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1

Antiulcer effect of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica seeds in different experimental models  

PubMed Central

Background: Peptic ulcer is a global health problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion which occurs due to due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Objective: The present study was carried out with methanolic extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica Linn. to evaluate its antiulcer potential on ibuprofen, alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Doses of 100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract wre administered orally to rats of different groups. Ranitidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg was used as a standard drug for these gastric ulcer models. The gastric content was collected and the volume was measured. The ulceration index was determined by examining the inner lining of each stomach. Furthermore, the effect was assessed by free acidity, pepsin activity, total carbohydrate (TC), protein content (PK). Result: The result showed that the methanolic extract of seed coats of Tamarindus indica significantly reduce the total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion (P < 0.01) in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model as is comparable with the standard drug ranitidine. There was also a significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.01) as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of seed coat of Tamarindus indica can be used as a new source of antiulcer agent in animals.

Kalra, Pankaj; Sharma, Sunil; Suman; Kumar, Suresh

2011-01-01

2

Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats.  

PubMed

The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 +/- 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05) in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 +/- 0.33 and 4.67 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 +/- 1.67 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 +/- 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 +/- 0.40 and 1.80 +/- 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 +/- 7.02) and follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05) the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 +/- 5.93 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 +/- 0.88 and 5.33 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF) and dharek (13.00 +/- 3.58 and 14.60 +/- 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF) treatments compared to control (216.00 +/- 15.72 and 222.20 +/- 19.52, respectively). Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of follicles. This may help elevate the socio-economic status of the country. Thus, the present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of A. indica and M. azedarach seed extracts on reproduction of albino rats. PMID:15933789

Roop, J K; Dhaliwal, P K; Guraya, S S

2005-06-01

3

Dielectric properties of the plasma membrane of cultured murine fibroblasts treated with a nonterpenoid extract of Azadirachta indica seeds.  

PubMed

Neem oil is a natural product obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. In this report, we investigate the alterations of the biophysical properties of the plasma membrane caused by treatment with the nonterpenoid fraction of neem oil that we defined as methanolic extract (MEX). The dose-response effect was evaluated and a MEX-dependent cytoxicity evidenced. The effect of MEX on the plasma membrane was studied by a well-established dielectric spectroscopy technique: electrorotation, which allows single-cell analysis. Our results show a structural/functional alteration of the plasma membrane with an evident increase of specific capacitance and conductance. The biological implications of this effect are discussed. PMID:17437145

Bonincontro, Adalberto; Di Ilio, Vincenzo; Pedata, Osvaldo; Risuleo, Gianfranco

2007-04-17

4

Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua ( Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: Synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of aflatoxin in Madhuca indica Gmel. seeds was determined by competitive ELISA. Eighty percent of mahua seed samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Total aflatoxin content ranged from 115.35 to 400.54ppb whereas the concentration of AFB1 was in the range of 86.43 to 382.45ppb. Mahua oil was extracted by cold press expeller and analysed for contamination of

O. P. Sidhu; Harish Chandra; H. M. Behl

2009-01-01

5

In vitro acaricidal effect of plant extract of neem seed oil ( Azadirachta indica) on egg, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the plant extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) on eggs, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum was studied at concentrations of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8%. The extract was found to have a significant effect on the hatching rate of eggs. It significantly increased the hatching rate during the first 7 days post-treatment (DPT) giving incompletely

S. Abdel-Shafy; A. A. Zayed

2002-01-01

6

In vitro acaricidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts with known azadirachtin concentrations against Rhipicephalus microplus.  

PubMed

The effect of four extracts from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) containing 2000, 5000, 9000 and 10,000 ppm of azadirachtin A (AZA), quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diluted to 1.25%; 2.5%; 5.0%; 10.0% and 12.8% was verified by in vitro tests with engorged females and larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The results from the bioassays with the engorged females showed that the main toxic effect of the extracts was reduction of the reproductive parameters, with a sharp drop in the number of eggs laid and the hatching rate, mainly when the extracts were diluted to 10.0% and 12.8%. The product effectiveness (PE) calculations for all the solutions tested showed that the AZA solution at 10,000 ppm (N10) was the most effective. However, statistical analysis of the PE data obtained for the proportional AZA concentrations in the different diluted extracts showed significance (P<0.05) of the effects included in the model (extract dilution, principle effect (classificatory) of the assay (extract) and the interaction between the two), indicating significant variations due to the dilution, the test and the interaction between the two factors in the tests with engorged females. For solutions N2, N5, and N9, it was not possible to estimate LC(90) values in the dilution range tested. The lowest LC(50) was observed for extract N5, and although extract N10 was the only extract for which the LC(90) could be estimated within the range tested, the LC(50) was higher than for N5 and N9. These results suggest that substances other than AZA present in the extracts influenced the efficacy, especially up to a certain LC range. In the tests with larvae, no mortality was observed, indicating zero effectiveness of all the extracts tested. The results of the tests with engorged females showed that the neem extracts had acaricide activity, inhibiting egg laying and the larval hatching rate. Complementary studies are necessary to develop new methods to isolate and/or identify other substances besides AZA contained in this plant, to enable using products made from it as acaricides. PMID:21536387

Giglioti, R; Forim, M R; Oliveira, H N; Chagas, A C S; Ferrezini, J; Brito, L G; Falcoski, T O R S; Albuquerque, L G; Oliveira, M C S

2011-04-08

7

Toxicity of neem (Azadirachta Indica) seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents, on the spider chiracanthium mildei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of neem seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents against the predatory spider,Chiracanthium mildei L. Koch, was investigated. The order of toxicity of the 4% extracts was pentane < acetone < ethanol << methanol = water (nontoxic).\\u000a All extracts were nontoxic at 2.5%.

F. A. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; N. Omari

1986-01-01

8

Cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects induced by a non terpenoid polar extract of A. indica seeds on 3T6 murine fibroblasts in culture.  

PubMed

Neem oil is a natural product obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. Its composition is very complex and the oil exhibits a number of biological activities. The most studied component is the terpenoid azadirachtin which is used for its insecticidal and putative antimicrobial properties. In this report we investigate the biological activity of partially purified components of the oil obtained from A. indica. We show that the semi-purified fractions have moderate to strong cytotoxicity. However, this is not attributable to azadirachtin but to other active compounds present in the mixture. Each fraction was further purified by appropriate extraction procedures and we observed a differential cytotoxicity in the various sub-fractions. This led us to investigate the mode of cell death. After treatment with the oil fractions we observed positivity to TUNEL staining and extensive internucleosomal DNA degradation both indicating apoptotic death. The anti-proliferative properties of the neem oil-derived compounds were also assayed by evaluation of the nuclear PCNA levels (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen). PCNA is significantly reduced in cells treated with a specific fraction of neem oil. Finally, our results strongly suggest a possible involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in the apoptotic death. PMID:16652209

Di Ilio, Vincenzo; Pasquariello, Nicoletta; van der Esch, Andrew S; Cristofaro, Massimo; Scarsella, Gianfranco; Risuleo, Gianfranco

2006-05-02

9

Supercritical SC-CO(2) and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis.  

PubMed

The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO(2) extract (T?=?40°C, P = 180 bar, time?=?135?mn, CO(2) flow rate?=?15?mL·s(-1)). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO(2):?57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO(2):?22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO(2):?14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO(2) profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C(20:1), C(20:2), and C(22).The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US?=?4.44-5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US?=?4.44 (T?=?40°C) and 4.13 (T?=?70°C). PMID:22754699

Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

2012-06-17

10

Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis  

PubMed Central

The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T?=?40°C, P = 180 bar, time?=?135?mn, CO2 flow rate?=?15?mL·s?1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2:?57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2:?22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO2:?14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US?=?4.44–5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US?=?4.44 (T?=?40°C) and 4.13 (T?=?70°C).

Yeddes, Nizar; Cherif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

2012-01-01

11

A stereological study of effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indica Linn was used as a traditional medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus in human and experimental animals. This study investigated effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds (AETIS) against STZ-induced damages in pancreatic islands by means of stereological methods. sixty matured normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 gr, were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Control, STZ-induced diabetic; by intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/Kg streptozotocin, Treated control group (TC); received AETIS at a dose of 200mg/kg/day, and AETIS treated diabetic groups (TD1-3); received respectively AETIS at the dose of 50, 100,and 200 mg/kg/day by gavage from one week after induction of diabetes by STZ. After 8 weeks of experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume weighted mean islets volume, mass of beta cells, islets, and pancreas and total number of islets were done. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume weighted mean islets volume, volume density islets/pancreas, volume density beta cells/islet, mass of islets and pancreas of treated diabetic groups (TD1-3) were significantly higher than untreated diabetic group (P<0.001), and in TD3 group these values were comparable to controls. Although total volume and mass of beta cells in TD1-3 were significantly higher than D group but they were significantly lower than control group (P>0.05). Total number of islets, pancreas wet weight and volume did not show any significant changes between control and experimental groups (P>0.05). Results suggested that AETIS partially restores pancreatic beta cells and repairs STZ-induced damages in rats. PMID:20884458

Hamidreza, Hamidreza; Heidari, Zahra; Shahraki, Mohammadreza; Moudi, Bita

2010-10-01

12

Transmission blocking activity of a standardized neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extract on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in its vector Anopheles stephensi  

PubMed Central

Background The wide use of gametocytocidal artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) lead to a reduction of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in several African endemic settings. An increased impact on malaria burden may be achieved through the development of improved transmission-blocking formulations, including molecules complementing the gametocytocidal effects of artemisinin derivatives and/or acting on Plasmodium stages developing in the vector. Azadirachtin, a limonoid (tetranortriterpenoid) abundant in neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae) seeds, is a promising candidate, inhibiting Plasmodium exflagellation in vitro at low concentrations. This work aimed at assessing the transmission-blocking potential of NeemAzal®, an azadirachtin-enriched extract of neem seeds, using the rodent malaria in vivo model Plasmodium berghei/Anopheles stephensi. Methods Anopheles stephensi females were offered a blood-meal on P. berghei infected, gametocytaemic BALB/c mice, treated intraperitoneally with NeemAzal, one hour before feeding. The transmission-blocking activity of the product was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence, oocyst density and capacity to infect healthy mice. To characterize the anti-plasmodial effects of NeemAzal® on early midgut stages, i.e. zygotes and ookinetes, Giemsa-stained mosquito midgut smears were examined. Results NeemAzal® completely blocked P. berghei development in the vector, at an azadirachtin dose of 50 mg/kg mouse body weight. The totally 138 examined, treated mosquitoes (three experimental replications) did not reveal any oocyst and none of the healthy mice exposed to their bites developed parasitaemia. The examination of midgut content smears revealed a reduced number of zygotes and post-zygotic forms and the absence of mature ookinetes in treated mosquitoes. Post-zygotic forms showed several morphological alterations, compatible with the hypothesis of an azadirachtin interference with the functionality of the microtubule organizing centres and with the assembly of cytoskeletal microtubules, which are both fundamental processes in Plasmodium gametogenesis and ookinete formation. Conclusions This work demonstrated in vivo transmission blocking activity of an azadirachtin-enriched neem seed extract at an azadirachtin dose compatible with 'druggability' requisites. These results and evidence of anti-plasmodial activity of neem products accumulated over the last years encourage to convey neem compounds into the drug discovery & development pipeline and to evaluate their potential for the design of novel or improved transmission-blocking remedies.

2010-01-01

13

Standardization of Crude Extract of Neem Seed Kernels ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Commercial Neem Based Formulations Using HPTLC and Extended Length Packed-Columns SFC Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two chromatographic techniques are described for the separation and quantitative determination of azadirachtin A and B, salannin, and nimbin present in the crude extract of neem seed kernels and commercial neem based formulations. The high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) separation of markers was carried out on Merck TLC aluminium sheets of silica gel 60 F254 using ethylacetate-benzene (7.0: 3.0, v\\/v)

H. Agrawal; N. Kaul; A. R. Paradkar; K. R. Mahadik

2005-01-01

14

Nutritive value of prickly pear seeds, Opuntia ficus-indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported on the nutritional quality of prickly pear seeds,Opuntia ficus-indica. The seeds contained 16.6% protein, 17.2% fat, 49.6% fiber and 3.0% ash. The meal showed a high amount of iron (9.45 mg %). The contents of Mg, P, K, Zn and Cu were nutritionally significant contributing approximately 10–20% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of these elements per

W. N. Sawaya; J. K. Khalil; M. M. Al-Mohammad

1983-01-01

15

Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.  

PubMed

The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. PMID:23561175

Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

2013-01-30

16

Acute toxicity of opuntia ficus indica and pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.  

PubMed

Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD50 values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity. PMID:23983398

Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

2012-07-01

17

Limonoids from the seeds of Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new compounds, 11-hydroxyazadirachtin-B, 1-tigloyl-3-acetylazadirachtinin, 1,2-diacetyl-7-tigloyl-12-hydroxyvilasinin and 23-desmethyllimocin-B from neem seeds have been isolated and characterized using spectral studies

Ch. S. S. R. Kumar; Malladi Srinivas; Shirish Yakkundi

1996-01-01

18

d-Xylans from seed endosperm of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemicellulosic polysaccharides were isolated from depectinated cell walls material of seed endosperm of Opuntia ficus-indica fruit by alkaline extraction. Two xylans were isolated, fractionated and characterized. The structural investigations were achieved by sugar and methylation analysis, and were confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR. An unusual fucosylglucuronoxylan was characterized and consisted of a linear (1 ? 4)-?-d-xylopyranosyl backbone decorated with

Youssef Habibi; Mostafa Mahrouz; Michel R. Vignon

2005-01-01

19

Hair waving natural product: Dillenia indica seed sap.  

PubMed

Knowing keratin is the main component and mechanical strength of hair a study was performed to evaluate whether Dillenia indica seed sap can affect molecular strength of hair or not. In the present study the human hair collected from barber shop waste were subjected to purified sap for 12 h and then analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for documenting evidence for keratin degradation. Further the deterioration was confirmed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:23124020

Saikia, Jyoti Prasad

2012-10-13

20

Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 ± 2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26 ± 2 °C; -38 ± 2 °C; and -26 ± 2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher ( P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers.

Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

2013-01-01

21

Isolation and structure of d-xylans from pericarp seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylans were isolated from the pericarp of prickly pear seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) by alkaline extraction, fractionated by precipitation and purified. Six fractions were obtained and characterized by sugar analysis and NMR spectroscopy. They were assumed to be (4-O-methyl-d-glucurono)-d-xylans, with 4-O-?-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid groups linked at C-2 of a (1?4)-?-d-xylan. The sugar composition and the 1H and 13C NMR spectra

Youssef Habibi; Mostafa Mahrouz; Michel R. Vignon

2002-01-01

22

Antiinflammatory evaluation of a Pluchea indica root extract.  

PubMed

A methanolic fraction of a chloroform extract of defatted Pluchea indica roots was investigated for its antiinflammatory potential against several models of inflammation. The extract showed significant inhibitory activity against carrageenin-, histamine-, serotonin-, hyaluronidase- and sodium urate-induced pedal inflammation. The extract inhibited protein exudation and leucocyte migration. The extract also inhibited carrageenin- and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation as well as turpentine-induced joint oedema and adjuvant-induced polyarthritis. The present observations establish the efficacy of the extract in the exudative, proliferative and chronic stages of inflammation. PMID:1943162

Sen, T; Nag Chaudhuri, A K

23

Purification and characterization of an amylase from Opuntiaficus-indica seeds.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: In Tunisia, prickly pear fruit grow spontaneously; it is consumed as fresh fruit, juice or jam. When the fruit is used for juice production, the seeds are discarded and go to waste. Our study aimed to extract biomolecules from seeds by producing value-added products from the fruits. RESULTS: An amylase from Opuntia ficus-indica seeds was extracted and purified to homogeneity. An increase in specific activity of 113-fold was observed. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme is 64 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were pH 5 and 60 °C, respectively. Under these conditions, the specific activity is 245.5 U mg(-1) . The enzyme was activated by Co(2+) and Mg(2+) (relative activity 117% and 113% respectively) at lower ion concentrations. It was strongly inhibited by Mn(2+) and Fe(2+) . Cu(2+) inhibited totally the activity of this enzyme, but Ca(2+) has an inhibitory effect which increases with ion concentration. CONCLUSION: The extracted enzyme belongs to the exo type of amylases and is classified as a ?-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase since it generates mainly ?-cyclodextrin from starch. It exhibits high thermal stability and a broad range of pH stability, making it a promising prospect for industrial and food applications. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:22692962

Ennouri, Monia; Khemakhem, Bassem; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Ammar, Imen; Belghith, Karima; Attia, Hamadi

2012-06-12

24

Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica) Almond Seed Fat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica) almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF) was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8°C and 10.9 min at 12°C). The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8°C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12°C, respectively) and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

25

Morphological and structural study of seed pericarp of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological study of pericarp of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) seeds showed that the cells were mainly made up of spindle-shaped sclerenchyma fibers. The chemical composition of the pericarp revealed a significant amount of polysaccharides, with cellulose (35%) and xylan (27%). The structure of xylan and cellulose, both in isolated form and as a component of seed pericarp of OFI were

Youssef Habibi; Laurent Heux; Mostafa Mahrouz; Michel R. Vignon

2008-01-01

26

Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in swine from ingestion of Aeschynomene indica seeds.  

PubMed

A spontaneous outbreak of neurological disease in swine caused by the ingestion of Aeschynomene indica seeds and reproduction of the disease in the same specie are reported. In the natural outbreak the morbidity, mortality and lethality rates were respectively 25%-40%, 8.5%-20%, and 25%-66%. Clinical signs were variable degrees of incoordination of gait, falls, sternal recumbency with wide base stance of the hind limbs, lateral recumbency and death. For experimental reproduction of the intoxication, 5 (A-E) pigs were fed a ration containing 10% (PigA), 15% (Pig B) and 20% (Pigs C-E) of A. indica seeds. Pigs A and B were euthanatized and Pigs C-E died of acute disease respectively 16, 21 and 24 hours after the start of the experiment. Clinical signs were similar to those observed in pigs from the spontaneous outbreak. Histopathological findings in the brain of pigs fed rations with 20% A. indica seeds (C-E) were congestion, edema and hemorrhage and swollen capillary endothelia in nuclei and in the telencephalic cortex. Pigs fed 10% and 15% A. indica had histopathological changes in the brain of discrete focal symmetrical areas of malacia. These findings indicate that one or more toxic principles in A. indica seeds are responsible for this neurological condition and that clinical outcome and pathological changes are dose-dependent. The symmetrical malacic foci from the ingestion of A. indica seeds in pigs affected vestibular and cerebellar nuclei, putamen, and the mesencephalic substantia nigra, oculomotor, and red nucleus; thus, focal symmetrical encephalomalacia is suggested as a better name for the disease. PMID:15587245

Oliveira, Fabiano N; Barros, Ricardo R; Rissi, Daniel R; Rech, Raquel R; Fighera, Rafael A; Barros, Claudio S L

2004-12-01

27

Stimulation and Promotion of Germination in Opuntia ficus-indica Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opuntia ficus-indica seeds, as many other Opuntia species, show low germination capacity due mainly to their hard lignified integuments, the most inward of these is the funiculus that envelops the embryo, obstructing radicle protrusion. The purpose of this study was to accelerate the initiation of the germination process and to shorten their completion time by the action of physical and

Mariela Altare; Sinibaldo Trione; Juan C. Guevara; Mariano Cony

28

Arabinan-rich polysaccharides isolated and characterized from the endosperm of the seed of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

After removal of starch, the reserve storage polysaccharide of the endosperm seed of Opuntia ficus-indica fruit was studied. Cell Wall Material (CWM) was extracted successively by boiling water (WSF), hot calcium chelating agent solution (CSF) and cold mild alkaline solution (CASF). All polysaccharides extracted were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography into five fractions. The resulting major fractions were purified by size-exclusion

Youssef Habibi; Mostafa Mahrouz; Michel R. Vignon

2005-01-01

29

The effect of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica Linn. on the growth of clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Pseudomonas pseudomallei) causes melioidosis, a life-threatening infection common among paddy cultivators in Southeast Asian countries. No plant materials have been investigated for its activity against B. pseudomallei. Therefore, a preliminary study was carried out using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods to evaluate the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of five Indian medicinal plants documented to have been used for several ailments in the ancient Indian scriptures. The leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, the rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and the seeds of Vigna radiata were prepared using methanol as solvent. The disc diffusion and MIC methods were used to assess the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of the plants tested. Only methanol leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity starting from disc concentrations of 150 mug by the disc diffusion method. The other plants failed to show any zone of inhibition. MIC assay revealed that the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for B. pseudomallei were 125 mug/ml. Our preliminary finding showed that methanolic extracts of Tamarindus indica has anti-B. pseudomallei inhibitory potentials under in vitro conditions. Extensive animal studies may be required before investigating the role of Tamarindus indica for treating melioidosis. PMID:16518004

Muthu, Shankar Esaki; Nandakumar, Subhadra; Rao, Usha Anand

2005-12-01

30

Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.

Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Obiiyeke, Grace E.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Okoh, Anthony I.

2011-01-01

31

Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC50 at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC?90

Lata Batabyal; Preeti Sharma; Lalit Mohan; Prejwltta Maurya; C. N. Srivastava

2009-01-01

32

Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 2. Influence of seed supplemented diet on rats.  

PubMed

The present research was undertaken to evaluate some biological parameters in rats fed with a supplemented diet with Opuntia ficus indica powder seeds. Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noticed between the different diets. The results indicated a significant decrease in body weight of rats receiving a diet partially substituted with O. ficus indica powder seeds, probably due to a significant decrease in serum-free thyroxin (FT(4)) compared to the control group. In the treated group, a decrease of glucose concentration in blood and an increase of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle were noticed. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was noted in the group receiving the supplemented diet with O. ficus indica powder seeds. These results suggest that O. ficus indica seeds can be used as a healthy food. PMID:16290138

Ennouri, Monia; Fetoui, Hamadi; Bourret, Evelyne; Zeghal, Najiba; Guermazi, Fadhel; Attia, Hamadi

2005-11-14

33

Composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pears fruit (Opuntia ficus indica sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximate composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) was investigated and is reported on a dry weight basis. The most abundant component of the pulp and skin was ethanol-soluble carbohydrates. Pulp contained glucose (35%) and fructose (29%) while the skin contained essentially glucose (21%). Protein content was 5.1% (pulp), 8.3% (skin) and 11.8%

Radia Lamghari El Kossori; Christian Villaume; Essadiq El Boustani; Yves Sauvaire; Luc Méjean

1998-01-01

34

A Search for Hepatoprotective Activity of Fruit Extract of Mangifera indica L. Against Oxidative Stress Cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and their components are commonly used in folk medicine for many curative effects. The protective\\u000a effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. fruit (Mango Extract) (20, 50 and 100 ?g\\/ml)\\u000a and also gallic acid (100 ?M) as a pure compound in the extract were examined against oxidative stress toxicity induced by\\u000a cumene hydroperoxide (CHP)

Jalal Pourahmad; Mohammad Reza Eskandari; Rashin Shakibaei; Mohammad Kamalinejad

2010-01-01

35

Efficacy of crude neem seed kernel extracts against natural infestation of Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of crude aqueous-methanol and aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel against sarcoptic mange of sheep. Crude aqueous-methanol (AME) and aqueous extracts (AE) of neem seed kernel (NSK) were prepared and formulated as 10% and 20% ointments (w\\/w), using Vaseline as vehicle. Forty-two lambs of Pak Karakul breed, having natural infection

Shahid Maqsood Tabassam; Zafar Iqbal; Abdul Jabbar; Zia-ud-Din Sindhu; Amjad Iqbal Chattha

2008-01-01

36

Cannabis Indica (Bhang) Extract as Preanaesthetic to Propofol Anaesthesia in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kumar, S.S.H., Dass, L.L. and Sharma, A.K. 2010. Cannabis Indica (Bhang) extract as preanaesthetic to propofol anaesthesia in dogs. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 37: 125–127.To study the effect of Cannabis Indica as pre anesthetic 12 healthy dogs were divided in two equal groups. Ether extract of cannabis was injected intraperitoneally to group II dogs half an hour prior to the

S. S. H. Kumar; L. L. Dass; A. K. Sharma

2010-01-01

37

In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Mangifera indica L. extract (VIMANG ®)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., used in Cuba as an antioxidant under the brand name of VIMANG®, was tested in vivo for its anti-inflammatory activity using commonly accepted assays. M. indica extract, administered topically (0.5–2mg per ear), reduced ear edema induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, ED50=1.1mg per ear) in mice. In the

Gabino Garrido; Deyarina González; Yeny Lemus; Dagmar Garc??a; Lizt Lodeiro; Gypsy Quintero; Carla Delporte; Alberto J Núñez-Sellés; René Delgado

2004-01-01

38

Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 1. Influence of a seed oil supplemented diet on rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) is native to Tunisia and the fruit is consumed exclusively as fresh fruit. The seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids but the nutritive value of the oil is unknown. The objective of our research was to determine the fatty acid content of cactus pear seed oil and to evaluate the effect of an

Monia Ennouri; Hamadi Fetoui; Evelyne Bourret; Najiba Zeghal; Hamadi Attia

2006-01-01

39

Composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pears fruit (Opuntia ficus indica sp.).  

PubMed

The proximate composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) was investigated and is reported on a dry weight basis. The most abundant component of the pulp and skin was ethanol-soluble carbohydrates. Pulp contained glucose (35%) and fructose (29%) while the skin contained essentially glucose (21%). Protein content was 5.1% (pulp), 8.3% (skin) and 11.8% (seeds). Starch was found in each of the three parts of the fruit. Pulp fibers were rich in pectin (14.4%), skin and seeds were rich in cellulose (29.1 and 45.1%, respectively). Skin was remarkable for its content of calcium (2.09%) and potassium (3.4%). Prickly pear is a neglected nutritional source which should be more widely used because of its potential nutrient contribution. PMID:9950087

El Kossori, R L; Villaume, C; El Boustani, E; Sauvaire, Y; Méjean, L

1998-01-01

40

Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of mulberry ( Morus indica L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant properties and total phenolic contents of methanol, acetone and water extracts of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves were examined. Various experimental models including iron (III) reducing capacity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity and in vitro inhibition of ferrous sulphate-induced oxidation of lipid system were used for characterization of antioxidant activity of extracts. The three extracts showed

Saeedeh Arabshahi-Delouee; Asna Urooj

2007-01-01

41

Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae).  

PubMed

We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae). This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg. PMID:9698819

Uchoa, A F; Souza, P A; Zarate, R M; Gomes-Filho, E; Campos, F A

1998-06-01

42

Antioxidant Property of an Ethanol Extract of the Stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol extract of the stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) was assessed to determine the mechanism(s) of its antioxidant activity. The ethanol extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in a thiocyanate assay system. In addition, the OFS extract showed dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity, including DPPH radicals, superoxide anions (O2¥-), and hydroxyl radicals (¥OH), using different

Jeong-Chae Lee; Hak-Ryul Kim; Ju Kim; Yong-Suk Jang

2002-01-01

43

Larvicidal potential of different solvent extracts and oleanolic acid derivative from Coccinia indica against vector mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mosquito larvicidal activities of different solvent extracts (chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol) from the leaves of Coccinia indica were studied. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract showed the highest larvicidal activity against early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50?=?142?mg?L), Aedes aegypti (LC50?=?158?mg?L) and Anopheles stephensi (LC50?=?161?mg?L) after 24?h of exposure period. The lowest larval mortality was observed

A. Senthilkumar; S. N. Tikar; N. Gopalan; P. Sundaramoorthy; V. Venkatesalu

2012-01-01

44

The inhibitory effect of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extracts on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts onAspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis was investigated. The extracts were prepared by blending 50 g (wet weight) of fresh leaves\\u000a in one 1 of 10 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0) or by boiling the leaves in the buffer. Extracts were added to fungal growth\\u000a media at 1, 5, 10, 20 and

Deepar Bhatnagar; Susan P. mcCormick

1988-01-01

45

Pectinesterase extraction from Mexican lime ( Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) and prickly pear ( Opuntia ficus indica L.) peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.) peels were tested for their pectinesterase activity. A factorial design was applied in this study as a method for enzyme extraction in which the variables were the source of enzyme (prickly pear and Mexican lime peels) and the NaCl solution concentration (0–3.0M). In all cases, enzyme

J. C. Contreras-Esquivel; C. Correa-Robles; C. N. Aguilar; J Rodr??guez; J. Romero

1999-01-01

46

Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells.

Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

1980-01-01

47

Isolation and structure of D-xylans from pericarp seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.  

PubMed

Xylans were isolated from the pericarp of prickly pear seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) by alkaline extraction, fractionated by precipitation and purified. Six fractions were obtained and characterized by sugar analysis and NMR spectroscopy. They were assumed to be (4-O-methyl-D-glucurono)-D-xylans, with 4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid groups linked at C-2 of a (1-->4)-beta-D-xylan. The sugar composition and the 1H and 13C NMR spectra showed that their chemical structures were very similar, but with different proportions of D-Xyl and 4-O-Me-D-GlcA. Our results showed that, on average, the water soluble xylans have one nonreducing terminal residue of 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid for every 11 to 14 xylose units, whereas in the water non-soluble xylans, xylose units can varied from 18 to 65 residues for one nonreducing terminal residue of 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid. PMID:12350330

Habibi, Youssef; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Vignon, Michel R

2002-09-27

48

REPELENCIA ALIMENTICIA DE EXTRACTOS DE ÉTER ETÍLICO DE NIM (Azadirachta indica) EN ARROZ PALAY, PARA EL CONTROL DEL TORDO OJIRROJO (Molothrus aeneus) NEEM (Azadirachta indica) ETHYLIC ETHER EXTRACTS ON BROWN RICE AS FEEDING DETERRENT IN THE CONTROL OF BRONZED RED-EYED COWBIRD (Molothrus aeneus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf and seed in deterring feeding of bronzed (red-eyed) cowbird ( Molothrus aeneus) was determined under laboratory conditions. Brown rice grains were contaminated with ethylic ether extracts from dry neem leaves (0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%). After evaporation of solvent, four groups of cowbirds were fed with these contaminated rice mixtures. Ethylic ether extracts of

David del Villar-González; Juan A. Villanueva-Jiménez; César Martínez-Becerril; Agroecosistemas Tropicales

49

Carbohydrate content and antioxidative potential of the seed of three edible indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains or seeds are known to lose much of their nutrient and antioxidant contents, following polishing. The current study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the carbohydrate content and antioxidant parameters in the unpolished and polished seeds of three edible indica rice cultivars, namely Swarna (SW), the most popular indica rice cultivar in India and aromatic or scented cultivars Gobindobhog (GB) and Pusa Basmati (PB). While both the sucrose and starch content was the maximum in PB seeds (both unpolished and polished), the amylose content was the highest in SW polished seeds. SW polished seeds were superior as compared to GB and PB cultivars in terms of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging and Fe(II) chelation potential, as well as the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition or H2O2 scavenging potential, probably due to the maximum accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids, the two important antioxidants. The reducing power ability was, however, identical in both SW and GB polished seeds. The PB polished seeds were more potent in superoxide and hydroxyl scavenging, whereas GB in nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. The common observation noted after polishing of seeds was the reduction in the level of carbohydrates and antioxidant potential, though the extent of reduction varied in the three cultivars. The only exception was GB, where there was no alteration in NO scavenging potential even after polishing. Our study showed the better performance of SW polished seeds with respect to higher amylose content and majority of the tested parameters governing antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging potential, thus highlighting the greater dietary significance of SW over the other two cultivars. PMID:22650009

Basu, Supratim; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Sanyal, Saptadwipa; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

2012-04-01

50

Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg\\/kg of MI and 100mg\\/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic

Hamendra Singh Parmar; Anand Kar

2009-01-01

51

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Coccinia indica.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate both post- and pre-treatment anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Coccinia indica in rats using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method at various dose levels. Analgesic and antipyretic properties were evaluated using tail flick model and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia, respectively. Ceiling effect of the extract was observed at 50 mg/kg in pre-treatment carrageenan test. In post-treatment studies, a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the dose range of 25-300 mg/kg. The effect was equivalent to diclofenac (20 mg/kg) at 50 mg/kg but it was significantly pronounced at higher doses. Effectiveness of extract in the early phase of inflammation suggests the inhibition of histamine and serotonin release. The extract produced marked analgesic activity comparable to morphine at 300 mg/kg, which suggests the involvement of central mechanisms. A significant reduction in hyperpyrexia in rats was also produced by all doses of extract with maximum effect at 300 mg/kg comparable to paracetamol. In conclusion, this study has established the anti-inflammatory activity, analgesic and antipyretic activity of C. indica and, thus, justifies the ethnic uses of the plant. PMID:19626277

Niazi, Junaid; Singh, Parabhdeep; Bansal, Yogita; Goel, R K

2009-07-22

52

Corrosion inhibition of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves extract as a green corrosion inhibitor for Zinc in H2SO4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion inhibition of Neem (Azadirachta indica (AZI)) leaves extract as a green inhibitor of zinc corrosion in H2SO4 has been studied using the gravimetric method. The results of the study reveal that the different concentrations of the AZI extract inhibit zinc corrosion and that inhibition efficiency of the extract varies with concentration and temperature.

Sanjay Kumar Sharma; Ackmez Mudhoo; Gargi Jain; Essam Khamis

2009-01-01

53

AUTHENTICATION OF COMMERCIAL GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product that has reported antibacterial and antiviral properties. It is reported to be safe and effective to use internally and externally for a wide variety of conditions such as acne, allergies, athlete's foot, body odor, candida, colds, cold...

54

Extraction of Proteins from Vegetable Seed Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vegetable seed flakes, meal, and the like prepared for extraction in the normal manner were treated with ultrasonic waves solubilizing the protein which was then recovered from solution. From about 50 to 100 percent of the total protein contained in toast...

L. C. Wang

1975-01-01

55

Antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract.  

PubMed

Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that some members of Anacardiaceae family possess antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects in man and mammalian experimental animals. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic properties of the stem-bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica Linn., M. indica a member of the Anacardiaceae family, in rats and mice. The stem-bark powder of M. indica was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The analgesic effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the hot-plate and acetic acid test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the stem-bark extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. M. indica stem-bark aqueous extract (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p<0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different chemical constituents of the plant, especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, mangiferin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant may be involved in the observed antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant in the management and control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management of adult-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural African communities. PMID:16273134

Ojewole, J A O

2005-10-01

56

ESTIMATION AND ISOLATION OF AZADIRACHTIN-A FROM NEEM [AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS] SEED KERNELS USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure has been described to estimate azadirachtin-A content in crude methanolic extracts of neem seed kernels using valley-to-valley integration techniques. The present paper highlights a detailed study of extraction, estimation, and purification of azadirachtin-A present in neem seed kernels. We also present, herein, our results of Soxhlet extraction of Aza-A from

P. T. Deota; P. R. Upadhyay; K. B. Patel; K. J. Mehta; B. V. Kamath; M. H. Mehta

2000-01-01

57

Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamarindus indica\\u000a L. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant\\u000a activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in\\u000a human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts.

Nurhanani Razali; Azlina A. Aziz; Sarni M. Junit

2010-01-01

58

Seed Characterization and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Morphology of the Testa of Three Groups of Argentine Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external morphology of the seeds and the SEM structure of the epicuticular waxes of seeds of three groups of O. ficus-indica naturalized to Argentina, i.e., a spiny red-fruited variety, a spiny orange fruited variety and a spineless yellow-fruited variety, were studied. The seeds of the three groups are not differentiated easily with the naked eye. However, hairs can be

C. Degano; M. E. Alonso; J. Ochoa; A. Catan

59

Safety evaluation of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proanthocyanidins, extracted from grape seeds, are widely used mainly as nutritional supplements. However, there has not been a systematic report to investigate toxicological studies on proanthocyanidins, especially in oral administration. In our studies, proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to document its safety for use in various foods. The grape seed extract (GSE)

J Yamakoshi; M Saito; S Kataoka; M Kikuchi

2002-01-01

60

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay.

Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

61

Corrosion inhibition and adsorption properties of Azadirachta indica mature leaves extract as green inhibitor for mild steel in HNO3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion inhibition and adsorption properties of Neem (Azadirachta indica – AZI) mature leaves extract as a green inhibitor of mild steel (MS) corrosion in nitric acid (HNO3) solutions have been studied using a gravimetric technique for experiments conducted at 30 and 60°C. The results disclose that the different concentrations of the AZI extract inhibit MS corrosion and that inhibition

Sanjay K. Sharma; Ackmez Mudhoo; Gargi Jain; Jyoti Sharma

2010-01-01

62

The Inhibiting Effect of Aqueous Azadirachta indica (Neem) Extract Upon Bacterial Properties Influencing in vitro Plaque Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts derived from the bark-containing sticks (Neem stick) of Azadirachta indica upon bacterial aggregation, growth, adhesion to hydroxyapatite, and production of insoluble glucan, which may affect in vitro plaque formation. Neem stick extracts were screened for minimal bacterial growth inhibition (MIC) against a panel of streptococci by

L. E. Wolinsky; S. Mania; S. Nachnani; S. Ling

1996-01-01

63

Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.  

PubMed

Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (?-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and ?-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%). PMID:21970446

Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

2011-10-04

64

Opuntia ficus indica extract protects against chlorpyrifos-induced damage on mice liver.  

PubMed

This original study investigates the role of Opuntia ficus indica (cactus) cladodes extract against liver damage induced in male SWISS mice by an organophosphorous insecticide, the chlorpyrifos (CPF). Liver damage was evaluated by the measure of its weight and the quantification of some biochemical parameters, such as alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), phosphatase alkaline (PAL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol and albumin in serum by spectrophotometric techniques. The experimental approach lasted 48 h and consisted of 6 treatments of six mice each one; (1) control, (2) 10 mg/kg (b.w) CPF, (3) 10mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 100 mg/kg (b.w) cactus, (4) 150 mg/kg (b.w)CPF, (5) 150 mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 1.5 g/kg cactus, (6) 1.5 g/kg cactus. Both chlorpyrifos and cactus were administrated orally via gavages. Our results showed that CPF affects significantly all parameters studied. However, when this pesticide was administrated associated to cactus, we noticed a recovery of all their levels. In the other hand, cactus alone did not affect the studied parameters. These results allow us to conclude firstly that CPF is hepatotoxic and secondly that Opuntia ficus indica stem extract protects the liver and decreases the toxicity induced by this organophosphorous pesticide. PMID:17980473

Ncibi, Saida; Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Akacha, Amira; Krifi, Mohamed Naceur; Zourgui, Lazhar

2007-09-14

65

In Vivo Biochemical and Gene Expression Analyses of the Antioxidant Activities and Hypocholesterolaemic Properties of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract  

PubMed Central

Background Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9±10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9±2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. Conclusion/Significance It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia.

Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

2013-01-01

66

Enhanced Nematicidal Activity of Organic and Inorganic Ammonia-Releasing Amendments by Azadirachta indica Extracts  

PubMed Central

The nematicidal activities of ammonium sulfate, chicken litter and chitin, alone or in combination with neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts were tested against Meloidogyne javanica. Soil application of these amendments or the neem extracts alone did not reduce the root galling index of tomato plants or did so only slightly, but application of the amendments in combination with the neem extracts reduced root galling significantly. Soil analysis indicated that the neem extract inhibited the nitrification of the ammonium released from the amendments and extended the persistence of the ammonium concentrations in the soil. In microplot experiments, tomato plants were grown in pots filled with soils from the treated microplots. The galling indices of tomato plants grown in soil treated with ammonium sulfate or chicken litter in combination with the neem extract or a chemical nitrification inhibitor were far lower than those of plants grown in the control soil or in soil treated with chicken litter, neem extract or nitrification inhibitor alone. However, plants grown in the microplots showed only slight reductions in galling, probably because the soil amendments were inadequately mixed compared to their application in the pot experiments. The extended exposure of nematodes to ammonia as a result of nitrification inhibition by the neem extracts appeared to be the cause of the enhanced nematicidal activity of the ammonia-releasing amendments.

Oka, Yuji; Tkachi, Nadia; Shuker, Shimshon; Yerumiyahu, Uri

2007-01-01

67

[Effect of a dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) on blood glucose].  

PubMed

To assess if a dehydrated extract of nopal stems retains the effect on glycemia of the entire nopal stems two experiments were performed. A. Six patients with type II diabetes mellitus in fasting condition received 30 capsules containing 10.1 +/- 0.3 g of the extract, and serum glucose levels were measured hourly from 0 to 180 minutes. B. Six healthy volunteers received 30 capsules with the extract followed by 74 g of dextrose orally. Serum glucose measurements were made in a similar fashion. In each experiment a control test with empty capsules was performed. Nopal extract did not reduce fasting glycemia in diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the extract diminished the increase of serum glucose which followed a dextrose load. Peak serum glucose was 20.3 +/- 18.2 mg/dl (X +/- SD) lower in the test with nopal than in the control one (P less than 0.025). Dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) did not show acute hypoglycemic effect, although could attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:2561256

Frati-Munari, A C; de León, C; Ariza-Andraca, R; Bañales-Ham, M B; López-Ledesma, R; Lozoya, X

68

Comparative efficacy of Annona squamosa and Azadirachta indica extracts against Boophilus microplus Izatnagar isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the search of developing herbal acaricides, eight medicinal plants were screened for their efficacy against Boophilus microplus, the widely distributed tick species in India. Of the seven extracts screened, the extracts prepared from the Annona squamosa seed showed very high level of efficacy (70.8%) after 24 h of treatment. The effect of treatment on oviposition of the survived\\u000a ticks was

Shivanand Magadum; D. B. Mondal; S. Ghosh

2009-01-01

69

Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 ?g/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC(50) value of rutin was found to be 161.7 ?g/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC(50) values of 38.1 and 5.84 ?g/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH(-) radical generated from Fe(2+)-ascorbate-EDTA-H(2)O(2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 ?g equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220

Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A

2012-01-01

70

Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 ?g/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC50 value of rutin was found to be 161.7 ?g/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC50 values of 38.1 and 5.84 ?g/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH- radical generated from Fe2+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 ?g equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this.

Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A.

2012-01-01

71

Antioxidant activity of the methanol fraction of Pluchea indica root extract.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out to evaluate the influence of the methanol fraction of Pluchea indica Less root extract (PIRE), the dual inhibitors (BW 755C and phenidone) and vitamin on both in vivo and in vitro free radical-scavenging activities, CCl(4)-induced lipid peroxidation and the metabolism of arachidonic acid by lipoxygenase. PIRE produced significant antiinflammatory activity against glucose oxidase-induced paw oedema (in vivo), inhibited hydroxyl radical and superoxide generation, lysis of erythrocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide, CCl(4)-induced lipid peroxidation and also dioxygenase activity of lipoxygenase (both in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide). Significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity was observed with BW 755C and phenidone compared with PIRE. However, both BW 755C and phenidone stimulated hydroxyl radical generation compared with the observed inhibitory effects of PIRE and vitamin E. PMID:12112288

Sen, T; Dhara, A K; Bhattacharjee, S; Pal, S; Nag Chaudhuri, A K

2002-06-01

72

Evaluation of antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activities of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis flowers extract in rats.  

PubMed

The Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis methanolic flowers extract (OMFE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, linoleic acid peroxidation assays and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The OMFE was rich in polysaccharide, phenolics and flavonoids contents and exhibited a moderate in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin and ascorbic acid. Pre-treatment with OMFE at oral doses 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer by averting the deep necrotic lesions of the gastric epithelium, by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation, the oxidation of protein and the DNA fragmentation in gastric mucosa. The antiulcerogenic activity of OMFE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antihistaminic-like effects. PMID:22004960

Alimi, Hichem; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

2011-08-19

73

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica) Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using crude neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract at room temperature. The formation and crystallinity of synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The average size of these silver nanoparticles is about 20-50 nm as observed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Optical absorption measurements were performed to determine band-edge energy gap of these silver nanoparticles. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed to emphasize its emission properties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles could have major applications in the area of nanoscale optoelectronics devices and biomedical engineering. Our synthesis method has advantage over other conventional chemical routes because it is cost effective & environmental compatibility.

Shukla, Vineet Kumar; Pandey, Shipra; Pandey, Avinash C.

2010-10-01

74

Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of

D. S. Charleston; R. Kfir; L. E. M. Vet; M. Dicke

2005-01-01

75

Comparison of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Siamese Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton) Leaf Extracts Prepared by Different Methods of Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton) from several extracting and drying methods using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging assay. Materials and Methods: The leaves of Siamese neem tree were extracted using percolation, decoction, maceration, soxhlet extraction, freeze drying or spray

Pongtip Sithisarn; Roongtawan Supabphol; Wandee Gritsanapan

2006-01-01

76

Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).  

PubMed

In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus. PMID:19562373

Batabyal, Lata; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Maurya, Prejwltta; Srivastava, C N

2009-06-27

77

Extraction and characteristics of seed kernel oil from white pitaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valuable oil in the seeds of white pitaya can be extracted by different methods. Traditional Soxhlet extraction was compared with microwave-assistant extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) and a combination of microwave and AEE (MAEE) for the yield and characteristics of the oil obtained. MAEE was proven to be the best method with the highest oil

Hanming Rui; Liyan Zhang; Zuowei Li; Yanli Pan

2009-01-01

78

Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Leaves  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves (HTI) along with its possible mode of action. The anti-inflammatory activity of HTI was estimated by carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in male Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, HTI was assessed to determine its effects on membrane stabilization. The antinociceptive action was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick, and the hot plate model. Oral administration of HTI at the dose of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body weight produced significant (P< 0.01) anti-inflammatory as well as antinociceptive actions in a dose-dependent manner. Among all tested doses, 1000 mg/kg, p. o. reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. Moreover, the 1000 mg/kg dose exhibited maximum percentage inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing (48.9%), whereas standard drug diclofenac (25 mg/kg, p. o.) showed maximum inhibition (50.9%) of writhing. In the hot plate model, HTI (1000 mg/kg, orally) increased mean basal reaction time after 120 min (7.12±0.05 sec). In the tail flick model, HTI increased the maximum percentage of latency (36.06%), whereas the standard drug pethidine (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) showed maximum percentage of latency (43.85%) after 60 min. The findings of the present study supported anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive claims of T. indica as were mentioned in Indian traditional and folklore practices.

Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Mishra, Vijay; Raut, Sushil; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Jain, Sunil K.

2012-01-01

79

Anti-leukemic activity of Dillenia indica L. fruit extract and quantification of betulinic acid by HPLC.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of Dillenia indica L. fruits showed significant anti-leukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines U937, HL60 and K562. This finding led to fractionation of the methanolic extract, on the basis of polarity, in which the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-leukemic activity. A major compound, betulinic acid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography and was identified and characterized. Betulinic acid could explain the anti-leukemic activity of the methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction. Hence the quantitative estimation of betulinic acid was approached in methanolic extract and fractions using HPLC. PMID:19679456

Kumar, Deepak; Mallick, Sumana; Vedasiromoni, Joseph R; Pal, Bikas C

2009-08-12

80

The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial efficiency of Moringa oleifera seeds extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of different Moringa oleifera seeds extracts were tested against Scenedesmus obliquus (green algae), Escherichia coli ATCC 13706, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC10145, Staphylococcus aureus NAMRU 3 25923, Bacillus sterothermophilus (bacterial strains) and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) and Polio virus type 1 (sabin vaccine). Fixed oil extracted from the seeds was found to activate the

GAMILA H. ALI; M. A. ALI

2004-01-01

81

Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol\\/xanthine\\/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant

Laura Giamperi; Daniele Fraternale; Anahi Bucchini; Donata Ricci

2004-01-01

82

In vivo efficacy of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit extract on experimental fluoride exposure in rats.  

PubMed

The study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of hydro-methanolic (1:1) extract of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) fruit pulp in removing body fluoride burden. Thirty rats were divided into five groups. Keeping no fluoride group as the control, rats of no treatment, low dose, middle dose and high dose groups received sodium fluoride orally at the rate of 200mg per kg body weight daily for 14 weeks. Rats of low dose, middle dose and high dose group simultaneously received tamarind fruit pulp extract at three doses, viz. 25 (low), 50 (medium) and 100mg (high) per kg body weight orally, respectively. Fluoride concentration in blood, urine and long bone of experimental rats was monitored to assess the efficacy of the extract. Mean serum fluoride concentration in fluoride exposed rats was 0.145 ± 0.009 and 0.783 ± 0.042 ?g/ml on days 0 and 98. In comparison, fluoride concentrations in tamarind treated rats were 0.179 ± 0.021 and 0.633 ± 0.015; 0.179 ± 0.021 and 0.502 ± 0.025 and 0.176 ± 0.021 and 0.498 ± 0.030 ?g/ml in low, medium and high dose groups, respectively on day 0 and day 98 of the experiment. There was a significant (p ? 0.01) increase in urinary fluoride excretion from day 28 onwards. The mean fluoride concentration in long bones of treated rats was significantly lower than the values recorded in fluoride exposed rats. These findings suggest that concomitant use of tamarind fruit pulp extract can reduce fluoride concentration in blood and bone and enhanced urinary excretion, indicating the ameliorative potential of fruits of tamarind in fluoride toxicity. PMID:20980037

Dey, S; Swarup, D; Saxena, Anju; Dan, Ananya

2010-10-25

83

Protective effect of Azadirachta indica extract against Eimeria papillata-induced coccidiosis.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis in poultry is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria, which is responsible for worldwide economic losses. The methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves was used in vivo for its pharmacological, antioxidant, and anticoccidial properties. Four groups of mice were investigated. The first group was inoculated only with sterile saline and served as the control group. The second group was treated by oral gavage with neem extract (500 mg/kg) daily for 4 days. The third and fourth groups were infected with 10(3) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria papillata. The fourth group was also treated once daily with neem extract for 4 days. Paraffin sections from the jejunum as well as jejunal homogenate were prepared for the histopathological and biochemical investigations, respectively. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata revealed an output of 6.5?×?10(5)?±?29,753 oocysts per gram feces on day?4 postinoculation. This output is significantly decreased to 2.7?×?10(5)?±?37,341 oocysts in neem-treated mice. Infection with E. papillata induced marked histopathological alterations in the jejunum in the form of inflammation, vacuolation of the epithelium, and destruction of some villi. Also, the neem extract greatly diminished body weight loss of infected mice. Moreover, the number of goblet cells stained with Alcian blue within the infected villi was significantly lowered (P???0.05). In addition, E. papillata enhanced lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in both serum and jejunum with concomitant reduction in glutathione. Neem induced marked improvements in all of the studied parameters as well as the histopathological features of the jejunum. Our study revealed that neem as a natural product has protective effects against E. papillata-induced coccidiosis. PMID:22972359

Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Delic, Denis

2012-09-13

84

Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed proteinfraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissuelipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile ofrats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50±1 °C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residualchlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed thesunflower seed protein fraction had

M. Sen; D. K. Bhattacharyya

2000-01-01

85

Biological potency of certain plant extracts in management of two lepidopteran pests of Ricinus communis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifeedant and toxic effects of leaf extracts of Syzygium cumini L., Ocimum basilicum L., Luffa aegyptica Mill., Eichhornia crassipes Mart., Tamarindus indica L., Terminalia catappa L., Limonia acidissima L., Murraya koenigii L., Breynia retusa (Dennst.)., Jatropha curcas L., Tectona grandis L., Momordica charantia L., Mangifera indica L., Ricinus communis L., and the seed extract of Madhuca indica Gmelin., were evaluated

Peta Devanand; Pathipati Usha Rani

86

Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 1. Influence of a seed oil supplemented diet on rats.  

PubMed

Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) is native to Tunisia and the fruit is consumed exclusively as fresh fruit. The seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids but the nutritive value of the oil is unknown. The objective of our research was to determine the fatty acid content of cactus pear seed oil and to evaluate the effect of an oil supplemented diet on rats. The main fatty acids of prickly pear seed oil were C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 with an exceptional level of linoleic acid, up to 700 g kg(-1), and a total content of unsaturated fatty acids of 884.8 g kg(-1). Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during the nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noted for the oil enriched diet. The results indicated a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (22%) over the control group. However, an increase in the concentration of glycogen was noted in liver and muscle. Blood cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased in the treated group. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration remained unaltered during the treatment. These findings support the nutritional value of cactus pear as a natural source of edible oil containing essential fatty acids and reinforce the possibility of cactus pear as a new crop for Tunisia especially in semi-arid regions, where conventional crops are difficult to establish. PMID:16129601

Ennouri, Monia; Fetoui, Hamadi; Bourret, Evelyne; Zeghal, Najiba; Attia, Hamadi

2005-08-29

87

Extraction of Amaranth seed oil by supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work studied various aspects of extracting high value lipids from a model seed material (Amaranthcruentus) using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent. Experimentally, it investigated the effects of process temperature, pressure, solvent flow rate, scale of extraction, and sample pre-treatment on the extraction rate and yield. It was found that the rate of extraction was function of the solvent

D. Westerman; R. C. D. Santos; J. A. Bosley; J. S. Rogers; B. Al-Duri

2006-01-01

88

Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional hydrodistillation in the extraction of essential oils from mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowers.  

PubMed

Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) is an advanced hydrodistillation (HD) technique, in which a microwave oven is used in the extraction process. MAHD and HD methods have been compared and evaluated for their effectiveness in the isolation of essential oils from fresh mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowers. MAHD offers important advantages over HD in terms of energy savings and extraction time (75 min against 4 h). The composition of the extracted essential oils was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results indicate that the use of microwave irradiation did not adversely influence the composition of the essential oils. MAHD was also found to be a green technology. PMID:21042260

Wang, Hong-Wu; Liu, Yan-Qing; Wei, Shou-Lian; Yan, Zi-Jun; Lu, Kuan

2010-10-29

89

Anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract in a model of colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract from Mangifera indica L. (MIE) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. METHODS: MIE (150 mg/kg) was administered in two different protocols: (1) rectally, over 7 d at the same time as DSS administration; and (2) once daily over 14 d (by oral gavage, 7 d before starting DSS, and rectally for 7 d during DSS administration). General observations of clinical signs were performed. Anti-inflammatory activity of MIE was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Colonic lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, expression of inflammatory related mediators [inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, respectively] and cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and TNF receptors 1 and 2] in colonic tissue were also assessed. Interleukin (IL)-6 and TNF-? serum levels were also measured. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that MIE has anti-inflammatory properties by improvement of clinical signs, reduction of ulceration and reduced MPO activity when administered before DSS. In addition, administration of MIE for 14 d resulted in an increase in GSH and reduction of TBARS levels and iNOS, COX-2, TNF-? and TNF R-2 expression in colonic tissue, and a decrease in IL-6 and TNF-? serum levels. CONCLUSION: MIE has anti-inflammatory activity in a DSS-induced rat colitis model and preventive administration (prior to DSS) seems to be a more effective protocol.

Marquez, Lucia; Perez-Nievas, Beatriz G; Garate, Iciar; Garcia-Bueno, Borja; Madrigal, Jose LM; Menchen, Luis; Garrido, Gabino; Leza, Juan C

2010-01-01

90

Antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activities of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis root extract in rats.  

PubMed

Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis methanolic root extract (ORE) was investigated for phenolic and flavonoids contents, in vitro evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and in vivo tested for its gastro-protective ability against 80% ethanol induced ulcer in rats. Phytochemical test of ORE were positive for phenolic and flavonoid contents. DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of ORE showed an EC(50) of 118.65±2.51 ?g/ml and 300 ?g/ml respectively. In vivo the pre-treatment of rats with ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg doses of ORE significantly (p<0.05) reduced the 80% ethanol induced-ulcer lesion, with a rate of 82.68%, 49.21%, 83.13%, and 92.59% respectively, and prevented the depletion of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total glutathione (GSH), and inhibited the increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat stomach tissues when compared with ethanol group. Also pre-treatment with ORE marked a dose-dependent attenuation of histopathology changes induced by ethanol. Phenolic and flavonoids wealth, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power, have been implicated for antiulcer property of ORE. PMID:20638261

Alimi, Hichem; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Sakly, Mohsen; Zourgui, Lazhar; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

2010-07-16

91

Protective effect of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily, for 10 days, with either NiCl(2) solution (4mg (30micromol)/kg body weight) or with the same volume of saline solution (300mM NaCl). Significant increases of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase activities and of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were observed in blood of nickel-treated rats. In the liver, nickel chloride was found to induce an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidant enzymes activities. Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity was found to be increased whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased. These changes did not occur in animals previously given cactus juice, demonstrating a protective effect of this vegetal extract. PMID:18950672

Hfaiedh, Najla; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Zourgui, Lazhar; Croute, Françoise

2008-10-04

92

Antiangiogenic Effects and Therapeutic Targets of Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract in Endothelial Cells.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica (common name: neem) leaves have been found to possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The present study evaluates anti-angiogenic potential of ethanol extract of neem leaves (EENL) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with EENL inhibited VEGF induced angiogenic response in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro proliferation, invasion and migration of HUVECs were suppressed with EENL. Nuclear fragmentation and abnormally small mitochondria with dilated cristae were observed in EENL treated HUVECs by transmission electron microscopy. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiling after treatment with EENL revealed differentially regulated genes. Expression changes of the genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, increase in the expression of HMOX1, ATF3 and EGR1 proteins were determined by immunoblotting. Analysis of the compounds in the EENL by mass spectrometry suggests the presence of nimbolide, 2',3'-dehydrosalannol, 6-desacetyl nimbinene and nimolinone. We further confirmed antiproliferative activity of nimbolide and 2',3'-dehydrosalannol in HUVECs. Our results suggest that EENL by regulating the genes involved in cellular development and cell death functions could control cell proliferation, attenuate the stimulatory effects of VEGF and exert antiangiogenic effects. EENL treatment could have a potential therapeutic role during cancer progression. PMID:22461839

Mahapatra, Saswati; Young, Charles Y F; Kohli, Manish; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Klee, Eric W; Holmes, Michael W; Tindall, Donald J; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

2012-02-22

93

Hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic activity of stem bark extracts Erythrina indica in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study is to investigate the alcoholic (AlcE) and aqueous (AqsE) extracts of stem bark of Erythrina indica (Papilionaceae) for hypoglycaemic effects in normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single dose administration of alloxan (120mg\\/kg, i.p.) or by injecting dexamethasone (10mg\\/kg, i.p.) for 10days. In normal rats, AlcE and AqsE had significantly

A. Yashwant Kumar; K. Nandakumar; M. Handral; Sahil Talwar; Daniel Dhayabaran

2011-01-01

94

Studies on effect of Acalypha indica L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts on the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera:Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf extract of Acalypha indica with different solvents viz, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were tested for larvicidal, ovicidal activity\\u000a and oviposition attractancy against Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. The LC50 values are 19.25, 27.76, 23.26 and 15.03 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed\\u000a 120 h after treatment. The percent

M. Govindarajan; A. Jebanesan; T. Pushpanathan; K. Samidurai

2008-01-01

95

The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in advanced diabetic foot: an unexpected outcome.  

PubMed

This is the first case reporting the results of using an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and neem oil (Azadirachta indica) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers. The effective use of this cheap treatment in patients with diabetic lesions on the feet, if confirmed in a wide controlled study, might allow the caregivers to take care of patients at home. PMID:23413284

Iabichella, Maria Letizia

2013-02-13

96

New furanoflavanoids, intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory and free-radical (DPPH) scavenging, activity from antihyperglycemic root extract of Derris indica (Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical examination of antihyperglycemic root extract of Derris indica resulted in isolation and characterization of two new furanoflavanoids (1, 2) along with thirteen known compounds (3–15). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis and by comparison with the literature data. All the compounds were tested

R. Ranga Rao; Ashok K. Tiwari; P. Prabhakar Reddy; K. Suresh Babu; Amtul Z. Ali; K. Madhusudana; J. Madhusudana Rao

2009-01-01

97

Caseinolytic activity of fruit extract from Opuntia ficus-indica on bovine, caprine, and ovine sodium caseinates.  

PubMed

The rates and extents of hydrolysis of alpha(S)- and beta-caseins from bovine, caprine, and ovine sodium caseinates produced by an enzymatic extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica, (L.) Miller were evaluated and compared with those produced by a commercial animal rennet. A mechanistic model based on a pseudo-first-order enzymatic reaction, in the presence of first-order deactivation of the enzyme, was postulated and successfully fitted to the experimental data. The animal rennet exhibited higher enzymatic efficiency than the fruit extract, irrespective of the source (i.e., bovine, caprine, or ovine) and the type (i.e., alpha(S)- or beta-casein) of substrate. The enzymatic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) for alpha(S)-casein ranged from 72 to 220 and from 43 to 65 L g(-1) h(-1), and for beta-casein from 242 to 742 and from 55 to 164 L g(-1) h(-1), for the animal rennet and the enzymatic extract of O. ficus-indica, respectively. Finally, it was observed that beta-casein from caprine and ovine caseinates was degraded by O. ficus-indica faster than its alpha(S) counterpart, but the reverse was observed for bovine caseinate. PMID:11485424

Pintado, A I; Macedo, A C; Teixeira, G; Pais, M S; Clemente, A; Malcata, F X

98

[Extraction of rape seed proanthocyanidin with ultrasonic wave].  

PubMed

Rape seed proanthocyanidin was extracted by ultrasonic technology, and the conditions of extraction were studied. The results showed that the order of the factors which influenced the extraction effects were as follows: ethanol concentration, extracting temperature, ultrasonic extracting time and the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extraction agent (w/v). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature: 60 degrees C, extracting agent: 60% ethanol aqueous, the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extracting agent: 1 : 20 (w/v), extracting number: 3 times, extracting time: 20 min, respectively. The yield of proanthocyanidins extracted by ultrasonic technology was 84.5% higher than traditional method. Rape Seed was rich in proanthocyanidin. PMID:20518317

Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jian-Ming; Xia, Chun-Tang; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Zheng-Rong

2010-01-01

99

Biosorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isosteric heat of sorption of Cu(II) onto Tamarindus indica seed powder.  

PubMed

Biosorption of Cu(II) by Tamarindus indica seed powder (TSP) was investigated as a function of temperature in a batch system. The Cu(II) biosorption potential of TSP increased with increasing temperature. The rate of the biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics while the sorption equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum monolayer Cu(II) biosorption capacity increased from 82.97 mg g(-1) at 303 K to 133.24 mg g(-1) at 333 K. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. Isosteric heat of sorption, determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation increased with increase in surface loading showing its strong dependence on surface coverage. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area and porosity analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of FTIR analysis of unloaded and Cu(II)-loaded TSP revealed that -NH(2), -OH, -C=O and C-O functional groups on the biosorbent surface were involved in the biosorption process. The present study suggests that TSP can be used as a potential, alternative, low-cost biosorbent for removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous media. PMID:21872453

Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

2011-08-10

100

Effects of Extract from Mangifera indica Leaf on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats  

PubMed Central

The leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is used as a medicinal material in traditional herb medicine for a long time in India, China, and other Eastern Asian countries. Our present study investigated the therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract from Mangifera indica (EMI) in rat with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Effects of EMI (50, 100, and 200?mg/kg, p.o.) administrated for 9 days on the ankle swelling, synovial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) levels were assessed in MSU crystal rat. Data from our study showed that rat with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystal demonstrated an elevation in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-?, IL-1? mRNA, and protein levels. Oral administration of 100 and 200?mg/kg EMI for 9 days reversed the abnormalities in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-?, IL-1? mRNA, and protein levels. The results indicated that the beneficial antigouty arthritis effect of EMI may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting TNF-? and IL-1? expression in the synovial tissues. Our study suggests that Mangifera indica and its extract may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application.

Jiang, Yan; You, Xiao-Ying; Fu, Kong-Long; Yin, Wan-Le

2012-01-01

101

Effects of Extract from Mangifera indica Leaf on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats.  

PubMed

The leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is used as a medicinal material in traditional herb medicine for a long time in India, China, and other Eastern Asian countries. Our present study investigated the therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract from Mangifera indica (EMI) in rat with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Effects of EMI (50, 100, and 200?mg/kg, p.o.) administrated for 9 days on the ankle swelling, synovial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) levels were assessed in MSU crystal rat. Data from our study showed that rat with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystal demonstrated an elevation in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-?, IL-1? mRNA, and protein levels. Oral administration of 100 and 200?mg/kg EMI for 9 days reversed the abnormalities in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-?, IL-1? mRNA, and protein levels. The results indicated that the beneficial antigouty arthritis effect of EMI may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting TNF-? and IL-1? expression in the synovial tissues. Our study suggests that Mangifera indica and its extract may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application. PMID:23304232

Jiang, Yan; You, Xiao-Ying; Fu, Kong-Long; Yin, Wan-Le

2012-11-19

102

Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.  

PubMed

Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

2012-12-01

103

Extraction of fat from fermented Cupuaçu seeds with supercritical solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) is a Brazilian Amazonian fruit. The seeds have a high fat content (62%) with characteristics that resemble that of cocoa butter and with potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. In this work, new experimental data on the supercritical fluid extraction of fat components from Cupuaçu fermented seeds using ethane and CO2 as solvents are

Alvaro B. A. de Azevedo; Uiram Kopcak; Rahoma S. Mohamed

2003-01-01

104

Crude aqueous extracts of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. inhibit proliferation and migration of cancer cells through induction of p53-dependent cell death  

PubMed Central

Background Pluchea indica (L.) Less. (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub plant with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant medicinal properties. However, the anti-cancer properties of its aqueous extracts have not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and pro-apoptotic properties of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root on human malignant glioma cancer cells and human cervical cancer cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods GBM8401 human glioma cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root and cancer cell proliferation and viability were measured by cell growth curves, trypan blue exclusions, and the tetrazolium reduction assay. Effects of the crude aqueous extracts on focus formation, migration, and apoptosis of cancer cells were studied as well. The molecular mechanism that contributed to the anti-cancer activities of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root was also examined using Western blotting analysis. Results Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root suppressed proliferation, viability, and migration of GBM8401 and HeLa cells. Treatment with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root for 48 hours resulted in a significant 75% and 70% inhibition on proliferation and viability of GBM8401 and HeLa cancer cells, respectively. Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root inhibited focus formation and promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. It was found that phosphorylated-p53 and p21 were induced in GBM8401 and HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Expression of phosphorylated-AKT was decreased in HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Conclusion The in vitro anti-cancer effects of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root indicate that it has sufficient potential to warrant further examination and development as a new anti-cancer agent.

2012-01-01

105

Modulation of human neutrophil oxidative metabolism and degranulation by extract of Tamarindus indica L. fruit pulp.  

PubMed

The tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is indigenous to Asian countries and widely cultivated in the American continents. The tamarind fruit pulp extract (ExT), traditionally used in spices, food components and juices, is rich in polyphenols that have demonstrated anti-atherosclerotic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. This study evaluated the modulator effect of a crude hydroalcoholic ExT on some peripheral human neutrophil functions. The neutrophil reactive oxygen species generation, triggered by opsonized zymosan (OZ), n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and assessed by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL and LucCL, respectively), was inhibited by ExT in a concentration-dependent manner. ExT was a more effective inhibitor of the PMA-stimulated neutrophil function [IC50 (in microg/10(6)cells)=115.7+/-9.7 (LumCL) and 174.5+/-25.9 (LucCL)], than the OZ- [IC50=248.5+/-23.1 (LumCL) and 324.1+/-34.6 (LucCL)] or fMLP-stimulated cells [IC50=178.5+/-12.2 (LumCL)]. The ExT also inhibited neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity (evaluated by O2 consumption), degranulation and elastase activity (evaluated by spectrophotometric methods) at concentrations higher than 200 microg/10(6)cells, without being toxic to the cells, under the conditions assessed. Together, these results indicate the potential of ExT as a source of compounds that can modulate the neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:19022329

Paula, Fabiana S; Kabeya, Luciana M; Kanashiro, Alexandre; de Figueiredo, Andréa S G; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Lucisano-Valim, Yara Maria

2008-11-03

106

Neuropharmacological actions of Pluchea indica Less root extract in socially isolated mice.  

PubMed

The effects of Pluchea indica Less root extract (PI-E) on locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleep, social isolation-induced aggressive behavior, motor coordination in the rotarod test, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion and nociceptive responses in the tail-pinch test were examined in mice. Socially isolated mice showed higher locomotor activity and shorter duration of pentobarbital sleep than group-housed mice. PI-E (50-100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased locomotor activity and prolonged pentobarbital sleep in a dose-dependent manner in isolated mice but not in group-housed mice. At a large dose (400 mg/kg, p.o.), PI-E not only decreased locomotor activity but also prolonged pentobarbital sleep in group-housed mice. The reference drug diazepam, at 0.5 mg/kg, also suppressed the locomotor activity in isolated mice but not in group-housed mice. Moreover, diazepam, at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, significantly prolonged pentobarbital sleep in both isolated mice and group-housed mice. The effects of PI-E and diazepam on pentobarbital sleep in isolated mice were significantly attenuated by flumazenil (1 mg/kg, i.v.). PI-E (50-100 mg/kg), as well as diazepam (0.5-5 mg/kg, p.o.), dose-dependently suppressed social isolation-induced aggressive behavior, but it had no effect on pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion, motor coordination in the rotarod test, or nociceptive response in the tail pinch test in group-housed mice. These results suggest that PI-E attenuates pathophysiological changes caused by social isolation stress in mice, and that the GABAergic system is partly involved in the action of PI-E on a social isolation-induced decrease in pentobarbital sleep. PMID:8924905

Thongpraditchote, S; Matsumoto, K; Temsiririrkkul, R; Tohda, M; Murakami, Y; Watanabe, H

1996-03-01

107

Enzyme-supported oil extraction from Jatropha curcas Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jatropha curcas is a tropical plant widely distributed in arid areas. The seeds contain about 55% of oil, which is mainly used for the production\\u000a of soap as a fuel and after transesterification as biodiesel. Various methods for recovering of oil from the seeds, including\\u000a extraction with organic solvents and water, have been investigated. Compared to hexane extraction (98%) the

Elisabeth Winkler; Nikolaus Foidl; Georg M. Gübitz; Ruth Staubmann; Walter Steiner

1997-01-01

108

Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions. PMID:15030930

Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

2004-03-01

109

Molecular docking studies and anti-snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.  

PubMed

Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the binding pockets of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The phenolic principles could form hydrogen bonds with the three histidine residues in the conserved zinc-binding motif and could chelate the Zn(2+) atom of the SVMPs, which could potentially result in inhibition of the venom enzymatic activities and thereby inhibit tissue necrosis. PMID:19783918

Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

2009-08-27

110

Quantification of gallic acid and ellagic acid from longan ( Dimocarpus longan Lour.) seed and mango ( Mangifera indica L.) kernel and their effects on antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) have been identified in longan seed and mango kernel by the use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD). The ethanolic extract of longan seed contained 23.3 and 156mg\\/100 seeds of GA and EA, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of mango kernel contained approximately 87% more GA than the

Yean-Yean Soong; Philip J. Barlow

2006-01-01

111

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera) seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seeds were powdered and the fatty material was extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether (60–80 °C) for 6 h. The defatted powder was extracted with acetone:water:acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) and methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) for 8 h each separately. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum to obtain crude extracts, which were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection

G. K. Jayaprakasha; Tamil Selvi; K. K. Sakariah

2003-01-01

112

Structure and morphology of cladodes and spines of Opuntia ficus-indica. Cellulose extraction and characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology and structure of cladodes and spines from cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) were investigated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy together with electron and X-ray diffraction analysis. This paper focused also on the characterisation of cellulose from cladodes and spines of OFI. This cellulose can be found either as parenchyma cell cellulose (PCC) in cladodes, or as fibre in

Mohamed E Malainine; Alain Dufresne; Danièle Dupeyre; Mostafa Mahrouz; Roger Vuong; Michel R Vignon

2003-01-01

113

Ameliorative effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica on renal histologic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (AIE) on the microanatomy of the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (161-190 g) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups of six animals each: control, diabetic, diabetic + AIE, diabetic + metformin, AIE only. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg body weight). AIE and metformin were administered orally for 50 days (50 d) at 500 mg/kg bw/d and 350 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. Blood glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method; plasma urea and creatinine were assayed; and paraffin sections of the kidney were stained by periodic acid-Schiff technique. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited marked hyperglycemia. Renal histopathology of these animals showed features of diabetic nephropathy, with nodular glomerulosclerosis and vacuolation of proximal tubule cells (Armanni-Ebstein phenomenon). These feature were absent in the diabetic rats treated with AIE. Besides, plasma urea and creatinine were not significantly different from the control in this group (p > 0.05), in contrast to the untreated diabetic rats, where significant increases in these markers (p < 0.05). These findings showed that the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica ameliorates hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy in rats. PMID:21905281

Oluwole Busayo, Akinola; Laura, Zatta; Olufunke Olubusola, Dosumu; Oluwafunmike Sharon, Akinola; Luciana, Dini; Ezekiel Ademola, Caxton-Martins

2011-01-01

114

Insecticidal effects of acetogenins from Rollinia occidentalis seed extract.  

PubMed

From the methanol seed extract of Rollinia occidentalis five acetogenins were isolated, sylvaticin (1), rolliniastatin-1 (2), rolliniastatin-2 (3), motrilin (4) and desacetyluvaricin (5), and evaluated for their toxicity and nutritional alterations on Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). All but one of the compounds produced more than 90% mortality on early larval instars at 50 and 100 microg per g of diet. Sylvaticin caused 15 and 60% mortality at 50 and 100 microg/g, respectively, while the methanol seed extract reached 35 and 50% at 100 and 250 microg/g, respectively. The addition of R. occidentalis methanolic seed extract (100 and 250 microg/g) and sylvaticin (100 microg/g) to the larval diet brought about significant changes to the nutritional indices in connection with larvae fed the control diet. This is the first report on the isolation of acetogenins from R. occidentalis and their insecticidal effects on S. frugiperda. PMID:23413573

Tolosa, Diego; Alvarez, Colom Olga; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

2012-12-01

115

Control of some insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculuta) with neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss.) in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem (Azadirachta indica) products were effective in protecting stored cowpeas against bruchid damage for over 4 months under artificial infestation in the laboratory. This practice, part of an extension package, is becoming popular with farmers. In field trials, aqueous neem seed extracts, as well as leaf extracts reduced thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) incidence in cowpeas and increased yields significantly. Extracts also

P. B. Tanzubil

1991-01-01

116

Inhibition of aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus infected cotton bolls after treatment with neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In separate treatments, a spore suspension ofA. flavus (control), an aqueous leaf extract of the subtropical neem tree plus a spore suspension ofA. flavus, or an aqueous neem leaf extract followed by anA. flavus spore suspension were injected 48 hr later onto the surfaces of locks of developing cotton bolls (30-day post anthesis).\\u000a Thirteen days after the treatments, the seeds

Hampden J. Zeringue; Deepak Bhatnagar

1990-01-01

117

Mathematical modeling of sunflower seed extraction by supercritical COâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of oil from crushed sunflower seeds with supercritical COâ was performed at 280 bar and 40 C on a laboratory apparatus of 0.15 à 10⁻³ m³ volume and on a pilot plant of 1.5 à 10⁻³ m³ volume. COâ flow rate ranged between 5 and 45 kg\\/h. To study the influence of the vegetable matrix on the extraction rate,

M. Perrut; J. Y. Clavier; M. Poletto; E. Reverchon

1997-01-01

118

Evaluation of soybean seed protein extraction focusing on metalloprotein analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Two methods of protein extraction for soybean seeds were evaluated in terms of preservation of the metal ions bound to proteins\\u000a after the extraction and separation procedures. The proteins were firstly separated according to their molar masses by polyacrylamide\\u000a gel electrophoresis. Then, the protein bands were mapped by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence in order to establish\\u000a which metal ions were

Alessandra Sussulini; Jerusa S. Garcia; Márcia F. Mesko; Diogo P. Moraes; Érico M. M. Flores; Carlos A. Pérez; Marco A. Z. Arruda

2007-01-01

119

Identification of Benzethonium Chloride in Commercial Grapefruit Seed Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis). The main constituent was identified as benzethonium chloride, a synthetic antimicrobial agent commonly used in cosmetics and other

Gary R. Takeoka; Lan T. Dao; Rosalind Y. Wong; Leslie A. Harden; Noreen Mahoney

2001-01-01

120

Comparative evaluation of two different Opuntia ficus-indica extracts for blood sugar lowering effects in rats.  

PubMed

Stems of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (OFI) are traditionally used in Mexico to treat diabetes mellitus. Less research data are available for combinations of stem and fruit preparations. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract prepared from the cladodes and a proprietary stem/fruit skin-blend (stem/fruit skin ratio 75/25) of OFI on blood glucose and plasma insulin in normal rats. A dose finding study with the traditional cladode OFI extract revealed that maximum effects on blood glucose and insulin were observed after oral administration in a dose range of 6-176 mg/kg. The proprietary OFI blend significantly lowered blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test to a similar extent (p < 0.05 vs control) as the traditional aqueous cladode extract when administered in a dose of 6 mg/kg. In contrast to the aqueous extract, the proprietary blend significantly increased basal plasma insulin levels (p < 0.01 vs control) indicating a direct action on pancreatic beta cells. The results suggest that both OFI extracts exert hypoglycemic activities in rats in doses as low as 6 mg/kg but that the effects of the proprietary stem/fruit blend were more pronounced in our model. PMID:20687136

Butterweck, Veronika; Semlin, Lydia; Feistel, Bjoern; Pischel, Ivo; Bauer, Katrin; Verspohl, Eugen J

2011-03-01

121

Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast stra- ins. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution sus- ceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined

ZDENKA CVETNI; SANDA VLADIMIR-KNE

2004-01-01

122

Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Azadirachta indica fruit skin extract and its isolated constituent azadiradione.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of carbon tetrachloride extract (CTCE) of Azadirachta indica fruit skin and its isolated constituent azadiradione at two different dose levels (50 and 100?mg?kg(-1) body weight). Anti-nociceptive screening by writhing test and hot-plate technique supported both peripheral and central mechanisms, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was observed using carrageenan-induced paw oedema model. The results concluded that the animals treated with 100?mg?kg(-1) dose of CTCE and azadiradione exhibited significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. This study had rationalised the ethnomedicinal use of the plant for wound, burns and injury by tribal people. PMID:22928548

Ilango, K; Maharajan, G; Narasimhan, S

2012-08-29

123

Antioxidative effect of cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) extract on lipid peroxidation inhibition in oils and emulsion model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects of cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts (CPFE) on fish oil, fish oil-in-water emulsion and linoleic acid were studied using conjugated diene hydroperoxides (CDH), weight gaining, peroxide value (PV), and thiobabituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. A modified DPPH assay was used in the characterization of CPFE antioxidants for their thermal stability. CPFE successfully

Nalin Siriwardhana; You-Jin Jeon

2004-01-01

124

Extraction of bioactive principles from Mucuna pruriens seeds.  

PubMed

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Syn. M. prurita Hook. (Papilionaceae) is used in male impotency, as aphrodisiac, in sexual debility, and as nervine tonic. It also possesses anti-parkinson property, possibly due to the presence of L-DOPA. In the present study, attempts were made to develop the suitable method(s) for extraction of L-DOPA/other active components from the seeds using different solvents. The various extracts were also screened for their neuroprotective and antioxidant activities. In addition, TLC and HPLC fingerprinting of the extracts for amino acid components were also developed for preliminary and sophisticated analysis. The L-DOPA could be obtained in good yield on extraction with EtOH-H2O mixture (1:1) using ascorbic acid as protector. Interestingly, n-propanol extract, which contained negligible amount of L-DOPA, had shown significant neuroprotective activity, suggesting that some components, other than L-DOPA, might also be responsible for anti-Parkinson property of seeds. The extract (MW-0100) containing mainly amino acids and water-ethanol extract (1:1) (MWEL-1299) showed promising antioxidant activity (EC50 = 2.5 microg) against DPPH radicals. MWEL-1299 also exhibited encouraging results against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) toxicity. The TLC fingerprinting may be used to authenticate the plant material in herbal industry. PMID:17385342

Misra, Laxminarain; Wagner, Hildebert

2007-02-01

125

Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

Mangiferin is the main bioactive component in mango leaves, which possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antitumor activities. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 45% ethanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 30:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 123 s under microwave irradiation of 474 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 36.10 ± 0.72 mg/g, significantly higher than that of conventional extraction. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials. PMID:23929791

Zou, Tangbin; Wu, Hongfu; Li, Huawen; Jia, Qing; Song, Gang

2013-09-01

126

In vitro antiviral activity of neem (Azardirachta indica L.) bark extract against herpes simplex virus type-1 infection.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes significant health problems from periodical skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. We report here that an aqueous extract preparation from the barks of neem plant Azardirachta indica acts as a potent entry inhibitor against HSV-1 infection into natural target cells. The neem bark extract (NBE) significantly blocked HSV-1 entry into cells at concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 microg/ml. The blocking activity of NBE was observed when the extract was pre-incubated with the virus but not with the target cells, suggesting a direct antiHSV-1 property of the neem bark. Further, virions treated with NBE failed to bind the cells which implicate a role of NBE as an attachment step blocker. Cells treated with NBE also inhibited HSV-1 glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion and polykaryocytes formation suggesting an additional role of NBE at the viral fusion step. These findings open a potential new avenue for the development of NBE as a novel antiherpetic microbicide. PMID:20041417

Tiwari, Vaibhav; Darmani, Nissar A; Yue, Beatrice Y J T; Shukla, Deepak

2010-08-01

127

In vitro antiviral activity of neem (Azardirachta indica L.) bark extract against herpes simplex virus type-1 infection  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) causes significant health problems from periodical skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. We report here that an aqueous extract preparation from the barks of neem plant Azardirachta indica acts as a potent entry inhibitor against HSV-1 infection into natural target cells. The extract from neem bark (NBE) significantly blocked HSV-1 entry into cells at concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 ?g/ml. The blocking activity of NBE was observed when the extract was pre-incubated with the virus but not with the target cells suggesting a direct anti-HSV-1 property of the neem bark. Further, virions treated with NBE failed to bind the cells which implicate a role of NBE as an attachment step blocker. Cells treated with NBE also inhibited HSV-1 glycoprotein mediated cell to cell fusion and polykaryocytes formation suggesting an additional role of NBE at the viral fusion step. These finding open a potential new avenue for the development of NBE as a novel anti-herpetic microbicide.

Tiwari, Vaibhav; Darmani, Nissar A.; Yue, Beatrice Y. J. T.; Shukla, Deepak

2013-01-01

128

Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.  

PubMed

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. The presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract was confirmed by TLC analysis. Ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V). PMID:15610620

Cvetni?, Zdenka; Vladimir-Knezevi?, Sanda

2004-09-01

129

Oxidative Phosphorylation by Mitochondria Extracted from Dry Sunflower Seeds  

PubMed Central

The role of mitochondria in the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in the early steps of seed germination has been studied. Mitochondria were extracted from dry sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. Adenylate kinase-dependent ATP synthesis was inhibited by p1,p5-di(adenosine-5?)pentaphosphate. Synthesis of ATP was observed with the different substrates: citrate, ?-ketoglutarate, succinate, malate, pyruvate or NADH. This synthesis was activated by cytochrome c, and inhibited by cyanide, oligomycin, carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, and carboxyatractyloside. The ATP/O values with succinate were 0.85 and 1.2 in the absence or presence, respectively, of cytochrome c. Electron micrographs showed that mitochondria of dry tissues have different structures when observed in situ or in vitro after aqueous extraction, suggesting that profound changes occurred after the contact with the aqueous medium. These results confirm previous data obtained in vivo showing that mitochondria present in dry seeds are able to synthesize ATP as soon as the seeds are rehydrated. Images Figure 7

Attucci, Sylvie; Carde, Jean Pierre; Raymond, Philippe; Saint-Ges, Veronique; Spiteri, Anne; Pradet, Alain

1991-01-01

130

[Analysis of components in natural food additive "grapefruit seed extract" by HPLC and LC/MS].  

PubMed

The components in a commercial natural food additive "Grapefruit seed extract" and the ethanol extract of grapefruit seeds were analyzed by HPLC and LC/MS. The HPLC chromatogram of the commercial grapefruit seed extract was quite different from that of the ethanol extract of grapefruit seeds. Three main peaks were observed in the chromatogram of the commercial grapefruit seed extract. By comparison of the retention times and the absorption spectra with those of authentic samples, two peaks were ascribed to methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate and 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenylether (triclosan). Triclosan was also identified by LC/MS by using the negative electrospray ionization method. PMID:9037863

Sakamoto, S; Sato, K; Maitani, T; Yamada, T

1996-01-01

131

Evaluation of extractive contact units for oil extraction from dehulled sunflower seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of an extractive system generally depends on kinetic, thermodynamic and technological parameters. Each of these\\u000a factors affects the extractive effectiveness, although the overall result depends on their interaction. In the present work\\u000a this interaction is analyzed for oil extraction from dehulled sunflower seed. Experiments on laboratory scale were made to\\u000a calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the

L. Tranchino; F. Melle

1984-01-01

132

Antiviral activity and mode of action of extracts from neem seed kernel against duck plague virus in vitro1.  

PubMed

Four fractions obtained from alcohol extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel by column chromatography were investigated for antivirus activity against the duck plague virus (DPV) in vitro. Duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) infected with DPV were treated with the neem seed kernel extracts, and the effect of antivirus was judged by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide colorimetric method assay and direct immunofluorescence assay. The mode of action was tested by the plaque reduction assay. The results showed that fractions 1 to 3 were inactive. The median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of fraction 4 was 10.9 ?g/mL and inhibited the virus protein expression in the direct immunofluorescence assay. In the plaque reduction assay, fraction 4 could significantly reduce the number of plaques compared with the negative control (P < 0.01) in all modes of action. This study indicated that the fourth fraction obtained from neem seed kernel could improve the viability of infected cells, and reduce the cytopathic effects caused by DPV and the amount of the virus protein expressed in virus-infected cells. The antiviral activity works in the whole process of virus infecting the normal cells. PMID:23091135

Xu, J; Song, X; Yin, Z Q; Cheng, A C; Jia, R Y; Deng, Y X; Ye, K C; Shi, C F; Lv, C; Zhang, W

2012-11-01

133

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

1986-05-01

134

Fermentation of Aqueous Plant Seed Extracts by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72-h period at 37°C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products.

Schaffner, Donald W.; Beuchat, Larry R.

1986-01-01

135

Antifeedant activity of extracts from neem, Azadirachta indica , to strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf disk choice test bioassays demonstrated that formulated neem seed oil (NSO) was equally deterrent to first- and third-instar nymphs and adult strawberry aphids,Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell). Concentrations of NSO resulting in 50% feeding deterrence were approximately 1.1% for this species. The rapid disruption of aphid feeding (C. fragaefolii disappeared within 12–24 hr following application to strawberry in the greenhouse. NSO

D. Thomas Lowery; Murray B. Isman

1993-01-01

136

Extraction optimization of watermelon seed protein using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction conditions for maximum protein recovery from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Cv Sugar baby) seed meal were investigated using response surface methodology. A central composite design with four independent variables: temperature (40, 45, 50, 55 and 60°C); NaOH concentration (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12 and 0.15g\\/L); extraction time (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25min) and solvent\\/meal ratio (30:1, 40:1, 50:1, 60:1 and

Ali Abas Wani; Devinder Kaur; Idrees Ahmed; D. S. Sogi

2008-01-01

137

Antimutagenic properties of Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and evaluation of its effects on hepatic CYP1A1.  

PubMed

Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) is a Cuban natural product which has shown strong antioxidant properties. In this work, the antimutagenic effect of MSBE was tested against 10 well-known mutagens/carcinogens in the Ames test in the absence or presence of metabolic fraction (S9). The chemical mutagens tested included: cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C, bleomycin, cisplatin, dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA), benzo[a]pyrene (BP), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), sodium azide, 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and picrolonic acid. Protective effects of the extract were also evaluated by comparing the efficiency of S9 fraction obtained from rats treated during 28 days with oral doses of MSBE (50-500 mg/kg) with that obtained from rats treated with vehicle (control) to activate bleomycin and cyclophosphamide in the Ames test. MSBE concentrations between 50 and 500 ?g/plate significantly reduced the mutagenicity mediated by all the chemicals tested with the exception of sodium azide. Higher mutagenicity was found when bleomycin and cyclophosphamide (CP) were activated by control S9 than by MSBE S9. In addition, inhibition of CYP1A1 microsomal activity was observed in the presence of MSBE (10-20 ?g/ml). We can conclude that besides its potent antioxidant activity previously reported, MSBE may also exert a chemoprotective effect due to its capacity to inhibit CYP activity. PMID:22865094

Morffi, Janet; Rodeiro, Idania; Hernández, Sandra Luz; González, Leonora; Herrera, Jose; Espinosa-Aguirre, J Javier

2012-09-01

138

Antioxidant activities of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin.  

PubMed

Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) produce yellow, red, and white fruits, due to the combination of two betalain pigments, the purple-red betanin and the yellow-orange indicaxanthin. The betalain distribution in the three cultivars and the antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from edible pulp were investigated. In addition, the reducing capacity of purified betanin and indicaxanthin was measured. According to a spectrophotometric analysis, the yellow cultivar exhibited the highest amount of betalains, followed by the red and white ones. Indicaxanthin accounted for about 99% of betalains in the white fruit, while the ratio of betanin to indicaxanthin varied from 1:8 (w:w) in the yellow fruit to 2:1 (w:w) in the red one. Polyphenol pigments were negligible components only in the red fruit. When measured as 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) equivalents per gram of pulp, the methanolic fruit extracts showed a marked antioxidant activity. Vitamin C did not account for more than 40% of the measured activity. In addition, the extracts dose-dependently inhibited the organic hydroperoxide-stimulated red cell membrane lipid oxidation, as well as the metal-dependent and -independent low-density lipoprotein oxidation. The extract from the white fruit showed the highest protection in all models of lipid oxidation. Purified betanin and indicaxanthin were more effective than Trolox at scavenging the [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt cation radical. Cyclic voltammetric measurements show two anodic waves for betanin and indicaxanthin, and differential pulse voltammetry shows three anodic waves for betanin, with calculated peak potentials of 404, 616, and 998 mV, and two anodic waves for indicaxanthin, with peak potentials of 611 and 895 mV. Betanin underwent complex formation through chelation with Cu(2+), whereas indicaxanthin was not modified. These findings suggest that the above betalains contribute to the antioxidant activity of prickly pear fruits. PMID:12405794

Butera, Daniela; Tesoriere, Luisa; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Bongiorno, Antonino; Allegra, Mario; Pintaudi, Anna Maria; Kohen, Rohn; Livrea, Maria A

2002-11-01

139

A new shampoo based on neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is highly effective against head lice in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because topical compounds based on insecticidal chemicals are the mainstay of head lice treatment, but resistance is increasing, alternatives, such as herbs and oils are being sold to treat head lice. To test a commercial shampoo based on seed extract of Azadirachta indica (neem tree) for its in vitro effect, head lice (n=17) were collected from school children in Australia

Jörg Heukelbach; Richard Speare

2006-01-01

140

Removal of free fatty acid in Azadirachta indica (Neem) seed oil using phosphoric acid modified mordenite for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

In this study free fatty acids present in Azadirachta indica (Neem) oil were esterified with our synthesized phosphoric acid modified catalyst. During the esterification, the acid value was reduced from 24.4 to 1.8 mg KOH/g oil. Synthesized catalyst was characterized by NH(3) TPD, XRD, SEM, FTIR and TGA analysis. During phosphoric acid modification hydrophobic character and weak acid sites of the mordenite were increased, which lead to better esterification when compared to H-mordenite. A kinetic study demonstrates that the esterification reaction followed pseudo-first order kinetics. Thermodynamic studies were also done based on the Arrhenius model. PMID:20346652

SathyaSelvabala, Vasanthakumar; Varathachary, Thiruvengadaravi Kadathur; Selvaraj, Dinesh Kirupha; Ponnusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Subramanian, Sivanesan

2010-03-25

141

Carbon dioxide extraction of canola seed: Oil solubility and effect of seed treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from fixed beds of canola seed (Brassica napus) was studied using carbon dioxide at temperatures and pressures ranging from 25 to 90C and 10 to 36 MPa, respectively. The\\u000a oil solubility in CO2 was found to be strongly dependent on CO2 pressure and weakly dependent on the system temperature. The highest observed oil solubility was 11

M. Fattoria; N. R. Bulley; A. Meisen

1988-01-01

142

Desiccation-induced changes in lipid peroxidation, superoxide level and antioxidant enzymes activity in neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshly harvested mature neem seeds (42.2 % seed moisture content) with 100 % viability deteriorate when naturally desiccated\\u000a to below 10.9 %. The desiccation-induced loss of viability was closely associated with over accumulation of superoxide anion\\u000a and lipid peroxidation products both in the embryonic axes and cotyledons. The levels of superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation\\u000a products were higher in

Boby Varghese; S. C. Naithani

2002-01-01

143

Ethanolic leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) inhibits buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.  

PubMed

We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract in the initiation and post-initiation phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei as well as the concentrations of lipid peroxides, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of the GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas that showed diminished lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status associated with increased frequencies of bone marrow micronuclei. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of tumours in the initiation phase and reduced tumour incidence in the post-initiation phase. In addition, ethanolic neem leaf extract modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes and reduced the incidence of bone marrow micronuclei. The results of the present study, demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP tumours by protecting against oxidative stress. PMID:15473007

Subapriya, R; Bhuvaneswari, V; Ramesh, V; Nagini, S

144

Viper and cobra venom neutralization by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae) could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.I., Auddy, B., Gomes, A., 1996. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and P. indica) root extracts. Phytother. Res. 10, 58-61]. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica Less. (Asteraceae). The active fraction (containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol) was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis (EIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR). Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA(2) activity. Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA(2) activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions. PMID:17293096

Gomes, A; Saha, Archita; Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K

2007-02-12

145

Extraction of DNA suitable for PCR applications from mature leaves of Mangifera indica L.  

PubMed

Good quality deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the pre-requisite for its downstream applications. The presence of high concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, proteins, and other secondary metabolites in mango leaves poses problem in getting good quality DNA fit for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications. The problem is exacerbated when DNA is extracted from mature mango leaves. A reliable and modified protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for DNA extraction from mature mango leaves is described here. High concentrations of inert salt were used to remove polysaccharides; Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ?-mercaptoethanol were employed to manage phenolic compounds. Extended chloroform-isoamyl alcohol treatment followed by RNase treatment yielded 950-1050 µg of good quality DNA, free of protein and RNA. The problems of DNA degradation, contamination, and low yield due to irreversible binding of phenolic compounds and coprecipitation of polysaccharides with DNA were avoided by this method. The DNA isolated by the modified method showed good PCR amplification using simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. This modified protocol can also be used to extract DNA from other woody plants having similar problems. PMID:22467363

Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Cheema, Hafiza Masooma Naseer; Rajwana, Ishtiaq Ahmad; Khan, Ahmad Sattar; Khan, Asif Ali

2012-04-01

146

INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA L. SEED EXTRACTS AGAINST THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticidal activity of the seed extracts of custard apple, Annona squamosa L. in petroleum spirit, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol against Raj, CR 1, FSS II and CTC-12 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) was studied. The seeds were dried, powdered and extracted in Soxhlets apparatus in the solvents below 60°C. Extractions were applied on larvae and

M Khalequzzaman; Shajia Sultana

2006-01-01

147

Cellulase-assisted release of secoisolariciresinol from extracts of flax ( Linum usitatissimum) hulls and whole seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of secoisolariciresinol from seed hulls and whole seeds of flax was improved using an enzymatic step with cellulase R10 from Trichoderma reesei that allowed better yield as compared to ?-glucosidase. The cellulase assisted extraction process was further optimised for different parameters such as duration and concentration of hydromethanolic extraction, duration of alkaline hydrolysis, pH, duration and incubation temperature as

Sullivan Renouard; Christophe Hano; Cyrielle Corbin; Ophélie Fliniaux; Tatiana Lopez; Josiane Montguillon; Esmatullah Barakzoy; François Mesnard; Frédéric Lamblin; Eric Lainé

2010-01-01

148

Antioxidative activity of persimmon and grape seed extract: in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined in vitro radical scavenging activity of persimmon seed extract (PSE) and grape seed extract (GSE), and quantified total tannin concentrations of each extract. It has been found that both PSE and GSE have radical scavenging activities, and total tannin concentration of PSE was significantly higher than GSE (p < 0.05). In order to investigate the protective effect on

Hong Seok Ahn; Tae Il Jeon; Joo Yong Lee; Seong Gu Hwang; Yoongho Lim; Dong Ki Park

2002-01-01

149

Supercritical extraction of sunflower seed oil: Experimental data and model validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work experimental results of sunflower seed oil extraction using supercritical CO2 are presented, together with the outcome obtained by applying to the same data a theoretical model recently developed and further improved here.We performed extraction tests utilizing a supercritical extraction equipment having a volumetric capability of 100ml; the seeds were milled to obtain different particle sizes (mean diameter

Luca Fiori

2009-01-01

150

THE USE OF ACIDIC ELECTROLYZED WATER TO ELIMINATE MICROORGANISMS FROM WHEAT SEED OR SOIL TO DETECT TILLETIA INDICA TELIOSPORES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is a germicidal product of electrolysis of a dilute solution of sodium chloride, which can be used to disinfect wheat seed or soil samples being tested for Karnal bunt teliospores without risk of damaging the spores. The AEW we produced for our study had a pH of 2.5 ...

151

Sperm antimotility properties of a seed extract of Abrus precatorius.  

PubMed

This study examined the inhibitory effects of a methanol extract of Abrus precatorius seeds on the motility of washed human spermatozoa. The extract caused a concentration-related impairment of percentage sperm motility; with the EC50 concentration being 2.29 mg/ml. This effect on motility was essentially irreversible. With the highest concentration tested (20.0 mg/ml), the onset of the antimotility action was almost immediate. In addition, this concentration impaired the functional integrity of the plasma membrane (hypoosmotic swelling test) and viability (nigrosin-eosin stain) of spermatozoa. In contrast, with a lower concentration (5.0 mg/ml), such effects were not evident. It is concluded that at the lower concentrations the antimotility action may result from a rise in intracellular calcium (not via influx) and/or a decline in cAMP content and/or enhanced generation of a reactive oxygen species. PMID:1943179

Ratnasooriya, W D; Amarasekera, A S; Perera, N S; Premakumara, G A

152

Grape seed extract effects in brain after hypobaric hypoxia.  

PubMed

Abstract Hypoxia induces a wide range of deleterious effects at the cellular level due to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Polyphenols from grape seeds, which are potent antioxidants might protect the brain against oxidative stress produced by hypobaric hypoxia. The brain effects of three doses of grape seed extract intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered in rats after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia corresponding to 5500?m altitude were investigated. Some oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and molecules involved in angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], matrix metalloproteinase 2 [MMP2], and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 [TIMP1]) were determined. Forty-two rats were divided in seven groups: group 1, control; groups 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 24?h in a hypobaric chamber; groups 5, 6, and 7 were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 5 days. After returning to normal atmospheric pressure, rats from groups 2 and 5 were sacrificed without other treatment. Animals from groups 3 and 6 were i.p treated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) vehicle and those from groups 4 and 7 were i.p. treated with grape seed extract (GSE) (50?mg gallic acid equivalents/kg body weight in 0.5?mL CMC suspension/animal). The treatment was applied at 2, 24, and 72?h from returning to normoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia produced increased brain levels of ROS, nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and VEGF after both time intervals (P<.05). The MMP2 concentration was significantly increased in groups treated only with vehicle, whereas TIMP1 was slightly changed. GSE produced a significant reduction of ROS and NO levels proving its antioxidant capacity. It also decreased IL-6 and MMP2 concentrations to values similar to controls. The VEGF concentration was also significantly reduced. These effects are indicative for anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties of GSE. PMID:24044492

Muresan, Adriana; Suciu, Soimita; Daicoviciu, Doina; Filip, Adriana Gabriela; Clichici, Simona

2013-09-01

153

The Methanol Extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Leaf Protects Mice Against Lethal Endotoxemia and Sepsis  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the inhibitory effect of neem leaf extract (NLE) on lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) production was examined both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro study revealed that NLE treatment (100 ?g/ml) inhibits LPS (100 ng/ml)-induced NO production by 96% and TNF-? production by 32%. The reduction in NO production is probably conferred by the complete suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Interestingly, in vivo NLE significantly improved the survival rate of mice in an experimental sepsis model. Administration of NLE (100 mg/kg) 24 h before LPS treatment (20 mg/kg) improved the survival rate of mice by 60%. The inhibition of plasma NO and TNF-? production by NLE is likely to account for the improved survival of mice. Our results suggest that NLE may present a promising avenue in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Kim, Woong-Hyun; Song, Hyun-Ok; Jin, Chun Mei; Hur, Jong Moon; Lee, Hwa Sung; Jin, Han Yong; Kim, Sung Yeon; Park, Hyun

2012-01-01

154

Extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seed kernels by combination of ultrasonication and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of ultrasonication as a pretreatment before aqueous oil extraction and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction was found to be useful in the case of extraction of oil from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. The use of ultrasonication for 10 min at pH 9.0 followed by aqueous oil extraction gave a yield of 67%. However, the maximum yield of 74%

Shweta Shah; Aparna Sharma; M. N. Gupta

2005-01-01

155

Antitumor and Immunopotentiating Activity of Polysaccharide PST001 Isolated from the Seed Kernel of Tamarindus indica: An In Vivo Study in Mice  

PubMed Central

Antitumor activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica was evaluated using different cancer cell lines. Human cancer cell lines A549, KB, and MCF-7 and murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC were treated with PST001 and cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out for toxicity, tumor reduction and immunomodulation. The respective IC50 of PST001 in A549, KB, and DLA was at 80.72, 190.99, and 91.14??g/mL. Significant tumor reduction was obtained in both DLA and EAC tumors on treatment with PST001 which was more prominent when PST001 was administered with CTX/5-fluorouracil. Increase in total WBC, CD4+ T-cell population, and bone marrow cellularity suggested strong immunomodulatory activity for this compound. No significant abnormality was observed in toxicity studies. Thus the results of the present study suggest that PST001 has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent and immunomodulator either as a sole agent or as an adjuvant to other chemotherapeutic drugs.

Aravind, S. R.; Joseph, Manu M.; Varghese, Sheeja; Balaram, Prabha; Sreelekha, T. T.

2012-01-01

156

Acaricidal activity of extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against the larvae of the rabbit mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in vitro.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract, the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log (CLL) model was used to analyze the data of the toxicity tests. The results showed that at all test time points, the petroleum ether extract demonstrated the highest activity against the larvae of S. scabiei var. cuniculi, while the activities of the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract were similar. The activities of both the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract against the larvae showed the relation of time and concentration dependent. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (1.3 microL/mL) was about three times that of the chloroform extract (4.1 microL/mL) at 24 h post-treatment. At the concentrations of 500.0 microL/mL, the median lethal time (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract was 8.4 and 9.6 h, respectively. PMID:18752898

Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Pu, Zhong-Hui; Chen, Jiao; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yu-Qun; Lu, Yang

2008-07-23

157

A twin-screw extruder for oil extraction: II. Alcohol extraction of oleic sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our work is about the extraction of sunflower seed oil in a twin-screw extruder with or without the injection of 2-ethylhexanol\\u000a and acidified 2-ethylhexanol. 2-Ethylhexanol is mixed with phosphoric acid. The oil recovery is increased to 90% by the co-injection\\u000a of acidified alcohol. Mixing phosphoric acid with the alcohol enhances the lability of the oily spherosomes. Its addition\\u000a increases the

Corinne Dufaure; Zéphirin Mouloungui; Luc Rigal

1999-01-01

158

The potential for controlling post?flowering pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp. using neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insecticidal activity of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., was tested on two major cowpea pests using different concentrations of aqueous extracts, and powders of both neem seed and kernel. The pests were larvae of Maruca testulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the legume pod borer and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), the cowpea coreid bug. Ife Brown, an improved local cowpea

L. E. N. Jackai; E. E. Inang; P. Nwobi

1992-01-01

159

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from Opuntia dillenii Haw. and its antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from Opuntia dillenii Haw. and its antioxidant activity were investigated in this study. The effects of main operating parameters including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow rate on the extraction yield of seed oil were studied. The maximum extraction yield of 6.65% was achieved at a pressure of 46.96MPa, a temperature of

Wei Liu; Yu-Jie Fu; Yuan-Gang Zu; Mei-Hong Tong; Nan Wu; Xiao-Lei Liu; Su Zhang

2009-01-01

160

Temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient of oil from different sunflower seeds during extraction with hexane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil extraction from confectionery, oilseed and wild sunflower seeds with n-hexane was investigated by laboratory tests carried out in a stirred batch extractor at several temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C). The rates of extraction were determined from ground sunflower seeds (particle sizes between 0.420 and 1.000mm). The oil yield in the extract increased with higher contact time and extraction temperature

Ethel E. Perez; Amalia A. Carelli; Guillermo H. Crapiste

2011-01-01

161

Subcritical water extraction of biologically active substances from milk thistle seed ( Silybum murianum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of biologically active substances from milk thistle seed (Silybum marianum L.) that makes it possible to obtain aqueous extracts without using organic solvents is suggested. The contents of hepatoprotective\\u000a biologically active substances (taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, and silybin) in milk thistle seed extracts obtained by\\u000a SCWE and by standardized liquid extraction procedures are compared.

I. A. Platonov; N. V. Nikitchenko; L. A. Onuchak; Yu. I. Arutyunov; V. A. Kurkin; P. V. Smirnov

2010-01-01

162

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Valuable Compounds from Citrus junos Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of Citrus junos seed was carried out at temperatures of 40–70 °C, pressures of 20–50 MPa, and CO2 flow rate of 3 ml\\/min with supercritical carbon dioxide to obtain the valuable compounds. Seed oil was also extracted by\\u000a using Soxhlet extraction with hexane as the solvent during 360 min for comparison with the efficiency of supercritical carbon\\u000a dioxide extraction. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)

Hiro Ueno; Masahiro Tanaka; Siti Machmudah; Mitsuru Sasaki; Motonobu Goto

2008-01-01

163

Differential Neuroprotective Activity of Two Different Grape Seed Extracts  

PubMed Central

Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major events that takes place during various neurotoxic injuries such as brain ischemia. We prepared grape seed extracts, from two different varieties, containing high amounts of polyphenols but little resveratrol. Their neuroprotective effects were investigated using primary culture of neonatal mouse hippocampal neurons treated with an excitotoxic concentration of glutamate. Koshu, a white, local variety of V. vinifera, alleviated the acute inactivation of Erk1/2 and dendrite retraction in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to a toxic concentration of glutamate (1.0 ng/ml). By contrast, Muscat Bailey A, a red, hybrid variety (Muscat Humburg × Bailey), failed to show any neuroprotective effect. Unlike brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other neuroprotective cytokines, Koshu extract did not induce Akt phosphorylation. Koshu extract also augmented neuron survival rate 24 hours after glutamate toxicity. The comparison of polyphenols between the two samples by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that Koshu had higher amounts of low molecular weight polyphenols along with several Koshu-specific procyanidin oligomers. These data suggest the presence of high affinity molecular targets for polyphenols in hippocampal neurons, which induce neuroprotective effects in a manner different from BDNF, and the importance of low molecular weight polyphenols and/or procyanidin oligomers for neuroprotection.

Narita, Keishi; Hisamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Tohru; Takeda, Sen

2011-01-01

164

Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii by Water-soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hot and cold water-soluble muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) seed extracts and their polar and polyphenol fractions from two Muscadine cultivars (‘Ison’, purple and ‘Carlos’, bronze) were investigated for their inhibition of Enterobacter sakazakii. The heat treatment on each seed extract not only incre...

165

Rejuvenation of antioxidant system in central nervous system of aged rats by grape seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress is considered as a major risk factor that contributes to age-related increase in lipid peroxidation and declined antioxidants in the central nervous system during aging. Grape seed extract, one of the bioflavonoid, is widely used for its medicinal properties. In the present study, we evaluated the role of grape seed extract on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in

Muthaiya Balu; Purushotham Sangeetha; Dayalan Haripriya; Chinnakannu Panneerselvam

2005-01-01

166

Separation of bioactives from seabuckthorn seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction methodology through solubility parameter approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoids L.) seed oil having high nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and therapeutic activity has been extracted from dried seabuckthorn (SBT) seed powder using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The solubility parameter of SBT actives (tocopherols, lycopene and ?-carotene), CO2, and entrainer solvents was calculated and validated with experimental results. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated in terms

Lalit D. Kagliwal; Sushant C. Patil; Anuradha S. Pol; Rekha S. Singhal; Vandana B. Patravale

2011-01-01

167

Comparison of fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential of extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds have been compared regarding fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) was found to contain the highest oil amount (34%), while the Poncirus trifoliata cultivars contained the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (84–87%). In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts from defatted seeds have been evaluated by

Pierluigi Plastina; Alessia Fazio; Bartolo Gabriele

2012-01-01

168

Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from moringa oleifera seed by salt solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

169

Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.

Sahgal, Geethaa; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mordi, Mohd. Nizam; Ismail, Sabariah; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

2010-01-01

170

Selection of large quantities of embryogenic calli from indica rice seeds for production of fertile transgenic plants using the biolistic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microprojectile bombardment of immature embryos has proven to be effective in transforming many indica rice varieties. One of the drawbacks of using immature embryos is the requirement of a large number of high quality immature embryos, which itself is a tedious and laborious process. To circumvent these problems, we have developed a procedure, using indica variety TN1 as a

Elumalai Sivamani; Ping Shen; Natacha Opalka; Roger N. Beachy; Claude M. Fauquet

1996-01-01

171

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical COâ extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts

E. Reverchon; C. Marrone; M. Poletto; J. Daghero; M. Mattea

1999-01-01

172

A Novel Extraction Method and Some Physicochemical Properties of Extractives of Irvingia Gabonensis seeds  

PubMed Central

The plant Irvingia gabonensis contains lipids and polymer extractives that can be a good source of excipients for oral pharmaceutical formulations. These constituents are usually extracted from the seeds with the aid of either organic solvents or enzymes. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel, simpler, cheaper, and safer method for the simultaneous extraction of lipids and gum from I. gabonensis. A 100.0 g of seeds of I. gabonensis in 200 mL deionized water was heated at 78°C in the presence of 2.0 g sodium chloride for 1 h, and the mixture was allowed to stand for the lipids to be separated and removed by filtration. The samples were air dried at 25–30°C. The liquid fraction was centrifuged at 3445 rpm for 30 min, and the supernatant portion containing the gum was freeze dried. The samples were investigated for their true, bulk, and tapped densities as well as particle size and particle size distributions. The rheological, and near infrared absorption spectra as well as thermal behavior of the samples were also studied. The lipid and the polymeric components of I. gabonensis seeds were successfully extracted simultaneously. The true densities of the fatty and gum components were, respectively, 1.000 and 1.544 g/cm3. The melting point of the fat was 40°C and Tg of the gum was 232°C. These values were similar to those described in the literature for the components using the traditional method, demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of this simple novel method.

Ogaji, Ikoni J; Nan, Anjan; Hoag, Stephen W

2012-01-01

173

?-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica bark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves, Holarrhena antidysenterica bark, Swertia chirata whole plant and Mangifera indica bark were tested (in-vitro) for ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. M. indica extract was found to be the most potent, with an IC50 value of 314 ?g\\/ml.

D. Prashanth; A. Amit; D. S. Samiulla; M. K. Asha; R. Padmaja

2001-01-01

174

Annona squamosa and Catunaregam nilotica Seeds, the Effect of the Extraction Method on the Oil Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annona squamosa and Catunaregam nilotica seeds and oils were characterized for their approximate analysis and physico-chemical properties. The oil and protein contents\\u000a were 26.8, 17.5 and 40.0, 22.2%, in A. squamosa and C. nilotica seeds, respectively. The oils were extracted using cold extraction (CE) and Soxhlet extraction (SE) methods. Fatty acids\\u000a and tocopherols were determined by GC–MS and HPLC, respectively.

Abdalbasit Adam Mariod; Sara Elkheir; Yousif Mohamed Ahmed; Bertrand Matthäus

2010-01-01

175

Optimization of the enzymatic treatment during aqueous oil extraction from sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially dehulled sunflower seeds were subjected to a hydrolytic treatment with cellulases during aqueous processing for oil and protein extraction. Sub-optimal extraction conditions (particle size and separation technology) were established in order to appreciate the potential improvement caused by the enzymatic treatment and to select the best operational conditions. The effects of three operational variables (extraction–treatment time, water\\/seeds ratio and

J Sineiro; H Dom??nguez; M. J Núñez; J. M Lema

1998-01-01

176

Efficacy of crude seed extracts of Annona squamosa against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. in the greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of crude seed extracts of Annona squamosa collected from Ambon (Maluku, Indonesia) against larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., feeding on cabbage. Three greenhouse trials were carried out using aqueous seed extracts and an aqueous emulsion of ethanolic seed extracts. At a concentration of 0.5% (w\\/v), an aqueous emulsion of an

J Audrey Leatemia; Murray B Isman

2004-01-01

177

Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants.  

PubMed

This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various weeds extracts on seed germination of 11 crop species. Most of the weed extracts tested had inhibitory effects on seed germination of common bean, tomato, pepper, squash, onion, barley, wheat, and corn at different application rates as compared with the 10% acetone control. Chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L., and Matricaria chamomilla L. (10%, 20% and 22.5%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. However, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Reseda lutea L. extracts stimulated chickpea seed germination at the rates of 95%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, compared to control. It was concluded that some of the weed extracts tested in this study could be used as inhibitor while others could be used as stimulator for the crops. PMID:16161968

Kadioglu, Izzet; Yanar, Yusuf; Asav, Unal

2005-04-01

178

Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and dose-dependent. The maximum coliform inactivation achieved in any trial was 86%. Fruit extracts were more successful at inactivating total coliforms than faecal coliforms. Seed extracts achieved higher coliform inactivation levels than fruit extracts generally. Overall, the antimicrobial potential of seeds and fruit from L. cylindrica was demonstrated; however the disinfection performance was less than would be required for these extracts to be considered reliable disinfectants for drinking water treatment. PMID:20088208

Shaheed, Ameer; Templeton, Michael R; Matthews, Robert L; Tripathi, Sabitri K; Bhattarai, Kiran

2009-12-01

179

Extraction, fractionation and characterization of bitter melon seed proteins.  

PubMed

Protein fractions (water-soluble/albumin, salt-soluble/globulin, alkali-soluble/glutelin, and alcohol-soluble/prolamin) were extracted from defatted ripe bitter melon seed (Momordica charantia) using water, 1 M sodium chloride solution, alkali/pH 11.0, and 70% ethanol, sequentially. The main protein fraction was albumin (49.3%), followed by globulin (29.3%) and glutelin (3.1%). No prolamin was detected, and 18.3% of the protein was nonextractable. The surface hydrophobicities of albumin, globulin, and glutelin were 757, 1,034, and 292, respectively. The molecular sizes of all the fractions were mostly about 45 and 55 kDa. The denaturation temperatures of albumin, globulin, and glutelin were 111.9, 117.3, and 133.6 degrees C, respectively. The levels of all essential amino acids in the bitter melon protein fractions met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU) with the exception of Thr. Bitter melon protein fractions with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients. PMID:20052973

Horax, Ronny; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Over, Ken; Chen, Pengyin; Gbur, Edward

2010-02-10

180

Protein extraction optimisation, characterisation, and functionalities of protein isolate from bitter melon ( Momordica charantia) seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitter melon seeds are a rich source of protein. Optimum conditions for protein extraction from the seeds, determined using a response surface design, were at a pH 9.0 and 1.3M NaCl. Soy protein isolate (SPI) was included for comparison. Surface hydrophobicity of bitter melon seed protein isolate (BMSPI) (690) was significantly higher than that of SPI (399). Electrophoretograms of BMSPI

Ronny Horax; Navam Hettiarachchy; A. Kannan; Pengyin Chen

2011-01-01

181

A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) have long been used as a herbal medicine for treating metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions. They have been shown to modulate\\u000a feeding behaviour in animals. We have recently observed a selective decrease in fat consumption in healthy normal weight volunteers\\u000a treated with a hydro-alcoholic seed extract. However, strong clinical data on the effects of fenugreek seeds

Hugues Chevassus; Jean-Baptiste Gaillard; Anne Farret; Françoise Costa; Isabelle Gabillaud; Emilie Mas; Anne-Marie Dupuy; Françoise Michel; Caroline Cantié; Eric Renard; Florence Galtier; Pierre Petit

2010-01-01

182

Supercritical fluid extraction of limonoids and naringin from grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi Macf.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limonoids and naringin were extracted from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) seeds by a supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction technique. Prominent limonoids such as limonin and limonin-17-?-d-glucopyranoside (LG) and flavonoid naringin were quantified for process optimization. Extraction was completed in two stages. In stage one less polar limonin was extracted using SC-CO2 while in stage two extraction of high polar LG

Jun Yu; Deepak V. Dandekar; Romeo T. Toledo; Rakesh K. Singh; Bhimanagouda S. Patil

2007-01-01

183

Allelopathic effects of sorghum extracts on Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

With regards to importance and abundance of Amaranthus retroflexus weed in fields an experiment was conducted using CRD based factorial design with three replications to study the allelopathic effects of sorghum extracts on germination and growth of Amaranthus retroflexus in 2008-2009. Treatments were: harvesting stage of extracted sorghum (vegetative, flowering and seed filling stage), extracted plant part (leaf, stem, root

M. Yarnia; M. B. Khorshidi Benam; E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi

2009-01-01

184

Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

185

Effects of podocarp extracts on lettuce seed germination and seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ethanol extracts from 16 of the 17 New Zealand species in the family Podo-carpaceae on the germination of lettuce seeds and hypocotyl elongation are reported. Extracts of both juvenile and adult forms of Halocarpus kirkii and Halocarpus bidwillii were tested. Each extract was tested at three different levels: undiluted, and diluted × 10 and × 10. The

N. B. Perry; L. M. Foster; P. E. Jameson

1995-01-01

186

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-02-01

187

Regulation of inducible adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered expression of cell adhesion molecule expression has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions. Regulation of adhesion molecule expression by specific redox sensitive mechanisms has been reported. Grape seed proanthocyanidins have been reported to have potent antioxidant properties. We evaluated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the expression of TNFa-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression

Chandan K. Sen; Debasis Bagchi

2001-01-01

188

Crude extract of Astragalus mongholicus root inhibits crop seed germination and soil nitrifying activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astragalus mongholicus has been of medicinal use within the traditional Chinese system for centuries. However, little information is available on its allelopathic effects on other crop plants and soil biochemical properties. Field experiment showed that the extracted residues of A. mongholicus root inhibited seed germination of wheat. Inhibition of seed germination was further confirmed in laboratory using the same crude

Jian Mao; Linzhang Yang; Yuming Shi; Jian Hu; Zhe Piao; Lijuan Mei; Shixue Yin

2006-01-01

189

Effects of seed maturity, extraction practices and storage duration on germinability in watermelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field experiment, watermelons (cv. “Sugar Baby”) were grown in the Newe Ya’ar Research Center (northern Israel). Fruits were harvested 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days past anthesis (DPA) and seeds were fermented or not fermented in the extraction procedure. After washing, the seeds were dried either in ambient air or at 40, 20 or 10°C, to form

Haim Nerson

2002-01-01

190

An Algorithm Based on Core Characteristic Extraction of Watermelon Seeds by Automated Separating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algorithm of extracting a series of characteristic values, taking the flat objects, seeds, as the experiment is applied into the auto-distinguishing seeds system software successfully. It fulfills the blank in this area. It shows it is practical for the machine to distinguish the flat objects with the equipment visual. It designs and realizes the new algorithm of the length

YONG SUN; YUN BAI; LIHONG GANG; QIANGGUO PU; NIKOS MASTORAKIS

191

Extraction of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed oil by full pressing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pennycress is currently being developed as an oilseed crop for biofuel production. Pennycress seeds harvested from a field near Peoria, IL, provided our first opportunity to conduct an oil extraction study on a pilot scale. The goals of this study were to determine the effects of seed moisture and c...

192

UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements.

Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

2012-01-01

193

Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous extraction process: Feasibility study and influence of operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an aqueous process to extract sunflower seed oil using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Aqueous extraction was carried out using whole seeds and the influence of the operating conditions on oil yield was examined. Operating conditions included screw profile, screw rotation speed, and input flow rates of sunflower seeds and

Ph. Evon; V. Vandenbossche; P. Y. Pontalier; L. Rigal

2007-01-01

194

A twin-screw extruder for oil extraction: I. Direct expression of oleic sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipids are traditionally removed from seeds by mechanical crushing and solvent extraction. During the mechanical crushing\\u000a process the oilseed is cleaned, cracked, flaked, and cooked before entering a mechanical screw press. Seventy-five percent\\u000a of the oil of sunflower seeds can be extracted by crushing, and the fatty cake then contains about 15% of oil. The oil levels\\u000a remaining in the

Corinne Dufaure; Juliette Leyris; Luc Rigal; Zéphirin Mouloungui

1999-01-01

195

The n-butanolic extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten enhances long-term memory in the passive avoidance task in mice.  

PubMed

Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino (Cactaceae) is used to treat burns, edema, dyspepsia, and asthma in traditional medicine. The present study investigated the beneficial effects of the n-butanolic extract of O. ficus-indica var. saboten (BOF) on memory performance in mice and attempts to uncover the mechanisms underlying its action. Memory performance was assessed with the passive avoidance task, and western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to measure changes in protein expression and cell survival. After the oral administration of BOF for 7 days, the latency time in the passive avoidance task was significantly increased relative to vehicle-treated controls (P<0.05). Western blotting revealed that the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response element binding-protein (pCREB), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) 1/2 were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue after 7 days of BOF administration (P<0.05). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining also revealed that BOF significantly enhanced the survival of immature neurons, but did not affect neuronal cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the subchronic administration of BOF enhances long-term memory, and that this effect is partially mediated by ERK-CREB-BDNF signaling and the survival of immature neurons. PMID:20493231

Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Park, Dong Hyun; Jung, Seo Yun; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Yong Sup; Jin, Changbae; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2010-05-20

196

Anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative effects of a methanolic neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extract are mediated via modulation of the nuclear factor-?B pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azadirachta indica (neem tree) is used in traditional Indian medicine for its pharmacological properties including cancer prevention and treatment.\\u000a Here, we studied a neem extract’s anti-inflammatory potential via the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway, linked\\u000a to cancer, inflammation, and apoptosis. Cultured human leukemia cells were treated with a methanolic neem leaf extract with\\u000a or without tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? stimulation.

Marc Schumacher; Claudia Cerella; Simone Reuter; Mario Dicato; Marc Diederich

2011-01-01

197

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract attenuates oxidant injury in cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

This study sought to test whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) attenuates exogenous and endogenous oxidant stress induced in chick cardiomyocytes and whether this cytoprotection is mediated by PKC activation, mito K(ATP) channel opening, NO production, oxidant scavenging, or iron chelating effects. Cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (exogenous oxidant stress, 0.5mM) or antimycin A (endogenous oxidant stress, 100 micro M) for 2h following pretreatment with GSPE at various concentrations for 2h. Cells were also pretreated with GSPE or with inhibitors of PKC (chelerytherine), mito K(ATP) channel (5-hydroxydecanoate), nitric oxide synthase (nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) for 2h. Oxidant stress was measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and cell viability was assessed using propidium iodide. Free radical scavenging and iron chelating ability was tested in vitro. GSPE dose-dependently attenuated oxidant formation and significantly improved cell survival and contractile function. However, inhibitors of PKC, mito K(ATP) channel or NO synthase failed to abolish the protective action of GSPE during H(2)O(2) or antimycin A exposure. In vitro studies suggested that GSPE scavenges H(2)O(2), hydroxyl radical and superoxide, and may chelate iron. These results indicate that GSPE confers cardioprotection against exogenous H(2)O(2)- or antimycin A-induced oxidant injury. Its effect does not require PKC, mito K(ATP) channel, or NO synthase, presumably because it acts by reactive oxygen species scavenging and iron chelating directly. PMID:12741998

Shao, Zuo-Hui; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Schumacker, Paul T; Li, Chang-Qing; Zhao, Danhong; Wojcik, Kim; Anderson, Travis; Qin, Yimin; Dey, Lucy; Yuan, Chun-Su

2003-06-01

198

Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial efficacy as well as the content of preservative agents of six commercially available grapefruit seed extracts were examined. Five of the six extracts showed a high growth inhibiting activity against the test germs Bacillus subtilis SBUG 14, Micrococcus flavus SBUG 16, Staphylococcus aureus SBUG 11, Serratia marcescens SBUG 9, Escherichia coli SBUG 17, Proteus mirabilis SBUG 47, and Candida maltosa SBUG 700. In all of the antimicrobial active grapefruit seed extracts, the preservative benzethonium chloride was detected by thin layer chromatography. Additionally, three extracts contained the preserving substances triclosan and methyl parabene. In only one of the grapefruit seed extracts tested no preservative agent was found. However, with this extract as well as with several self-made extracts from seed and juiceless pulp of grapefruits (Citrus paradisi) no antimicrobial activity could be detected (standard serial broth dilution assay, agar diffusion test). Thus, it is concluded that the potent as well as nearly universal antimicrobial activity being attributed to grapefruit seed extract is merely due to the synthetic preservative agents contained within. Natural products with antimicrobial activity do not appear to be present. PMID:10399191

von Woedtke, T; Schlüter, B; Pflegel, P; Lindequist, U; Jülich, W D

1999-06-01

199

Effect of Neem Leaf Extract (Azadirachta indica) on c-Myc Oncogene Expression in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells of BALB/c Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women both worldwide and in Malaysia. Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), commonly known as neem, is one of the most versatile medicinal plants that has gained worldwide prominence due to its medicinal properties. However, the anticancer effect of ethanolic neem leaf extract against breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of neem leaf extract on c-Myc oncogene expression in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, A total of 48 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into four groups of 12 mice per group: i.cancer control (CC) treated with 0.5% Tween 20 in PBS, ii. 0.5 µg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT), iii. 250 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C250), and iv. 500 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C500). in situ reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR) was applied to evaluate suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression in breast cancer tissue. Results: The C500 group showed significant (p<0.05) suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression compared to the CC group. Conclusion: c-Myc was found to be down regulated under the effect of 500 mg/kg ethanolic neem leaf extract.

Othman, Fauziah; Motalleb, Gholamreza; Lam Tsuey Peng, Sally; Rahmat, Asmah; Basri, Rusliza; Pei Pei, Chong

2012-01-01

200

Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds  

PubMed Central

Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae) is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screening of antipsoriatic activity of 95% of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds by using mouse tail model for psoriasis and in vitro antipsoriatic activity was carried out by SRB Assay using HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds extract produced a significant epidermal differentiation, from its degree of orthokeratosis (71.36±2.64) when compared to the negative control (17.30±4.09%). This was equivalent to the effect of the standard positive control, tazarotene (0.1%) gel, which showed a (90.03±2.00%) degree of orthokeratosis. The 95% ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa shown IC50 239 ?g/ml, with good antiproliferant activity compared to Asiaticoside as positive control which showed potent activity with IC50 value of 20.13 ?g/ml. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds also showed increase in relative epidermal thickness when compared to control group by confirming its traditional use in psoriasis treatment.

Dwarampudi, Lalitha Priyanka; Palaniswamy, Dhanabal; Nithyanantham, Muruganantham; Raghu, P. S.

2012-01-01

201

Researches and Application of Algorithm on Core Characteristic Extraction for Auto-separating System of Watermelon Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algorithm of extracting a series of characteristic value, taking watermelon seeds as the research object, has been successfully applied into the software system of separating watermelon seeds automatically. By extracting characteristic values, like the length of orthogonal long and minor axis of the watermelon seeds, the proportion between the length and width, the area, the degree of connecting superficial

Sun Yong; Guan Miao; Yu Daoqin; Li Hong Gang

2007-01-01

202

Antitumor-promoting effects of polyphenolic extracts from seedless and seeded Indian grapes.  

PubMed

Grapes, the widely consumed fruits, are rich in polyphenols. The biological and chemopreventive activities of grape seed polyphenols have been demonstrated, while similar information regarding crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components (pulp plus skin, seeds), particularly the seedless varieties, is lacking. Cancer chemoprevention can be achieved by inhibition of either initiation or promotion/progression stages of carcinogenesis. This study involves the determination of the polyphenolic content extracted from green (Pandhari sahebi, Thompson seedless) and black cultivars (Bangalore blue, Sharad seedless) of Indian grapes and their components (whole grapes, pulp plus skin, and seeds). Comparative evaluation of antitumor-promoting effects of seedless and seeded grape polyphenolic extracts (GPEs) was carried out in carcinogen-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted S/RVCri-ba mouse skin and stomach, as well as esophagus of ICRC mice. The yield of crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components varied between 3% and 51%. The total polyphenolic content expressed as mg catechin equivalents/g crude polyphenolic extract ranged from 0.47 to 701 in seeded grapes and 1.49 to 28.30 in seedless varieties. Both seedless and seeded GPEs possessed antitumor-promoting activity in target tissues of mice as is evident from their ability to delay tumor formation along with a significant decrease in tumor multiplicity and incidence. Marked and sustained epidermal hyperplasia observed in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and TPA-promoted mice was greatly reduced on pretreatment with GPE or catechin. The polyphenolic extracts from Sharad seedless and seeds of Bangalore blue showed the strongest suppressing activity comparable to catechin than the corresponding whole grapes. The results suggest that the chemopreventive activity of polyphenols extracted from seedless grape cultivars was as effective as that of the seeded variety and these may have beneficial effects in disease states, especially cancer. PMID:19105538

Ramchandani, Asha G; Karibasappa, Goudar S; Pakhale, Shrirang S

2008-01-01

203

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with supercritical-CO2 (SC-CO2) have been optimized with respect to pressure, temperature, CO2-flow and extraction time in order to selectively obtain the essential oil. Using Soxhlet extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were extracted. From

T. Baysal; D. A. J. Starmans

1999-01-01

204

Extraction of Essential Oils From the Seeds of Pomegranate Using Organic Solvents and Supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, essential oils from pomegranate seeds of the Malas variety from Shahreza, Iran, were extracted using hexane\\u000a and petroleum benzene applying four extraction methods: normal stirring, soxhlet, microwave irradiation, and ultrasonic irradiation.\\u000a Also, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 under different conditions was used for comparison. Different methods of extraction with organic solvents (normal stirring,\\u000a soxhlet, microwave irradiation,

Hajar Abbasi; Karamatollah Rezaei; Ladan Rashidi

2008-01-01

205

Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds (Mangifera oraphila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds (Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine\\/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the crude extracts was measured by monitoring the amount of starch hydrolyzed by the crude extract

C. O. Edeogu

2009-01-01

206

Grape Seed Extract for Control of Human Enteric Viruses ?  

PubMed Central

Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ?7 log10 PFU/ml or ?5 log10 PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (?7 log10 PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log10 PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log10 PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. GSE treatment of low titers (?5 log10 PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety.

Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H.

2011-01-01

207

Characterisation of gold nanoparticles synthesised by leaf and seed extract of Syzygium cumini L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, Syzygium cumini leaf extract (LE) and seed extract (SE) were explored for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNP). LE and SE as well as their polar (water) fractions showed potential for GNP synthesis. Comparative synthesis kinetics and morphological characterisation studies revealed the synthesis of smaller sized GNP by LE than SE. Only polar (water) fractions showed potential for GNP

Vineet Kumar; Sudesh Kumar Yadav

2012-01-01

208

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds aqueous extract was screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activities (reducing power, DPPH and liposome model system) showed a good antioxidant activity. The extract was also found to posses antibacterial activity with a MIC values with respect to Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica found to be 750 and 1000 ppm, respectively. The antioxidant and antimicrobial

Attar Singh Chauhan; Pradeep Singh Negi; Ramesh Shyam Ramteke

2007-01-01

209

Isolation of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside from lignan-containing extract of Linum usitatissimum seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method for obtaining secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) purified of lignan from extract of Linum usitatissimum seeds was proposed. The lignan-containing concentrate obtained by aqueous ethanol extraction with microwave irradiation was\\u000a purified using column chromatography. The structure of the compound was confirmed using IR, mass, and NMR spectra.

O. V. Stasevich; S. G. Mikhalenok; V. P. Kurchenko

2009-01-01

210

Coagulation–flocculation process for POME treatment using Moringa oleifera seeds extract: Optimization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent, POME is an important issue for the minimization of water pollution. The coagulation–flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seeds after oil extraction as natural coagulant is reported for POME treatment in the present study. The important process parameters pH, settling time, M. oleifera (after oil extraction) dosage and flocculant (NALCO 7751) dosage were optimized

Subhash Bhatia; Zalina Othman; Abdul Latif Ahmad

2007-01-01

211

Apple scab control with grapefruit seed extract: no alternative to chemical fungicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The growth inhibiting effect of four commercially available grapefruit seed extracts on the causal organism of apple scabVenturia inaequalis ?? was tested. Germination of the conidia of Venturia inaequalis was pronouncedly inhibited by all tested extracts. The commercial products were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography. All samples contained at least one preserving agent. These

Renate Spitaler; Klaus Marschall; Christian Zidorn; Kelderer Markus

212

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds.  

PubMed

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis. PMID:21237701

Zuk, M; Dymi?ska, L; Kulma, A; Boba, A; Prescha, A; Szopa, J; M?czka, M; Zaj?c, A; Szo?tysek, K; Hanuza, J

2010-12-22

213

Hypoglycemic effect of Mucuna pruriens seed extract on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens was investigated in normal, glucose load conditions and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pririens (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.001) reduced the blood glucose levels after an oral glucose load from 127.5+/-3.2 to 75.6+/-4.8 mg% 2 h after oral administration of seed extract. It also significantly lowered the blood glucose in STZ diabetic rats from 240.5+/-7.2 to 90.6+/-5.6 mg% after 21 days of daily oral administration of the extract (P<0.001). Thus, this study shows that M. pruriens has an anti-hyperglycemic action and it could be a source of hypoglycemic compounds. PMID:18672037

Bhaskar, Anusha; Vidhya, V G; Ramya, M

2008-07-10

214

Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory. PMID:21762099

Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

2011-10-01

215

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

?uk, M.; Dymi?ska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; M?czka, M.; Zaj?c, A.; Szo?tysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

2011-03-01

216

The determination of glucoraphanin in broccoli seeds and florets by solid phase extraction and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust method for the determination of glucoraphanin in broccoli (brassica oleracea ssp. italica ‘Marathon’) seeds and florets has been developed using solid phase extraction (SPE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) as the determinative step. Glucosinolates were extracted from the broccoli seeds and florets with hot water. Unwanted impurities were removed by passing the extracts through C18 and protonated

V. Craige Trenerry; Domenico Caridi; Aaron Elkins; Osaana Donkor; Rod Jones

2006-01-01

217

Inhibition of the mechanical activity of mouse ileum by cactus pear (Opuntia Ficus Indica, L, Mill.) fruit extract and its pigment indicaxanthin.  

PubMed

We investigated, using an organ bath technique, the effects of a hydrophilic extract from Opuntia ficus indica fruit pulp (cactus fruit extract, CFE) on the motility of mouse ileum, and researched the extract component(s) responsible for the observed responses. CFE (10-320 mg of fresh fruit pulp equivalents/mL of organ bath) reduced dose-dependently the spontaneous contractions. This effect was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, a neuronal blocker, N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase blocker, tetraethylammonium, a potassium channel blocker, or atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. CFE also reduced the contractions evoked by carbachol, without affecting the contractions evoked by high extracellular potassium. Indicaxanthin, but not ascorbic acid, assayed at concentrations comparable with their content in CFE, mimicked the CFE effects. The data show that CFE is able to exert direct antispasmodic effects on the intestinal motility. The CFE inhibitory effects do not involve potassium channels or voltage-dependent calcium channels but rather pathways of calcium intracellular release. The fruit pigment indicaxanthin appears to be the main component responsible for the CFE-induced effects. PMID:20518499

Baldassano, S; Tesoriere, L; Rotondo, A; Serio, R; Livrea, M A; Mulè, F

2010-07-14

218

Antifouling activity of the methanolic extract of Syringodium isoetifolium, and its toxicity relative to tributyltin on the ovarian development of brown mussel Perna indica.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated reproductive toxicity and antifouling activity of methanolic extract of seagrass Syringodium isoetifolium (25 ?g/ml) relative to the conventional antifoulant, tributyltin (TBT; 100 ng/l) on the ovarian development of the brown mussel Perna indica. Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and Digestive Gland Index (DGI) of TBT exposed mussels decreased in comparison with mussels exposed to S. isoetifolium extract. Interestingly, mussels treated with S. isoetifolium showed normal cellular architecture in gills, digestive gland, muscle and ovary. However, TBT increased interfilamental space and fusion of the filaments in gills, disruption in the digestive tubules and reduction in basement membrane thickness. Besides in adductor muscle, TBT induced muscle degeneration, and necrotic muscle layer. In ovary, TBT inflicted the fusion of developing oocytes. TBT had significantly retarded the ovarian development and substantially affected the biochemical constituents leading to an impairment of oogenesis as against the null effects noticed from the S. isoetifolium extract treated mussels. On the ground of eco-friendly properties, the seagrass S. isoetifolium could be used as a source for the production of green antifoulant. PMID:23294637

Iyapparaj, P; Revathi, P; Ramasubburayan, R; Prakash, S; Anantharaman, P; Immanuel, G; Palavesam, A

2013-01-04

219

Differences in the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera seeds extracts.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae) seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power. PMID:23493104

Weidner, Stanis?aw; Rybarczyk, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Król, Angelika; Mostek, Agnieszka; Gr?bosz, Joanna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2013-03-14

220

Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract in female albino rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of oral administration of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract on fertility index, uterine weight and various histological and biochemical parameters of uterus were studied in the adult cyclic Wistar rats. Average number of embryos and implantation losses in the pregnant animals treated with dharek seed extract was also studied. The extract was prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on per kg body weight basis. The results indicated a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats treated with the dharek extract. Pre-implantation, post-implantation and total prenatal mortalities were increased in rats treated with dharek seed extract during early (D1-D7) and late (D7-D18) stages of gestation period at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1). Histological studies showed a significant reduction in myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelial cell height in rats treated with dharek seed extract at 1mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1) for 18 days. Pits and folds in luminal epithelial, mitotic activity in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of uterus were observed to be absent. Biochemically, a significant increase in protein and glycogen contents was observed. Thus, in conclusion, the application of this plant extract in rodent control programme may help to elevate the socioeconomic status of the society. PMID:17948733

Mandal, Reshu; Dhaliwal, Patwant Kaur

2007-10-01

221

In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora. Methods The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Conclusions The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants.

Shrestha, Binit; Theerathavaj, M.L. Srithavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

2012-01-01

222

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds.  

PubMed

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds aqueous extract was screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activities (reducing power, DPPH and liposome model system) showed a good antioxidant activity. The extract was also found to possess antibacterial activity with a MIC values with respect to Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica found to be 750 and 1000 ppm, respectively. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the extract implicate its potential for natural preservation. PMID:17651916

Chauhan, Attar Singh; Negi, Pradeep Singh; Ramteke, Ramesh Shyam

2007-07-03

223

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of various seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were successively extracted with chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol (MeOH) using a Soxhlet extractor for 8 h each. The crude extracts were screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The reducing power and antioxidant activities evaluated in various in vitro models (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and liposome model system) showed the highest activity for MeOH extract. The MeOH

P. S. Negi; A. S. Chauhan; G. A. Sadia; Y. S. Rohinishree; R. S. Ramteke

2005-01-01

224

Dormancy break of celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds by plant derived smoke extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy of a highly-dormant cultivar of celery (Apium graveolens L.) was broken by combinations of plant-derived smoke extract or N6-benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellins A4\\/7 (GA4\\/7) in the dark at temperatures between 18 and 26°C. A less dormant cultivar which responded to GA4\\/7 alone showed no additional response to smoke extract or BA. Neither smoke extract nor BA affected either

T. H. Thomas; J. Staden

1995-01-01

225

Antioxidant Activity of Different Extracts of Red Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of three different extracts (ethanolic, chloroformic, and hexanic) of red flesh pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed using free radical scavenging assay, linoleic acid model system, and ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method was determined. Ethanolic extract inhibit 74.76% of free radicals at 1000 ?g\\/mL, while chloroformic extract gave the highest inhibition using linoleic acid model system (98.90% at 100 ?g\\/mL) and

Liana Adnan; Azizah Osman; Azizah Abdul Hamid

2011-01-01

226

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF RED PITAYA (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS) SEED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of three different extracts (ethanolic, chloroformic and hexanic) of red flesh pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed using free radical scavenging assay, linoleic acid model system and ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method was determined. Ethanolic extract inhibit 74.76% of free radicals at 1000 ?g\\/mL while chloroformic extract gave the highest inhibition using linoleic acid model system (98.90% at 100 ?g\\/mL) and

Liana Adnan; Azizah Osman; Azizah Abdul Hamid

2010-01-01

227

Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0moll?1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500ml of low turbid water (50

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

1999-01-01

228

A toxicological investigation of a celery seed extract having anti-inflammatory activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  An extract of the seed from celery (Apium graviolens) (CSE), and fractions thereof, have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity, gastro-protective activity, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. In view of the potential for employing these extracts for therapeutic use, toxicological investigations were undertaken\\u000a with an alcoholic extract (A-CSE) which has previously been shown to have the above pharmacological activities.

M. C. Powanda; K. D. Rainsford

2011-01-01

229

MILKWEED SEED WING REMOVAL TO IMPROVE OIL EXTRACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milkweed is now being grown commercially, mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic filters in pillows and comforters. More recently, the use of milkweed seed oil in soaps and personal care products is being explored. The oil used in this effort was obtained by screw pressing whole...

230

Extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seed kernels by enzyme assisted three phase partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three phase partitioning has been evaluated for extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seeds. This process consisted of simultaneous addition of t-butanol (1:1, v\\/v) and 30% (w\\/v) ammonium sulphate to the slurry prepared from Jatropha seed kernels. Combination of sonication and enzyme treatment with a commercial preparation of fungal proteases at pH 9, led to 97% oil yield within

Shweta Shah; Aparna Sharma; M. N. Gupta

2004-01-01

231

A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) are an old herbal remedy used to treat metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions. They have been shown to modulate feeding\\u000a behaviour in animals, but strong clinical data are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a repeated\\u000a administration of a fenugreek seed extract on energy intake and eating behaviour in healthy

Hugues Chevassus; Nathalie Molinier; Françoise Costa; Florence Galtier; Eric Renard; Pierre Petit

2009-01-01

232

Evaluation of genotoxicity and DNA protective effects of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract.  

PubMed

Mangiferin is a glucosylxantone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark. Several studies have shown its pharmacological properties which make it a promising candidate for putative therapeutic use. This study was focused to investigate the in vitro genotoxic effects of mangiferin in the Ames test, SOS Chromotest and Comet assay. The genotoxic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes from NMRI mice orally treated with mangiferin (2000 mg/kg) were also evaluated. Additionally, its potential antimutagenic activity against several mutagens in the Ames test and its effects on CYP1A1 activity were assessed. Mangiferin (50-5000 ?g/plate) did not increased the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test, nor induced primary DNA damage (5-1000 ?g/mL) to Escherichia coli PQ37 cells under the SOS Chromotest. It was observed neither single strand breaks nor alkali-labile sites in blood peripheral lymphocytes or hepatocytes after 1h exposition to 10-500 ?g/mL of mangiferin under the Comet assay. Furthermore, micronucleus studies showed mangiferin neither induced cytotoxic activity nor increased the frequency of micronucleated/binucleated cells in mice bone marrow. In short, mangiferin did not induce cytotoxic or genotoxic effects but it protect against DNA damage which would be associated with its antioxidant properties and its capacity to inhibit CYP enzymes. PMID:22749943

Rodeiro, I; Hernandez, S; Morffi, J; Herrera, J A; Gómez-Lechón, M J; Delgado, R; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J

2012-06-27

233

Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells  

PubMed Central

We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment.

Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

2013-01-01

234

[Effects of Larix gmelini aqueous extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of Juglans mandshurica].  

PubMed

In this study, Juglans mandshurica seeds were drenched in different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 g x kg(-1)) aqueous extracts from adult Larix gmelini root, bark, branch and leaf for one week, and cultured in greenhouse in mid-April, 2004. The germination rate and germination index were calculated 18 days later, and the seedling's height and collar diameter were measured on August 1st. The results suggested that 25 g x kg(-1) root and 12.5 g x kg(-1) bark and branch aqueous extracts of L. gmelini could significantly increase the seed germination rate and germination index of J. mandshurica (P < 0.05), and 12.5 g x kg(-1) root and bark aqueous extracts could significantly increase the seedling height and collar diameter (P < 0.05). High concentrations of L. gmelini leaf aqueous extract could significantly promote the seed germination and seedling growth of J. mandshurica, but the promotion effect decreased gradually with decreasing concentration of leaf aqueous extract. The promotion of L. gmelini aqueous extracts to J. mandshurica seed germination and seedling growth might be related to the allelopathy between these two tree species. PMID:16964959

Yang, Lixue

2006-06-01

235

In vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.  

PubMed

Bixa orellana L. (annatto), from Bixaceae family, is a native plant of tropical America, which accumulates several carotenoids (including bixin and norbixin), terpenoids, tocotrienols and flavonoids with potential antioxidant activity. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated and compared to the bixin standard. Annatto extracts were obtained using solvents with different polarities and their phenolic compounds and bixin levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. All annatto extracts were able to scavenge all the reactive species tested at the low ?g/mL range, with the exception of superoxide radical. The ethanol:ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate extracts of annatto seeds, which presented the highest levels of hypolaetin and bixin, respectively, were the extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity, although bixin standard presented the lowest IC(50) values. PMID:23140681

Chisté, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Gomes, Ana; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José Luís Fontes da Costa; Bragagnolo, Neura

2011-01-08

236

Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

2012-04-14

237

Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.  

PubMed

American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed. PMID:20411504

Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

238

Sunflower seed protein concentrates and isolates obtention from ethanol oil extraction meals--(technical note).  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study and identify the necessary processing steps for obtaining good quality sunflower seed protein concentrate and isolate when the oil is extracted with ethanol. This work is part of a research project on using ethanol as renewable solvent for sunflower seed oil recovery and possible further processing of the meal. Both 99 degrees GL and 90 degrees GL ethanol were employed in the extractions to produce the concentrate. Isolates were obtained by treating the concentrate with NaOH and HCl solutions and final rinsing with acidified water. Both products were light in color and almost free from chlorogenic acid. PMID:7717804

Regitano-d'Arce, M A; Gutierrez, E M; Lima, U de A

1994-03-01

239

Effects of aqueous extracts of Paeonia decomposita seeds on germination and some metabolic activities associated with growth of wheat seedlings.  

PubMed

Paeonia decomposita is a perennial deciduous shrub with great ornamental and medicinal values. Unfortunately, the distribution region, population size and individual numbers of P. decomposita rapidly decrease in the wild. It is a particularly rare, highly endangered, protective plant endemic to Southwest China. To understand the causes of seed dormancy of P. decomposita, the effects of aqueous extracts of the seed coat, endosperm of P. decomposita on germination, seedling growth and amylases activities of wheat seeds were examined in this paper. The results showed that the seed, especially the endosperm tissue of P. decomposita contained substances that strongly suppressed seed germination. The crude extract of endosperm of P. decomposita, which significantly reduced the activities of ? and ?-amylase, showed a more significant inhibition than that of seed coat at the same dose. It was concluded that the presence of inhibitory substances in seed, especially in endosperm tissue, seem to be responsible for P. decomposita seed dormancy. PMID:22963917

Song, Hui-Xing; Liu, Guang-Li; Chen, Qi-Bing

2012-09-01

240

Antihyperlipidemic effect of methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of a methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds fed to mice in a hypercholesterolemic diet. Acute toxicity of the methanolic extract was investigated by an established method. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and DPPH, respectively. The total phenolic content of Opuntia joconostle seeds was 47.85?±?1.29 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The main phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin, rutin, and cafeic acid. Percent inhibition of DPPH? was 49.76?±?0.49 %. The oral LD?? for the methanolic extract from the Opuntia joconostle seeds was >5,000 mg/kg BW. Mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for six days exhibited significantly (P???0.001) higher plasma lipid levels than mice fed a normal diet. Remarkably, supplementation with methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle at doses of 1, 2, and 5 g/kg body weight significantly (P???0.001) prevented the increase in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides level, and atherogenic index. Similar concentrations of the HDL cholesterol were observed in both treated and control groups. A significant dose-dependent reduction in lipid levels was noted for treated groups compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. We attribute this result to the seeds' phenolic composition. This methanolic extract has potential to be included in short-term hypercholesterolemia treatment regimens as it exhibits hypolipidemic activity with no apparent toxic manifestations. PMID:23135897

Osorio-Esquivel, Obed; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Alvarez, Valente B; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores

2012-12-01

241

Differential extraction of eleostearic acid-rich lipid-protein complexes in tung seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid-protein complexes were identified in the 104,000×g supernatant fraction of developing tung seeds. Incubation of this fraction with linoleoyl-CoA promoted an increase of chloroform-extractable\\u000a lipids in a time-dependent manner. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the extracted lipids were\\u000a similar to mature tung oil triglycerides. Differential extraction using chloroform or chloroform\\/methanol indicated that linoleoyl-CoA\\u000a promoted extraction of pre-existing lipids rather

John M. Dyer; Fuqiang Tang; Dorselyn C. Chapital; Alan R. Lax; Hurley S. Shepherd; Ding S. Shih; Armand B. Pepperman

1998-01-01

242

Biosynthesis of Au nanoparticles using cumin seed powder extract.  

PubMed

Cumin seed was investigated for synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Polydispersed particles were obtained at pH 3 and 30 degrees C, and the effect of temperature and pH on synthesis of gold nanoparticles was analyzed. TEM images showed that amount of platelets formed were predominant at lower temperature where as more number of monodispersed spherical particle of size 1-10 nm were perceived at high temperatures. The gold nanoparticles particles formed at higher pH were stable, uniform and spherical in shape. XPS analysis showed the presence of pure gold nanoparticles. PMID:21456298

Sneha, Krishnamurthy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Lee, Shi Yn; Bae, Min A; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

2011-02-01

243

Inhibitory action of neem aqueous extract (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.  

PubMed

The present study revealed unheard of data about the action of aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, proving that these extracts in 10 and 20% concentrations do not have the potential to kill the females; however, in lower concentrations (10%) provokes great morphological alterations in germinative cells such as the emergence of extended cytoplasmic vacuolization areas as well as the fragmentation of the germinal vesicle, even in those oocytes which were in initial stages of development (I-III), showing that neem is a potent agent which acts impeding one of the main metabolic stages of the ticks, i.e., the reproduction. In oocytes in final stages of development (IV-V) azadirachtin (neem's active principle) caused significant reduction in the size and quantity of proteic granules of the yolk and the inversion of their localization where the smaller granules before inside the cell (normal oocyte) were posteriorly observed in the periphery, and the bigger ones in the central region. Thus, the study showed that the alterations found both in the oocytes and in the pedicel cells indicated that azadirachtin acts on the process of tick's reproduction and signalizes that this plant can be used in the future to control ticks with the advantage of not being aggressive to nontarget organism or the environment. Furthermore, data here obtained showed that the most significant efficiency of the aqueous extract of neem is related to the concentration of 10%, proving that higher doses would not be so efficient. PMID:21936022

Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel

2010-12-30

244

Effect of straw extract on water absorption and germination of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. variety RR21) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Freshly prepared straw extract inhibited wheat seed germination by about 18 per cent but did not affect water absorption by germinating wheat seeds. The maximum germination inhibition (47 per cent) was noticed with extract of straw rotted for 15 days. The germination inhibitory effect of rotting straw was over at 31 days of straw rotting.

P. C. Srivastava; N. G. Totey; Om Prakash

1986-01-01

245

Research and Application of Algorithm Based on Core Characteristic Extraction of Watermelon Seeds by Automated Separating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algorithm of extracting a series of characteristic value, taking watermelon seeds as the research object, has been successfully applied into the software system of separating watermelon seeds automatically. It has been proven that it is practical for humans to be replaced by machine. By extracting characteristic values like the length of orthogonal long and minor axis of the watermelon

YONG SUN; YUN BAI; LIHONG GANG; QIANGGUO PU; NIKOS MASTORAKIS

2007-01-01

246

Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of Grape Seed Extract and Fruits Containing High B-Carotene, Vitamin C and E  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of a potent antioxidant, grape seed extract and fruits containing high ?-carotene, vitamin C and E was measured and compared by DPPH and FRAP assay. The results showed that antioxidant activity of 20 mg capsule of grape seed extract was approximately 10 to 20 times greater than one gram of tomato, papaya, banana, and mango. However, if antioxidant

Piyada Songsermsakul; Endo Pornphairin; Supatra Porasuphatana

2012-01-01

247

Impact of legume seed extracts on degradation and functional properties of gelatin from unicorn leatherjacket skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypsin inhibitor was extracted from the seed flour of soybean (SB; Glycine max), mung bean (MB; Vigna radiata), cowpea bean (CP; Vigna unguiculata) and adzuki bean (AB; Vigna angularis) using 0.15M NaCl, followed by heat precipitation at 70°C. The extract from SB showed the highest specific trypsin inhibitory activity, followed by those from MB, CP and AB, respectively. Based on

Mehraj Ahmad; Soottawat Benjakul

2011-01-01

248

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds as a natural antioxidant. The DPPH activity of the extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200?g\\/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 38.93–74.77% as compared to ascorbic acid (64.26–82.58%). The IC50 values of

Shruti Shukla; Archana Mehta; Jinu John; Siddharth Singh; Pradeep Mehta; Suresh Prasad Vyas

2009-01-01

249

Supercritical fluid extraction of sunflower seed oil with CO 2 -ethanol mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ethanol addition to supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), up to 20%, on sunflower seed oil extraction over the range of 150 to 350 bars and 42 to 80C was studied. A nonrecirculating\\u000a home-made bench-scale system was used as extraction equipment. The oil-SC-CO2-ethanol mixture was reduced to atmospheric pressure in a test tube, where two phases, oil and ethanol,

María José Cocero; Lourdes Calvo

1996-01-01

250

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

2011-01-01

251

Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits mouse skin papillomagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to elucidate the inhibitory potential of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract on mouse skin papillomagensis with the modulatory influence of biotransformation system enzymes. Topical application of Momordica whole fruit extract (100 ?l\\/animal per day) during the peri-initiation stage (1 week before and 2 weeks after initiation) by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)

Anjali Singh; Satya Prakash Singh; Ramesh Bamezai

1998-01-01

252

Standardisation and physicochemical characterisation of the extracts of seeds of Glinus lotoides.  

PubMed

Extraction methods were standardised for saponin-containing extracts from the seeds of Glinus lotoides and the effects of some extraction process variables, such as the extracting solvent (various concentrations of methanol in water) and method of extract drying (freeze-drying and vacuum oven-drying), on the physical properties of the extracts were investigated. Physicochemical properties, namely particle size and size distribution, morphology, water uptake profiles and sorption isotherms, densities, flow properties and compaction profiles, of the crude dry extracts of 60% methanol (extract A), 70% methanol (extract B) and 80% methanol (extract C) were investigated. The average particle sizes (X50) of extracts A, B and C were found to be 68.4, 92.1 and 68.5 microm, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs of freeze-dried and vacuum oven-dried extract A showed that the particles are irregular in shape and are compact masses with sharp edges. The percent water uptake by the crude extracts was found to increase with an increase in relative humidities, while the hygroscopicity increased with decreasing methanol ratio of the extracting solvent. The bulk and the true densities of the three extracts (A, B and C) ranged from 0.66 to 0.67 and 1.49 to 1.50 g/ml, respectively. The tapped density (0.94 g/ml) and hence the porosity (56.0%), Carr's index (29.8%) and Hausner ratio (1.42) of extract A were greater than those of extracts B and C. Measurements of angle of repose indicated that all of the extracts exhibit poor flow properties. Compaction studies revealed that extract C has higher compactibility than extracts A and B. PMID:14964419

Endale, A; Schmidt, P C; Gebre-Mariam, T

2004-01-01

253

In vivo assessment of genotoxic effects of Annona squamosa seed extract in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread use of pesticides represents a potential risk to human and environmental health. Hence, biopesticides from plants are some of the future strategies for plant protection. In this regard, a seed extract of Annona squamosa was prepared and found to be a promising pesticide. In order to establish the inherent toxicity and non-target safety required for registration and marketing of

Paramjit Grover; S. P. Singh; P. V. Prabhakar; Utkarsh A. Reddy; A. Balasubramanyam; M. Mahboob; M. F. Rahman; Sunil Misra

2009-01-01

254

Grape Seed Extract to Improve Liver Function in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Change  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Therapeutic interventions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are limited, while antioxidative materials have shown benefi ts in animal models. This study aimed to evaluate grape seed extract as an anti-oxidative material in this process. Therapeutic effects of grape seed extract were evaluated in comparison to vitamin C in a double-blind setting. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients were enrolled in each group. Liver function tests were done; also, grade of steatosis and pattern of echogenicity of the liver were determined. Patients were followed up by the same evaluation repeated in first, second and third months. Results: Mean age ± standard deviation was 43.2 ± 10.3 years. Grape seed extract (GSE) significantly improved the grade of fatty liver change; and resulted in significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase in patients receiving the concentrate compared to those receiving vitamin C independently, from the initial grade of steatosis. Conclusions: This study describes the beneficial effect of using grape seed extract for three months in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. These results may improve with a longer period of follow-up.

Khoshbaten, Manouchehr; Aliasgarzadeh, Akbar; Masnadi, Koorosh; Farhang, Sara; Tarzamani, Mohammad K.; Babaei, Hosain; Kiani, Javad; Zaare, Maryam; Najafipoor, Farzad

2010-01-01

255

Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the antioxidant activity of water and ethanol extracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed (FS) was evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including total antioxidant, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, metal chelating activities and reducing power. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and

Münir Oktay; ?lhami Gülçin; Ö. ?rfan Küfrevio?lu

2003-01-01

256

Dehulling of Cuphea PSR23 Seeds to Reduce Color of the Extracted Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oil extracted from the seeds Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid hybrid from C. viscosissima x C. lanceolata, by screw-pressing contained 200-360 ppm of chlorophyll. A high amount of bleaching clay was needed during refining to remove the chlorophyll in the oil. In this paper, dehu...

257

Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases including congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. We have demonstrated that IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) provides superior antioxidant efficacy as compared to Vitamins C, E and ?-carotene. A series of studies were

Debasis Bagchi; Chandan K Sen; Sidhartha D Ray; Dipak K Das; Manashi Bagchi; Harry G Preuss; Joe A Vinson

2003-01-01

258

Nigella sativa (black cumin) seed extract alleviates symptoms of allergic diarrhea in mice, involving opioid receptors.  

PubMed

The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa-(U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy. PMID:22768141

Duncker, Swantje C; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

2012-06-29

259

Haematopoetic effect of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (grape fruit) in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the blood-forming effects of (100% methanol seed extract) of Citrus paradisi Macfad in adult Wistar rats for 30 days as a way of evaluat- ing its traditional use in the treatment of blood deficiencies. Acute oral toxicity study was also conducted using limit dose test of the Up and Down Procedure statistical program

A. A. Adeneye

260

Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit

Valerio Spinosi; Primula Semprini; Vincenzo Langella; Giampiero Scortichini; Silvano Calvarese

261

Antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Diospyros lotus seeds.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective effects of Diospyros lotus seeds extract in experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant potential of Diospvyos lotus seeds extract was examined by employing seven in vito models i.e., DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activity, iron ion chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation through linoleic acid. Antihemolytic activity of extract was examined against hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocytes hemolysis. Also, nephroprotective effect of extract against gentamicin (GM)-induced renal injury was evaluated. Renal injury was achieved by injecting 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) of GM in normal saline. Extracts were administrated i.p. in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood samples were examined for serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after 10 consecutive days of treatment. Results show that extract showed different level of antioxidant and antihemolytic activity in the studied models. Also, results show that GM-induced nephrotoxic animal model was successfully constructed. Extract attenuated the gentamicin-induced increase in level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The present study shows that the extract offered significant biological action compared with standard compound. PMID:22876611

Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bigdellou, Rata; Mohammadzadeh, Sakineh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

262

Anthelmintic activities of chloroform and methanol extracts of Buchholzia coriacea Engler seed.  

PubMed

The anthelmintic potentials of the chloroform and methanol extracts of Buchholzia coriacea Engler seed were investigated. In folklore medicine, B. coriacea (Capparidaceae) is believed to be useful in the treatment of various kinds of ailments and diseases. At doses of 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, the extracts were tested against Eudrilus eugeniae (earthworm) and Bunostomum phlebotomum (cattle hookworm). The extracts exhibited dose-dependent anthelmintic effects on the earthworms and hookworms. The methanol extract at 50 mg/kg was the most active extract against the helminths, and the activity of the methanol extract was not significantly different from that of piperazine hydrate (reference drug, 10 mg/kg) against the earthworms. PMID:21344210

Fred-Jaiyesimi, Adediwura A; Adepoju, Adeola; Egbebunmi, Oluwatosin

2011-02-23

263

Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

2013-06-01

264

Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.  

PubMed

The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses. PMID:23652639

Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

2013-05-07

265

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars  

PubMed Central

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.

Gozlekci, Sadiye; Saracoglu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

2011-01-01

266

Inhibitory effects of neem seed oil and its extract on various direct acting and activation-dependant mutagens-induced bacterial mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), commonly called neem is a plant native to the Indian sub-continent. Neem oil extracted from the seeds of neem tree has shown promising medicinal properties. Objective: To investigate the possible anti-mutagenic activity of neem seed oil (NO) and its dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extract (NDE) on the mutagenicity induced by various direct acting and activation-dependant mutagens. Materials and methods: The possible anti-mutagenic activity of NO (100-10?000?µg/plate) and NDE (0.1-1000?µg/plate) as well as the mechanism of anti-mutagenic activity was studied in an in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Results: NSO and NDE inhibited the mutagenic activity of methyl glyoxal (MG), in which case the extent of inhibition ranged from 65 to 77% and against 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (NQNO); it showed a 48-87% inhibition in the non-toxic doses. Similar response of NSO and NDE was seen against the activation-dependant mutagens aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, 48-88%), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P, 31-85%), cyclophosphamide (CP, 66-71%), 20-methylcholanthrane (20-MC, 37-83%) and acridine orange (AO, 39-72%) in the non-toxic doses. Mechanism-based studies indicated that NDE exhibits better anti-mutagenic activity in the pre- and simultaneous-treatment protocol against MG, suggesting that one or several active phytochemicals present in the extract covalently bind with the mutagen and prevent its interaction with the genome. Discussion and conclusion: These findings demonstrate that neem oil is capable of attenuating the mutagenic activity of various direct acting and activation-dependant mutagens. PMID:23998188

Vijayan, Vinod; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Meshram, Ghansham Pundilikji

2013-09-02

267

Anticoagulant effect of polyphenols-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Blood coagulation consists of a series of zymogens that can be converted by limited proteolysis to active enzymes leading to the generation of thrombin. Fresh plasma and human thrombin was incubated with extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5; 5; 50 ?g/ml). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts prolonged clotting time and decreased the maximal velocity of fibrin polymerization in human plasma. Moreover thrombin incubation with both extracts results in the inhibition of amidolytic activity of this enzyme. It gives hopes for development of diet supplements, which may be preventing thrombosis in pathological states. PMID:21596108

Bijak, Micha?; Bobrowski, Mateusz; Borowiecka, Marta; Pods?dek, Anna; Gola?ski, Jacek; Nowak, Pawe?

2011-05-06

268

alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica bark.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves, Holarrhena antidysenterica bark, Swertia chirata whole plant and Mangifera indica bark were tested (in-vitro) for alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. M. indica extract was found to be the most potent, with an IC(50) value of 314 microg/ml. PMID:11543970

Prashanth, D; Amit, A; Samiulla, D S; Asha, M K; Padmaja, R

2001-08-01

269

Insecticidal and Repellent Properties of Subtropical Plant Extracts Against Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of eight plants local to Oman, namely Qarat (Acacia nilotica), Mustafal (Annona squamosa), Shereesh (Azadirachta indica), Luban (Boswellia sacra), Kheshkhash (Crotolaria juncea), Zebrot (Jatropha dhofarica) Yas, (Myrtus communis) and Suwwad (Suaeda aegyptiaca) were prepared by steeping shaded dried leaf\\/seed powder of each plant in water and solvent (methanol or ethanol). The extracts were tested for their insecticidal and repellent

H. T. Al Lawati; K. M. Azam; M. L. Deadman

270

Anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative effects of a methanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract are mediated via modulation of the nuclear factor-?B pathway.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica (neem tree) is used in traditional Indian medicine for its pharmacological properties including cancer prevention and treatment. Here, we studied a neem extract's anti-inflammatory potential via the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway, linked to cancer, inflammation, and apoptosis. Cultured human leukemia cells were treated with a methanolic neem leaf extract with or without tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? stimulation. Inhibition of NF-?B activity was demonstrated by luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Inhibition of viability by neem extracts was assessed by luminescent assays. Western blot analysis allowed assessing the inhibitory effect of the neem extract on TNF-?-induced degradation of inhibitor of ?B (I?B) and nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p50/p65 heterodimer. Inhibition of I?B kinase (IKK) activity was shown as well as the effect of neem extract on the induction of apoptotic cell death mechanisms by nuclear fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry analysis. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for a strong effect of the neem extract on pro-inflammatory cell signaling and apoptotic cell death mechanisms, contributing to a better understanding of the mechanisms triggered by Azadirachta indica. PMID:21484152

Schumacher, Marc; Cerella, Claudia; Reuter, Simone; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

2010-12-14

271

Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation.

Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

2012-01-01

272

Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells.  

PubMed

Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

2012-05-13

273

A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract.  

PubMed

Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation. We report a case of intoxication following intentional ingestion of P. harmala seed infusion; P. harmala seeds were bought over the Internet. The harmala alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the seed extract and the patient's urine. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of P. harmala intoxication corroborated by toxicological findings. PMID:18603389

Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Zancanaro, Flavio; Fazzin, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

2008-07-07

274

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 ?m/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 ?m/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 ?m/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

2013-05-14

275

Antibacterial effect of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) leaf extract against antibiotic sensitive and multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Alternative herbal medicine has been used to treat various infections from centuries. Natural plants contain phytoconstituents having similar chemical properties as of synthetic antibiotics. Typhoid fever is a serious infection and failure of its treatment emerged multi-drug resistant (MDR) bugs of Salmonella typhi. Due to multiple and repeated issues with antibiotics efficacy, it became essential to evaluate biological properties of plants from different geographical origins. Mango leaves have been Reported for various medicinal effects like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihelminthic, antidiabetic and antiallergic etc. Objective of present study was to investigate anti-typhoid properties of acetone mango leaf extract (AMLE) against antibiotic sensitive and MDR S. typhi isolates. A total of 50 isolates of S. typhi including MDR (n=30) and antibiotic sensitive (n=20) were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC14028) were used as quality control strains. AMLE was prepared and its antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion screening method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), by agar dilution technique. Zone of inhibition (mm) of AMLE against MDR and antibiotic sensitive isolates was 18±1.5mm (Mean±S.D). Zone of S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and S. typhimurium (ATCC14028) was 20±1.5mm (Mean±S.D). MIC of AMLE was Reported in range from 10-50 mg/ml. The present study described the inhibitory effects of mango leaves against S. typhi. PMID:23811447

Hannan, Abdul; Asghar, Samra; Naeem, Tahir; Ikram Ullah, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Aneela, Syeda; Hussain, Shabbir

2013-07-01

276

Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.  

PubMed

The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. PMID:19448924

Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

277

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

1999-08-01

278

Antioxidant extraction from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal using high-intensity ultrasound.  

PubMed

Brassicaceae oilseeds provide feedstocks for the biofuels industry, but value-added coproducts are necessary to supply financial incentives for increased production. Our objective was to use high-intensity ultrasound to optimize extraction of antioxidants from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables included temperature, solvent-to-material ratio, sonication duration, and EtOH concentration. Extracts were analyzed for total phenolics content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and sinapine content. Conventional extraction using water and 70% EtOH (v/v) at 80 °C for 3×30 min yielded 7.83 ± 0.07 and 8.81 ± 0.17 mg sinapic acid equivalents (SAE)/g meal, respectively. UAE extraction at 40 °C for 30 min yielded similar phenolics content (8.85 ± 0.33 mg SAE/g meal) as conventional hot ethanolic extraction, but required less time and lower temperature. The highest TPC (13.79 ± 0.38 mg SAE/g meal) was in the 7-d aqueous extracts. Sonicated solutions of pure sinapine and sinapic acid showed 1st-order reaction kinetics with greater degradation of isolated compounds than those present in extracts. Sinapine contained in extracts showed insignificant (P < 0.05) degradation after 30 min of sonication. Our research indicates that ultrasound treatment can assist the extraction of antioxidants from B. juncea meal by reducing both the temperature and time requirement without significant degradation of the primary antioxidants present. PMID:23488824

Dubie, Jeremiah; Stancik, Aaron; Morra, Matthew; Nindo, Caleb

2013-03-11

279

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

2011-01-30

280

Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

2011-01-01

281

Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.

Parimala, Mabel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

2013-01-01

282

Wound healing activity of Opuntia ficus-indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic extract of Opuntia ficus-indica stems and its hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats. The extract and less polar fractions showed significant effects.

E.-H. Park; M.-J. Chun

2001-01-01

283

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

284

Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation.  

PubMed

Many protein misfolding diseases, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in an amyloid fibrillar form. Natural products which inhibit fibril formation are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In this study we have shown, using in vitro thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy, that grape seed extract inhibits fibril formation of kappa-casein (?-CN), a milk protein which forms amyloid fibrils spontaneously under physiological conditions. Among the components of grape seed extract, gallic acid was the most active component at inhibiting ?-CN fibril formation, by stabilizing ?-CN to prevent its aggregation. Concomitantly, gallic acid significantly reduced the toxicity of ?-CN to pheochromocytoma12 cells. Furthermore, gallic acid effectively inhibited fibril formation by the amyloid-beta peptide, the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease. It is concluded that the gallate moiety has the fibril-inhibitory activity. PMID:24157371

Liu, Yanqin; Pukala, Tara L; Musgrave, Ian F; Williams, Danielle M; Dehle, Francis C; Carver, John A

2013-10-01

285

Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions. PMID:23743034

Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

2013-04-13

286

Anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea Linn. seeds in rats.  

PubMed

Celosia argentea Linn. commonly known as "Cocks Comb" and its seeds are widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of an alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea seeds (ACAS) on blood glucose and body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ACAS was found to reduce the increase of blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (27.8% at 250 mg/kg and 38.8% at 500 mg/kg body weight). Chronic administration of ACAS significantly (p<0.01) reduced the blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for two weeks. Also the extract prevented a decrease in body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that the ACAS possesses anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:11995938

Vetrichelvan, Thangarasu; Jegadeesan, Maniappan; Devi, Bangaru Adigalar Uma

2002-04-01

287

Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma by Litchi Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

The Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit products possess rich amounts of flavanoids and proanthocyanidins. Its pericarp has been shown to inhibit breast and liver cancer cell growth. However, the anticolorectal cancer effect of Litchi seed extract has not yet been reported. In this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract (LCSP) on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines Colo320DM and SW480 were examined. The results demonstrated that LCSP significantly induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. LCSP also suppressed cyclins and elevated the Bax?:?Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. This study provides in vitro evidence that LCSP serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer.

Hsu, Chih-Ping; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Chiu-Chen; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chou, Jyh-Ching; Tsia, Yu-Ting; Su, Jhih-Rou; Chung, Yuan-Chiang

2012-01-01

288

Application of response surface methodology to optimize microwave-assisted extraction of silymarin from milk thistle seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is an excellent source of silymarin used as an antioxidant. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was employed to extract silymarin from milk thistle seeds. The effects of four independents variables in terms of extraction time, temperature, ethanol concentration, and solid–liquid ratio on the silymarin yield were determined and the optimal conditions for silymarin were evaluated by means

Xianzhe Zheng; Xin Wang; Yubin Lan; John Shi; Sophia Jun Xue; Chenghai Liu

2009-01-01

289

Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study.  

PubMed

It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae) using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and ?-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC(50) value 157.4 ?g/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC(50) value 61.9 ?g/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC(50) value 64.32 ?g/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC(50) value 58.87 ?g/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract). Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22247894

Jana, Kishalay; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

2011-10-01

290

The phosphatides of safflower seeds involved in color formation occurring in extracted and heated crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on crude safflower oils have established that three phosphatides extracted with the oil from the kernel of the seed\\u000a are responsible for color formation. The phosphatides have been isolated and identified as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE),\\u000a phosphatidylmyoinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Phosphatidylethanolamine was the most potent contributor to color\\u000a formation, followed by phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. The color-forming compounds were separated from

H. J. Burkhardt

1970-01-01

291

Sunflower seed extract enhances the differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is recognised as one of the major hormonal deficiency diseases, especially in menopausal women and the elderly. The present study investigated whether treatment with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed extract (SSE) may affect the function of MC3T3-E1 osteogenic cells. In order to determine the growth and differentiation of osteoblast, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen

Eun Mi Choi

2012-01-01

292

Effect of Grape Seed Extracts on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Corn Chips during Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of grape seed extracts (GSE) on lipid oxidation of corn chips stored for 90 days in\\u000a comparison to tert-butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate chemical analysis results showed that corn chips contained low moisture contents (less\\u000a than 2%) and also that no significant differences were found in the dry matter values in ash, fat, protein, and fiber. Antioxidant\\u000a activity

Taha M. Rababah; Sevil Yücel; Khalil I. Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Wade Yang; Khalid Ismaeal

2011-01-01

293

A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (?max=343±2nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in

H. M. Kwaambwa; R. Maikokera

2007-01-01

294

Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate by coagulation\\/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among other natural flocculant\\/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation\\/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin–Fowler–Guggenheim (FFG) and

J. Beltrán-Heredia; J. Sánchez-Martín

2009-01-01

295

Coagulation Mechanism of Salt Solution-Extracted Active Component in Moringa oleifera Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC–pc) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-pc tap water formed insoluble matters. This formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-pc was added into distilled water. The

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

296

Physiological and biochemical responses of grapefruit seed extract dip on ‘Redglobe’ grape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Redglobe) were immersed in 1gL?1 grapefruit seed extract (GSE) for 60s at 15°C and then stored at 2±1°C, and the related physiological effects were investigated. The results showed that GSE treatment lowered the respiration rate and ethylene evolution in the whole cluster. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) were increased and

Wen-Tao Xu; Xiao-li Peng; Yun-Bo Luo; Jin-ai Wang; Xing Guo; Kun-Lun Huang

2009-01-01

297

Evaluation of grapefruit seed extract as natural fungicide to control apple scab in organic apple growing  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper

Marc Trapman

298

Mechanism of the endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by a grape seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

GSEs (grape seed extracts) which contain polyphenolic compounds cause an endothelium- dependent relaxation of blood vessels. The aim of the present study was to examine the mech- anisms involved in this response. A well-characterized GSE was applied to rabbit aortic rings sus- pended in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit buffer maintained at 37 ?C. In aortic rings pre-contacted with noradrenaline (norepinephrine),

Indika Edirisinghe; Britt Burton-Freeman

2008-01-01

299

Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aegle marmelos Corr. (Rutaceae) is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos seeds was administered orally at different doses (100, 250 and 500mg\\/kg) to normal as well as sub (fasting blood glucose (FBG) normal; glucose tolerance abnormal) and mild (FBG 120–250mg\\/dl) diabetic rats. The dose of 250mg\\/kg was found

Achyut Narayan Kesari; Rajesh Kumar Gupta; Santosh Kumar Singh; Sandhya Diwakar; Geeta Watal

2006-01-01

300

Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty heavily lice-infested male and female children (4–15 years) were selected and subjected to the treatment with a neem seed extract shampoo. Twenty to thirty milliliter of the shampoo were thoroughly mixed with completely wet hair and rubbed in to reach the skin of the scalp. After 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, the shampoo was washed out and the hair basically

Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Margit Semmler

2007-01-01

301

Mangifera indica L. extract and mangiferin modulate cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. (MSBE) has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. In previous studies, we showed that MSBE and mangiferin, its main component, lower the activity of some cytochrome P-450 (P450) enzymes in rat hepatocytes and human liver microsomes. In the present study, the effects of MSBE and mangiferin on several P450 enzymes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in human-cultured hepatocytes have been examined. After hepatocytes underwent a 48-h treatment with sub-cytotoxic concentrations of the products (50-250 µg/mL), a concentration-dependent decrease of the activity of the five P450 enzymes measured (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4) was observed. For all the activities, a reduction of at least 50% at the highest concentration (250 µg/mL) was observed. In addition, UGT activities diminished. MSBE considerably reduced UGT1A9 activity (about 60% at 250 µg/mL) and lesser effects on the other UGTs. In contrast, 250 µg/mL mangiferin had greater effects on UGT1A1 and 2B7 than on UGT1A9 (about 55% vs. 35% reduction, respectively). Quantification of specific mRNAs revealed reduced CYP3A4 and 3A5 mRNAs content, and an increase in CYP1A1, CYP1A2, UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 mRNAs. No remarkable effects on the CYP2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 2E1 levels were observed. Our results suggest that the activity and/or expression of major P450 and UGT enzymes is modulated by MSBE and that potential herb-drugs interactions could arise after a combined intake of this extract with conventional medicines. Therefore, the potential safety risks of this natural product derived by altering the ADMET properties of co-administered drugs should be examined. PMID:22815239

Rodeiro, Idania; José Gómez-Lechón, M; Perez, Gabriela; Hernandez, Ivones; Herrera, José Alfredo; Delgado, Rene; Castell, José V; Teresa Donato, M

2012-07-20

302

Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.  

PubMed

Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains ?cta1, ?gsh1 and ?oye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in ?sod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. PMID:23993573

Ignea, Codru?a; Doroban?u, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

2013-06-29

303

Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.  

PubMed

In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05), compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage). PMID:24126379

Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

2013-10-11

304

Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.

Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

2011-01-01

305

The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare-BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as ?Eq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co ?-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with ?-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Fori?, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

2009-05-01

306

Grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) partially reverses high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplement in C57BL\\/6J mice. Thirty mice were divided into three groups; normal diet control group (ND), high fat diet control group (HD) and high fat diet plus grape seed extract supplemented group (HD+GSE). Results were as follows: 1. GSE supplement reduced the weight

Su-Hui Park; Tae-Sun Park; Youn-Soo Cha

2008-01-01

307

Interaction between a plant-derived smoke extract, light and phytohormones on the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-derived smoke extracts mimics the effect of red light on germination in light-sensitive lettuce seeds and partially overcomes the inhibitory effect of far-red light. Interaction between a smoke extract and gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethephon was investigated. Smoke acted synergistically with GA3 and increased the sensitivity of the lettuce seeds to ABA. It seems likely that smoke affects membrane

J. Staden; A. K. Jäger; A. Strydom

1995-01-01

308

Some physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil extracted using solvent and aqueous enzymatic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical properties of oil from Moringa oleifera seed were determined following extraction either with petroleum ether or 2% Neutrase 0.8L (a neutral bacterial protease from Bacillus amyloiquefaciens, Novozyme Bagsvaerd Denmark). The enzyme was chosen following a preliminary study conducted on the enzymatic extraction of M. oleifera seed oil using four commercial enzymes that showed Neutrase to be the best

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2005-01-01

309

Antidepressant-like activity of n-hexane extract of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) seeds in mice.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of an n-hexane extract of Myristica fragrans seeds on depression in mice by using the forced swim test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST). M. fragrans extract (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was administered orally for 3 successive days to different groups of Swiss male young albino mice. M. fragrans extract significantly decreased immobility periods of mice in both the FST and the TST. The 10 mg/kg dose was found to be most potent, as indicated by the greatest decrease in the immobility period compared with the control. Furthermore, this dose of the extract was found to have comparable potency to imipramine (15 mg/kg i.p.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.). The extract did not have a significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. Prazosin (62.5 microg/kg i.p.; an alpha (1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (50 mg/kg i.p.; a selective D(2) receptor antagonist), and p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg i.p.; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) significantly attenuated the M. fragrans extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in the TST. Thus, extract of M. fragrans elicited a significant antidepressant-like effect in mice, when assessed in both the TST and the FST. The antidepressant-like effect of the extract seems to be mediated by interaction with the adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems. PMID:16579733

Dhingra, Dinesh; Sharma, Amandeep

2006-01-01

310

Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).  

PubMed

Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment. PMID:14994812

Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

2003-04-01

311

Evaluation of a ruminally dosed tall fescue seed extract as a model for fescue toxicosis in steers.  

PubMed

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) toxicosis research is often complicated by a reduction in intake of infected forage or seed, making treatment comparisons difficult. This study was conducted to develop a fescue toxicosis model that would allow for variations in DMI without altering the quantity of alkaloids consumed over the course of the experiment. Ground tall fescue seed and a tall fescue seed extract were used in two 2-period crossover experiments to determine the effectiveness of ruminal dosing of a tall fescue seed extract to induce fescue toxicosis. This experiment used 4 growing Holstein steers (BW = 337 ± 24 kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Steers were maintained on a diet of endophyte-free fescue hay fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Endophyte-infected (E+; 4.1 mg/kg of ergovaline) and uninfected (E-; 0.0 mg/kg of ergovaline) KY-31 tall fescue seed was ground and dosed or extracted with ethanol, concentrated, and lyophilized before ruminal dosing. Ergovaline concentration of the final extract was 102 mg/kg. Animals were given a minimum of a 3-wk washout period between treatments. Physiological indicators were measured over 7 d at 22°C (d 1 to 3) and 32°C (d 4 to 7) during both seed and extract dosing. Seed and extract E+ dosing reduced serum prolactin concentrations such that they were not different from zero (P < 0.10). Treatment with E+ reduced feed intake (P < 0.05) and heart rate (P < 0.001), and increased respiration rate (P < 0.01) and core temperature (P < 0.05) during both seed and extract dosing. Increasing environmental temperature from 22 to 32°C reduced total intake (P < 0.05) and increased core temperature (P < 0.001) and respiration rate (P < 0.001) during both seed and extract dosing. Diastolic blood pressure tended (P < 0.09) to be increased during E+ extract dosing and reduced during heat stress. These physiological alterations are consistent with those reported for cattle grazing or consuming seed from endophyte-infected tall fescue. These data indicate that a ruminally dosed ethanol extract of tall fescue seed is efficacious in inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. PMID:22064740

Koontz, A F; Bush, L P; Klotz, J L; McLeod, K R; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

2011-11-07

312

The antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of dietary phenolic extracts from horse gram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total phenolics and the antioxidative properties of two varieties of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) were studied. The raw and dry-heated seed samples were extracted successively with methanol and 70% acetone separately. After removing the solvents, the extracts were freeze-dried. The black seeds contained relatively high levels of total phenolics and tannins than the brown seeds with respect to the treatments

Perumal Siddhuraju; Sellamuthu Manian

2007-01-01

313

Fast microwave-assisted extraction of rotenone for its quantification in seeds of yam bean (Pachyrhizus sp.).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to find if fast microwave-assisted extraction could be an alternative to the conventional Soxhlet extraction for the quantification of rotenone in yam bean seeds by SPE and HPLC-UV. For this purpose, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal conditions of the microwave extraction. Then the values of the quantification on three accessions from two different species of yam bean seeds were compared using the two different kinds of extraction. A microwave extraction of 11 min at 55°C using methanol/dichloromethane (50:50) allowed rotenone extraction either equivalently or more efficiently than the 8-h-Soxhlet extraction method and was less sensitive to moisture content. The selectivity, precision, trueness, accuracy, and limit of quantification of the method with microwave extraction were also demonstrated. PMID:23341347

Lautié, Emmanuelle; Rasse, Catherine; Rozet, Eric; Mourgues, Claire; Vanhelleputte, Jean-Paul; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

2013-01-22

314

Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2?000 µg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 µg/mL as compared to 1.1 µg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant.

Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Belkacem, Nacera; Kadiata, Marcel; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

2013-01-01

315

Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extract under drought.  

PubMed

This research evaluated the effect of drought on total and individual polyphenol contents as well as the antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds of 2 geographic origins, Tunisia (TCS) and India (ICS). Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control. Our results indicated that, in both varieties, moderate water deficit (MWD) improved the number of umbels per plant as well as the number of umbellets per umbel and the seed yield, in comparison to the control, but it decreased under severe water deficit (SWD). Besides, total phenolic contents were higher in the treated seeds and drought increased the level of total and individual polyphenols. This increase was appreciably more important in TCS than in ICS. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by 4 different test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ?-carotene/linoleic acid chelating, and reducing power assays, and showed that treated seeds exhibited the highest activity, for both TCS and ICS. PMID:22671525

Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Zakhama, Nesrine; Karoui, Iness Jabri; Marzouk, Brahim

2012-06-01

316

Extraction of Multi-Class Pesticide Residues in Mango Fruits ( Mangiferae indica L.): Application of Pesticide Residues in Monitoring of Mangoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango (Mangiferae indica L.) is an important export horticultural crop of India. Various insects and diseases infest the fruit especially in the fruiting season. The common insect pests are mango leafhopper, mealy bug, leaf webber, inflorescence midge and fruit fly. The major loss of about 60% is due to leafhopper and mango leafhopper. These pests infest the mango at the

I. Mukherjee; S. Singh; P. K. Sharma; M. Jaya; M. Gopal; G. Kulshrsestha

2007-01-01

317

Modulatory effects of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on cutaneous and hepatic biochemical status during promotion phase of DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The modulation in biochemical status of skin and hepatic tissue at the time point of commencement of promotion stage of skin carcinogenesis in mice and its intervention with aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) were investigated. 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA, 500 nmol/100 ul of acetone) was applied topically for 2 weeks (twice weekly), followed by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA, 1.7 nmol/100 ul) twice weekly for 6 weeks on the depilated skin of mice and AAILE was administered orally at a dose level of 300 mg/kg body wt thrice a week for 10 weeks. DMBA/TPA treatment upregulated the phase I enzymes in skin and hepatic tissue, as revealed by the increased cytochrome P450 (CYP) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) levels and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity when compared to the control group and differentially modulated the activities of phase II enzymes like glutathione-s-transferase (GST), DT-diaphorase (DTD) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT). AAILE treatment decreased the DMBA/TPA-induced increase in cutaneous CYP level and enhanced the DTD and UDP-GT activities when compared with DMBA/TPA group. In the hepatic tissue of AAILE + DMBA/TPA group, an increase in UDP-GT activity was observed when compared to DMBA/TPA group. DMBA/TPA treatment did not alter the skin lipid peroxidation (LPO) level when compared to control group, however, in the animals that received AAILE treatment along with DMBA/TPA, a significant increase in LPO was observed when compared to control group. This was associated with a decrease, in cutaneous reduced glutathione (GSH) level of AAILE + DMBA/TPA group. Enhanced LPO level was observed in the hepatic tissue of DMBA/TPA and AAILE + DMBA/TPA groups when compared to control group. However, no alteration was observed in their hepatic GSH levels. The micronuclei score in hepatic tissue did not exhibit significant inter-group differences. The results of the present study suggest that apart from skin, liver may be affected during DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis. AAILE treatment has the ability to modulate these changes potentially influencing the process of tumor formation. These findings seem to be important to carcinogenesis and its intervention with anti-cancer agents. PMID:23720884

Arora, N; Bansal, M P; Koul, A

2013-04-01

318

Insulinotropic action of Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts in rat pancreatic islets.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the direct in vitro effects of several distinct Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts on glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets isolated from rats. Six extracts were tested, a crude aqueous, defatted aqueous, ethyl acetate, H2O-methanol and n-butanol extract and an extract containing a major component (fraction A) identified by gel chromatography in the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H2O-methanol extracts. Under selected experimental conditions, the majority of extracts exhibited a positive insulinotropic action, at least when tested in the presence of 8.3 mM D-glucose. The concentration-response correlation observed with distinct extracts revealed the participation of distinct chemical compounds, including compounds with an inhibitory insulinotropic potential, in the modulation of the insulin secretory response to D-glucose. The results of the present study are relevant for further investigations which aim to identify compounds exhibiting positive insulinotropic actions. These agents may be suitable for the treatment of human diabetic subjects. PMID:23128986

Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Hupkens, Emeline; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

2012-10-24

319

Effects of Extraction Solvents and Provenances on Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Cumin ( Cuminum cyminum L.) Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were compared depending on their geographical origin (Tunisia and India: TCS and ICS, respectively) and\\u000a the extraction solvent polarity. The ?-carotene bleaching assay, the chelating ability and the reducing power of the most\\u000a promising solvent extracts were also assessed. In addition, TCS and ICS extracts

Iness Bettaieb Rebey; Soumaya Bourgou; Imen Ben Slimen Debez; Iness Jabri Karoui; Ibtissem Hamrouni Sellami; Kamel Msaada; Ferid Limam; Brahim Marzouk

320

Extraction and purification of human interleukin-10 from transgenic rice seeds.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein production system using transgenic rice grain offers many advantages in higher accumulation, preservation, lower production cost, ease of scale up and low risk of contamination by toxic materials. We developed a transgenic rice strain whose seeds accumulate human interleukin (IL)-10, a cytokine that suppresses inflammation-related immune responses. We also developed a method of extracting and purifying IL-10 from rice seeds. A biochemical crosslinking method was used to detect the biologically active noncovalent dimer of IL-10. This method was useful for developing efficient methods of refolding and purification. The purified IL-10 comprised only noncovalent dimers and showed higher activity than the commercial IL-10. The purified IL-10 had very low endotoxin contamination and is expected to have broad clinical application. PMID:20159041

Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Yang, Lijun; Takaiwa, Fumio; Kosaka, Akemi; Tsuji, Noriko M; Shiraki, Kentaro; Sekikawa, Kenji

2010-02-14

321

[Survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].  

PubMed

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products. PMID:18344660

Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi

2008-02-01

322

Optimized H- extraction in an argon magnesium seeded magnetized sheet plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enhancement and optimization of H- extraction through argon and magnesium seeding of hydrogen discharges in a magnetized sheet plasma source are reported. The paper first presents the modification of the production chamber into a hexapole multicusp configuration resulting in decreased power requirements, improved plasma confinement and longer filament lifetime. By this, a wider choice of discharge currents for sustained quiescent plasmas is made possible. Second, the method of adding argon to the hydrogen plasma similar to the scheme in Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689] was performed to find the optimum conditions for H- formation and extraction. Using an E × B probe, H- yields were investigated at varied argon hydrogen admixtures, different discharge currents and spatial points relative to the core plasma. The optimum H- current density extracted at 3.0 cm from the plasma core using 3.0 A plasma current with 10% argon seeding increased by a factor of 2.42 (0.63 A/m2) compared to the measurement of Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689]. Third, the argon hydrogen plasma at the extraction chamber is seeded with magnesium. Mg disk with an effective area of 22 cm2 is placed at the extraction region’s anode biased 175 V with respect to the cathode. With Mg seeding, the optimum H- current density at the same site and discharge conditions increased by 4.9 times (3.09 A/m2). The enhancement effects were analyzed vis-à-vis information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe (electron temperature and density), electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and the ensuing dissociative attachment (DA) reaction rates at different spatial points for various plasma discharges and gas ratios. Investigations on the changes in the effective electron temperature and electron density indicate that the enhancement is due to increased density of low-energy electrons in the volume, conducive for DA reactions. With Mg, the density of electrons with electron temperature of about 3 eV increased 3 orders of magnitude from 2.76 × 1012 m-3 to 2.90 × 1015 m-3.

Noguera, Virginia R.; Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.

2008-06-01

323

Longan seed extract reduces hyperuricemia via modulating urate transporters and suppressing xanthine oxidase activity.  

PubMed

Hyperuricemia causes gouty arthritis, kidney disease, heart disease, and other diseases. Xanthine oxidase (XOD) and urate transporters play important roles in urate homeostasis. Numerous plants have been identified as XOD inhibitors. Longan seeds are known to contain high levels of polyphenols such as corilagin, gallic acid and ellagic acid. We examined the effect of longan seed extract on XOD inhibition and urate transporters GLUT1 and GLUT9 using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The results showed that dried longan seed extract (LSE) and its active components inhibited XOD dose-dependently in vitro. LSE inhibited uric acid production and XOD activity in normal liver cells (clone-9 cells) and was not cytotoxic under the concentration of 200 ?g/ml. For the in vivo study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given intraperitoneally for thirty minutes with or without allopurinol (a XOD inhibitor, 3.5 mg/kg) or LSE (80 mg/kg) and then injected intraperitioneally with 250 mg/kg of oxonic acid and 300 mg/kg of hypoxanthine intragastrically. LSE was able to reduce serum uric acid level and XOD activity in hyperuricemic rats. However, LSE or allopurinol did not inhibit the liver XOD activities. On the other hand, GLUT1 protein was suppressed in kidney and GLUT9 was induced in liver from experimental rats and LSE or allopurinol decreased GLUT9 but increased GLUT1 protein level in the liver and kidney, respectively. These results confirmed the claimed effect of longan seeds on gout and other complications and suggested that its urate reducing effect might be due to modulation of urate transporters and inhibition of circulating xanthine oxidase. PMID:22928829

Hou, Chien-Wei; Lee, Ying-Chung; Hung, Hsiao-Fang; Fu, Hua-Wen; Jeng, Kee-Ching

2012-01-01

324

Oil cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds and pulp of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins and ?-carotene. Total lipids (TL) in lyophilised seeds and pulp were 98.8 (dry weight) and 8.70 g\\/kg, respectively. High amounts of neutral lipids were found (87.0% of TL) in seed oil, while glycolipids and phospholipids occurred at high levels

Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Jörg-Thomas Mörsel

2003-01-01

325

EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A TRYPSIN INHIBITOR FROM COWPEA SEEDS (Vigna unguiculata).  

PubMed

Protease inhibitors against trypsin were extracted from cowpea seeds, purified, and characterized. After the seed powder was defatted with hexane, the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was extracted with 0.15 M NaCl for 30 min. The crude extracts were then heated at 90°C for 10 min, followed by precipitation with 40-65% saturation ammonium sulfate, by which the protein purity increased approximately 15-fold. The CpTI had approximate 88-fold and 186-fold purification after anion-exchange chromatography (Super-Q) and gel filtration (Sephadex G-200), respectively. A broad band of the purified CpTI on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicates a degree of heterogeneity and partial denaturation of CpTI, having a molecular mass of ?8000 kD. Multiple peaks between 7451 and 8898 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy also suggest heterogeneity. The purified CpTI was stable at 90°C for 60 min, pH 5-10, and 0-3.0% of NaCl. The purification method described here can be used to obtain highly purified CpTI for its studies such as risk assessment of CpTI genetically modified foods. PMID:24117148

Wang, Jia; Li, Xiaona; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Hao; Liu, Jing; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

2014-01-01

326

Lack of in vivo clastogenic activity of grape seed and grape skin extracts in a mouse micronucleus assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meganatural™ brand grape seed extract (GSE) and grape skin extract (GSKE), containing proanthocyanidin polyphenolic compounds, are intended for use in food as functional ingredients exhibiting antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidins, as well as the minor constituent phenolic compounds in GSE and GSKE, are present naturally in many foods such as fruits, vegetables, chocolate, tea, etc., and on average people consume 460–1000 mg\\/day

G. L. Erexson

2003-01-01

327

Efficient solubilization buffers for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of acidic and basic proteins extracted from wheat seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant tissues are made up of a broad range of proteins with a variety of properties. After extraction, solubilization of a diverse range of plant proteins for efficient proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis is a challenging process. We tested the efficiency of 12 solubilization buffers in dissolving acidic and basic proteins extracted from mature seeds of wheat. The buffer containing

Gurusamy Chinnasamy; Christof Rampitsch

2006-01-01

328

A study of the optimum conditions for the extraction of urease from the seeds of the watermelon Citrullus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a number of factors on the extraction of urease from the seeds of the watermelonCitrullus vulgaris Schrad. has been investigated by the method of mathematical planning of experimental work. On the basis of the results obtained, using the method of steepest ascent, the optimum conditions of the extraction process ensuring the maximum specific activity of the enzyme

S. I. Dikhtyarev; S. Panyim; R. Chalkey

1980-01-01

329

Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

330

Biochemical profiling of mucilage extracted from seeds of different citrus rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hetero-polysaccharide mucilage was extracted from the seed coats of different citrus rootstocks viz. Rough lemon, Sachtion citrumelo and Yuma citrange for investigating its biochemical and molecular properties. Investigations showed that the mucilage contained (mg\\/g) starch 3.13–5.04; maltose 3.23–4.31; glucosamine 0.017–0.289; d-xylose 0.059–0.107 and total soluble sugars 8.13–11.82. Specific enzyme activities were 16.98–35.96, 30.60–98.45, 42.00–73.98, 660.98–738.35 and 7.660–19.27IUmg?1 of protein for

Summar A. Naqvi; M. M. Khan; M. Shahid; M. J. Jaskani; Iqrar A. Khan; Mohammad Zuber; Khalid Mahmood Zia

2011-01-01

331

Adverse effects by artificial grapefruit seed extract products in patients on warfarin therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The aim of this\\u000a study was to investigate the composition of some commercially available GSE products and evaluate their effect in vitro on\\u000a two cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A couple on lifelong treatment with warfarin and continuous regular follow-ups took some drops of

Helena Brandin; Olle Myrberg; Torgny Rundlöf; Ann-Kristin Arvidsson; Gunilla Brenning

2007-01-01

332

Oat ( Avena sativa ) Seed Extract as an Antifungal Food Preservative Through the Catalytic Activity of a Highly Abundant Class I Chitinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation\\u000a of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were

Hans Peter Sørensen; Lone Søvad Madsen; Jørgen Petersen; Jesper Tapdrup Andersen; Anne Maria Hansen; Hans Christian Beck

2010-01-01

333

Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) oil obtained from waste hip seeds by different extraction methods.  

PubMed

From the rose hip seed, which is generally a waste material, valuable oil can be obtained for medicinal use. Various extraction methods have been compared: traditional solvent extraction with ultrasound-, microwave-, sub- and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA: oleic-, linoleic- and linolenic acid; 16.25-22.11%, 35.94-54.75%, 20.29-26.48%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA:linoleic- and linolenic acid) content were over 90% and 60% in the recovered oils. The oils contained different amounts of metals. The concentration of some metals, particularly iron in microwave oil (27.11 microg g(-1)) is undesirable from the aspect of stability. By traditional solvent extraction, oil was obtained in 4.85 wt/wt%. Subcritical FE appeared to be the best method for the recovery of rose hip oil with highest oil yield (6.68 wt/wt%), carotene- (145.3 microg g(-1)) and linoleic acid content (54.75%). Supercritical FE without organic solvent is suitable for mild recovery of oil. The oil was rich in UFA and PUFA (92.7% and 76.25%) and contained the lowest amount of carotene and pheophytin (36.3 and 45.8 microg g(-1)). Oil yield in most new extraction methods (microwave extraction, super- and subcritical FE) was higher than in the case of traditional Soxhlet extraction. The main benefit of supercritical FE with CO2 is the solvent free oil while in the case of other extractions evaporation of the solvent is needed. Although the content of bioactive compounds in oils was different, all oils may be appropriate for medicinal use. PMID:12003323

Szentmihályi, Klára; Vinkler, Péter; Lakatos, Béla; Illés, Vendel; Then, Mária

2002-04-01

334

Enhancement of Gastric Ulcer Healing and Angiogenesis by Cochinchina Momordica Seed Extract in Rats  

PubMed Central

Cochinchina momordica seed is the dried ripe seed of Momordica cochinchinensis, a perennial vine. The antiulcer effect of an extract from cochinchina momordica seeds (SK-MS10) was evaluated in a rat model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Gastric ulcers were produced by subserosal injection of acetic acid. SK-MS10 (200 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally once per day for 14 days after the acetic acid injection. The stomach was removed and the ulcer size measured at day 7 and 14 of the treatment. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, the microvasculature density (MVD) adjacent to the ulcer margin was examined by immunohistochemistry. The treatment with SK-MS10 for 7 and 14 days significantly accelerated ulcer healing and increased the expression of mRNA (at day 7) as well as VEGF protein (at day 14) compared to the vehicle-treated rats. The MVD for factor VIII was also higher in the SK-MS10 treatment group compared to the vehicle-treated rats; however, these differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that SK-MS10 treatment accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via upregulation of VEGF and angiogenesis in an acetic acid rat model.

Kang, Jung Mook; Kim, Bongcheol; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Bong-Yong; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

2010-01-01

335

Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of flavonoids compounds (FC) from hawthorn seed (HS).  

PubMed

Hawthorn seed (HS), an important by-product of the Hawthorn industry, is rich in potentially health-promoting flavonoids compounds. In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of FC from HS was investigated. Important variables and their levels were obtained using Plackett-Burman (PB) design and Box-Behnken (BB) design. A mathematical model was developed to show the effects of each variable and their combinatorial interactions on extraction yield of FC. A high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 91.26%) indicated good agreement between the experimental and predicted values of FC yield. The optimum levels of these significant parameters were determined using response surface methodology (RSM), which revealed these as follows: ultrasound temperature 65 °C, ultrasonic time 37 min, extraction temperature 91 °C, extraction time 1.5h, solid-liquid ratio of 1:18, and 72% ethanol. Under the optimum condition, the UAE rate of FC was up to 91.7%, and the yield of FC was 16.45 ± 0.02 mg/g (P<0.05) that was 1.32-fold the yield of conventional reflux extraction (CRE). PMID:22142939

Pan, Guangyan; Yu, Guoyong; Zhu, Chuanhe; Qiao, Julin

2011-11-20

336

Biocide activity of Annona coriacea seeds extract on Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).  

PubMed

The use of synthetic insecticides for insect control may lead to different kind of problems, such as vector resistance to insecticides. To avoid these problems, a new research area to study botanical products as possible disease vectors controls, has become a feasible alternative. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biocide activity of the ethanol extract of seeds of Annona coriacea on Rhodnius neglectus (Chagas disease vector) nymphs and adults. For this, different concentrations extracts were evaluated: 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/ mL, and water in DMSO (20%) was used as control. The experimental design was completely randomized and we conducted the bioassay with nymphs and adults, with 10 nymphs and 10 adults (five males and five females) per treatment. Extract action was evaluated in both bioassays, in order to identify possible effects of mortality and life cycle interruption of nymphs and adults during a 28-day-period. The results obtained showed that the extract of A. coriacea was able to disrupt the development of nymphs and adults of R. neglectus, with a mortality rate of more than 90%, 36% and 100%, at the highest concentrations, respectively. There was also molting inhibition in nymphs, lower reproductive capacity in females, feeding deterrence and morphological changes in nymphs and adults. We concluded that the extract of A. coriacea has insecticide action on nymphs and adults of R. neglectus. PMID:23894992

Carneirol, Angela Pinheiro; Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa; Galbiati, Carla

2013-03-01

337

Structural analysis of an alkali-extractable polysaccharide from the seeds of Retama raetamssp. gussonei.  

PubMed

An alkali-extractable polysaccharide (1) was isolated from the seeds of Retama raetam ssp. gussonei. Its composition and linkage determination have been investigated using component analysis, methylation analysis, hydrolysis studies, and NMR spectroscopic analysis. This was shown to contain d-xylose, d-glucose, and 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid in a molar ratio of 7:2:1 and consisted of a backbone of beta-(1-->4)-linked d-xylopyranosyl residues, having branches of alpha-d-glucopyranosyl residues that contain (1-->2)-linkages and 4-O-methyl-alpha-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid at O-2. This is the first report on the isolation of an alkali-extractable polysaccharide from this plant. PMID:16872158

Wu, Yalin; Pan, Yuanjiang; Sun, Cuirong; Hu, Nan; Ishurd, Omar

2006-07-01

338

Insecticidal activity of crude seed extracts of Annona spp., Lansium domesticum and Sandoricum koetjape against lepidopteran larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude ethanolic seed extracts ofAnnona muricata, A. squamosa (Annonaceae),Lansium domesticum andSandoricum koetjape (Meliaceae) collected from different locations and years in Maluku, Indonesia, were screened for inhibition of larval growth\\u000a against the polyphagous lepidopteranSpodoptera litura (Noctuidae). Extracts ofA. squamosa were significantly more active (20-fold) than those ofA. muricata. A. squamosa collected from Namlea yielded the extracts with the greatest inhibitory activity.

J. Audrey Leatemia; Murray B. Isman

2004-01-01

339

Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile components from Bunium persicum Boiss. (black cumin) and Mespilus germanica L. (medlar) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile constituents of black cumin and medlar seeds were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 16 compounds accounting for 99.36% of the black cumin supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) extracts were identified. ?-terpinene (37.98%), cuminaldehyde (11.48%) and ?-methyl-benzenemethanol (25.55%) were the major compounds identified in black cumin. The SFE method has

Seied Mahdi Pourmortazavi; Modjtaba Ghadiri; Seiedeh Somayyeh Hajimirsadeghi

2005-01-01

340

Annona squamosa seed extract in the regulation of hyperthyroidism and lipid-peroxidation in mice: Possible involvement of quercetin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annona squamosa (Custard apple) seeds are generally thrown away as waste materials. The extract of these seeds was evaluated for its possible ameliorative effect in the regulation of hyperthyroidism in mouse model. Serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) concentrations, hepatic glucose-6-phospatase (G-6-Pase) and 5?-mono-deiodinase (5?DI) activity were considered as the end parameters of thyroid function. Simultaneously hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide

S. Panda; A. Kar

2007-01-01

341

Allelopathy effects of C. Cathayensis exocarp extracting solution on seed germinating of four different kinds of crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author researches on the allelopathy effects of different viscosity (0?? 2.5g.mL -1 ) C. Cathayensis exocarp extracting solution, on green bean, wheat, soy bean and corn seeds. By calculation of the pot plants morphological and physiological indexes, the result shows: the viscosity (0.1?? 0.5g.mL -1 ) solution could greatly promote the seed germination. The effects of the viscosity (0.1g.mL

Xiangming Chen

2011-01-01

342

The cytotoxic effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cultured human cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seed proanthocyanidins are natural antioxidants which possess a broad spectrum of chemoprotective properties against free radicals and oxidative stress. In this study, we have assessed the cytotoxicity of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, A-427 human lung cancer cells, CRL-1739 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and K562 chronic myelogenous leukemic cells at

X. Ye; R. L. Krohn; W. Liu; S. S. Joshi; C. A. Kuszynski; T. R. McGinn; M. Bagchi; H. G. Preuss; S. J. Stohs; D. Bagchi

1999-01-01

343

Composition and physicochemical properties of locust bean gum extracted from whole seeds by acid or water dehulling pre-treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to extract locust bean gum (LBG) from whole seeds by two different dehulling pre-treatments. The first process consisted in separating the endosperm (gum) from the hull and the germ after seeds’ pre-treatment with boiling water. The second one used acidic pre-treatment. Then the composition and the physicochemical characteristics of the isolated gum were studied

Patrick Aubin Dakia; Christophe Blecker; Christelle Robert; Bernard Wathelet; Michel Paquot

2008-01-01

344

The therapeutic applications of celery oil seed extract on the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the impact of two doses, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and studied the possible therapeutic dose of celery oil seed extract for 6 weeks on some atheroscelerogenic, obesogenic, antioxidant and liver functions in rats. Both doses of DEHP caused over-expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) messenger RNA with significant increase in liver weights, relative liver weights, serum cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein Chol, liver total lipids, along with an increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum endothelin 1 and liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Additionally, DEHP administration to rats resulted in significant decrease in final body weights, serum total protein, albumin, liver total protein and serum total nitric oxide. Our study confirmed the role of oral combination of Apium graveolens (celery) oil seed extract at small cumulative doses (50 µl/kg for 6 weeks) with DEHP in ameliorating the toxicological effects of DEHP, which was revealed in reducing the expression of PPAR?, lipid profile, with restoring liver functions, vascular oxidative stress and inhibition of TBARS activity. PMID:23377116

El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A

2013-02-01

345

Protective effect of grape seed extract against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in a rat epigastricflap model.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins are potent natural antioxidants which belong to a class of polyphenols. Proanthocyanidin-rich extracts are prepared from grape seeds. The effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the viability of abdominal skin flaps exposed to warm ischaemia and subsequent reperfusion were studied in 40 male Wistar rats. In the control group (group I; n=20), rats were fed with standard, non-purified rat diet, and the study group received GSPE 100 mgkg(-1) per day 1 week prior to surgery and 1 week following surgery. Abdominal island flaps were elevated in both the groups and subjected to 8h of warm ischaemia, followed by reperfusion. Mean flap survival areas in groups I (control group) and II (treatment group) were calculated to be 58.3%+/-11.72 and 81.0%+/-11.88, respectively. Flap survival on day 7 was significantly higher in group II compared to group I (p<0.01). Histopathological semi-quantitative analysis of the specimens revealed infiltration by polymorphonuclear leucocytes, oedema formation and necrosis in group I, whereas neo-vascularisation and fibrosis were the prominent findings in group II. PMID:19246271

Karaaslan, Onder; Ulusoy, M Gurhan; Kankaya, Yüksel; Tiftikcioglu, Yigit O; Kocer, Ugur; Kankaya, Duygu; Karaaslan, G Meltem; Tuncer, Serdar; Berktas, Mehmet

2009-02-25

346

Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts against lipid oxidation in model systems.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal was studied in comparison with mimosine. Both extracts showed similar hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, singlet oxygen inhibition and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity (p?>?0.05). Nevertheless, the extract without prior chlorophyll removal had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity than that with prior chlorophyll removal (p?seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal possessed a lower antioxidant activity, compared with mimosine. When lead seed extract without prior chlorophyll removal (100 and 200?ppm) was used in different lipid oxidation model systems, including ?-carotene-linoleic acid and lecithin liposome systems, the preventive effect toward lipid oxidation was dose-dependent. At the same level of use, mimosine exhibited a higher efficacy in prevention of lipid oxidation in both systems as indicated by the lower increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. A similar result was obtained in minced mackerel. Therefore, lead seed extract containing mimosine could act as a natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. PMID:23729420

Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Maqsood, Sajid

2013-05-31

347

Grape seed extract neutralizes the effects of Cerastes cerastes cerastes post-synaptic neurotoxin in mouse diaphragm.  

PubMed

This work was undertaken to investigate the toxic activity of the post-synaptic neurotoxic fraction isolated from the venom of the Egyptian sand viper (Cerastes cerastes cerastes), and the ability of grape seed extract to antagonize this effect produced in sublethally intoxicated mice, with an emphasis on ultrastructural features. Light and transmission electron microscopy of diaphragms of intoxicated mice showed myonecrosis, myofiber hypercontraction, sarcomere disorganization, and mitochondrial damage. Alterations in motor neurons and axon terminals were also observed. The toxic activities of C. cerastes cerastes neurotoxin were inhibited by administrating grape seed extract, either before or after intoxication, showing that grape seed extract has protective and therapeutic potential to be used as antivenom. PMID:22917896

Mahmoud, Yomna Ibrahim

2012-08-08

348

Influence of the addition of raspberry seed extract on changes in the volatile pattern of stored model breakfast cereal.  

PubMed

Laboratory-prepared muesli-type breakfast cereal (mixture of oat flakes, wheat flakes, corn flakes, hazelnuts, raisins, sunflower seeds, and flax seeds) was subjected to accelerated storage test at 60 degrees C with or without the addition of red raspberry seed extract. The oxidative changes in muesli resulting in the formation of secondary oxidation products were evaluated using solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) to isolate volatiles and GC-MS and chromatography-olfactometry to quantify them and determine the key odorants. During 14 days of storage the total amount of volatile compounds changed from 1.0 mg/kg, in freshly prepared muesli, to 32 mg/kg after storage. The predominant compound was hexanal; its content during storage increased 20-fold, reaching 17 mg/kg. Red raspberry seed extract addition limited the rate of lipid oxidation, and the total amount of volatiles was estimated at 11 mg/kg and that of hexanal at almost 5 mg/kg. An elevated temperature of the storage test also influenced the crucial flavor compounds determined using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The flavor dilution factor (FD) values for volatile lipid oxidation products were lower in samples with red raspberry seed extract added. PMID:18407655

Klensporf, Dorota; Jele?, Henryk H

2008-04-12

349

Toxicity of Moringa oleifera seed extract on some hematological and biochemical profiles in a freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to investigate the acute and sublethal toxicity of Moringa oleifera seed extract on hematological and biochemical variables of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio under laboratory conditions. The 96 h LC50 value of M. oleifera seed extract to the fish C. carpio was estimated by probit analysis method and was found to be 124.0 mg/L (with 95% confidence limits). For sublethal studies a non lethal dose of 1/10th of 96 h LC50 value (12.40 mg/L) was taken. During acute treatment (96 h), hematological variables like red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in fish exposed to seed extract. However a significant (P<0.05) increase in white blood cell count (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) value was observed in the exposed fish during above treatment period when compared to that of the control groups. Biochemical parameters such as plasma protein and glucose levels significantly declined in fish exposed to seed extract while a significant (P<0.05) increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was observed. During sublethal treatment (12.40 mg/L), WBC count, MCV, MCH, plasma glucose, AST, ALT and ALP activities were gradually elevated (P<0.05) at the end of 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35th days in seed extract exposed fish, whereas plasma protein level declined. However, a biphasic trend was noticed in Hb, Hct, RBC and MCHC levels. This study may provide baseline information about the toxicity of M. oleifera seed extract to C. carpio and to establish safer limit in water purification. PMID:21282048

Kavitha, Chokkalingam; Ramesh, Mathan; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthil; Lakshmi, Srinivasan Audhi

2011-02-01

350

Fatty acids profile and alteration of lemon seeds extract ( Citrus limon ) added to soybean oil under thermoxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aimed at evaluating fatty acids profile and the total alteration of lemon seeds extract added to soybean oil under\\u000a thermoxidation, verifying the isolated and synergistic effect of these antioxidants. Therefore, Control treatments, LSE (2,400 mg\\/kg\\u000a Lemon Seeds Extract), TBHQ (mg\\/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE?+?50 mg\\/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE?+?25 mg\\/kg TBHQ) were subjected to\\u000a 180°C for 20 h. Samples were taken at

Débora Maria Moreno Luzia; Neuza Jorge

351

In vitro antioxidant and in vivo photoprotective effect of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seed and skin extracts.  

PubMed

Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nuts are a rich source of phenolic compounds, known for their high antioxidant activity, and contained not only in the seeds but also in the skin. A pistachio cultivar of high quality is typical of Bronte, Sicily, Italy. The purpose of our study was to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant properties of two polyphenol-rich extracts from skins (TP) and decorticated seeds (SP) of Bronte pistachios, and to verify the potential use of these extracts for topical photoprotective products. Chemical analysis showed that the TP and SP extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds, but the TP extract is about ten times richer in phenols than the SP extract, being anthocyanins the most abundant compounds found in the TP extract. Both these extracts, and especially the TP extract, possess good radical scavenger/antioxidant properties, as shown in a series of in vitro assays carried out using homogenous and non-homogenous chemical environment. Furthermore both the TP extract and, although at a lower degree, the SP extract reduce, when topically applied, UV-B-induced skin erythema in human volunteers. These findings suggest that extracts from Bronte TP and SP could be successfully employed as photoprotective ingredients in topical cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:23313777

Martorana, Maria; Arcoraci, Teresita; Rizza, Luisa; Cristani, Mariateresa; Bonina, Francesco Paolo; Saija, Antonina; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio

2013-01-09

352

Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of extract from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70°C) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the polyphenol extraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50mL of solvent volume, 20min of extraction time and 70°C of ultrasonic temperature. PMID:23993457

Teh, Sue-Siang; Birch, Edward John

2013-08-13

353

Effect of instant controlled pressure drop treatments on the oligosaccharides extractability and microstructure of Tephrosia purpurea seeds.  

PubMed

The study of the oligosaccharides extracted from Tephrosia purpurea seeds was undertaken using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) as a pre-treatment prior to conventional solvent extraction. This DIC procedure provided structural modification in terms of expansion, higher porosity and improvement of specific surface area; diffusion of solvent inside such seeds and availability of oligosaccharides increase notably. In this paper, we investigated and quantified the impact of the different DIC operative parameters on the yields of ciceritol and stachyose extracted from T. purpurea seeds. The treatment could be optimized with a steam pressure (P) (P=0.2 MPa), initial water content (W) (W=30% dry basis (DB)) and thermal treatment time (t) (t=30s). By applying DIC treatment in these conditions, the classic process of extraction was intensified in both aspects of yields (145% of ciceritol and 185% of stachyose), and kinetics (1h of extraction time instead of 4h for conventional process). The scanning electron microscopy micrographs provided evident modifications of structure of seeds due to the DIC treatment. PMID:18992889

Amor, Bouthaina Ben; Lamy, Cécile; Andre, Patrice; Allaf, Karim

2008-10-21

354

Mechanism of the endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by a grape seed extract.  

PubMed

GSEs (grape seed extracts) which contain polyphenolic compounds cause an endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanisms involved in this response. A well-characterized GSE was applied to rabbit aortic rings suspended in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit buffer maintained at 37 degrees C. In aortic rings pre-contacted with noradrenaline (norepinephrine), the extract produced a dose-dependent relaxation. The maximum relaxations elicited by the extract (71.9+/-1.0%) were similar to those elicited by acetylcholine (64.2+/-1.5%) (n=12 for each). As expected, the relaxations were abolished by removal of the endothelium and by prior incubation with L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), confirming the essential role of eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) in the response. The responses to the GSE were also abolished by incubation with wortmannin and LY294002, which are inhibitors of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase). These compounds had no effect on the responses to acetylcholine. Using immunoblotting, we also demonstrated that the GSE induced the phosphorylation of both Akt and eNOS in HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells). Finally, the extract was modified by methylation of the hydroxy groups in the polyphenolic groups and was applied to the aortic rings. The modified extract failed to cause a relaxation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by the GSE was mediated by activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway through a redox-sensitive mechanism, resulting in phosphorylation of eNOS. PMID:17927567

Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt; Tissa Kappagoda, C

2008-02-01

355

In vitro antibacterial potential of Eugenia jambolana seed extracts against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible in vitro antibacterial potential of extracts of Eugenia jambolana seeds against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens. Agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assay methods were used for antibacterial susceptibility testing. Kill-kinetics study was done to know the rate and extent of bacterial killing. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography were performed by colour tests to characterize the putative compounds responsible for this antibacterial activity. Cytotoxic potential was evaluated on human erythrocytes by haemolytic assay method and acute oral toxicity study was done in mice. The plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial activity against all the test isolates. Further, ethyl acetate fraction obtained from fractionation of most active ethanol extract showed maximum antibacterial effect against all the test isolates. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography of ethyl acetate fraction revealed that phenolics were the major active phytoconstituents. Ethyl acetate fraction also demonstrated no haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes and no gross behavioural changes as well as toxic symptoms were observed in mice at recommended dosage level. The results provide justification for the use of E. jambolana in folk medicine to treat various infectious diseases and may contribute to the development of novel antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infections caused by these drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:22444436

Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Pal, Nishith Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

2012-03-22

356

H- beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source.  

PubMed

H(-) beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 10(19) m(-3) was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H(-) ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents. PMID:22380279

Ando, A; Matsuno, T; Funaoi, T; Tanaka, N; Tsumori, K; Takeiri, Y

2012-02-01

357

H- beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H- beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 1019 m-3 was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H- ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents.

Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.

2012-02-01

358

Biosynthesis of (--)-Kaurene in Cell-free Extracts of Immature Pea Seeds 1  

PubMed Central

Mevalonate-14C was incorporated into (—)-kaurene-14C in cell-free extracts of immature pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds. The identification of 14C-product as (—)-kaurene was based on: A) comparison with authentic (—)-kaurene on thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography; and B) oxidation of 14C-product and (—)-kaurene with osmium tetroxide to form the common derivative kaurane-16,17-diol. The enzyme system is heat labile and is dependent upon ATP and Mg2+ or Mn2-, with Mn2+ being a more effective activator than Mg2+. The reaction rate was proportional to enzyme concentration in reaction mixtures containing 0.45 to 1.8 mg protein n/ml, and was linear with time through 120 minutes in standard reaction mixtures. Enzyme preparations from immature seeds of tall and dwarf peas appeared to synthesize (—)-kaurene at the same rate. Synthesis of (—)-kaurene was readily inhibited by Amo-1618. (2-Chloroethyl)-trimethylammonium chloride (CCC) also inhibited (—)-kaurene synthesis; however, approximately 1000-fold higher concentrations of CCC were required to evoke the same percentages of inhibition as Amo-1618.

Anderson, James D.; Moore, Thomas C.

1967-01-01

359

Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cassia tora seeds on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. After being fed a HFD for two weeks, rats were orally dosed with Cassia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) (100, 200, or 300mg/kg) once daily for 8weeks. CSEE induced dose-dependent reductions in plasma lipid levels, as well as decreased the over hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, CSEE treatment improved HFD-induced hepatic histological lesions. CSEE enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the livers of HFD-fed rats. AMPK inhibition by compound C retarded CSEE-induced reduction in triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells stimulated by insulin. Our findings suggest that CSEE may regulate hepatic lipid homeostasis related with an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation with CSEE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:23026700

Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

2012-09-28

360

Chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Although cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent, is used in the treatment of cancer owing to its broad-spectrum efficacy, its metabolites exhibit severe undesired toxicities in normal cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Rodents were orally pre-treated with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) for five consecutive days. On 5th day, these animals were injected with CP (50 mg/kg i.p) and sacrificed after 24 hrs. for the evaluation of oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, micronucleus formation, and chromosomal aberrations. Results: We found that the CP significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased catalase and glutathione (GSH) levels in brain, and it was significantly reversed by Coccinia indica extract (400 and 600 mg/kg). Further, pre-treatment with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced micronuclei formation and incidence of aberrant cells. We also found that the CP-induced increase in the serum biomarker enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced by Coccinia indica extract. Conclusion: Thus, the present results indicate the protective effect of Coccinia indica extract against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, as well as hepatotoxicity.

Nitharwal, Ramesh K; Patel, Hasit; Karchuli, Manvendra Singh; Ugale, Rajesh Ramesh

2013-01-01

361

Antibacterial properties of grapefruit seed extract against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae.  

PubMed

Twenty-one samples of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) either from marketed products or provided by an apiculturist were analysed to verify their inhibition activity, in particular against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, responsible for American foulbrood. The bactericide capacity of GSE has been measured in Bacillus subtilis BGA, Bacillus cereus 11778, Bacillus cereus K250 and Micrococcus luteus 9341a; these bacteria are normally used in the laboratory to study inhibitors. The results showed that not all GSE have the same inhibitory activity and two of those analysed do not inhibit the five bacteria used. Considering that 19 samples inhibited American foulbrood bacillus, the authors conclude that the use of a natural product (such as GSE) to control this important disease of bees, can be used as a substitute for chemotherapeutic products, after appropriate expedients. PMID:20437392

Semprini, P; Langella, V; Pasini, B; Falda, M T; Calvarese, S

362

Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit Platelet Aggregation by Inhibiting Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase.  

PubMed

Platelets play an important role in various thrombotic diseases, including myocardial infarction. Because red wine consumption is inversely associated with death due to ischemic heart diseases, the effects of grape components on platelet function have been extensively investigated. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) reportedly inhibit platelet aggregation; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. We discovered that GSEs inhibit platelet aggregation induced by collagen and thrombin-receptor agonist peptide and increase basal levels of tyrosine phosphorylation, which was also observed in the presence of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor. An in vitro phosphatase assay indicated that GSE dose dependently inhibited PTP-1B and Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 activity, which positively regulates platelet aggregation. We propose that GSEs inhibit platelet aggregation by inhibiting tyrosine phosphatase activity. Moreover, we showed that GSE ingestion inhibited platelet aggregation in mice without enhancing tail bleeding, implying that GSE supplementation might be beneficial to prevention of thrombotic diseases. PMID:23478570

Jin, Joseph Wuxun; Inoue, Osamu; Suzuki-Inoue, Katsue; Nishikawa, Go; Kawakami, Yoshinori; Hisamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Tohru; Ozaki, Yukio

2013-03-10

363

Effect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine whether grape seed extracts (GSE) that contain powerful vasodilator phenolic compounds lower blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups-(a) placebo, (b) 150 mg GSE per day, and (c) 300 mg GSE per day-and treated for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end. Blood pressure was recorded using an ambulatory monitoring device at the start of the treatment period and at the end. Both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were lowered after treatment with GSE as compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in serum lipids or blood glucose values. These findings suggest that GSE could be used as a nutraceutical in a lifestyle modification program for patients with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19608210

Sivaprakasapillai, Brahmesh; Edirisinghe, Indika; Randolph, Jody; Steinberg, Francene; Kappagoda, Tissa

2009-07-15

364

Use of instrumental acoustic parameters of winegrape seeds as possible predictors of extractable phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

The use of instrumental acoustic parameters produced during a compression test as reliable predictors of the extractable phenolic composition in intact winegrape seeds, determined by reference chemical methods, was evaluated by means of the analytical performance of calibration models. These models were developed only for those phenolic compounds most significantly and strongly correlated with the acoustic parameters. The analytical performance of the models was expressed in terms of standard error of cross-validation (SECV) and residual predictive interquartile amplitude (RPIQ), among other statistics. Several acoustic parameters showed satisfactory predictive accuracy for the percentage of galloylation in the terminal units, the content of (-)-epicatechin, and the mean degree of polymerization. Most of the reliable models developed are fairly recommended not for quantitative purposes but for fast screening (SECV% < 19, 1.6 < RPIQ < 2.1). PMID:23919565

Rolle, Luca; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Perenzoni, Daniele; Río Segade, Susana; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Mattivi, Fulvio

2013-09-05

365

Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate by coagulation/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract.  

PubMed

Among other natural flocculant/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim (FFG) and Gu-Zhu (GZ) models were used to adjust experimental data in a solid-liquid adsorption hypothesis. Last one resulted to be the most accurate one. Several data fit parameters were determined, as Freundlich order, which was found to be 1.66, Flory-Huggins interaction parameter from FFG model, which was found to be 4.87; and limiting Moringa surfactant adsorption capacity from GZ model, which was found to be 2.13 x 10(-3)mol/g. PMID:18824298

Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

2008-08-23

366

Analgesic activity of the aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata (K. Schum.) Hallier f. in rodents.  

PubMed

The analgesic effect and possible mechanism(s) of action of 50-200 mg/kg of the aqueous seed extract of H. umbellata (HU) were investigated in different experimental models of analgesia using the tail flick, tail immersion, acetic acid-induced writhing tests and formalin-induced algesia. Oral pre-treatment with 50-200 mg/kg of HU caused significant and dose related analgesic effect in the treated rats in all the experimental models used. This analgesia was mediated via central and peripheral mechanisms. Overall, the results showed that HU possesses analgesic effect which lends support to its folkloric use in the local management of pain. PMID:21941944

Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo Olaide; Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Alabi, Tope Elizabeth

2011-09-01

367

Effects of crude seed extracts of Annona atemoya and Annona squamosa L. against the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni in the laboratory and greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifeedant, growth inhibitory and toxic effects of crude seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona atemoya from Fazenda Viveiro Bona, Parasisópolis – Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated against the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using different bioassays. Crude methanolic seed extracts deterred feeding of third instar T. ni larvae in a leaf disc choice bioassay. A. squamosa was

Rita de Cássia Seffrin; Ikkei Shikano; Yasmin Akhtar; Murray B. Isman

2010-01-01

368

Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.  

PubMed

The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties. PMID:23292365

Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

2013-01-06

369

Beneficial effects of grape seed extract on malondialdehyde-modified LDL.  

PubMed

Following consecutive 12-wk administration of tablets containing 0, 200 or 400 mg grape seed extract (calculated as proanthocyanidin) to 61 healthy subjects with LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of 100 to 180 mg/dL, effects of such treatment compared to administration of placebo tablets on malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL), representing one oxidized type of LDL, were investigated by a single blind method. MDA-LDL level in the 200 mg (calculated as proanthocyanidin) group was significantly (p = 0.008) reduced compared to the basal level, 12 wk after the start of administration. In the 400 mg (calculated as proanthocyanidin) group, a significant decrease in MDA-LDL level compared to the basal level was found 6 and 12 wk after the start of administration (6 wk: p = 0.015, 12 wk: p = 0.009). Subjects with high levels of MDA-LDL/ApoB (MDA-LDL/ApoB > or = 100 mU/mL) in the 200 mg group showed significantly (p = 0.011) reduced MDA-LDL levels at 12 wk after the start of administration. In the 400 mg group, significant decreases in MDA-LDL level compared to the basal level were seen 6 and 12 wk after the start of administration (6 wk: p = 0.001, 12 wk: p < 0.001); and at week 6, significantly (p = 0.048) lower values were observed compared to those in patients who took placebo tablets (0 mg proanthocyanidin). In subjects demonstrating the least body weight changes during the test period (less than +/- 1.0 kg) in the 400 mg group, there was an increasing trend (p = 0.088) in adiponectin levels 12 wk after the start of treatment. These results suggested that tablets containing grape seed extract exerted reducing effects on oxidized LDL, and might be useful in preventing lifestyle-related diseases such as arteriosclerosis. PMID:17616006

Sano, Atsushi; Uchida, Riichiro; Saito, Makoto; Shioya, Nobuhiko; Komori, Yoshika; Tho, Yasuo; Hashizume, Naotaka

2007-04-01

370

Differential cytotoxic effects of Annona squamosa seed extracts on human tumour cell lines: Role of reactive oxygen species and glutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annonaceous acetogenins are a new class of compounds that have been reported to have potent pesticidal, parasiticidal, anti-microbial,\\u000a cell growth inhibitory activities. In this study, organic and aqueous extracts from the defatted seeds ofAnnona squamosa (custard apple) were tested on different human tumour cell lines for antitumoural activity. While organic and aqueous extracts\\u000a induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells,

B. V. V. Pardhasaradhi; Madhurima Reddy; A. Mubarak Ali; A. Leela Kumari; Ashok Khar

2005-01-01

371

Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic effect of proanthocyanidin-rich extracts from grape seeds in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Proanthocyanidin-rich extracts (0.1% and 1% in diets [w\\/w]) did not appreciably affect the changes in serum lipid profile of cholesterol-fed rabbits. The level of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (ChE-OOH) induced by 2,2?-azobis(2-amidinopropane-dihydrochloride (AAPH) were lower in the plasma of rabbits fed

Jun Yamakoshi; Shigehiro Kataoka; Takuro Koga; Toshiaki Ariga

1999-01-01

372

The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of\\u000a an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay,\\u000a and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays.\\u000a In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and

H. V. Annegowda; Rajeev Bhat; Liong Min Tze; A. A. Karim; S. M. Mansor

373

Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-initiating activities of crude polyphenolic extracts from seedless and seeded Indian grapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracts of crude polyphenols (seeds, pulp+skin, whole) from four different cultivars of Indian grapes were used in this study. The total polyphenolic contents of grape polyphenolic extracts (GPEs) were determined and their in vitro antioxidant and anti-initiating activities evaluated. The total polyphenolic contents, expressed in terms of gallic acid\\/catechin\\/procyanidin B3 equivalents, were found to vary significantly. Antioxidant activity of

Asha G. Ramchandani; Raghunathan S. Chettiyar; Shrirang S. Pakhale

2010-01-01

374

Oil extraction of oleic sunflower seeds by twin screw extruder: influence of screw configuration and operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of screw configuration, position of screw elements and spacing between them allowing to realize oil extraction of oleic sunflower seeds on a twin-screw extruder. Experiments were conducted using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder (Model Clextral BC 45, France). Twelve screw profiles were examined to define the best performance (oil extraction yield,

I. Amalia Kartika; P. Y. Pontalier; L. Rigal

2005-01-01

375

Quantification of copper and zinc species fractions in legume seeds extracts by SEC\\/ICP-MS: validation and uncertainty estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractions of Cu and Zn species in legume samples (common white bean, pea, chick pea and lentil seeds and defatted soybean flour) were analysed by on-line hyphenation of size exclusion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted by 0.02 mol l?1 Tris–HCl buffer solution, pH 7.5. The extraction efficiency lay in the region 60–90 and 60–80% for Cu

Oto Mestek; Jana Kom??nková; Richard Kopl??k; Markéta Borková; Miloslav Suchánek

2002-01-01

376

Extraction and identification of natural antioxidant from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree variety of Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil from the dried seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (variety of Malawi) was extracted with a mixture of chloroform\\/methanol (50?50). The induction period measurements demonstrated\\u000a a great resistance to oxidative rancidity. After degumming, there was a reduction of 74% in induction periods. The gums produced\\u000a were extracted with diethylether, n-butanol, and water, yielding four fractions: Fraction 1 (81.8%

Stavros Lalas; John Tsaknis

2002-01-01

377

The protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract against histopathological changes induced by Malayan cobra (Naja sputatrix) venom in rats.  

PubMed

Seed of Mucuna pruriens (Velvet beans) has been prescribed by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria as a prophylactic oral antisnake remedy. In the present studies, we investigated the protective effects of M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) against histopathological changes induced by intravenous injection of Naja sputatrix (Malayan cobra) venom in rats pretreated with the seed extract. Examination by light microscope revealed that the venom induced histopathological changes in heart and blood vessels in liver, but no effect on brain, lung, kidney and spleen. The induced changes were prevented by pretreatment of the rats with MPE. Our results suggest that MPE pretreatment protects rat heart and liver blood vessels against cobra venom-induced damages. PMID:19696731

Fung, S Y; Tan, N H; Liew, S H; Sim, S M; Aguiyi, J C

2009-04-01

378

Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activities of different extracts of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) pomace without seeds.  

PubMed

In this study, 100% methanolic extract (ME), 70% aqua-methanolic extract (AME) and 100% aqueous extract of seabuckthorn byproduct were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The total phenolic contents were high in AME (84.28 ± 1.58 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/gm of extract) compared to other extracts. All the extracts scavenged different in vitro radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC(50) values were lowest in AME for 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals, while ME had lowest values for hydroxyl radicals. The reducing power of the extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner and was highest in AME. The findings of this study revealed that seabuckthorn pomace without seed is one of the important resources as an antioxidant for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic or nutraceutical industries. PMID:21875373

Varshneya, Chandresh; Kant, Vinay; Mehta, Madhuri

2011-08-30

379

Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.  

PubMed

Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. PMID:22885021

Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

2012-08-01

380

Properties and binding forms of cadmium and nickel in protein extracts from bean seeds ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special ultrafiltration procedure in combination with photometry and atomic absorption spectrometry is described. This technique allows not only the determination of the qualitative distribution patterns of metals but also of the quantitative binding parameters of these metals to functional groups of organic compounds. The technique was applied to protein extracts of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The results show

Kirsten Lange-Hesse; Lothar Dunemann; Georg Schwedt

1994-01-01

381

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract.  

PubMed

The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2013-06-04

382

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2013-01-01

383

Extraction, isolation and characterisation of oil bodies from pumpkin seeds for therapeutic use.  

PubMed

Pumpkin, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family has been used frequently as functional medicines for therapeutic use. Several phytochemicals such as polysaccharides, phenolic glycosides, 13-hydroxy-9Z, 11E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of pumpkin, proteins from germinated seeds, have been isolated. Here the influence of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on the properties and stability of oil bodies from pumpkin (Cucurbita) were determined with a view to patterning oil body size and structure for future therapeutic intervention. Oil bodies from pumpkin seeds were extracted, isolated, characterised using optical microscopy, zeta potential and particle size distribution obtained. During microscopic analysis, the oil bodies were more intact and in an integrated form at the time of extraction but were ruptured with time. Water extracted oil bodies were spherical for all four layers where cream had larger oil bodies then upper curd. Lower curd and supernatant had considerably smaller size with lower curd densely packed and seemed to be rich in oil bodies than any of the four layers. At pH 3, in the absence of salt, the zeta potential is approximately +30 mV, but as the salt concentration increases, the ? potential rises at 10 mM but then decreases over the salt range. This trend continues for the upper curd, lower curd and the supernatant and the degree of the reduction (mV) in zeta potential is of the order creamseed oil bodies at an increasing pH (3, 7.4 and 9) and salt concentration (0, 10, 50 and 100 mM) across all four layers. The lowest average size distributions are seen at pH 7.4 across all four layers especially within the cream and upper curd layers. At pH 3 and 9, the highest average size distributions are seen in the lower curd and cream layers. Oil bodies can be extracted, isolated and from pumpkins using an aqueous extraction method and may prove to be a useful new source of lipids for application in patterning therapeutics for clinical use. PMID:23442639

Adams, Gary G; Imran, Shahwar; Wang, Sheng; Mohammad, Abubaker; Kok, M Samil; Gray, David A; Channell, Guy A; Harding, Stephen E

2012-04-19

384

Antimicrobial efficacy of endodontic irrigants from Azadirachta indica: An in vitro study.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. This study analyzed the antimicrobial effect of five irrigants formulated from different parts of the tree Azadirachta indica (Neem) and compared with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate through an agar diffusion test. Materials and methods. A clinical isolate of Candida albicans was innoculated on Sabourad Dextrose Agar and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) on Sheep Blood Agar. Wells with 6 mm diameter were created in agar and 100 ?L aliquiots of each irrigant were introduced to five different wells. After incubation, the largest uniform diameter of the inhibition zone was recorded. Results. The leaf extract of the tree and a mixture of the seed-bark powder dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide were active against both organisms. The other neem-based irrigants, a leaf powder dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, aqueous bark decoction and neem oil, did not possess any antimicrobial efficacy. Sodium hypochlorite completely inhibited growth of C. albicans and the leaf extract had larger inhibition zones than chlorhexidine (p = 0.011) or the seed-bark irrigant (p = 0.008). Against E. faecalis, inhibition zones with chlorhexidine were the largest and differed significantly from sodium hypochlorite (p = 0.039), leaf extract (p = 0.008) and seed-bark irrigant (p = 0.011). Conclusions. Two neem irrigants displayed antimicrobial properties. The efficacy of the standard endodontic irrigants varied depending on the organisms tested. Clinical relevance: Neem-based endodontic irrigants may be formulated for clinical application. PMID:23638768

Dutta, Arindam; Kundabala, Mala

2013-05-01

385

Bioavailability of intact proanthocyanidins in the rat colon after ingestion of grape seed extract.  

PubMed

Current evidence shows that monomeric flavonoids are known to be only slightly absorbed in the small intestine, but the metabolism of oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the colon is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to optimize the analysis of grape seed extract (GSE) in feces and use that method to assess the presence of PAC in the colon after ingestion of GSE. Rats were fed a diet ad libitum containing 0.25% (w/w) GSE for 10 days. Feces were collected daily and colonic contents at sacrifice on day 10, respectively. The recovery of fecal PAC using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was >70%. PAC were separated by normal-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection, and subsequent peak confirmation was done by MS-ion trap. The concentration of colonic contents at day 10 was 13.9 mg/kg for monomer, and those for oligomers (dimers-hexamers) were 33.4, 84.6, 87.2, 57.3, and 35.7 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of monomeric and oligomeric PAC in daily feces was similar among days. In the mass balance analysis, approximately 11% of ingested PAC was recovered in the feces. These findings indicate that ingested PAC were present in the colon as the intact parent compounds and thus may contribute to the health of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23244439

Choy, Ying Yng; Jaggers, Grayson K; Oteiza, Patricia I; Waterhouse, Andrew L

2012-12-17

386

Induction of apoptosis by grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) in oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Development of novel therapeutic modalities is crucial for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent scientific studies have been focused on herbal medicines as potent anti-cancer drug candidates. This study is the first to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of cell death induced by grape seed extract (GSE) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB cells). MTT (3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and trypan blue assays were performed in KB cells as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used to analyze the cytotoxic activity of GSE. Furthermore, the apoptosis-inducing action of the extract was determined by TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and cell death analysis. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Duncan's test at a significance level of P?0.05. The results showed apoptotic potential of GSE, confirmed by significant inhibition of cell growth and viability in a dose- and time- dependent manner without inducing damage to non-cancerous cell line HUVEC. The results of this study suggest that this plant contains potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23988171

Aghbali, Amirala; Hosseini, Sepideh Vosough; Delazar, Abbas; Gharavi, Nader Kalbasi; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare; Orangi, Mona; Bandehagh, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad

2013-08-01

387

Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on garlic-induced erythrocyte oxidative stress.  

PubMed

High garlic dose could exert adverse health properties and grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibit a variety of beneficial effects, even at high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxic effect of high garlic dose treatment on antioxidant status of the blood compartment and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered either with garlic extract (5 g/kg bw) or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily during one month. Plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. Data confirmed that high garlic dose induced anemia and a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes characterized by increased malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl protein and antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Garlic also elevated intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and free iron whereas GSSE treatment counteracted almost all garlic deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes via the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties. PMID:23070087

Hamlaoui, S; Mokni, M; Limam, N; Zouaoui, K; Ben Rayana, M C; Carrier, A; Limam, F; Amri, M; Marzouki, L; Aouani, E

2012-08-01

388

Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract containing pentagalloylglucose and procyanidins potentiates the cytotoxicity of vincristine.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was a comparison of Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok defatted seeds extract (EPE) effect with the activity of individual constituents of the extract: pentagalloylglucose (PGG), gallic acid, (+)-catechin and the procyanidin fraction, as well as an assessment of the combined effect of EPE and vincristine (VCR) in the absence or presence of MRP1 (indomethacin) and P-glycoprotein (verapamil) inhibitors, on two human cancer cell lines, metastatic melanoma (HTB-140) and hepatoma (HepG2). The presence of EPE, PGG and procyanidins caused a marked reduction in viability (MTT assay) and rise in mortality (LDH release assay) of HTB-140 cells. The combined use of EPE (25 ?g/mL) and VCR (1 ?M) in HTB-140 and HepG2 cells produced an increased cytotoxicity as compared to vincristine alone - by more than 4 and 1.5 times, respectively. In HTB-140 cells, the level of intracellular ATP (measured by bioluminescence) was lowered over 7-fold as a result of exposure to the combination of EPE and VCR, while the addition of MRP-1 inhibitor did not cause an increased cytotoxicity or further lowering of the ATP level. Our results demonstrate that EPE, containing PGG and procyanidins, significantly increased the sensitivity of cancer cells, particularly the melanoma cells, to the action of vincristine. PMID:21081808

Jaszewska, E; Kosmider, A; Kiss, A K; Naruszewicz, M

2010-10-01

389

Safety evaluation and nutritional composition of a Fraxinus excelsior seed extract, FraxiPure™.  

PubMed

A natural extract obtained from the seeds of Fraxinus excelsior L. (FraxiPure™) has been previously reported to reduce glycemia in animal models and in humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the safety of FraxiPure™ at in vitro, in vivo and human levels. In addition, nutritional analyses revealed an extract high in carbohydrates, with minor levels of protein, dietary fiber, glucose and sucrose. IC(50) and IC(90) values of 1.447 and 2.530 mg/mL, respectively, after 72 h incubation were calculated using the MTT assay. FraxiPure™ conferred a magnitude of protection of 69.2% against the formation of micronuclei in irradiated human lymphocytes as determined by the micronucleus assay. An LD(50) of greater than 2500 mg/kg was concluded following an acute oral toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats. A human safety evaluation in a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study of 100 healthy volunteers revealed no significant differences between daily consumption of 1000 mg of FraxiPure™ for 90 days and placebo (maltodextrin) for any of the biochemical or hematological parameters studied. Numbers of adverse events were similar in both groups, and were deemed mild to moderate. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the safety and tolerability of FraxiPure™ for consumption in healthy subjects. PMID:23201448

Flanagan, John; Meyer, Marjolaine; Pasamar, María Angeles; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Alvarez i Genoher, Nuria; Leiva, Sandra; Gomez-García, Francisco; Alcaraz, Miguel; Martínez-Carrasco, Alberto; Vicente, Vicente

2012-11-28

390

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Arabidopsis thaliana Seed Morphology Features Extracted Computationally From Images  

PubMed Central

Seeds are studied to understand dispersal and establishment of the next generation, as units of agricultural yield, and for other important reasons. Thus, elucidating the genetic architecture of seed size and shape traits will benefit basic and applied plant biology research. This study sought quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the size and shape of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds by computational analysis of seed phenotypes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the small-seeded Landsberg erecta × large-seeded Cape Verde Islands accessions. On the order of 103 seeds from each recombinant inbred line were automatically measured with flatbed photo scanners and custom image analysis software. The eight significant QTL affecting seed area explained 63% of the variation, and overlapped with five of the six major-axis (length) QTL and three of the five minor-axis (width) QTL, which accounted for 57% and 38% of the variation in those traits, respectively. Because the Arabidopsis seed is exalbuminous, lacking an endosperm at maturity, the results are relatable to embryo length and width. The Cvi allele generally had a positive effect of 2.6–4.0%. Analysis of variance showed heritability of the three traits ranged between 60% and 73%. Repeating the experiment with 2.2 million seeds from a separate harvest of the RIL population and approximately 0.5 million seeds from 92 near-isogenic lines confirmed the aforementioned results. Structured for download are files containing phenotype measurements, all sets of seed images, and the seed trait measuring tool.

Moore, Candace R.; Gronwall, David S.; Miller, Nathan D.; Spalding, Edgar P.

2013-01-01

391

Extraction of natural complex phenols and tannins from grape seeds by using supercritical mixtures of carbon dioxide and alcohol.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins are supposed to have some therapeutical properties as antioxidants and antineoplasics. Most of the proanthocyanidins, however, are not commercialized since their separation from natural sources is either very expensive or not well-known. In this work, the feasibility of application of mixtures of carbon dioxide and alcohol under supercritical conditions for selective extraction of some phenolic compounds from grape seeds has been studied, among them some low polymerized proanthocyanidins, their main monomer units, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds, like gallic acid. An analytical-scale supercritical fluid extractor, whose operation was previously optimized, was used to carry out the experiments. A commercial concentrate of complex phenols and tannins from grape seeds was subjected to supercritical extraction in order to find the best operation conditions before directly extracting defatted milled grape seeds. The solvent capacity was found to increase with pressure and with the amount of alcohol used as cosolvent as expected. Such variation in solvent capacity could be used for design of a selective separation process where individual phenolic compounds or groups of them could be obtained. HPLC coupled with two types of detectors, diode array and mass spectrometry, was used for tentative identification and quantification of complex phenols and tannins in the extracts and in the raw materials used for extraction. PMID:10956125

Murga, R; Ruiz, R; Beltrán, S; Cabezas, J L

2000-08-01

392

Biostatic activity of Coix lacryma seed extract on Toxoplasma gondii in macrophages.  

PubMed

Water extract of Coix lacryma seeds (Co-Ex) was separated into several components; dissolved with Tris-Cl buffer and the supernatant (WC1), ammonium sulfate treatment supernatant (WC2) and the pellet (WC3), QAE column chromatography of WC1 and the peak portions; WC4, WC5 and WC6. Murine peritoneal macrophages in DMEM containing 10% heat-inactivated FCS were infected with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, RH strain, in vitro. By adding modulators such as Co-Ex, WC1,2,3,4,5,6 and LPS or IFN-gamma for 24 hrs, toxoplasmastatic activity of macrophages was examined in relation to nitrite production. Nitrite production of macrophages was enhanced especially in the series of WC2, WC1 and the combination sample (WC1+WC2+WC3) by order, than other components or fractions (WC4, WC5, WC6) tested. Toxoplasmastatic actions such as percentage of the macrophages infected by T. gondii and fold increase of T. gondii in macrophages showed retroverse relations with the amount of nitrite production; i.e., as nitric oxide (NO) increased the phagocytic index of macrophages and the fold increase of tachyzoites in macrophages decreased. Nitrite (NO2) production was increased by adding IFN-gamma in all cases together with enhancement of biostatic effects. Through the results obtained, it is speculated that some components other than the non-proteinous and defatted components in Coix lacryma seeds may contribute to activate macrophages through induction of NO for the biostatic activity. PMID:8843696

Soh, C T; Kim, S H; Kim, K Y; Park, H; Chung, H T; Kim, T U; Jeon, S M; Han, Y B

1996-09-01

393

Extracts of Artemisia annua leaves and seeds mediate programmed cell death in Leishmania donovani.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is one of the major tropical parasitic diseases, and the condition ranges in severity from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral manifestations. There is no vaccine available against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) (also known as kala-azar in India), and current antileishmanial drugs face major drawbacks, including drug resistance, variable efficacy, toxicity and parenteral administration. We report here that n-hexane fractions of Artemisia annua leaves (AAL) and seeds (AAS) possess significant antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, with GI(50) of 14.4 and 14.6 µg ml(-1), respectively, and the IC(50) against intracellular amastigotes was found to be 6.6 and 5.05 µg ml(-1), respectively. Changes in the morphology of promastigotes and growth reversibility analysis following treatment confirmed the leishmanicidal effect of the active fractions, which presented no cytotoxic effect on mammalian cells. The antileishmanial activity was mediated via apoptosis, as evidenced by externalization of phosphatidylserine, in situ labelling of DNA fragments by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) and cell-cycle arrest at the sub-G(0)/G(1) phase. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting showed that the content of artemisinin in crude bioactive extracts (~1.4 µg per 100 µg n-hexane fraction) was too low to account for the observed antileishmanial activity. Characterization of the active constituents by GC-MS showed that ?-amyrinyl acetate, ?-amyrine and derivatives of artemisinin were the major constituents in AAL and cetin, EINECS 211-126-2 and artemisinin derivatives in AAS. Our findings indicate the presence of antileishmanial compounds besides artemisinin in the n-hexane fractions of A. annua leaves and seeds. PMID:22956747

Islamuddin, Mohammad; Farooque, Abdullah; Dwarakanath, B S; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

2012-09-06

394

The antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of phenolics of raw and dry heated moth bean ( Vigna aconitifolia) (Jacq.) Marechal seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidative properties and total phenolic contents of Vigna aconitifolia were examined. The raw and dry heated samples were extracted with 70% acetone and the extracts were freeze-dried. The raw seeds contained higher levels of total phenolics (6.54%) and tannins (1.91%) than the dry heated seeds. The extracts were screened for their potential antioxidant activities using O2-, OH, ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH),

Perumal Siddhuraju

2006-01-01

395

Canna indica flower: New source of anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the red flowers of Canna indica (Cannaceae) were extracted by using sonicator and isolation of anthocyanins have been carried out. Four anthocyanin pigments have been isolated apart from quercetin and lycopene. They are Cyanidin-3-O-(6??-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-glucopyranoside (1), Cyanidin-3-O-(6??-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-galactopyranoside (2), Cyanidin-3-O-?-glucopyranoside (3) and Cyanidin-O-?-galactopyranoside (4). These compounds were isolated by using HPLC and their structures were subsequently determined on the

Jyoti Srivastava; Padma S. Vankar

2010-01-01

396

Scolicidal effects of squash (Corylus spp) seeds, hazel (Curcurbia spp) nut and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts on hydatid cyst protoscolices  

PubMed Central

Background: Because there is no effective drug therapy for hydatid cyst yet, assessment and finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. Hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts’ scolicidal effects were examined. Materials and Methods: Suspension of protoscolices was obtained from infected liver and or lung of sheep and goats from Ziyaran abattoir. The chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts from hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic were extracted using the succilate method. Scolicidal effect of each extract assessed in different concentrations and effected time using microscopy and 0.1% eosin solution stained only killed protoscolices. Results: Present study showed that garlic had more potent scolicidal effects among all the 3 plants and the chloroformic extract of garlic was the most potent protoscolicid among all of the extracts and killed 98% of protoscolices in 50 mg/ml on a minimum of 20 minutes exposure. Conclusion: Garlic chloroformic extract is a safe and potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence.

Eskandarian, Abbas Ali

2012-01-01

397

Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).  

PubMed

Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:24128509

Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

2013-08-29

398

Acaricidal activity of four fractions and octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester isolated from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.  

PubMed

Four fractions obtained from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil by column chromatography were investigated for acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. Octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester was isolated from an active fraction of the chloroform extract and its toxicity against S. scabiei larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log model was used to analyse the toxicity data. Activity was found in the third fraction, with 100% corrected mortality after 4.5 h of exposure at a concentration of 200 mg ml(-1). This fraction was repeatedly re-crystallised in acetone to yield a white amorphous powder, identified as octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester, with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.1 mg ml(-1) at 24 h post-treatment. The median lethal time (LT(50)) for this compound was 15.3 h at a concentration of 7.5 mg ml(-1). PMID:19443124

Du, Yong-Hua; Li, Jin-Liang; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Qun

2009-04-15

399

Effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

As a highly toxic environmental pollutant, methylmercury (MeHg) can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans. Considering the antioxidant property of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE), this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of GSPE on MeHg-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Rats were exposed to MeHg by intraperitoneal injection (4, 12 ?mol/kg, respectively) and GSPE was administered by gavage (250 mg/kg) 2 h later. After a 4-week treatment, phosphate-activated glutaminase, glutamine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, glutamate, glutamine, malondialdehyde and glutathione contents in cerebral cortex were measured. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were also estimated in cells. The results showed that the MeHg-induced neurotoxicity was significantly attenuated. GSPE significantly decreased the production of ROS, counteracted oxidative damage and increased the antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes activities in rats prior to MeHg exposure. Moreover, the effects on the rate of apoptotic cells and the disturbance of glutamate homeostasis were correspondingly modulated. These observations highlighted the potential of GSPE in offering protection against MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:22116679

Yang, Haibo; Xu, Zhaofa; Liu, Wei; Wei, Yangang; Deng, Yu; Xu, Bin

2011-11-25

400

Hepatoprotection through regulation of voltage dependent anion channel expression by Amomum subulatum Roxb seeds extract  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) plays an important role in triggering the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) that leads to mitochondrial damage and induce apoptic or necrotic cell death. In the present study, the methanolic extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb. seeds (MEAS) was used to examine its effect on VDAC. Aminotransferase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium-induced liver MPT, and VDAC expression were used to evaluate the hepato protective effect of MEAS. Results: Pretreatment of mice with MEAS (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly blocked the CCl4-induced increase in AST and ALT activities. Pretreatment with MEAS showed significant preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to CCl4 control demonstrating the mitochondrial protection. In addition, pretreatment with MEAS at various concentrations exerted a dose-dependent effect against sensitivity to mitochondrial swelling induced by calcium. In addition, MEAS (300 mg/kg) significantly increased the transcription and translation of VDAC. Conclusion: Our data suggest that MEAS significantly prevents the damage to liver mitochondria through regulation of VDAC expression.

Parmar, Mihir Y.; Shah, Purvi A.; Gao, Jing; Gandhi, Tejal R.

2011-01-01

401

Induction of Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells by Grape Seed Extract Occurs via Activation of JNK  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize the functional role of JNK and other apoptotic pathways in grape seed extract (GSE)-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells by using pharmacologic and genetic approaches. Experimental Design Jurkat cells were treated with various concentrations of GSE for 12 h and 24 h, or with 50 ?g/ml of GSE for various time intervals, after which apoptosis, caspase activation, and cell signaling pathways were evaluated. Parallel studies were performed in U937 and HL-60 human leukemia cells. Results Exposure of Jurkat cells to GSE resulted in dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptosis and caspase activation, events associated with the pronounced increase in Cip1/p21 protein level. Furthermore, treatment of Jurkat cells with GSE resulted in marked increase in levels of phospho-JNK. Conversely, interruption of the JNK pathway by pharmacological inhibitor (e.g. SP600125) or genetic (e.g. siRNA) approaches displayed significant protection against GSE mediated lethality in Jurkat cells. Conclusions The result of the present study showed that GSE induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells through a process that involves sustained JNK activation and Cip1/p21 up-regulation, culminating in caspase activation.

Gao, Ning; Budhraja, Amit; Cheng, Senping; Yao, Hua; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

2009-01-01

402

Grape Seed Extract Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

One approach to control colorectal cancer (CRC) is its preventive intervention by dietary agents or those consumed as supplements. However, since most of these products are often consumed by patients as an alternative and complementary medicine (CAM) practice, a scientific base such as efficacy, mechanism and standardized preparation, needs to be developed. Grape seed extract (GSE) is one such supplement widely consumed by humans for its several health benefits. We reported recently that GSE inhibits CRC cell HT29 growth in culture and nude mice xenograft. Since GSE is available commercially through different vendors, here we assessed whether GSE from two different manufacturers produces comparable biological effects in a panel of human CRC cell lines. Our results show that irrespective of source, GSE strongly inhibits LoVo, HT29 and SW480 cell growth, with a G1 arrest in LoVo and HT29 cells, but an S and/or G2/M arrest in SW480 cell cycle progression. GSE also induced Cip/p21 levels in all three cell lines. Furthermore, an induction of apoptosis was observed in all three cell lines by GSE. Taken together, our findings suggest that GSE could be an effective CAM agent against CRC possibly due to its strong growth inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effects.

Kaur, Manjinder; Mandair, Reinuka; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

2008-01-01

403

The effect of supplementation of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on vascular dysfunction in experimental diabetes.  

PubMed

Increased oxidative stress and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation could underlie many of the vascular complications associated with diabetes. We aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), a natural antioxidant, on vascular responses and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control rats, untreated diabetic rats, and GSPE (100 mg/kg, for 6 weeks)-supplemented diabetic rats. Thoracic aorta rings of the rats were mounted in organ baths, and relaxant responses to acetylcholine (ACh), A23187, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were assayed in tissues precontracted with 60 mM KCl. Plasma samples used for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The endothelium-dependent relaxations in response to ACh and A23187 were impaired, but endothelium-independent relaxation in response to SNP did not change in diabetic rats. Supplementation with GSPE significantly improved the relaxant responses to ACh and A23187. The MDA level was significantly elevated and the plasma SOD activity was decreased in diabetic rats, but supplementation with GSPE attenuated the elevated MDA levels and increased plasma SOD activity. Thus supplementation of GSPE may attenuate oxidative stress through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and may restore endothelial function and reduce the risk of vascular disease in diabetes. PMID:21663473

Okudan, Nilsel; Bar??kaner, Hülagu; Gökbel, Hakk?; Sahin, Ay?e Saide; Belviranl?, Muaz; Baysal, Hatice

2011-06-11

404

Effect of selenium and grape seed extract on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats.  

PubMed

Indomethacin (IND) is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory agent that is known to induce severe gastric mucosal lesions. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of selenium (SEL), grape seed extract (GSE), and both on IND-induced gastric mucosal ulcers in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were given SEL, GSE, and both by oral gavage for 28 days, and then gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of 25 mg/kg IND. Malondialdehyde (MDA), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione, GSH) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) antioxidants, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in gastric mucosa, and serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were measured. Moreover, gastric ulcer index and preventive index were determined. Indomethacin increased the gastric ulcer index, MDA, TNF-?, and decreased PGE2 and non-enzymatic (GSH) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) antioxidants. Pretreatment with SEL, GSE, and both significantly decreased the gastric ulcer index, MDA, and TNF and increased antioxidants and PGE2. Histopathological observations confirm the gastric ulcer index and biochemical parameters. Selenium and GSE have a protective effect against IND-induced gastric ulcers through prevention of lipid peroxidation, increase of GSH, activation of radical scavenging enzymes, PGE2 generation, and anti-inflammatory activity. Co-administration of GSE and SEL is more effective than GSE or SEL alone. PMID:23456451

Abbas, Amr M; Sakr, Hussein F

2013-03-01

405

Protective effect of grape seed extracts on human lymphocytes: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Grape seed extracts (GSEs) possess a broad spectrum of antioxidative properties that protects various cells from free radicals and oxidative stress. In this study, the genoprotective effect of GSE on human lymphocytic DNA was studied using standard and lysed cell comet assays. Lymphocytes from 5 healthy subjects were pretreated with GSE in different concentrations. The standard and lysed cell comet assays were performed on treated, untreated, challenged, and unchallenged cells in parallel. Cells were then subjected to an oxidant challenge induced with 5-min exposures to hydrogen peroxide. In the standard comet assay, GSE significantly diminished hydrogen-peroxide-induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. In the lysed cell assay, however, the antioxidant effect was diminished at a higher GSE concentration. Data indicate that the cell membrane might play a role in limiting cellular access to antioxidants, which directly affects the genoprotective or potential pro-oxidant effect of antioxidants on human DNA. Using both standard and lysed cell comet assays in parallel could be a useful way to elucidate the mechanism of protection or damage by antioxidants. PMID:23537018

Szeto, Yim Tong; Lee, Kit Yee; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

2013-03-11

406

Sensory and consumer perception of the addition of grape seed extracts in cookies.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to understand sensory and instrumental similarities and differences among an array of cookies made with bulk and microencapsulated grape seed extract (GSE) and then to determine how these differences impact consumer acceptance. Total of 4 types of cookies (control, enriched with bulk GSE, and enriched with 2 different microencapsulated GSE) were evaluated by instrumental analyses, a sensory trained panel using the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA®) methodology, and a consumer acceptance test that included a usage and attitude survey. The addition of GSE resulted in darker brown cookies; microencapsulation partially masked the color that the GSE conferred to the cookies. The cookies with the microencapsulated GSE showed a significant higher antioxidant activity, microencapsulation may have reduced the GSE heat degradation. The QDA(®) trained panelists found the enriched cookies to be more astringent and with aromas and flavors similar to whole grains flours. Consumers rated the control cookie and 1 GSE encapsulated cookie at parity; they were equally well liked (P > 0.05). When provided with information, nearly 60% of consumers stated that they were willing to purchase cookies enriched with antioxidants. This high positive percentage may increase if consumers received more education on the health benefits of antioxidant consumption. PMID:23170916

Davidov-Pardo, G; Moreno, M; Arozarena, I; Marín-Arroyo, M R; Bleibaum, R N; Bruhn, C M

2012-11-21

407

Pancreatic islet proteome profile in Zucker fatty rats chronically treated with a grape seed procyanidin extract.  

PubMed

Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to modify glucose metabolism and ?-cell functionality through its lipid-lowering effects in a diet-induced obesity model. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronically administrated GSPE on the proteomic profile of pancreatic islets from Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) experiment was conducted and 31 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in ZF rats treated with GSPE compared to untreated ZF rats. Of these proteins, five subcategories of biological processes emerged: hexose metabolic processes, response to hormone stimulus, apoptosis and cell death, translation and protein folding, and macromolecular complex assembly. Gene expression analysis supported the role of the first three biological processes, concluding that GSPE limits insulin synthesis and secretion and modulates factors involved in apoptosis, but these molecular changes are not sufficient to counteract the genetic background of the Zucker model at a physiological level. PMID:22953944

Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pallarès, Victor; Ubaida Mohien, Ceereena; Baiges, Isabel; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

2012-06-29

408

Ovicidal effects of a neem seed extract preparation on eggs of body and head lice.  

PubMed

The eggs (nits) of head and body lice (Pediculus humanus capitis, Pediculus humanus corporis) were incubated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 or 45 min into a neem seed extract contained in a fine shampoo formulation (e.g. Wash Away® Louse), which is known for its significant killing effects of larvae and adults of head lice. The aim of the study was to test whether the developmental stages inside the eggs are also killed after the incubation into the shampoo. It was found that an incubation time of only 5 min was sufficient to prohibit any hatching of larvae, whilst 93 ± 4% of the larvae in the untreated controls of body lice hatched respectively about 76% of the controls in the case of head lice. Apparently, the neem-based shampoo blocked the aeropyles of the eggs, thus preventing the embryos of both races of lice from accessing oxygen and from releasing carbon dioxide. Thus, this product offers a complete cure from head lice upon a single treatment, if the lice (motile stages, eggs) are fully covered for about 10 min. PMID:21484346

Mehlhorn, Heinz; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Schmidt, Jürgen; Semmler, Margit

2011-04-12

409

Myristica fragrans Seed Extract Protects Against Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice.  

PubMed

Abstract Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000?mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin [IL]-1?, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed. PMID:24063406

Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

2013-09-24

410

Oxidative stability and chemical safety of mayonnaise enriched with grape seed extract.  

PubMed

Grape seed extract (GSE), a by-product from the wine industry, was explored for its use as enrichment to mayonnaise, due to its potential health effects. Mayonnaises were enriched with 0 mg GSE per mL, 0.5 mg GSE per mL (?0.050%), 0.9 mg GSE per mL (?0.10%) and 1.4 mg GSE per mL (?0.15%) during preparation and stored in the dark at room temperature for 8 weeks. The antioxidative capacity of the mayonnaises was evaluated by their ability to scavenge the stable radical TEMPO by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The oxidative stability of the mayonnaises was determined by the content of lipid hydroperoxides (peroxide value, POV), the content of conjugated diene hydroperoxides and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The highest antioxidative capacity and the lowest content of lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS were found in the mayonnaise with the highest percentage of GSE (0.15%). Therefore, the oxidative stability of the mayonnaises enriched with GSE was slightly improved through storage. However, mayonnaise without GSE had the highest sensorial acceptability compared to mayonnaise enriched with GSE. In the Artemia salina assay, a fast screening method for overall toxicity, the death rate of brine shrimps larvae was found to increase for increasing percentage of GSE. A level of 0.05% GSE in mayonnaise is concluded not to constitute any toxicological risks, but to provide significant protection against oxidation during storage. PMID:24064585

Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

2013-10-24

411

Pomegranate seed extract attenuates chemotherapy-induced liver damage in an experimental model of rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether antioxidant pomegranate seed extract (PSE) has a preventive effect on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Rabbits were divided into 3 groups (n=6):1—Control group (0.9 % saline. i.p) 2—Cisplatin group (a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p) 3— A single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p) + PSE (250 mg/kg/day, i.p) for 6 consecutive days before and 6 consecutive days after a single intraperitoneal dose of 5 mg/kg body weight cisplatin. Liver function enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were found significantly higher in cisplatin group compared to control. Liver catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities decreased with cisplatin treatment but glutathione (GSH) level was increased. In cisplatin + PSE group, liver function enzyme activities and tissue MDA levels were found lower than cisplatin group. PSE ameliorated cisplatin-induced pathological changes. As a result it was demonstrated that PSE has protective effects against cisplatin hepatotoxicity in rabbit. PMID:23374454

Yildirim, N C; Kandemir, F M; Ceribasi, S; Ozkaraca, M; Benzer, F

2013-02-02

412

Valorization of an agro-industrial waste, mango seed, by the extraction and characterization of its cellulose nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Mango seeds are lignocellulosic agro-industrial residues available in large quantities in tropical countries and are simply discarded or used as animal feed. They are a natural and renewable resource, and were used to generate new polymeric materials in this work. This new materials can be used as alternatives to fossil resources such as petroleum. This work aimed to extract and characterize cellulose nanocrystals (CN) from mango seed by acid hydrolysis to obtain a material suitable as a reinforcing agent in the manufacturing of nanocomposites. The fibers of mango seeds were ground in mills and purified mainly to remove lignin. The raw mango seed (MS) and the purified mango seed (PMS) were analyzed for chemical composition and characterized by infrared and X-rays. Cellulose nanocrystals from the mango seed (CNM) were isolated by acid hydrolysis at 40 °C for 10 min, with 20 ml of H2SO4 (11.21 M) used for every gram of cellulose. The yield at this step was 22.8%. CNM were needle-shaped, with high crystallinity (90.6%), good thermal stability (around 248 °C), a medium length (L) of 123.4 ± 22.1 nm and a diameter (D) of 4.59 ± 2.22 nm, giving an aspect ratio (L/D) of about 34.1 ± 18.6. The diameter measurements of CNM were also confirmed by Scherrer's equation. This work also aimed to reuse mango seed produced as industrial waste, giving it a useful application and preventing its role as an environmental pollutant. PMID:23542530

Henrique, Mariana Alves; Silvério, Hudson Alves; Flauzino Neto, Wilson Pires; Pasquini, Daniel

2013-03-29

413

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and its antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150-300 bar), temperature (40-50 °C) and dynamic extraction time (60-120 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The SC-CO(2) extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9%) as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO(2) extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO(2) extraction conditions. PMID:23322066

Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

2013-01-15

414

Antihyperglycaemic effect of Mangifera indica in rat.  

PubMed

The leaves of Mangifera indica are used as an antidiabetic agent in Nigerian folk medicine. To determine whether or not there is a scientific basis for this use, the effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves on blood glucose level was assessed in normoglycaemic, glucose - induced hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous extract given orally (1 g/kg) did not alter the blood glucose levels in either normoglycaemic or STZ-induced diabetic rats. In glucose - induced hyperglycaemia, however, antidiabetic activity was seen when the extract and glucose were administered simultaneously and also when the extract was given to the rats 60 min before the glucose. The hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract was compared with that of an oral dose of chlorpropamide (200 mg/kg) under the same conditions. The results of this study indicate that the aqueous extract of the leaves of Mangifera indica possess hypoglycaemic activity. This action may be due to an intestinal reduction of the absorption of glucose. However, other different mechanisms of action cannot be excluded. PMID:10479762

Aderibigbe, A O; Emudianughe, T S; Lawal, B A

1999-09-01

415

Supercritical fluid CO 2 extraction and simultaneous determination of eight annonaceous acetogenins in Annona genus plant seeds by HPLC–DAD method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) isolated from Annonaceae plants exhibited a broad range of biological bioactivities such as cytotoxic, antitumoral, antiparasitic, pesticidal and immunosuppresive activities. However, their structures were liable to change at more than 60°C and their extraction yields were low using traditional organic solvent extraction. In the present study, all samples from Annona genus plant seeds were extracted by supercritical

Haijun Yang; Xiang Li; Yuping Tang; Ning Zhang; Jianwei Chen; Baochang Cai

2009-01-01

416

Modulation of di- (2- ethylhexyl) phthalate induced hepatic toxicity by Apium graveolens L. seeds extract in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Apium graveolens L. (celery) seeds was tested against Di-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Oral administration of DEHP (1000 mg\\/kg b.wt\\/day) for 6 weeks in rats caused a significant increase in the levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase

G. C. Jain; Hemant Pareek; Kusum Jain; S. Jhalani; S. Agarwal

417

TOXICITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF DRUMSTICK, Moringa oleifera, SEEDS TO NILE TILAPIA, Oreochromis niloticus, FINGERLINGS AND ADULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 96-h bioassay was conducted to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings and adults to aqueous extracts of drumstick, Moringa oleifera seeds. The 24-h, 48-h, 72-h and 96-h LC50 of M. oleifera applied to O. niloticus fingerlings were 252, 251, 242 and 242 mg\\/l, respectively; while those applied to O. niloticus adults were 351,

E. O. Ayotunde; O. A. Fagbenro; O. T. Adebayo; A. I. Amoo

418

Inhibition of Seed Germination by Extracts of Bitter Hawkesbury Watermelon Containing Cucurbitacin, a Feeding Stimulant for Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside signiÞcantly inhibited germination of

Phyllis A. W. Martin; Michael Blackburn

2003-01-01

419

Free radical scavenging and antiatherogenic activities of Sesamum indicum seed extracts in chemical and biological model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging consensus underscores the importance of oxidative events in vascular disease including excess production of reactive oxygen\\/nitrogen species (ROS\\/RNS), in addition to lipoprotein oxidation. Sesamum indicum has long been used extensively as a traditional food. The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant action of aqueous and ethanolic seed extracts from S. indicum using various in vitro ROS\\/RNS

Nishant P. Visavadiya; Badrish Soni; Nirav Dalwadi

2009-01-01

420

Twin-screw extruder for oil processing of sunflower seeds: Thermomechanical pressing and solvent extraction in a single step  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new application of twin-screw extruder as a machine to conduct a thermo-mechanical pressing and a solvent extraction of sunflower oil in a single step and in a continuous mode was studied. Experiments were conducted using a CLEXTRAL BC 45 co-rotating twin-screw extruder and whole sunflower seeds with fatty acid methyl esters as a solvent. The influences of screw rotation

I. Amalia Kartika; P. Y. Pontalier; L. Rigal

2010-01-01

421

Observations on effects of a neem seed extract (MiteStop®) on biting lice (mallophages) and bloodsucking insects parasitizing horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair of 300 horses belonging to short hair and long hair races had been routinely treated during the last 3 years with\\u000a a neem seed extract (MiteStop®) in order to kill mallophages (e.g., specimens of the genus Werneckiella). It was found that in all cases, a hidden infestation with these biting lice had existed, which became visible when the\\u000a product

Saleh Al-Quraishy; Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid; Julia Mehlhorn; Heinz Mehlhorn

422

Natural and acquired resistance of bacteria associated with food processing environments to disinfectant containing an extract from grapefruit seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to a new disinfectant amongst typical food spoilage organisms and factors influencing its activity have been studied. The results obtained reveal that a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria exhibit resistance to the disinfectant which is produced from grapefruit seed extract. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive. The minimum inhibitory concentration for nine out of 10 Gram-negative strains tested exceeded the

Gunhild Sundheim; Solveig Langsrud

1995-01-01

423

Validation of a quantitative NMR method for suspected counterfeit products exemplified on determination of benzethonium chloride in grapefruit seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method for quantitative determination of benzethonium chloride (BTC) as a constituent of grapefruit seed extract was developed. The method was validated, assessing its specificity, linearity, range, and precision, as well as accuracy, limit of quantification and robustness. The method includes quantification using an internal reference standard, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, and regarded as simple, rapid, and easy

Somer Bekiroglu; Olle Myrberg; Kristina Östman; Marianne Ek; Torbjörn Arvidsson; Torgny Rundlöf; Birgit Hakkarainen

2008-01-01

424

Antioxidative effect of extracts from red grape seed and peel on lipid oxidation in oils of sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidative effect of red grape seed (RGS) and red grape peel (RGP) ethanolic extracts on primary and secondary lipid oxidation in sunflower and conjugated sunflower (SF\\/CSF) oils was evaluated. Lipid oxidation was analysed at 60°C using three methods; conjugated diene (CD) measurements for primary oxidation product development, static headspace gas chromatography (SHGC), and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to

Emad S. Shaker

2006-01-01

425

Catechin-Rich Grape Seed Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL\\/6J Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Grape seed extracts (GSE) are known to present health benefits such as antioxidative and anti-obesity effects in animal models. The purpose of this research is to determine whether the specially manufactured GSE, catechin-rich GSE (CGSE), can protect against obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and to address the mechanism underlying this effect. Methods: The componential analysis of CGSE

Kana Ohyama; Chie Furuta; Yoshihito Nogusa; Kenzo Nomura; Tetsuya Miwa; Katsuya Suzuki

2011-01-01

426

Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model  

PubMed Central

Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of grape fruits and seeds in stress induced disorders.

Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

2005-01-01

427

Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of ethanol extracts of seeds, pericarp and leaves of Eugenia Jamolana in rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of ethanol extracts of seeds, pericarp and leaves of Eugenia Jamolana (E. Jamolana) on inflammation, gastric ulcer, anti-oxidants and hepatoprotective in rats. The acute inflammation was induced by intra-plantar injection of carrageenan (100 microl of 1 %) in the rat hind paw. Gastric ulcer was evoked by indomethacin (25 mg/kg) oral administration. Liver damage was induced by given CCL4 (2.5 ml/kg) orally. The median lethal (LD(50)) of the ethanol extract of both seeds and pericarp were determined and revealed that the investigated extracts of seeds and pericarp were non toxic up to 5 g/kg. The anti-inflammatory results showed that the oral administration of ethanol extract of E. Jamolana seeds (250, 500 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of oedema formation in dose-dependent manner by -27.86, -41.23, -44.73, -51.78 % and by -63.16, -37.77, -47.04, -55.36 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively. While the pericarp given at dose (500 mg/kg) exhibited significant inhibition of the oedema formation by -34.64, -21,8, 19.23 and -33.47 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively post carrageenan injection as compared with saline control group. E. Jamolana leaves fraction 1 given orally at dose of 25 mg/kg, induced non significant change on oedema, while the oedema response was significantly inhibited by -25.14, -33.4, -20.57 and -26.46 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively in group of rats that received leaves fraction 2 at the same dose. Rats were given leaves fraction 3 extract showed inhibition of oedema formation by -4.48 % at 1(st) h post- carrageenan injection, while at 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) h showed non significant change on oedema formation. The acute gastric mucosal lesions was significantly reduced by given ethanol extract of E. Jamolana seeds, pericarp (250, 500 mg/kg) and leaves fractions 1, 2 and 3 (25 mg/kg) respectively in dose dependent manner, as compared with indomethacin treated group (control group). All tested extracts showed significant reduction in elevated serum ALT, AST and ALP levels as compared with CCl4 treated group. The ethanol extract of E. Jamolana seeds, pericarp and leaves fractions 1, 2, 3 showed significant elevation of blood GSH level and significant reduction in elevated plasma lipid peroxides (MDA) as compared with CCl4 treated group. In conclusion we can see that the ethanol extracts of E. Jamolana of seeds, pericarp and leaves fractions showed anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidants activity. PMID:19112587

El-Shenawy, S M A

2009-04-01

428

Effects of aqueous extract of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) on seed germination and radicle elongation of Monochoria vaginalis var. plantaginea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the allelopathic potentials of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) on seed germination and radicle elongation of Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.