SEM levels were examined. The results indicate that thermal processing introduced a more significant impact, resulting in a maximum SEM value of 15.48 ng g(-1) in a sample of shell of Portunus trituberculatus crab, while SEM levels in muscle samples were not affected by the duration of heating. Though 6% active chlorine treatment led to SEM production ranging between 39.9 and 196.4 ng g(-1) in muscle samples from various crustaceans, SEM is unlikely to originate from hypochlorite or chlorine in practice where there are limits to actual chlorine in sanitation water and facilities. 5-Nitro-2-furaldehyde (NF) was proposed as a selective marker to differentiate between endogenous SEM and NFZ-derived SEM in seafood. PMID:26673043

  11. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series.

    PubMed

    Henares, M N P; Camargo, A F M

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec) and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm). The means of suspended particulate material (SPM), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P-orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total phosphorus (TP) of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05). The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%), TKN (33.7%) and PO4-P (26.7%) was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P). The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients. PMID:25627602

  12. Radiation-resistant Macrococcus caseolyticus (A) isolated from radiation-processed semidried prawns.

    PubMed

    Karani, Manisha; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Kakatkar, Aarti; Gautam, Raj Kamal; Sukhi, Shibani; Pansare-Godambe, Lipika; Bandekar, Jayant

    2015-01-01

    A radiation-resistant bacterial isolate from gamma-radiation-processed (5 kGy) semidried prawns was identified as a new strain of Macrococcus caseolyticus and was designated as M. caseolyticus (A) on the basis of morphological and biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing. DNA-DNA hybridization studies with M. caseolyticus DSM 20597(T) further confirmed the isolate as M. caseolyticus. Major fatty acids present in M. caseolyticus (A) were C14:0, C16:1ω11c, and C18:1ω9c, whereas C15:0anteiso, C16:0iso, and C18:0iso were absent. The closest match for the isolate, as per fatty acid methyl ester analysis, was M. caseolyticus DSM 20597(T). However, the similarity index was significantly low (0.112), which indicates that the isolate could be a new strain of M. caseolyticus. The decimal reduction dose (D10) for M. caseolyticus (A), M. caseolyticus JCSC5402, and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC96 was 1.18, 0.607, and 0.19 kGy, respectively. This is the first report on radiation resistance of M. caseolyticus. Macrococcus caseolyticus (A) is more resistant to gamma and UV radiation stress than are M. caseolyticus JCSC5402 and S. aureus MTCC96; however, it is sensitive to heat as well as desiccation stress. PMID:25515772

  13. Characterization of the male-specific lethal 3 gene in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y P; Sun, S M; Fu, H T; Ge, X P; Qiao, H; Zhang, W Y; Xiong, Y W; Jiang, S F; Gong, Y S; Jin, S B

    2015-01-01

    In this study, male-specific lethal 3 homolog (Mnmsl3) was cloned and characterized from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The deduced amino acid sequences of Mnmsl3 showed high-sequence homology to the insect Msl3 and contained a conserved chromatin organization modifier domain and an MORF4-related gene domain. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the Mnmsl3 gene was expressed in all the investigated tissues, with the highest level of expression in the testis. The expression level of Mnmsl3 between males and females was different in the gonad (testis or ovary), abdominal ganglion, and heart. The results revealed that the Mnmsl3 gene might play roles in regulating chromatin and in dosage compensation of M. nipponense. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction also revealed that Mnmsl3 mRNA expression was significantly increased in both 5 and 20 days post-larvae after metamorphosis, suggesting that Mnmsl3 plays complex and important roles in the early embryonic development and sex differentiation of M. nipponense. PMID:25966075

  14. Dietary supplementation of green synthesized manganese-oxide nanoparticles and its effect on growth performance, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Asaikkutti, Annamalai; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Karthik, Madhayan; Cheruparambath, Praseeja

    2016-05-01

    The green synthesized Mn3O4 nanoparticles (manganese-oxide nanoparticles) using Ananas comosus (L.) peel extract was characterized by various techniques. HR-SEM photograph showed that manganese-oxide nanoparticles (Mn-oxide NPs) were spherical in shape, with an average size of 40-50 nm. The Zeta potential revealed the surface charge of Mn-oxide NPs to be negative. Further, the Mn-oxide NPs were dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with Mn-oxide NPs at the rates of 0 (control), 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12, 15 and 18 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented Mn-oxide NPs were fed in M. rosenbergii for a period of 90 days. The experimental study demonstrated that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 3-18 mg Mn-oxide NPs/kg shows enhanced (P<0.05) growth performance, including final weight and weight gain (WG). Significant differences (P<0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in prawn fed with different diets. Additionally, prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets achieved significant (P<0.05) improvement in growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and muscle biochemical compositions, while, the prawns fed with 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs showed enhanced performance. Prawns fed on diet supplemented with 16 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher total protein level. The antioxidants enzymatic activity (SOD and CAT) metabolic enzymes status in muscle and hepatopancreas showed no significant (P>0.05) alterations in prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets. Consequently, the present work proposed that 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii. Therefore, the data of the present study recommend the addition of 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs diet to developed prawn growth and antioxidant defense system. PMID:27049122

  15. Indians: An Introduction to Canada's Native People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Hope

    An introduction to Canada Natives briefly identifies the seven different culture areas which existed in Canada before the white man came, and the Indian tribes who lived in those areas. The booklet then gives more extensive description of the history and culture of the Huron (farmers of the Eastern Woodlands), the Blackfoot (Plains), the Ojibwa…

  16. A Bibliographic Essay Pertaining to Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Scott

    Introduced by a discussion of the fact that most of the works cited describe Navajos as they "used to be" and an admonition against the common practice of placing all Navajos, or all Indians, under one stereotype, this bibliographic essay traces the history of Navajo contact with the white man and emphasizes efforts at educational development. Six…

  17. Urban Indian Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greymountain, Gus; And Others

    The second of a 2 phase study, this project provided information for the non-Indian population about problems and needs of urban American Indians. Phase I (1971) discussed urban Indian experiences and trends; compared differences and highlighted issues of Indian urbanization. Phase II focused entirely on the urban Indian community. The thrust was…

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of p53 from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, in response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Gu, Zhimin; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhu, Jian; Ge, Xianping; Xuan, Fujun

    2016-07-01

    The tumor suppressor gene p53 plays a critical role in safeguarding the integrity of the genome in mammalian cells. It acts as a sequence-specific transcription factor. Once p53 is activated by a variety of cellular stresses, it transactivates downstream target genes and regulates the cell cycle and apoptosis. However, little is known about the functions of the p53 pathway in prawns in response to hypoxia. In this study, the cDNA of p53 from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, (Mnp53) was cloned using a combination of homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of Mnp53 has 2130 bp, including an open reading frame of 1125 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 374 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 41.9 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.9. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR assays revealed that Mnp53 was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues, but at high levels in the hepatopancreas. In addition, we studied respiratory bursts and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense. Our results suggest that oxidative stress occurred in prawns in response to hypoxia and that apoptosis was associated with an increase in caspase-3 mRNA expression. qRT-PCR and western blot results confirmed that hypoxic stress induced the upregulation of Mnp53 at mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed remarkable changes in immunopositive staining after the same hypoxic treatment. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced oxidative stress may cause apoptosis and cooperatively stimulate the expression of Mnp53. PMID:27044329

  19. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID

  20. White House

    MedlinePlus

    ... Check out the most popular infographics and videos Photos View the photo of the day and other galleries Video Gallery ... your questions or your story with President Obama. Photo of the Day Explore the White House Photo ...

  1. Reproductive biology of the prawn Melicertus kerathurus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in Thermaikos Gulf (N. Aegean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, Kosmas; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The reproductive biology including insemination frequency, ovarian maturation, gonadosomatic index (GSI), size at first maturity, and fecundity of Melicertus kerathurus were investigated using monthly samples from Thermaikos Gulf. Insemination was recorded by the presence of a spermatophore in the thelycum, and ovarian development was based on macroscopic ovarian staging (ST1-ST5). Inseminated females were found throughout the year with high percentages recorded from April to July. Although all ovarian stages were represented in mated females, insemination increased with size and ovarian maturation. High percentages of vitellogenic or mature ovarian stages were observed from May to July, while immature and developing ovaries were predominant mainly in winter. Spawned ovaries occurred from May to October. Carapace length at first maturity based on the presence of a spermatophore (CL50sp) was estimated at 39.20 mm, while that based on the presence of vitellogenic and mature ovaries (CL50ov) at 40.70 mm. The seasonal peak in the proportion of mature females (ST4) varied with size. Inseminated females at ST4 and GSI peaked in June-July. GSI varied in relation to insemination status and ovarian stage. In large females (>50 mm CL), the decline in mature ovaries and GSI increment with size indicates a relative reduction in the reproductive output. The number of oocytes ranged from 62,742 to 602,947 (mean ± SD: 268,000 ± 113,000). As the prawns are targeted during the spawning season, mainly by the artisanal fishery, and female size at first maturity is selected by artisanal net size, managerial measures toward artisanal fishery should be implemented.

  2. Genetic Inheritance of Female and Male Morphotypes in Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (−0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving

  3. Vibrio zhuhaiensis sp. nov., isolated from a Japanese prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunying; Luo, Peng; Zuo, Huali; Chen, Jianming; Chen, Mingliang; Wang, Wei

    2013-05-01

    A Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain E20121, was isolated from the digestive tract of a Japanese prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) collected from the coastal sea water area of Zhuhai, Guangdong province, China. The new isolate was determined to be closely related to Vibrio ponticus DSM 16217(T), having 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Phylogenetic analysis based on recA, pyrH and rpoA also showed low levels of sequence similarities (72.6-96.6 %) with all species of the genus Vibrio. A multigene phylogenetic tree using concatenated sequences of the four genes (16S rRNA, rpoA, recA and pyrH) clearly showed that the new isolate is different from the currently known Vibrio species. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed similarity values below 70 % with the closest related species V. ponticus DSM 16217(T). Several phenotypic traits enabled the differentiation of strain E20121 from the closest phylogenetic neighbours. The DNA G+C content of strain E20121 was determined to be 47.6 mol % and the major fatty acid components identified were C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c (39.8 %), C18:1ω7c (13.6 %) and C16:0 (9.6 %). Based on genotypic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, strain E20121 is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Vibrio for which the name Vibrio zhuhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E20121(T)(=DSM 25602(T) = CCTCC AB 2011174(T)). PMID:23338602

  4. Molecular and functional characterization of the vitellogenin receptor in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongkun; Qiao, Hui; Li, Fajun; Fu, Hongtuo; Jiang, Sufei; Zhang, Wenyi; Yan, Yuedi; Xiong, Yiwei; Sun, Shengming; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng; Wu, Yan

    2016-04-01

    A complementary DNA (cDNA) that encodes the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, was cloned using expressed sequence tag analysis and a rapid amplification of cDNA ends approach. The coding region consists of 5920 base pairs (bp) that encode a 1902 amino acid protein, with a predicted molecular mass of 209 kDa. The coding region is flanked by a 45 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 166 bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence of the M. nipponense VgR cDNA had typically conserved domains, such as an extracellular, lipoprotein-binding domain, epidermal growth factor-like and O-glycosylation domains, a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal, cytosolic tail. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) indicated that Mn-VgR is highly expressed in the female ovary. Expression analysis by qPCR demonstrated the larval and ovarian developmental stage-specific expression pattern. As the ovaries developed, the expression level of Mn-VgR gradually increased during the reproductive cycle (stage I), to reach a peak in stage III. Levels then dropped as a new development cycle was entered after reproduction molting. Eyestalk ablation led to a significant increase in the expression of Mn-VgR during the ovarian development stages (P<0.05), when compared with the eyestalk-intact group. The investigation revealed that eyestalk ablation initially affected Mn-VgR expression and then influenced vitellogenesis. In adult females, VgR RNA interference (RNAi) dramatically delayed the maturation of the ovary, in accordance with the gonad somatic index. In addition, Mn-VgR RNAi led to vitellin depletion in the oocytes and the accumulation of vitellin in the hepatopancreas. PMID:26773480

  5. Reconciling geography and genealogy: phylogeography of giant freshwater prawns from the Lake Carpentaria region.

    PubMed

    de Bruyn, Mark; Wilson, John C; Mather, Peter B

    2004-11-01

    There is convincing geological evidence for the historical existence of an ancient lake on the Australian-New Guinea continental shelf during the late Pleistocene. Lake Carpentaria was a vast fresh- to brackishwater lake that would presumably have provided habitat for, and facilitated gene flow among, aquatic taxa that tolerate low to moderate salinities in this region. Moreover, it has been argued that the outflow of Papua New Guinea's Fly River was diverted westward into Lake Carpentaria during this period, although this hypothesis is controversial. We predicted that these events, if a true history, would have promoted gene flow and population growth via range-expansion events in the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and restricted gene flow subsequently by way of a vicariant event as sea levels rose during the late Pleistocene, and a marine environment replaced Lake Carpentaria. We tested these hypotheses using phylogeographical and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA variation in M. rosenbergii populations sampled from the Lake Carpentaria region. Our results support the hypothesis that Lake Carpentaria facilitated gene flow among populations of M. rosenbergii that are today isolated, but contest claims of a westward diversion of the Fly River. We inferred the timing of initial expansion in the 'Lake Carpentaria lineage' and found the timing of this event to be broadly concordant with geological dating of the formation of Lake Carpentaria. Reconciling geological and molecular data, as presented here, provides a powerful framework for investigating the influence of historical earth history events on the distribution of biological (i.e. molecular) diversity. PMID:15488008

  6. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor. PMID:27486834

  7. Changes in the levels, expression, and possible roles of serotonin and dopamine during embryonic development in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), and their possible roles during embryonic development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The 5-HT and DA concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The levels of 5-HT and DA gradually increased from early developing embryos to late developing embryos. The 5-HT concentrations gradually increased from the pale yellow egg to orange egg stages, and reaching a maximum at the black egg stage. DA concentrations were much lower in the early embryos than those of 5-HT (P<0.05), and gradually increased to reach the highest level at the black egg stage. Immunohistochemically, 5-HT was firstly detected in the early embryonic stages, whereas DA developed later than 5-HT. Functionally, 5-HT-treated female prawns at doses of 2.5×10(-5), 2.5×10(-6) and 2.5×10(-7)mol/prawn, produced embryos with significantly shortened lengths of early embryonic stages, whereas DA-treated prawns at all three doses, exerted its effects by significantly lengthening the period of mid-embryonic stage onwards. These results suggest significant involvement of 5-HT and DA in embryonic developmental processes of this species. PMID:26393313

  8. Eastern Bolivia: The White Promised Land. IWGIA Document 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Norman

    The Indians of Bolivia, already exploited by a military dictatorship, will have to take up more of the white man's burden if South Africans and Rhodesians accept an invitation to colonize the country. White South Africans, accustomed to the excesses of their own police, will find much that is familiar in Bolivia. Bolivia is a poor country, its per…

  9. Creepy White Gaze: Rethinking the Diorama as a Pedagogical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterzuk, Andrea; Mulholland, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on gaze and postcolonial theory, this article provides a theoretical discussion of a problematic photograph published in a provincial teachers' newsletter. The photo consists of a White settler child and two White settler educators gathered around his heritage fair entry diorama entitled "Great Plains Indians." This article analyzes this…

  10. Looking for Work; Black and White School Leavers in Lewisham.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    A study was undertaken of West Indian and white youths in Lewisham, England, who were entering the employment market for the first time in 1977. It was found that blacks were less successful than whites in the search for employment. Not only were they three times as likely to be unemployed, but those in employment had taken longer to find work,…

  11. Inhibition of Luminescence and Virulence in the Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Pathogen Vibrio harveyi by Intercellular Signal Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Manefield, Michael; Harris, Lachlan; Rice, Scott A.; de Nys, Rocky; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated. In this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone antagonist produced by the marine alga Delisea pulchra on luminescence and toxin production in a virulent strain of V. harveyi were analyzed. Luminescence and toxin production were both inhibited by the signal antagonist at concentrations that had no impact on growth. Toxin production was found to be prematurely induced in V. harveyi cultures incubated in a 10% conditioned medium. Additionally, a significant reduction in the toxicity of concentrated supernatant extracts from V. harveyi cultures incubated in the presence of the signal antagonist, as measured by in vivo toxicity assays in mice and prawns, was observed. These results suggest that intercellular signaling antagonists have potential utility in the control of V. harveyi prawn infections. PMID:10788385

  12. Water-soluble jack-knife prawn extract inhibits 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation in humans.

    PubMed

    Gamoh, Shuji; Kanai, Tasuku; Tanaka-Totoribe, Naoko; Ohkura, Masamichi; Kuwabara, Masachika; Nakamura, Eisaku; Yokota, Atsuko; Yamasaki, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Akiko; Hayashi, Masahiro; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Yamamoto, Ryuichi

    2015-02-01

    Coronary artery spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various ischemic heart diseases or serious arrhythmia. The aim of this study is to look for functional foods which have physiologically active substances preventing 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-related vasospastic diseases including peri- and postoperative ischemic complications of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from ocean resources in Japanese coastal waters. First, we evaluated the effect of water-soluble ocean resource extracts on the response to 5-HT in HEK293 cells which have forcibly expressed cyan fluorescent protein-fused 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2A-CFP). Among 5 different water-soluble extracts of ocean resources, the crude water-soluble jack-knife prawn extract (WJPE) significantly reduced maximal Ca(2+) influx induced by 0.1 μM 5-HT in a concentration-dependent manner. The Crude WJPE significantly inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, 5-HT-induced constriction of human saphenous vein. 5-HT released from activated platelets plays a crucial roles in the constriction of coronary artery. Next the WJPE was purified for applying the experiment of 5-HT-induced human platelet aggregation. The purified WJPE significantly inhibited 5-HT-induced human platelet aggregation also in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on our findings, jack-knife prawn could be one of a functional food with health-promoting benefits for most people with vasospastic diseases including patients who have gone CABG. PMID:25464143

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) spermatozoa using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyi; Paterson, Brian D; Webb, Robyn; Johnston, Stephen D

    2016-05-01

    Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) was used in this study to examine the ultrastructural morphology of Penaeus monodon spermatozoa. SBF-SEM provided a large dataset of sequential electron-microscopic-level images that facilitated comprehensive ultrastructural observations and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sperm cell. Reconstruction divulged a nuclear region of the spermatophoral spermatozoon filled with decondensed chromatin but with two apparent levels of packaging density. In addition, the nuclear region contained, not only numerous filamentous chromatin elements with dense microregions, but also large centrally gathered granular masses. Analysis of the sperm cytoplasm revealed the presence of degenerated mitochondria and membrane-less dense granules. A large electron-lucent vesicle and "arch-like" structures were apparent in the subacrosomal area, and an acrosomal core was found in the acrosomal vesicle. The spermatozoal spike arose from the inner membrane of the acrosomal vesicle, which was slightly bulbous in the middle region of the acrosomal vesicle, but then extended distally into a broad dense plate and to a sharp point proximally. This study has demonstrated that SBF-SEM is a powerful technique for the 3D ultrastructural reconstruction of prawn spermatozoa, that will no doubt be informative for further studies of sperm assessment, reproductive pathology and the spermiocladistics of penaeid prawns, and other decapod crustaceans. J. Morphol. 277:565-574, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26877112

  14. Infection with schistosome parasites in snails leads to increased predation by prawns: implications for human schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Scott J; De Leo, Giulio A; Wood, Chelsea L; Sokolow, Susanne H

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis - a parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people across the globe - is primarily transmitted between human definitive hosts and snail intermediate hosts. To reduce schistosomiasis transmission, some have advocated disrupting the schistosome life cycle through biological control of snails, achieved by boosting the abundance of snails' natural predators. But little is known about the effect of parasitic infection on predator-prey interactions, especially in the case of schistosomiasis. Here, we present the results of laboratory experiments performed on Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria glabrata snails to investigate: (i) rates of predation on schistosome-infected versus uninfected snails by a sympatric native river prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, and (ii) differences in snail behavior (including movement, refuge-seeking and anti-predator behavior) between infected and uninfected snails. In predation trials, prawns showed a preference for consuming snails infected with schistosome larvae. In behavioral trials, infected snails moved less quickly and less often than uninfected snails, and were less likely to avoid predation by exiting the water or hiding under substrate. Although the mechanism by which the parasite alters snail behavior remains unknown, these results provide insight into the effects of parasitic infection on predator-prey dynamics and suggest that boosting natural rates of predation on snails may be a useful strategy for reducing transmission in schistosomiasis hotspots. PMID:26677260

  15. The Successful Educational Journeys of American Indian Women: Forming Aspirations for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2014-01-01

    American Indians (AIs) have lower higher education enrollment and completion rates than Whites and most minority groups. AI women, however, participate at higher rates than AI men, White women, and White men. Research has not examined what contributes to their higher education aspirations. This study explored the middle and high school experiences…

  16. No Turning Back: A Hopi Indian Woman's Struggle to Live in Two Worlds. As Told to Vada F. Carlson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qoyawayma, Polingaysi

    For high school and adult readers this autobiography of Polingaysi Qoyawayma (Elizabeth Q. White) relates a Hopi Indian woman's struggle to adjust to an alien culture and to develop teaching methods to bridge the gap between Indians and the white world. Information on Hopi legends and ceremonies introduce the reader to the Hopi way of life. Born…

  17. Indian Country: A History of Native People in America and Indian Country: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen D.; Harjo, Lisa D.

    Appropriate for the middle grades through junior high school, this book and accompanying teacher's guide provide a curriculum for teaching American Indian history. Following an overview of the European encounter and the early years of White penetration into North America, the book focuses on five distinct periods of U.S. government policy toward…

  18. KNOW YOUR NEVADA INDIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POEHLMAN, CHARLES H.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL BACKGROUNDS OF THE PAIUTE, WASHOE, AND SHOSHONE INDIANS OF NEVADA. INCLUDED ARE AN OUTLINE OF GENERAL PROBLEMS PERTAINING TO INDIAN EDUCATION, SOME DISTINCT CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE DOMINANT NON-INDIAN SOCIETY AND THE INDIAN SOCIETY, AND THE PREHISTORIC ASPECTS OF THE…

  19. American Indian Sports Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxendine, Joseph B.

    This book chronicles the story of sports among American Indians. Part 1 examines the nature and role of games in traditional Indian life, with five chapters on: Indian concepts of sport; ball games; foot racing; other sports; children's play; and games of chance. Part 2 looks at the emergence of Indians in modern sport, with five chapters on:…

  20. Indian Ledger Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an innovative way to teach mid-nineteenth century North American Indian history by having students create their own Indian Ledger art. Purposes of the project are: to understand the role played by American Indians, to reveal American Indian stereotypes, and to identify relationships between cultures and environments. Background and…

  1. Indians of the Dakotas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief history of Indian tribes in the States of North and South Dakota is presented. Discussion centers around individual Indian tribes, such as Chippewas and Sioux, which are representative of early and modern Indian life in these States. A section devoted to Indians in these states today offers an indication of the present condition of the…

  2. Indian Education Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Lu Celia, Ed.

    Designed in Oklahoma as a teaching aid for teachers in Indian education, this booklet is organized according to the subject areas of the curriculum. It provides a ready resource on Indian culture and should thus be of value to teachers who work with both Indian and non-Indian students. Guidelines for curriculum development in multicultural…

  3. American Indian Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Edward, Ed.

    Written for teachers instructing both Indian and non-Indian students, the handbook provides information on American Indians in California. The handbook is presented in six chapters. Chapter 1 is devoted to terminoloy (e.g., American Indian, Native American, tribe, band, rancheria, and chief). Chapter 2 details historic and cultural changes related…

  4. Working the Indian Field Days: The Economy of Authenticity and the Question of Agency in Yosemite Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Boyd

    2010-01-01

    Originally conceived by National Park Service (NPS) officials as a way to "revive and maintain the interest of Indians in their own games and industries," the Yosemite Indian Field Days were part rodeo, part pageant, and part craft fair. Through its activities, the Field Days offered white tourists the opportunity to encounter "real" Indians whose…

  5. A prawn core histone 4: derivation of N- and C-terminal peptides and their antimicrobial properties, molecular characterization and mRNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Harikrishnan, Ramaswamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics characterization, gene expression, synthesis of N and C terminal peptides and their antimicrobial activity of the core histone 4 (H4) from freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). A cDNA encoding MrH4 was identified from the constructed cDNA library of M. rosenbergii during screening and the sequence was obtained using internal sequencing primers. The MrH4 coding region possesses a polypeptide of 103 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 11kDa and an isoelectric point of 11.5. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrH4 polypeptide contains a H4 signature at (15)GAKRH(19). Multiple sequence alignment of MrH4 showed that the N-terminal (21-42) and C-terminal (87-101) antimicrobial peptide regions and the pentapeptide or H4 signature (15-19) are highly conserved including in humans. The phylogenetic tree formed two separate clades of vertebrate and invertebrate H4, wherein MrH4 was located within the arthropod monophyletic clade of invertebrate H4 groups. Three-dimensional model of MrH4 was established using I-TASSER program and the model was validated using Ramachandran plot analysis. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel modeling was used to predict the helix propensity of N (21-42) and C (87-101) terminal derived Mr peptides. The highest gene expression was observed in gills and is induced by viral [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The N and C terminal peptides were synthesized and their antimicrobial and hemolytic properties were examined. Both peptides showed activity against the tested Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria; however, the highest activity was noticed against Gram negative bacteria. Among the two peptides used in this study, C-terminal peptide yielded better results than the N-terminal peptide. Therefore, C terminal

  6. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  7. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian Values" relates…

  8. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  9. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  10. "Indian Education in the Bureau of Indian Affairs."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, James E.

    The role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in American Indian education is discussed in this speech. At the present time, this role is limited to federally recognized Indians living on reservations or Indian trust land; for other Indian students, the BIA's role is that of an advocate, helping Indian people get what they want and need in regard…

  11. Identification and cloning of a transglutaminase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription during pathogen infection and moulting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chiu, Yun-Chih; Cheng, Winton; Yeh, Maw-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus; tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon; kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus; and crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The 2722-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2334 bp, a 72-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 316-bp 3'-UTR containing a stop codon and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (778 aa) was 86.67 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.4. The M. rosenbergii TG (abbreviated MrTG, accession no.: JF309296) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, two putative integrin-binding motifs (RGD), ten glycosylation sites, and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TGs. Sequence comparison and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into three subgroups, penaeid TG1, freshwater crustacean TG2 and marine crustacean TG2, and MrTG was more closely related to TG2 than to TG1. MrTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of M. rosenbergii, with MrTG mainly being synthesised by haemocytes. There was a negative correlation between clotting time of haemolymph, and MrTG expression and TG activity of haemocytes in prawn injected with Lactococcus garvieae. The pattern of MrTG mRNA expression and TG activity in haemocytes exhibited a contrary tendency with clotting time of haemolymph during the moult stages. Those results indicate that cloned MrTG is involved in the defence response, and is probably the major functional TG for haemolymph coagulation in M. rosenbergii. PMID:21854853

  12. Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Áine M.; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O’Doherty, John V.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo. PMID:26636332

  13. The 'W' prawn-trawl with emphasised drag-force transfer to its centre line to reduce overall system drag.

    PubMed

    Balash, Cheslav; Sterling, David; Binns, Jonathan; Thomas, Giles; Bose, Neil

    2015-01-01

    For prawn trawling systems, drag reduction is a high priority as the trawling process is energy intensive. Large benefits have occurred through the use of multiple-net rigs and thin twine in the netting. An additional positive effect of these successful twine-area reduction strategies is the reduced amount of otter board area required to spread the trawl systems, which leads to further drag reduction. The present work investigated the potential of redirecting the drag-strain within a prawn trawl away from the wings and the otter boards to the centre line of the trawl, where top and bottom tongues have been installed, with an aim to minimise the loading/size of the otter boards required to spread the trawl. In the system containing the new 'W' trawl, the drag redirected to the centre-line tongues is transferred forward through a connected sled and towing wires to the trawler. To establish the extent of drag redirection to the centre-line tongues and the relative drag benefits of the new trawl system, conventional and 'W' trawls of 3.65 m headline length were tested firstly over a range of spread ratios in the flume tank, and subsequently at optimum spread ratio in the field. The developed 'W' trawl effectively directed 64% of netting-drag off the wings and onto the centre tongues, which resulted in drag savings in the field of ∼20% for the associated 'W' trawl/otter-board/sled system compared to the traditional trawl/otter-board arrangement in a single trawl or twin rig configuration. Furthermore, based on previously published data, the new trawl when used in a twin rig system is expected to provide approximately 12% drag reduction compared to quad rig. The twin 'W' trawl system also has benefits over quad rig in that a reduced number of cod-end/By-catch Reduction Device units need to be installed and attended each tow. PMID:25751251

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

    2012-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating

  15. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; O'Doherty, John V; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  16. Kinetics of glucose transport by the perfused mid-gut of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenberg ii.

    PubMed Central

    Ahearn, G A; Maginniss, L A

    1977-01-01

    1. Mucosal influx of [3H]glucose was examined in the mid-gut of a freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using an in vitro perfusion technique. 2. [3H]glucose transfer across the apical cell membrane of the epithelium exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Jmax.in = 0-15 mumole glucose equiv/g. min, Kt = 0-17 mM). Under Na-free conditions, glucose influx was significantly reduced and a linear function of substrate concentration, indicative of either slow cellular diffusion (KD = 7-6 X 10(3) mumole glucose equiv/g. min. mM) or a facilitated process with a low carrier affinity for the sugar. 3. Phlorizin was a potent competitive inhibitor of glucose influx (K1 = 3-6 X10(-3) mM), galactose and 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG) were weak inhibitors, and fructose had no evident effect on glucose uptake. Azide, but not iodoacetate (IAA), significantly depressed influx. 4. Absorbed [3H]glucose was rapidly metabolized by the mid-gut. The majority of accumulated activity within the tissue was in the form of phosphorylated compounds and tritiated water (THO), while only 0-3% was recovered as a free-glucose. 5. Preliminary studies examining transmural [3-H]glucose transport, however, demonstrated a significant net mucosal to serosal free-glucose flux across the prawn mid-gut which was Na-dependent and IAA- and phlorizin-sensitive. Two alternative interpretations of the data are advanced as possible mechanisms for transepithelial glucose transport: (1) group translocation, or (2) the operation of an energized, high affinity, baso-lateral sugar transport carrier. Images Plate 1 PMID:925985

  17. Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O'Doherty, John V

    2015-01-01

    The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo. PMID:26636332

  18. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Áine M.; O’Doherty, John V.; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  19. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the famous 'White Rock' feature in Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. The light-toned rock is not really white, but its light tone caught the eye of Mars geologists as far back as 1972, when it was first spotted in images acquired by Mariner 9. The light-toned materials are probably the remains of a suite of layered sediments that once spread completely across the interior of Pollack Crater. Dark materials in this image include sand dunes and large ripples.

    Location near: 8.1oS, 335.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  20. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  1. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  2. 78 FR 16685 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pre-graduate, and Indian Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pre-graduate, and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial. ]...

  3. 75 FR 1384 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial. CFDA Numbers:...

  4. Indian Education Project: An Abridgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sharon

    Synthesizing two priority proposals identified by the Indian Education Project of Michigan, this report outlines a proposal for establishing an Indian Education Center (staffed by American Indians and advised by a University Advisory Committee made up of Indian parents and the Indian community) to meet the needs of Indian students and…

  5. Biochemical analysis and immunohistochemical examination of a GnRH-like immunoreactive peptide in the central nervous system of a decapod crustacean, the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Okumura, Takuji; Okubo, Kataaki; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2009-12-01

    We examined whether a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptide exists in the central nervous system (CNS) of the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) analysis and by immunohistochemistry. The displacement curve obtained for serially diluted extracts of the kuruma prawn brain paralleled the chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) standard curve obtained by cGnRH-II TR-FIA using the anti-cGnRH-II antibody, which cross-reacts not only with cGnRH-II but also with lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II) and octopus GnRH (octGnRH). Extracts of kuruma prawn brains and eyestalks showed a similar retention time to synthetic lGnRH-II and octGnRH in rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis. Using this antibody, we detected GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies in the anterior-most part of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain), the protocerebrum. Furthermore, GnRH-like-ir fibers were observed in the protocerebrum and deutocerebrum. In the eyestalk, GnRH-like-ir cell bodies were detected in the medulla interna, and GnRH-like-ir fibers were distributed in the medulla interna, medulla externa, and lamina ganglionalis. In the thoracic ganglion, GnRH-like-ir fibers, but not GnRH-like-ir cell bodies, were detected. No GnRH-like-ir cell bodies or fibers were detected in the abdominal ganglion or ovary. Thus, we have shown the existence and distribution of a GnRH-like peptide in the CNS of the kuruma prawn. PMID:19968471

  6. Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. )

    1989-08-01

    The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

  7. Urban American Indian Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Josea

    This document begins by dispelling several misperceptions about American Indians that are especially pernicious to older American Indians living in cities, and then goes on to discuss what is known about urban American Indian elders and the implications for planning and service delivery for Area Agencies on Aging and contractor agencies. It notes…

  8. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the Cherokee Indians from the mid-sixteenth century to modern day depicts an industrious tribe adversely affected by the settlement movement only to make exceptional economic advancements with the aid of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Civic pride and self-leadership among the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina has…

  9. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  10. National Indian Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen Kay

    2006-01-01

    This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…