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Sample records for indica seed extract

  1. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 ?g/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal. PMID:21031260

  2. Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Sandesh, P; Velu, V; Singh, R P

    2014-09-01

    Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as tannic acid equivalents) followed by CCl4 treatment, caused restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation to values close to control while peroxidase was restored to 67 % of the control. Histopathological studies of liver of different groups supported the protective effects of TSCE by restoring the hepatic architecture. These studies could be further extended to exploit its possible application for the preservation of food products as well as a health supplement and neutraceutical. PMID:25190852

  3. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level. PMID:15099853

  4. The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (leguminosae) seed extract.

    PubMed

    Ushanandini, S; Nagaraju, S; Harish Kumar, K; Vedavathi, M; Machiah, D K; Kemparaju, K; Vishwanath, B S; Gowda, T V; Girish, K S

    2006-10-01

    In Indian traditional medicine, various plants have been used widely as a remedy for treating snake bites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica seed extract on the pharmacological as well as the enzymatic effects induced by V. russelli venom. Tamarind seed extract inhibited the PLA(2), protease, hyaluronidase, l-amino acid oxidase and 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activities of venom in a dose-dependent manner. These are the major hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the early effects of envenomation, such as local tissue damage, inflammation and hypotension. Furthermore, the extract neutralized the degradation of the Bbeta chain of human fibrinogen and indirect hemolysis caused by venom. It was also observed that the extract exerted a moderate effect on the clotting time, prolonging it only to a small extent. Edema, hemorrhage and myotoxic effects including lethality, induced by venom were neutralized significantly when different doses of the extract were preincubated with venom before the assays. On the other hand, animals that received extract 10 min after the injection of venom were protected from venom induced toxicity. Since it inhibits hydrolytic enzymes and pharmacological effects, it may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of PLA(2), metalloproteinases, serine proteases, hyaluronidases and 5 cent-nucleotidases, the enzymes involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases. PMID:16847999

  5. Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide production by murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Komutarin, T; Azadi, S; Butterworth, L; Keil, D; Chitsomboon, B; Suttajit, M; Meade, B J

    2004-04-01

    The seed coat extract of Tamarindus indica, a polyphenolic flavonoid, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. The present studies investigated the inhibitory effect of the seed coat extract of T. indica on nitric oxide production in vitro using a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, and in vitro and in vivo using freshly isolated B6C3F1 mouse peritoneal macrophages. In vitro exposure of RAW 264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages to 0.2-200 microg/mL of T. indica extract significantly attenuated (as much as 68%) nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo administration of T. indica extract (100-500 mg/kg) to B6C3F1 mice dose-dependently suppressed TPA, LPS and/or IFN-gamma induced production of nitric oxide in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages in the absence of any effect on body weight. Exposure to T. indica extract had no effect on cell viability as assessed by the MTT assay. In B6C3F1 mice, preliminary safety studies demonstrated a decrease in body weight at only the highest dose tested (1000 mg/kg) without alterations in hematology, serum chemistry or selected organ weights or effects on NK cell activity. A significant decrease in body weight was observed in BALB/c mice exposed to concentrations of extract of 250 mg/kg or higher. Oral exposure of BALB/c mice to T. indica extract did not modulate the development of T cell-mediated sensitization to DNFB or HCA as measured by the local lymph node assay, or dermal irritation to nonanoic acid or DNFB. These studies suggest that in mice, T. indica extract at concentrations up to 500 mg/kg may modulate nitric oxide production in the absence of overt acute toxicity. PMID:15019190

  6. Nutritional Composition, in vitro Antioxidant Activity and Artemia salina L. Lethality of Pulp and Seed of Tamarindus indica L. Extracts.

    PubMed

    Khairunnuur, F A; Zulkhairi, A; Azrina, A; Moklas, Ma M; Khairullizam, S; Zamree, M S; Shahidan, M A

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and medium lethal concentration (LC50 value) of Tamarindus indica L. pulp and seed extracts in vitro. The extraction was set at 40?C, 60?C and 100?C for 12 hours, 6 hours and 15 minutes respectively to determine the optimum extraction parameter whereas the anti-oxidant activity of the extracts was measured using iron (III) reduction (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts was estimated as gallic acid equivalent by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Toxicity potential of the extract was assessed in vitro by Artemia salina lethality test both in seed and pulp samples. The results showed that tamarind seed contained a higher percentage of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy (15%, 82%, 95% and 33.13% respectively) than the pulp. On the other hand, the pulp demonstrated a high moisture (51.1%) and ash (34.84%) content than the seed. For the mineral analysis, tamarind seed contained higher Ca and C (1.0% and 50.73% respectively) than the pulp (0.27% and 40.40% respectively). No heavy metals were detected in both samples. Seed extracted at 60?C/6 hours and 100?C/15 minutes showed the highest TPC value and were significantly different (p<0.05) than the seed extracted at 40?C/12 hours. Anti-oxidant activity is positively correlated to the TPC value of the extracts (R=0.991). The pulp and seed extracted at 100?C/15 minutes showed the highest FRAP value among its groups (216.17 ± 14.06 ?mol (Fe)/g and 659.74 ± 16.40 ?mol (Fe)/g respectively). This study indicates that tamarind pulp and seed extracts possess beneficial antioxidant properties and the optimum extraction parameter is 100?C for 15 minutes. In Artemia salina lethality test, tamarind pulp caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC50 in the range of 26-28 ?L/mL. Tamarind seed were not toxic to Artemia salina since the LC50 of the extracts was higher than 1000 ?L/mL. PMID:22691806

  7. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rajkumar; Das, Uttam Kumar; Ghosh, Debidas

    2005-07-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were divided into mild diabetic (MD) and severe diabetic (SD) on the basis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels. Diabetes was confirmed here by intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT), biochemical assay of glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle, glucose-6-phosphatase activity in liver, and serum insulin levels. Hyperlipidemia developed in these experimental diabetic rats was assessed by quantification of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and triglyceride (TG) in serum. Aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica was given to MD and SD rats at the dose of 80 mg and 120 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight/d respectively for 14 d. Significant attenuation of hyperglycemia was indicated by measuring FBG, glycogen level and glucose-6-phosphatase activity along with monitoring of intravenous GTT and serum insulin level. Similarly, correction of hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats after this extract supplementation was confirmed by significant reduction in the levels of above-mentioned hyperlipidemic indicators. Intravenous GTT was performed that highlights the antidiabetic action of this extract is not due to its effect on the intestinal rate of glucose absorption but may be due to modulation of intracellular glucose utilization in target organs. This study focus the efficacy of this extract for the management of experimental diabetes in rat model which may shed some light on the scientific basis of ancient herbal therapy in this line using this seed. PMID:15997092

  8. Prevention of high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male wistar rats by aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seed.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Mohammd Reza; Harati, Mehdi; Shahraki, Ahamd Reza

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE) ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C) receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F) and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T) both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v) fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01) when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01) compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01) while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action. PMID:21713743

  9. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T?=?40°C, P = 180 bar, time?=?135?mn, CO2 flow rate?=?15?mL·s?1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2:?57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2:?22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO2:?14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US?=?4.44–5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US?=?4.44 (T?=?40°C) and 4.13 (T?=?70°C). PMID:22754699

  10. A stereological study of effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hamidreza, Hamidreza; Heidari, Zahra; Shahraki, Mohammadreza; Moudi, Bita

    2010-10-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn was used as a traditional medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus in human and experimental animals. This study investigated effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds (AETIS) against STZ-induced damages in pancreatic islands by means of stereological methods. sixty matured normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 gr, were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Control, STZ-induced diabetic; by intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/Kg streptozotocin, Treated control group (TC); received AETIS at a dose of 200mg/kg/day, and AETIS treated diabetic groups (TD1-3); received respectively AETIS at the dose of 50, 100,and 200 mg/kg/day by gavage from one week after induction of diabetes by STZ. After 8 weeks of experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume weighted mean islets volume, mass of beta cells, islets, and pancreas and total number of islets were done. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume weighted mean islets volume, volume density islets/pancreas, volume density beta cells/islet, mass of islets and pancreas of treated diabetic groups (TD1-3) were significantly higher than untreated diabetic group (P<0.001), and in TD3 group these values were comparable to controls. Although total volume and mass of beta cells in TD1-3 were significantly higher than D group but they were significantly lower than control group (P>0.05). Total number of islets, pancreas wet weight and volume did not show any significant changes between control and experimental groups (P>0.05). Results suggested that AETIS partially restores pancreatic beta cells and repairs STZ-induced damages in rats. PMID:20884458

  11. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Grape Seed Extract Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera On this page: ... This fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, what the science says, potential ...

  12. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Extract Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera grapes.jpg © Steven Foster On this page: What ... naturaldatabase.com on June 25, 2009. Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed ...

  13. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  14. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    PubMed

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD?? values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD?? values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity. PMID:23983398

  15. Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Santhosh, Martin S.; Paul, Manoj; Sunitha, Kabburahalli; Thushara, Ram M.; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K.; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention. PMID:26059174

  16. Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Santhosh, Martin S; Paul, Manoj; Sunitha, Kabburahalli; Thushara, Ram M; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention. PMID:26059174

  17. Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 ± 2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26 ± 2 °C; -38 ± 2 °C; and -26 ± 2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher ( P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers.

  18. Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers.

    PubMed

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26?±?2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38?±?2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26?±?2 °C; -38?±?2 °C; and -26?±?2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38?±?2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower (P?

  19. Allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz on Eleusine indica (L.) gaertn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimshah, Syamimi; Ismail B., S.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata on the growth of E. indica through aqueous extract and debris (incorporated into the soil) experiment. Three concentrations of leaf and seed aqueous extract (16.7, 33.3 and 66.7 g/L) and debris (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/500 g soil) of M. bracteata were used in the experiment. Complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications was applied in this experiment which was conducted twice. Results demonstrated that the leaf and seed extracts of M. bracteata exhibited higher suppression effect on the growth and germination of E. indica as the concentration increased. The leaf and seed extracts significantly reduced all measured parameters at all concentrations except for the shoot length and germination of E. indica by seed extract at 16.7 g/L which recorded insignificant reduction by 40.5% and 4% respectively. The leaf and seed debris significantly reduced the root length of E. indica at all treatments. Seed debris also showed significant reduction on the germination at all treatments and other seedling growth parameters (shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) at 2.5 and 10.0 g/500 g soil. Meanwhile, the leaf debris demonstrated stimulation effect on the seedling growth parameters. As a whole, the leaf showed higher suppression effect in aqueous extract experiment while the seed recorded higher suppression effect in the debris experiment. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the type of inhibition mechanism involved in both experiments.

  20. Tamarindus indica L. and Moringa oleifera M. extract administration ameliorates fluoride toxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, R; Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Chandra, Vikas

    2009-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of T. indica fruit pulp (100 mg/kg body weight) and M. oleifera seeds (50 mg/kg body wight) orally once daily for 90 days lowered plasma fluoride concentrations in rabbits receiving fluorinated drinking water (200 mg NaF/ Liter water). Cortical indices and metaphysial width in animals receiving extracts also revealed beneficial effects of plant extracts. Changes in plasma biochemistry suggested less hepatic and renal damages in animals receiving plant extracts along with fluorinated water in comparison to that receiving fluorinated water alone. Preliminary results revealed these plant extracts have some potential to mitigate fluoride toxicity. PMID:20099463

  1. Biosorption of aqueous chromium(VI) by Tamarindus indica seeds.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, G S; Bhuptawat, Hitendra Kumar; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2006-05-01

    The effectiveness of low cost agro-based materials namely, Tamarindus indica seed (TS), crushed coconut shell (CS), almond shell (AS), ground nut shell (GS) and walnut shell (WS) were evaluated for Cr(VI) removal. Batch test indicated that hexavalent chromium sorption capacity (q(e)) followed the sequence q(e)(TS) > q(e)(WS) > q(e)(AS) > q(e)(GS) > q(e)(CS). Due to high sorptive capacity, tamarind seed was selected for detailed sorption studies. Sorption kinetic data followed first order reversible kinetic fit model for all the sorbents. The equilibrium conditions were achieved within 150 min under the mixing conditions employed. Sorption equilibria exhibited better fit to Freundlich isotherms (R>0.92) than Langmuir isotherm (R approximately = 0.87). Hexavalent chromium sorption by TS decreased with increase in pH, and slightly reduced with increase in ionic strength. Cr(VI) removal by TS seems to be mainly by chemisorption. Desorption of Cr(VI) from Cr(VI) laden TS was quite less by distilled water and HCl. Whereas with NaOH, maximum desorption achieved was about 15.3%. When TS was used in downflow column mode, Cr(VI) removal was quite good but head loss increased as the run progressed and was stopped after 200 h. PMID:15964190

  2. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica) Almond Seed Fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

    In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica) almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF) was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8°C and 10.9 min at 12°C). The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8°C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12°C, respectively) and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

  3. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD?? values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD?? determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ? 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay. PMID:21881543

  4. Antiprotozoal Effect of Artemisia indica Extracts and Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Tierney, Michelle; Sen, Rupashree; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Demirci, Betül; Bilia, Anna Rita; Baser, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Brun, Reto; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2015-08-01

    Diverse solvent extracts of Artemisia indica leaves originating from the West Bengal region (India) were assessed for the content of artemisinin and characteristic Artemisia polymethoxyflavonoids, namely eupatin (1), casticin (2), chrysoplenetin (3), cirsilineol (4), chrysophenol-D (5), and artemetin (6). HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS were used to investigate the extracts macerated by solvents of increasing polarity, i.e., petroleum ether, n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, MeOH, or EtOH (either 96, 80, or 60?% v/v), and hot water. Artemisinin was absent in all extracts. The acetone and EtOH extracts comprised the highest levels of polymethoxyflavonoids, whereas no flavonoid could be detected in the infusion. None of the remaining extracts contained chryosphenol-D (5) or artemetin (6), while chrysoplenetin (3) was found in all extracts. The essential oil of the plant was also obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry simultaneously. Of the 92 compounds detected in the oil, camphor (13.0?%) and caryophyllene oxide (10.87?%) were the major components. All solvent extracts and the volatile oil showed in vitro antimalarial activity, plus a potential malaria prophylactic effect by inhibiting at least two recombinant plasmodial fatty acid biosynthesis (PfFAS-II) enzymes. Except for the infusion, all extracts were also active against other parasitic protozoa and displayed low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. This is the first detailed study investigating both artemisinin and polymethoxyflavonoid content as well as in vitro malaria prophylactic and detailed antiprotozoal potential of A. indica extracts against a panel of protozoan parasites. This is also the first report of antiparasitic activity of the essential oil of the plant. PMID:26085047

  5. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  6. Assessment of Tamarindus indica extracts for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-01-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051. PMID:22072893

  7. The effect of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica Linn. on the growth of clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Shankar Esaki; Nandakumar, Subhadra; Rao, Usha Anand

    2005-12-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Pseudomonas pseudomallei) causes melioidosis, a life-threatening infection common among paddy cultivators in Southeast Asian countries. No plant materials have been investigated for its activity against B. pseudomallei. Therefore, a preliminary study was carried out using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods to evaluate the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of five Indian medicinal plants documented to have been used for several ailments in the ancient Indian scriptures. The leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, the rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and the seeds of Vigna radiata were prepared using methanol as solvent. The disc diffusion and MIC methods were used to assess the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of the plants tested. Only methanol leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity starting from disc concentrations of 150 mug by the disc diffusion method. The other plants failed to show any zone of inhibition. MIC assay revealed that the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for B. pseudomallei were 125 mug/ml. Our preliminary finding showed that methanolic extracts of Tamarindus indica has anti-B. pseudomallei inhibitory potentials under in vitro conditions. Extensive animal studies may be required before investigating the role of Tamarindus indica for treating melioidosis. PMID:16518004

  8. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent. PMID:21391790

  9. Morphological and oil content variation in seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) from northern and western provenances of India.

    PubMed

    Kaura, S K; Gupta, S K; Chowdhury, J B

    1998-01-01

    Seed morphology (seed length and 20 seed weight) and oil content was studied in Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) of five provenances of northern and western India. Trees with wide ranges of girths were considered for study. Maximum average oil content was observed in trees from Hisar provenance. Seed oil content in most of the provenances was not consistently and significantly correlated with morphological parameters of seeds. Age of the tree had no significant effect on the oil yield. PMID:10426116

  10. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    PubMed

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  11. Determination of Anthelmintic Activity of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Tamarindus Indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Das, S. S.; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  12. Composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pears fruit (Opuntia ficus indica sp.).

    PubMed

    El Kossori, R L; Villaume, C; El Boustani, E; Sauvaire, Y; Méjean, L

    1998-01-01

    The proximate composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) was investigated and is reported on a dry weight basis. The most abundant component of the pulp and skin was ethanol-soluble carbohydrates. Pulp contained glucose (35%) and fructose (29%) while the skin contained essentially glucose (21%). Protein content was 5.1% (pulp), 8.3% (skin) and 11.8% (seeds). Starch was found in each of the three parts of the fruit. Pulp fibers were rich in pectin (14.4%), skin and seeds were rich in cellulose (29.1 and 45.1%, respectively). Skin was remarkable for its content of calcium (2.09%) and potassium (3.4%). Prickly pear is a neglected nutritional source which should be more widely used because of its potential nutrient contribution. PMID:9950087

  13. Bootstrapping Relation Extraction from Semantic Seeds

    E-print Network

    Neumann, Günter

    Bootstrapping Relation Extraction from Semantic Seeds Fei-Yu Xu A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED and detecting relevant relations among them. This thesis deals with one of the central tasks of IE, i, initialized by some instances of the target relation, called semantic seed. Due to the semantic seed approach

  14. Extraction and Analysis of Tomato Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato seeds represent a very large waste by-product from the processing of tomatoes into products such as tomato juice, sauce and paste. One potential use for these seeds is as a source of vegetable oil. This research investigated the oil content of tomato seeds using several extraction technique...

  15. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of chitinase from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Dipak N.; Datta, Manali; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar Sharma, Ashwani; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-01-01

    A protein with chitinase activity has been isolated and purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis of this protein confirmed it to be an ?34?kDa endochitinase which belongs to the acidic class III chitinase family. The protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P41, with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.6?Å. PMID:19342775

  16. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension secondary to ingestion of Morinda coreia and Azadirachta indica leaves extract in infant

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun; Ananthakrishnan, Shanthi

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) secondary to ingestion of Morinda coreia (Nonan) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves extract in a nine months old child. This herbal extract is believed to accelerate weight gain in infants and is commonly used in South India. PMID:24250212

  17. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaf methanol extracts on stem cell reproduction.

    PubMed

    González-Garza, M Teresa; Codinach, Margarita; Alcaraz, Citlali; Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

    2007-04-01

    Methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves at concentration from 0.1 to 40 microg/ml showed in vitro an stimulatory activity in stem cell reproduction. These results suggest that the effect of methanol leaf extracts on stem cell reproduction could be of benefit to improve health. PMID:17337134

  18. Adsorption Studies of Chromium(VI) on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangifera indica (Mango) Seed Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mise, Shashikant; Patil, Trupti Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from Mangifera indica (mango) seed shell have been carried out at room temperature 32 ± 1 °C. The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on two types of activated carbon, physical activation and chemical activation (Calcium chloride and Sodium chloride), Impregnation Ratio's (IR) 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 for optimum time, optimum dosages and variation of pH were studied. It is observed that contact time differs for different carbons i.e. for physically and chemically activated carbons. The contact time decreases for chemically activated carbon compared to the physically activated carbon. It was observed that as dosage increases the adsorption increased along with the increase in impregnation ratio. It was also noted that as I.R. increases the surface area of Mangifera indica shell carbon increased. These dosage data were considered in the construction of isotherms and it was found that adsorption obeys Freundlich Isotherm and does not obey Langmuir Isotherm. The maximum removal of chromium (VI) was obtained in highly acidic medium at a pH of 1.50.

  19. Hypolipemic and antioxidant activities from Tamarindus indica L. pulp fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Martinello, F; Soares, S M; Franco, J J; Santos, A C; Sugohara, A; Garcia, S B; Curti, C; Uyemura, S A

    2006-06-01

    Dietary modifications may significantly reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including cholesterol and atherosclerosis. The present study addressed the effects of the crude extract from the pulp fruit of Tamarindus indica L. on lipid serum levels and early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic hamsters in vivo, and the extract's antioxidant action, in vitro. Animals were fed on either chow or atherogenic diet during 10 weeks and concomitantly received either water or T. indica L. extract for drinking. Treatment of hypercholesterolemic hamsters with the T. indica pulp fruit extract (5%) led to a decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (50%), non-HDL cholesterol (73%) and triglyceride (60%), and to an increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (61%). In vitro, the extract presented radical scavenging ability, as assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals assays, and led to decreased lipid peroxidation in serum, as assessed by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In vivo, the extract improved the efficiency of the antioxidant defense system, as assessed by the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Together these results indicate the potential of tamarind extracts in diminishing the risk of atherosclerosis development in humans. PMID:16330140

  20. The antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of different plant seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Atrooz, Omar M

    2009-08-01

    Different plant seeds extracts of Citrus sinensis, Hordeum sativum, Triticum sativum, Canna indica, Citrullus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycril-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, RBCs hemolysis and linoleic acid oxidation, a long with the determination of total phenolic and flavonoids contents. All the methanolic extracts showed high antioxidant activity and have high contents of phenolic and flavonoid. The Canna indica extract exhibited strong antioxidant as a reducing power and as DPPH radical-scavenging (3.61 absorbance, 87.12%, respectively), while the Hordeum sativum extract exhibited highest inhibitory effect on RBCs hemolysis (59.55%) and the Capsicum annuum extract has highest inhibitory effect on linoleic acid peroxidation (65.06%). PMID:19943462

  1. Antibacterial activity of Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Baswa, M; Rath, C C; Dash, S K; Mishra, R K

    2001-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil in vitro against fourteen strains of pathogenic bacteria was assessed. Using the tube dilution technique, it was observed that 57.14 and 21.42% of the pathogens were inhibited at 500 microl/ml; 14.28 and 71.42% at 125 microl/ml; and 28.57 and 7.14% at 250 microl/ml of Karanj and Neem oils, respectively. The activity with both the oils was bactericidal and independent of temperature and energy. Most of the pathogens were killed more rapidly at 4 degrees C than 37 degrees C. The activity was mainly due to the inhibition of cell-membrane synthesis in the bacteria. PMID:11414503

  2. Antibacterial activity of plumbagin derivative-rich Plumbago indica root extracts and chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Kaewbumrung, Sermwut; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2014-01-01

    The extraction studies and a one-step purification of the crude extract of Plumbago indica using silica-gel vacuum chromatography provided a plumbagin derivative-rich P. indica root extract (PPE). The PPE was standardised to contain total plumbagin derivatives not less than 13% w/w. Antibacterial activities of the standardised PPE and three naphthoquinones, plumbagin, elliptinone and 3,3'-biplumbagin, against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were evaluated by using the microdilution assay. The bactericidal activities of the PPE against these bacteria were much stronger than those of elliptinone and 3,3'-biplumbagin and almost equal to those of plumbagin. Stability of the PPE was determined under various conditions through a period of four months. The PPE was stable over a period of four months when stored as a dried powder but only in a well-closed container protected from light under 4 ± 2°C. PMID:24483166

  3. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Coccinia indica.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Junaid; Singh, Parabhdeep; Bansal, Yogita; Goel, R K

    2009-08-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate both post- and pre-treatment anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Coccinia indica in rats using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method at various dose levels. Analgesic and antipyretic properties were evaluated using tail flick model and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia, respectively. Ceiling effect of the extract was observed at 50 mg/kg in pre-treatment carrageenan test. In post-treatment studies, a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the dose range of 25-300 mg/kg. The effect was equivalent to diclofenac (20 mg/kg) at 50 mg/kg but it was significantly pronounced at higher doses. Effectiveness of extract in the early phase of inflammation suggests the inhibition of histamine and serotonin release. The extract produced marked analgesic activity comparable to morphine at 300 mg/kg, which suggests the involvement of central mechanisms. A significant reduction in hyperpyrexia in rats was also produced by all doses of extract with maximum effect at 300 mg/kg comparable to paracetamol. In conclusion, this study has established the anti-inflammatory activity, analgesic and antipyretic activity of C. indica and, thus, justifies the ethnic uses of the plant. PMID:19626277

  4. Limonoids from Azadirachta indica var. siamensis extracts and their cytotoxic and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Ishii, Kenta; Shinozaki, Takuro; Tachi, Yosuke; Takagi, Mio; Ebina, Kodai; Zhang, Jie; Manosroi, Jiradej; Akihisa, Rima; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2014-04-01

    Six new limonoids, 7-benzoyl-17-epinimbocinol (5), 3-acetyl-7-tigloylnimbidinin (8), 1-isovaleroyl-1-detigloylsalanninolide (15), 2,3-dihydro-3?-methoxynimbolide (16), deacetyl-20,21-epoxy-20,22-dihydro-21-deoxyisonimbinolide (26), and deacetyl-20,21,22,23-tetrahydro-20,22-dihydroxy-21,23-dimethoxynimbin (27), along with 28 known limonoids, 1-4, 6, 7, 9-14, 17-25, and 28-34, and two known flavonoids, 35 and 36, have been isolated from the extracts of bark, leaves, roots, and seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton (Siamese neem tree; Meliaceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), stomach (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines. Eleven compounds, 1, 2, 4-7, 13, 16, 17, 29, and 30, exhibited potent cytotoxicities against one or more cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 0.1-9.3??M. Compound 16 induced apoptotic cell death in AZ521 cells upon evaluation of the apoptosis-inducing activity by flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis on AZ521 cells revealed that compound 16 activated caspases-3, -8, and -9, while increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. This suggested that 16 induced apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in AZ521. In addition, upon evaluation of all compounds against the melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), 20 limonoids, i.e., 1-3, 6, 9-11, 18, 19, 21-29, 32, and 34, and two flavonoids, 35 and 36, exhibited melanogenesis-inhibitory activities, with no, or almost no, toxicities to the cells at lower and/or higher concentrations, which were more potent than the reference arbutin, a known melanogenesis inhibitor. Western blot analysis showed that nimbin (18) reduced the protein levels of microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that 18 inhibits melanogenesis on a ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. PMID:24706622

  5. Antitumor and apoptotic activities of the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia indica.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ying-Tong; Jiang, Jian-Min; Lao, Hai-Yan; Guo, Jie-Wen; Lun, Yu-Ning; Yang, Min

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is one of the most eminent diseases of modern times and numerous natural products derived from medicinal plants have been identified as potential sources of antitumor drugs. A successful anticancer drug must target or inhibit tumor cells whilst causing minimal damage to healthy cells. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor efficacy of ethyl acetate extract, and other isolated compounds from Artemisia indica, on MCF?7, BHY, Miapaca?2, Colo?205 and A?549 cell lines. The apoptotic activity of the compounds was studied using flow cytometry. The different cancer cell lines were treated with the ethyl acetate extract and varying concentrations of compounds (denoted a?g) isolated from the A. indica. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and the apoptotic properties of the compounds and the extract were assessed using flow cytometry. In MCF?7 cells, the effect on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m) induced by compounds b and d was also studied. Bioassay?guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract from the shoot and root parts of A. indica led to the identification of the compounds a?g as: 5?hydroxy?3,7,4'?trimethoxyflavone; ludartin; maackiain; lupeol; cis?matricaria ester; trans?matricaria ester; and 6?methoxy?7,8?methylenedioxy coumarin, respectively. All the compounds exhibited mild to potent inhibition of cell proliferation in all the cell lines, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25.18?88.12 µM. Ludartin and lupeol were observed to have the most potent inhibitory effects. Based on the initially identified antiproliferative effects, these two compounds were evaluated for their effects on cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and their effects on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m). The two compounds induced DNA damage and mitochondrial membrane potential loss in MCF?7 cells. The results of the current study suggest that lupeol and ludartin, isolated from A. indica, produce anticancer effects by inducing DNA damage and a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and may be used as potent anticancer agents, subsequent to further study. PMID:25434991

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.

    PubMed

    Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  7. Assessment of the potential genotoxic risk of medicinal Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract using in vivo assays.

    PubMed

    Silva, F M V; Leite, M F; Spadaro, A C C; Uyemura, S A; Maistro, E L

    2009-01-01

    Tamarindus indica has been used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic, a digestive aid, and a carminative, among other uses. Currently, there is no information in the toxicology literature concerning the safety of T. indica extract. We evaluated the clastogenic and/or genotoxic potential of fruit pulp extract of this plant in vivo in peripheral blood and liver cells of Wistar rats, using the comet assay, and in bone marrow cells of Swiss mice, using the micronucleus test. The extract was administered by gavage at doses of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Peripheral blood and liver cells from Wistar rats were collected 24 h after treatment, for the comet assay. The micronucleus test was carried out in bone marrow cells from Swiss mice collected 24 h after treatment. The extract made with T. indica was devoid of clastogenic and genotoxic activities in the cells of the rodents, when administered orally at these three acute doses. PMID:19768670

  8. Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Nakchat, Oranuch; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of tamarind seed coat extracts (TSCEs) were compared between the two extracts using boiling-water (TSCE-W) and 70% ethanol (TSCE-E) for extraction. TSCE-W, consisting of the highest phenolic content, possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1 -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities much higher than TSCE-E and Trolox. Additionally, both TSCEs also exhibited superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities higher than Trolox and BHA. Anti-lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of TSCE-W were also studied in human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells. Cytotoxic effect was not observed when exposed to TSCE-W up to 1 mg/mL for 12-48 h. However, TSCE-W significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in H202-damaged cells. HPLC analysis showed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in TSCE-W, which could be responsible for antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. The results suggest that an inexpensive and simple boiling-water extraction of TSCE-W may provide a valuable natural antioxidant source having anti-lipid peroxidation for health food additives, nutraceuticals as well as cosmeceuticals. PMID:24597144

  9. Comparison of Pouzolzia indica methanolic extract and Virkon against cysts of Acanthamoeba spp.

    PubMed

    Roongruangchai, Kosol; Kummalue, Tanawan; Sookkua, Tichaporn; Roongruangchai, Jantima

    2010-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the morphological and structural changes of Acanthamoeba cysts after being treated with various concentrations of Pouzolzia indica methanolic extract fraction 3 (methanol eluted) and Virkon solution. Changes in the Acanthamoeba cysts were detected by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show Acanthamoeba cysts were killed by Pouzolzia indica methanolic extract fraction 3 at a concentration of 1:8 and by Virkon solution at a concentration of 0.25%, with a minimal cysticidal concentration (MCC) by 24 hours. Both agents caused similar structural damage to Acanthamoeba cysts in the same sequence. Step by step structural alterations occurred within the cyst. First, the cyst shrank, collapsed and had clumping of cytoplasmic stuctures inside the cyst walls. Second, the cysts began to bulge, swell, have a decrease in wrinkles in the cyst walls and spill the cytoplasmic contents into the environment. Finally, the cyst walls broke into small pieces. This study may be beneficial to compare with future studies of pharmaceutical agents against Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:21073052

  10. A cell wall extract from Piriformospora indica promotes tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) via enhanced expression of Ca(+2) signaling pathway and lipoxygenase gene.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Prasad, Ram; Verma, Ajit

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is an axenically cultivable phytopromotional endosymbiont that mimics capabilities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This is a basidiomycete of the Sebacinaceae family, which promotes growth, development, and seed production in a variety of plant species. We report that the cell wall extract (CWE) from P. indica induces tuberization in vitro and promotes tuber growth and yield in potato. The CWE altered the calcium signaling pathway that regulates tuberization process. An increase in tuber number and size was correlated with increased transcript expression of the two Ca(2+)-dependant proteins (CaM1 and St-CDPK1) and the lipoxygenase (LOX) mRNA, which are known to play distinct roles in potato tuberization. External supplementation of Ca(2+) ions induced a similar set of tuberization pathway genes, indicating presence of an active Ca(2+) in the CWE of P. indica. Since potato tuberization is directly influenced by the presence of microflora in nature, the present study provides an insight into the novel mechanism of potato tuberization in relation to plant-microbe association. Ours is the first report on an in vitro tuber-inducing beneficial fungus. PMID:23609909

  11. In Vivo Biochemical and Gene Expression Analyses of the Antioxidant Activities and Hypocholesterolaemic Properties of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2013-01-01

    Background Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9±10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9±2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. Conclusion/Significance It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:23894592

  12. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-03-01

    Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (?-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and ?-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%). PMID:21970446

  13. Ethanolic Extracts of Pluchea indica Induce Apoptosis and Antiproliferation Effects in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chiu-Li; Cho, Joshua; Lee, Ya-Zhe; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Chien, Chih-Yen; Hwang, Chung-Feng; Hong, Yi-Ren; Tseng, Chao-Neng; Cho, Chung-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Pluchea indica is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of lumbago, ulcer, tuberculosis and inflammation. The anti-cancer activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms of the ethanolic extracts of P. indica root (PIRE) were characterized in the present study. PIRE strongly inhibited the viability of the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC-TW 01 and NPC-TW 04) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Migration of cancer cells was also suppressed by PIRE. In addition, PIRE significantly increased the occurrence of the cells in sub-G1 phase and the extent of DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner, which indicates that PIRE significantly increased apoptosis in NPC cells. The apoptotic process triggered by PIRE involved up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, consequently increasing the ratios of Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels. Moreover, the p53 protein was up-regulated by PIRE in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, PIRE could induce the apoptosis-signaling pathway in NPC cells by activation of p53 and by regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. PMID:26111179

  14. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. PMID:25466036

  15. The antimicrobial effects of extracts of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Salvadora persica (Arak) chewing sticks.

    PubMed

    Almas, K

    1999-01-01

    Chewing sticks (Miswak) is most commonly used int he Middle East and Indian Subcontinent Salvadora persica (Arak) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) are commonly used as oral hygiene tools in different parts of the world, Several studies have demonstrated the anti-plaque anticarious and antibacterial effect of these sticks. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity of Neem and Arak chewing stick's aqueous extracts at various concentrations. The microbial inhibition was measured using blood agar and ditch plate method up to 48 hous. The pH of Neem extract was 6.1 and of Arak was 4.9 Data suggested that both chewing stick extracts are effective at 50% concentration on strept mutans and Strept faecalis. Arak extract was more effective at lower concentrations for Strept faecalis. The effect may be due to the difference of their chemical composition and variability in their PH. Further research is needed to extrapolate other plants used for oral hygiene. Chewing sticks are recommended as oral hygiene tools for health promotion in developing countries. PMID:10865390

  16. Antioxidant activity of the methanol fraction of Pluchea indica root extract.

    PubMed

    Sen, T; Dhara, A K; Bhattacharjee, S; Pal, S; Nag Chaudhuri, A K

    2002-06-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the influence of the methanol fraction of Pluchea indica Less root extract (PIRE), the dual inhibitors (BW 755C and phenidone) and vitamin on both in vivo and in vitro free radical-scavenging activities, CCl(4)-induced lipid peroxidation and the metabolism of arachidonic acid by lipoxygenase. PIRE produced significant antiinflammatory activity against glucose oxidase-induced paw oedema (in vivo), inhibited hydroxyl radical and superoxide generation, lysis of erythrocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide, CCl(4)-induced lipid peroxidation and also dioxygenase activity of lipoxygenase (both in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide). Significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity was observed with BW 755C and phenidone compared with PIRE. However, both BW 755C and phenidone stimulated hydroxyl radical generation compared with the observed inhibitory effects of PIRE and vitamin E. PMID:12112288

  17. Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the phenolics of Leea indica leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Atiar; Imran, Talha bin; Islam, Shahidul

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the phytochemical, antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Leea indica leaf ethanol extract. Phytochemical values namely total phenolic and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing power, DMSO superoxide scavenging effect and Iron chelating effects were studied by established methods. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects were screened by disk diffusion technique, food poison technique and brine shrimp bioassay, respectively. Results showed the total phenolic content 24.00 ± 0.81 g GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content 194.68 ± 2.43 g quercetin/100 g and total antioxidant capacity 106.61 ± 1.84 g AA/100 g dry extract. Significant (P < 0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (139.83 ± 1.40 ?g/ml), FeCl3 reduction (16.48 ± 0.64 ?g/ml), DMSO superoxide scavenging (676.08 ± 5.80 ?g/ml) and Iron chelating (519.33 ± 16.96 ?g/ml) methods. In antibacterial screening, the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) zone of inhibitions compared to positive controls Ampicillin and Tetracycline against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli. Significant minimum inhibitory concentrations compared to tetracycline were obtained against the above organisms. In antifungal assay, the extract inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Fusarium equisetii by 38.09 ± 0.59, 22.58 ± 2.22, and 22.58 ± 2.22%, respectively. The extract showed a significant LC50 value compared to vincristine sulfate in cytotoxic assay. The results evidenced the potential antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic capacities of Leea inidica leaf extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use. PMID:23961238

  18. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500?mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24?h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000??g/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5??g/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds. PMID:26078966

  19. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos; Allen, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500?mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24?h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000??g/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5??g/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds. PMID:26078966

  20. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of medicinally potent plant Saraca indica: a novel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugu, Shyam; Nagati, Veerababu; Bhanoori, Manjula

    2015-08-01

    Eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have various applications in modern biotechnology for better outcomes and benefits to the society. In the present study, we report an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Saraca indica leaf extract. Characterization of S. indica silver nanoparticles (SAgNPs) was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, Zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy. SAgNPs showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  1. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    PubMed

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

  2. Antihyperglycaemic activity of the stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yerima, M; Anuka, J A; Salawu, O A; Abdu-Aguye, I

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. In 2002, WHO Expert Committee on diabetes mellitus recommended an urgent and further evaluation of the folkloric methods of managing the disease. In response to this recommendation, several medicinal plants are currently being investigated for their hypoglycaemic activity and one of such plants is Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica is a slow growing tree that is resistant to strong winds and perennial. The stem-bark extract of the plant is used locally for the management of diabetes. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg(-1) IP). The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg kg(-1). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract lowered the blood glucose level significantly (p < 0.05) at the 4th, 8th and 16th h. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the BGL significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study. In the oral glucose load method the 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract significantly (p < 0.05) lowered elevated blood glucose at the 3rd and 5th. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the blood glucose from the 1st to the 5th, while the 250 mg kg(-1) also lowered the blood glucose level but only significantly at the 5th h. The extract is practically non toxic when administered orally. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica Linn significantly lowered elevated Blood Glucose concentration (BGL) in the experimental animal models, while the crude extract was able to prevent an elevation in BGL when used in the oral glucose load model. PMID:24897797

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Mishra, Vijay; Raut, Sushil; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Jain, Sunil K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves (HTI) along with its possible mode of action. The anti-inflammatory activity of HTI was estimated by carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in male Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, HTI was assessed to determine its effects on membrane stabilization. The antinociceptive action was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick, and the hot plate model. Oral administration of HTI at the dose of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body weight produced significant (P< 0.01) anti-inflammatory as well as antinociceptive actions in a dose-dependent manner. Among all tested doses, 1000 mg/kg, p. o. reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. Moreover, the 1000 mg/kg dose exhibited maximum percentage inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing (48.9%), whereas standard drug diclofenac (25 mg/kg, p. o.) showed maximum inhibition (50.9%) of writhing. In the hot plate model, HTI (1000 mg/kg, orally) increased mean basal reaction time after 120 min (7.12±0.05 sec). In the tail flick model, HTI increased the maximum percentage of latency (36.06%), whereas the standard drug pethidine (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) showed maximum percentage of latency (43.85%) after 60 min. The findings of the present study supported anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive claims of T. indica as were mentioned in Indian traditional and folklore practices. PMID:23008815

  4. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Leaves.

    PubMed

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Mishra, Vijay; Raut, Sushil; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Jain, Sunil K

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves (HTI) along with its possible mode of action. The anti-inflammatory activity of HTI was estimated by carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in male Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, HTI was assessed to determine its effects on membrane stabilization. The antinociceptive action was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick, and the hot plate model. Oral administration of HTI at the dose of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body weight produced significant (P< 0.01) anti-inflammatory as well as antinociceptive actions in a dose-dependent manner. Among all tested doses, 1000 mg/kg, p. o. reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. Moreover, the 1000 mg/kg dose exhibited maximum percentage inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing (48.9%), whereas standard drug diclofenac (25 mg/kg, p. o.) showed maximum inhibition (50.9%) of writhing. In the hot plate model, HTI (1000 mg/kg, orally) increased mean basal reaction time after 120 min (7.12±0.05 sec). In the tail flick model, HTI increased the maximum percentage of latency (36.06%), whereas the standard drug pethidine (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) showed maximum percentage of latency (43.85%) after 60 min. The findings of the present study supported anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive claims of T. indica as were mentioned in Indian traditional and folklore practices. PMID:23008815

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Dipak N.; Preeti; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K.; Tomar, ­Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-01-01

    A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS–PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21?kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1?Å. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7?Å. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%. PMID:19574654

  6. Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2009-02-12

    An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg/kg of MI and 100mg/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic LPO, were administered to Wistar albino male rats for 10 consecutive days and the changes in tissue (heart, liver and kidney) LPO and in the concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)), insulin, glucose, alpha-amylase and different lipids were examined. Administration of three test peel extracts significantly increased both the thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) with a concomitant decrease in tissue LPO, suggesting their thyroid stimulatory and antiperoxidative role. This thyroid stimulatory nature was also exhibited in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid animals. However, only minor influence was observed in serum lipid profile in which CM reduced the concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), while CV decreased triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C). When the combined effects of either two (MI+CV) or three (MI+CV+CM) peel extracts were evaluated in euthyroid animals, serum T(3) concentration was increased in response to MI+CV and MI+CV+CM treatments, while T(4) level was elevated by the combinations of first two peels only. Interestingly, both the categories of combinations increased T(4) levels, but not T(3) in PTU treated hypothyroid animals. Moreover, a parallel increase in hepatic and renal LPO was observed in these animals, suggesting their unsafe nature in combination. In conclusion the three test peel extracts appear to be stimulatory to thyroid functions and inhibitory to tissue LPO but only when treated individually. PMID:19059228

  7. In vivo efficacy of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit extract on experimental fluoride exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Swarup, D; Saxena, Anju; Dan, Ananya

    2011-12-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of hydro-methanolic (1:1) extract of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) fruit pulp in removing body fluoride burden. Thirty rats were divided into five groups. Keeping no fluoride group as the control, rats of no treatment, low dose, middle dose and high dose groups received sodium fluoride orally at the rate of 200mg per kg body weight daily for 14 weeks. Rats of low dose, middle dose and high dose group simultaneously received tamarind fruit pulp extract at three doses, viz. 25 (low), 50 (medium) and 100mg (high) per kg body weight orally, respectively. Fluoride concentration in blood, urine and long bone of experimental rats was monitored to assess the efficacy of the extract. Mean serum fluoride concentration in fluoride exposed rats was 0.145 ± 0.009 and 0.783 ± 0.042 ?g/ml on days 0 and 98. In comparison, fluoride concentrations in tamarind treated rats were 0.179 ± 0.021 and 0.633 ± 0.015; 0.179 ± 0.021 and 0.502 ± 0.025 and 0.176 ± 0.021 and 0.498 ± 0.030 ?g/ml in low, medium and high dose groups, respectively on day 0 and day 98 of the experiment. There was a significant (p ? 0.01) increase in urinary fluoride excretion from day 28 onwards. The mean fluoride concentration in long bones of treated rats was significantly lower than the values recorded in fluoride exposed rats. These findings suggest that concomitant use of tamarind fruit pulp extract can reduce fluoride concentration in blood and bone and enhanced urinary excretion, indicating the ameliorative potential of fruits of tamarind in fluoride toxicity. PMID:20980037

  8. Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Anoop; Singh, Vijender

    2013-01-01

    Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia. PMID:24383324

  9. Cytotoxic effects of Mangifera indica L. kernel extract on human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and bioactive constituents in the crude extract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Waterlily Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is thought to be antioxidant-rich, conferred by its functional phytochemicals. Methods The potential anticancer effects of the ethanolic kernel extract on breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) using MTT, anti-proliferation, neutral red (NR) uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays were evaluated. Cytological studies on the breast cancer cells were also conducted, and phytochemical analyses of the extract were carried out to determine the likely bioactive compounds responsible for such effects. Results Results showed the extract induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 30 and 15 ?g/mL, respectively. The extract showed significant toxicity towards both cell lines, with low toxicity to normal breast cells (MCF-10A). The cytotoxic effects on the cells were further confirmed by the NR uptake, antiproliferative and LDH release assays. Bioactive analyses revealed that many bioactives were present in the extract although butylated hydroxytoluene, a potent antioxidant, was the most abundant with 44.65%. Conclusions M. indica extract appears to be more cytoxic to both estrogen positive and negative breast cancer cell lines than to normal breast cells. Synergistic effects of its antioxidant bioactives could have contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract. The extract of M. indica, therefore, has potential anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. This potential is worth studying further, and could have implications on future studies and eventually management of human breast cancers. PMID:24962691

  10. A leucine-rich repeat protein is required for growth promotion and enhanced seed production mediated by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Shahollari, Bationa; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2007-04-01

    Piriformospora indica, a basidiomycete of the Sebacinaceae family, promotes the growth, development and seed production of a variety of plant species. Arabidopsis plants colonized with the fungus produce 22% more seeds than uncolonized plants. Deactivating the Arabidopsis single-copy gene DMI-1, which encodes an ion carrier required for mycorrihiza formation in legumes, does not affect the beneficial interaction between the two symbiotic partners. We used cellular and molecular responses initiated during the establishment of the interaction between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots to isolate mutants that fail to respond to the fungus. An ethylmethane sulfonate mutant (Piriformospora indica-insensitive-2; pii-2), and a corresponding insertion line, are impaired in a leucine-rich repeat protein (At1g13230). The protein pii-2, which contains a putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, is also found in Triton X-100-insoluble plasma membrane microdomains, suggesting that it is present in the endoplasmic reticulum/plasma membrane continuum in Arabidopsis roots. The microdomains also contain an atypical receptor protein (At5g16590) containing leucine-rich repeats, the message of which is transiently upregulated in Arabidopsis roots in response to P. indica. This response is not detectable in At1g13230 mutants, and the protein is not detectable in the At1g13230 mutant microdomains. Partial deactivation of a gene for a sphingosine kinase, which is required for the biosynthesis of sphingolipid found in plasma membrane microdomains, also affects the Arabidopsis/P. indica interaction. Thus, pii-2, and presumably also At5g16590, two proteins present in plasma membrane microdomains, appear to be involved in P. indica-induced growth promotion and enhanced seed production in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:17397506

  11. Role of fumaric acid in anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a Fumaria indica extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Anshul; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to test whether the ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica (FI) possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, and fumaric acid (FA) could be one of its bioactive constituent involved in such activities of the extract. Materials and Methods: For anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests in rats and for analgesic activity rat tail flick test and hot plate and acetic acid writhing tests in mice were used. All tests were performed after seven daily oral doses of the FI extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) and pure FA (1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 mg/kg/day). Results: Anti-inflammatory activities of FI and FA were observed in carrageenan-induced edema and cotton pallet granuloma even after their lowest tested doses. No analgesic activity of lowest tested dose of FA was observed in the acetic acid writhing test, but likewise, all tested dose levels of FI, higher tested dose levels of FA were also possess significant analgesic activity in this test. Further, significant analgesic activities of both FI and FA in hot plate and tale flick tests were observed after all their tested doses. Conclusions: These observations are in agreement with our working hypothesis on the connection of FA in mode(s) of action(s) of FI, and reaffirm the conviction that FI could be an herbal alternative against fibromyalgia and other pathologies often associate with, or caused by, inflammatory processes. PMID:26401369

  12. Chemopreventive effect of methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica on experimental Trypanosoma brucei induced oxidative stress in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Omobowale, Temidayo O.; Oyagbemi, Ademola A.; Oyewunmi, Oyefunbi A.; Adejumobi, Olumuyiwa A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The medicinal properties of Azadirachta indica have been harnessed for many years in the treatment of many diseases in both humans and animals. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five apparently healthy dogs weighing between 3 and 8 kg were randomly divided into five groups with five dogs in each group. Ameliorative effect of A. indica on erythrocyte antioxidant status and markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Liver and kidney function tests were also performed. Results: Pre-treatment with methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (MEAI) at different doses did not significantly alter the values of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in Trypanosoma brucei infection. Although, serum creatinine significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with pre-treatment with 50 mg/kg A. indica, after 2 weeks of T. brucei infection. However, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content of the erythrocyte increased significantly in animals pre-treated with 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica respectively. Markers of oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generated were higher in animals infected with T. brucei with no significant (P >0.05) difference compared to the values obtained in pre-treated animals. Pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica significantly (P < 0.05) decreased serum myeloperoxidase activity at 2 weeks post-infection with T. brucei. Conclusion: From this study, MEAI showed significant ability to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation during experimental T. brucei infection. PMID:26130936

  13. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 ?g/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 ?g/ml) and ?-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 ?g/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 ?M) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 ?g/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic. PMID:24602819

  14. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro, Joycellane Alline; Serquiz, Alexandre Coellho; dos Santos Silva, Priscila Fabíola; Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; Sampaio, Tarcísio Bruno Montenegro; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; Machado, Richele Janaina Araújo; Maciel, Bruna Leal Lima; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; dos Santos, Elizeu Antunes; de Araújo Morais, Ana Heloneida

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30–60%) following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated. PMID:25789523

  15. Extraction, characterization and gelling behavior enhancement of pectins from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Lefsih, Khalef; Delattre, Cédric; Pierre, Guillaume; Michaud, Philippe; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Dahmoune, Farid; Madani, Khodir

    2016-01-01

    Total Pectins Fraction (TPF) was extracted at room temperature from dried cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica. TPF is constituted of three pectic fractions WSP, CSP and ASP, which are made up of 66.6%, 44.3% and 81.1% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, respectively. The antioxidant ability of TPF increased with the concentration increasing. It scavenged hydroxyl radical by 90% and chelated 90% of ferrous ions at 5g/L. FTIR study was carried out. Strong characteristic absorption peaks at 1618cm(-1) assigned to the vibration of COO(-) group of galacturonic acid. In the fingerprint region, we noticed three well-defined peaks at 1054, 1085, and 1154cm(-1) characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. TPF are non-gelling pectins. The co-crosslinking of TPF with carrageenan was carried out and the gelling behavior was successfully improved. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel was obtained with 82% of TPF and 18% of carrageenan (w/w). PMID:26492855

  16. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  17. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy. PMID:25648593

  18. Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 1. Influence of a seed oil supplemented diet on rats.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Fetoui, Hamadi; Bourret, Evelyne; Zeghal, Najiba; Attia, Hamadi

    2006-08-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) is native to Tunisia and the fruit is consumed exclusively as fresh fruit. The seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids but the nutritive value of the oil is unknown. The objective of our research was to determine the fatty acid content of cactus pear seed oil and to evaluate the effect of an oil supplemented diet on rats. The main fatty acids of prickly pear seed oil were C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 with an exceptional level of linoleic acid, up to 700 g kg(-1), and a total content of unsaturated fatty acids of 884.8 g kg(-1). Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during the nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noted for the oil enriched diet. The results indicated a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (22%) over the control group. However, an increase in the concentration of glycogen was noted in liver and muscle. Blood cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased in the treated group. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration remained unaltered during the treatment. These findings support the nutritional value of cactus pear as a natural source of edible oil containing essential fatty acids and reinforce the possibility of cactus pear as a new crop for Tunisia especially in semi-arid regions, where conventional crops are difficult to establish. PMID:16129601

  19. Antimicrobial activity of the Derris elliptica, Derris indica and Derris trifoliata extractives.

    PubMed

    Khan, M R; Omoloso, A D; Barewai, Y

    2006-06-01

    Various parts of Derris elliptica, Derris indica and Derris trifoliata on fractionation with a number of solvents (petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol) gave fractions which demonstrated a varied level of broad spectrum antibacterial activity. Good activity was exhibited by the methanol fractions of the leaves and root heart-wood, petrol, butanol and methanol fractions of the root bark of D. indica and petrol and ethyl acetate fractions of D. trifoliata. None of the plants showed antifungal activity. PMID:16713130

  20. Full-press oil extraction of Cuphea (PSR23) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid Cuphea hybrid, is being developed as a potential commercial alternative source of medium chain fatty acids. Recent seed increases in Cuphea had provided sufficient amounts of seeds to pursue an oil extraction study and, at the same time, produce m...

  1. Iteratively Estimating Pattern Reliability and Seed Quality With Extraction Consistency *

    E-print Network

    Iteratively Estimating Pattern Reliability and Seed Quality With Extraction Consistency * Yi, hsu}@iis.sinica.edu.tw Abstract. In this paper, we focus on the task of distilling relation instances from the Web. Most of the approaches for this task were based on provided seed instances or patterns

  2. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    PubMed

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

  3. Inhibition of secretary PLA?--VRV-PL-VIIIa of Russell's viper venom by standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, B L; Sudarshan, S

    2015-03-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 ?g/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 ?g/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 ?g/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25801252

  4. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  5. Modulation of human neutrophil oxidative metabolism and degranulation by extract of Tamarindus indica L. fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana S; Kabeya, Luciana M; Kanashiro, Alexandre; de Figueiredo, Andréa S G; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Lucisano-Valim, Yara Maria

    2009-01-01

    The tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is indigenous to Asian countries and widely cultivated in the American continents. The tamarind fruit pulp extract (ExT), traditionally used in spices, food components and juices, is rich in polyphenols that have demonstrated anti-atherosclerotic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. This study evaluated the modulator effect of a crude hydroalcoholic ExT on some peripheral human neutrophil functions. The neutrophil reactive oxygen species generation, triggered by opsonized zymosan (OZ), n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and assessed by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL and LucCL, respectively), was inhibited by ExT in a concentration-dependent manner. ExT was a more effective inhibitor of the PMA-stimulated neutrophil function [IC50 (in microg/10(6)cells)=115.7+/-9.7 (LumCL) and 174.5+/-25.9 (LucCL)], than the OZ- [IC50=248.5+/-23.1 (LumCL) and 324.1+/-34.6 (LucCL)] or fMLP-stimulated cells [IC50=178.5+/-12.2 (LumCL)]. The ExT also inhibited neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity (evaluated by O2 consumption), degranulation and elastase activity (evaluated by spectrophotometric methods) at concentrations higher than 200 microg/10(6)cells, without being toxic to the cells, under the conditions assessed. Together, these results indicate the potential of ExT as a source of compounds that can modulate the neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:19022329

  6. Neuropharmacological actions of Pluchea indica Less root extract in socially isolated mice.

    PubMed

    Thongpraditchote, S; Matsumoto, K; Temsiririrkkul, R; Tohda, M; Murakami, Y; Watanabe, H

    1996-03-01

    The effects of Pluchea indica Less root extract (PI-E) on locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleep, social isolation-induced aggressive behavior, motor coordination in the rotarod test, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion and nociceptive responses in the tail-pinch test were examined in mice. Socially isolated mice showed higher locomotor activity and shorter duration of pentobarbital sleep than group-housed mice. PI-E (50-100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased locomotor activity and prolonged pentobarbital sleep in a dose-dependent manner in isolated mice but not in group-housed mice. At a large dose (400 mg/kg, p.o.), PI-E not only decreased locomotor activity but also prolonged pentobarbital sleep in group-housed mice. The reference drug diazepam, at 0.5 mg/kg, also suppressed the locomotor activity in isolated mice but not in group-housed mice. Moreover, diazepam, at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, significantly prolonged pentobarbital sleep in both isolated mice and group-housed mice. The effects of PI-E and diazepam on pentobarbital sleep in isolated mice were significantly attenuated by flumazenil (1 mg/kg, i.v.). PI-E (50-100 mg/kg), as well as diazepam (0.5-5 mg/kg, p.o.), dose-dependently suppressed social isolation-induced aggressive behavior, but it had no effect on pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion, motor coordination in the rotarod test, or nociceptive response in the tail pinch test in group-housed mice. These results suggest that PI-E attenuates pathophysiological changes caused by social isolation stress in mice, and that the GABAergic system is partly involved in the action of PI-E on a social isolation-induced decrease in pentobarbital sleep. PMID:8924905

  7. Crude aqueous extracts of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. inhibit proliferation and migration of cancer cells through induction of p53-dependent cell death

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pluchea indica (L.) Less. (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub plant with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant medicinal properties. However, the anti-cancer properties of its aqueous extracts have not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and pro-apoptotic properties of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root on human malignant glioma cancer cells and human cervical cancer cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods GBM8401 human glioma cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root and cancer cell proliferation and viability were measured by cell growth curves, trypan blue exclusions, and the tetrazolium reduction assay. Effects of the crude aqueous extracts on focus formation, migration, and apoptosis of cancer cells were studied as well. The molecular mechanism that contributed to the anti-cancer activities of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root was also examined using Western blotting analysis. Results Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root suppressed proliferation, viability, and migration of GBM8401 and HeLa cells. Treatment with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root for 48 hours resulted in a significant 75% and 70% inhibition on proliferation and viability of GBM8401 and HeLa cancer cells, respectively. Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root inhibited focus formation and promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. It was found that phosphorylated-p53 and p21 were induced in GBM8401 and HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Expression of phosphorylated-AKT was decreased in HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Conclusion The in vitro anti-cancer effects of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root indicate that it has sufficient potential to warrant further examination and development as a new anti-cancer agent. PMID:23268709

  8. Biosorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isosteric heat of sorption of Cu(II) onto Tamarindus indica seed powder.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

    2011-12-01

    Biosorption of Cu(II) by Tamarindus indica seed powder (TSP) was investigated as a function of temperature in a batch system. The Cu(II) biosorption potential of TSP increased with increasing temperature. The rate of the biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics while the sorption equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum monolayer Cu(II) biosorption capacity increased from 82.97 mg g(-1) at 303 K to 133.24 mg g(-1) at 333 K. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. Isosteric heat of sorption, determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation increased with increase in surface loading showing its strong dependence on surface coverage. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area and porosity analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of FTIR analysis of unloaded and Cu(II)-loaded TSP revealed that -NH(2), -OH, -C=O and C-O functional groups on the biosorbent surface were involved in the biosorption process. The present study suggests that TSP can be used as a potential, alternative, low-cost biosorbent for removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous media. PMID:21872453

  9. Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. PMID:24767054

  10. Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

    2014-01-01

    To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200?g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200?mg·kg?1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200?mg·kg?1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism. PMID:24672632

  11. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM BLACK SEED HULLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New methodology has been developed for the preparative scale extraction and purification of anthocyanins from "black" seed coats and hulls. A combination of physical fractionation, extraction, flash chromatography and preparative chromatography has resulted in the isolation of gram quantities of pu...

  12. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Hyun-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  13. Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Razali, Nurhanani; Aziz, Azlina A; Junit, Sarni M

    2010-12-01

    Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp. PMID:21189869

  14. Morphological alterations in the synganglion and integument of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks exposed to aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS).

    PubMed

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2014-12-01

    Currently, the necessity of controlling infestation by ticks, especially by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has led researchers and public health managers around the world to search for new and more efficient control methods. This way, we can highlight neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf, bark, and seed extracts, which have been very effective on tick control, and moreover causing less damage to the environment and to the host. This study showed the potential of neem as a control method for R. sanguineus through morphological and morphometric evaluation of the integument and synganglion of females, in semiengorged stage. To attain this, routine techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of the cuticle and subcuticle of the integument were applied. Expressive morphological alterations were observed in both organs, presenting a dose-dependent effect. Integument epithelial cells and nerve cells of the synganglion showed signs of cell vacuolation, dilated intercellular boundaries, and cellular disorganization, alterations not previously reported in studies with neem. In addition, variations in subcuticle thickness were also observed. In general, the effects of neem are multiple, and affect the morphology and physiology of target animals in various ways. The results presented in this work are the first evidence of its effects in the coating and nervous system of ticks, thus allowing an indication of neem aqueous extracts as a potential control method of the brown dog tick and opening new perspectives on acaricide use. PMID:25130979

  15. Effects of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract on abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins and their possible consequential impact on metabolism and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Ursula R W; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina; Hashim, Onn H; Mat-Junit, Sarni

    2013-01-01

    The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism. PMID:24455694

  16. Hypoglycemic Effect of Combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Ethanolic Extracts Standardized by Rutin and Quercetin in Alloxan-induced Hyperglycemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sunarwidhi, Anggit Listyacahyani; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Exploration of plant combinations could be an alternative approach for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of combination of A. indica and G. procumbens ethanolic extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Powder of A. indica and G. procumbens leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. Determination of rutin in A. indica and quercetin in G. procumbens were performed by TLC-densitometry. Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 150 mg/kgBW. The rats were treated with 3 dosage variation of combinations for 15 days. Hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats pancreas histological study. Results: A. indica contained 2.90±0.15% of rutin and G. procumbens contained 18.86±0.86% of quercetin. Combination at the ratio of 50mg/kgBW A. indica:112.5mg/kgBW G. procumbens showed the highest hypoglycemic effect: 68.74±4.83% (preprandial) and 73.91±3.18% (postprandial). Histological studies indicated that this combination improved the morphology of the islets of Langerhans and ? cells. It also increased insulin expression and decreased the elevated-glucose concentrations. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of both extracts has better hypoglycemic effect than the single treatment of A. indica or G. procumbens. Combination of both extracts was potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients. PMID:25671197

  17. Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8?kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K.

    2014-01-01

    An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8?kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5?µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75?µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1 × 10?10?M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%?w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5%?w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0%?w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

  18. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000?mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000?mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria. PMID:26379714

  19. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  20. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F; Klotz, J; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  1. Activity-guided isolation and identification of Azadirachta indica bark extract constituents which specifically inhibit chemiluminescence production by activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    van der Nat, J M; van der Sluis, W G; 't Hart, L A; Van Dijk, H; de Silva, K T; Labadie, R P

    1991-02-01

    The A. indica crude aqueous bark extract inhibits the generation of chemiluminescence by activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Guided by this activity the responsible compounds were purified by extraction with different organic solvents and HPLC. Gallic acid, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (as a 2:1 mixture) (+)-catechin and epigallocatechin were isolated and identified by means of HPLC, TLC, MS, 1H-NMR, UV, and CD data. Commercial samples of gallic acid, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin showed the same effects. To our knowledge the identified catechins have never been described as constituents of A. indica. PMID:2062961

  2. Extraction of proteins from pennycress seeds and press cake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...

  3. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Charleston, D S; Kfir, R; Vet, L E M; Dicke, M

    2005-10-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of cabbage leaves and consuming less of the treated half of cabbage leaves. The botanical insecticides had less of an effect on the oviposition behaviour of P. xylostella moths. In laboratory and glasshouse trials, significantly fewer eggs were oviposited on the plants that had been treated with syringa extracts. Therefore, the syringa extracts appear to have a repellent effect. In contrast, when exposed to the neem extracts the moths did not discriminate between control plants and treated plants. Behavioural observation indicated that, despite the lower number of eggs oviposited on cabbage treated with syringa extracts, the moths chose cabbage treated with the highest dose of syringa more often than they chose control cabbage plants. Similar observations were found in cabbage plants treated with neem, moths chose the medium dose more often than they chose the control. Oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are important factors in pest control, and results from this study indicate that botanical insecticides have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for P. xylostella in South Africa. PMID:16197566

  4. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 ?g/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H2O2 concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration.

  5. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Simone N M; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2-6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4-8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol. PMID:26150956

  6. Physicochemical and functional performance of pectin extracted by QbD approach from Tamarindus indica L. pulp.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Radhika; Kamboj, Sunil; Khurana, Rajneet; Singh, Gursharan; Rana, Vikas

    2015-12-10

    The aim of present investigation was to utilize quality by design (QbD) approach for extraction of tamarind pectin (TP) from Tamarindus indica L. pulp employing purity descriptors as indicator. The software generated quadratic equations showed significant effect of polarity index as compared to pulp concentration and boiling temperature on percentage yield and purity characteristics of TP. An insignificant effect on purity descriptors and percentage yield of TP upon replacement of acetone with methanol during predicted vs observed correlation studies (being similar polarity index of 5.1) pointed towards overwhelming influence of solvent polarity. Further, the FTIR-ATR, (1)H NMR, DSC and mass spectroscopy suggested TP was rhamnogalacturonan pectin with no tartaric acid content. TP was found to have significantly higher antioxidant activity as compare to apple pomace pectin, citrus peel pectin and commercial pectin. Overall, the physicochemical properties and antioxidant potential of TP could be utilized as an excipient for food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26428136

  7. The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in a neuropathic patient with advanced diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Iabichella, Maria Letizia; Caruso, Claudio; Lugli, Marzia

    2014-01-01

    The successful use of an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and nimh oil (Azadirachta indica; Hyperoil) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers, has been reported previously. It was hypothesised that this amelioration was linked with the improved glycaemic control and peripheral microvascular circulation. In this case report, the surprisingly successful outcome of another patient using Hyperoil for infection damaged diabetic foot, without prior use of surgical procedure, is described. The patient had no macrovascular pattern impairment. Diabetic foot healing paralleled with controlled local infection and enhanced glycaemic control. The outcome of this patient suggests that the effectiveness of this inexpensive therapy using Hyperoil for diabetic foot is not only linked with the presence of severe microvascular disorder, but also with the appropriate local treatment for ulcer being a must for its recovery. PMID:25378221

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) AND NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.)EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILAGE BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against a number of common food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Screening for antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay against 21...

  9. The effect of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from Opuntia ficus-indica in a mouse model of diet induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Torres, Nimbe; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Noriega, Lilia G; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Leal-Díaz, Ana M; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Márquez-Mota, Claudia; Ordaz, Guillermo; Chavez-Santoscoy, Rocío A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-03-01

    A diet rich in polyphenols can ameliorate some metabolic alterations associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a plant rich in isorhamnetin glycosides and is highly consumed in Mexico. The purpose of this research was to determine the metabolic effect of an OFI extract on a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and in isolated pancreatic islets. OFI extract was added to a high fat (HF) diet at a low (0.3%) or high (0.6%) dose and administered to C57BL/6 mice for 12 weeks. Mice fed the HF diet supplemented with the OFI extract gained less body weight and exhibited significantly lower circulating total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to those fed the HF diet alone. The HF-OFI diet fed mice presented lower glucose and insulin concentration than the HF diet fed mice. However, the HF-OFI diet fed mice tended to have higher insulin concentration than control mice. The OFI extract stimulated insulin secretion in vitro, associated with increased glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) mRNA content. Furthermore, the OFI extract improved glucose tolerance, and additionally increased energy expenditure. These metabolic improvements were associated with reduced adipocyte size, increased hepatic IRS1 tyr-608 and S6 K thr-389 phosphorylation. OFI isorhamnetin glycosides also diminished the hepatic lipid content associated with reduced mRNA expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and lipogenic enzymes and increased mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation. Overall, the OFI extract prevented the development of metabolic abnormalities associated with diet-induced obesity. PMID:25588195

  10. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  11. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  12. Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Daneshkhah, R; Cabello, S; Rozanska, E; Sobczak, M; Grundler, F M W; Wieczorek, K; Hofmann, J

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

  13. Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots

    PubMed Central

    Daneshkhah, R.; Cabello, S.; Rozanska, E.; Sobczak, M.; Grundler, F. M. W.; Wieczorek, K.; Hofmann, J.

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

  14. Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract.

    PubMed

    Ajila, C M; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective activities and other therapeutic properties. Mango peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and others. In the present study, the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe and ripe mango fruits of two varieties namely, Raspuri and Badami on hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, degradation of membrane proteins and its morphological changes are reported. The oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide was inhibited by mango peel extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) value for lipid peroxidation inhibition on erythrocyte ghost membrane was found to be in the range of 4.5-19.3 microg gallic acid equivalents. The mango peel extract showed protection against membrane protein degradation caused by hydrogen peroxide. Morphological changes to erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by mango peel extract. The results demonstrated that mango peel extracts protected erythrocytes against oxidative stress and may impart health benefits and it could be used as a valuable food ingredient or a nutraceutical product. PMID:17919803

  15. Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Ajila, C M; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Rao, U J S Prasada

    2010-12-01

    Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid. The phenolic acid derivatives present in acetone extracts of raw and ripe peels were tentatively identified by LC-MS. Gallic acid, syringic acid, mangiferin, ellagic acid, gentisyl-protocatechuic acid, quercetin were the phenolic compounds identified in both raw and ripe peels, while raw peel showed the presence of glycosylated iriflophenone and maclurin derivatives also. ?-Carotene was the major carotenoid followed by violaxanthin and lutein. Thus, both raw and ripe mango peel extracts have different phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which will have various pharmaceutical applications. PMID:20851730

  16. Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2013-10-01

    Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65? was the highest, at 17.48%. Color was not different based on the extraction method, but the b-value increased as the roasting time for compression extraction was increased. The b-values of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction were 3.54 to 15.6 and those following compression extraction after roasting treatment at 200? for 30 min, were 20.49, which was the highest value. The result of the phenolic compounds composition showed the presence of gentisic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid in the ginseng seed oil. No differences were detected in phenolic acid levels in ginseng seed oil extracted by compression extraction or solvent extraction, but vanillic acid tended to decrease as extraction pressure and temperature were increased for seed oil extracted by a supercritical fluid extraction method. The fatty acid composition of ginseng seed oil was not different based on the extraction method, and unsaturated fatty acids were >90% of all fatty acids, among which, oleic acid was the highest at 80%. Phytosterol analysis showed that ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol were detected. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction was 100.4 to 135.5 mg/100 g, and the phytosterol content following compression extraction and solvent extraction was 71.8 to 80.9 mg/100 g. PMID:24235861

  17. The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Aguirre Joya; Heliodoro, De La Garza Toledo; Alejandro, Zugasti Cruz; Ruth, Belmares Cerda; Noé, Aguilar Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. Methods The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. Results It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. Conclusions It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries. PMID:23730555

  18. Phytochemical extraction, characterisation and comparative distribution across four mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jean T; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Shaw, Paul N

    2014-04-15

    In this study we determined the qualitative composition and distribution of phytochemicals in peel and flesh of fruits from four different varieties of mango using mass spectrometry profiling following fractionation of methanol extracts by preparative HPLC. Gallic acid substituted compounds, of diverse core structure, were characteristic of the phytochemicals extracted using this approach. Other principal compounds identified were from the quercetin family, the hydrolysable tannins and fatty acids and their derivatives. This work provides additional information regarding mango fruit phytochemical composition and its potential contribution to human health and nutrition. Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies. PMID:24295704

  19. Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam.

    PubMed

    Rathi Sre, P R; Reka, M; Poovazhagi, R; Arul Kumar, M; Murugesan, K

    2015-01-25

    Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines. PMID:25189525

  20. Enhancing the efficiency of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing natural dye extracted from Azadirachta indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahare, Sanjay; Veldurthi, Naresh; Singh, Ranbir; Swarnkar, A. K.; Salunkhe, Manauti; Bhave, Tejashree

    2015-10-01

    The natural dye extracted from Azadirechta indica (neem) was used as a sensitizer in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The fabricated DSSC exhibited open circuit voltage of 0.538 V with 2.81% power conversion efficiency (?) in back-illuminated mode which is higher than that reported in the literature. In order to understand the characteristics of DSSC, systematic study of solar cell component materials was carried out. Anatase TiO2 (30-40 nm) nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc plasma method and deposited electrophoretically on a flexible titanium (Ti) substrate. A platinum-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was used as a counter electrode to construct flexible DSSC. The structural and optical behavior of neem-dye sensitized TiO2 thin film has been studied using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. We have observed that the neem dye gives a very good sensitization effect. In addition, the dye has good prospects as a low-cost and environmental friendly alternative to ruthenium-based sensitizers which are normally used in DSSCs.

  1. Modulatory potentials of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Awodele, Olufunsho; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-01-01

    Among Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria), hot water infusion of Mangifera indica L. (?? Máng Gu?) stem bark is reputedly used for the treatment of fever, jaundice and liver disorders. The present study, therefore, investigates the protective effects and mechanism(s) of chemopreventive and curative effects of 125–500 mg/kg/day of Mangifera indica aqueous stem bark extract (MIASE) in acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 20% CCl4, i.p.). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were estimated. In addition, hepatic tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in the rat liver sections were determined. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds in MIASE was also conducted. Results showed that oral treatment with 125–500 mg/kg/day of MIASE significantly attenuated the increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, FBG, TB, CB and LDL-c levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl4 treatment. Findings also revealed significant elevations in the serum TC, TG, HDL-c, TP and ALB levels. There was marked architectural remodeling in the hepatic lesions of hepatocyte vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis induced by CCl4 treatment, coupled with significant weight loss. MIASE also markedly enhanced SOD and CAT activities while reducing MAD formation; and increased GSH concentration in the hepatic homogenate compared with untreated CCl4-intoxicated group, with more protection offered in the curative than the chemopreventive models of CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Thus, these results indicate that MIASE has a profound protective effect against acute CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, which may be due to its free radicals scavenging effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and its ability to increase antioxidant activity. PMID:26151020

  2. Antiobesity effect of Tamarindus indica L. pulp aqueous extract in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Shah, Zamree Md; Kadir, Khairul Kamilah Abdul

    2012-04-01

    Obesity and overweight are associated with atherosclerosis, fatty liver, hyperlipemia, diabetes mellitus, and various types of cancer. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Here, we investigated the effect of Tamarindus indica pulp aqueous extract (TIE) in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into five groups and labeled as follows: the normal control (NC) group received normal diet; the positive control (PC) group received high-fat diet; and the TIE 5, 25, and 50 groups, after the induction of obesity via a high-fat diet, received TIE at 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg orally for 10 weeks. It was observed that TIE decreased the levels of plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride, and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL), with the concomitant reduction of body weight. Moreover, TIE decreased plasma leptin and reduced fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity and enhanced the efficiency of the antioxidant defense system. TIE exhibits antiobesity effects, as indicated by a significant reduction in adipose tissue weights, as well as lowering the degree of hepatic steatosis in the obesity-induced rats. The extract possesses hepatoprotective activity, as it reversed the plasma liver enzymes level elevation prior to the high-fat diet. In conclusion, TIE improved obesity-related parameters in blood, liver, and adipose tissue in a rat model and suppressed obesity induced by a high-fat diet, possibly by regulating lipid metabolism and lowering plasma leptin and FAS levels. A dose-dependant effect of TIE is detected, where TIE at 50 mg/kg showed the most prominent effect, followed by TIE at 25 mg/kg and, subsequently, 5 mg/kg. PMID:21989999

  3. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, A; Saha, Archita; Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K

    2007-09-01

    We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae) could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.I., Auddy, B., Gomes, A., 1996. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and P. indica) root extracts. Phytother. Res. 10, 58-61]. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica Less. (Asteraceae). The active fraction (containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol) was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis (EIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR). Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA(2) activity. Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA(2) activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions. PMID:17293096

  4. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. leaves' fluid extract on human blood cells.

    PubMed

    Escalona-Arranz, J C; Garcia-Diaz, J; Perez-Rosés, R; De la Vega, J; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J

    2014-01-01

    Tamarind leaves are edible; however, their saponin content could be toxic to human blood cells. In this article, the effect of tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) on human blood cells was evaluated by using several tests. Results revealed that TFE did not cause significant haemolysis on human red blood cells even at the lowest evaluated concentration (20 mg/mL). Blood protein denaturalisation ratio was consistently lower than in control at TFE concentrations greater than 40 mg/mL. Erythrocyte membrane damage caused by the action of oxidative H2O2 displayed a steady reduction with increasing TFE concentrations. In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement by using flow cytometry assay, leucocyte viability was over 95% at tested concentrations, and a high ROS inhibition was also recorded. Protective behaviour found in TFE should be attributed to its polyphenol content. Thus, tamarind leaves can be regarded as a potential source of interesting phytochemicals. PMID:24773365

  5. Screening of various botanical extracts for antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical method.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad Khurram; Saqib, Najam-Us; Rashid, Saeed-Ur; Shah, Pervaiz Akhtar; Akhtar, Naveed; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the exploration of herbal use by society, crude extracts of the seeds of some commonly used medicinal plants (Vitis vinifera, Tamarindus indica and Glycin max) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The overall antioxidant activity of grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) was the strongest, followed in descending order by soybean (Glycin max) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica). The seeds extract of Vitis vinifera, Glycin max and Tamarindus indica showed 85.61%, 83.45% and 79.26%, DPPH scavenging activity respectively. PMID:24311867

  6. THE USE OF ACIDIC ELECTROLYZED WATER TO ELIMINATE MICROORGANISMS FROM WHEAT SEED OR SOIL TO DETECT TILLETIA INDICA TELIOSPORES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is a germicidal product of electrolysis of a dilute solution of sodium chloride, which can be used to disinfect wheat seed or soil samples being tested for Karnal bunt teliospores without risk of damaging the spores. The AEW we produced for our study had a pH of 2.5 ...

  7. A cell wall extract from the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes growth of Arabidopsis seedlings and induces intracellular calcium elevation in roots.

    PubMed

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Ranf, Stefanie; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Mithöfer, Axel; Mazars, Christian; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2009-07-01

    Calcium (Ca2+), as a second messenger, is crucial for signal transduction processes during many biotic interactions. We demonstrate that cellular [Ca2+] elevations are early events in the interaction between the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis thaliana. A cell wall extract (CWE) from the fungus promotes the growth of wild-type seedlings but not of seedlings from P. indica-insensitive mutants. The extract and the fungus also induce a similar set of genes in Arabidopsis roots, among them genes with Ca2+ signalling-related functions. The CWE induces a transient cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+](cyt)) elevation in the roots of Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, as well as in BY-2 suspension cultures expressing the Ca2+ bioluminescent indicator aequorin. Nuclear Ca2+ transients were also observed in tobacco BY-2 cells. The Ca2+ response was more pronounced in roots than in shoots and involved Ca2+ uptake from the extracellular space as revealed by inhibitor studies. Inhibition of the Ca2+ response by staurosporine and the refractory nature of the Ca2+ elevation suggest that a receptor may be involved. The CWE does not stimulate H2O2 production and the activation of defence gene expression, although it led to phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The involvement of MAPK6 in the mutualistic interaction was shown for an mpk6 line, which did not respond to P. indica. Thus, Ca2+ is likely to be an early signalling component in the mutualistic interaction between P. indica and Arabidopsis or tobacco. PMID:19392691

  8. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii by Water-soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot and cold water-soluble muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) seed extracts and their polar and polyphenol fractions from two Muscadine cultivars (‘Ison’, purple and ‘Carlos’, bronze) were investigated for their inhibition of Enterobacter sakazakii. The heat treatment on each seed extract not only incre...

  9. Antitumor and immunopotentiating activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica: an in vivo study in mice.

    PubMed

    Aravind, S R; Joseph, Manu M; Varghese, Sheeja; Balaram, Prabha; Sreelekha, T T

    2012-01-01

    Antitumor activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica was evaluated using different cancer cell lines. Human cancer cell lines A549, KB, and MCF-7 and murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC were treated with PST001 and cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out for toxicity, tumor reduction and immunomodulation. The respective IC(50) of PST001 in A549, KB, and DLA was at 80.72, 190.99, and 91.14 ?g/mL. Significant tumor reduction was obtained in both DLA and EAC tumors on treatment with PST001 which was more prominent when PST001 was administered with CTX/5-fluorouracil. Increase in total WBC, CD4(+) T-cell population, and bone marrow cellularity suggested strong immunomodulatory activity for this compound. No significant abnormality was observed in toxicity studies. Thus the results of the present study suggest that PST001 has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent and immunomodulator either as a sole agent or as an adjuvant to other chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:22593679

  10. Bio-potency of a 21?kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica seeds on the developmental physiology of H.?armigera.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-11-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H.?armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin were ~2.10?µg/ml and 1.68?µg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21?kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H.?armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H.?armigera larvae. These results suggest that TTI has toxic and adverse effect on the developmental physiology of H.?armigera and could be useful in controlling the pest H.?armigera. PMID:25454525

  11. Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed is a second product of the cotton plant that accounts for between 15 and 25% of the crop value. The seed is extracted for oil, producing meal, hulls, and linters as co-products, or it is used whole as a protein feed ingredient for ruminant animals. The oil fraction is the most valuable ...

  12. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2? value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30?±?5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel, simple, and eco-friendly approach has been suggested to control blood-feeding parasites. PMID:25403378

  13. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure ?? T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of ?? T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on ?? T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-? production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. ?? T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

  14. ?-Sitosterol: supercritical carbon dioxide extraction from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Licková, Ivana; Wimmerová, Martina; Sovová, Helena; Wimmer, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15-60 MPa and temperatures of 40-80 degrees C. Oil and ?-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of ?-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of ?-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 degrees C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 degrees C. Both ?-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide. PMID:20480045

  15. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods. PMID:25747847

  16. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract ameliorates monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Yun Ju; Joo, Young Bin; Jung, Young Ok; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Oh, Hye Jwa; Jhun, Joo Youn; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Jin Sil; Kang, Chang Min; Sung, Mi Sook; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ho Youn

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint disease that is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage and chronic pain. Oxidative stress is considered one of the pathophysiological factors in the progression of OA. We investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), which is an antioxidant, on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritis of the knee joint of rat, which is an animal model of human OA. GSPE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) or saline was given orally three times per week for 4 weeks after the MIA injection. Pain was measured using the paw withdrawal latency (PWL), the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and the hind limb weight bearing ability. Joint damage was assessed using histological and microscopic analysis and microcomputerized tomography. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) and nitrotyrosine were detected using immunohistochemistry. Administration of GSPE to the MIA-treated rats significantly increased the PWL and PWT and this resulted in recovery of hind paw weight distribution (P < 0.05). GSPE reduced the loss of chondrocytes and proteoglycan, the production of MMP13, nitrotyrosine and IL-1? and the formation of osteophytes, and it reduced the number of subchondral bone fractures in the MIA-treated rats. These results indicate that GSPE is antinociceptive and it is protective against joint damage in the MIA-treated rat model of OA. GSPE could open up novel avenues for the treatment of OA. PMID:21795829

  17. Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

  18. Spasmogenic effect of the aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae) on the contractile activity of guinea-pig taenia coli.

    PubMed

    Souza, A; Aka, K J

    2007-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica (AETI) was studied on the guinea pig taenia coli, due to its use for treatment of constipation in traditional medicines. AETI, at concentrations ranging from 10(-8) mg/ml to 10(-2) mg/ml, increased the spontaneous contractile activity of guinea pig taenia coli in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 4x10(-6) mg/ml). This activity was unaffected by atropine. In high K(+), Ca(2+)-free solution containing EDTA, AETI as well as acetylcholine, used as a control, induced tonic contraction. These results suggest that the plant extract exert a spasmogenic effect that would not involve cholinergic mechanism of action. However, these active principles could mobilize both extra cellular calcium and intracellular calcium from internal stores. PMID:20161887

  19. Extraction of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed oil by full pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress is currently being developed as an oilseed crop for biofuel production. Pennycress seeds harvested from a field near Peoria, IL, provided our first opportunity to conduct an oil extraction study on a pilot scale. The goals of this study were to determine the effects of seed moisture and c...

  20. Design of a press for oil extraction from moringa seeds for Haiti

    E-print Network

    Sabelli, Alessandra Maria, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    The project here presented focuses on the development of a harvesting tool for Haiti, a developing country, for the extraction of oil from the seeds of the moringa trees. Moringas have an extraordinarily nutritional potential ...

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Madhaven, N

    2001-01-01

    These ingredients are all derived from hazelnut trees. The two seed oils are expressed from the nuts of the hazelnut tree of the particular species identified. Most current reported cosmetic uses are of the seed oils. The seed extracts are the extract of the nuts of the identified species tree. There is one current report of use of seed extract in cosmetics. The leaf extracts are the extract from the leaves of the particular species tree. There are no current reports of use of these extracts in cosmetics. Analysis of seed oil from one species identified Oleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Eicosaenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Eicosanoic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Stearic Acid, and Tetraeicosanoic Acid. Little information is available to characterize the extracts, however. The functions of most of these ingredients in cosmetics are not reported. In studies of hazelnuts from Spain and Egypt, aflatoxin was reported as a possible contaminant. Aflatoxins are considered carcinogenic in humans. Virtually no safety test data are available on these ingredients. Negative results in one comedogenicity study using a seed oil are reported. Cross-sensitivity to proteins in peanuts and those in hazelnuts are reported, but the presence or absence of protein in nut extract and plant extract from hazelnut trees is not known. Additional data were provided regarding concentration of use, method of extraction and contaminants, comedogenicity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption, but these data related to nut oil from only one species, and were not overall sufficient to resolve questions about irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization. Because of the absence of data, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic products. Because of the limited information that characterizes any of these oils or extracts, data are needed on each (except that items 1, 2, and 3 below are not needed for Hazel [Corylus Avellana] Nut Oil). The additonal data needs include: (1) current concentration of use; (2) method of extraction/manufacture and quality control (i.e., chemical analyses); (3) contaminants and methods of extraction (especially pesticides and heavy metals); (4) dermal irritation and sensitization; (5) UV absorption; if there is significant absorption, then a photosensitization study will be needed; (6) 28-day dermal toxicity; (7) reproductive and developmental toxicity; and (8) two genotoxicity assays, one in a mammalian system; if positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenesis study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed. PMID:11358108

  2. Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B; Shah, Pankit P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria. Materials and Methods: The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract. Results: The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36?g/ml and 182.19?g/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50) value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein. Conclusion: Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria. PMID:25628685

  3. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Farahnaki, F

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 ?M) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 ?g/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 ?g/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 ?g/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 ?g/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  4. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H.; Asghari, G.; Farahnaki, F.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 ?M) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 ?g/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 ?g/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 ?g/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 ?g/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  5. Grape seed extract for foodborne virus reduction on produce.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-05-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have antibacterial properties with few current studies on antiviral activity. Recently, we reported the effects of GSE against foodborne viral surrogates in vitro. This study evaluated the application of GSE (commercial Gravinol-S) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1), on model produce. Washed and air-dried lettuce (3 × 3 cm(2)) and jalapeno peppers (25-30 g) were inoculated with FCV-F9, MNV-1, or HAV at high (?7 log10 PFU/ml) or low (?5 log10 PFU/ml) titers, and treated with 0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/ml GSE or water for 30 s to 5 min. Treatments were stopped/diluted with cell-culture media containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and evaluated using plaque assays. At high titers, FCV-F9 was reduced by 2.33, 2.58, and 2.71 log10 PFU on lettuce; and 2.20, 2.74, and 3.05 log10 PFU on peppers after 1 min using 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively. Low FCV-F9 titers could not be detected after 1 min at all three GSE concentrations. Low titer MNV-1 was reduced by 0.2-0.3 log10 PFU on lettuce and 0.8 log10 PFU on peppers, without reduction of high titer. GSE at 0.25-1 mg/ml after 1 min caused 0.7-1.1 and 1-1.3 log10 PFU reduction for high and low HAV titers, respectively on both commodities. Instrumental color analysis showed no significant differences between treated and untreated produce. GSE shows potential for foodborne viral reduction on produce as part of hurdle technologies. PMID:23498171

  6. Grape seed extract attenuates arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIANGONG; PAN, XINJUAN; LI, NING; LI, XING; WANG, YONGCHAO; LIU, XIAOZHUAN; YIN, XINJUAN; YU, ZENGLI

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a recognized factor in nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (As). Grape seed extract (GSE) possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of GSE against arsenic-induced renal injury. Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to As in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg) for 12 months. The serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and mRNA expression levels of fibrogenic markers in the renal tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) subunits, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) were assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cotreatment with GSE significantly improved renal function, as demonstrated by the reductions in relative kidney weight (% of body weight) and blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in the creatinine clearance capacity. GSE attenuated the As-induced changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1? and the mRNA levels of TGF-?1, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in renal tissue. Furthermore, administration of GSE markedly reduced As-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nox activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the NADPH subunits (Nox2, p47phox and Nox4). In addition, GSE cotreatment was correlated with a significant reduction in TGF-?/Smad signaling, as demonstrated by the decreased protein levels of TGF-?1 and pSmad2/3 in renal tissue. This study indicated that GSE may be a useful agent for the prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to As. GSE may exert its effects through the suppression of Nox and inhibition of TGF-?/Smad signaling activation. PMID:24348802

  7. Extraction of Field Pennycress Seed Oil by Full Pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in the temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (db) with the major fatty acid as erucic acid (38%). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a major source of...

  8. Oil extraction from lesquerella seeds by dry extrusion and expelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole Lesquerella seeds with 6% (as is) and 12% moisture were extruded at different residence times by varying screw speeds and feed rates. The temperature of the extrudate was recorded and its moisture content was determined. The extent of seed cooking was evaluated by measuring the protein solub...

  9. Full-Press Oil Extraction of Extruded Lesquerella Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is a winter annual oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family that is native to the desert Southwestern United States. The seed has 30% oil, which contains 55-64% lesquerolic and auricolic acids (hydroxy FA). The seeds contain glucosinolates that, upon hydrolysis by thi...

  10. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  11. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as indicators of the presence or high levels of anti-oxidants in the oils. PMID:22530436

  12. Fenugreek seed extract treats peripheral neuropathy in pyridoxine induced neuropathic mice

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Farshad Homayouni; Vakili-Zarch, Behzad; Shafiee, Mohammad; Mirjalili, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum commonly known as Fenugreek exerts normoglycemic and insulinotropic effects in humans by compounds from its seed and leaf extracts. Some studies reported that treating pregnant mice with fenugreek seed could cause toxic effects on the nervous system of its pubs during developmental growth, while in some other studies neuroprotective properties were considered for it. Safety of anti-diabetic drugs for nervous system is very important because peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes and hazardous drugs could worsen it. In this study, the effect of treatment with fenugreek seed extract on the function of sciatic nerves of neuropathic mice was evaluated. Neuropathy was induced in male mice by pyridoxine intoxication. After that, animals were treated with 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds for 10 days, tail flick, electrophysiological and histological assays were performed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed extract on function of the peripheral nerves. Our data showed that fenugreek has anti neuropathic effect and restores the function of nerve fibers. Results of electrophysiological recordings stated that the highest rate of healing was occurred in 20 mg/kg fenugreek extract treated animals. In conclusion, findings of the present study demonstrate that treatment with fenugreek seed extract can potentially facilitate healing from pyridoxine induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. PMID:26417231

  13. Evaluation of Wound Closure Activity of Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum Extracts on Scratched Monolayer of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ab Rahman, Mas Rizal; Mohd Bakri, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum are common Asian traditional medicines to treat minor wounds. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of aqueous extracts of these plants using human gingival fibroblast (HGF) monolayer as study model. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated and effect on HGF proliferation was determined. Their effect on HGF's function to synthesize collagen was indicated by the level of hydroxyproline produced and effect on wound healing activity was assessed using an in vitro scratch assay. The influence of the extracts on expression of bFGF and TGF-? was also determined. Results revealed all four extracts to exhibit low free radical scavenging activity. The extract from N. sativa (NSSE) compared to the others showed favourable enhancement of HGF proliferation with EC50 of 22.67 ± 3.06?µg/mL (P < 0.05) with accelerated wound closure activity despite its nonsignificant effect on collagen synthesis. In addition to the elevated level of bFGF by up to 15% at 100?µg/mL of NSSE, a slightly better effect was observed on the expression of TGF-?. NSSE thus showed that promising wound healing properties and data obtained may contribute towards validation of its traditional use for the healing of oral wounds. PMID:25371695

  14. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  15. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Extraction Methods for the Recovery of Anguina sp. from Grass Seed Samples

    PubMed Central

    Griesbach, J. A.; Chitambar, J. J.; Hamerlynck, M. J.; Duarte, E. O.

    1999-01-01

    Four procedures were compared in their efficacy to extract juveniles of Anguina agrostis from commercial grass seed. The procedures included those currently used by the state regulatory laboratories of Oregon and California, as well as new tests developed to determine juvenile viability for the phytosanitary certification of fumigated grass seed. Eleven seed lots of Agrostis tenuis (bentgrass) and Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass) naturally infested with varying levels of juveniles of Anguina were individually analyzed. Only one procedure, a new live recovery test, yielded nematodes in all 11 samples and is recommended as the best method for use by regulatory agencies. In comparison, although the other three extraction procedures resulted in greater numbers of Anguina agrostis juveniles per gram of seed, they failed to yield any nematodes in as many as four seed lots with low infection levels. PMID:19270928

  17. New furanoflavanoids, intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and free-radical (DPPH) scavenging, activity from antihyperglycemic root extract of Derris indica (Lam.).

    PubMed

    Ranga Rao, R; Tiwari, Ashok K; Prabhakar Reddy, P; Suresh Babu, K; Ali, Amtul Z; Madhusudana, K; Madhusudana Rao, J

    2009-07-15

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical examination of antihyperglycemic root extract of Derris indica resulted in isolation and characterization of two new furanoflavanoids (1, 2) along with thirteen known compounds (3-15). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis and by comparison with the literature data. All the compounds were tested in vitro for intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and DPPH radical activity. New compounds (1, 2) displayed moderate intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitory as well as free radical scavenging activity. Other compounds also displayed varying degrees of moderate intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Pongamol (6) displayed potent intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibition. PMID:19515570

  18. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM PIGMENTED FLOWERS AND BLACK SEED HULLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New methodology has been developed for the preparative scale extraction and purification of anthocyanins from "black" seed coats and hulls. A combination of physical fractionation, extraction, flash chromatography and preparative chromatography has resulted in the isolation of gram quantities of pu...

  19. Extraction of grape seed oil using compressed carbon dioxide and propane: extraction yields and characterization of free glycerol compounds.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Dariva, Cláudio; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2008-04-23

    The main objective of this work was to compare the extraction of grape seed oil with compressed carbon dioxide and propane on the extraction yields and chemical characteristics of free glycerol compounds. The experiments were performed in a laboratory scale unit in the temperature range of 30 to 60 degrees C and pressures from 60 to 254 bar. The results showed that propane is a more suitable solvent for grape seed oil extraction than carbon dioxide, as higher extractions yields and a very fast kinetic of extraction were achieved with this solvent. In relation to compressed carbon dioxide extractions, both temperature and density presented a very pronounced and positive effect on the extraction yield. The oils extracted were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively with regard to the free glycerol compounds, mainly fatty acids, ethyl, and methyl esters. The results showed that these compounds are present in low concentration in vegetable oil (<3%) and that, in general, samples extracted with propane present a smaller amount of peaks of free glycerol compounds in the oil than samples extracted with carbon dioxide. PMID:18345635

  20. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

  1. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?uk, M.; Dymi?ska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; M?czka, M.; Zaj?c, A.; Szo?tysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  2. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  3. Possible amelioration of atherogenic diet induced dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and hyperglycemia by the peel extracts of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris fruits in rats.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-01-01

    Hitherto unknown efficacy of the peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Cucumis melo (CM) and Citrullus vulgaris (CV) fruits in ameliorating the diet-induced alterations in dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus have been investigated in rats. In one study, out of 4 different doses (50-300 mg/kg), 200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for other two peel extracts could inhibit lipidperoxidation (LPO) maximally in liver. In the second experiment rats were maintained on pre-standardized atherogenic diet CCT (supplemented with 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0.5% 2-thiouracil) to induce dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus and the effects of the test peel extracts (200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for CM and CV for 10 consecutive days) were studied by examining the changes in tissue LPO (in heart, liver and kidney), concentrations of serum lipids, thyroid hormones, insulin and glucose. Rats, treated simultaneously with either of the peel extracts reversed the CCT-diet induced increase in the levels of tissue LPO, serum lipids, glucose, creatinine kinase-MB and decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones and insulin indicating their potential to ameliorate the diet induced alterations in serum lipids, thyroid dysfunctions and hyperglycemia/diabetes mellitus. A phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of a high amount of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the test peel extracts suggesting that the beneficial effects could be the result of the rich content of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the studied peels. PMID:19276533

  4. Cytotoxic Effects of Alcoholic Extract of Dorema Glabrum Seed on Cancerous Cells Viability

    PubMed Central

    Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemieh, Hosein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study cytotoxic effects of the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed on viability of WEHI-164 cells, mouse Fibrosarcoma cell line and L929 normal cells were compared with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol (anticancer and apoptosis inducer drug).Methods: To find out the plant extract cytotoxic effects, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay, the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis were performed on cultured and treated cells.Results: According to the findings the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed can alter cells morphology and because of chromatin condensation and other changes they shrink and take a spherical shape, and lose their attachment too. So the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time and dose dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA.Conclusion: Our data well established the anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro, but the mechanism of its activities remained unknown. These results demonstrated that Dorema Glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment in clinical practices. PMID:24312867

  5. Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment. PMID:23956872

  6. Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2013-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. ?-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes. PMID:23742045

  7. Inhibition of triiodothyronine production by fenugreek seed extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Panda, S; Tahiliani, P; Kar, A

    1999-11-01

    The effects of fenugreek seed extract on the alterations in serum thyroid hormone concentrations were studied in adult male mice and rats. Simultaneously, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were examined. Administration of methi seed extract (0.11 g kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) for 15 days) to both mice and rats significantly decreases serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentration and T(3)/T(4) ratio, but increases thyroxine (T(4)) levels and body weight. While hepatic LPO and CAT activities were not altered, a significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both the animal models. These findings suggest that fenugreek seed extract induced inhibition in T(4)to T(3) conversion is not peroxidation-mediated and the inhibition in SOD activity could be the result of a decrease in the protein anabolic hormone, T3. PMID:10527654

  8. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. PMID:25525107

  9. Shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the green synthesis of Ag-nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaheer; Hussain, Javed Ijaz; Hashmi, Athar Adil

    2012-06-15

    The shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB, is reported to the green synthesis of Ag-nanoparticles for the first time using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract. UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns were used to monitor the growth kinetics, morphology and crystalline nature of Ag-nanoparticles, respectively. It was observed that the growths of Ag-nanoparticles are stopped within 40 min of reaction time. The Ag-nanoparticles are polydispersed spherical and exhibiting an interesting triangle, flat, plate-like hexagonal and some irregular morphology in presence of different [CTAB]. Hexagonal particles aggregated in a systematic manor, leads to produce a fine tiles-like arrangement of Ag-nanoparticles with dimensions between 10 and 37 nm. The nature of reaction-time curves to the reduction of Ag(+) ions by Neem leaf extract are much different than those observed by us in our earlier studies using different bio-reductants. PMID:22463846

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of azadirachtin from dried entire fruits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) and its determination by a validated HPLC-PDA method.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Joelma Abadia Marciano; Brito, Lucas Ferreira; Caetano, Karen Lorena Ferreira Neves; de Morais Rodrigues, Mariana Cristina; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2016-03-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss., also known as neem, is a Meliaceae family tree from India. It is globally known for the insecticidal properties of its limonoid tetranortriterpenoid derivatives, such as azadirachtin. This work aimed to optimize the azadirachtin ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and validate the HPLC-PDA analytical method for the measurement of this marker in neem dried fruit extracts. Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the UAE. Three independent variables, including ethanol concentration (%, w/w), temperature (°C), and material-to-solvent ratio (gmL(-1)), were studied. The azadirachtin content (µgmL(-1)), i.e., dependent variable, was quantified by the HPLC-PDA analytical method. Isocratic reversed-phase chromatography was performed using acetonitrile/water (40:60), a flow of 1.0mLmin(-1), detection at 214nm, and C18 column (250×4.6mm(2), 5µm). The primary validation parameters were determined according to ICH guidelines and Brazilian legislation. The results demonstrated that the optimal UAE condition was obtained with ethanol concentration range of 75-80% (w/w), temperature of 30°C, and material-to-solvent ratio of 0.55gmL(-1). The HPLC-PDA analytical method proved to be simple, selective, linear, precise, accurate and robust. The experimental values of azadirachtin content under optimal UAE conditions were in good agreement with the RSM predicted values and were superior to the azadirachtin content of percolated extract. Such findings suggest that UAE is a more efficient extractive process in addition to being simple, fast, and inexpensive. PMID:26717816

  11. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  12. Nigella sativa seed extracts enhance glucose-induced insulin release from rat-isolated Langerhans islets.

    PubMed

    Rchid, Halima; Chevassus, Hugues; Nmila, Rachid; Guiral, Carine; Petit, Pierre; Chokaïri, Mustapha; Sauvaire, Yves

    2004-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. 'Black cumin' (Ranunculaceae) is one of the plants commonly used in Moroccan folk medicine for treatment of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different N. sativa seed extracts on insulin secretion. Different fractions of the seed were prepared: the defatted fraction (HR II), which was divided into two subfractions: the first (HR III) containing acidic and neutral compounds and the second (HR IV) containing basic compounds. The insulin secretory effects of these extracts were evaluated individually at different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/mL), in vitro in isolated rat pancreatic islets in the presence of 8.3 mmol/L glucose. The results show that addition of the defatted whole extract or of the basic subfraction of the seed in the incubation medium significantly increased glucose-induced insulin release from the islets. In the case of the acidic and neutral subfraction, the stimulatory effect was observed only for the higher concentration (5 mg/mL). However, a clear concentration-dependent increase in insulin release from isolated pancreatic islets was observed for the basic subfraction. Our data show that the antidiabetic properties of N. sativa seeds may be, at least partly, mediated by stimulated insulin release, and that the basic subfraction largely contributes to this stimulatory effect. Further phytochemical studies are underway in order to isolate the pharmacological compound(s) responsible for the insulinotropic effect of N. sativa seeds. PMID:15482373

  13. Effect of the extracts of pumpkin seeds on the urodynamics of rabbits: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Ouyang, J Z; Zhang, Y S; Tayalla, B; Zhou, X C; Zhou, S W

    1994-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds were prepared into oil n-butyle alcohol and ether extracts. The effects of the three extracts on the urodynamics of rabbits were observed. It was concluded that the oil preparation could remarkably reduce the bladder pressure, increase the bladder compliance, reduce the urethral pressure. Other two kinds of preparations had no effect in this experimental. The mechanisms of the effect of oil preparation on the urodynamics and the prospect of clinical use was discussed. PMID:7760436

  14. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>?-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

  15. Optimization of extraction conditions of areca seed polyphenols and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Huang, Wu-Yang; Chen, Wen-Xue; Han, Lin; Zhang, Hai-De

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols are functional compounds in plants, which possess many bioactivities beneficial for humans. The aim of this study was to establish a highly efficient method for extracting polyphenol compounds from areca seeds and further to identify polyphenols and antioxidant properties of the seeds. A quadratic general rotary unitized design was used to determine the optimal extraction process. The polyphenols were identified using LC-TOF-MS. By comparison with ascorbic acid (Vc), the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extracts were evaluated using three complementary in vitro assays: inhibition of the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, and reducing ability. The two major polyphenols obtained were epicatechin and syringic acid. The ethanol extracts of areca seeds showed significantly greater antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) than Vc using the DPPH and reducing power assay, but lower ability (p < 0.05) using the hydroxyl radical assay. The results indicate that the areca seed is an excellent food material with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:25314603

  16. Dehulling of Cuphea PSR23 Seeds to Reduce Color of the Extracted Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil extracted from the seeds Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid hybrid from C. viscosissima x C. lanceolata, by screw-pressing contained 200-360 ppm of chlorophyll. A high amount of bleaching clay was needed during refining to remove the chlorophyll in the oil. In this paper, dehu...

  17. Nigella sativa (Black Cumin) Seed Extract Alleviates Symptoms of Allergic Diarrhea in Mice, Involving Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, Swantje C.; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa- (U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy. PMID:22768141

  18. Nigella sativa (black cumin) seed extract alleviates symptoms of allergic diarrhea in mice, involving opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Duncker, Swantje C; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa-(U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy. PMID:22768141

  19. Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

  20. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Razali, Nurhanani; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Lim, Chor Yin

    2015-01-01

    The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p < 0.05) in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, “Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease” was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P < 2.80 × 10?6) followed by the superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 2.17 × 10?4), intrinsic prothrombin pathway (P < 2.92 × 10?4), Immune Protection/Antimicrobial Response (P < 2.28 × 10?3) and xenobiotic metabolism signaling (P < 2.41 × 10?3). The antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid peroxidation and ROS production, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly regulated the expression of genes and proteins involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response. PMID:26557426

  1. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Razali, Nurhanani; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni

    2015-01-01

    The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p < 0.05) in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, "Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease" was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P < 2.80 × 10(-6)) followed by the superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 2.17 × 10(-4)), intrinsic prothrombin pathway (P < 2.92 × 10(-4)), Immune Protection/Antimicrobial Response (P < 2.28 × 10(-3)) and xenobiotic metabolism signaling (P < 2.41 × 10(-3)). The antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid peroxidation and ROS production, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly regulated the expression of genes and proteins involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response. PMID:26557426

  2. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic petals extract of Rosa indica and characterization of its antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Ramar; Manikandan, Beulaja; Raman, Thiagarajan; Arunagirinathan, Koodalingam; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu; Jothi Basu, Muthuramalingam; Perumal, Muthulakshmi; Palanisamy, Subramanian; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-03-01

    The present study was aimed at biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using ethanolic extract of rose (Rosa indica) petals and testing their potential antibacterial activity using selective human pathogenic microbes, anticancer activity using human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cell line HCT 15 as well as anti-inflammatory activity using rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The biologically synthesized AgNPs were also characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterized AgNPs showed an effective antibacterial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) than Gram positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria. MTT assay, analysis of nuclear morphology, mRNA expression of Bcl-2, Bax and protein expression of caspase 3 as well as 9, indicated potential anticancer activity. In addition, green synthesized AgNPs also attenuated cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and free radical generation (O2(-) and NO) by rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The results of our study show the potential green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in mitigating their toxicity while retaining their antibacterial activities. PMID:25481491

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic petals extract of Rosa indica and characterization of its antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, Ramar; Manikandan, Beulaja; Raman, Thiagarajan; Arunagirinathan, Koodalingam; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu; Jothi Basu, Muthuramalingam; Perumal, Muthulakshmi; Palanisamy, Subramanian; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-03-01

    The present study was aimed at biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using ethanolic extract of rose (Rosa indica) petals and testing their potential antibacterial activity using selective human pathogenic microbes, anticancer activity using human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cell line HCT 15 as well as anti-inflammatory activity using rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The biologically synthesized AgNPs were also characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterized AgNPs showed an effective antibacterial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) than Gram positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria. MTT assay, analysis of nuclear morphology, mRNA expression of Bcl-2, Bax and protein expression of caspase 3 as well as 9, indicated potential anticancer activity. In addition, green synthesized AgNPs also attenuated cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and free radical generation (O2- and NO) by rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The results of our study show the potential green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in mitigating their toxicity while retaining their antibacterial activities.

  4. Assessment of Pb and Cd in seed oils and meals and methodology of their extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hongliang; Peng, Liang; Chen, Zhipeng; Zeng, Qingru

    2016-04-15

    Oil seed, which is a secondary product in phytoremediation, contaminated with heavy metals should be disposed of in an appropriate fashion. In this study, heavy metal concentrations found in oilseed rape and peanut oils were below 0.1mgkg(-1) after extractions, being found most of the heavy metals in meals rather in oils. Extraction experiments were carried out to determine the optimum methodology for the removal of Pb and Cd from seed meals using K3C6H5O7, K2C4H4O6 and (NH4)2EDTA. The highest extraction of the Pb and Cd in the seed meals was achieved using 30mM extractant solutions at 30°C for 24h and a three-step extraction procedure. K3C6H5O7 and K2C4H4O6 had less impact on the removal of nutrients than (NH4)2EDTA. PMID:26616978

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  6. Effect of the extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit on the complement system: studies in vitro and in hamsters submitted to a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Landi Librandi, Ana Paula; Chrysóstomo, Taís Nader; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Recchia, Carem Gledes Vargas; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; de Assis-Pandochi, Ana Isabel

    2007-08-01

    This work evaluated a crude hydroalcoholic extract (ExT) from the pulp of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit as a source of compounds active on the complement system (CS) in vitro. ExT, previously characterized by other authors, had time and concentration dependent effects on the lytic activity of the CS. The activity of 0.8 mg/mL of the extract on the classical/lectin pathways (CP/LP) increased after 30 min of pre-incubation, while that of the alternative pathway (AP) decreased after 15 min at 1mg/mL. Since the CS is a mediator of inflammation, studies were also made in vivo, taking advantage of a model of hypercholesterolemia in hamsters to investigate the role of CS in the phase preceding the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis. Hamsters submitted to a diet rich in cholesterol showed increased lytic activity of the CP/LP and AP after 45 days. The activity levels of C2 and factor B components on respectively, classical/lectin and alternative pathways of the CS also increased. Early events cooperating to trigger the process of atherosclerotic lesions are not completely understood, and these alterations of complement may participate in these events. When treatment with a diet rich in cholesterol was associated to the furnishing of ExT, evaluation of complement components and complement lytic activity showed values similar to those of the controls, showing that treatment with ExT blocked the increase of complement activity caused by the cholesterol-rich diet. By itself, ExT had no effect on the complement system in vivo. ExT activity on the CS may be of interest for therapy and research purposes. PMID:17383788

  7. Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Cristina; Saavedra, Jorge; Sáenz, Carmen; García, Paula; Robert, Paz

    2014-08-15

    Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 °C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods. PMID:24679777

  8. Monodehydroascorbate reductase 2 and dehydroascorbate reductase 5 are crucial for a mutualistic interaction between Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Tripathi, Swati; Prasad, Ram; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2009-08-15

    Ascorbate is a major antioxidant and radical scavenger in plants. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) are two enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle that maintain ascorbate in its reduced state. MDAR2 (At3g09940) and DHAR5 (At1g19570) expression was upregulated in the roots and shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings co-cultivated with the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica, or that were exposed to a cell wall extract or a culture filtrate from the fungus. Growth and seed production were not promoted by Piriformospora indica in mdar2 (SALK_0776335C) and dhar5 (SALK_029966C) T-DNA insertion lines, while colonized wild-type plants were larger and produced more seeds compared to the uncolonized controls. After 3 weeks of drought stress, growth and seed production were reduced in Piriformospora indica-colonized plants compared to the uncolonized control, and the roots of the drought-stressed insertion lines were colonized more heavily by the fungus than were wild-type plants. Upregulation of the message for the antimicrobial PDF1.2 protein in drought-stressed insertion lines indicated that MDAR2 and DHAR5 are crucial for producing sufficient ascorbate to maintain the interaction between Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis in a mutualistic state. PMID:19386380

  9. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

  10. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 ?m/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 ?m/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 ?m/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

  11. Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Onoja, Samuel Okwudili; Omeh, Yusuf Ndukaku; Ezeja, Maxwell Ikechukwu; Chukwu, Martins Ndubuisi

    2014-01-01

    Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400??g/mL concentration) produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement. PMID:24955096

  12. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M.; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M.

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  13. A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract.

    PubMed

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Zancanaro, Flavio; Fazzin, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2008-08-01

    Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation. We report a case of intoxication following intentional ingestion of P. harmala seed infusion; P. harmala seeds were bought over the Internet. The harmala alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the seed extract and the patient's urine. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of P. harmala intoxication corroborated by toxicological findings. PMID:18603389

  14. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.

    PubMed Central

    Parimala, Mabel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.

  15. REGISTRATION OF FOUR INDICA RICE GENETIC STOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture released four indica rice genetic stocks (Oryza sativa L.), apoptosis, chives, extreme dwarf, and gold leaf, Reg. No. GS ___ to _____,and PI _______ to _______, respectively, in May, 2006. These specialized seed stocks are expected to...

  16. Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W.; Bost, G.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

  17. Preclinical Evaluation of the Supercritical Extract of Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Leaves In Vitro and In Vivo on Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiang; Kohli, Manish; Bergen, H. Robert; Cheville, John C.; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Cao, Hong; Young, Charles Y.F.; Tindall, Donald J.; McNiven, Mark A.; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin ?1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2?,3?-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonim-bolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonim-bolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer. PMID:24674886

  18. Antimicrobial, free radical scavenging activities and catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by nano-silver synthesized from the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L.: a promenade towards sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, C.; Sivasubramanian, G.; Parthasarathi, Bera; Baskaran, K.; Balachander, R.; Parameswaran, V. R.

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple route using the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L. (LAIL) which acted as a reducing as well as capping agent. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the synthesized silver particles have a face centred cubic structure. EDS predicted the presence of elemental silver. The SEM images showed the synthesis of spherically mono-dispersed particles, with nano dimensions accounted by the TEM images. Infra-red spectrum adopted to the different organic functionalities present at the surface of the particles. TGA indicated an overall 11 % weight loss up to 1000 °C, suggesting desorption of biomolecules from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of metallic silver nanoparticles. The prepared material was utilized as catalyst in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen as the oxidant in methanol, under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Also Ag-NPs showed good to moderate anti-microbial activity employing the Agar disc diffusion method against various strains using Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole as standard. Free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS in vitro assays. The work presented here demonstrates the adaptability of the synthesized Ag-NPs in participating as a disinfectant agent, free radical scavenger and an effective oxidation catalyst. The basic premise of attaining sustainability through the green synthesis of smart multifaceted materials has been consciously addressed.

  19. Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma by Litchi Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Ping; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Chiu-Chen; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chou, Jyh-Ching; Tsia, Yu-Ting; Su, Jhih-Rou; Chung, Yuan-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    The Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit products possess rich amounts of flavanoids and proanthocyanidins. Its pericarp has been shown to inhibit breast and liver cancer cell growth. However, the anticolorectal cancer effect of Litchi seed extract has not yet been reported. In this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract (LCSP) on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines Colo320DM and SW480 were examined. The results demonstrated that LCSP significantly induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. LCSP also suppressed cyclins and elevated the Bax?:?Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. This study provides in vitro evidence that LCSP serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer. PMID:23093841

  20. Facile, eco-friendly and template free photosynthesis of cauliflower like ZnO nanoparticles using leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) and its biological evolution of antibacterial and antifungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2015-02-01

    In the present investigation, we chose the very simple and eco-friendly chemical method for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) (T. indica) and developed the new green route for synthesis of nanoparticles. Formed product has been studied by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and with corresponding energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Mainly, the present results depicted that the synthesized nanoproducts are moderately stable, hexagonal phase, roughly spherical with maximum particles in size range within 19-37 nm in diameter. The antibacterial and fungal activities of aqueous extracts of T. indica were ended with corresponding disk diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The highest mean zones of inhibition were observed in the ZnO NPs (200 ?g/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus (13.1 ± 0.28). Finally, it can be concluded that microbial activity of ZnO NPs has more susceptible S. aureus than the other micro organisms. Further, the present investigation suggests that ZnO NPs has the potential applications for various medical and industrial fields.

  1. Facile, eco-friendly and template free photosynthesis of cauliflower like ZnO nanoparticles using leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) and its biological evolution of antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, K; Velmurugan, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Ashokkumar, S

    2015-02-01

    In the present investigation, we chose the very simple and eco-friendly chemical method for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) (T. indica) and developed the new green route for synthesis of nanoparticles. Formed product has been studied by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and with corresponding energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Mainly, the present results depicted that the synthesized nanoproducts are moderately stable, hexagonal phase, roughly spherical with maximum particles in size range within 19-37 nm in diameter. The antibacterial and fungal activities of aqueous extracts of T. indica were ended with corresponding disk diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The highest mean zones of inhibition were observed in the ZnO NPs (200 ?g/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus (13.1±0.28). Finally, it can be concluded that microbial activity of ZnO NPs has more susceptible S. aureus than the other micro organisms. Further, the present investigation suggests that ZnO NPs has the potential applications for various medical and industrial fields. PMID:25459502

  2. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P?extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P?extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P?seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P?extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract. PMID:26396295

  3. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Harshal A.; Lalitha, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568?dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198?kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. PMID:26640490

  4. Comparison of fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential of extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds.

    PubMed

    Plastina, Pierluigi; Fazio, Alessia; Gabriele, Bartolo

    2012-01-01

    The extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds have been compared regarding fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) was found to contain the highest oil amount (34%), while the Poncirus trifoliata cultivars contained the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (84-87%). In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts from defatted seeds have been evaluated by measuring their radical scavenging activity against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The highest antioxidant activities were observed in the case of the acetone extract of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle (76% and 75%, respectively), at a concentration of 0.17?mg?mL(-1). Moreover, the total phenolic content of the extracts, determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, was found to be correlated with the radical scavenging activity results. The acetone extracts of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle exhibited the highest phenolic content [112.3 and 103.4?mg gallic acid equivalent?g(-1) dry sample weight, respectively]. PMID:22236049

  5. Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

  6. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Fori?, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as ?Eq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co ?-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with ?-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  7. LiDAR Segmentation using Suitable Seed Points for 3D Building Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, S. M.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

    2014-08-01

    Effective building detection and roof reconstruction has an influential demand over the remote sensing research community. In this paper, we present a new automatic LiDAR point cloud segmentation method using suitable seed points for building detection and roof plane extraction. Firstly, the LiDAR point cloud is separated into "ground" and "non-ground" points based on the analysis of DEM with a height threshold. Each of the non-ground point is marked as coplanar or non-coplanar based on a coplanarity analysis. Commencing from the maximum LiDAR point height towards the minimum, all the LiDAR points on each height level are extracted and separated into several groups based on 2D distance. From each group, lines are extracted and a coplanar point which is the nearest to the midpoint of each line is considered as a seed point. This seed point and its neighbouring points are utilised to generate the plane equation. The plane is grown in a region growing fashion until no new points can be added. A robust rule-based tree removal method is applied subsequently to remove planar segments on trees. Four different rules are applied in this method. Finally, the boundary of each object is extracted from the segmented LiDAR point cloud. The method is evaluated with six different data sets consisting hilly and densely vegetated areas. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method offers a high building detection and roof plane extraction rates while compared to a recently proposed method.

  8. Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment. PMID:14994812

  9. Insulinotropic action of Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts in rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Hupkens, Emeline; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the direct in vitro effects of several distinct Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts on glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets isolated from rats. Six extracts were tested, a crude aqueous, defatted aqueous, ethyl acetate, H2O-methanol and n-butanol extract and an extract containing a major component (fraction A) identified by gel chromatography in the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H2O-methanol extracts. Under selected experimental conditions, the majority of extracts exhibited a positive insulinotropic action, at least when tested in the presence of 8.3 mM D-glucose. The concentration-response correlation observed with distinct extracts revealed the participation of distinct chemical compounds, including compounds with an inhibitory insulinotropic potential, in the modulation of the insulin secretory response to D-glucose. The results of the present study are relevant for further investigations which aim to identify compounds exhibiting positive insulinotropic actions. These agents may be suitable for the treatment of human diabetic subjects. PMID:23128986

  10. Proteomic identification of Syzygium cumini seed extracts by MALDI-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Binita, Kumari; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Veena; Yadav, Savita

    2014-02-01

    Syzygium cumini is traditionally used medicinal plant. The different part of the plant such as bark, leaves, seed and fruits are widely used as an alternative medicine in various diseases. Although the scientific community has a strong interest on S. cumini seed biochemistry focusing on metabolite composition, proteins have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we have applied a proteomic approach to study the proteome of the S. cumini seed using phenol extraction method for protein isolation, which were never analysed before. Fifteen brightly silver stained protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry after resolving on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These proteins have been found to involve in various functions such as antifungal, sulphur metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, fruit ripening and softening, dormancy breaking and seed germination, hormone signalling, secondary metabolite transport, defence and stress response, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis and stabilization. Amongst the identified protein, lactoferrin was a mammalian origin protein with high nutritious and pharmaceutical value, which was purified by different types of chromatographic techniques and confirmed by western blotting. The antibacterial activity of lactoferrin was assessed by disc diffusion assay. We suggest that the protein constituents of S. cumini may have role in various functions required for plant physiology and its dietary values. PMID:24338207

  11. Blood pressure lowering, vasodilator and cardiac-modulatory potential of Carum roxburghianum seed extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Munasib; Khan, Arif-ullah; Najeeb-ur-Rehman; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    In current study, we describe blood pressure (BP)-lowering, endothelium-dependent, and independent vasodilator and cardio-modulatory actions of Carum roxburghianum seed. The crude extract of C. roxburghianum seed (Cr.Cr) induced dose-dependent (10-100?mg/kg) fall in arterial BP of anaesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta, Cr.Cr (0.3-10?mg/mL) inhibited high K+ (80?mM) and phenylephrine (PE, 1?µM)-induced contractions, like verapamil and papaverine. In endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations, N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-sensitive vasodilator activity was observed with Cr.Cr, which also relaxed endothelium-denuded aorta tissues. In guinea-pig atria, Cr.Cr initially caused mild cardiac stimulation, followed by inhibition, as shown by papaverine. These results reveal that cardiovascular effects of C. roxburghianum seed extract are mediated possibly through combination of Ca++ antagonist, nitric oxide modulating and phosphodiesterase inhibitory mechanisms, though further in-depth studies are required for elucidating precise mode of action. PMID:24785464

  12. Antioxidant effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract on deep fried oil quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Solati, Zeinab; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2015-06-01

    Effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NE) on frying performance of sunflower oil and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein was investigated at concentrations of 1.2 % and 1.0 % respectively. Two frying systems containing 0 %?N. sativa L. extract (Control) and 0.02 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used for comparison. Physicochemical properties such as fatty acid composition (FAC), Peroxide Value (PV), Anisidine Value (AV), Totox Value (TV), Total Polar Content (TPC), C18:2/C16:0 ratio and viscosity of frying oils were determined during five consecutive days of frying. Results have shown that N. sativa L. extract was able to improve the oxidative stability of both frying oils during the frying process compared to control. The stabilizing effect of antioxidants were in the order of BHT > NE. RBD palm olein was found to be more stable than sunflower oil based on the ratio of linoleic acid (C18:2) to palmitic acid (C16:0) and fatty acid composition. PMID:26028729

  13. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Körpe, Didem Aksoy; ??er?, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 ?g/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 ?g/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance. PMID:23067263

  14. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ?H and ?S were positive and ?G was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ?H, ?S and ?G values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:26243945

  15. Mathematical modeling of sunflower seed extraction by supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Perrut, M.; Clavier, J.Y.; Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E.

    1997-02-01

    Extraction of oil from crushed sunflower seeds with supercritical CO{sub 2} was performed at 280 bar and 40 C on a laboratory apparatus of 0.15 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} volume and on a pilot plant of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} volume. CO{sub 2} flow rate ranged between 5 and 45 kg/h. To study the influence of the vegetable matrix on the extraction rate, a re-extraction experiment on the extraction product was also performed on the pilot scale apparatus. A mathematical model of the supercritical extraction process was developed on the basis of the experimental evidence. The equilibrium between the solids and the fluid phase appeared to be the controlling step during the extraction process. A simplified form of a sigmoidal-shaped equilibrium curve was adopted to fit the experimental data in the whole range of CO{sub 2} flow rates explored. The meaning of this nonlinear equilibrium relationship was also discussed.

  16. Extracts of Phenolic Compounds from Seeds of Three Wild Grapevines—Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activities and the Content of Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Stanis?aw; Powa?ka, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from three wild grapevine species: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH• anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds— while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent. PMID:22489161

  17. Contents of constituents and antioxidant activity of seed and pulp extracts of Annona coriacea and Annona sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Benites, Rsr; Formagio, Asn; Argandoña, Ejs; Volobuff, Crf; Trevizan, Lnf; Vieira, Mc; Silva, Ms

    2015-08-01

    The antioxidant potential of fruit pulp and seeds of extracts of the Annona coriacea, and A. sylvatica(Annonaceae) were investigated, as well contents total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and ascorbic acid. Was used to determine the antioxidant activity the 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), ?-carotene bleaching and ABTS radical cation method. The total phenol, total flavonoid, condensed tannin, and ascorbic acid contents were measured spectrophotometrically. In this study, the pulp and seeds of the fruits were extracted using methanol/water (8:2) for maceration. The seed extracts of A. coriacea demonstrated a moderate antioxidant effect with free radical scavenging activity of 31.53%, by the DPPH test, 51.59% by the ?-carotene bleaching test and 159.50 µM trolx/g of extract in the ABTS assay. We found that the hydromethanolic seed extract of A. coriacea had high total phenol (147.08 ± 4.20 mg of GAE/g of extract) and flavonoid (131.18 ± 2.31 mg of QE/g of extract) content. This indicated that the antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to the contents of these constituents. PMID:26421762

  18. In Vitro Remineralization Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Artificial Root Caries

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D.

    2008-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) contains Proanthocyanidin (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 hr at 37°C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester; polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher’s tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of Fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy. PMID:18819742

  19. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume.

    PubMed

    Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Tze, Liong Min; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24425949

  20. Antimicrobial activities of various fractions of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Fen Ke) seed extract.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Huang-Chung; Wu, Wan-Ting; Huang, Ho-Shin; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2014-08-01

    The antimicrobial activities of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Fen ke) seed extracts were investigated using a disc diffusion method and also determining the minimal inhibitory concentration. The DL-P01-SI01 fraction showed that the strongest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus at MIC 64??g/mL, which was found to be due to the phenolic compounds. The HPLC analysis showed that the major phenolic compounds are gallic acid, corilagin, ethyl gallate and ellagic acid. PMID:24533783

  1. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26139905

  2. Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) oil obtained from waste hip seeds by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Szentmihályi, Klára; Vinkler, Péter; Lakatos, Béla; Illés, Vendel; Then, Mária

    2002-04-01

    From the rose hip seed, which is generally a waste material, valuable oil can be obtained for medicinal use. Various extraction methods have been compared: traditional solvent extraction with ultrasound-, microwave-, sub- and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA: oleic-, linoleic- and linolenic acid; 16.25-22.11%, 35.94-54.75%, 20.29-26.48%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA:linoleic- and linolenic acid) content were over 90% and 60% in the recovered oils. The oils contained different amounts of metals. The concentration of some metals, particularly iron in microwave oil (27.11 microg g(-1)) is undesirable from the aspect of stability. By traditional solvent extraction, oil was obtained in 4.85 wt/wt%. Subcritical FE appeared to be the best method for the recovery of rose hip oil with highest oil yield (6.68 wt/wt%), carotene- (145.3 microg g(-1)) and linoleic acid content (54.75%). Supercritical FE without organic solvent is suitable for mild recovery of oil. The oil was rich in UFA and PUFA (92.7% and 76.25%) and contained the lowest amount of carotene and pheophytin (36.3 and 45.8 microg g(-1)). Oil yield in most new extraction methods (microwave extraction, super- and subcritical FE) was higher than in the case of traditional Soxhlet extraction. The main benefit of supercritical FE with CO2 is the solvent free oil while in the case of other extractions evaporation of the solvent is needed. Although the content of bioactive compounds in oils was different, all oils may be appropriate for medicinal use. PMID:12003323

  3. Toxicology evaluation of a procyanidin-rich extract from grape skins and seeds.

    PubMed

    Lluís, Laura; Muñoz, Mònica; Nogués, M Rosa; Sánchez-Martos, Vanessa; Romeu, Marta; Giralt, Montse; Valls, Josep; Solà, Rosa

    2011-06-01

    The procyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds and skins (GSSE) has antioxidant properties which may have cardioprotective effects. Since it might be interesting to incorporate this extract into a functional food, toxicological tests need to be made to determine how safe it is. In this study we carried out a limit test to determine the acute oral toxicity and the lethal dose 50 (LD50) and some genotoxicity tests of the extract in rats. The LD50 was higher than 5000 mg/kg. Doses of up to 2000 mg/kg showed no increase in micronucleated erythrocytes 72 h after treatment. The bacterial reverse mutation test showed that the extract was weakly mutagenic to the dose of 5 mg/plate and 19.5 and 9.7 ?g/ml of GSSE did not show significant differences in the frequency of aberrant metaphases in relation to negative controls. Our results indicated slight mutagenicity under the study conditions, so further studies should be conducted at lower doses to demonstrate that this extract is not toxic. PMID:21443917

  4. Enhancement of gastric ulcer healing and angiogenesis by cochinchina Momordica seed extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Mook; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Bongcheol; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Bong-Yong; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

    2010-06-01

    Cochinchina momordica seed is the dried ripe seed of Momordica cochinchinensis, a perennial vine. The antiulcer effect of an extract from cochinchina momordica seeds (SK-MS10) was evaluated in a rat model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Gastric ulcers were produced by subserosal injection of acetic acid. SK-MS10 (200 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally once per day for 14 days after the acetic acid injection. The stomach was removed and the ulcer size measured at day 7 and 14 of the treatment. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, the microvasculature density (MVD) adjacent to the ulcer margin was examined by immunohistochemistry. The treatment with SK-MS10 for 7 and 14 days significantly accelerated ulcer healing and increased the expression of mRNA (at day 7) as well as VEGF protein (at day 14) compared to the vehicle-treated rats. The MVD for factor VIII was also higher in the SK-MS10 treatment group compared to the vehicle-treated rats; however, these differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that SK-MS10 treatment accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via upregulation of VEGF and angiogenesis in an acetic acid rat model. PMID:20514308

  5. The therapeutic applications of celery oil seed extract on the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of two doses, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and studied the possible therapeutic dose of celery oil seed extract for 6 weeks on some atheroscelerogenic, obesogenic, antioxidant and liver functions in rats. Both doses of DEHP caused over-expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) messenger RNA with significant increase in liver weights, relative liver weights, serum cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein Chol, liver total lipids, along with an increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum endothelin 1 and liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Additionally, DEHP administration to rats resulted in significant decrease in final body weights, serum total protein, albumin, liver total protein and serum total nitric oxide. Our study confirmed the role of oral combination of Apium graveolens (celery) oil seed extract at small cumulative doses (50 µl/kg for 6 weeks) with DEHP in ameliorating the toxicological effects of DEHP, which was revealed in reducing the expression of PPAR?, lipid profile, with restoring liver functions, vascular oxidative stress and inhibition of TBARS activity. PMID:23377116

  6. Anticonvulsant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Seed Extract of Croton Tiglium in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mudium, Raghunandan; Kolasani, Bhanuprakash

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of hydro-alcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium in rats and mice. Materials and Methods: Forty -eight each of rats and mice of either sex were randomised into four groups and subjected to seizures induced by electroconvulsiometer and pentylenetetrazole. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium (250 and 500mg/kg) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect using sodium valproate (200mg/kg) as standard and distilled water as control. The parameters observed were time for onset of HLE (Hind Limb Extension) and duration of HLE in electrically induced seizures, and time for onset of convulsions and duration of convulsions in chemically induced seizures. Mortality of the animals over 24 hours was observed in both the models. For testing statistical significance between various groups unpaired student t-test was used. Observations and Results: In electrically induced seizures croton tiglium produced dose dependant prolongation of time for onset of HLE and a reduction in duration of HLE and in chemically induced convulsions, it prolonged time for onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of convulsions indicating its anticonvulsant effect in both models. However, anticonvulsant effect was less compared to sodium valproate. There was a higher percentage of mortality in croton tiglium group in chemically induced convulsions when compared to sodium valproate. Conclusion: Croton tiglium has dose dependant anticonvulsant effect in electrically induced seizures, while in pentylenetetrazole induced-seizures the protection is very minimal. PMID:24783071

  7. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  8. Biological effects of hydrolyzed quinoa extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    PubMed

    Meneguetti, Quele Adriana; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Batista, Marcia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício

    2011-06-01

    An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000?mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000?mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition. PMID:21480793

  9. Ripening stage and extraction method effects on physical properties, polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Kefi, Sarra; Bourgou, Soumaya; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Ksouri, Riadh; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2014-12-01

    The effects of two extraction methods, used at three ripening stages on the total polyphenol contents and the antioxidant activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were studied. The ripening stage effect on some physical properties of cumin seed was significant. The increase of dry matter (from 10.3 to 87.5%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that of moisture content (from 89.7 to 12.5%). Besides results showed that the full ripe seeds were richer on polyphenols and condensed tannin than unripe ones, and consequently exhibited higher antioxidant activities. However, the unripe seeds had a higher total flavonoid content compared to those of half ripe and full ripe ones. The comparison of two extraction methods showed that soxhlet extracts contained the greatest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, while maceration samples exhibited higher antiradical and bleaching power assay. Total phenolic contents and IC50 (concentration required to cause a 50% DPPH inhibition) values in cumin seed during their maturation allowed to conclude that antioxidant activity does not depend only on the high content of total phenolics but also on the phenolic composition. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were successfully identified by HPLC analysis during the ripening of cumin seeds. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic acid for the unripe seeds. Furthermore, half ripe and full ripe seeds were dominated by p-coumaric acid. These compounds might be considered as interesting bioactive natural substances that may be used in several fields, such as nutraceuticals, cosmetics and agro-food industry. PMID:25277369

  10. Antinociceptive properties of ethanolic extract and fractions of Pterodon pubescens Benth. seeds.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luciana Pontes; Reis, Patrícia Alves; de Castro, Fernanda Lima; Gayer, Carlos Roberto Machado; da Silva Lopes, Carlos; da Costa e Silva, Maria Cristina; de Carvalho Sabino, Kátia Costa; Todeschini, Adriane Regina; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto

    2005-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the hydroalcoholic extract from Pterodon pubescens Benth. seeds (sucupira branca, Leguminosae) exhibits anti-arthritic activity and that its oleaginous extract (OEP) and PF1 fraction exhibit acute and topic anti-edematogenic activities. In this work, we studied the antinociceptive activity of OEP and its fractions on the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin assays in SW male mice. OEP was obtained by ethanol extraction and its four fractions by sequential liquid-liquid extraction. PF2 GC/MS profile indicated it contains furane diterpenes derivatives of vouacapan and non-vouacapan compounds. The antinociceptive properties were demonstrated to OEP and predominantly to PF1 and PF2 by the writhing test. In the formalin assay, PF1 inhibited both phases and PF2 inhibited mainly the late one. Then, PF1 and PF2 seemed to present antinociceptive effects by different mechanisms, peripheral and/or central inhibitory ones, and showed maximum antinociceptive properties with very low doses, providing a rationale for its popular use in pain disorders. PMID:15763371

  11. Celery Seed and Related Extracts with Antiarthritic, Antiulcer, and Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Powanda, Michael C; Whitehouse, Michael W; Rainsford, K D

    2015-01-01

    Celery preparations have been used extensively for several millennia as natural therapies for acute and chronic painful or inflammatory conditions. This chapter reviews some of the biological and chemical properties of various celery preparations that have been used as natural remedies. Many of these have varying activities and product qualities. A fully standardized celery preparation has been prepared known as an alcoholic extract of the seeds of a plant source derived from northern India. This is termed, Celery Seed Extract (CSE) and has been found to be at least as effective as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen in suppressing arthritis in a model of polyarthritis. CSE can also reduce existing inflammation in rats. CSE has also been shown to provide analgesia in two model systems. CSE, in addition to acting as an analgesic and inflammatory agent, has been shown to protect against and/or reduce gastric irritation caused by NSAIDs, as well as act synergistically with them to reduce inflammation. The CSE was fractionated by organic solvent extractions, then subjected to column chromatography followed by HPLC and was characterized by mass spectrometry. This yielded a purified component that had specific inhibitory effects on Helicobacter pylori but was not active against Campylobacter jejuni or Escherichia coli. Additionally, toxicology studies did not reveal any clear signs of toxicity at doses relevant to human use. Also, unlike many dietary supplements, the available data suggest that CSE does not significantly affect the p450 enzyme systems and thus is less likely to alter the metabolism of drugs the individual may be taking. CSE may be a prototype of a natural product that can be used therapeutically to treat arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:26462366

  12. Optimized extraction and molecular characterization of polysaccharides from Sophora alopecuroides L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Cao, Nannan; Wu, Yan; Wu, Jinhong

    2016-01-01

    Optimized extraction of crude polysaccharides from Sophora alopecuroides L. seeds (CSAP) was firstly investigated, and the results were extraction time 4.15h, extraction temperature 70.68°C and water/seed ratio 50.99:1ml/g. At this proximal point, highest yield (10.88%) and relative viscosity (1.2952) were obtained for CSAP, which contained 78.40% sugar, 6.08% protein, 9.71% ash, 7.16% moisture and 1.88% uronic acid. Neutral fractions of F15, F25, F35 and F60 were further obtained via stepwise alcohol precipitation. Results of monosaccharide composition indicated that CSAP and its neutral fractions mainly consisted of mannose and galactose (79.45-97.52%) with M/G ratios of 0.94-1.48, typical for galactomannans, which were demonstrated by FT-IR. Weight-average molecular weight, radius of gyration and hydrodynamic radius were in the same order (F15>F25>F35>F60), whereas the highest intrinsic viscosity was observed for F25. Multiple analyses, including Mark-Houwink-Sakurada exponent (0.48-0.80), persistence length (1.45-3.93nm), conformation zoning (random coil) and power-law exponent (b>1), showed flexible coils for all neutral fractions. Concerning viscometry, there were no aggregates (K? 0.60) or coil overlaps ("master curve") of F25 in dilute solutions. Relatively weak surface activity of F25 was probably related to its particular chemical structure and proteinaceous moieties closely conjoined. PMID:26449532

  13. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    PubMed

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2?×?5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P??0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens. PMID:25939914

  14. H- beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Matsuno, T; Funaoi, T; Tanaka, N; Tsumori, K; Takeiri, Y

    2012-02-01

    H(-) beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 10(19) m(-3) was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H(-) ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents. PMID:22380279

  15. H{sup -} beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.

    2012-02-15

    H{sup -} beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H{sup -} ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents.

  16. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Shibani; Maji, Priyankar; Ganguly, Jhuma

    2015-02-01

    The present study explores that the aqueous extract of the seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (aka night jasmine) is very efficient for the synthesis of stable AgNPs from aqueous solution of AgNO3. The extract acts as both reducing (from Ag+ to Ag0) and capping agent in the aqueous phase. The constituents in extract are mainly biomolecules like carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the preparation of stable AgNPs within 20 min of reaction time at 25 °C using without any severe conditions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis showed peak at 420 nm, which corresponds to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. XRD results showed peaks at (111), (200), (220), which confirmed the presence of AgNPs with face-centered cubic structure. The uniform spherical nature of the AgNPs and size (between 50 and 80 nm) were further confirmed by SEM analysis.

  17. 21 CFR 176.350 - Tamarind seed kernel powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Tamarind seed kernel powder is the ground kernel of tamarind seed (Tamarindus indica L.) after removal of the seed coat. (b) It is used in the manufacture of paper and...

  18. Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael

    2014-01-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 33:1G.1-1G.8. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24789599

  19. Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activities of different extracts of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) pomace without seeds.

    PubMed

    Varshneya, Chandresh; Kant, Vinay; Mehta, Madhuri

    2012-03-01

    In this study, 100% methanolic extract (ME), 70% aqua-methanolic extract (AME) and 100% aqueous extract of seabuckthorn byproduct were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The total phenolic contents were high in AME (84.28 ± 1.58 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/gm of extract) compared to other extracts. All the extracts scavenged different in vitro radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC(50) values were lowest in AME for 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals, while ME had lowest values for hydroxyl radicals. The reducing power of the extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner and was highest in AME. The findings of this study revealed that seabuckthorn pomace without seed is one of the important resources as an antioxidant for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic or nutraceutical industries. PMID:21875373

  20. A comparative study of extraction methods reveals preferred solvents for cystine knot peptide isolation from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds.

    PubMed

    Mahatmanto, Tunjung; Poth, Aaron G; Mylne, Joshua S; Craik, David J

    2014-06-01

    MCoTI-I and MCoTI-II (short for Momordica cochinchinensis Trypsin Inhibitor-I and -II, respectively) are attractive candidates for developing novel intracellular-targeting drugs because both are exceptionally stable and can internalize into cells. These seed-derived cystine knot peptides are examples of how natural product discovery efforts can lead to biomedical applications. However, discovery efforts are sometimes hampered by the limited availability of seed materials, highlighting the need for efficient extraction methods. In this study, we assessed five extraction methods using M. cochinchinensis seeds, a source of well-characterized cystine knot peptides. The most efficient extraction of nine known cystine knot peptides was achieved by a method based on acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1), followed by methods based on sodium acetate (20 mM, pH 5.0), ammonium bicarbonate (5 mM, pH 8.0), and boiling water. On average, the yields obtained by these four methods were more than 250-fold higher than that obtained using dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extraction, a previously applied standard method. Extraction using acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1) yielded the highest number of reconstructed masses within the majority of plant-derived cystine knot peptide mass range but only accounted for around 50% of the total number of masses, indicating that any single method may result in under-sampling. Applying acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1), boiling water, and ammonium bicarbonate (5 mM, pH 8.0) extractions either successively or discretely significantly increased the sampling number. Overall, acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1) can facilitate efficient extraction of cystine-knot peptides from M. cochinchinensis seeds but for discovery purposes the use of a combination of extraction methods is recommended where practical. PMID:24613804

  1. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

  2. Ball milling improves extractability and affects molecular properties of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk arabinoxylan.

    PubMed

    Van Craeyveld, Valerie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2008-12-10

    Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk (PSH) is very rich in arabinoxylan (AX). However, its high gelling capacity and the complex nature of the AX make it difficult to process. In this study, ball milling was investigated as a tool for enhancing PSH AX water extractability and molecular mass (MM). A 48 h laboratory-scale ball mill treatment under standardized optimal conditions reduced the PSH average particle size from 161 microm for the untreated sample to 6 microm. Concurrently, it increased the water-extractable AX (WE-AX) level from 13 (untreated PSH) to 90% of the total PSH AX. While the WE-AX of the untreated PSH had a peak MM of 216 kDa and an arabinose to xylose (A/X) ratio of 0.20, WE-AX fragments from ball mill-pretreated PSH had a peak MM of 22 kDa and an A/X ratio of 0.31. Ball milling further drastically reduced the intrinsic viscosity of PSH extracts and their water-holding capacity. Prolonged treatment brought almost all AX (98%) in solution and yielded WE-AX fragments with an even higher A/X ratio (0.42) and a lower peak MM (11 kDa). While impact and jet milling of PSH equally led to significant reductions in particle size, these technologies only marginally affected the water extractability of PSH AX. This implies that ball milling affects PSH particles and their constituent molecules differently than impact and jet milling. PMID:19007123

  3. Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of ergot alkaloids does not increase the contractile response of peripheral bovine vasculature, but may increase the contractile response of foregut vasculature. Preliminary data indicated that an extract of tall fescue seed induced a greater contractile response in ruminal artery and vein...

  4. Constriction of bovine vasculature by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte- (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However, preliminary in vitro tests indicated that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ergovaline alone in a right rumin...

  5. Extraction, isolation and characterisation of oil bodies from pumpkin seeds for therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Adams, Gary G; Imran, Shahwar; Wang, Sheng; Mohammad, Abubaker; Kok, M Samil; Gray, David A; Channell, Guy A; Harding, Stephen E

    2012-10-15

    Pumpkin, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family has been used frequently as functional medicines for therapeutic use. Several phytochemicals such as polysaccharides, phenolic glycosides, 13-hydroxy-9Z, 11E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of pumpkin, proteins from germinated seeds, have been isolated. Here the influence of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on the properties and stability of oil bodies from pumpkin (Cucurbita) were determined with a view to patterning oil body size and structure for future therapeutic intervention. Oil bodies from pumpkin seeds were extracted, isolated, characterised using optical microscopy, zeta potential and particle size distribution obtained. During microscopic analysis, the oil bodies were more intact and in an integrated form at the time of extraction but were ruptured with time. Water extracted oil bodies were spherical for all four layers where cream had larger oil bodies then upper curd. Lower curd and supernatant had considerably smaller size with lower curd densely packed and seemed to be rich in oil bodies than any of the four layers. At pH 3, in the absence of salt, the zeta potential is approximately +30 mV, but as the salt concentration increases, the ? potential rises at 10 mM but then decreases over the salt range. This trend continues for the upper curd, lower curd and the supernatant and the degree of the reduction (mV) in zeta potential is of the order creamseed oil bodies at an increasing pH (3, 7.4 and 9) and salt concentration (0, 10, 50 and 100 mM) across all four layers. The lowest average size distributions are seen at pH 7.4 across all four layers especially within the cream and upper curd layers. At pH 3 and 9, the highest average size distributions are seen in the lower curd and cream layers. Oil bodies can be extracted, isolated and from pumpkins using an aqueous extraction method and may prove to be a useful new source of lipids for application in patterning therapeutics for clinical use. PMID:23442639

  6. Cardioprotective mechanisms of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed extract against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Nagy, Norbert; Varga, Edit; Varadi, Judit; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szabo, Gergo; Szendrei, Levente; Bacskay, Ildiko; Vecsernyes, Miklos; Antal, Miklos; Fesus, Laszlo; Boucher, Francois; de Leiris, Joel; Tosaki, Arpad

    2006-09-01

    The effects of kernel extract obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed on the postischemic cardiac recovery were studied in isolated working rat hearts. Rats were treated with various daily doses of the extract for 14 days, and hearts were then isolated and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and tachycardia (VT) fell from their control values of 92% and 100% to 50% (not significant) and 58% (not significant), 17% (P<0.05), and 25% (P<0.05) with the doses of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Lower concentrations of the extract (1 and 5 mg/kg) failed to significantly reduce the incidence of VF and VT during reperfusion. Sour cherry seed kernel extract (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly improved the postischemic recovery of cardiac function (coronary flow, aortic flow, and left ventricular developed pressure) during reperfusion. We have also demonstrated that the extract-induced protection in cardiac function significantly reflected in a reduction of infarct size. Immunohistochemistry indicates that a reduction in caspase-3 activity and apoptotic cells by the extract, beside other potential action mechanisms of proanthocyanidin, trans-resveratrol, and flavonoid components of the extract, could be responsible for the cardioprotection in ischemic-reperfused myocardium. PMID:16617126

  7. Aqueous extract of tamarind seeds selectively increases glucose transporter-2, glucose transporter-4, and islets' intracellular calcium levels and stimulates ?-cell proliferation resulting in improved glucose homeostasis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sole, Sushant Shivdas; Srinivasan, B P

    2012-08-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. has been in use for a long time in Asian food and traditional medicine for different diseases including diabetes and obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms of these effects have not been fully understood. In view of the multidimensional activity of tamarind seeds due to their having high levels of polyphenols and flavonoids, we hypothesized that the insulin mimetic effect of aqueous tamarind seed extract (TSE) might increase glucose uptake through improvement in the expression of genes of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) 1c messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver. Daily oral administration of TSE to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (90 mg/kg intraperitoneally) type 2 diabetic male Wistar rats at different doses (120 and 240 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks showed positive correlation with intracellular calcium and insulin release in isolated islets of Langerhans. Tamarind seed extract supplementation significantly improved the GLUT-2 protein and SREBP-1c mRNA expression in the liver and GLUT-4 protein and mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of diabetic rats. The elevated levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), glycosylated hemoglobin level (hemoglobin (A1c)) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) decreased after TSE administration. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that TSE abrogated STZ-induced apoptosis and increased ?-cell neogenesis, indicating its effect on islets and ?-cell mass. In conclusion, it was found that the antidiabetic effect of TSE on STZ-induced diabetes resulted from complex mechanisms of ?-cell neogenesis, calcium handling, GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and SREBP-1c. These findings show the scope for formulating a new herbal drug for diabetes therapy. PMID:22935346

  8. Induction of apoptosis by grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aghbali, Amirala; Hosseini, Sepideh Vosough; Delazar, Abbas; Gharavi, Nader Kalbasi; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare; Orangi, Mona; Bandehagh, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-08-01

    Development of novel therapeutic modalities is crucial for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent scientific studies have been focused on herbal medicines as potent anti-cancer drug candidates. This study is the first to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of cell death induced by grape seed extract (GSE) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB cells). MTT (3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and trypan blue assays were performed in KB cells as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used to analyze the cytotoxic activity of GSE. Furthermore, the apoptosis-inducing action of the extract was determined by TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and cell death analysis. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Duncan's test at a significance level of P?0.05. The results showed apoptotic potential of GSE, confirmed by significant inhibition of cell growth and viability in a dose- and time- dependent manner without inducing damage to non-cancerous cell line HUVEC. The results of this study suggest that this plant contains potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23988171

  9. Milk thistle seed extract protects rat C6 astroglial cells from acute cocaine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Badisa, Ramesh B; Fitch-Pye, Cheryl A; Agharahimi, Maryam; Palm, Donald E; Latinwo, Lekan M; Goodman, Carl B

    2014-11-01

    Cocaine is a powerful addictive drug, widely abused in most Western countries. It easily reaches various domains within and outside of the central nervous system (CNS), and triggers varying levels of cellular toxicity. No pharmacological treatment is available to alleviate cocaine-induced toxicity in the cells without side-effects. Here, we discerned the role of milk thistle (MT) seed extract against cocaine toxicity. First, we investigated acute cytotoxicity induced by treatment with 2, 3 and 4 mM cocaine for 1 h in astroglial, liver and kidney cells in vitro, and then in living shrimp larvae in vivo. We showed that astroglial cells are more sensitive to cocaine than liver, kidney cells or larvae. Cocaine exposure disrupted the general architecture of astroglial cells, induced vacuolation, decreased cell viability, and depleted the glutathione (GSH) level. These changes may represent the underlying pathology of cocaine in the astrocytes. By contrast, MT pretreatment (200 µg/ml) for 30 min sustained the cell morphological features and increased both cell viability and the GSH level. Besides its protective effects, the MT extract was revealed to be non-toxic to astroglial cells, and displayed high free-radical scavenging activity. The results from this study suggest that enhanced GSH level underlies cell protection, and indicate that compounds that promote GSH synthesis in the cells may be beneficial against cocaine toxicity. PMID:25174449

  10. Orally delivered sour cherry seed extract (SCSE) affects cardiovascular and hematological parameters in humans.

    PubMed

    Csiki, Zoltan; Papp-Bata, Agnes; Czompa, Attila; Nagy, Aniko; Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Javor, Andras; Haines, David D; Balla, Gyorgy; Tosaki, Arpad

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of sour cherry seed extract (SCSE) on a variety of systemic processes that contribute to general health and viability of human subjects. The experiments were conducted according to a double-blind protocol in which six healthy individuals were administered 250-mg/day SCSE for 14?days, while four were treated with placebo. Peripheral blood was collected before and after the treatment period. Samples were analyzed for levels of selected cells, enzymes, or metabolites. Subjects that received SCSE showed increases in the values of mean cell volume, serum transferrin, mean peroxidase index, and representation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. On the other hand, decreases were observed in circulating neutrophils and ferritin levels. Changes observed in the present study do not fit into a clear pattern that might yield additional in-depth understanding of SCSE-mediated alterations in physiologic responses. The most encouraging result of the present study is the absence of any indication of toxicity by subjects consuming the extract. PMID:25640007

  11. Milk thistle seed extract protects rat C6 astroglial cells from acute cocaine toxicity

    PubMed Central

    BADISA, RAMESH B.; FITCH-PYE, CHERYL A.; AGHARAHIMI, MARYAM; PALM, DONALD E.; LATINWO, LEKAN M.; GOODMAN, CARL B.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine is a powerful addictive drug, widely abused in most Western countries. It easily reaches various domains within and outside of the central nervous system (CNS), and triggers varying levels of cellular toxicity. No pharmacological treatment is available to alleviate cocaine-induced toxicity in the cells without side-effects. Here, we discerned the role of milk thistle (MT) seed extract against cocaine toxicity. First, we investigated acute cytotoxicity induced by treatment with 2, 3 and 4 mM cocaine for 1 h in astroglial, liver and kidney cells in vitro, and then in living shrimp larvae in vivo. We showed that astroglial cells are more sensitive to cocaine than liver, kidney cells or larvae. Cocaine exposure disrupted the general architecture of astroglial cells, induced vacuolation, decreased cell viability, and depleted the glutathione (GSH) level. These changes may represent the underlying pathology of cocaine in the astrocytes. By contrast, MT pretreatment (200 ?g/ml) for 30 min sustained the cell morphological features and increased both cell viability and the GSH level. Besides its protective effects, the MT extract was revealed to be non-toxic to astroglial cells, and displayed high free-radical scavenging activity. The results from this study suggest that enhanced GSH level underlies cell protection, and indicate that compounds that promote GSH synthesis in the cells may be beneficial against cocaine toxicity. PMID:25174449

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coffea arabica seed extract and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Vivek; Soumya, L; Bharadwaj, S; Chakra, Shilpa; Bhatt, Deepika; Sreedhar, B

    2016-01-01

    A novel green source was opted to synthesize silver nanoparticles using dried roasted Coffea arabica seed extract. Bio-reduction of silver was complete when the mixture (AgNO3+extract) changed its color from light to dark brown. UV-vis spectroscopy result showed maximum adsorption at 459nm, which represents the characteristic surface plasmon resonance of nanosilver. X-ray crystal analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are highly crystalline and exhibit a cubic, face centered lattice with characteristic (111), (200), (220) and (311) orientations. Particles exhibit spherical and ellipsoidal shaped structures as observed from TEM. Composition analysis obtained from SEM-EDXA confirmed the presence of elemental signature of silver. FTIR results recorded a downward shift of absorption bands between 800-1500cm(-1) indicting the formation of silver nanoparticles. The mean particle size investigated using DLS was found to be in between 20-30nm respectively. Anti-bacterial activity of silver nanoparticles on E. coli and S. aureus demonstrated diminished bacterial growth with the development of well-defined inhibition zones. PMID:26478284

  13. Optimization of subcritical water extraction parameters of antioxidant polyphenols from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) seed residue.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ying; Zhang, Xiaofei; He, Li; Yan, Qiuli; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-03-01

    Polyphenols was extracted with subcritical water from the sea buckthorn seed residue (after oil recovery), and the extraction parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent processing variables were extraction temperature, extraction time and the ratio of water to solid. The optimal extraction parameters for the extracts with highest ABTS radical scavenging activity were 120 °C, 36 min and the water to solid ratio of 20, and the maximize antioxidant capacity value was 32.42 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolics, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins was 36.62 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, 19.98 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 10.76 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g, respectively. PMID:25745222

  14. Proanthocyanidin-Rich Date Seed Extract Protects Against Chemically Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qahtani, Jawaher H.; Al-Yousef, Hanan M.; Al-Said, Mansour S.; Ashour, AbdelKader E.; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A hydroacetone extract was prepared from seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. var. Khalas, which is an industrial by-product of date processing. The proanthocyanidin nature of the extract (coded as DTX) was characterized by phytochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The total phenol/proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity of DTX were estimated by Folin–Ciocalteu, vanillin-sulfuric acid, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. The hepatorenal protective activity of DTX was evaluated using CCl4-induced toxicity model in rats, in comparison with silymarin (SYL). Results of the histopathological examination and measurements of various hepatorenal serum indices and tissue biochemical markers demonstrated that DTX displayed marked protective potential against CCl4-induced liver and kidney injury at 100?mg/kg/rat. Relative to the control CCl4-intoxicated group, pretreatment with DTX significantly (P<.001) suppressed the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), bilirubin, creatinine, and calcium, whereas it significantly (P<.001) increased the diminished serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP). Moreover, DTX significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and increased TP synthesis in hepatorenal tissues compared with the intoxicated control. The improvement in biochemical parameters by DTX was observed in a dose-dependent manner and confirmed by restoration of normal histological features. The acute toxicity test of DTX in rats revealed safety of the extract. This study reveals that DTX enhances the recovery from xenobiotics-induced toxicity initiated by free radicals. PMID:25569813

  15. Proanthocyanidin-rich date seed extract protects against chemically induced hepatorenal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Atallah F; Al-Qahtani, Jawaher H; Al-Yousef, Hanan M; Al-Said, Mansour S; Ashour, AbdelKader E; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-03-01

    A hydroacetone extract was prepared from seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. var. Khalas, which is an industrial by-product of date processing. The proanthocyanidin nature of the extract (coded as DTX) was characterized by phytochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The total phenol/proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity of DTX were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu, vanillin-sulfuric acid, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. The hepatorenal protective activity of DTX was evaluated using CCl4-induced toxicity model in rats, in comparison with silymarin (SYL). Results of the histopathological examination and measurements of various hepatorenal serum indices and tissue biochemical markers demonstrated that DTX displayed marked protective potential against CCl4-induced liver and kidney injury at 100?mg/kg/rat. Relative to the control CCl4-intoxicated group, pretreatment with DTX significantly (P<.001) suppressed the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), bilirubin, creatinine, and calcium, whereas it significantly (P<.001) increased the diminished serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP). Moreover, DTX significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and increased TP synthesis in hepatorenal tissues compared with the intoxicated control. The improvement in biochemical parameters by DTX was observed in a dose-dependent manner and confirmed by restoration of normal histological features. The acute toxicity test of DTX in rats revealed safety of the extract. This study reveals that DTX enhances the recovery from xenobiotics-induced toxicity initiated by free radicals. PMID:25569813

  16. Chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nitharwal, Ramesh K; Patel, Hasit; Karchuli, Manvendra Singh; Ugale, Rajesh Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent, is used in the treatment of cancer owing to its broad-spectrum efficacy, its metabolites exhibit severe undesired toxicities in normal cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Rodents were orally pre-treated with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) for five consecutive days. On 5th day, these animals were injected with CP (50 mg/kg i.p) and sacrificed after 24 hrs. for the evaluation of oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, micronucleus formation, and chromosomal aberrations. Results: We found that the CP significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased catalase and glutathione (GSH) levels in brain, and it was significantly reversed by Coccinia indica extract (400 and 600 mg/kg). Further, pre-treatment with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced micronuclei formation and incidence of aberrant cells. We also found that the CP-induced increase in the serum biomarker enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced by Coccinia indica extract. Conclusion: Thus, the present results indicate the protective effect of Coccinia indica extract against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, as well as hepatotoxicity. PMID:24130387

  17. Changes in fatty acids composition during seed growth and physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from four safflower cultivars.

    PubMed

    Rahamatalla, A B; Babiker, E E; Krishna, A G; El Tinay, A H

    2001-01-01

    Fatty acid contents at different stages of maturity and physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from mature seeds of four safflower cultivars (S208, S400, S541, and S303) were studied. Results indicated that for all cultivars both saturated and unsaturated fatty acid contents fluctuated with seed growth and development. Palmitic acid content decreased up to day 20 after which it started to increase for the S400, S541, and S303 cultivars, while for S208 it progressively decreased. Stearic acid fluctuated with seed growth and development. Oleic acid showed slight changes with seed growth and development, while linoleic acid decreased with seed growth and development for the S400, S541, and S303 cultivars while for S208 after day 30, it started to increase significantly. For all cultivars, glyceride contents varied among the cultivars with maximum values of 97.70, 2.80 and 0.20 for tri-, di- and monoglycerides, respectively. Physicochemical investigation of mature seed oils showed that the color, density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, saponification value and unsaponifiable matter were similar for all cultivars while viscosity, iodine value, and acetone insoluble matter varied among the cultivars. PMID:11678443

  18. A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes

    PubMed Central

    Ramavandi, Bahman; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Kafaei, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1–3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na+ and K+), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: • According to the Hardy–Schulze rule, we applied the Fe3+ ions instead of Na+ and K+ for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds. • The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction). • Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes. PMID:26150999

  19. A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes.

    PubMed

    Ramavandi, Bahman; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Kafaei, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1-3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na(+) and K(+)), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: •According to the Hardy-Schulze rule, we applied the Fe(3+) ions instead of Na(+) and K(+) for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds.•The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction).•Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes. PMID:26150999

  20. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2015-12-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract. PMID:26604360

  1. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K; Gupta, V C

    2014-04-01

    A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16-10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11-12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11-6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K.; Gupta, V.C.

    2013-01-01

    A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16–10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11–12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11–6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

  3. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  4. Influence of Grape Seed Extract and Zinc Containing Multivitamin-Mineral Nutritional Food Supplement on Lipid Profile in Normal and Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zincovit tablet is combination of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement. Aims: To investigate the influence of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement tablets (Zincovit) on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets doses ranged from 40 to 160 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Results: Hypercholesterolemic animals treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (nutritional food supplement) at 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg exhibited drastic decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and rise of HDL-C in comparison to hypercholesterolemic control group animals. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet was comparable with the standard drug atorvastatin treated animals and the variations were statistically non-significant. There was no significant impact of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets on lipid profile among normal animals in comparison with normal control group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet is the potential functional nutritional food supplements that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats. PMID:25653967

  5. Docynia indica, Docynia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Docynia (Docynia indica [Well.] Decne, Rosaceae) is native to southeast Asia, from Vietnam through India and north into central China. While generally referred to as Docynia i...

  6. Grape Seed Extract Dose-Responsively Decreases Disease Severity in a Rat Model of Mucositis; Concomitantly Enhancing Chemotherapeutic Effectiveness in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Ker Yeaw; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Bastian, Susan Elaine Putnam

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mucositis is a serious disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that results from cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of increasing grape seed extract doses on the severity of chemotherapy in a rat model and its coincident impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells. Design Female Dark Agouti rats were gavaged with grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) or water (day 3–11) and were injected intraperitoneally with 5-Fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) on day 9 to induce mucositis. Daily metabolic data were collected and rats were sacrificed on day 12. Intestinal tissues were collected for histological and myeloperoxidase analyses. Caco-2 cell viability was examined in response to grape seed extract in combination with 5-Fluorouracil by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results Compared with 5-Fluorouracil controls, grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the histological damage score (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Grape seed extract (1000 mg/kg) increased jejunal crypt depth by 25% (P<0.05) in 5-Fluorouracil treated rats compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls, and attenuated the 5-Fluorouracil -induced reduction of mucosal thickness (25%, P<0.05). Grape seed extract (600 mg/kg) decreased myeloperoxidase activity by 55% (P<0.01) compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls. Grape seed extract was more effective at ameliorating 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal injury, with effects most pronounced in the proximal jejunum. Grape seed extract (10–25 ug/mL) significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-Fluorouracil by 26% (P<0.05) in Caco-2 cells and was more potent than 5-Fluorouracil at 50–100 µg/mL. Conclusion Grape seed extract may represent a new therapeutic option to decrease the symptoms of intestinal mucositis while concurrently impacting on the viability of colon cancer cells. PMID:24465501

  7. Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

    2014-02-15

    Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:24128509

  8. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, ?-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given. PMID:25745251

  9. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15?days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. PMID:25753342

  10. Development of phytovesicles containing triterpenoids from Samadera indica

    PubMed Central

    Viswanad, Vidya; Zachariah, Subin Mary; Sathi, Aiswarya; Aleykutty, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Samadera indica belonging to Simaroubaceae family is being used traditionally for many diseases including arthritis, edema, itching, skin diseases, constipation, and general debility. Objective: The effectiveness of any drug delivery system depends upon its ability to deliver the active components at therapeutic level. In this study, a novel phyto vesicular formulation for the enhanced topical delivery of methanol extract of S. indica in order to treat skin infections was developed. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract fraction of leaves of S. indica which showed more antifungal activity was purified to separate an antifungal compound. Phytovesicles were formulated using the more antifungal fraction in order to treat topical and deep seated fungal infections. Pytovesicles were prepared using 1:2 molar ratio of antifungal triterpenoid from S. indica (AFTSI)-phosphatidylcholine by film hydration method. Results and Discussion: Chloroform 100% fraction of methanol extract of S. indica showed more activity against the fungus Candida albicans. Further purification gave a fraction with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 15.6 mg/ml against C. albicans and showed positive test for triterpenoids. The fraction was named as AFTSI. A compound (20 mg) was isolated from this fraction at an RF value. The phytovesicle gel formulated using AFTSI showed enhanced skin permeability and antifungal activity. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the phytovesicular gel developed using methanol extract of S. indica would be beneficial for treating deep seated fungal infections. PMID:25829791

  11. Ameliorative Potential of Tamarindus indica on High Fat Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Ariyattu Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180?mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:24688399

  12. Ameliorative potential of Tamarindus indica on high fat diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair Ariyattu; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:24688399

  13. Use of Moringa oleifera seed extracts to reduce helminth egg numbers and turbidity in irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mita E; Keraita, Bernard; Olsen, Annette; Boateng, Osei K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Pálsdóttir, Guðný R; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Water from wastewater-polluted streams and dug-outs is the most commonly used water source for irrigation in urban farming in Ghana, but helminth parasite eggs in the water represent health risks when used for crop production. Conventional water treatment is expensive, requires advanced technology and often breaks down in less developed countries so low cost interventions are needed. Field and laboratory based trials were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extracts in reducing helminh eggs and turbidity in irrigation water, turbid water, wastewater and tap water. In medium to high turbid water MO extracts were effective in reducing the number of helminth eggs by 94-99.5% to 1-2 eggs per litre and the turbidity to 7-11 NTU which is an 85-96% reduction. MO is readily available in many tropical countries and can be used by farmers to treat high turbid water for irrigation, however, additional improvements of water quality, e.g. by sand filtration, is suggested to meet the guideline value of ? 1 helminth egg per litre and a turbidity of ? 2 NTU as recommended by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water intended for irrigation. A positive correlation was established between reduction in turbidity and helminth eggs in irrigation water, turbid water and wastewater treated with MO. This indicates that helminth eggs attach to suspended particles and/or flocs facilitated by MO in the water, and that turbidity and helminth eggs are reduced with the settling flocs. However, more experiments with water samples containing naturally occurring helminth eggs are needed to establish whether turbidity can be used as a proxy for helminth eggs. PMID:22546609

  14. Cytoprotective Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Human Gingival Fibroblasts in Relation to Its Antioxidant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Katsuda, Yusuke; Niwano, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Takuji; Mokudai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Keisuke; Oizumi, Satomi; Kanno, Taro; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cytoprotective effects of short-term treatment with grape seed extract (GSE) upon human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) were evaluated in relation to its antioxidant properties and compared with those of a water-soluble analog of vitamin E: trolox (Tx). GSE and Tx showed comparable antioxidant potential in vitro against di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH; a stable radical), hydroxyl radical (•OH), singlet oxygen (1O2), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pretreatment or concomitant treatment with GSE for 1 min protected hGFs from oxidative stressors, including H2O2, acid-electrolyzed water (AEW), and 1O2, and attenuated the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species induced by H2O2 and AEW. Tx also reduced the H2O2- and AEW-induced intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species, but showed no cytoprotective effects on hGFs exposed to H2O2, AEW, or 1O2. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effects of GSE are likely exerted independently of its antioxidant potential. PMID:26258747

  15. Structure and rheological properties of a xyloglucan extracted from Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril seeds.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Isabel R S; Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Santos, Gustavo R C; Silva, Alexandre G; Mourão, Paulo A S; Correia, Maria T S; Vicente, António A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2015-02-01

    Hymenaea courbaril var courbaril seed xyloglucan was efficiently extracted with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation (yield=72±5% w/w). Its amorphous structure was identified by the pattern of X-ray diffraction. The monosaccharide composition was determined by GC/MS analysis of the alditol acetates and showed the occurrence of glucose:xylose:galactose:arabinose (40:34:20:6). One-(1D) and two-dimensional-(2D) NMR spectra confirmed a central backbone composed by 4-linked ?-glucose units partially branched at position 6 with non-reducing terminal units of ?-xylose or ?-galactose-(1?2)-?-xylose disaccharides. The xyloglucan solution was evaluated by dynamic light scattering and presents a polydisperse and practically neutral profile, and at 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) the solutions behave as a viscoelastic fluid. The polysaccharide did not show significant antibacterial or hemolytic activities. Overall our results indicate that xyloglucan from H. courbaril is a promising polysaccharide for food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25450047

  16. Factors Influencing Oral Bioavailability of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract and Its Key Phenolic Principles.

    PubMed

    Jiamboonsri, Pimsumon; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Yin, Taijun; Gao, Song; Hu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Mango seed kernel extract (MSKE) and its key components (gallic acid, GA; methyl gallate, MG; and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, PGG) have generated interest because of their pharmacological activities. To develop the potential use of the key components in MSKE as natural therapeutic agents, their pharmacokinetic data are necessary. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the factors affecting their oral bioavailability as pure compounds and as components in MSKE. The in vitro chemical stability, biological stability, and absorption were evaluated in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution, Caco-2 cell and rat fecal lysates, and the Caco-2 cell model, respectively. The in vivo oral pharmacokinetic behavior was elucidated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The key components were unstable under alkaline conditions and in Caco-2 cell lysates or rat fecal lysates. The absorptive permeability coefficient followed the order MG > GA > PGG. The in vivo results exhibited similar pharmacokinetic trends to the in vitro studies. Additionally, the co-components in MSKE may affect the pharmacokinetic behaviors of the key components in MSKE. In conclusion, chemical degradation under alkaline conditions, biological degradation by intestinal cell and colonic microflora enzymes, and low absorptive permeability could be important factors underlying the oral bioavailability of these polyphenols. PMID:26633325

  17. Celery Seed Extract Blocks Peroxide Injury in Macrophages via Notch1/NF-?B Pathway.

    PubMed

    Si, Yanhong; Guo, Shoudong; Fang, Yongqi; Qin, Shucun; Li, Furong; Zhang, Ying; Jiao, Peng; Zhang, Chunduo; Gao, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced macrophage foam cell formation and injury is one of the major atherogenic factors. This study is aimed to investigate the protective effect of celery seed extract (CSE) on ox-LDL-induced injury of macrophages and the underlying signaling pathway. RAW264.7 macrophages were pre-incubated with CSE for 24 h, followed by stimulation with ox-LDL. Oil red O staining and enzymatic colorimetry indicated CSE significantly lessened lipid droplets and total cholesterol (TC) content in ox-LDL-injured macrophages. ELISA revealed that CSE decreased the secretion of inflammatory cytokine TNF-? and IL-6 by 12-27% and 5-15% respectively. MTT assay showed CSE promoted cell viability by 16-40%. Cell apoptosis was also analyzed by flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscope and the data indicated CSE inhibited ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of macrophages. Meanwhile, western blot analysis showed CSE suppressed NF-?Bp65 and notch1 protein expressions stimulated by ox-LDL in macrophages. These results suggest that CSE inhibits ox-LDL-induced macrophages injury via notch1/NF-?B pathway. PMID:25916469

  18. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin [IL]-1?, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed. PMID:24063406

  19. Evaluation of Physiological Activities of the Citron (Citrus junos Sieb. ex TANAKA) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Citron seed extracts (CSEs) were made using distilled water (CSEW), ethanol (CSEE), and n-hexane (CSEH), to measure the total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The total polyphenol content was observed the highest in CSEE (188.71 ?g/mL), and occurred in the following order: CSEE>CSEW (141.11 ?g/mL)>CSEH (26.19 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL. CSEE (63.56%) and CSEW (56.61%) showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activities when compared with CSEH (28.57%). ABTS radical scavenging activities of CSEE (45.53%) and CSEW (40.02%) were also observed to be higher, whereas CSEH did not show ABTS radical scavenging activity. Anti-complementary activity of CSEE (26.85%) showed a greater activity than that of CSEW (7.84%) at 1,000 ?g/mL. Limonin and nomilin contents had the highest values (1.882% and 2.089%) in CSEE, and with 0.327% and 0.139% in CSEW; however, CSEH showed relatively very low values at 0.061% and 0.026%, respectively. Among the CSEs tested, CSEE as a by-product from citron may provide an important source of dietary antioxidant compounds with rich polyphenol and limonoid contents, and immunopotentiating activity, including the complement activation factor. PMID:24471132

  20. Resveratrol Derivative-Rich Melinjo Seed Extract Attenuates Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Izuo, Naotaka; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative damages induced by a redox imbalance cause age-related changes in cells and tissues. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes play a pivotal role in the antioxidant system and they also catalyze superoxide radicals. Since the loss of cytoplasmic SOD (SOD1) resulted in aging-like phenotypes in several types of murine tissue, SOD1 is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon Linn) seed extract (MSE) contains trans-resveratrol (RSV) and resveratrol derivatives, including gnetin C, gnemonoside A, and gnemonoside D. MSE intake also exerts no adverse events in human study. In the present studies, we investigated protective effects of MSE on age-related skin pathologies in mice. Orally MSE and RSV treatment reversed the skin thinning associated with increased oxidative damage in the Sod1?/? mice. Furthermore, MSE and RSV normalized gene expression of Col1a1 and p53 and upregulated gene expression of Sirt1 in skin tissues. In vitro experiments revealed that RSV significantly promoted the viability of Sod1?/? fibroblasts. These finding demonstrated that RSV in MSE stably suppressed an intrinsic superoxide generation in vivo and in vitro leading to protecting skin damages. RSV derivative-rich MSE may be a powerful food of treatment for age-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damages. PMID:26180586

  1. Efficacy of grape seed and skin extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safouen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2015-11-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline used in chemotherapy, although it causes toxicity and oxidative stress. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a mixture of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. To evaluate the hepato-toxicity of Dox on healthy rats as well as the protective effect of GSSE, rats were treated with GSSE (500mg/kg bw) during 8 days. At the 4th day of treatment, they received a single dose of Dox (20 mg/kg bw). After the treatment (9th day), livers were collected and processed for oxidative stress status. Dox increased MDA (+ 900%), decreased catalase (-60%) and increased peroxidase (+90%) and superoxide dismutase (+100%) activities. In this latter case Dox mainly increased the iron isoform. Furthermore Dox altered intracellular mediators as catalytic free iron (-75%), H2O2 (-75%) and calcium (+30%). Dox also affected liver function by elevating plasma triacylglycerol and transaminases and liver morphology by altering its typical architecture. Importantly all Dox-induced liver disturbances were alleviated upon GSSE treatment. Dox induced liver toxicity and an oxidative stress mainly characterized by increased lipoperoxidation but not protein carbonylation. GSSE efficiently protected the liver from Dox-induced toxicity and appeared as a safe adjuvant that could be incorporated into chemotherapy protocols. PMID:26639474

  2. Proanthocyanidin from Grape Seed Extracts Protects Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Mucosal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Proanthocyanidin (grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts, GSPEs) is an antioxidant and scavenges free radicals. Excessive oxidative stress and free radical production are major components in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. We investigated the effect of GSPEs on indomethacin-induced intestinal mucosal injury in the rat. Rats were allocated into four groups: the null control group, the indomethacin control group, the low-dose GSPEs group, and the high-dose GSPEs group. GSPEs were administered for 4 days. Then indomethacin and GSPEs were coadministered for the following 2 days by oral route. The dose of indomethacin was 200?mg/Kg. The doses of GSPEs were 100?mg/Kg for low-dose group and 300?mg/Kg for high-dose group. Luminal bleeding was solely observed in one of 5 rats from indomethacin control group. The number of ulcer count was reduced to 0.1 ± 0.3 per rat in GSPEs treated group compared to 1.4 ± 0.5 per rat in indomethacin control group. Submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration was also reduced to 50% in GSPEs treated group. The tissue level of prostaglandin E2 was not affected by GSPEs treatment. GSPEs attenuated the indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury irrespective of the tissue PGE2 depletion and glutathione consumption. PMID:24868202

  3. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini seed extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prasad, C. H.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

    2014-09-01

    A novel and bio-inspired Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) were synthesized using Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) seed extract, which is a non-toxic ecofriendly fruit waste material. S. cumini seed extract acts as a green solvent, reducing and capping agent in which sodium acetate acts as electrostatic stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis techniques. The XRD study divulged that the synthesized SMNPs have inverse spinel cubic structure. The hysteresis loop of Fe3O4 nanoparticles shows an excellent ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization value of 13.6 emu/g.

  4. Oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol retention in soybean oil with lemon seed extract (Citrus limon) under thermoxidation.

    PubMed

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2009-11-01

    The synergistic effect of lemon seed extract with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in soybean oil subjected to thermoxidation by Rancimat was investigated, and the influence of these antioxidants on a-tocopherol degradation in thermoxidized soybean oil. Control, LSE (2400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract), TBHQ (50 mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180 degrees C for 20 h. Samples were taken at time 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analysed for oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol content. LSE and Mixtures 1 and 2 showed the capacity of retarding lipid oxidation when added to soya oil and also contributed to alpha-tocopherol retention in oil heated at high temperatures. However, Mixtures 1 and 2 added to the oil presented a greater antioxidant power, consequently proving the antioxidants synergistic effect. PMID:19967989

  5. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting Arabidopsis thaliana seed morphology features extracted computationally from images.

    PubMed

    Moore, Candace R; Gronwall, David S; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P

    2013-01-01

    Seeds are studied to understand dispersal and establishment of the next generation, as units of agricultural yield, and for other important reasons. Thus, elucidating the genetic architecture of seed size and shape traits will benefit basic and applied plant biology research. This study sought quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the size and shape of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds by computational analysis of seed phenotypes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the small-seeded Landsberg erecta × large-seeded Cape Verde Islands accessions. On the order of 10(3) seeds from each recombinant inbred line were automatically measured with flatbed photo scanners and custom image analysis software. The eight significant QTL affecting seed area explained 63% of the variation, and overlapped with five of the six major-axis (length) QTL and three of the five minor-axis (width) QTL, which accounted for 57% and 38% of the variation in those traits, respectively. Because the Arabidopsis seed is exalbuminous, lacking an endosperm at maturity, the results are relatable to embryo length and width. The Cvi allele generally had a positive effect of 2.6-4.0%. Analysis of variance showed heritability of the three traits ranged between 60% and 73%. Repeating the experiment with 2.2 million seeds from a separate harvest of the RIL population and approximately 0.5 million seeds from 92 near-isogenic lines confirmed the aforementioned results. Structured for download are files containing phenotype measurements, all sets of seed images, and the seed trait measuring tool. PMID:23316443

  6. The enhancing effects of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on fertility potential, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Parandin, Rahmatollah; Yousofvand, Namdar; Ghorbani, Rostam

    2012-01-01

    Background: The task force on plants for fertility regulation in men continued with its program to identify novel prototypes in plants alleged to have fertility regulating properties. Nigella Sativa seeds are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and treatment of many ailments. Objective: To evaluated the role of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on fertility potential, Pituitary-testicular axis hormones and Testosterone in male rats. Materials and Methods: 24 male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; control, group A and group B, each group comprising of 8 rats. Animals in control group received 1 ml of normal saline and treatment groups (A and B) received (gavage) graded doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on a daily basis for 60 days. At the end of treatment period, fertility parameters such as body and reproductive organs weight, sperm motility, viability and count, epididymal sperm reserve (ESR), daily sperm production (DSP), blood testosterone concentration, Gonadotropins levels and fertility index were measured. Results: There was a significant difference in testes and epididymidis weight, sperm count, ESR, DSP, blood testosterone concentration, LH and fertility index in both the lower dose group and the higher group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed especially in higher doses could increase fertility potential, LH and testosterone concentration in male rats. PMID:25246898

  7. Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction and Quantification of Alpinetin in Amomum Seed using Validated HPLC and HPTLC Methods

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M.; Kamal, Y. T.; Khan, M. A.; Parveen, Rabea; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, S.

    2015-01-01

    Alpinetin is a flavonoidal constituent of seeds of Amomum subulatum Roxb., recently reported to possess vasorelaxant and antiHIV activities. Simple, accurate and precise HPLC and HPTLC methods were developed for the analysis of alpinetin in A. subulatum seed extracts and extraction technique was optimized to get maximum yield using conventional, ultrasonic and matrix solid phase dispersion extraction. HPLC was performed on a C18 column with methanol and water (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min whereas HPTLC on silica aluminum sheet (60F254) using toluene, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as solvent system. A sharp peak was obtained for alpinetin at a retention time (Rt) of 5.7 min by HPLC and retardation factor (Rf) of 0.48 by HPTLC. Both methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines and the content of alpinetin was estimated in different extracts. Matrix solid phase dispersion technique was found most suitable for extracting alpinetin as compared to other techniques. Validation data are indicative of good precision and accuracy and proved the reliability of the methods. PMID:25767318

  8. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation. PMID:23295454

  9. Insecticidal activities of bark, leaf and seed extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Hans J; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl E; Wangensteen, Helle; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Paulsen, Berit S; Massamba, Daniel; Duchon, Stephane; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii) is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis]), a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis), and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis). The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female), but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides. PMID:25525826

  10. Postprandial blood glucose response to grape seed extract in healthy participants: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sapwarobol, Suwimol; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Changpeng, Sawitree; Ratanawachirin, Wilwan; Tanruttanawong, Kanokporn; Boonyarit, Waridtha

    2012-01-01

    Background: The consumption of a high carbohydrate diet may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Previous studies in vitro have revealed that grape seed extract (GSE) inhibited the intestinal ?-glucosidases and ?-pancreatic amylase that may delay carbohydrate digestion and absorption, resulting in the suppression of postprandial glycemia. The objective of the study was to assess whether consumption of GSE together with high carbohydrate meal affects postprandial glycemia in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: The study used acute, randomized, controlled crossover design in which eight healthy subjects (four female and four male, mean aged 21.25 ± 3.69 years; body mass index =20.28 ± 1.40 kg/m2) received high carbohydrate (HC) meal (73.6 %) together with or without 100 and 300 mg GSE. Results: Results showed that postprandial plasma glucose concentrations at 15 min and 30 min after ingestion HC meal together with 100 mg GSE (5.33 ± 0.41 mmol/L and 5.62 ± 0.47 mmol/L, respectively) and 300 mg GSE (5.27 ± 0.29 mmol/L; 5.75 ± 0.44 mmol/L, respectively) were significantly lower than that of HC meal (P<0.05). There was statistically significant difference in the 2 h area under the glucose response curve between HC meal and HC meal plus GSE. Conclusions: GSE reduces postprandial plasma glucose in healthy participants. The delayed and attenuated hyperglycemia may have a useful strategy to prevent development of diabetes in the healthy population. PMID:23060692

  11. Tamarind seed extract mitigates the liver oxidative stress in arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Mahalingam Shanmuga; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Thushara, Ram M; Santhosh, Martin Sebastin; Kumar, Somanathapura K Naveen; Paul, Manoj; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Girish, Kesturu S

    2014-03-01

    Although arthritis is primarily a joint disorder that mainly targets the articular cartilage and subchondral bone, several recent investigations have reported oxidative burst and vital organ damage that are being considered as secondary complications of arthritis. The continuous generation of free radicals like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is considered as a key culprit in the initiation and propagation of oxidative damage. In addition, activation of T and B cells, macrophages, inflammatory mediators such as TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 aggravates the oxidative damage of the vital organs, particularly the liver. The current piece of work demonstrates oxidative stress in the liver of arthritic rats and its amelioration by the procyanidin-rich tamarind seed extract (TSE). The arthritic liver homogenate, mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions were found with increased levels of oxidative stress markers including free radicals. As a consequence, depletion in the levels of glutathione, total thiols, glutathione peroxidase and reductase was evident. Furthermore, the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were found to be significantly altered. The increased and decreased activity of transaminases respectively in serum and liver, along with histological observations, further confirms the liver damage. Unfortunately, the commonly used drugs like NSAIDs and DMARDs have failed to prevent oxidative damage, rather they were found to be the inducers themselves. Interestingly, TSE supplementation was found to significantly inhibit oxidative burst in the liver and maintain homeostasis. Thus, the study clearly demonstrates the protective efficacy of TSE against arthritis-associated oxidative liver damage, including mitochondrial oxidative burst and its associated secondary complications. PMID:24500568

  12. Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seed extract suppresses breast cancer growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Yanping; Yang, Xiaoyan Ou; Zhan, Yingzhuan

    2015-10-01

    The herb Momordica cochinchinensis has been used for a variety of purposes, and been shown to have anti?cancer properties. The present study assessed the potency and the underlying mechanisms of action of the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (ESMC2) on breast cancer cells. Therefore, the effects of ESMC2 on the cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of MDA?MB?231 cells were investigated. The results showed that ESMC2 exerted a marked growth inhibitory effect on the cells. Cell cycle arrest in G2 phase following treatment with ESMC2 was associated with a marked increase in the protein levels of cyclin B1, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and a decrease in cyclin D1 expression. In addition, ESMC2 dose?dependently induced cell apoptosis, which was mediated via upregulation of the apoptosis-associated proteins p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2)?associated X protein, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer and Bcl-2-associated death promoter expression, as well as downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B, Bcl?2 and myeloid cell leukemia?1. Furthermore, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt phosphorylation were decreased by ESMC2 in a dose?dependent manner, indicating that ESMC2 exerted its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/JNK pathway. Furthermore, nude mouse xenotransplant models were used to evaluate the tumor growth inhibitory effects of ESMC2. The possible chemical components of ESMC2 were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 12 compounds were detected from the major peaks based on the similarity index with entries of a compound database. The results of the present study may aid in the development of novel therapies for breast cancer. PMID:26252798

  13. Beneficial clinical effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the progression of carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ai-Hong; Wang, Jian; Gao, Hai-Qing; Zhang, Ping; Qiu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic plaques indicate the occurrence of ischemia events and it is a difficult task for clinical physicians. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to exert an antiatherogenic effect by inducing regression of atherosclerotic plaques in animal experimental studies. In this study, the antiatherogenic effect of GSPE has been investigated in clinical use. Methods Consecutive 287 patients diagnosed with asymptomatic carotid plaques or abnormal plaque free carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were randomly assigned to the GSPE group (n = 146) or control group (n = 141). The patients in the GSPE group received GSPE 200 mg per day orally, while patients in the control group were only enrolled in a lifestyle intervention program. Carotid ultrasound examination was performed at baseline and 6, 12, 24 months during follow-up. Mean maximum CIMT (MMCIMT), plaque score, echogenicity of plaques and ischemic vascular events were recorded. Results As anticipated, after treatment, GSPE resulted in significant reduction in MMCIMT progression (4.2% decrease after six months, 4.9% decrease after 12 months and 5.8% decrease after 24 months) and plaque score (10.9% decrease after six months, 24.1% decrease after 12 months and 33.1% decrease after 24 months) for the primary outcome, while MMCIMT and plaque score were stable and even increased with the time going on in control group. The number of plaques and unstable plaques also decreased after treatment of GSPE. Furthermore, the carotid plaque can disappear after treatment with GSPE. The incidence rate for transitory ischemic attack (TIA), arterial revascularization procedure, and hospital readmission for unstable angina in GSPE group were statistically significant lower (P = 0.02, 0.08, 0.002, respectively) compared with the control group. Conclusions GSPE inhibited the progression of MMCIMT and reduced carotid plaque size in GSPE treated patients, and with extended treatment, the superior efficacy on MMCIMT and carotid plaque occurred. Furthermore, the GSPE group showed lower rates of clinical vascular events. PMID:26345394

  14. PILOT-SCALE FULL PRESS OIL EXTRACTION OF CUPHEA PSR23 SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid Cuphea hybrid, is being developed as a potential commercial alternative source of medium chain fatty acids. This study evaluated the effects of initial seed moisture and final moisture of cooked flaked seeds (CFS) on press performance and oil quality. S...

  15. Extracting tissue and cell outlines of Arabidopsis seeds using refraction contrast X-ray CT at the SPring-8 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Hayami, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Karahara, Ichirou; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2012-07-01

    How biological form is determined is one of the important questions in developmental biology. Physical forces are thought to be the primary determinants of the biological forms, and several theories for this were proposed nearly a century ago. To evaluate how physical forces can influence biological forms, precise determination of cell and tissue shapes and their geometries is necessary. Computed tomography (CT) is useful for visualizing three-dimensional structures without destroying a sample. Because recent progress in micro-CT has enabled visualizing cells and tissues at the sub-micron level, we investigated if we could extract cell and tissue outlines of seeds using refraction contrast X-ray CT available at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. We used Arabidopsis seeds because Arabidopsis is a well-known model plant and its seed size is small enough to obtain whole images using the X-ray CT experimental system. We could trace the outlines of tissues in dry seeds using beamline BL20B2 (10 keV, 2.4µm.pixel-1). Although we could also detect the outlines of some cell types, the image resolution was not adequate to extract whole cell edges. To detect the edges of cells in the epidermis and cortex, we obtained CT images using beamline BL20XU (8 keV, 0.5 µm.pixel-1). With these CT images, we could extract the facets and edges of each cell and determine cell vertices. This method enabled us to compare the numbers of cell facets among various cell types. We could also describe cell geometry as a set of points that showed these cell vertices.

  16. Efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract in Reducing Metabolic and Inflammatory Alterations Associated With Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Abedinzade, Mahmood; Nasri, Sima; Jamal Omodi, Masome; Ghasemi, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several experimental and clinical studies support beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) in the management of metabolic diseases and inflammatory disorders. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of T. foenum-graecum seed extract in reducing the metabolic and inflammatory alternations associated with menopause. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 49 rats were divided into seven groups: (I) sham-control, (II) ovariectomized-control, (III and IV) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum seed ethanolic extract, (V and VI) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum hexanic extract, (VII) ovariectomized-positive control treated with 10 µg/kg of estradiol. The extracts were injected intraperitoneally one day after ovariectomy and the treatments were lasted for 42 days. Results: Fasting blood glucose and body weight gain increased significantly in the ovariectomized-control group compared with that in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Administration of estradiol and T. foenum-graecum (50 and 150 mg/dL of hexanic extract and 150 mg/kg of ethanolic extract) significantly diminished the increase in glucose and body weight (P < 0.05). The serum level of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in the ovariectomized control group was significantly higher than those in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Both hexanic and ethanolic extracts as well as estradiol were able to decrease level of these cytokines in the serum of ovariectomized rats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study show that administration of T. foenum-graecum corrects metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with ovariectomy and has a potential for the management of menopause.

  17. Short- and long-term effects of various Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Zerriouh, Bouchra Hanane; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Hupkens, Emeline; Boucherit, Zahia; Malaisse, Willy J

    2012-12-01

    In the light of previous findings, the major aim of the present study was to investigate the potential beneficial effects of various Citrullus colocynthis L. seed extracts on such variables as glucose tolerance, body weight gain, pancreas, liver, kidney, testis, epididymal fat and diaphragm muscle weight, as well as serum cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, creatinine, transaminases and alkaline phosphatase concentrations in an animal model of type-1 diabetes mellitus, i.e. streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. For purpose of comparison, a comparable study was conducted in normal rats. Both the immediate and long-term effects of the plant extracts were assessed in rats injected daily, up to 3 weeks after the start of the experiments. The results of this study reinforce the view that both a crude aqueous extract and a n-butanol extract from the Citrullus colocynthis L. seeds may represent the best candidates in order to eventually identify a component suitable for the treatment of both type-1 and type-2 diabetic subjects. PMID:22992982

  18. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shailesh Kumar; Chhabra, Gagan; Sharma, Dipali; Vashishta, Aruna; Ohri, Sujata; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15?mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11?kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s) which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects. PMID:23320026

  19. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500?mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600??g/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:25852767

  20. Protective effect of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A

    2014-10-01

    Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:24124763

  1. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Securigera securidaca seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Ziba; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Moradi, Reyhaneh; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Saghebi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperlipidemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. Lowering of serum lipid levels seems to be associated with a decrease in the risk of vascular disease and related complications. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Securigera securidaca seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: Control, diabetic, and diabetic rats treated with the Securigera extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. The animals were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin. Diabetic rats received the Securigera extract daily in drinking water from the day on which diabetes was confirmed for 4 weeks. The levels of serum glucose and lipids were spectrophotometrically measured in all groups at weeks 0 (before diabetes induction), 2, and 4. Results: The results showed that there was a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, accompanied by a decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Treatment of diabetic rats with S. securidaca seed extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg over a 4-week period significantly reduced the levels of serum glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol and increased the level of HDL-cholesterol, compared to diabetic untreated rats. Conclusions: Securigera extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in streptozotocin-diabetic rats during the 4-week treatment period. This provides a valid scientific basis for using it in the treatment of diabetes in Iranian folk medicine. PMID:25709998

  2. Adverse Effects of Grape Seed Extract Supplement: A Clinical Case and Long-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Berry, Andrew C; Nakshabendi, Rahman; Abidali, Hussein; Atchaneeyasakul, Kunakorn; Dholaria, Kevin; Johnson, Cassandra; Kishore, Varsha A; Baltz, Aaron C

    2016-03-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) supplement use is becoming more popular today for its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic role. We report a 49-year-old male who presented with recurrent nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and acute weakness following GSE use. A thorough medical workup ensued and no causes were identified clinically, procedurally, or with imaging. Symptoms resolved after GSE discontinuation and the patient remained symptom-free 5 years later. This case illustrates the paucity of documented detailed clinical cases and lack of controlled trials detailing a thorough and reproducible adverse effect profile of GSE supplement. PMID:25688637

  3. Influence of Chemical Extraction on Rheological Behavior, Viscoelastic Properties and Functional Characteristics of Natural Heteropolysaccharide/Protein Polymer from Durio zibethinus Seed

    PubMed Central

    Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the demand for a natural plant-based polymer with potential functions from plant sources has increased considerably. The main objective of the current study was to study the effect of chemical extraction conditions on the rheological and functional properties of the heteropolysaccharide/protein biopolymer from durian (Durio zibethinus) seed. The efficiency of different extraction conditions was determined by assessing the extraction yield, protein content, solubility, rheological properties and viscoelastic behavior of the natural polymer from durian seed. The present study revealed that the soaking process had a more significant (p < 0.05) effect than the decolorizing process on the rheological and functional properties of the natural polymer. The considerable changes in the rheological and functional properties of the natural polymer could be due to the significant (p < 0.05) effect of the chemical extraction variables on the protein fraction present in the molecular structure of the natural polymer from durian seed. The natural polymer from durian seed had a more elastic (or gel like) behavior compared to the viscous (liquid like) behavior at low frequency. The present study revealed that the natural heteropolysaccharide/protein polymer from durian seed had a relatively low solubility ranging from 9.1% to 36.0%. This might be due to the presence of impurities, insoluble matter and large particles present in the chemical structure of the natural polymer from durian seed. PMID:23203099

  4. Biosynthesis of silver fine particles and particles decorated with nanoparticles using the extract of Illicium verum (star anise) seeds.

    PubMed

    Luna, Carlos; Chávez, V H G; Barriga-Castro, Enrique Díaz; Núñez, Nuria O; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel

    2015-04-15

    Given the upsurge of new technologies based on nanomaterials, the development of sustainable methods to obtain functional nanostructures has become an imperative task. In this matter, several recent researches have shown that the biodegradable natural antioxidants of several plant extracts can be used simultaneously as reducing and stabilizing agents in the wet chemical synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, opening new opportunities to design greener synthesis. However, the challenge of these new techniques is to produce stable colloidal nanoparticles with controlled particle uniformity, size, shape and aggregation state, in similar manner than the well-established synthetic methods. In the present work, colloidal metallic silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using silver nitrate and extracts of Illicium verum (star anise) seeds at room temperature in a facile one-step procedure. The resulting products were colloidal suspensions of two populations of silver nanoparticles, one of them with particle sizes of few nanometers and the other with particles of tens of nm. Strikingly, the variation of the AgNO3/extract weight ratio in the reaction medium yielded to the variation of the spatial distribution of the nanoparticles: high AgNO3/extract concentration ratios yielded to randomly dispersed particles, whereas for lower AgNO3/extract ratios, the biggest particles appeared coated with the finest nanoparticles. This biosynthesized colloidal system, with controlled particle aggregation states, presents plasmonic and SERS properties with potential applications in molecular sensors and nanophotonic devices. PMID:25659741

  5. Retardation of post-mortem changes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stored in ice by legume seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji; Yoshida, Asami

    2012-11-15

    Meat quality of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts at different concentrations was monitored during 10 days of iced storage. During storage, the control sample (without treatment) had a higher pH, TCA-soluble peptide content, heat soluble collagen content, proteolytic activities and psychrophilic bacterial count than did samples treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts. Conversely, shear force value and likeness scores of the control sample decreased (p<0.05), more likely associated with softening of muscle. The decrease in myosin heavy chain in the control sample was found after 6 days of storage. However, no changes in protein patterns of samples treated with soybean extracts at 2.5 mg/mL were found after 10 days of storage. Therefore, the injections of legume seed extracts, especially soybean extract, at a sufficient concentration, could be a means to retard muscle softening and maintain the qualities of freshwater prawn during iced storage. PMID:22868130

  6. Effect of flavonoids and saponins extracted from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed coats as cholesterol micelle disruptors.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2013-12-01

    Strategies for reducing plasma cholesterol have been focused on reducing the absorption or synthesis of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to correlate the content of flavonoids and saponins in black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed coats extracts with a potential effect in lowering cholesterol absorption by the inhibition of cholesterol micellar solubility. Extracts with different flavonoids and saponins concentration were obtained from a Box-Behnken design used to optimize extraction temperature, stirring time and solvent composition. Major flavonoids and saponins were quantified by HPLC-PDA-ELSD and confirmed through mass spectrometry. Contrary to the flavonoid content, saponins were correlated to the inhibitory effect of cholesterol micelle solubility as an approach to a potential reduction of cholesterol absorption. Extracts with the highest saponin content strongly inhibited cholesterol micellization with values of 55.4?±?1.9 %, while stigmasterol used as control, only reached 12?±?2.3 % at the same concentration (5 mg/ml). The optimal extracting conditions for saponins were 25 °C, during 3 h in 85 % aqueous-methanol. Correlations of inhibitory effect of cholesterol micellar solubility with the content of each identified saponin suggested that the reduction of cholesterol micellization depends on the C-22 substitution of saponins. PMID:24062217

  7. Biosynthesis of silver fine particles and particles decorated with nanoparticles using the extract of Illicium verum (star anise) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Carlos; Chávez, V. H. G.; Barriga-Castro, Enrique Díaz; Núñez, Nuria O.; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel

    2015-04-01

    Given the upsurge of new technologies based on nanomaterials, the development of sustainable methods to obtain functional nanostructures has become an imperative task. In this matter, several recent researches have shown that the biodegradable natural antioxidants of several plant extracts can be used simultaneously as reducing and stabilizing agents in the wet chemical synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, opening new opportunities to design greener synthesis. However, the challenge of these new techniques is to produce stable colloidal nanoparticles with controlled particle uniformity, size, shape and aggregation state, in similar manner than the well-established synthetic methods. In the present work, colloidal metallic silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using silver nitrate and extracts of Illicium verum (star anise) seeds at room temperature in a facile one-step procedure. The resulting products were colloidal suspensions of two populations of silver nanoparticles, one of them with particle sizes of few nanometers and the other with particles of tens of nm. Strikingly, the variation of the AgNO3/extract weight ratio in the reaction medium yielded to the variation of the spatial distribution of the nanoparticles: high AgNO3/extract concentration ratios yielded to randomly dispersed particles, whereas for lower AgNO3/extract ratios, the biggest particles appeared coated with the finest nanoparticles. This biosynthesized colloidal system, with controlled particle aggregation states, presents plasmonic and SERS properties with potential applications in molecular sensors and nanophotonic devices.

  8. Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Chhavi; Vas, Andrea J.; Goala, Payal; Gheewala, Taher M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE) alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1). ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2) in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers. PMID:24624140

  9. An improved method for extraction of high-quality total RNA from oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Rayani, Azadeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Seeds of oilseed plants that contain large amounts of oil, polysaccharides, proteins and polyphenols are not amenable to conventional RNA isolation protocols. The presence of these substances affects the quality and quantity of isolated nucleic acids. Here, a rapid and efficient RNA isolation protocol that, in contrast to other methods tested, allows high purify, integrity and yield of total RNA from seeds of sesame, corn, sunflower, flax and rapeseed was developed. The average yields of total RNA from 70 mg oil seeds ranged from 84 to 310 µg with A260/A280 between 1.9 and 2.08. The RNA isolated with this protocol was verified to be suitable for PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, cDNA synthesis and expression analysis. PMID:25534638

  10. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

  11. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on oxidative stress in hippocampus of STZ-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Niazmand, Saeed; Mahmoudabady, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of diabetic complications. Diabetes impairs hippocampus neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats' hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Diabetes induced by 60 mg/kg STZ, i.p, and the rats were divided into five experimental groups (n=8-10 in each group) including control (received 0.5 ml normal saline), untreated STZ-diabetic (received 0.5 ml normal saline), and treated rats received Nigella sativa extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) or metformin (300 mg/kg) by gavage for 42 days. Serum glucose concentration and body weight as well as hippocampus tissue malondialdehyde and thiol levels were determined by calorimetric assay. Results: Serum glucose level in the diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg Nigella sativa extract at the days 24 and 45 decreased in comparison to untreated diabetic group (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). Weight loss was significantly different between metformin and Nigella sativa extract at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p<0.05). Thiol content of hippocampus increased by 200 mg/kg Nigella sativa extract in comparison to untreated diabetic group (p<0.05). Malondialdehyde content of hippocampus reduced by Nigella sativa extract, 200 mg/kg (p<0.001), 400 mg/kg (p<0.05), and metformin (p<0.05) in comparison to the untreated diabetic group. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of the Nigella sativa decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. Nigella sativa at the dose of 200 mg/kg was more effective to reduce oxidative stress in hippocampus of rats. PMID:26445713

  12. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-07-01

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  13. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Arumanayagam, T; Murugakoothan, P

    2014-07-15

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC. PMID:24682058

  14. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29) Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Ismail, Norsharina; Chan, Kim Wei; Md Tahir, Paridah

    2013-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as ? -sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO) was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE) at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars and temperature from 40 to 80°C. They were 200/40, 200/60, 200/80, 400/40, 400/60, 400/80, 600/40, 600/60, and 600/80. Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell lines using MTS assay. KSO-SFE at 600/40 showed the strongest cytotoxicity towards HT29 with IC50 of 200?µg/mL. The IC50 for NIH/3T3 was not detected even at highest concentration employed. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of KSO-SFE-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining. PMID:23606884

  15. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Chiril?, Flore; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Pelmu?, Rodica ?tefania; C?lin, Loredana Georgeta; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS), and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE), were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS) or in extract (LE) to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli?B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3?h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects. PMID:25313359

  16. Effect of extrusion cooking of lesquerella seeds on the quality of the extracted oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is an oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family that is native to the desert southwestern United States. The seed has 28% oil, which contains about 64% hydroxy fatty acid (HFA). HFA is used in a variety of industrial applications such as lubricants, corrosion inhibitor...

  17. Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract mitigates lipotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells and prevents atherogenic changes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dipak; Desai, Swati; Gajaria, Tejal; Devkar, Ranjitsinh; Ramachandran, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum L. (CS) in preventing in vitro low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation mediated macrophage modification. Further, an in vivo study was also conducted to confirm upon the efficacy of CS seed extract in alleviating pathophysiological alterations of high cholesterol diet induced atherosclerosis in rats. Copper mediated cell free oxidation of LDL accounted for elevated indices of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide (LHP)and protein carbonyl (PC) and a progressive increment in conjugate diene (CD) levels whereas, reverse set of changes were recorded in presence of CS extract. Cell mediated LDL oxidation (using RAW 264.7 cells) accounted for lowered MDA production and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) mediated cell death in presence of CS extract and the same was attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials. High cholesterol fed atherogenic rats showed elevated lipid indices, evidences of LDL oxidation, plaque formation in thoracic aorta. The same was further validated with immunostaining of cell adhesion molecules and hematoxylin and eosin (HXE) staining. However, co-supplementation of CS to atherogenic rats recorded significant lowering of the above mentioned parameters further strengthening the claim that CS extract is instrumental in preventing onset and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26417232

  18. Supercritical CO? extraction of oil, fatty acids and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ben Rahal, Naila; Barba, Francisco J; Barth, Danielle; Chevalot, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The optimal conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) (160-220 bars, 40-80 °C) technology combined with co-solvent (ethanol), to recover oil, flavonolignans (silychristin, silydianin and silybinin) and fatty acids from milk thistle seeds, to be used as food additives and/or nutraceuticals, were studied. Moreover, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the SC-CO2 oil seeds extracts were evaluated in Caco-2 carcinoma cells. Pressure and temperature had a significant effect on oil and flavonolignans recovery, although there was not observed a clear trend. SC-CO2 with co-solvent extraction at 220 bars, 40 °C was the optimum treatment to recover oil (30.8%) and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds. Moreover, linoleic (47.64-66.70%), and oleic (19.68-24.83%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in the oil extracts recovered from milk thistle under SC-CO2. In addition, SC-CO2 extract showed a high antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS tests. Cytotoxic activities of silychristin, silydianin and silybinin and the obtained SC-CO2 extract (220 bars, 40 °C) were evaluated against Caco-2 cells. The SC-CO2 extract inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-responsive manner and induced the highest percentage of mortality of Caco-2 cells (from 43 to 71% for concentrations from 10 up to 100 ?g/ml of SC-CO2 oil seeds). PMID:26172510

  19. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  20. Efficacy of a Novel Fenugreek Seed Extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum, FurocystTM) in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, Anand; Jaipuriar, Amrita Sarkari; Gupta, Sushil Kumar; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G.; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most prevalent hormonal disorders among women of reproductive age causing irregular menstrual cycles, excessive body or facial hair, miscarriage and infertility. The latter being a most common PCOS symptoms. Because the symptoms are seemingly unrelated to one another, PCOS is often overlooked and undiagnosed. The present study is an open label, one-arm, non-randomized, post-marketing surveillance study in 50 premenopausal women (18-45 years, BMI<42) diagnosed with PCOS using a novel Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract (fenugreek seed extract, Furocyst, 2 capsules of 500 mg each/day) extract, enriched in approximately 40% furostanolic saponins, over a period of 90 consecutive days. The study was conducted to determine its efficacy on the reduction of ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Ethical committee approval was obtained for this study. Furocyst treatment caused significant reduction in ovary volume. Approximately 46% of study population showed reduction in cyst size, while 36% of subjects showed complete dissolution of cyst. It is important to mention that 71% of subjects reported the return of regular menstrual cycle on completion of the treatment and 12% of subjects subsequently became pregnant. Overall, 94% of patients benefitted from the regimen. Significant increases in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were observed compared to the baseline values. Extensive blood chemistry, hematological and biochemical assays demonstrated the broad-spectrum safety. Furocyst caused significant decrease in both ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Serum ALT, BUN and CK were assessed to demonstrate the broad-spectrum safety of Furocyst. No significant adverse effects were observed. In summary, Furocyst was efficacious in ameliorating the symptoms of PCOS. PMID:26516311

  1. Acaricidal effect of herbal extracts against cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, J P; Ghosh, S; Patel, K K; Singh, Veer

    2014-05-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Datura stramonium, Azadirachta indica, and Calotropis procera leaves, Allium sativum (AS) cloves, and Carica papaya (CP) seeds collected from Banaskanta, Gujarat (India) was tested for its acaricidal properties against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The percent adult mortality within 15 days, reproductive index, percentage inhibition of oviposition, hatching of laid ova, and percentage larval mortality were studied at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml. At the highest concentration (100 mg/ml), the adult tick mortality was 66.67, 73.33, 80.00, and 93.33% for C. procera, D. stramonium, A. sativum, and C. papaya extracts, respectively, and it was statistically significant (P?indica, mortality was low and estimated to be 33.33%. Inhibition of oviposition at the highest concentration of A. indica, C. procera, D. stramonium, A. sativum, and C. papaya extract-treated ticks was 20.73, 71.34, 77.17, 85.83, and 100.00%, respectively. Inhibition of fecundity of treated groups differed significantly from the control and was concentration dependent. Larvae treated with all the tested concentrations of A. indica, C. procera, D. stramonium, A. sativum, and C. papaya extracts by larval packet test showed significant mortality (P?seed extract produced complete failure of eclosion of eggs from the treated ticks even at lower concentrations; however, neem, calotropis, and datura was capable of reducing hatchability by 20, 50, and 70%, respectively. The results pointed that the crude extracts of A. sativum cloves and C. papaya seeds have very good acaricidal properties and could be a potential component of alternative R. (B.) microplus tick control strategy. PMID:24633906

  2. Rice, indica (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Indica varieties, which are generally recalcitrant to tissue culture and transformation, occupy 80 % of rice cultivation area in the world. Therefore, transformation method for indica rice must be improved greatly so that global rice production would take full advantage of cutting-edge biotechnology. An efficient protocol for indica transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is hereby described. Immature embryos collected from plants in a greenhouse are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens after pretreatment with heat and centrifuging. The protocol was successfully tested in many elite indica cultivars such as IR8, IR24, IR58025B, IR64, IR72, Suweon 258, and Nanjing 11, yielding between 5 and 15 of independent transgenic plants per immature embryo. The use of immature embryos is recommended because gene transfer to them could be much more efficient and much less genotype dependent than gene transfer to callus. PMID:25300838

  3. A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteases play an important role in virulence of many human, plant and insect pathogens. The proteinaceous protease inhibitors of plant origin have been reported widely from many plant species. The inhibitors may potentially be used for multiple therapeutic applications in viral, bacterial, fungal diseases and physiological disorders. In traditional Indian medicine system, Cassia tora (Senna tora) is reportedly effective in treatment of skin and gastrointestinal disorders. The present study explores the protease inhibitory activity of the above plant seeds against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. Methods The crushed seeds of Cassia tora were washed thoroughly with acetone and hexane for depigmentation and defatting. The proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulphate (0-30, 30-60, 60-90%) followed by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The inhibitory potential of crude seed extract and most active dialyzed fraction against trypsin and proteases was established by spot test using unprocessed x-ray film and casein digestion methods, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of most active fraction (30-60%) and SEC elutes were carried employing Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Gelatin SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of fungal spore germination was studied in the presence of dialyzed active inhibitor fraction. Standard deviation (SD) and ANOVA were employed as statistical tools. Results The crude seeds' extract displayed strong antitryptic, bacterial and fungal protease inhibitory activity on x-ray film. The seed protein fraction 30-60% was found most active for trypsin inhibition in caseinolytic assay (P < 0.001). The inhibition of caseinolytic activity of the proteases increased with increasing ratio of seed extract. The residual activity of trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases remained only 4, 7 and 3.1%, respectively when proteases were incubated with 3 mg ml-1 seed protein extract for 60 min. The inhibitory activity was evident in gelatin SDS-PAGE where a major band (~17-19 kD) of protease inhibitor (PI) was detected in dialyzed and SEC elute. The conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus was moderately inhibited (30%) by the dialyzed seed extract. Conclusions Cassia tora seed extract has strong protease inhibitory activity against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. The inhibitor in Cassia tora may attenuate microbial proteases and also might be used as phytoprotecting agent. PMID:21749682

  4. Molecular approach to identify antidiabetic potential of Azadirachta indica

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, K.; Sravanthi, K.; Shaker, I. Anand; Ponnulakshmi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a medicinal plant, used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus. It is known to possess antiinflammatory, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and diverse pharmacological properties. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of A. indica on insulin signal transduction and glucose homeostasis is obscure. Objective: The aim was to study the effects of A. indica aqueous leaf extract on the expression of insulin signaling molecules and glucose oxidation in target tissue of high-fat and fructose-induced type-2 diabetic male rat. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf extract (400 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]) was given once daily for 30 days to high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, and the levels of insulin signaling molecules, glycogen, glucose oxidation in gastrocnemius muscle were assessed. Results: Diabetic rats showed impaired glucose tolerance and impairment in insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, phospho-IRS-1Tyr632, phospho-IRS-1Ser636, phospho-AktSer473, and glucose transporter 4 [GLUT4] proteins), glycogen concentration and glucose oxidation. The treatment with A. indica leaf extract normalized the altered levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile and insulin signaling molecules as well as GLUT4 proteins at 400 mg/kg b.wt dose. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present study that A. indica may play a significant role in the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, by improving the insulin signaling molecules and glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle. PMID:26604551

  5. Cavity Optical Pulse Extraction: ultra-short pulse generation as seeded Hawking radiation

    PubMed Central

    Eilenberger, Falk; Kabakova, Irina V.; de Sterke, C. Martijn; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Pertsch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We show that light trapped in an optical cavity can be extracted from that cavity in an ultrashort burst by means of a trigger pulse. We find a simple analytic description of this process and show that while the extracted pulse inherits its pulse length from that of the trigger pulse, its wavelength can be completely different. Cavity Optical Pulse Extraction is thus well suited for the development of ultrashort laser sources in new wavelength ranges. We discuss similarities between this process and the generation of Hawking radiation at the optical analogue of an event horizon with extremely high Hawking temperature. Our analytic predictions are confirmed by thorough numerical simulations. PMID:24060831

  6. Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera Peach): Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Pulp, Peel and Seed Ethanolic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Núñez, Oscar; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Tundis, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    A comparative analysis of ethanol extracts from peel, pulp and seed of Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera peach) was done. The total phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid content as well as the antioxidant properties by using different in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, Fe-chelating, ?-carotene bleaching test) were evaluated. Pulp extract was subjected to liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were identified as main constituents. Pulp extract was characterized by the highest total phytonutrients content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in all in vitro assays (IC(50) values of 2.2 ?g/mL after 60 min of incubation by using ?-carotene bleaching test and 2.9 ?g/mL by using Fe-chelating assay). Overall, the obtained results suggest that P. persica var. platycarpa displays a good antioxidant activity and its consumption could be promoted. PMID:26138775

  7. Cytotoxicity and effect of extraction methods on the chemical composition of essential oils of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Kayode, Rowland Monday Ojo; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-08-01

    Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has led to the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. This study assessed its chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity of the oils was investigated using hatchability and lethality tests on brine shrimps. A total of 16 and 26 compounds were isolated from the hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SME) oils, respectively, which accounted for 97.515% and 97.816% of total identifiable constituents, respectively. At 24 h when the most eggs had hatched, values of the SME (56.7%) and HDE (60.0%) oils were significantly different (P<0.05) from those of sea water (63.3%) and chloramphenicol (15.0%). Larva lethality was different significantly (P<0.05) between HDE and SME oils at different concentrations and incubation periods. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the oils was >1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals. PMID:26238543

  8. The efficacy of neem seed extracts (Tre-san, MiteStop on a broad spectrum of pests and parasites.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, Günter; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    The paper summarizes the acaricidal and insecticidal effects of a patented neem seed extract when diluted 1:10 with shampoo or 1:20, 1:30, 1:33, 1:40, respectively, 1:66 with tap water. It was shown that a broad range of pests and parasites, such as house dust mites, poultry mites, harvest mites, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus ticks, cat fleas (adults, larvae), bed bugs (all stages), head lice and mallophaga, cockroaches (genera Blatta, Blattella, Gomphadorhina), raptor bugs (Triatoma), and even food-attacking beetle (Tenebrio molitor) might be controlled with this extract, which is available as Tre-san (against house dust mites) and MiteStop (against mites, ticks, insects of any kind) to become water diluted or as Wash Away Louse or Picksan LouseStop being diluted in a shampoo. Tests on skin compatibility proved that there are no skin irritations during or after use. However, some target species are less sensible (beetles, Triatoma stages, fly maggots), while the specimens of the other species cited above were successfully killed even at low concentrations of the extract. PMID:20461406

  9. Cytotoxicity and effect of extraction methods on the chemical composition of essential oils of Moringa oleifera seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Rowland Monday Ojo; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has led to the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. This study assessed its chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity of the oils was investigated using hatchability and lethality tests on brine shrimps. A total of 16 and 26 compounds were isolated from the hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SME) oils, respectively, which accounted for 97.515% and 97.816% of total identifiable constituents, respectively. At 24 h when the most eggs had hatched, values of the SME (56.7%) and HDE (60.0%) oils were significantly different (P<0.05) from those of sea water (63.3%) and chloramphenicol (15.0%). Larva lethality was different significantly (P<0.05) between HDE and SME oils at different concentrations and incubation periods. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the oils was >1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals. PMID:26238543

  10. Ethanol Extract of Lepidium apetalum Seed Elicits Contractile Response and Attenuates Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Secretion in Beating Rabbit Atria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Hye Yoom; Lee, Yun Jung; Cui, Hao Zhen; Jang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Ho Sub

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Lepidium apetalum Willdenow (called “Tinglizi” in China and “Jungryukza” in Korea) have been used to discharge phlegm and improve dropsy in Oriental medicine. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of the seeds of Lepidium apetalum (ELA) on atrial dynamics and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion in beating rabbit atria. ELA increased atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, and cAMP efflux, concomitantly attenuating ANP secretion in a dose-dependent manner. ELA-induced increases in atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, and cAMP levels and decrease in ANP secretion were not inhibited by pretreatment with staurosporine, a nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor, or diltiazem and verapamil, the L-type Ca2+ channel blockers, respectively. Helveticoside, a well-known digitalis-like cardiac glycosidic constituent of ELA, also increased atrial dynamics, including stroke volume and pulse pressure, without changing cAMP efflux and ANP secretion, and the effects of helveticoside were not inhibited by pretreatment with staurosporine, diltiazem, and verapamil. These results suggest that the ELA-induced positive inotropic activity in beating rabbit atria might, at least partly, be due to the digitalis-like activity of helveticoside rather than an increase in cAMP efflux. PMID:24288558

  11. Antioxidant activity of extract and its major constituents from okra seed on rat hepatocytes injured by carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianmei; Yu, Wenlan; Li, Ying; Prasad, Nagendra; Tang, Zhaoxin

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE) and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1 ? 6) glucoside (QDG) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG). TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including ?, ?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities. PMID:24719856

  12. Metabolite Profiling of Soybean Seed Extracts from Near-Isogenic Low and Normal Phytate Lines Using Orthogonal Separation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Jervis, Judith; Kastl, Christin; Hildreth, Sherry B; Biyashev, Ruslan; Grabau, Elizabeth A; Saghai-Maroof, Mohammad A; Helm, Richard F

    2015-11-11

    Untargeted metabolomic profiling using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was applied to lipid-depleted methanolic extracts of soybean seeds utilizing orthogonal chromatographic separations (reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction) in both positive and negative ionization modes. Four near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing in mutations for two genes encoding highly homologous multidrug resistant proteins (MRPs) were evaluated. The double mutant exhibited a low phytate phenotype, whereas the other three NILs, the two single mutants and the wild type, did not. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the four LC-MS data sets fully separated the low phytate line from the other three. While the levels of neutral oligosaccharides were the same for all lines, there were significant metabolite differences residing in the levels of malonyl isoflavones, soyasaponins, and arginine. Two methanol-soluble polypeptides were also found as differing in abundance levels, one of which was identified as the allergen Gly m 1. PMID:26487475

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts on Gram-Negative Food-borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were prepared from different solvents, water (TW), ethanol (TE), and n-hexane (TH), and assessed for their antimicrobial activities against six gram-negative food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli KCTC 1039, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895, Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 3311, Salmonella Typhimurium KCCM 11862, Shigella sonnei KCTC 2518, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802). Among the tested TSEs, TE and TH showed a slight inhibition activity on V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802, but a good growth inhibition activity on Sal. Typhimurium KCCM 11862. TH and TE showed steady growth inhibition activity with increasing growth time after 6 hr when compared to the control (p<0.05). From these results, we confirmed the possibility of TH and TE as antimicrobial materials. PMID:24471089

  14. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Nandini; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1?mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005??mol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25143939

  15. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1?mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005??mol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25143939

  16. Effects of extract liquid of SLS made from three different materials on seed germination and seedling growth of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Wenting; Liu, Hong; Yan, Min; Li, Leyuan

    Rice and wheat are the main candidate crops in the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) of China, for they are traditional food in Asia. Thus the recycling of their straws is an important issue in our BLSS, and it is a vital way to biologically process them into the soil like substrate (SLS) first and then reuse them in the plant cultivation system to achieve their recycle in BLSS. However, rice is a plant with strong allelopathic effects. And so far, it is also not clear that what kind of raw materials can be processed into proper SLS to grow rice in the BLSS. Therefore, in this study, the extract liquid of SLS made from three different materials including rice straw, wheat straw and rice-wheat mixed straw was utilized to investigate its effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. The gradients of the extract concentrations (soil: water) were 1:3, 1:5, 1:9, and 1:15 with the deionized water used as control. The effects of different types of SLS on seed germination and seedling vitality of rice were confirmed by analyzing the germination rate, seedling length, root length, root fresh weight, seedling fresh weight and other indicates. In addition, based on the analysis towards pH, organic matter composition and other factors of the SLS as well as the chlorophyll and hormone content of rice, the mechanism of the inhibition was speculated and the preventive methods of this phenomenon was explored. Finally, the feasibility of cultivating rice on the SLS made from the above three kinds of raw materials was evaluated and the proper raw materials to be processed into SLS to grow rice were determined.

  17. Hydroalcoholic seed extract of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) alleviates lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Williams, Dale; Rajanna, Sharada; Bettaiya, Rajanna

    2014-06-01

    Lead exposure is known to cause apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral abnormalities in developing and adult brain by impairing cognition and memory. Coriandrum sativum is an herb belonging to Umbelliferae and is reported to have a protective effect against lead toxicity. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum seed against lead-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control group: 1,000 mg/L of sodium acetate; exposed group: 1,000 mg/L lead acetate for 4 weeks; C. sativum treated 1 (CST1) group: 250 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure; C. sativum treated 2 (CST2) group: 500 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure. After the exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the whole brain was immediately isolated and separated into four regions: cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem along with the control group. After sacrifice, blood was immediately collected into heparinized vials and stored at 4 °C. In all the tissues, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP), and total protein carbonyl content (TPCC) were estimated following standard protocols. An indicator enzyme for lead toxicity namely delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALAD) activity was determined in the blood. A significant (p<0.05) increase in ROS, LPP, and TPCC levels was observed in exposed rat brain regions, while ?-ALAD showed a decrease indicating lead-induced oxidative stress. Treatment with the hydroalcoholic seed extract of C. sativum resulted in a tissue-specific amelioration of oxidative stress produced by lead. PMID:24793421

  18. Physical properties of Gelidium corneum-gelatin blend films containing grapefruit seed extract or green tea extract and its application in the packaging of pork loins.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y-H; Lim, G-O; Song, K B

    2009-01-01

    Edible Gelidium corneum-gelatin (GCG) blend films containing grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) or green tea extract (GTE) were manufactured, and the quality of pork loins packed with the film during storage was determined. Tensile strength (TS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films containing GFSE or GTE were better than those of the control. The film's antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes increased with increasing antimicrobial concentration, resulting in a decrease in the populations of bacteria by 0.77 to 2.08 and 0.91 to 3.30 log CFU/g, respectively. Pork loin samples were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. The samples packed with the GCG film containing GFSE (0.08%) or GTE (2.80%) had a decrease in the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes of 0.69 to 1.11 and 1.05 to 1.14 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to the control after 4 d of storage. The results showed that the quality of pork loins during storage could be improved by packaging them with the GCG film containing GFSE or GTE. PMID:19200087

  19. Insulin-sensitizing and anti-proliferative effects of Argania spinosa seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Samane, Samira; Noël, Josette; Charrouf, Zoubida; Amarouch, Hamid; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2006-09-01

    Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2), ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells) and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases. PMID:16951716

  20. Insulin-sensitizing and Anti-proliferative Effects of Argania spinosa Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Samane, Samira; Noël, Josette; Charrouf, Zoubida; Amarouch, Hamid; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2006-01-01

    Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2), ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells) and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [3H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases. PMID:16951716

  1. Neuroprotective effects of chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of Nigella sativa seeds in stroke model of rat

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Mohammad; Maikiyo, Aliyu Muhammad; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Stroke still remains a challenge for the researchers and scientists for developing ideal drug. Several new drugs are being evaluated showing excellent results in preclinical studies but when tested in clinical trials, they failed. Many herbal drugs in different indigenous system of medicine claim to have beneficial effects but not extensively evaluated for stroke (cerebral ischemia). AIM: The present study was undertaken to evaluate chloroform and petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa seeds administered at a dose of 400 mg/kg, per orally for seven days in middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) rats for its neuroprotective role in cerebral ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for two hours followed by reperfusion for 22 hours. After 24 hours, grip strength, locomotor activity tests were performed in different treatment groups of rats. After completing behavioral tests, animals were sacrificed; brains were removed for the measurement of infarct volume followed by the estimation of markers of oxidative stress. RESULTS: Both chloroform and petroleum ether extracts-pretreated rats showed improvement in locomotor activity and grip strength, reduced infarct volume when compared with MCAO rats. MCA occlusion resulted in the elevation of levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), while a reduction in the levels of glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were observed. Pre-treatment of both extracts of Nigella sativa showed reduction in TBARS, elevation in glutathione, SOD, and catalase levels when compared with MCAO rats. CONCLUSION: The chloroform and petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa showed the protective effects in cerebral ischemia. The present study confirms the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory properties of Nigella sativa already reported. PMID:23833517

  2. Mucuna pruriens seed extract reduces oxidative stress in nigrostriatal tissue and improves neurobehavioral activity in paraquat-induced Parkinsonian mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2013-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease which causes rigidity, resting tremor and postural instability. Treatment for this disease is still under investigation. Mucuna pruriens (L.), is a traditional herbal medicine, used in India since 1500 B.C., as a neuroprotective agent. In this present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of aqueous extract of M. pruriens (Mp) seed in Parkinsonian mouse model developed by chronic exposure to paraquat (PQ). Results of our study revealed that the nigrostriatal portion of Parkinsonian mouse brain showed significantly increased levels of nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced levels of catalase compared to the control. In the Parkinsonian mice hanging time was decreased, whereas narrow beam walk time and foot printing errors were increased. Treatment with aqueous seed extract of Mp significantly increased the catalase activity and decreased the MDA and nitrite level, compared to untreated Parkinsonian mouse brain. Mp treatment also improved the behavioral abnormalities. It increased hanging time, whereas it decreased narrow beam walk time and foot printing error compared to untreated Parkinsonian mouse brain. Furthermore, we observed a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum region of the brain, after treatment with PQ which was considerably restored by the use of Mp seed extract. Our result suggested that Mp seed extract treatment significantly reduced the PQ induced neurotoxicity as evident by decrease in oxidative damage, physiological abnormalities and immunohistochemical changes in the Parkinsonian mouse. PMID:23562769

  3. Antidiabetic Properties of Azardiracta indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In Vivo Studies in Murine Diabetes Model

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Menakshi; Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar K.; Tirmale, Amruta R.; Bhargava, Shobha Y.; Joshi, Bimba N.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome characterized by an increase in the blood glucose level. Treatment of diabetes is complicated due to multifactorial nature of the disease. Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss and Bougainvillea spectabilis are reported to have medicinal values including antidiabetic properties. In the present study using invivo diabetic murine model, A. indica and B. spectabilis chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated for the biochemical parameters important for controlling diabetes. It was found that A. indica chloroform extract and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts showed a good oral glucose tolerance and significantly reduced the intestinal glucosidase activity. Interestingly, A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts showed significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and hepatic, skeletal muscle glycogen content after 21 days of treatment. In immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a regeneration of insulin-producing cells and corresponding increase in the plasma insulin and c-peptide levels with the treatment of A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts. Analyzing the results, it is clear that A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts are good candidates for developing new neutraceuticals treatment for diabetes. PMID:19389871

  4. Aqueous enzymatic oil extraction from seeds, fruits, and other oil-rich plant materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods have been developed to obtain oil from corn germ, oilseeds, and other oil-rich plant materials using aqueous enzymatic methods. Unlike traditional oil extraction methods, these new processes are performed without the use of presses and without organic solvents. Beginning with olive...

  5. Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Anna Rita; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Innocenti, Marzia; Gabrielli, Elena; Panella, Simona; Antonacci, Donato; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs), obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ?4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250?mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2?mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573?mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis. PMID:24864227

  6. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 ?g/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent. PMID:25915032

  7. Therapeutic Effects of Acetone Extract of Saraca asoca Seeds on Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Attenuating Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mradu; Sasmal, Saumyakanti; Mukherjee, Arup

    2014-01-01

    Saraca asoca has been traditionally used in Indian system for treatment of uterine, genital, and other reproductive disorders in women, fever, pain, and inflammation. The hypothesis of this study is that acetone extract of Saraca asoca seeds is an effective anti-inflammatory treatment for arthritis in animal experiments. The antiarthritic effect of its oral administration on Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis has been studied in Wistar albino rats after acute and subacute toxicities. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of high concentrations of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins, while no mortality or morbidity was observed up to 1000?mg/kg dose during acute and subacute toxicity assessments. Regular treatment up to 21 days of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats with Saraca asoca acetone extract (at 300 and 500?mg/kg doses) increases RBC and Hb, decreases WBC, ESR, and prostaglandin levels in blood, and restores body weight when compared with control (normal saline) and standard (Indomethacin) groups. Significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect was observed especially at higher dose on paw edema, ankle joint inflammation, and hydroxyproline and glucosamine concentrations in urine. Normal radiological images of joint and histopathological analysis of joint, liver, stomach, and kidney also confirmed its significant nontoxic, antiarthritic, and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:24729890

  8. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, ?-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, F.; Bertussi, R. A.; Agostini, G.; Atti dos Santos, A. C.; Rossato, M.; Vanderlinde, R.

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon) and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel), harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40%) in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%), 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and ?-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives. PMID:22593706

  9. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    PubMed Central

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  10. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities of aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in mice.

    PubMed

    Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000?mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable. PMID:25401145

  11. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200?mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000?mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable. PMID:25401145

  12. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Results: Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Conclusion: Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan) PMID:24799863

  13. An in vivo and in vitro investigation on hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum seed essential oil and extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Razmjou, Mojtaba; Karimi, Forouzan; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Farshad, Omid; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Shayesteh, Mohammad Reza Houshangi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Protective effects of different extracts and essential oil from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds were examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity. The parameters such as serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase activity, hepatic glutathione content, liver lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes of liver were assessed as toxicity markers. In the in vitro model of this study, markers such as cell viability, cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with extracts and essential oil, and markers of hepatotoxicity were investigated. Results: The data revealed that the n-hexane extract, effectively attenuated CCl4-induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models in current investigation. Conclusion: As the oxidative stress markers were ameliorated, it might be concluded that anise seed possesses protective effects probably due to its antioxidant constituents. PMID:25825639

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Mimusops elengi seed extract mediated isotropic silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kiran Kumar, Hoskote Anand; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Maddinedi, Sireesh babu; Sai Kumar, Tammina; Madhiyazhagan, Pavithra; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan

    2014-09-15

    The present study reports the use of Mimusops elengi (M. elengi) fruit extract for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The synthesized Ag NPs was initially noticed through visual color change from yellow to reddish brown and further confirmed by surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) band at 429 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Morphology and size of Ag NPs was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) study revealed crystalline nature of Ag NPs. The prolonged stability of Ag NPs was due to capping of oxidized polyphenols which was established by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study. The polyphenols present in M. elengi fruit extract was analyzed by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and the results revealed the presence of ascorbic acid, gallic acid, pyrogallol and resorcinol. In order to study the role of these polyphenols in reducing Ag+ ions to Ag NPs, analyses of extracts before reduction and after reduction were carried out. In addition, the synthesized Ag NPs were tested for antibacterial and antioxidant activities against Staphylococcus aureus (S. Aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Ag NPs showed good antimicrobial activity against both gram positive (S. aureus) and gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. It also showed good antioxidant activity as compared to ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. PMID:24759779

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Mimusops elengi seed extract mediated isotropic silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran Kumar, Hoskote Anand; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Maddinedi, Sireesh babu; Sai Kumar, Tammina; Madhiyazhagan, Pavithra; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan

    2014-09-01

    The present study reports the use of Mimusops elengi (M. elengi) fruit extract for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The synthesized Ag NPs was initially noticed through visual color change from yellow to reddish brown and further confirmed by surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) band at 429 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Morphology and size of Ag NPs was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) study revealed crystalline nature of Ag NPs. The prolonged stability of Ag NPs was due to capping of oxidized polyphenols which was established by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study. The polyphenols present in M. elengi fruit extract was analyzed by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and the results revealed the presence of ascorbic acid, gallic acid, pyrogallol and resorcinol. In order to study the role of these polyphenols in reducing Ag+ ions to Ag NPs, analyses of extracts before reduction and after reduction were carried out. In addition, the synthesized Ag NPs were tested for antibacterial and antioxidant activities against Staphylococcus aureus (S. Aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Ag NPs showed good antimicrobial activity against both gram positive (S. aureus) and gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. It also showed good antioxidant activity as compared to ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant.

  16. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ), respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days). Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), nitric oxide (NO), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days. Results During 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p < 0.05). Unlike late-stage diabetes, fasting serum insulin concentrations were higher and GTT pattern approximated to normal in chicory-treated early-stage diabetic rats. Conclusions Chicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned) and long-term (28 days, in this study) effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications. PMID:23352214

  17. Phytotoxic mechanisms of bur cucumber seed extracts on lettuce with special reference to analysis of chloroplast proteins, phytohormones, and nutritional elements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok-Min; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Jin-Hyo; Lee, In-Yong; Moon, Bong-Kyu; Yoon, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Bioherbicides from plant extracts are an effective and environmentally friendly method to prevent weed growth. The present investigation was aimed at determining the inhibitory effect of bur cucumber seed extracts (BSE) on lettuce plant growth. Bur cucumber seeds were ground with water, and two different concentrations of seed extracts (10% and 20%) were prepared and applied to lettuce plants. Decreased plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, anProd. Type: FTPd leaf area were found in lettuce exposed to BSE as compared with controls. A significant reduction in lettuce biomass was observed in 20% BSE-treated plants due to the presence of higher amounts of phenolic content in the extracts. Moreover, a significant inhibitory chemical, 2-linoleoyl glycerol, was identified in BSE extracts. The mechanism of plant growth inhibition was assayed in lettuce proteins by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and the LC-MS/MS method. In total, 57 protein spots were detected in plants treated with 20% BSE and control plants. Among these, 39 proteins were down-regulated and 18 proteins were up-regulated in plants exposed to 20% BSE as compared with controls. The presence of low levels of chlorophyll a/b binding protein and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 in BSE-exposed plants reduced photosynthetic pigment synthesis and might be a reason for stunted plant growth. Indeed, the plant-growth stimulating hormone gibberellin was inhibited, and synthesis of stress hormones such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid were triggered in lettuce by the effects of BSE. Uptake of essential nutrients, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, S, and Mo, was deficient and accumulation of the toxic ions Cu, Zn, and Na was higher in BSE-treated plants. The results of this study suggest that extracts of bur cucumber seeds can be an effective eco-friendly bioherbicide for weed control that work by inhibiting mechanisms of photosynthesis and regulating phytohormones and nutritional elements. PMID:26277540

  18. Effect of Garden Cress Seeds Powder and Its Alcoholic Extract on the Metabolic Activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I.; Al-Thukair, Areej A.; Abbas, Fawkeya A.; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2014-01-01

    The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:24711855

  19. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Nakchat, Oranuch; Nalinratana, Nonthaneth; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activity including antioxidant protein expression was investigated. Results TSCE significantly attenuated intracellular ROS in the absence and presence of H2O2 by increasing GSH level. In the absence of H2O2, TSCE significantly enhanced SOD and catalase activity but did not affected on GPx. Meanwhile, TSCE significantly increased the protein expression of SOD and GPx in H2O2-treated cells. Conclusions TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat. PMID:25182723

  20. Water-dispersible hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous solution containing grape seed extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ruchao; Si, Shaoxiong; Zhang, Qiyi

    2012-02-01

    A novel and effective method for the preparation of water-dispersible nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) particles was reported. nHAp was prepared in the presence of grape seed polyphenol (GSP) solution with different concentrations. Chemical precipitation method was adopted to produce pure nHAp and modified nHAp (nHAp-GSP) at 60 °C for 2 h. The chemical nature of the products was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the crystal structure and morphology of particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the spherical nHAp particles with a diameter of 20-50 nm could be synthesized at 60 °C. The zeta potential values of pure nHAp and nHAp-GSP are -0.36 mV and -26.1 mV respectively. According to the sedimentary time, the colloidal stability of nHAp-GSP in water could be improved dramatically with the increase of GSP content and the particles tended to exist as dispersive nanoparticles without aggregation. All the results indicated that GSP exhibited strong binding to nHAp and enhanced the colloidal stability of nHAp particles.

  1. Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Helen; Hall, Patti; Smith, Michelle; Kirk, Marion; Prasain, Jeevan K; Barnes, Stephen; Grubbs, Clinton

    2004-12-01

    Many popular dietary supplements are enriched in polyphenols such as the soy isoflavones, tea catechins, and resveratrol (from grape skins), each of which has been shown to have chemopreventive activity in cellular models of cancer. The proanthocyanidins, which are oligomers of the catechins, are enriched in grape seeds and form the basis of the dietary supplement grape seed extract (GSE). Evidence suggests that the proanthocyanidins may be metabolized to the monomeric catechins. This study was carried out to determine whether GSE added to rodent diets protected against carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats and whether this was affected by the composition of the whole diet. Female rats were begun on 5%, 1.25%, or 0% (control) GSE-supplemented diets at age 35 d. At age 50 d they were administered 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in sesame oil at 80 mg/kg body weight. They were weighed and monitored weekly for tumor development until 120 d after DMBA administration. Administration of GSE in AIN-76A diet did not show any protective activity of GSE against DMBA-induced breast cancer. However, administration of GSE in a laboratory dry food diet (Teklad 4% rodent diet) resulted in a 50% reduction in tumor multiplicity. In similar experiments, genistein administered in AIN-76A diet also failed to show chemopreventive activity against the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; however, when administered at the same dose in the Teklad 4% rodent diet, genistein exhibited significant chemopreventive activity (44-61%). These results demonstrate that GSE is chemopreventive in an animal model of breast cancer; moreover, the diet dependency of the chemopreventive activity for both GSE and genistein suggests that whether or not a compound is chemopreventive may depend on the diet in which the agent is administered. PMID:15570052

  2. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed) Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1?mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200?µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine. PMID:26000026

  3. Entomocidal Effects of Beech Apricot, Labramia bojeri, Seed Extract on a Soybean Pest, the Velvetbean Moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and Its Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Maria L. R.; Kubo, Carlos E. G.; Freire, Maria G. M.; Júnior, Roberto T. A.; Parra, José R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the beech apricot, Labramia bojeri A. de Candolle (Sapotales: Sapotaceae), seed aqueous extract on the larval development of the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was evaluated. The extract inhibited larval development, pupal weight, and survival and emergence of adults. Digestive proteolytic activity in larval midgut and feces extracts was determined. Larvae fed 10 g/L of the aqueous extract showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity (?64%), when compared with control larvae. Trypsin and Chymotrypsin activities were also detected in fecal material in aqueous-extract-fed larvae, with about ?4.5 times more trypsin activity than the controls. The results from dietary utilization experiments with A. gemmatalis larvae showed a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. The effect of the extract suggests the potential use of L. bojeri seeds to inhibit the development of A. gemmatalis via oral exposure. The L. bojeri extract can be an alternative to other methods of control. PMID:25373174

  4. Entomocidal effects of beech apricot, Labramia bojeri, seed extract on a soybean pest, the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and its enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria L R; Kubo, Carlos E G; Freire, Maria G M; Júnior, Roberto T A; Parra, José R P

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the beech apricot, Labramia bojeri A. de Candolle (Sapotales: Sapotaceae), seed aqueous extract on the larval development of the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was evaluated. The extract inhibited larval development, pupal weight, and survival and emergence of adults. Digestive proteolytic activity in larval midgut and feces extracts was determined. Larvae fed 10 g/L of the aqueous extract showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity (~64%), when compared with control larvae. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were also detected in fecal material in aqueous-extract-fed larvae, with about ~4.5 times more trypsin activity than the controls. The results from dietary utilization experiments with A. gemmatalis larvae showed a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. The effect of the extract suggests the potential use of L. bojeri seeds to inhibit the development of A. gemmatalis via oral exposure. The L. bojeri extract can be an alternative to other methods of control. PMID:25373174

  5. Effects of oil extraction on functional properties of protein in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) seed and press cake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current interest in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) comes from its seed oil, which is being evaluated for biodiesel production. The seed also has notable protein content (33% db). The effects of oil processing conditions on functionality of pennycress seed proteins were determined to identify potential...

  6. Antimutagenic properties of a polyphenol-enriched extract derived from sesame-seed perisperm.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Despoina; Grougnet, Raphael; Papadopoulos, Athanasios

    2007-12-01

    A polyphenolic mixture derived from sesame-seed perisperm (SSP) strongly reduced the mutagenicity of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), sodium azide (NaN(3)), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in strains TA100 and/or TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium. It exhibited desmutagenic activity against H(2)O(2), BaP in TA98 and/or TA100 and biomutagenic activity (apparently by affecting the DNA-repair system) against NaN(3) in strain TA100. According to in vitro experiments the polyphenolic mixture inhibited the activity of the CYP1A1 (EROD) enzyme responsible for the activation of BaP in the Ames' test, as well as that of the cytosolic enzyme GST. A cytosolic fraction from liver of male Wistar rats treated with either 20% SSP in the food, or 3mg or 6 mg of polyphenolic mixture/20 g food/day for a time period of 8 weeks reduced the mutagenic potential of BaP in strains TA100 and TA98, with the cytosolic fraction from rats treated with SSP causing the strongest reduction. Furthermore, a microsomal fraction from the 20% SSP-treated rats inhibited the mutagenicity of BaP in strains TA100 (26.3%) and TA98 (23%). In contrast, a microsomal fraction from rats treated with 3mg of polyphenolic mixture stimulated the mutagenicity of BaP in TA100 but reduced it in TA98, while for the microsomal fraction from rats treated with 6 mg of polyphenolic mixture, these effects on TA100 and TA98 were reversed. PMID:17870654

  7. Antimycobacterial flavonoids from Derris indica.

    PubMed

    Koysomboon, Sorwaporn; van Altena, Ian; Kato, Shigeru; Chantrapromma, Kan

    2006-05-01

    Flavonoids (1-4), together with ten known compounds (5-14) were isolated from the stems and roots of the mangrove plant Derris indica. Their chemical structures were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data. All compounds except compounds 2 and 6 exhibited antimycobacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) between 6.25 and 200 microg/mL. PMID:16730034

  8. Biphenylquinolizidine alkaloids from Lagerstroemia indica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jin; Lee, Ik Soo; Youn, UiJoung; Chen, Quan Cheng; Ngoc, Tran Minh; Ha, Do Thi; Liu, Hongguang; Min, Byung Sun; Lee, Jin Yong; Seong, Rack Seon; Bae, KiHwan

    2009-04-01

    Two new biphenylquinolizidine alkaloids, 5-epi-dihydrolyfoline (1) and its stereoisomer, dihydrolyfoline (2), along with lagerine (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lagerstroemia indica. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques. PMID:19260657

  9. THE INDICA REVOLUTION. I. IMPROVING TROPICAL GERMPLASM FOR THE US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Progress in an indica base-broadening program is.documented. To date, 16 improved indica germplasms, indica-1 to indica-16, have been developed at the DB NRRC. These come from three sources: 1), indica- 1 to indica-9 from crossing a very early Chinese cultivar which has grain quality unsatisfacto...

  10. Cytotoxicity assessments of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum seed extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The Pharmacological potential, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities of Portulaca oleracea (PO) and Petroselinum sativum (PS) extracts are well known. However, the preventive properties against hepatocellular carcinoma cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to study the anticancer activity of seed extracts of PO and PS on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The HepG2 cells were exposed with 5-500 ?g/ml of PO and PS for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red uptake (NRU) assay, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscope were studied. The results showed that PO and PS extracts significantly reduced the cell viability of HepG2 in a concentration dependent manner. The cell viability was recorded to be 67%, 31%, 21%, and 17% at 50, 100, 250, and 500 ?g/ml of PO, respectively by MTT assay and 91%, 62%, 27%, and 18% at 50, 100, 250, and 500 ?g/ml of PO, respectively by NRU assay. PS exposed HepG2 cells with 100 ?g/ml and higher concentrations were also found to be cytotoxic. The decrease in the cell viability at 100, 250, and 500 ?g/ml of PS was recorded as 70%, 33%, and 15% by MTT assay and 63%, 29%, and 17%, respectively by NRU assay. Results also showed that PO and PS exposed cells reduced the normal morphology and adhesion capacity of HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells exposed with 50 ?g/ml and higher concentrations of PO and PS lost their typical morphology, become smaller in size, and appeared in rounded bodies. Our results demonstrated preliminary screening of anticancer activity of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum extracts against HepG2 cells, which can be further used for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent. PMID:25169500

  11. Evaluation of antisecretory, gastroprotective and in-vitro antacid capacity of Fumaria indica in rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Phool; Kishore, Kamal; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Fumaria indica is used for its anthelmintic, antidyspeptic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, laxative, stomachic, tonic properties and claimed to possess various properties for the ailments of blood, skin, gastrointestinal systems and central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to evaluate antisecretory, gastroprotective and in-vitro antacid capacity of ethanol extract from F. indica in rats. Evaluation of F. indica extract as antisecretory was carried out by pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. The gastroprotective effect was carried out by absolute ethanol induced ulcer model. Integrity of gastric mucosa was evaluated by estimation of GSH and gastric mucus level. The in-vitro antacid capacity was evaluated by titration method. Ethanol extract of F. indica at 200 mg kg(-1), orally showed inhibition of secretion in pyloric ligation model. GSH level (1.67 ?g mg(-1) protein), gastricwall mucus (240.76 ?g g(-1) wet glandular tissue) and percentage protection (77.59%) of ulcer were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in absolute ethanol induced ulcer model. The in-vitro antacid capacity of ethanol extract of F. indica was compared with the standard. Conclusively, it appears that F. indica possess antisecretory (inhibition of acid secretion), gastroprotective (potentiation of defensive factors) and in-vitro antacid activity. PMID:26521557

  12. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist

    PubMed Central

    Dutok, Carlos M. S.; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  13. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of "Zapote" Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist.

    PubMed

    Dutok, Carlos M S; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M C

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, "Mamey or Zapote," in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  14. Canna indica flower: New source of anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Vankar, Padma S

    2010-12-01

    In this study the red flowers of Canna indica (Cannaceae) were extracted by using sonicator and isolation of anthocyanins have been carried out. Four anthocyanin pigments have been isolated apart from quercetin and lycopene. They are Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-glucopyranoside (1), Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-galactopyranoside (2), Cyanidin-3-O-?-glucopyranoside (3) and Cyanidin-O-?-galactopyranoside (4). These compounds were isolated by using HPLC and their structures were subsequently determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, i.e., (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, ESI-MS, FTIR, UV-Visible etc. The isolated compounds showed good antioxidant activity thus makes it suitable for use in food coloration and as a nutraceutical. Thus it is a promising pigment source for food applications. PMID:20926305

  15. Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Babak; Rostami, Amir; Momeni, S S

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica (PA) and its antibacterial activity. UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX) were performed to ascertain the formation of Ag-NPs. It was observed that the growths of Ag-NPs are stopped within 35 min of reaction time. The synthesized Ag-NPs were characterized by a peak at 446 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles of 27 nm size. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic silver, respectively. The FTIR result clearly showed that the extracts containing OH as a functional group act in capping the nanoparticles synthesis. Antibacterial activities of Ag-NPs were tested against the growth of Gram-positive (S. aureus) using SEM. The inhibition was observed in the Ag-NPs against S. aureus. The results suggest that the synthesized Ag-NPs act as an effective antibacterial agent. It is confirmed that Ag-NPs are capable of rendering high antibacterial efficacy and hence has a great potential in the preparation of used drugs against bacterial diseases. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicated that, the most strains of S. aureus was damaged and extensively disappeared by addition of Ag-NPs. The results confirmed that the (PA) is a very good eco friendly and nontoxic source for the synthesis of Ag-NPs as compared to the conventional chemical/physical methods. PMID:25022505

  16. Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica and its antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Babak; Rostami, Amir; Momeni, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica (PA) and its antibacterial activity. UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX) were performed to ascertain the formation of Ag-NPs. It was observed that the growths of Ag-NPs are stopped within 35 min of reaction time. The synthesized Ag-NPs were characterized by a peak at 446 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles of 27 nm size. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic silver, respectively. The FTIR result clearly showed that the extracts containing OH as a functional group act in capping the nanoparticles synthesis. Antibacterial activities of Ag-NPs were tested against the growth of Gram-positive (S. aureus) using SEM. The inhibition was observed in the Ag-NPs against S. aureus. The results suggest that the synthesized Ag-NPs act as an effective antibacterial agent. It is confirmed that Ag-NPs are capable of rendering high antibacterial efficacy and hence has a great potential in the preparation of used drugs against bacterial diseases. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicated that, the most strains of S. aureus was damaged and extensively disappeared by addition of Ag-NPs. The results confirmed that the (PA) is a very good eco friendly and nontoxic source for the synthesis of Ag-NPs as compared to the conventional chemical/physical methods.

  17. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Improved some of Biochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Disturbances of Red Blood Cells in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Zare Moaiedi, Maasoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has a broad spectrum of biologic properties against oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GSPE on biochemical factors and antioxidant enzymes of erythrocyte in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced through single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg.Kg-1, i.p). Forty Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four Groups: Group 1, healthy control group; Group 2, healthy group treated with GSPE (200 mg.Kg-1); Group 3, diabetic control group; Group 4, diabetic group treated with GSPE (200 mg.Kg-1) for 4 weeks. At the end, the experimental animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected and plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. The results show, treatment with GSPE significantly reduced (P<0.001) urine volume, proteinuria and biochemical factors such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein as well as malondialdehyde. Also GSPE treatment significantly (P<0.005) increased high density lipoprotein, total protein and albumin. Moreover GSPE significantly increased antioxidant enzymes activity such as: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. These results suggest that GSPE can ameliorate biochemical abnormalities and antioxidant system status in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats probably by its potent antioxidant features. PMID:25561939

  18. Acute and subchronic toxicological evaluation of the semipurified extract of seeds of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) in rodents.

    PubMed

    Antonelli-Ushirobira, T M; Kaneshima, E N; Gabriel, M; Audi, E A; Marques, L C; Mello, J C P

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the toxicity of a semipurified extract (EPA fraction, containing caffeine and several flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins) of seeds of the native Amazon plant Paullinia cupana (guaraná) in rodents. Acute toxicity was tested in male Swiss mice, which received different doses orally (OR) and intraperitoneally (ip); control groups received water. These tests produced acute mortality, with LD(50) of 1.825 g/kg (OR) and 0.827 g/kg (ip), and a significant weight decrease in lungs of mice receiving a dose of 0.1g/kg. In the repeated-dose toxicity test, the EPA was administered OR daily to male and female Wistar rats at doses of 30, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day/90 days. Their behavior, mortality, weight changes, laboratory tests, and the weights and histopathology of organs were evaluated. No rats died during the tests. Males dosed at 150 or 300 mg/kg gained weight more slowly and lost kidney weight (absolute and relative weights, compared to the control group). Hematological and biochemical tests showed few changes, differing somewhat between males and females; the histopathological evaluation indicated no significant changes. These results indicate that the EPA fraction of guaraná caused no toxicity in rats at the smallest dose evaluated (30 mg/kg). No other species was evaluated. PMID:20398723

  19. Comparing protective effect of grape seed extract versus atorvastatin on endometriosis in rat model: Evidence for immunohistochemical and biochemical alterations

    PubMed Central

    Kakaiy, Arash; Ayen, Esmail; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Sarrafzadeh Rezaei, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Thirty six Wistar albino rats with implant induced endometriosis were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each. The rats in the first group received nothing and were euthanized at day 21. In the second group, rats received nothing and were euthanized at day 36. The third group received atorvastatin (ATV; 5 mg kg-1 per day, orally) until 21 days from induction of endometriosis, and the fourth group received ATV from the 15th day after induction of endometriosis for 21 days. The fifth group received grape seed extract (GET; 450 mg kg-1 per day, orally) until 21 days from induction of endometriosis. In the sixth group, GET was administered from the 15th day after induction of endometriosis for 21 days. The estrogen receptor positive cells (ER+) distribution and angiogenesis were assessed using immunohistochemical and immunoflourescent analyzes, respectively. The active cells with intracytoplasmic carbohydrate content were analyzed. Er? mRNA expression was assessed using semiquantitative real time-PCR and the tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were evaluated. The GET and ATV-treated animals showed significant reduction in endometriosis-increased ER+ cells distribution as well as significant decrease in Er? mRNA levels (p < 0.05(. Our data suggests that GET exerts a potent inhibitory effect on development of endometriotic implants similar to ATV. PMID:26261704

  20. The Effect of Cochinchina momordica Seed Extract on Gastric Acid Secretion and Morphologic Change in Aged Rat Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyun Jin; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Jung Mook; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Cochinchina momordica seed extract (SK-MS10) has a gastric protective effect. We aimed to assess the effect of SK-MS10 on gastric acid secretion with morphologic changes in the aged rat. Methods Acid secretions were evaluated in the male F344 rats of four different ages (6-, 31-, 74-week, and 2-year). The 31-week-old rats were divided to three groups and continuously administered chow containing vehicle, SK-MS10 and lansoprazole, respectively. At the age of 74 weeks and 2 years, basal and stimulated acid was measured and the expression of mRNA and protein of H+-K+-ATPase were determined. The area of connective tissue of lamina propria was measured. Results Basal and stimulated gastric acid significantly decreased and connective tissue of lamina propria increased with age. The expression of mRNA and protein of H+-K+-ATPase significantly decreased with age. However, 74-week-old rats in the SK-MS10 group had higher stimulated gastric acid secretion than those in the vehicle and lansoprazole groups. In 2-year-old rats of SK-MS10 group, there was no increase of connective tissue. Conclusions As SK-MS10 kept the capacity of acid secretion as well as connective tissue area to comparable to young rats, it might valuable to perform further research regarding mechanism of SK-MS10 as an antiaging agent in the stomach. PMID:24073314

  1. Enhancement of immune responses to Newcastle disease vaccine by a supplement of extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, C; Bao, G; Hu, S

    2009-11-01

    The study evaluated the immunological effect of extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds (ECMS) on the immune response against Newcastle disease (ND) in chickens. Forty-eight chickens were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Each chicken was immunized with ND vaccine mixed with 0, 20, 40, or 80 microg of ECMS on d 35. Blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 postimmunization. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated by indirect ELISA assay and the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method. Results indicated that humoral immune response was enhanced by ECMS 14 d postimmunization. Eighty micrograms of ECMS was the best dose with the ND vaccine and was significantly different from the other groups 21 d after immunization. No significant differences were found in the cellular immune response, whereas the 80 microg of ECMS group had higher values than the other groups 35 d after immunization. No side effect was found on the growth performance during the experiment. PMID:19834078

  2. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticide residues in lotus seeds by a modified QuEChERS-based extraction and GC-ECD.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qing; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2013-05-01

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged and safe method (QuEChERS) coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed for rapid extraction and simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides in lotus seeds. The extraction solvent (acetone, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, n-hexane and n-hexane in combination with ethyl acetate) and purifying agent (neutral alumina, primary secondary amine, graphite carbon block and florisil) for QuEChERS extraction were optimized. The GC-ECD method was in-house validated in terms of linearity, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and recovery. The limits of detection (LODs) of the developed GC-ECD method for all investigated pesticides ranged from 0.01 to 3.0?gL(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.05 to 10.0?gL(-1). The satisfactory data demonstrated the good reproducibility and stability of the method with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 15%. Recoveries for spiked lotus seed samples were from 60.84% to 119.91% with RSDs lower than 13.06%. Two out of 24 batches of lotus seeds collected in China were found to be contaminated with trans-chlordane, which were below LOQ. This is the first attempt in China using QuEChERS to GC-ECD to determine 36 major pesticides with differences in physio-chemical properties in lotus seeds. The method described here was found to be practicable in the routine residue analysis of pesticides in lotus seeds. PMID:23453600

  3. Anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa seeds and its saponins rich fraction in neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sandip B.; Santani, Devdas; Patel, Veena; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. Aim: This study evaluated the anti-diabetic action of the ethanol extract of B. laciniosa seeds and saponin fraction of it through its effect on hyperglycemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in neonatally streptozotocin (n-STZ)-induced diabetic rats (n-STZ diabetic rats). Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.), saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) and standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats when the rats were 6 weeks old and continued for 10 consecutive weeks. Effects of ethanol extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Results: The treatment with ethanol extract and saponin fraction for 10 weeks decrease in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, serum urea, serum creatinine and diminished activities of aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. The anti-hyperglycemic nature of B. laciniosa is probably brought about by the extra- the pancreatic mechanism as evidenced from unchanged levels of plasma insulin. B. laciniosa modulated effect of diabetes on the liver malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity. Administration of ethanol extract and saponin fraction to diabetic rats showed a significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status. Significant increase in SOD, CAT, and levels of GSH was observed in treated n-STZ diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of n-STZ diabetic rats. PMID:25598641

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Assays of Seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: Compounds of the Extract Show Growth Inhibition and Activity against Plasmodial Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Peter; Deininger, Susanne; Specht, Sabine; Maniako, Rudeka; Haubrich, Stefanie; Pommerening, Tanja; Lin, Paul Kong Thoo; Hoerauf, Achim; Kaiser, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely grown desert plant with multiuse potential. In the present paper, a crude extract from B. aegyptiaca seeds equivalent to a ratio of 1?:?2000 seeds to the extract was screened for antiplasmodial activity. The determined IC50 value for the chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain was 68.26??g/?L ± 3.5. Analysis of the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 6-phenyl-2(H)-1,2,4-triazin-5-one oxime, an inhibitor of the parasitic M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase as one of the compounds which is responsible for the in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The crude plant extract had a Ki of 2.35??g/?L and showed a dose-dependent response. After depletion of the compound, a significantly lower inhibition was determined with a Ki of 4.8??g/?L. Moreover, two phenolic compounds, that is, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol, with determined IC50 values of 50.29??M ± 3 and 47.82??M ± 2.5, respectively, were detected. These compounds may contribute to the in vitro antimalarial activity due to their antioxidative properties. In an in vivo experiment, treatment of BALB/c mice with the aqueous Balanite extract did not lead to eradication of the parasites, although a reduced parasitemia at day 12 p.i. was observed. PMID:21687598

  5. Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oils and fatty acids from flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) seed using response surface methodology and central composite design.

    PubMed

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Jowkarderis, Mina; Raofie, Farhad

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils and fatty acids of Descurainia sophia L. seed were obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and steam distillation methods. The effect of different parameters such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume, dynamic and static extraction timeon the extraction yield were optimized using a central composite design after a 2 (n-1) fractional factorial design. The results showed that under the pressure of 355 bar, temperature of 65 °C, methanol volume of 150 ?L, dynamic and static extraction times of 35 and 10 min, respectively, the major components were methyl linoleate (18.2 %), camphor (12.32 %), cis-thujone (11.3 %) and trans-caryophyllene (9.17 %). The results indicated that by using the proper conditions, the supercritical fluid extraction is more selective than the steam distillation method. Extraction yields based on supercritical fluid extraction varied in the range of 0.68 to 17.1 % (w/w), and the extraction yield based on the steam distillation was 0.25 % (v/w). PMID:26139911

  6. [Factors influence on transformation by particle bombardment in Indica rice].

    PubMed

    Tao, L Z; Xu, Q S; Liang, C Y; Ling, D H

    2000-03-01

    Four factors influence on transformation of indica rice, which were high osmotic treatment; different explant as the target tissue; pressure of rupture disk and quantity of plasmid DNA, were investigated in this experiment. High osmotic treatment of target tissue prior to and after bombardment increased 3.2-fold for Gus transient expression than control. The best treatment of high osmotic was that the target tissues were kept in the target-bed medium which contained 0.4-0.6 mol/L sorbitol and manitol each for 4 h prior to bombardment and for 16 h after bombardment. Four explants: scutellum from mature seed, young panicle, embryogenic callus and suspension cells of indica rice were tested as target explant by particle bombardment. The results of Gus transient showed that the highest expression was scutellum and for other three explants, the order from high to low was young panicle, embryogenic callus and suspension cell. Transgenic plants were obtained from all of the explants except young panicle. For the pressure of rupture disk on transformation, 1100 psi or 1300 psi of the pressure of rupture disk were best one for the transformation and higher than 1300 psi could damage the target tissue which become black and died in the following culture duration. For the quantity of plasmid DNA, the results showed that 0.83 microgram of plasmid DNA per bombardment was preferred for the transformation of indica rice. PMID:12548856

  7. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of Asplenium nidus, Phaleria macrocarpa and Eleusine indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mariya Mohd; Ibrahim, Nazlina; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Three local medicinal plants namely Asplenium nidus (langsuyar), Eleusine indica (sambau) and Phaleria macrocarpa (mahkota dewa) were screened for the cytotoxicity and antiviral activities. Six plant extracts were prepared including the aqueous and methanol extracts from A. nidus leaf and root, aqueous extract from dried whole plant of E. indica and methanol extract from P. macrocarpa fruits. Cytotoxicity screening in Vero cell line by MTT assay showed that the CC50 values ranged from 15 to 60 mg/mL thus indicating the safety of the extracts even at high concentrations. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The EC50 concentrations were between 3.2 to 47 mg/mL. The selectivity indices (SI = CC50/EC50) of each tested extracts ranged from 4.3 to 63.25 indicating the usefulness of the extracts as potential antiviral agents.

  8. Protective effect of the standardized green tea seed extract on UVB-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-Youn; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Lee, Jeongmin; Lee, Min-Jae; Kang, Namgil

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on skin can induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and collagen degradation. Thus, chronic exposure of skin to UVB irradiation leads to histological changes consistent with aging, such as wrinkling, abnormal pigmentation, and loss of elasticity. We investigated the protective effect of the standardized green tea seed extract (GSE) on UVB-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Skin photoaging was induced by UVB irradiation on the back of Skh-1 hairless mice three times per week and UVB irradiation was performed for 10 weeks. Mice were divided into six groups; normal control, UVB irradiated control group, positive control (UVB + dietary supplement of vitamin C 100 mg/kg), GSE 10 mg/kg (UVB + dietary supplement of GSE 10 mg/kg), GSE 100 mg/kg (UVB + dietary supplement of GSE 100 mg/kg), and GSE 200 mg/kg (UVB + dietary supplement of GSE 200 mg/kg). RESULTS The dietary supplement GSE attenuated UVB irradiation-induced wrinkle formation and the decrease in density of dermal collagen fiber. In addition, results of the antioxidant analysis showed that GSE induced a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity compared with the UVB irradiation control group. Dietary supplementation with GSE 200 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9 and an increase in expression of TIMP and type-1 collagen. CONCLUSIONS Findings of this study suggest that dietary supplement GSE could be useful in attenuation of UVB irradiation-induced skin photoaging and wrinkle formation due to regulation of antioxidant defense systems and MMPs expression. PMID:25110559

  9. Ethanolic Extract of the Seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Eun; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Young Woo; Jung, Jun Man; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Bum Young; Jang, Dae Sik; Kang, Sam Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activity. The ameliorating effect of EEZS on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was significantly reversed by a sub-effective dose of MK-801 (0.0125 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, single administration of EEZS in normal naïve mouse enhanced latency time in the passive avoidance task. Western blot analysis was employed to confirm the mechanism of memory-ameliorating effect of EEZS. Administration of EEZS (200 mg/kg) increased the level of memory-related signaling molecules, including phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal region. Also, the time-dependent expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by the administration of EEZS was markedly increased from 3 to 9 h. These results suggest that EEZS has memory-ameliorating effect on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, which is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system, in part, via NMDA receptor signaling, and that EEZS would be useful agent against cognitive dysfunction such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24244815

  10. Allelopathy in a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica: protoplast co-culture bioassay and rotenone effect.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Aya; Mori, Daisuke; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    To investigate allelopathic activity of a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica, the 'Protoplasts Co-culture Method' for bioassay of allelopathy was developed using suspension culture. A suspension culture was induced from immature seed and sub-cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 10 ?M each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The protoplasts were isolated using the separate wells method with 2% each of Cellulase RS, Driselase 20 and Macerozyme R10 in 0.4 M mannitol solution. Protoplast cultures of D. indica revealed that high concentrations of cytokinins, BA and thidiazuron, were effective for cell divisions. The co-cultures of D. indica protoplasts with recipient lettuce protoplasts using 96 multi-well culture plates were performed in MS basal medium containing 0.4 M mannitol solution and 1 ?M 2,4-D and 0.1 ?M BA. The protoplast density of D. indica used in co-culturing varied from 6 x 10(3) - 10(5) / mL. Very strong inhibitory allelopathic effects of D. indica protoplasts on lettuce protoplast growth were found. A similar strong inhibitory allelopathic activity of dried young leaves on lettuce seedling growth was also observed by using the sandwich method. Rotenone, which is a component of Derris root, dissolved in DMSO, was highly inhibitory on the growth of lettuce protoplasts in culture and this could be one of the causes of the strong allelopathic activity of D. indica. PMID:26058149

  11. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of whole extract and isolated indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica associated with re-activation of the onco-suppressor p16(INK4a) gene in human colorectal carcinoma (Caco-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Naselli, Flores; Tesoriere, Luisa; Caradonna, Fabio; Bellavia, Daniele; Attanzio, Alessandro; Gentile, Carla; Livrea, Maria A

    2014-07-18

    Phytochemicals may exert chemo-preventive effects on cells of the gastro-intestinal tract by modulating epigenome-regulated gene expression. The effect of the aqueous extract from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI extract), and of its betalain pigment indicaxanthin (Ind), on proliferation of human colon cancer Caco-2 cells has been investigated. Whole extract and Ind caused a dose-dependent apoptosis of proliferating cells at nutritionally relevant amounts, with IC50 400±25 mg fresh pulp equivalents/mL, and 115±15 ?M (n=9), respectively, without toxicity for post-confluent differentiated cells. Ind accounted for ?80% of the effect of the whole extract. Ind did not cause oxidative stress in proliferating Caco-2 cells. Epigenomic activity of Ind was evident as de-methylation of the tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) gene promoter, reactivation of the silenced mRNA expression and accumulation of p16(INK4a), a major controller of cell cycle. As a consequence, decrease of hyper-phosphorylated, in favor of the hypo-phosphorylated retinoblastoma was observed, with unaltered level of the cycline-dependent kinase CDK4. Cell cycle showed arrest in the G2/M-phase. Dietary cactus pear fruit and Ind may have chemo-preventive potential in intestinal cells. PMID:24937448

  12. Protective effect of aqueous extract of seed of Psoralea corylifolia (Somraji) and seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: A comparative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Jana, Kishalay; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Ghosh, Debidas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psoralea corylifolia (Somraji) and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi), important medicinal plants widely used in India as folk medicine. Local people of West Bengal traditionally used the seeds of these plants to cure diabetes. Objective: Present study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic efficacy of aqueous extract of seeds of these plants in separate or in composite manner in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intramuscular injection of STZ at the dose of 40 mg/ml of citrate buffer/kg body weight. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glyclated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase of liver in experimental animals were assessed. Hyperlipidemic state developed in the experimental diabetic rat was assessed by measuring the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins in serum. Results: There was significant increased in the levels of FBG, HbA1C and lipid profiles along with diminution (P < 0.001) in the activities of hepatic hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and elevation in glucose-6-phosphatase in diabetic control animals in respect to the untreated control. Significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the activities of above mentioned enzymes along with the correction in the levels of FBG, HbA1C and serum lipid profiles were noted towards the control level after the treatment of composite extract (i.e. 100 mg of Somraji: 100 mg of Methi, total 200 mg/kg body weight) than the individual extract (i.e. 200 mg of Somraji or 200 mg of Methi, per kg body weight) treatment. Conclusion: Results suggest that composite extract of above plant parts has more potent antidiabetic efficacy than the individual extract. PMID:24174822

  13. Rapid Identification and Quantification of Natural Antioxidants in the Seeds of Rhubarb from Different Habitats in China Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn-DPPH Assay.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liang; Geng, Dan-Dan; Hu, Feng-Zu; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 10 accessions of rhubarb seeds from different habitats in China were investigated. Lipids were removed using petroleum ether, and the effective components were then separated using accelerated solvent extraction with 80% aqueous methanol. An off-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging method was used as the marker to evaluate the total antioxidant capability of extracts. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detectors-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)) and HPLC-DAD-DPPH assays were developed for rapid identification and quantification of individual free-radical scavengers in extracts of rhubarb seeds. Ten free-radical scavengers from methanolic extracts of the rhubarb seeds were screened, five of which were identified and quantitatively analyzed: epicatechin, myricetin, hyperoside, quercitrin and quercetin. All were identified in rhubarb seeds for the first time and can be regarded as the major potent antioxidants in rhubarb seeds due to representing most of the total free-radical scavenging activity. Preliminary analysis of structures was performed for another five antioxidants. Based on our validation results, the developed method can be used for rapid separation, convenient identification and quantification of the multiple antioxidative constituents in rhubarb seeds, featuring good quantification parameters, accuracy and precision. The results are important to clarify the material basis and therapeutic mechanism of rhubarb seeds. PMID:26206792

  14. Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed extract increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and decreases proinflammatory signaling in peripheral blood human leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Fadia; Haines, David; Al-Awadhi, Rana; Dashti, Ali A; Al-Awadhi, Adel; Ibrahim, Basel; Al-Zayer, Bashayer; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

    2014-05-01

    Sour cherry seed extract (SCE) was evaluated for its capacity to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-treated human peripheral blood T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and the chemokine interleukin-8. Both proteins are diagnostic biomarkers for inflammatory pathologies. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 11 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 8 healthy control subjects were co-cultured for 24h in lipopolysaccharide and the extract, then evaluated by flow cytometry for T cell activation and by enzyme-linked immunoassay for lymphocyte-associated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. There was a dose-dependent decrease in expression of the immunophenotypes: CD3+TNF-?+, and CD3+IL8+ in cultures from RA patients to a greater extent than in cells from healthy participants. These results suggest that the extract may have a modulatory roll in RA and other inflammatory disorders via the induction of HO-1, thus abating oxidative stress and strengthening regulation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. PMID:24631368

  15. Protective potential of Tamarindus indica against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Naveed; Azam Khan, Mir; Khan, Taous; Ahmad, Waqar

    2014-01-13

    Abstract Context: Gentamicin is an antibiotic that is effective against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, its clinical applications are often limited due to nephrotoxic effects. Objective: This study investigated the protective effects of aqueous-ethanol extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae) fruits against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity. Materials and methods: A daily dose of 200?mg/kg of 70% aqueous-ethanol extract derived from T. indica was employed in male rabbits as a co-therapy with gentamicin (80?mg/kg) for a period of three weeks. Serum and urinary renal function parameters and histological assessments were carried out and compared with one way analysis of variance (Graphpad prism version 5.00, Graphpad Software, San Diego, CA). Results: The results showed that gentamicin-treated animals had significantly elevated blood urea nitrogen (54.1?±?2.6?mg/dl), serum creatinine (4.0?±?0.1?mg/dl), serum uric acid (2.3?±?0.1?mg/dl) and urinary protein excretion (3.8?±?0.3?mg/dl) with a fall in body weight (10?±?1%), creatinine clearance (0.7?±?0.09?ml/min), serum potassium (3.4?±?0.1?mEq/l), serum calcium (7.6?±?0.2?mg/dl), urinary volume (126?±?9?ml/24?h) and urinary lactate dehydrogenase secretion (103.1?±?4.2?U/l). However, animals treated by co-therapy with gentamicin and T. indica had significantly improved renal structure and function. Discussion and conclusion: Co-therapy of 200?mg/kg/d of T. indica for a period of three weeks successfully prevented functional and morphological derangements caused by gentamicin as assessed by different renal function parameters and histological examinations. PMID:24417619

  16. Interaction of Isoflavones and Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Seed Extract on Vasoactivity of Bovine Mesenteric Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yang; Harmon, David L.; Flythe, Michael D.; Klotz, James L.

    2015-01-01

    It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isoflavones formononetin (F), biochanin A (B), or an ergovaline-containing tall fescue seed extract (EXT) and their combinations affect ergotamine (ERT)-induced contractility. Multiple segments of mesenteric artery and vein supporting the ileal flange of the small intestine were collected from Angus heifers at slaughter (n?=?5, bodyweight?=?639?±?39?kg). Duplicates of each vessel type were incubated in tissue culture flasks at 37°C with a 50-mL volume of Krebs–Henseleit buffer containing: only buffer (control); or 1?×?10?6?M EXT; F; or B; and combinations of 1?×?10?6?M EXT?+?F; 1?×?10?6?M EXT?+?B; 1?×?10?6?M F?+?B; or 1?×?10?6?M EXT?+?F?+?B. After incubation for 2?h, sections were mounted in a multimyograph chamber. The ERT dose responses were normalized to 0.12?M KCl. Pretreatment with F, B, and F?+?B without EXT resulted in similar contractile responses to ERT in mesenteric artery and all incubations containing EXT resulted in a complete loss of vasoactivity to ERT. In mesenteric artery pretreated with EXT, treatments that contained B had higher contractile responses (P?

  17. Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics to Explore the Bioavailability of the Secoiridoids from a Seed/Fruit Extract (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) in Human Healthy Volunteers: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Fança-Berthon, Pascale; Roller, Marc; Zafrilla, Pilar; Issaly, Nicolas; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The bark, seeds, fruits and leaves of the genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae) which contain a wide range of phytochemicals, mostly secoiridoid glucosides, have been widely used in folk medicine against a number of ailments, yet little is known about the metabolism and uptake of the major Fraxinus components. The aim of this work was to advance in the knowledge on the bioavailability of the secoiridoids present in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl seed/fruit extract using both targeted and untargeted metabolomic analyses. Plasma and urine samples from nine healthy volunteers were taken at specific time intervals following the intake of the extract and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF. Predicted metabolites such as tyrosol and ligstroside-aglycone glucuronides and sulfates were detected at low intensity. These compounds reached peak plasma levels 2 h after the intake and exhibited high variability among the participants. The ligstroside-aglycone conjugates may be considered as potential biomarkers of the Fraxinus secoiridoids intake. Using the untargeted approach we additionally detected phenolic conjugates identified as ferulic acid and caffeic acid sulfates, as well as hydroxybenzyl and hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde sulfate derivatives which support further metabolism of the secoiridoids by phase I and (or) microbial enzymes. Overall, the results of this study suggest low uptake of intact secoiridoids from a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl extract in healthy human volunteers and metabolic conversion by esterases, glycosidases, and phase II sulfo- and glucuronosyl transferases to form smaller conjugated derivatives. PMID:26690403

  18. Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, J P; Tai, C Y; Chen, B H

    2004-10-29

    An HPLC method was developed to determine the various carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.). Initially, the peel and seed of mangoes were removed, the pulps were cut into pieces, freeze-dried, ground into powder, extracted and subjected to HPLC analysis. A mobile phase of methanol-isopropanol (99:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (100%) (B) with the following gradient elution was developed: 100% A and 0% B in the beginning, maintained for 15 min, decreased to 70% A in 45 min, maintained for 15 min and returned to 100% A in 65 min. A total of 25 carotenoids were resolved within 53 min by using a C-30 column with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 450 nm. alpha-Carotene was used as an internal standard to quantify all the carotenoids. All-trans-beta-carotene was present in largest amount (29.34 microg/g), followed by cis isomers of beta-carotene (9.86 microg/g), violaxanthin and its cis isomers (6.40 microg/g), neochrome (5.03 microg/g), luteoxanthin (3.6 microg/g), neoxanthin and its cis isomers (1.88 microg/g), zeaxanthin (1.16 microg/g) and 9- or 9'-cis-lutein (0.78 microg/g). PMID:15553152

  19. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Khabat; Sherameti, Irena; Bakshi, Madhunita; Mrozinska, Anna; Ludwig, Anatoli; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771) published by Vahabi et al. (2015) in BMC Plant Biology [1]. PMID:26697320

  20. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction

    PubMed Central

    Vahabi, Khabat; Sherameti, Irena; Bakshi, Madhunita; Mrozinska, Anna; Ludwig, Anatoli; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771) published by Vahabi et al. (2015) in BMC Plant Biology [1]. PMID:26697320

  1. In vitro response of encapsulated somatic embryos of Lagerstroemia indica L.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, M H; Sudarshana, M S

    2005-06-01

    A method to produce encapsulatable units for synthetic seeds was developed in L. indica. Somatic embryos were harvested from leaf derived embryogenic callus on Murashige and Skoog's basal medium supplemented with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D, 0.5 mg/l), 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP, 1 mg/l) and ascorbic acid (AA, 50 mg/l). The embryos were encapsulated in alginate beads and dehydrated. Germination ability of the artificial seeds were investigated. The frequency of regeneration from the encapsulated embryos was significantly affected by (i) the concentration of alginate (ii) the duration of storage, and (iii) the effect of different types of media. A 2% sodium alginate concentration on MS salts resulted in significantly higher germination frequencies than at other concentrations. L. indica showed maximum germination on MS medium (93.84%) after 6 weeks of culture. The germinated synthetic seeds with well developed roots and shoots were transferred successfully to green house. This is the first report on artificial seeds in Lagerstroemnia indica. PMID:15991582

  2. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  3. Effect of a water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds on the hydrolytic microbial species diversity of a UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kalogo, Y; Rosillon, F; Hammes, F; Verstraete, W

    2000-09-01

    The effect of a continuous supply of a water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (WEMOS) on the hydrolytic microbial population of biomass grown in mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating domestic wastewater was investigated. The WEMOS-treated sludge had seemingly a wider diversity, with enterobacter and klebsiella as dominant hydrolytic bacteria, compared with the control sludge. Additional tests indicated that various hydrolytic bacteria could degrade WEMOS. It appeared that a continuous supply of WEMOS to an anaerobic digester, treating domestic wastewater, increased the diversity of hydrolytic bacteria and therefore enhanced the biological start-up of the reactor. PMID:10972741

  4. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of whole extract and isolated indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica associated with re-activation of the onco-suppressor p16{sup INK4a} gene in human colorectal carcinoma (Caco-2) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Naselli, Flores; Tesoriere, Luisa; Caradonna, Fabio; Bellavia, Daniele; Attanzio, Alessandro; Gentile, Carla; Livrea, Maria A.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Cactus pear fruit extract and indicaxanthin cause apoptosis of colon cancer cells. • Indicaxanthin does not cause ROS formation, but affects epigenoma in Caco-2 cells. • Indicaxanthin reverses methylation of oncosuppressor p16{sup INK4a} gene in Caco-2 cells. • Indicaxanthin reactivates retinoblastoma in Caco-2 cells. • Bioavailable indicaxanthin may have chemopreventive activity in colon cancer. - Abstract: Phytochemicals may exert chemo-preventive effects on cells of the gastro-intestinal tract by modulating epigenome-regulated gene expression. The effect of the aqueous extract from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI extract), and of its betalain pigment indicaxanthin (Ind), on proliferation of human colon cancer Caco-2 cells has been investigated. Whole extract and Ind caused a dose-dependent apoptosis of proliferating cells at nutritionally relevant amounts, with IC{sub 50} 400 ± 25 mg fresh pulp equivalents/mL, and 115 ± 15 ?M (n = 9), respectively, without toxicity for post-confluent differentiated cells. Ind accounted for ?80% of the effect of the whole extract. Ind did not cause oxidative stress in proliferating Caco-2 cells. Epigenomic activity of Ind was evident as de-methylation of the tumor suppressor p16{sup INK4a} gene promoter, reactivation of the silenced mRNA expression and accumulation of p16{sup INK4a}, a major controller of cell cycle. As a consequence, decrease of hyper-phosphorylated, in favor of the hypo-phosphorylated retinoblastoma was observed, with unaltered level of the cycline-dependent kinase CDK4. Cell cycle showed arrest in the G2/M-phase. Dietary cactus pear fruit and Ind may have chemo-preventive potential in intestinal cells.

  5. Process Simulation and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Jatropha Curcas L. Seed Oil Extraction in Biodiesel Production 

    E-print Network

    Chiou, Ming-Hao

    2012-10-19

    -case flowsheet is synthesized for oil extraction. Then, the base-case extraction process and each solvent Fire and Explosion Index (F & EI) and the Solvent Safety Index (SSI). Eight solvents, including n-heptane, toluene, xylene, dichloromethane, chloroform, 1...

  6. Effects of Azardirachta indica on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Cytokines in Diabetic Deep Wound.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Manish Kumar; Gangwar, Mayank; Singh, Surya Kumar; Goel, Raj Kumar

    2015-06-01

    A chronic, unhealed diabetic wound is one of the severe complications of diabetes mellitus. Azadirachta indica has been reported to have antidiabetic and antiapoptotic properties. The present work incorporates the healing potential of 50?% ethanol A. indica leaves extract against deep surgical wounds in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic rats. A. indica leaves extract (500?mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for ten days. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides as well as body weight, food, and water intake, and tissue antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione), free radicals (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide), myeloperoxidase, total collagens (hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid and hexosamine), protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cytokines (tumor necrotic factor-? and interleukin-1?) were estimated. Histology was done for connective tissue formation and inflammatory and healing in deep granulation tissue after A. indica leaves extract treatment. Diabetic rats showed an increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels, food and water intake, and granular tissue free radicals, myeloperoxidase, and cytokines, but a decrease in body weight, total collagen, and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. A. indica leaves extract reversed the increased serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides, food and water intake, and tissue free radicals, myeloperoxidase and, cytokines, but increased body weight, tissue antioxidants, total collagen, and vascular endothelial growth factor contents. The results thus indicated an improvement in wound healing by A. indica leaves extract in diabetic rats through enhanced angiogenesis mediated through the inhibition of hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and down- and upregulation of inflammatory mediators and growth factor expression. PMID:26069952

  7. Chemical composition, oxidative stability and antioxidant capacity of oil extracted from roasted seeds of Sacha-inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Paredes, Daniel; Arana, Adrian; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2014-06-01

    The effect of roasting of Sacha-inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) seeds on the oxidative stability and composition of its oil was investigated. The seeds were subjected to light, medium and high roasting intensities. Oil samples were subjected to high-temperature storage at 60 °C for 30 days and evaluated for oxidation (peroxide value and p-anisidine), antioxidant activity (total phenols and DPPH assay), and composition (tocopherol content and fatty acid profile). Results showed that roasting partially increased oil oxidation and its antioxidant capacity, slightly decreased tocopherol content, and did not affect the fatty acid profile. During storage, oxidation increased for all oil samples, but at a slower rate for oils from roasted seeds, likely due to its higher antioxidant capacity. Also, tocopherol content decreased significantly, and a slight modification of the fatty acid profile suggested that ?-linolenic acid oxidized more readily than other fatty acids present. PMID:24823227

  8. Application of response surface methodology to optimize microwave-assisted extraction of silymarin from milk thistle seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several parameters of Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) including extraction time, extraction temperature, ethanol concentration and solid-liquid ratio were selected to describe the MAE processing. The silybin content, measured by an UV-Vis spectrophotometry, was considered as the silymarin yield....

  9. Cochinchina momordica seed extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human gastric cancer cells via PARP and p53 signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Rui; Meng, Lin-Yi; Lin, Zhi-Yan; Shen, Yang; Yu, Yun-Qiu; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2012-01-01

    Cochinchina momordica seed is the dried ripe seed of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng, which is a kind of fruit and consumed for dietary as well as medicinal uses. In this study, using the human SGC7901 and MKN-28 gastric cancer cell lines, we explored the anticancer activity of the extract from cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS). ECMS inhibited significantly the survival rates of SGC7901 and MKN-28 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners by MTT assay. The typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay after SGC7901 and MKN-28 cells were treated with ECMS for 48 h. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that ECMS-treatment blocked the cells at the S phase of cell cycle. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and Bcl-2 were downregulated notably by ECMS-treatment, whereas those of Fas/Fas-associated death domain, p53, and Bax were upregulated in SGC7901 cells. ECMS dramatically enhanced the enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 whilst slightly increased caspase-8 activity. Taken together, this study demonstrated that ECMS exerted cytotoxic activities via PARP and p53 signal pathways in the human gastric cancer cells. PMID:23020228

  10. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.

    PubMed

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B J; Harisha, C R; Shukla, V J

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

  11. Piriformospora indica-a mutualistic basidiomycete with an exceptionally large plant host range.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Xiaoyu; Weiss, Michael; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is a basidiomycete of the order Sebacinales, representing a model for the study of mutualistic symbiosis and, beyond that, the plant immune system. The fungus colonizes the roots of a wide range of vascular plants, increasing their growth, seed yield and adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. The fungal colonization of roots begins with a biotrophic growth phase, in which living cells are colonized, and continues with a cell death-dependent phase, in which root cells are actively killed by the fungus. The complexity of sebacinalean symbiosis is further enhanced by the presence of endocellular bacteria which may represent significant determinants for a successful outcome of the symbioses. Molecular ecological analyses have revealed an exceptional relevance of sebacinoid fungi in natural ecosystems worldwide. This natural competence could be rooted in their phenotypic adaptability, which, for instance, allows P. indica to grow readily on various synthetic media and to colonize distinct hosts. In molecular and genetic studies, P. indica's mutualistic colonization strategy has been partly unravelled, showing that the jasmonate pathway is exploited for immune suppression and successful development in roots. Research on P. indica supports efforts to make the bioprotective potential of the fungus accessible for agricultural plant production. The decoding of P. indica's genome has revealed its potential for application as bioagent and for targeted improvement of crop plants in biotechnology-based approaches. PMID:22111580

  12. A protein extract and a cysteine protease inhibitor enriched fraction from Jatropha curcas seed cake have in vitro anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity.

    PubMed

    Soares, A M S; Carvalho, L P; Melo, E J T; Costa, H P S; Vasconcelos, I M; Oliveira, J T A

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of great medical and veterinary importance that has worldwide distribution and causes toxoplasmosis. There are few treatments available for toxoplasmosis and the search for plant extracts and compounds with anti-Toxoplasma activity is of utmost importance for the discovery of new active drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of a protein extract and a protease inhibitor enriched fraction from J.?curcas seed cake on developing tachyzoites of T.?gondii-infected Vero cells. The protein extract (JcCE) was obtained after solubilization of the J.?curcas seed cake with 100?mM sodium borate buffer, pH 10, centrifugation and dialysis of the resulting supernatant with the extracting buffer. JcCE was used for the in vitro assays of anti-Toxoplasma activity at 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0?mg/ml concentration for 24?h. The results showed that JcCE reduced the percentage of infection and the number of intracellular parasites, but had no effect on the morphology of Vero cells up to 3.0?mg/mL. The cysteine protease inhibitor enriched fraction, which was obtained after chromatography of JcCE on Sephadex G-75 and presented a unique protein band following SDS-PAGE, reduced both the number of T.?gondii infected cells and intracellular parasites. These results suggest that both JcCE and the cysteine protease inhibitor enriched fraction interfere with the intracellular growth of T.?gondii. PMID:25816973

  13. Production of maize tortillas and cookies from nixtamalized flour enriched with anthocyanins, flavonoids and saponins extracted from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed coats.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Perez-Carrillo, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Ethanolic extract from black beans coat is a source of flavonoids, saponins and antocyanins. Nixtamalized maize flours (NF) are used for the preparation of products such as tortillas, tortillas chips, cookies among others. The objective of this research was to study the effect on textural parameters and color after adding flavonoids, saponins and anthocyanins from black bean seed coat in NF used for the production of tortillas and gluten-free cookies. Furthermore, the retention of bioactive compounds after tortilla and gluten-free-cookie preparation was assessed. Ethanolic extracts of black bean seed coats were added (3g/kg or 7 g/kg) to NF in order to prepare corn tortillas and gluten free cookies characterized in terms of dimensions, color and texture. Addition of 7 g/kg affected the color of cookies and tortillas without effect on texture and dimensions. It was possible to retain more than 80% and 60% of bioactives into baked tortillas and cookies, respectively. PMID:26304324

  14. A facile biomimetic preparation of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles derived from seed extract of Vigna radiata and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Singh, Jagdish

    2015-02-01

    The significant antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles draws the major attention toward the present nanobiotechnology. Also, the use of plant material for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is considered as a green technology. In this context, a non-toxic, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of mung beans (Vigna radiata). The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-visible spectrum showed an absorption peak at around 440 nm. The different types of phytochemicals present in the seed extract synergistically reduce the Ag metal ions, as each phytochemical is unique in terms of its structure and antioxidant function. The colloidal silver nanoparticles were observed to be highly stable, even after 5 months. XRD analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry and the TEM micrographs showed spherical particles with an average size of 18 nm. Further, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by well-diffusion method and it was observed that the biogenic silver nanoparticles have an effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The outcome of this study could be useful for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.

  15. Effects of aqueous extract of soil-like substrate made from three different materials on seed germination and seedling growth of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Yuming; Fu, Wenting; Yan, Min; Li, Leyuan; Liu, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Biologically processing rice and wheat straws into soil-like substrate (SLS) and then reusing them in plant cultivation system to achieve waste recycle is very crucially important in Bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, rice is a plant with strong allelopathic potential. It is not clear yet that what kinds of raw materials can be processed into proper SLS to grow rice in BLSS. Therefore, in this study, the aqueous extract of SLS made from three different materials including rice straw, wheat straw and rice-wheat straw mixture was utilized to investigate its effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. The gradients of the extract concentrations (soil:water) were 1:3, 1:5, 1:9, and 1:15 with deionized water used as control. The effects of different types of SLS on seed germination and seedling vitality of rice were confirmed by analyzing the germination rate, seedling length, root length, the fresh weight and other indicants. In addition, based on the analysis towards pH, organic matter composition and other factors of the SLS as well as the chlorophyll, hormone content of rice, and the mechanism of the inhibition was speculated in order to explore the preventive methods of the phenomenon. Finally, the feasibility of cultivating rice on SLSs made from the raw materials mentioned above was evaluated and wheat raw was determined as the most appropriate material for growing rice.

  16. Effect of early planting on weed suppression activity of indica and commercial U.S. rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indica and commercial cultivars can suppress barnyardgrass when drill-seeded into ‘warm’ soils and grown under flood-irrigation in Arkansas. Because early planting is popular with growers and considered to improve productivity and flexibility, weed suppression tests were planted in the field on Apr...

  17. Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from pumpkin seeds and evaluation of its physicochemical properties, fatty acid compositions and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiao; Li, Zhu-Gang; Gai, Qing-Yan; Li, Xiao-Juan; Wei, Fu-Yao; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

    2014-03-15

    Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction (MAAEE) of pumpkin seed oil was performed in this study. An enzyme cocktail comprised of cellulase, pectinase and proteinase (w/w/w) was found to be the most effective in releasing oils. The highest oil recovery of 64.17% was achieved under optimal conditions of enzyme concentration (1.4%, w/w), temperature (44°C), time (66 min) and irradiation power (419W). Moreover, there were no significant variations in physicochemical properties of MAAEE-extracted oil (MAAEEO) and Soxhlet-extracted oil (SEO), but MAAEEO exhibited better oxidation stability. Additionally, MAAEEO had a higher content of linoleic acid (57.33%) than SEO (53.72%), and it showed stronger antioxidant activities with the IC50 values 123.93 and 152.84, mg/mL, according to DPPH radical scavenging assay and ?-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching test. SEM results illustrated the destruction of cell walls and membranes by MAAEE. MAAEE is, therefore, a promising and environmental-friendly technique for oil extraction in the food industry. PMID:24206680

  18. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities

    PubMed Central

    De, Debasis; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-01-01

    Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2?:?3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (family Meliaceae) seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25?mg 0.25?mL distilled water?1100?gm b.w.?1rat?1?day?1) for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes. PMID:20981322

  19. Modulatory effects of Azadirachta indica on benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gangar, Subhash Chander; Sandhir, Rajat; Rai, Durg Vijay; Koul, Ashwani

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the chemopreventive effects of aqueous Azadirachta indica (A indica) leaf extract (AAILE) against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in Balb/c mice. METHODS: Female Balb/c mice were divided into four groups of 10-12 animals each. For induction of forestomach tumors, starting from d 14 of the experi-ment, mice of B(a)P and B(a)P?+?A indica groups were given intra-gastric instillations of B(a)P (40 mg/kg), twice a week for four weeks. Mice of A indica and B(a)P?+?A indica groups were orally administered with AAILE (100 mg/kg), two weeks prior to B(a)P instillations till the end of the experiment. After 22 wk of the first B(a)P instillation, mice were sacrificed and the forestomachs were analyzed for development of tumors, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histopathology. RESULTS: Tumor incidence was observed to be 100% in mice that received only B(a)P. However, treatment with AAILE reduced the tumor incidence by 58.4% as observed in mice of B(a)P?+?A indica group when compared to that of B(a)P group. Similarly, the tumor burden and multiplicity were seen to decrease by 87.3% and 69.6% respectively in mice of B(a)P?+?A indica group when compared to those of B(a)P group. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that AAILE treatment itself did not cause any abnormalities on the surface architecture of forestomach epithelium. In tumorous forestomach, surface disruption was observed. Over the forestomach tumors of B(a)P group of mice certain rounded structures were seen in addition to closely placed tongue-shaped squamous cells. Interestingly, these rounded structures were not observed in B(a)P + A indica group of mice. Histopathalogically, the tumors were identical and diagnosed to be papillomas. Mice from control and A indica groups of mice did not develop any forestomach tumors and showed normal histo-architecture. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that A indica exerts chemopreventive effects against B(a)P-induced forestomach tumors in murine model. Because of lack of toxicity and ubiquitous bioavailability, A indica may play a promising role in future drug discovery and development as far as chemoprevention of cancer is concerned. PMID:16718763

  20. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Adilson; Pegas Pereira, Elisangela Samartin; Assumpção, Elvira Cancio; Calixto dos Santos, Felipe Borba; Ota, Fernanda Sayuri; de Oliveira Pereira, Margareth; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Fávaro, Raquel; Barros Langen, Stephanie Selma; Favaro de Arruda, Lúcia Helena; Abildgaard, Eva Nydal

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet) marine protein (105 mg), vitamin C (27 mg), grape seed extract (13.75 mg), zinc (2 mg), and tomato extract (14.38 mg) in the improvement of skin aging in men. Methods This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images. Results Forty-one subjects (87%) completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05). The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05), dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001), and reduction of skin pH (P<0.05). No statistical improvement in relation to sebum was found. The photographic assessment showed an improvement in the overall appearance. The results of the objective measurements were found to be correlated with the subjects’ satisfaction by an increase of collagen and elastic fibers. Conclusion The use of an oral supplement based on a unique biomarine complex, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract produced improvements in the signs of skin aging in men. PMID:26170708

  1. Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-12-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed. PMID:20069853

  2. Protective action of Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts against the deleterious effect of streptozotocin on both in vitro glucose-stimulated insulin release from rat pancreatic islets and in vivo glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Benariba, Nabila; Bellakdhar, Wafaa; Djaziri, Rabeh; Hupkens, Emeline; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J

    2013-01-01

    Citrullus colocynthis extracts improve glucose homeostasis in alloxan- or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Little is known, however, regarding the protective effect of these extracts against the ?-cytotoxic action of STZ. In the present study, an H2O-methanol extract was found to suppress the inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by STZ in rat-isolated pancreatic islets. Similarly, when an aqueous extract from Citrullus colocynthis seeds was injected daily for 21 days prior to STZ administration, the perturbation of glucose homeostasis otherwise generated by the ?-cytotoxic agent was minimized in rats. PMID:24648906

  3. Automated seed detection and 3D reconstruction I: Seed Localization from Fluoroscopic Images or Radiographs.

    E-print Network

    Pouliot, Jean

    Automated seed detection and 3D reconstruction I: Seed Localization from Fluoroscopic Images of radioactive seeds on fluoroscopic images or scanned radiographs is presented. The extracted positions of seed, 92% of the seeds are detected automatically. The orientation is found with an error lower then 5

  4. Effects of different levels of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seed powder and extract on serum biochemical parameters, microbiota, and immunity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hesam; Alaw Qotbi, Ali Ahmad; Seidavi, Alireza; Norris, David; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28 d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds. PMID:25614892

  5. Effects of Different Levels of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Seed Powder and Extract on Serum Biochemical Parameters, Microbiota, and Immunity in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hesam; Alaw Qotbi, Ali Ahmad; Seidavi, Alireza; Norris, David; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28?d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds. PMID:25614892

  6. Enhancing the start-up of a UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater by adding a water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Kalogo, Y; M'Bassiguié Séka, A; Verstraete, W

    2001-05-01

    Water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (WEMOS) was used to enhance the start-up of a self-inoculated upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating raw domestic wastewater. Two reactors labelled control (RC) and WEMOS addition (RM) were started without special inoculum. Both reactors were fed continuously for 22 weeks with domestic wastewater containing an average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 320 mg O2/l and suspended solid (SS) of 165 mg/l. The reactors operated during the entire experimental period at 29 degrees C and at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 h. The RM reactor received 2 ml WEMOS per litre of influent. WEMOS solution was prepared on the basis of 2.5% (w/v) ground M. oleifera seeds in water. The results of 22 weeks' operation showed an improvement in the performance of the RM compared to that of the RC. The dosage of WEMOS in the feed (1) shortened the biological start-up period by 20%, (2) increased acidogenic and methanogenic activity by a factor of 2.4 and 2.2 respectively, (3) increased the specific biogas production by a factor of 1.6, (4) favoured fast growth of the sludge bed, and (5) allowed the aggregation of coccoid bacteria and growth of microbial nuclei, which are precursors of anaerobic granulation. PMID:11414335

  7. Cassia tora Seed Extract and Its Active Compound Aurantio-obtusin Inhibit Allergic Responses in IgE-Mediated Mast Cells and Anaphylactic Models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungsuk; Lim, Sue Ji; Lee, Hee-Ju; Nho, Chu Won

    2015-10-21

    Cassia tora seed is widely used due to its various biological properties including anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there has been no report of the effects of C. tora seed extract (CTE) on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses. In this research, we demonstrated the effects of CTE and its active compound aurantio-obtusin on IgE-sensitized allergic reactions in mast cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed degranulation, histamine production, and reactive oxygen species generation and inhibited the production and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-4. CTE and aurantio-obtusin also suppressed the prostaglandin E2 production and expression of cyclooxygenase 2. Furthermore, CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed IgE-mediated Fc?RI signaling such as phosphorylation of Syk, protein kinase C?, phospholipase C?, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. CTE and aurantio-obtusin blocked mast cell-dependent PCA in IgE-mediated mice. These results suggest that CTE and aurantio-obtusin are a beneficial treatment for allergy-related diseases. PMID:26434611

  8. Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract stimulates whole brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism and reduces feeding behavior and body weight in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Farhat; Ahmed, Afrinah; Ahmed, Maryam; Parveen, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of overweight and obese person has increased markedly since several decays. Obesity is associated with increased risked factor for many diseases such as, diabetes, heart complications, arthritis and certain types of cancer. Feeding behavior is in controlled by a major interaction between central nervous system and many organs of the body. The role of serotonin (5-HT) in feeding behavior is well recognized. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract (AGAE) on food intake, body weight and serotonin metabolism in over weight rats. Five weeks oral administration of AGAE shows significant decrease in body weight, food intake and significant increase in whole brain 5-HT, 5-HIAA and tryptophan level in brain and plasma of experimental animals. Increased level of 5-HT induced satiety and suppressed food intake and result is the reduction in body weight. PMID:25553698

  9. Stability of a Lipase Extracted from Seeds of Pachira aquatica in Commercial Detergents and Application Tests in Poultry Wastewater Pretreatment and Fat Particle Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Polizelli, Patrícia Peres; Facchini, Fernanda Dell Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A protein extract containing a plant lipase from oleaginous seeds of Pachira aquatica was tested using soybean oil, wastewater from a poultry processing plant, and beef fat particles as substrate. The hydrolysis experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40°C, an incubation time of 90 minutes, and pH 8.0-9.0. The enzyme had the best stability at pH 9.0 and showed good stability in the alkaline range. It was found that P. aquatica lipase was stable in the presence of some commercial laundry detergent formulations, and it retained full activity up to 0.35% in hydrogen peroxide, despite losing activity at higher concentrations. Concerning wastewater, the lipase increased free fatty acids release by 7.4 times and promoted the hydrolysis of approximately 10% of the fats, suggesting that it could be included in a pretreatment stage, especially for vegetable oil degradation. PMID:24455209

  10. Black Soybean Seed Coat Extract Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Cell Death via Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase Signalling in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Oki, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Kazunori; Suda, Ikuo; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress reduces cell viability and contributes to disease processes. Flavonoids including anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins reportedly induce intracellular antioxidant defence systems. Thus, in this study, we examined the antioxidant effects of a commercial extract from black soybean seed coats (BE), which are rich in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin, and investigated the associated intracellular mechanisms in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide (HPO) showed 60% viability, whereas pretreatment with BE-containing media for 2 h ameliorated HPO-mediated cell death by up to 90%. Pretreatment with BE for 2 h partially blocked HPO-mediated activation of ERK in HepG2 cells, and that for 1 h led to a 20% increase in intracellular total protein phosphatase (PP) activity, which is known to deactivate protein kinases. These results indicate that BE prevents HPO-mediated cell damage by inhibiting ERK signalling, potentially via PPs. PMID:26226966

  11. Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: Methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease caused by an individual inheriting an allele for sickle cell hemoglobin from both parents and is associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells, containing many long, thin, crescent-shaped erythrocytes. It is a disease prevalent throughout many populations. The use of medicinal plants and nutrition in managing SCD is gaining increasing attention. Methods The antisickling effects of Solenostemon monostachyus (SolMon), Carica papaya seed oil (Cari-oil) and Ipomoea involucrata (Ipocrata) in male (HbSSM) and female (HbSSF) human sickle cell blood was examined in vitro and compared with controls, or cells treated with glutathione or an antisickling plant (Vernonia amygdalina; VerMyg). Results Levels of sickle blood cells were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all the plant-extract treated SCD patients’ blood compared with that of untreated SCD patients. RBCs in SolMon, Ipocrata, and Cari-oil treated samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg-treated samples. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all plant extract-treated HbSSM samples compared with controls. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by SolMon treatment in HbSSF compared with VerMyg. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition exhibited by SolMon was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with that of VerMyg in HbSSF blood. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition in SolMon and Ipocrata were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg in HbSSM blood. All plant extracts significantly reduced (P < 0.05) lactate dehydrogenase activity in both HbSSM and HbSSF-treated blood. Catalase activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in HbSSF blood treated with Ipocrata compared with glutathione. Cari-oil treated HbSSM and HbSSF blood had significantly increased (P < 0.05) peroxidase activity compared with controls. Conclusions Methanolic extracts from S. monostachyus, C. papaya seed oil and I. involucrata exhibited particular antisickling properties coupled with the potential to reduce stress in sickle cell patients. Each plant individually or in combination may be useful for the management of sickle cell disease. PMID:23259718

  12. [Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].

    PubMed

    Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

    2006-09-01

    With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity. PMID:17147171

  13. Development and validation of an efficient ultrasound assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Fidel, Thibaud; Leclerc, Emilie A; Barakzoy, Esmatullah; Sagot, Nadine; Falguiéres, Annie; Renouard, Sullivan; Blondeau, Jean-Philippe; Ferroud, Clotilde; Doussot, Joël; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Flaxseed accumulates in its seedcoat a macromolecular complex composed of lignan (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, SDG), flavonol (herbacetin diglucoside, HDG) and hydroxycinnamic acids (p-couramic, caffeic and ferulic acid glucosides). Their antioxidant and/or cancer chemopreventive properties support their interest in human health and therefore, the demand for their extraction. In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of flaxseed phenolic compounds was investigated. Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging and histochemical analysis revealed the deep alteration of the seedcoat ultrastructure and the release of the mucilage following ultrasound treatment. Therefore, this method was found to be very efficient for the reduction of mucilage entrapment of flaxseed phenolics. The optimal conditions for UAE phenolic compounds extraction from flaxseeds were found to be: water as solvent supplemented with 0.2N of sodium hydroxide for alkaline hydrolysis of the SDG-HMG complex, an extraction time of 60 min at a temperature of 25°C and an ultrasound frequency of 30 kHz. Under these optimized and validated conditions, highest yields of SDG, HDG and hydroxycinnamic acid glucosides were detected in comparison to other published methods. Therefore, the procedure presented herein is a valuable method for efficient extraction and quantification of the main flaxseed phenolics. Moreover, this UAE is of particular interest within the context of green chemistry in terms of reducing energy consumption and valuation of flaxseed cakes as by-products resulting from the production of flax oil. PMID:25753491

  14. Comparison of models for supercritical fluid extraction of seed and essential oils in relation to the mass-transfer rate

    SciTech Connect

    Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E.

    1996-10-01

    A general dimensionless model was developed for a sensitivity analysis of the supercritical extraction process of vegetable oils and essential oils. Two dimensionless parameters, {Gamma}, a dimensionless partition coefficient, and {Theta}, a dimensionless characteristic time, appeared as the most important parameters to monitor the evolution of the extraction process. Some limiting values of these two parameters within the general model yielded simpler models which are often used in the literature. The numerical solutions of both the complete model and the simpler cases were compared to assess the range of relevance of the simpler models in terms of {Gamma} and {Theta} values. These results were compared with the experimental data found in the literature to assess the correctness of the assumption used to model supercritical fluid extraction in single cases. The implications of this analysis on the development of scale-up procedures were also discussed.

  15. Interaction of Piriformospora indica with Azotobacter chroococcum

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Bhuyan, Soubhagya; Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar Mishra, Deepak; Prasad, Ramraj; Kumari, Abha; Chandra Upadhyaya, Kailash; Varma, Ajit; Kumar Yadava, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities in rhizosphere interact with each other and form a basis of a cumulative impact on plant growth. Rhizospheric microorganisms like Piriformospora indica and Azotobacter chroococcum are well known for their beneficial interaction with plants. These features make P. indica /A. chroococcum co-inoculation of crops most promising with respect to sustainable agriculture and to understanding the transitions in the evolution of rhizospheric microbiome. Here, we investigated interactions of P. indica with A. chroococcum in culture. Out of five Azotobacter strains tested, WR5 exhibited growth-promoting while strain M4 exerted growth-inhibitory effect on the fungus in axenic culture. Electron microscopy of co-culture indicated an intimate association of the bacterium with the fungus. 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry of P. indica cellular proteins grown with or without WR5 and M4 showed differential expression of many metabolic proteins like enolase-I, ureaseD, the GTP binding protein YPT1 and the transmembrane protein RTM1. Fungal growth as influenced by bacterial crude metabolites was also monitored. Taken together, the results conform to a model where WR5 and M4 influence the overall growth and physiology of P. indica which may have a bearing on its symbiotic relationship with plants. PMID:26350628

  16. Interaction of Piriformospora indica with Azotobacter chroococcum.

    PubMed

    Kumar Bhuyan, Soubhagya; Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar Mishra, Deepak; Prasad, Ramraj; Kumari, Abha; Chandra Upadhyaya, Kailash; Varma, Ajit; Kumar Yadava, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities in rhizosphere interact with each other and form a basis of a cumulative impact on plant growth. Rhizospheric microorganisms like Piriformospora indica and Azotobacter chroococcum are well known for their beneficial interaction with plants. These features make P. indica/A. chroococcum co-inoculation of crops most promising with respect to sustainable agriculture and to understanding the transitions in the evolution of rhizospheric microbiome. Here, we investigated interactions of P. indica with A. chroococcum in culture. Out of five Azotobacter strains tested, WR5 exhibited growth-promoting while strain M4 exerted growth-inhibitory effect on the fungus in axenic culture. Electron microscopy of co-culture indicated an intimate association of the bacterium with the fungus. 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry of P. indica cellular proteins grown with or without WR5 and M4 showed differential expression of many metabolic proteins like enolase-I, ureaseD, the GTP binding protein YPT1 and the transmembrane protein RTM1. Fungal growth as influenced by bacterial crude metabolites was also monitored. Taken together, the results conform to a model where WR5 and M4 influence the overall growth and physiology of P. indica which may have a bearing on its symbiotic relationship with plants. PMID:26350628

  17. Antihematotoxic Role of Bunium persicum Seed Differential Extracts in Animal Model: Reactive Oxygen Species Might Be a Contributor

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tahir; Saeed, Kamran; Abdullah, Muhammad; Murtaza, Iram

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Humans have been using plants as natural medicines since prehistoric times. Bunium persicum is a rich source of oils with different biological activities such as antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antihematotoxic and antioxidative effects of the differential extracts of B. persicum against leukemic blood induced hematotoxicity in an animal model. Methods This study was performed on animals, which were divided into several groups: normal control, disease control, and groups that were administered with differential extracts of plants. We measured the concentration of free radical [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and hematological parameters as blast cells from the tibia and femur in different groups. Results The ROS level and blast cells count were higher in disease control groups than in groups treated with varying amounts of B. persicum extract and the normal group. Moreover, there was an imbalance in hematological parameters in untreated and treated groups with a correlation between free radicals and plant extract administration. Conclusion These findings may indicate a possible link between free radicals and hematotoxicity and blast cells, while depicting a potential therapeutic role for B. persicum against ROS-induced hematotoxicity. PMID:25562045

  18. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seed cake. 148.310 Section 148.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to solvent-extracted rape seed meal, pellets, soya bean meal, cotton seed meal, or sunflower...

  19. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seed cake. 148.310 Section 148.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to solvent-extracted rape seed meal, pellets, soya bean meal, cotton seed meal, or sunflower...

  20. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seed cake. 148.310 Section 148.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to solvent-extracted rape seed meal, pellets, soya bean meal, cotton seed meal, or sunflower...

  1. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seed cake. 148.310 Section 148.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to solvent-extracted rape seed meal, pellets, soya bean meal, cotton seed meal, or sunflower...

  2. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to solvent-extracted rape seed meal, pellets, soya bean meal, cotton seed meal, or sunflower seed meal that— (1) Contains a maximum of 4...

  3. Antimicrobial screening of some Egyptian plants and active flavones from Lagerstroemia indica leaves.

    PubMed

    Diab, Y; Atalla, K; Elbanna, K

    2012-08-01

    One hundred and twenty four plant extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against four pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 8095), Salmonella enteritides (ATCC 13076), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 15313)) and Candida albicans yeast (ATCC 10231) using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Of the plant extracts, fourteen exhibited antimicrobial activity against two or more of the five microorganisms tested. Only the methanol extract of Lagerstroemia indica leaves exhibited antimicrobial activity against all pathogenic bacteria and C. albicans yeast that were tested. Purification of the methanol extract of L. indica leaves using antimicrobial assay-guided isolation yielded one pure active compound. The chemical structure of the isolated active compound was found to be '4-methoxy apigenin-8-C-?-D-glucopyranoside; cytisoside according to detailed spectroscopic analysis of its nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data. The compound exhibited antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (minimum lethal concentration (MLC): 32 ?g/mL), S. aureus (MLC: 16 ?g/mL), S. enteritides (MLC: 16 ?g/mL), E. coli (MLC: 16 ?g/mL), and L. monocytogenes (MLC: 16 ?g/mL). The present study found that the methanol extract of L. indica leaves holds great promise as a potential source of beneficial antimicrobial components for different applications. PMID:23006992

  4. Antilisterial activity and consumer acceptance of irradiated chicken breast meat vacuum-infused with grape seed and green tea extracts and tartaric acid.

    PubMed

    Over, K F; Hettiarachchy, N S; Perumalla, A V S; Johnson, M G; Meullenet, J-F; Dickson, J S; Holtzbauer, M J; Niebuhr, S E; Davis, B

    2010-09-01

    Contamination of poultry with pathogenic bacteria contributes to human foodborne disease, causes damage to industry brand names, and has a significant economic impact on the food industry in the form of both damage to industry brand names and losses associated with recalls. Irradiation is a safe and effective means of decontaminating poultry products, but the maximum dose strengths allowed negatively impact poultry sensory quality characteristics. The 1st objective of this study was to investigate the potential interactive inhibitory effects of natural antimicrobials as components of a vacuum-marination in addition to various dose levels of irradiation. Tartaric acid (TA) at 2 levels and grape seed (GS) and green tea (GT) extracts were combined, vacuum-infused into chicken breast fillets, and irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy by electron beam irradiation. The 2nd objective was to use a consumer test group to evaluate TA and plant extract infusion into chicken breast fillets with and without irradiation at 2 kGy on overall impression, flavor, texture, appearance, and tenderness. The results showed that samples vacuum-infused with TA at 37.5 and 75.0 mM and irradiated at 1 kGy significantly reduced Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.) levels by 2 and 3 log CFU/g compared to the control after 12 d of refrigerated storage. Vacuum-infusion of TA at 37.5 and 75.0 mM at 2 and 3 kGy irradiation, reduced L.m. to near nondetectable levels. The addition of TA and GS and GT to chicken breast fillets with and without irradiation did not significantly impact consumer preference, tenderness, appearance, or flavor. The addition of tartaric acid and natural plant extracts to chicken marinades could contribute to the prevention of L.m. contamination. PMID:21535556

  5. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    PubMed

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed. PMID:23167758

  6. Tamarind Seed Xyloglucans Promote Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Cells through Internalization via Stimulation of Proproliferative Signal Transduction Pathways.

    PubMed

    Nie, W; Deters, A M

    2013-01-01

    Xyloglucans (XGs) of Tamarindus indica L. Fabaceae are used as drug vehicles or as ingredients of cosmetics. Two xyloglucans were extracted from T. indica seed with cold water (TSw) and copper complex precipitation (TSc). Both were analyzed in regard to composition and influence on cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, MAPK phosphorylation, and gene expression of human skin keratinocytes (NHEK and HaCaT) and fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro. TSw and TSc differed in molecular weight, rhamnose content, and ratios of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose. Both XGs improved keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, promoted the cell cycle, and stimulated migration and intracellular enzyme activity of NHDF after endosomal uptake. Only TSw significantly enhanced HaCaT migration and extracellular enzyme activity of NHDF and HaCaT. TSw and TSc predominantly enhanced the phosphorylation of molecules that referred to Erk signaling in NHEK. In NHDF parts of the integrin signaling and SAPK/JNK pathway were affected. Independent of cell type TSw marginally regulated the expression of genes, which referred to membrane proteins, cytoskeleton, cytokine signaling, and ECM as well as to processes of metabolism and transcription. Results show that T. indica xyloglucans promote skin regeneration by a direct influence on cell proliferation and migration. PMID:24106497

  7. Biofabrication of Ag nanoparticles using Sterculia foetida L. seed extract and their toxic potential against mosquito vectors and HeLa cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rajasekharreddy, Pala; Rani, Pathipati Usha

    2014-06-01

    A one-step and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of silver-(protein-lipid) nanoparticles (Ag-PL NPs) (core-shell) has been developed using the seed extract from wild Indian Almond tree, Sterculia foetida (L.) (Sterculiaceae). The reaction temperature played a major role in controlling the size and shell formation of NPs. The amount of NPs synthesized and qualitative characterization was done by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. TEM studies exhibited controlled dispersity of spherical shaped NPs with an average size of 6.9±0.2nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed 'fcc' phase and crystallinity of the particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to identify the protein-lipid (PL) bilayer that appears as a shell around the Ag core particles. The thermal stability of the Ag-PL NPs was examined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Further analysis was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), where the spectra provided evidence for the presence of proteins and lipid moieties ((2n-octylcycloprop-1-enyl)-octanoic acid (I)), and their role in synthesis and stabilization of Ag NPs. This is the first report of plant seed assisted synthesis of PL conjugated Ag NPs. These formed Ag-PL NPs showed potential mosquito larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. These Ag-PL NPs can also act as promising agents in cancer therapy. They exhibited anti-proliferative activity against HeLa cancer cell lines and a promising toxicity was observed in a dose dependent manner. Toxicity studies were further supported by the cellular DNA fragmentation in the Ag-PL NPs treated HeLa cells. PMID:24863217

  8. Eleucine indica Possesses Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubairi, Adel S.; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Peng, Chew Yuan; Mohan, Syam; Elhassan, Manal Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine is increasing rapidly. Eleucine indica (EI) is traditionally used in ailments associated with liver and kidneys. The therapeutic benefit of the medicinal plants is often attributed to their antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen the hexane, dicholoromethane, ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol extracts (MeTH) of EI for their antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-cancer effects using total phenolic contents (TPCs) and DPPH, disc diffusion method and MTT cytotoxicity assays, respectively. The MeTH was showed to have the highest TPC and scavenging activity (77.7%) on DPPH assay, followed by EA (64.5%), hexane (47.19%) and DCM (40.83%) extracts, whereas the MeTH showed no inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria strains. However, the EA extract exhibited a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria except Bacillus subtilis, in which this bacterium was found to be resistant to all EI extracts. Meanwhile, hexane extract was demonstrated to have a remarkable antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the dicholoromethane extract did not exhibit significant activity against P. aeruginosa. None of the extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity towards MCF-7, HT-29 and CEM-SS human cancer cell lines after 72?h incubation time (IC50 > 30??g/ml). These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from the EI possesses antioxidant activity in vitro in addition to antibacterial properties. Further investigations are needed to verify the antioxidant effects in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19617201

  9. Herb-Drug Interaction of Paullinia cupana (Guarana) Seed Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Amiodarone in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Lourenço, Nulita; Falcão, Amílcar

    2012-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is used in weight-loss programs as a constituent of medicinal/dietary supplements. This study aimed to assess a potential herb-drug interaction among a standardized (certified) Paullinia cupana extract and amiodarone (narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In a first pharmacokinetic study rats were simultaneously coadministered with a single dose of Paullinia cupana (821?mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50?mg/kg, p.o.), and in a second study rats were pretreated during 14 days with Paullinia cupana (821?mg/kg/day, p.o.) receiving amiodarone (50?mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Blood samples were collected at several time points after amiodarone dosing, and several tissues were harvested at the end of the experiments (24?h after dose). Plasma and tissue concentrations of amiodarone and its major metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) were measured and analysed. A significant reduction in the peak plasma concentration (73.2%) and in the extent of systemic exposure (57.8%) to amiodarone was found in rats simultaneously treated with Paullinia cupana and amiodarone; a decrease in tissue concentrations was also observed. This paper reports for the first time an herb-drug interaction between Paullinia cupana extract and amiodarone, which determined a great decrease on amiodarone bioavailability in rats. PMID:23304200

  10. RELEASE OF FOUR INDICA GENETIC STOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four genetic stocks were developed by induced mutation, in indica rice germplasm. These were : apoptosis or early plant death; chives or narrow leaf; extreme dwarf only 24 cm tall; and gold leaf color developing at about 78 days of age. These mutants were added to the Genetic Stocks—Oryza (GSOR) c...

  11. Extractions of oil from Descurainia sophia seed using supercritical CO2, chemical compositions by GC-MS and evaluation of the anti-tussive, expectorant and anti-asthmatic activities.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Li; He, Jin-Li; Zheng, Xiao-Ke; Feng, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Lan; Kuang, Hai-Xue; Li, Chun-Ge; Cao, Yan-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Descurainia sophia is widely distributed in China and is one of the most troublesome annual weeds. It has diverse medicinal usage. D. sophia has abundant oil, making it an important oil plant in China. The main goal of this study was to obtain the maximum yield of the oil by an optimal selection of supercritical fluid extraction parameters. According to the central composite design and response surface methodology for supercritical fluid extraction method, a quadratic polynomial model was used to predict the yield of D. sophia seed oil. A series of runs was performed to assess the optimal extraction conditions. The results indicated that the extraction pressure had the greatest impact on oil yield within the range of the operating conditions studied. A total of approximately 67 compounds were separated in D. sophia seed oil by GC-MS, of which 51 compounds represented 98.21% of the total oils, for the first time. This study was also aimed at evaluating the anti-asthmatic, anti-tussive and expectorant activities in vivo of D. sophia seed oil which supplied for further research on bioactive constituents and pharmacological mechanisms. PMID:26205055

  12. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  13. Antiviral effects of grape seed extract against feline calicivirus, murine norovirus, and hepatitis A virus in model food systems and under gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Snehal S; Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) has antiviral activities against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)). The objectives of this study were to determine (1) time and dose-dependence of GSE against FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV at room temperature (RT) and 37 °C over 24 h; and (2) GSE effects in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% milk) and simulated gastric conditions at 37 °C. Viruses at ?5 log PFU/ml were treated with 0.5-8 mg/ml GSE prepared in water, AJ, milk or gastric juices, or water over 24 h at RT or 37 °C. Infectivity of triplicate treatments was evaluated using plaque assays. GSE effects increased with time and concentration. GSE at 1 mg/ml in AJ reduced MNV-1 to undetectable levels after 1 h and by 1 log in milk after 24 h. GSE at 1 and 2 mg/ml in AJ reduced HAV to undetectable levels after 1 h, while 2 and 4 mg/ml GSE in milk caused ?1 log reduction after 24 h. GSE at 2 mg/ml in intestinal fluid reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1 and HAV to undetectable levels after 6 h. GSE appears to be a suitable natural option for foodborne viral reduction. PMID:26338111

  14. Resveratrol derivative-rich melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract improves obesity and survival of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Tomoki; Saito, Shinichiro; Tani, Hiroko; Tatefuji, Tomoki; Hashimoto, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extracts (MSEs) are rich in resveratrol dimers (gnemonoside A, C, D, gnetin C), trans-resveratrol, and other resveratrol derivatives. trans-Resveratrol is a widely studied caloric restriction mimetic. In mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), trans-resveratrol protects against obesity, type 2 diabetes, and premature death. Here, treatment of HFD-fed mice with 2.0% MSE significantly reduced body weight gain (p < 0.001), blood insulin (p < 0.01), and HOMA-IR (p < 0.05) after 8 weeks compared with untreated HFD-fed mice. Additionally, 0.2% MSE treatment of HFD-fed mice significantly improved physiological activity (p < 0.05) at 18 months of age and reduced risk of death due to HFD by 25% (hazard ratio = 0.75, p = 0.036). These data show that MSE can improve several aspects of metabolic syndrome and survival in mice and may have health benefits as a dietary supplement. PMID:26103448

  15. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat

    PubMed Central

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ?C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

  16. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ?C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

  17. A novel alkali extractable polysaccharide from Plantago asiatic L. Seeds and its radical-scavenging and bile acid-binding activities.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lu; Zhang, Hua; Niu, Yuge; Chen, Lei; Liu, Jie; Alaxi, Sierkemideke; Shang, Pingping; Yu, Wenjuan; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2015-01-21

    A new acidic polysaccharide (PLP) was isolated and characterized from Plantago asiatic L. seeds by hot alkali extraction and chromatographic purification using DEAE cellulose and Sephacryl S-400 columns. PLP has a molecular weight of 1.15 × 10(6) Da, and a monosaccharide composition of xylose (Xyl), arabinose (Ara), glucuronic acid (GlcA), and galactose (Gal) in a molar ratio of 18.8:7.2:6.1:1. The results of methylation analysis, FT-IR, and 1D and 2D NMR indicated that PLP was a highly branched heteroxylan of ?-1,4-linked Xylp backbone with three ?-GlcAp-(1?3)-Araf attached to the O-3 position and one ?-T-linked-GlcAp and one ?-Araf-(1?5)-Araf attached to the O-2 position every eight monosaccharide residues. PLP exhibited scavenging abilities against hydroxyl, peroxyl anion, and DPPH radicals in vitro and showed significant binding capacities against cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids, suggesting its possible cholesterol-lowering activity. The results demonstrated the potential use of PLP in functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:25536026

  18. Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alok; Pravez, Mohammad; Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Parul A

    2014-08-01

    Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39±0.57g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2±0.8g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.95±1.02?m) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils. PMID:24746767

  19. Metabolic fate of glucose on 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with grape seed-derived procyanidin extract (GSPE). Comparison with the effects of insulin.

    PubMed

    Pinent, M; Bladé, M C; Salvadó, M J; Arola, L; Ardévol, A

    2005-07-27

    In this paper we investigate the effects of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) on the metabolic fate of glucose in adipocytes. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 140 mg/L GSPE or 100 nM insulin for a short period (1 h, acute treatment) or for a long period (15 h, chronic treatment). 2-Deoxy-[1-(3)H]glucose uptake and [1-(14)C]glucose incorporation into cells, glycogen, and lipid were measured. We found that GSPE mimicked the anabolic effects of insulin but there were several important differences. GSPE stimulated glycogen synthesis less than insulin. After chronic exposure, GSPE induced a higher incorporation of glucose into lipid, mainly due to the increase in glucose directed to glycerol synthesis. Our main conclusions, therefore, are that GSPE has insulinomimetic properties and activates glycogen and lipid synthesis. However, the differences between the effects of GSPE and the effects of insulin indicate that GSPE uses mechanisms complementary to those of insulin signaling pathways to bring about these effects. PMID:16028976

  20. Development of a grape seed polyphenolic extract with anti-oligomeric activity as a novel treatment in progressive supranuclear palsy and other tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Ksiezak-Reding, Hanna; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Wang, Jun; Ho, Lap

    2010-01-01

    A diverse group of neurodegenerative diseases — including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) among others, collectively referred to as tauopathies — are characterized by progressive, age-dependent intracellular formations of misfolded protein aggregates that play key roles in the initiation and progression of neuropathogenesis. Recent studies from our laboratory reveal that grape seed-derived polyphenolic extracts (GSPE) potently prevent tau fibrillization into neurotoxic aggregates and therapeutically promote the dissociation of preformed tau aggregates (Ho et al., 2009). Based on our extensive bioavailability, bioactivity and functional pre-clinical studies, combined with the safety of GSPE in laboratory animals and in humans, we initiated a series of studies exploring the role of GSPE (Meganatural-Az® GSPE) as a potential novel botanical drug for the treatment of certain forms of tauopathies including PSP, a neurodegenerative disorder involving the accumulation and deposition of misfolded tau proteins in the brain characterized, in part, by abnormal intracellular tau inclusions in specific anatomical areas involving astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons (Takahashi et al., 2002). In this mini-review article, we discuss the biochemical characterization of GSPE in our laboratory and its potential preventative and therapeutic role in model systems of abnormal tau processing pertinent to PSP and related tauopathies. PMID:20569300

  1. Enhancement of serological immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine by a supplement made of extract of cochinchina momordica seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chenwen; Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Liu, Diwen; Hu, Songhua

    2007-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination against FMD is a routine practice in many countries where the disease is endemic. This study was designed first to investigate the extract of the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. (ECMS) for its adjuvant effect on vaccination of inactivated FMDV antigens in a guinea pig model and then to evaluate the supplement of ECMS in oil-emulsified FMD vaccines for its immunopotentiation in pigs. The results indicated that ECMS and oil emulsion act synergistically as adjuvants to promote the production of FMDV- and VP1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and subclasses in guinea pigs. A supplement of ECMS in a commercial FMD vaccine significantly enhanced FMDV-specific indirect hemagglutination assay titers as well as VP1-specific IgG and subclasses in pigs. Therefore, ECMS could be an alternative approach to improving swine FMD vaccination when the vaccine is poor to induce an effective immune response. PMID:17942610

  2. Enhancement of immune responses to infectious bursal disease vaccine by supplement of an extract made from Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Z I; Xiao, C W; Hu, S H; Habib, M; Soomro, N A

    2010-06-01

    The immunological effect of an extract from Momordica cochinchinensis seed (ECMS) on immune responses against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in chickens was evaluated. Fifty-two birds were equally divided into 4 groups and immunized with inactivated IBD vaccine alone (controls) or IBD vaccine emulsified with ECMS (20, 40, and 80 microg). Serum IgG antibody levels against IBD and BW were measured on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d after immunization. The ELISA results revealed that the chickens that received 20 microg of ECMS had significantly enhanced antibody levels on 14, 21, 28, and 35 d when compared with controls (P<0.05). A significant increase in mitogenic stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was also recorded in all ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). No adverse effect of ECMS was noted on growth performance, although average weight gain was significantly higher in 20 microg (7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d) and 40 or 80 microg (14 d) of ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). Further studies are suggested for the investigation of immunological effects of ECMS. PMID:20460658

  3. Aqueous seed extract of Syzygium cumini inhibits the dipeptidyl peptidase IV and adenosine deaminase activities, but it does not change the CD26 expression in lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bellé, Luziane Potrich; Bitencourt, Paula Eliete Rodrigues; Abdalla, Faida Husein; Bona, Karine Santos de; Peres, Alessandra; Maders, Liési Diones Konzen; Moretto, Maria Beatriz

    2013-03-01

    Syzygium cumini (Sc) have been intensively studied in the last years due its beneficial effects including anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory potential. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of Sc (ASc) in the activity of enzymes involved in lymphocyte functions. To perform this study, we isolated lymphocytes from healthy donors. Lymphocytes were exposed to 10, 30, and 100 mg/mL of ASc during 4 and 6 h and adenosine deaminase (ADA), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities as well as CD26 expression and cellular viability were evaluated. ASc inhibited the ADA and DPP-IV activities without alteration in the CD26 expression (DPP-IV protein). No alterations were observed in the AChE activity or in the cell viability. These results indicate that the inhibition of the DPP-IV and ADA activities was dependent on the time of exposition to ASc. We suggest that ASc exhibits immunomodulatory properties probably via the pathway of DPP-IV-ADA complex, contributing to the understanding of these proceedings in the purinergic signaling. PMID:22798209

  4. Overexpression of Rab16A gene in indica rice variety for generating enhanced salt tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Moumita; Datta, Karabi; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Gayen, Dipak; Sengupta, Dibyendu N.; Datta, Swapan K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here the overexpression of Rab16A full length gene (promoter + ORF), from the salt-tolerant indica rice Pokkali, in the salt-susceptible indica rice variety Khitish, via particle bombardment. Molecular analysis of the transgenics revealed stable integration of the transgene upto T2 generation. High level of expression of the transgene (driven by its own stress-inducible promoter), as well as the protein, was detectable in the leaves under simulated salinity stress (250 mM NaCl, 24 h); the expression level being higher than wild type (WT) plants. The Rab16A transcript also increased gradually with seed maturity, with its maximal accumulation at 30 d after pollination (DAP) i.e., fully matured seeds, explaining the protective role of Rab16A gene during seed maturation. Enhanced tolerance to salinity was observed in the plants transformed with Rab16A. The superior physiological performances of the transgenics under salt treatment were also reflected in lesser shoot or root length inhibition, reduced chlorophyll damages, lesser accumulation of Na+ and reduced loss of K+, increased proline content as compared with the WT plants. All these results indicated that the overproduction of RAB16A protein in the transgenics enable them to display enhanced tolerance to salinity stress with improved physiological traits. Our work demonstrates the profound potential of Group 2 LEA proteins (to which RAB16A belongs to) in conferring stress tolerance in crop plants through their genetic manipulation. PMID:22499169

  5. Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Laizuman; Nasrin, Fatema; Zahan, Ronok; Haque, Anamul; Haque, Ekramul; Mosaddik, Ashik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2) but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC) and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI). Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg). In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001), reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001) in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress. PMID:24761124

  6. Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. hydroalcoholic seed extract increases glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Parimala, Mabel; Debjani, M.; Vasanthi, Hannah Rachel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

    2015-01-01

    Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. (Family – Nymphaeaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant used in the Indian ayurvedic system of medicine for treating diabetes. The seeds especially have been prescribed for diabetes. The hydroalcoholic extract of N. nouchali seeds has been demonstrated to possess anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic rats, but the functional mechanism remains unknown. The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is noted to play an important role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study was hence focused in evaluating the effect of the extract on PPAR? activation, adipocyte differentiation, and glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 cells. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), followed by adipogenesis assay using Oil Red O technique. Glucose consumption of preadipocytes and adipocytes in the presence of the extract was also determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the expression of genes involved in glucose consumption in the adipocytes. MTT assay confirmed the extract to be nontoxic, and Oil Red O staining confirmed enhanced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also increased the expression of PPAR? target gene, which in turn enhanced the expression of GLUT-4. The data, therefore, suggests that N. nouchali seed extract promotes adipocyte differentiation and glucose consumption by inducing PPAR? activation, which in turn increases mRNA GLUT-4 expression and subsequently enhances insulin-responsiveness in insulin target tissues. PMID:26605160

  7. Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. hydroalcoholic seed extract increases glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Parimala, Mabel; Debjani, M; Vasanthi, Hannah Rachel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

    2015-01-01

    Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. (Family - Nymphaeaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant used in the Indian ayurvedic system of medicine for treating diabetes. The seeds especially have been prescribed for diabetes. The hydroalcoholic extract of N. nouchali seeds has been demonstrated to possess anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic rats, but the functional mechanism remains unknown. The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is noted to play an important role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study was hence focused in evaluating the effect of the extract on PPAR? activation, adipocyte differentiation, and glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 cells. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), followed by adipogenesis assay using Oil Red O technique. Glucose consumption of preadipocytes and adipocytes in the presence of the extract was also determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the expression of genes involved in glucose consumption in the adipocytes. MTT assay confirmed the extract to be nontoxic, and Oil Red O staining confirmed enhanced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also increased the expression of PPAR? target gene, which in turn enhanced the expression of GLUT-4. The data, therefore, suggests that N. nouchali seed extract promotes adipocyte differentiation and glucose consumption by inducing PPAR? activation, which in turn increases mRNA GLUT-4 expression and subsequently enhances insulin-responsiveness in insulin target tissues. PMID:26605160

  8. Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Nwozo, S.O.; Amah, G.H.; Awoyinka, A.O.; Ojo, O.A; Ajiboye, B.O.; Tijani, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is vulnerable to alcohol-related injury because it is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. Additionally, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated as alcohol is broken down in the liver. However, dietary supplements may prevent or relieve some of alcohol's deleterious effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol, pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Sesamum indicum, (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 28 days; two hours before, simultaneously with or two hours after ethanol exposure. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) by oral gavage. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were then determined in the liver, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. The results revealed that ethanol administration led to significant elevation of TBARS level while depleting in the level of GSH as well as CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities. Similarly, TG level and ALT and AST activities were elevated. The SI pre-treated group significantly inhibited TBARS, restored GSH level, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities and significantly decreased the elevated level of serum TG, ALT and AST activities. SI treatment (simultaneously with ethanol) exhibited similar effects to those of the SI pre-treated groups, while the SI post-treated group did not show the same protection as the Pre-treated group. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of ethanol. PMID:24611106

  9. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential

    PubMed Central

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word “Tamar-I-hind,” meaning date of India. Its name “Amlika” in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood. PMID:22096321

  10. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential.

    PubMed

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India. Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood. PMID:22096321

  11. Inhibitory effect of polyphenolic-rich extract from Cola nitida (Kolanut) seed on key enzyme linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Nwokocha, Kate E.; Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic-rich extracts from Cola nitida (C. nitida) seeds on key enzymes linked with type-2 diabetes and Fe2+ induced oxidative stress in rat pancreas. Methods The phenolic extract was prepared with 80% acetone (v/v). Subsequently, the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of the extract on ? - amylase and ? - glucosidase as well as on Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas were determined in vitro. Results The result revealed that C. nitida extract inhibited ?-amylase (EC50=0.34 mg/mL) and ?-glucosidase (EC50=0.32 mg/mL) activities as well as Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in a dose dependent manner. In addition, the extract had high DPPH radical scavenging ability (EC50=2.2 mg/mL) and reducing power (8.2 mg AAE/g). Characterization of the main phenolic compounds of the extract using gas chromatography analysis revealed catechin (6.6 mg/100 g), epicatechin (3.6 mg/100 g), apigenin (5.1 mg/100 g) and naringenin (3.6 mg/100 g) were the main compounds in the extract. Conclusions This antioxidant and enzyme inhibition could be some of the possible mechanism by which C. nitida is use in folklore for the management/treatment of type-2 diabetes. However, the enzyme inhibitory properties of the extract could be attributed to the presence of catechin, epicatechin, apigenin and naringenin. PMID:25183118

  12. C-glycosylflavones from the aerial parts of Eleusine indica inhibit LPS-induced mouse lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    De Melo, Giany O; Muzitano, Michelle F; Legora-Machado, Alexandre; Almeida, Thais A; De Oliveira, Daniela B; Kaiser, Carlos R; Koatz, Vera Lucia G; Costa, Sônia S

    2005-04-01

    The infusion of aerial parts (EI) of Eleusine indica Gaertn (Poaceae) is used in Brazil against airway inflammatory processes like influenza and pneumonia. Pre-treatment with 400 mg/kg of crude extract inhibited 98% of lung neutrophil recruitment in mice exposed to aerosols of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria, in a dose-dependent manner. At 400 microg/kg, schaftoside (6-C-beta-glucopyranosyl-8-C-alpha-arabinopyranosylapigenin) and vitexin (8-C-beta-glucopyranosylapigenin), isolated from EI, inhibited 62% and 80% of lung neutrophil influx, respectively. These results may justify the popular use of E. indica against airway inflammatory processes. PMID:15856415

  13. Characterization of N-diethylnitrosamine-initiated and ferric nitrilotriacetate-promoted renal cell carcinoma experimental model and effect of a tamarind seed extract against acute nephrotoxicity and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Olvera, Chabetty Y; Sánchez-González, Dolores Javier; Solano, José D; Aguilar-Alonso, Francisco A; Montalvo-Muñoz, Fernando; Martínez-Martínez, Claudia María; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Ibarra-Rubio, María Elena

    2012-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the commonest malignancy in adult kidney, lacks of early signs, resulting often in metastasis at first diagnosis. N-Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated and ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA)-promoted RCC may be a useful experimental model, but it is not well characterized. In this study, histological alterations and oxidative stress markers were analyzed at different times throughout RCC development, histological subtype was re-evaluated in the light of current classification, and a tamarind seed extract (TSE) effect was examined. Male Wistar rats experimental groups were control, TSE, DEN, DEN+FeNTA, and TSE+DEN+FeNTA. TSE was given 2 weeks before DEN administration (200 mg/kg) and throughout the experiment. Fourteen days after DEN treatment, two FeNTA doses (9 mg Fe/kg) for acute nephrotoxicity study, and increasing FeNTA doses (3-9 mg Fe/kg) twice a week for 16 weeks for carcinogenesis protocol, were administered. In acute study, necrosis and renal failure were observed and TSE ameliorated them. Throughout carcinogenesis protocol, preneoplastic lesions were observed since 1 month of FeNTA treatment, which were more evident at 2 months, when also renal cysts and RCC were already detected. RCC tumors were obtained without changes in renal function, and clear cell histological subtype was identified in all cases. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal and 3-nitro-L: -tyrosine levels increased progressively throughout protocol. TSE decreased both oxidative stress markers and, although there was no statistical difference, it delayed RCC progress and decreased its incidence (21 %). This study brings an insight of the time course events in this carcinogenesis model, identifies clear cell subtype and establishes TSE renoprotective effects. PMID:22761015

  14. Alterations in the Intestinal Assimilation of Oxidized PUFAs Are Ameliorated by a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Seed Extract in an In Vitro Model and Caco-2 Cells123

    PubMed Central

    Maestre, Rodrigo; Douglass, John D.; Kodukula, Sarala; Medina, Isabel; Storch, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The (n-3) PUFAs 20:5 (n-3) (EPA) and 22:6 (n-3) (DHA) are thought to benefit human health. The presence of prooxidant compounds in foods, however, renders them susceptible to oxidation during both storage and digestion. The development of oxidation products during digestion and the potential effects on intestinal PUFA uptake are incompletely understood. In the present studies, we examined: 1) the development and bioaccessibility of lipid oxidation products in the gastrointestinal lumen during active digestion of fatty fish using the in vitro digestive tract TNO Intestinal Model-1 (TIM-1); 2) the mucosal cell uptake and metabolism of oxidized compared with unoxidized PUFAs using Caco-2 intestinal cells; and 3) the potential to limit the development of oxidation products in the intestine by incorporating antioxidant polyphenols in food. We found that during digestion, the development of oxidation products occurs in the stomach compartment, and increased amounts of oxidation products became bioaccessible in the jejunal and ileal compartments. Inclusion of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) during the digestion decreased the amounts of oxidation products in the stomach compartment and intestinal dialysates (P < 0.05). In Caco-2 intestinal cells, the uptake of oxidized (n-3) PUFAs was ~10% of the uptake of unoxidized PUFAs (P < 0.05) and addition of GSE or epigallocatechin gallate protected against the development of oxidation products, resulting in increased uptake of PUFAs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that addition of polyphenols during active digestion can limit the development of (n-3) PUFA oxidation products in the small intestine lumen and thereby promote intestinal uptake of the beneficial, unoxidized, (n-3) PUFAs. PMID:23325921

  15. Gastroprotective Effect of Cochinchina momordica Seed Extract in Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Acute Gastric Damage in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Byoung Hwan; Seo, Pyoung Ju; Kang, Jung Mook; Jo, So Young; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Chang, Hyun; Kwon, Jin-Won; Lee, Dong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The major compounds of Cochinchina momordica seed extract (SK-MS10) include momordica saponins. We report that the gastroprotective effect of SK-MS10 in an ethanol-induced gastric damage rat model is mediated by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and downregulating cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and the activation of calcitonin gene-related peptide. In this study, we evaluated the gastroprotective effects of SK-MS10 in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric damage rat model. Methods The pretreatment effect of SK-MS10 was evaluated in the NSAID-induced gastric damage rat model using aspirin, indomethacin, and diclofenac in 7-week-old rats. Gastric damage was evaluated based on the gross ulcer index by gastroenterologists, and the damage area (%) was measured using the MetaMorph 7.0 video image analysis system. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting was used to analyze the levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, cPLA2, and 5-LOX. Results All NSAIDs induced gastric damage based on the gross ulcer index and damage area (p<0.05). Gastric damage was significantly attenuated by SK-MS10 pretreatment compared with NSAID treatment alone (p<0.05). The SK-MS10 pretreatment group exhibited lower MPO levels than the diclofenac group. The expression of cPLA2 and 5-LOX was decreased by SK-MS10 pretreatment in each of the three NSAID treatment groups. Conclusions SK-MS10 exhibited a gastroprotective effect against NSAID-induced acute gastric damage in rats. However, its protective mechanism may be different across the three types of NSAID-induced gastric damage models in rats. PMID:24516701

  16. A Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Bile Acid and Cholesterol Excretion and Inhibition of Hepatic Lipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Brian S.; Rodriguez, Kelvin; Del Rey, Fernando; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) exerts a triglyceride-lowering effect in a hyperlipidemic state using the fructose-fed rat model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were fed either a starch control diet or a diet containing 65% fructose for 8 weeks to induce hypertriglyceridemia. During the 9th week of the study, rats were maintained on their respective diet and administered vehicle or GSPE via oral gavage for 7 days. Fructose increased serum triglyceride levels by 171% after 9 weeks, compared to control, while GSPE administration attenuated this effect, resulting in a 41% decrease. GSPE inhibited hepatic lipogenesis via down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in the fructose-fed animals. GSPE increased fecal bile acid and total lipid excretion, decreased serum bile acid levels and increased the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis. However, bile acid biosynthetic gene expression was not increased in the presence of GSPE and fructose. Serum cholesterol levels remained constant, while hepatic cholesterol levels decreased. GSPE did not modulate expression of genes responsible for esterification or biliary export of the newly synthesized cholesterol, but did increase fecal cholesterol excretion, suggesting that in the presence of GSPE and fructose, the liver may secrete more free cholesterol into the plasma which may then be shunted to the proximal small intestine for direct basolateral to apical secretion and subsequent fecal excretion. Our results demonstrate that GSPE effectively lowers serum triglyceride levels in fructose-fed rats after one week administration. This study provides novel insight into the mechanistic actions of GSPE in treating hypertriglyceridemia and demonstrates that it targets hepatic de novo lipogenesis, bile acid homeostasis and non-biliary cholesterol excretion as important mechanisms for reducing hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of fructose. PMID:26458107

  17. Assessment of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ([Stapf] Th. and H. Durand) on reproductive hormones and its safety for use

    PubMed Central

    Otoo, Lydia Francisca; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ansah, Charles; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Benneh, Charles; Ben, Inemesit Okon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Picralima nitida seed extract (PNE) has aphrodisiac and contraceptive effect. Aim: To investigate the effect of PNE on reproductive hormones. Materials and Methods: The size and length of the combs of white leghorn day-old chicks treated with testosterone (0.5-1.5 mg/kg), cyproterone (3-30 mg/kg), or PNE (50-500 mg/kg) for 7 days, as well as cyproterone (10, and 30 mg/kg) on PNE-induced, and PNE (50-500 mg/kg) on testosterone-induced comb growth, were measured in the chick comb test. The effect of PNE the percentage change in an oviduct-chick weight ratio of Rhode Island Red layer day-old chicks treated with 17-?-estradiol (0.1-0.9 µg), PNE (30-300 mg/kg) or vehicle, for 6 days, was determined in the chick uterotrophic assay. Liver and kidney function was well lipid, and hematological profile tests were conducted to assess safety. Results: 7-day treatment with PNE and testosterone increased significantly (P ? 0.01-0.001) while cyproterone significantly decreased (P ? 0.001) comb growth dose-dependently. Qualitatively, testosterone and PNE treatment resulted in relatively brighter red combs. Cyproterone caused significant inhibition (P ? 0.001) of both testosterone and PNE-induced comb growth. Co-administration of testosterone and PNE suppressed comb growth significantly (P ? 0.001). Administration of 17-? estradiol and PNE increased (P ? 0.001) oviduct-chick weight ratio dose-dependently. No significant changes were observed in assessing liver and kidney function, lipid profile, and hematological parameters. Conclusion: PNE exhibits both androgenic (partial testosterone agonist) and estrogenic activity. It has no detrimental effects on the blood, liver, and kidney tissue with prolonged use. PMID:26649234

  18. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of phenolic extract from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. and identification of three phenolic compounds by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengying; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xin Sheng; Shen, Bei; Yue, Wei; Wu, Qinan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant potential and anti-fatigue effects of phenolics extracted from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. The in vitro antioxidant potentials, including scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl radical activities and reducing power were evaluated. Antioxidant status in vivo was analyzed by SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities and the MDA content in liver and kidneys of D-galactose-induced aging mice. The anti-fatigue effect was evaluated using an exhaustive swimming test, along with the determination of LDH, BUN and HG content. The phenolic extract possessed notable antioxidant effects on DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing power. The mice which received the phenolic extract showed significant increases of SOD, CAT (except for in the kidney), GSH-Px activities, and a decrease of MDA content. The average exhaustive swimming time was obviously prolonged. Meanwhile, increase of LDH content and decrease of BUN content were observed after mice had been swimming for 15 min. The HG storage of mice was improved in the high and middle dose extract groups compared with the normal group. The contents of total phenols and gallic acid of the extract were determined. Three compounds in the extract were identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-chroman-4-one, 5,7,4-trihydroxyflavanone and buddlenol E. These results suggest that the extract of E. ferox is a promising source of natural antioxidants and anti-fatigue material for use in functional foods and medicines. PMID:24022762

  19. Aristolochia indica green-synthesized silver nanoparticles: A sustainable control tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Labeeba, Mohammed Aamina; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wang, Lan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. We biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Aristolochia indica extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. In laboratory, LC50 of A. indica extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 262.66 (larvae I) to 565.02 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP against A. stephensi ranged from 3.94 (larvae I) to 15.65 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of A. indica extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) leads to 100% larval reduction after 72 h. In laboratory, 24-h predation efficiency of Diplonychus indicus against A. stephensi larvae was 33% (larvae II) and 57% (larvae III). In AgNP-contaminated environment (1 ppm), it was 45.5% (larvae II) and 71.75% (larvae III). Overall, A. indica-synthesized AgNP may be considered as newer and safer control tools against Anopheles vectors. PMID:26412532

  20. Biosynthesis and characterization of Acalypha indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles and evaluation of its antimicrobial and anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Rajiv, P.; Narendhran, S.; Venckatesh, R.

    2014-08-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by biological method using aqueous extract of Acalypha indica leaf and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, FT-IR, SEM TEM and EDX analysis. The synthesised particles were highly stable, spherical and particle size was in the range of 26-30 nm. The antimicrobial activity of A.indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles was tested against selected pathogens. Copper oxide nanoparticles showed efficient antibacterial and antifungal effect against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. The cytotoxicity activity of A.indica mediated copper nanoparticles was evaluated by MTT assay against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and confirmed that copper oxide nanoparticles have cytotoxicity activity.