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1

Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as tannic acid equivalents) followed by CCl4 treatment, caused restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation to values close to control while peroxidase was restored to 67 % of the control. Histopathological studies of liver of different groups supported the protective effects of TSCE by restoring the hepatic architecture. These studies could be further extended to exploit its possible application for the preservation of food products as well as a health supplement and neutraceutical. PMID:25190852

Sandesh, P; Velu, V; Singh, R P

2014-09-01

2

Effects of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) seed kernel extracts from different solvents on the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernels prepared from various solvents affected the behavior and fecundity of the carmine spider mite,Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.).\\u000a \\u000a Bean leaf discs freshly sprayed with different concentrations of the extracts strongly repelled the females from the treated\\u000a leaves and egg-laying was reduced. On the basis of EC 50s for both parameters, the order of

K. R. S. Ascher

1983-01-01

3

Morphological alterations in toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus exposed to neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf and seed aqueous extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mode of action of the extracts prepared from neem plant i.e., Azadirachta indica on aflatoxin formation in toxigenic Aspergillus species is not well understood. Aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was suppressed depending on the concentration of the plant aqueous extract (0, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, and 50% v\\/v) added to the culture media at the time of spore inoculation.

Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh; Abdolamir Allameh; Taki Tiraihi; Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi; Mehdi Ghorbanian

2005-01-01

4

Effect of neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) seeds and leaves extract on some plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

In this study plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were chosen to study the effect of ethanolic, hexane and methanolic extracts of neem seeds and leaves. Antifungal effects of neem leave and seed extracts obtained by ethanol, hexane and ptrolium ether were examined separately in vitro against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results indicated that seeds and leaves extracts could cause growth inhibition of tested fungi, although the rate of inhibition of tested fungi varied with different extracts and concentrations. But all these extracts and concentrations of extract inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi at a significant level. Azadirachtin, nimonol and expoxyazdirodione were detected from neem extract by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We can conclude that neem leave and seed extracts were effective as antifungal against all tested fungi but F. oxysporum and R. solani were the most sensitive fungi. PMID:19947185

Moslem, M A; El-Kholie, E M

2009-07-15

5

Characterization and storage stability of the extract of Thai mango (Mangifera indica Linn. Cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernels.  

PubMed

Qualitative analysis of hydrolysable extract from mango (Mangifera indica Linn. cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernel was performed by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RPHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). The main phenolic compound was identified as methyl gallate by comparing their retention time, UV-vis absorption spectra and mass spectra with a reference standard. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by HPLC-DAD, which revealed that the extract contained total phenolics at a concentration of 194.1 mg GAE/g dry weight of mango seed kernel (MSK), of which 85.7% was identified as methyl gallate. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the extract and the main compound were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays, by the ferric thiocyanate method and by an assay of metal chelating activity. Tyrosinase inhibition was also investigated. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content of MSK extract stored in a plastic (polyethylene) PE bag decreased during storage at freezing (-20 °C), refrigerated (7 °C) and room (28-32 °C) temperature for 182 days. The loss of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content increased at higher storage temperatures for more than 182 days. PMID:25114335

Maisuthisakul, Pitchaon; Gordon, Michael H

2014-08-01

6

In vitro acaricidal effect of plant extract of neem seed oil ( Azadirachta indica) on egg, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the plant extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) on eggs, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum was studied at concentrations of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8%. The extract was found to have a significant effect on the hatching rate of eggs. It significantly increased the hatching rate during the first 7 days post-treatment (DPT) giving incompletely

S. Abdel-Shafy; A. A. Zayed

2002-01-01

7

In vitro acaricidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts with known azadirachtin concentrations against Rhipicephalus microplus.  

PubMed

The effect of four extracts from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) containing 2000, 5000, 9000 and 10,000 ppm of azadirachtin A (AZA), quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diluted to 1.25%; 2.5%; 5.0%; 10.0% and 12.8% was verified by in vitro tests with engorged females and larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The results from the bioassays with the engorged females showed that the main toxic effect of the extracts was reduction of the reproductive parameters, with a sharp drop in the number of eggs laid and the hatching rate, mainly when the extracts were diluted to 10.0% and 12.8%. The product effectiveness (PE) calculations for all the solutions tested showed that the AZA solution at 10,000 ppm (N10) was the most effective. However, statistical analysis of the PE data obtained for the proportional AZA concentrations in the different diluted extracts showed significance (P<0.05) of the effects included in the model (extract dilution, principle effect (classificatory) of the assay (extract) and the interaction between the two), indicating significant variations due to the dilution, the test and the interaction between the two factors in the tests with engorged females. For solutions N2, N5, and N9, it was not possible to estimate LC(90) values in the dilution range tested. The lowest LC(50) was observed for extract N5, and although extract N10 was the only extract for which the LC(90) could be estimated within the range tested, the LC(50) was higher than for N5 and N9. These results suggest that substances other than AZA present in the extracts influenced the efficacy, especially up to a certain LC range. In the tests with larvae, no mortality was observed, indicating zero effectiveness of all the extracts tested. The results of the tests with engorged females showed that the neem extracts had acaricide activity, inhibiting egg laying and the larval hatching rate. Complementary studies are necessary to develop new methods to isolate and/or identify other substances besides AZA contained in this plant, to enable using products made from it as acaricides. PMID:21536387

Giglioti, R; Forim, M R; Oliveira, H N; Chagas, A C S; Ferrezini, J; Brito, L G; Falcoski, T O R S; Albuquerque, L G; Oliveira, M C S

2011-09-27

8

Toxicity of neem (Azadirachta Indica) seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents, on the spider chiracanthium mildei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of neem seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents against the predatory spider,Chiracanthium mildei L. Koch, was investigated. The order of toxicity of the 4% extracts was pentane < acetone < ethanol << methanol = water (nontoxic).\\u000a All extracts were nontoxic at 2.5%.

F. A. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; N. Omari

1986-01-01

9

Antifeedant activity of fruit and seed extracts of Melia azedarach and azadirachta indica on larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of seeds and fruits of the chinaberry tree,Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae), showed strong antifeedant activity against 2nd instar larvae ofSesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a very serious pest of maize(Zea mays L.) in Mediterranean countries. Extracts were applied in an artificial diet at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 ppm. The parameters\\u000a used to evaluate the activity were larval

Andreu Juan; Albert Sans; Magí Riba

2000-01-01

10

A stereological study of effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indica Linn was used as a traditional medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus in human and experimental animals. This study investigated effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds (AETIS) against STZ-induced damages in pancreatic islands by means of stereological methods. sixty matured normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 gr, were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Control, STZ-induced diabetic; by intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/Kg streptozotocin, Treated control group (TC); received AETIS at a dose of 200mg/kg/day, and AETIS treated diabetic groups (TD1-3); received respectively AETIS at the dose of 50, 100,and 200 mg/kg/day by gavage from one week after induction of diabetes by STZ. After 8 weeks of experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume weighted mean islets volume, mass of beta cells, islets, and pancreas and total number of islets were done. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume weighted mean islets volume, volume density islets/pancreas, volume density beta cells/islet, mass of islets and pancreas of treated diabetic groups (TD1-3) were significantly higher than untreated diabetic group (P<0.001), and in TD3 group these values were comparable to controls. Although total volume and mass of beta cells in TD1-3 were significantly higher than D group but they were significantly lower than control group (P>0.05). Total number of islets, pancreas wet weight and volume did not show any significant changes between control and experimental groups (P>0.05). Results suggested that AETIS partially restores pancreatic beta cells and repairs STZ-induced damages in rats. PMID:20884458

Hamidreza, Hamidreza; Heidari, Zahra; Shahraki, Mohammadreza; Moudi, Bita

2010-10-01

11

Controlling rice blast in vitro and in vivo with extracts of Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and ethanol leaf extracts, and oil extract of seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem) significantly reduced the in vitro radial growth of Pyricularia oryzae and the development and spread of blast disease in rice plants in the greenhouse. Oil extracts exhibited the best control of the pathogen and subsequent disease followed by ethanol extract, cold water and then hot water

A. C. Amadioha

2000-01-01

12

effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts from different solvents on the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and the phytophagous mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of neem seed kernel extracts from different solvents on the predacious mitePhytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and the phytophagous miteTetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) were compared. All extracts were much more toxic to the latter pest than to the former. Using the respective LC50 for the two species, the toxicity index (LC50\\u000a Phytoseiulus\\/LC50\\u000a Tetranychus) was found to be 3 for the methanol,

F. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; N. Omari

1987-01-01

13

Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

14

Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26?±?2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38?±?2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26?±?2 °C; -38?±?2 °C; and -26?±?2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38?±?2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower (P?

Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

2013-01-01

15

Spermicidal activity of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effective concentration of aqueous extract of old and tender Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves to immobilize and kill 100% human spermatozoa within 20 s. Sander–Cramer test was used to study the spermicidal activity of neem leaf extract. Under the test conditions, minimum effective spermicidal concentrations for tender and old leaf extracts were

B Khillare; T. G Shrivastav

2003-01-01

16

Purification of Azadirachta indica seed cake and its impact on nutritional and antinutritional factors.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica Juss. (family Meliaceae) is a vital plant with multiple agricultural and medicinal utilities. The seed cake after oil extraction can be a good source of nutrition in animal feed. The limitation to its use is the presence of azadirachtin, salannin, and other bitter constituents. To make it palatable for use as a source of animal nutrition it was detoxified using 50 and 80% methanol and was analyzed for contents of azadirachtin, salannin, and nutritional contents such as total carbohydrates, protein, crude fiber, in vitro protein digestibility, and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), prior to and after purification. The contents of azadirachtin and salannin were quantified using HPTLC and HPLC. Various validation parameters were also investigated. A highly significant decrease of antinutritional factor (TIA) was recorded after purification of samples, retaining the contents of protein, carbohydrates, crude fiber, and in vitro protein digestibility. The purified seed cake was found to be free of azadirachtin and salannin contents. PMID:20218605

Saxena, Mohanji; Ravikanth, Kotagiri; Kumar, Abhishek; Gupta, Ashish; Singh, Brijpal; Sharma, Anirudh

2010-04-28

17

Possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract: Part V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on serotonin inhibition in glucose mediated insulin release in rat pancreas was studied in vitro to elucidate the possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic effect of A. indica leaf extract. A. indica leaf extract blocks significantly (P<0.05) the inhibitory effect of serotonin on insulin secretion mediated by glucose.

R. R Chattopadhyay

1999-01-01

18

Molluscicidal effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts on edible tropical land snails.  

PubMed

The effects of 350, 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) of crude extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica A Juss, on edible tropical land snails Archachatina marginata and Limicolaria aurora (Jay) were determined and compared with control using pawpaw, Carica papaya L as bait. Responses were measured through normal feeding, cessation of food intake, cessation of crawling, mucus secretion, lack of response to mechanical stimuli (mortality) and decomposition. Results showed no effects on the controls or snails exposed to neem seed oil extract. Crude extracts of bark, root and leaf of neem at 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) produced mortality after exposure for 48 h for L aurora and 72 h for A marginata. PMID:14971686

Ebenso, Ime E

2004-02-01

19

Spermicidal activity of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effective concentration of aqueous extract of old and tender Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves to immobilize and kill 100% human spermatozoa within 20 s. Sander-Cramer test was used to study the spermicidal activity of neem leaf extract. Under the test conditions, minimum effective spermicidal concentrations for tender and old leaf extracts were 2.91 +/- 0.669 mg/million sperm and 2.75 +/- 0.754 mg/million sperm, respectively. The effect of extracts on morphology and viability of sperm was also studied and no change was observed in morphology of head, mid-piece and tail and no viable sperm seen. The leaf extracts were found to be water soluble and carbohydrate in nature. The effect of different concentrations of extracts (old and tender) on percentage motility of the sperm was also studied. With an increase in concentration, there is a linear decrease in percentage motility, becoming zero at a 3-mg dose within 20 s. PMID:14561544

Khillare, B; Shrivastav, T G

2003-09-01

20

Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051. PMID:22072893

Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Obiiyeke, Grace E.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Okoh, Anthony I.

2011-01-01

21

Possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract: Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats has already been reported. In the present investigation effects of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on blood and liver glutathione, Na+K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats have been studied with a view to elucidate possible mechanism behind its hepatoprotective

R. R. Chattopadhyay

2003-01-01

22

A Search for Hepatoprotective Activity of Fruit Extract of Mangifera indica L. Against Oxidative Stress Cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and their components are commonly used in folk medicine for many curative effects. The protective\\u000a effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. fruit (Mango Extract) (20, 50 and 100 ?g\\/ml)\\u000a and also gallic acid (100 ?M) as a pure compound in the extract were examined against oxidative stress toxicity induced by\\u000a cumene hydroperoxide (CHP)

Jalal Pourahmad; Mohammad Reza Eskandari; Rashin Shakibaei; Mohammad Kamalinejad

2010-01-01

23

High frequency plant regeneration from the mature seeds of Garcinia indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high frequency plant regeneration system was developed for the production of high yielding elite clones of Garcinia indica via direct organogenesis. A maximum number of 86.2 shoot buds per explant were induced from the mature seed segments cultured\\u000a on Woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 2.0 mg dm?3 N6-benzyladenine and 1 mg dm?3 indole-3-acetic acid. Rooting was achieved on

M. Baskaran; S. Krishnan

2011-01-01

24

High frequency plant regeneration from the mature seeds of Garcinia indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high frequency plant regeneration system was developed for the production of high yielding elite clones of Garcinia indica via direct organogenesis. A maximum number of 86.2 shoot buds per explant were induced from the mature seed segments cultured\\u000a on Woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 2.0 mg dm?3 N6-benzyladenine and 1 mg dm?3 indole-3-acetic acid. Rooting was achieved on

M. Baskaran; S. Krishnan

25

Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

2011-01-01

26

Determination of Anthelmintic Activity of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Tamarindus Indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S. S.; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A. K.

2011-01-01

27

In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Mangifera indica L. extract (VIMANG ®)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., used in Cuba as an antioxidant under the brand name of VIMANG®, was tested in vivo for its anti-inflammatory activity using commonly accepted assays. M. indica extract, administered topically (0.5–2mg per ear), reduced ear edema induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, ED50=1.1mg per ear) in mice. In the

Gabino Garrido; Deyarina González; Yeny Lemus; Dagmar Garc??a; Lizt Lodeiro; Gypsy Quintero; Carla Delporte; Alberto J Núñez-Sellés; René Delgado

2004-01-01

28

Possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Part IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Effect of epinephrine on the increment index calculated from intravenous glucose tolerance tests and on hepatic glycogen before and after A. indica leaf extract treatment was studied in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rabbits.2.2. A. indica leaf extract, in itself, was found to have no action on peripheral utilization of glucose or on hepatic glycogen.3.3. The reduction in peripheral utilization

R. R. Chattopadhyay

1996-01-01

29

Lactuca indica extract interferes with uroepithelial infection by Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceUropathogenic Escherichia coli is the major cause for urinary tract infections (UTI). Due to emerging antimicrobial resistances treatment of UTI is becoming increasingly difficult. Therefore, alternative treatment strategies are required. We sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms of a traditionally used decoction from Vietnamese dandelion (Lactuca indica L.) mediating local protection of the bladder epithelium.

Petra Lüthje; Dang Ngoc Dzung; Annelie Brauner

2011-01-01

30

Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of chitinase from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds  

PubMed Central

A protein with chitinase activity has been isolated and purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis of this protein confirmed it to be an ?34?kDa endochitinase which belongs to the acidic class III chitinase family. The protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P41, with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.6?Å. PMID:19342775

Patil, Dipak N.; Datta, Manali; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar Sharma, Ashwani; Kumar, Pravindra

2009-01-01

31

Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn.).  

PubMed

Oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of A. indica (250 and 500 mg/kg) effectively inhibited CCl4 and paracetamol induced changes in the serum marker enzymes, cholesterol, serum protein and albumin in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the normal and the standard drug silymarin-treated groups. Hepatic steatosis, fatty infiltration, hydropic degeneration and necrosis observed in CCl4 and paracetamol-treated groups were completely absent in histology of the liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts. The results suggests that the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of A. indica possess significant potential as hepatoprotective agent. PMID:20112809

Mulla, Wahid A; Salunkhe, Vijay R; Bhise, Satish B

2009-10-01

32

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension secondary to ingestion of Morinda coreia and Azadirachta indica leaves extract in infant.  

PubMed

We report a case of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) secondary to ingestion of Morinda coreia (Nonan) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves extract in a nine months old child. This herbal extract is believed to accelerate weight gain in infants and is commonly used in South India. PMID:24250212

Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun; Ananthakrishnan, Shanthi

2013-10-01

33

Inhibition of patulin production by Penicillium expansum cultured with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts.  

PubMed

Aqueous extract of the leaves of neem [Azadirachta indica A. JUSS (Meliaceae)] was tested in vitro for antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum. Patulin production was inhibited during cultivation, when concentrations higher than 50 mg/ml of neem leaf extract was added to the culture medium. Analyses of mycotoxin production were performed by TLC and HPLC. Fungal growth and colony characteristics, in the presence of the extract, were investigated and compared with extract-free cultures. PMID:15069669

Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; de Oliveira, Kesia Pires; Kemmelmeier, Carlos

2004-01-01

34

Extraction and Analysis of Tomato Seed Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato seeds represent a very large waste by-product from the processing of tomatoes into products such as tomato juice, sauce and paste. One potential use for these seeds is as a source of vegetable oil. This research investigated the oil content of tomato seeds using several extraction technique...

35

The inhibitory effect of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extracts on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts onAspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis was investigated. The extracts were prepared by blending 50 g (wet weight) of fresh leaves\\u000a in one 1 of 10 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0) or by boiling the leaves in the buffer. Extracts were added to fungal growth\\u000a media at 1, 5, 10, 20 and

Deepar Bhatnagar; Susan P. mcCormick

1988-01-01

36

Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

1984-01-01

37

Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract protects neurons from apoptosis and mitigates brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. Methods Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Infected mice were administered with Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract at doses of 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) in experimental groups, or with the anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) or artemether (1.6 mg/kg, i.p.), in the positive control groups. Treatment was initiated at the onset of signs of brain involvement and pursued for five days on a daily basis. Mice brains were dissected out and processed for the study of the effects of the extract on pyramidal cells’ fate and on markers of neuroinflammation and apoptosis, in the medial temporal lobe. Results Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract mitigated neuroinflammation, decreased the severity of brain oedema, and protected pyramidal neurons from apoptosis, particularly at the highest dose used, comparable to chloroquine and artemether. Conclusions The present findings suggest that Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract has protective effects on neuronal populations in the inflamed central nervous system, and justify at least in part its use in African and Asian folk medicine and practices. PMID:23984986

2013-01-01

38

Azadirachta indica leaf extract induces resistance in barley against leaf stripe disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica Juss.), provided control of leaf stripe pathogen (Drechslera graminea) on barley that was as effective as the fungicide bavistin (carbendazim). The treated leaves exhibited significantly high activity of enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) alongwith rapid and distinct accumulation of fungitoxic phenolic compounds. The population of most phylloplane

P. K Paul; P. D Sharma

2002-01-01

39

Evaluation of antiplaque activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract gel—a 6-week clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity; however, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract against plaque formation was assessed in males between the age group of 20–30 years over a period of

M. Raveendra Pai; Leelavathi D Acharya; N Udupa

2004-01-01

40

In vivo Analgesic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Tamarindus indica L. Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the effects of Tamarindus indica L. aqueous fruit extract on the antinociceptive activities in rodent models. Methods: The analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate and formalin tests. Results: The extract (60–600 mg\\/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the writhing test in a dose-dependent manner with the percentage of analgesia recorded between 51.8 and

S. Khalid; W. M. Shaik Mossadeq; D. A. Israf; P. Hashim; S. Rejab; A. M. Shaberi; A. S. Mohamad; Z. A. Zakaria; M. R. Sulaiman

2010-01-01

41

Antioxidant, Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Schott.).  

PubMed

Extracts obtained from the leaves of various Alocasia species have been used in India as folk remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments including rheumatism and bruise. The ethanolic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica Schott. was evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical. The antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response, hot plate method, and tail flick method in albino rats. The anti-inflammatory potential of gels of ethanolic extract has been determined by using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, formalin-induced paw edema assay, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema assay, and xylene-induced ear edema assay. The extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity in all models, comparable to the standard reference drug ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extract of Alocasia indica and its gels produced dose-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. This finding suggests that ethanolic extract of A. indica possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity possibly due to its free radical scavenging properties. PMID:21264115

Mulla, Wa; Kuchekar, Sb; Thorat, Vs; Chopade, Ar; Kuchekar, Bs

2010-04-01

42

The cytotoxic and antileishmanial activity of extracts and fractions of leaves and fruits of Azadirachta indica (A Juss.).  

PubMed

The leishmaniases are severe parasitic diseases that occur worldwide, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Studies with medicinal plants can lead to a range of possibilities for treating and improving the patients' quality of life. Research on Azadirachta indica fractions and extracts has shown that they have excellent anti-leishmanial activity based on bioactivity-guided fractionation of ethanolic extracts of leaves and seeds and in vitro activity against promastigotes. In this research the most efficient extracts and fractions were selected for tests on intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. The ethanolic extract of the leaves and dichloromethane and chloroform fractions had IC(50) values of 38, 3.9 and 1.2 ?g/mL for promastigotes and 9.8, 1.1 and 0.6 ?g/mL for amastigotes, respectively, at 72 hours. For the ethanolic extract and dichloromethane fraction from nut tegument, the IC(50) was 2.7 and 2.1 ?g/mL for promastigotes and 0.4 and 0.6 ?g/mL for amastigotes. The cytotoxicity of the fractions presented selectivity that was between 8 to 32 times more toxic to promastigotes and 15 to 72 times to amastigotes than to macrophages. The extracts and fractions from leaves and fruits were more effective against amastigotes, and the fractionation increased activity against both promastigotes and amastigotes, enabling us to obtain potentially active fractions with low toxicity. PMID:23096354

Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Carvalho, Fernando A A; Santana, Lorena C L R; Sousa, Alessian P L; Neto, José M M; Chaves, Mariana H

2012-01-01

43

Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

1980-01-01

44

Biosorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isosteric heat of sorption of Cu(II) onto Tamarindus indica seed powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption of Cu(II) by Tamarindus indica seed powder (TSP) was investigated as a function of temperature in a batch system. The Cu(II) biosorption potential of TSP increased with increasing temperature. The rate of the biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics while the sorption equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum monolayer Cu(II) biosorption capacity

Shamik Chowdhury; Papita Das Saha

2011-01-01

45

Saracin: A lectin from Saraca indica seed integument induces apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Saracin, a seed integument lectin from Saraca indica is highly specific for binding N-acetyl-neuraminyl-N-acetyllactosamine [Neu5Ac-alpha-(2-6)/(2-3)-D-Gal-beta-(1-4)-D-GlcNAc]. This lectin has been found to be mitogenic for human lymphocytes, and this mitogenic activity could be inhibited in presence of fetuin. Further, treatment with saracin could induce secretion of IL-2 in a culture of resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after 48 h. Saracin has a higher affinity for the CD8(+) than CD4(+) T cells as revealed by FACS analysis. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA isolated from lymphocytes cultured under different conditions has shown that this lectin could induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes, as also confirmed by flow cytometric studies. Phenotypic analysis of the apoptotic cells reveals that they belong to CD8(+) T cells lineage. Four surface glycoproteins of PBMC have been found to interact with saracin in a trisaccharide [Neu5Ac-alpha-(2-6)/(2-3)-D-Gal-beta-(1-4)-D-GlcNAc]-sequence specific manner. Saracin seems to be an interesting immunomodulator for the mammalian immune system. PMID:10545202

Ghosh, S; Majumder, M; Majumder, S; Ganguly, N K; Chatterjee, B P

1999-11-15

46

Anti dermatophytic activity of Azardirachta indica (neem) by invitro study.  

PubMed

The leaf and seed extracts of the Plant Azardirachta indica were tested for antidermatophytic activity against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton ruberum, Trichophyton, Mentagrophytes, Trichophyton violaceum, Microsporum nanum and Epidermophyton floccosum by tube dilution technique. The minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of neem seed extract was found to be lower tan that of neem leaf when tested against different species of Dermatophytes. PMID:12785173

Natarajan, V; Pushkala, S; Karuppiah, V P; Prasad, P V S

2002-07-01

47

Comparative Study of Erythrina indica Lam. (Febaceae) Leaves Extracts for Antioxidant Activity  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam leaves by in vitro methods viz. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method on isolated rat liver tissues. Quantitative analysis of antioxidative components like total amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols were estimated using the spectrophotometric method. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate the IC50 value. Results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited significant DPPH radicals scavenging activity with an IC50 value 342.59 ± 19.59, 283.24 ± 12.28 µg/mL respectively. Nitric oxide radicals were significantly scavenged by the aqueous and methanol extracts (IC50 = 250.12 ± 10.66; 328.29 ± 3.74 µg/mL). Lipid peroxidation induced by the Fe2+ was inhibited by the aqueous extract with low IC50 value (97.29 ± 2.05 µg/mL) as compared to methanol extract (IC50 = 283.74 ± 5.70 µg/mL). Both the extracts were exhibited similar quantities of total phenolics. Total flavonoids were found to be in higher quantities than total flavonols in aqueous extract as compared to methanol extract. From the results, it is concluded that the aqueous and methanol extracts of E. indica leaves possesses significant antioxidant activity that may be due to the presence of flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds. PMID:21331194

Sakat, SS; Juvekar, AR

2010-01-01

48

Limonoids from Azadirachta indica var. siamensis extracts and their cytotoxic and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities.  

PubMed

Six new limonoids, 7-benzoyl-17-epinimbocinol (5), 3-acetyl-7-tigloylnimbidinin (8), 1-isovaleroyl-1-detigloylsalanninolide (15), 2,3-dihydro-3?-methoxynimbolide (16), deacetyl-20,21-epoxy-20,22-dihydro-21-deoxyisonimbinolide (26), and deacetyl-20,21,22,23-tetrahydro-20,22-dihydroxy-21,23-dimethoxynimbin (27), along with 28 known limonoids, 1-4, 6, 7, 9-14, 17-25, and 28-34, and two known flavonoids, 35 and 36, have been isolated from the extracts of bark, leaves, roots, and seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton (Siamese neem tree; Meliaceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), stomach (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines. Eleven compounds, 1, 2, 4-7, 13, 16, 17, 29, and 30, exhibited potent cytotoxicities against one or more cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 0.1-9.3??M. Compound 16 induced apoptotic cell death in AZ521 cells upon evaluation of the apoptosis-inducing activity by flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis on AZ521 cells revealed that compound 16 activated caspases-3, -8, and -9, while increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. This suggested that 16 induced apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in AZ521. In addition, upon evaluation of all compounds against the melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), 20 limonoids, i.e., 1-3, 6, 9-11, 18, 19, 21-29, 32, and 34, and two flavonoids, 35 and 36, exhibited melanogenesis-inhibitory activities, with no, or almost no, toxicities to the cells at lower and/or higher concentrations, which were more potent than the reference arbutin, a known melanogenesis inhibitor. Western blot analysis showed that nimbin (18) reduced the protein levels of microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that 18 inhibits melanogenesis on a ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. PMID:24706622

Manosroi, Aranya; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Ishii, Kenta; Shinozaki, Takuro; Tachi, Yosuke; Takagi, Mio; Ebina, Kodai; Zhang, Jie; Manosroi, Jiradej; Akihisa, Rima; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2014-04-01

49

Evaluation of antiplaque activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract gel--a 6-week clinical study.  

PubMed

Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity; however, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract against plaque formation was assessed in males between the age group of 20-30 years over a period of 6 weeks. Present study includes formulation of mucoadhesive dental gel containing Azadirachta indica leaf extract (25 mg/g). A 6-week clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of neem extract dental gel with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% w/v) mouthwash as positive control. Microbial evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli species was carried out to determine the total decrease in the salivary bacterial count over a period of treatment using a semi-quantitative four quadrant streaking method. The results of the study suggested that the dental gel containing neem extract has significantly (P<0.05) reduced the plaque index and bacterial count than that of the control group. PMID:14698516

Pai, M Raveendra; Acharya, Leelavathi D; Udupa, N

2004-01-01

50

Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.  

PubMed

Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

Basiri, Shadi

2015-02-01

51

Antitumor and apoptotic activities of the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia indica.  

PubMed

Cancer is one of the most eminent diseases of modern times and numerous natural products derived from medicinal plants have been identified as potential sources of antitumor drugs. A successful anticancer drug must target or inhibit tumor cells whilst causing minimal damage to healthy cells. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor efficacy of ethyl acetate extract, and other isolated compounds from Artemisia indica, on MCF?7, BHY, Miapaca?2, Colo?205 and A?549 cell lines. The apoptotic activity of the compounds was studied using flow cytometry. The different cancer cell lines were treated with the ethyl acetate extract and varying concentrations of compounds (denoted a?g) isolated from the A. indica. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and the apoptotic properties of the compounds and the extract were assessed using flow cytometry. In MCF?7 cells, the effect on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m) induced by compounds b and d was also studied. Bioassay?guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract from the shoot and root parts of A. indica led to the identification of the compounds a?g as: 5?hydroxy?3,7,4'?trimethoxyflavone; ludartin; maackiain; lupeol; cis?matricaria ester; trans?matricaria ester; and 6?methoxy?7,8?methylenedioxy coumarin, respectively. All the compounds exhibited mild to potent inhibition of cell proliferation in all the cell lines, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25.18?88.12 µM. Ludartin and lupeol were observed to have the most potent inhibitory effects. Based on the initially identified antiproliferative effects, these two compounds were evaluated for their effects on cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and their effects on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m). The two compounds induced DNA damage and mitochondrial membrane potential loss in MCF?7 cells. The results of the current study suggest that lupeol and ludartin, isolated from A. indica, produce anticancer effects by inducing DNA damage and a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and may be used as potent anticancer agents, subsequent to further study. PMID:25434991

Zeng, Ying-Tong; Jiang, Jian-Min; Lao, Hai-Yan; Guo, Jie-Wen; Lun, Yu-Ning; Yang, Min

2015-03-01

52

Effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata (L.).  

PubMed

This research was carried out to evaluate the allelopathic effect of leaves aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata. Different methods were used to preparing leaves aqueous extract. Germination percentage and seedling growth of V. radiata significantly decreased gradually as the concentration of the aqueous leaves extracts of A. indica increased in comparison with water control. Severe toxicity was observed at high concentrations and moderate toxicity at low concentrations in comparison with water control. Aqueous leaves extract significantly inhibited root length more than shoot. These results indicated that some kind of inhibitor(s) was the responsible agent for the phytotoxic effect of A. indica on germination and seedling growth of V. radiata. PMID:19090247

Charchafchi, Fawzia Al; Al-Nabhani, Iman; Al-Kharousi, Hanan; Al-Quraini, Fatma; Al-Hanai, Amal

2007-11-01

53

Medicinal properties of fractionated acetone/water neem [Azadirachta indica] leaf extract from Nigeria: a review.  

PubMed

The global scenario is now supporting the development of modern drugs from less toxic plant products with proven medicinal properties. Each part of neem plant [Azadirachta indica A. Juss] reportedly have various medicinal properties and has been in use in many continents for centuries. Recently, a fractionated neem-leaf extract known as IRAB with reported activities against Malaria, HIV/AIDS and cancer has been developed into a drug and currently marketed in Nigeria as IRACAP. This paper reviews the medicinal properties, clinical studies and safety concerns of this fractionated acetone-water neem leaves extract as a footstep to further studies both on the extract and/or its chemical constituents. PMID:20234757

Anyaehie, Ugochukwu B

2009-12-01

54

THE KILL KINETICS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS. (MELIACEAE) EXTRACTS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, ESCHERICHIA COLI, PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND CANDIDA ALBICANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts of the neem plant Azadirachta indica A. Juss (meliaceae) which were previously determined to have strong antibacterial activity were investigated for their rate and extent of bacterial killing (kill kinetics). Various extract dilutions related to the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of type culture strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were used. Inoculated strains

P. O. Okemo; W. E. Mwatha; S. C. Chhabra; W. Fabry

55

The Inhibiting Effect of Aqueous Azadirachta indica (Neem) Extract Upon Bacterial Properties Influencing in vitro Plaque Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts derived from the bark-containing sticks (Neem stick) of Azadirachta indica upon bacterial aggregation, growth, adhesion to hydroxyapatite, and production of insoluble glucan, which may affect in vitro plaque formation. Neem stick extracts were screened for minimal bacterial growth inhibition (MIC) against a panel of streptococci by

L. E. Wolinsky; S. Mania; S. Nachnani; S. Ling

1996-01-01

56

Chemopreventive potential of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf extract in murine carcinogenesis model systems.  

PubMed

Numerous laboratory studies reveal that various naturally occurring dietary substances can modify the patho-physiological process of various metabolic disorders and can be an effective preventive strategy for various diseases, including cancer. Indian Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae), contains at least 35 biologically active principles and is widely grown all over the tropics. The effect of two different doses (250 and 500 mg per kilogram body weight) of 80% ethanolic extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica were examined on drug metabolizing Phase-I and Phase-II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase, and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 7-week-old Swiss albino mice. Also anticarcinogenic potential of Azadirachta indica leaf extract was studied adopting protocol of benzo(a)pyrene-induced fore-stomach and 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin papillomagenesis. Our primary findings reveal its potential to induce only the Phase-II enzyme activity associated mainly with carcinogen detoxification in liver of mice. The hepatic glutathione S-transferase (P < 0.005) and DT-diaphorase specific activities (P < 0.01) were elevated above basal level. With reference to antioxidant enzymes the investigated doses were effective in increasing the hepatic glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities significantly (from P < 0.005 to P < 0.001). Reduced glutathione measured as non-protein sulphydryl was found to be significantly elevated in liver (P < 0.005) and in extrahepatic organs (from P < 0.005 to P < 0.001) examined in our study. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and DT-diaphorase (DTD) showed a dose-dependent increase in extrahepatic organs. Chemopreventive response was measured by the average number of papillomas per mouse, as well as percentage of tumor-bearing animals. There was a significant inhibition of tumor burden, in both the tumor model system studied (from P < 0.005 to P < 0.001). Tumor incidence was also reduced by both the doses of Azadirachta indica extract. PMID:15099843

Dasgupta, Trisha; Banerjee, S; Yadava, P K; Rao, A R

2004-05-01

57

Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of tamarind seed coat extracts (TSCEs) were compared between the two extracts using boiling-water (TSCE-W) and 70% ethanol (TSCE-E) for extraction. TSCE-W, consisting of the highest phenolic content, possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1 -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities much higher than TSCE-E and Trolox. Additionally, both TSCEs also exhibited superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities higher than Trolox and BHA. Anti-lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of TSCE-W were also studied in human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells. Cytotoxic effect was not observed when exposed to TSCE-W up to 1 mg/mL for 12-48 h. However, TSCE-W significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in H202-damaged cells. HPLC analysis showed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in TSCE-W, which could be responsible for antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. The results suggest that an inexpensive and simple boiling-water extraction of TSCE-W may provide a valuable natural antioxidant source having anti-lipid peroxidation for health food additives, nutraceuticals as well as cosmeceuticals. PMID:24597144

Nakchat, Oranuch; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

2014-02-01

58

A cell wall extract from Piriformospora indica promotes tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) via enhanced expression of Ca(+2) signaling pathway and lipoxygenase gene.  

PubMed

Piriformospora indica is an axenically cultivable phytopromotional endosymbiont that mimics capabilities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This is a basidiomycete of the Sebacinaceae family, which promotes growth, development, and seed production in a variety of plant species. We report that the cell wall extract (CWE) from P. indica induces tuberization in vitro and promotes tuber growth and yield in potato. The CWE altered the calcium signaling pathway that regulates tuberization process. An increase in tuber number and size was correlated with increased transcript expression of the two Ca(2+)-dependant proteins (CaM1 and St-CDPK1) and the lipoxygenase (LOX) mRNA, which are known to play distinct roles in potato tuberization. External supplementation of Ca(2+) ions induced a similar set of tuberization pathway genes, indicating presence of an active Ca(2+) in the CWE of P. indica. Since potato tuberization is directly influenced by the presence of microflora in nature, the present study provides an insight into the novel mechanism of potato tuberization in relation to plant-microbe association. Ours is the first report on an in vitro tuber-inducing beneficial fungus. PMID:23609909

Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Prasad, Ram; Verma, Ajit

2013-06-01

59

Iteratively Estimating Pattern Reliability and Seed Quality With Extraction Consistency *  

E-print Network

Iteratively Estimating Pattern Reliability and Seed Quality With Extraction Consistency * Yi extraction, semi-supervised approach, seed quality 1 Introduction The rapid growth of the World Wide Web has extraction patterns to bootstrap. Kozareva and Hovy (2010) mentioned that seed selection plays an important

Hsu, Wen-Lian

60

Enhanced Nematicidal Activity of Organic and Inorganic Ammonia-Releasing Amendments by Azadirachta indica Extracts.  

PubMed

The nematicidal activities of ammonium sulfate, chicken litter and chitin, alone or in combination with neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts were tested against Meloidogyne javanica. Soil application of these amendments or the neem extracts alone did not reduce the root galling index of tomato plants or did so only slightly, but application of the amendments in combination with the neem extracts reduced root galling significantly. Soil analysis indicated that the neem extract inhibited the nitrification of the ammonium released from the amendments and extended the persistence of the ammonium concentrations in the soil. In microplot experiments, tomato plants were grown in pots filled with soils from the treated microplots. The galling indices of tomato plants grown in soil treated with ammonium sulfate or chicken litter in combination with the neem extract or a chemical nitrification inhibitor were far lower than those of plants grown in the control soil or in soil treated with chicken litter, neem extract or nitrification inhibitor alone. However, plants grown in the microplots showed only slight reductions in galling, probably because the soil amendments were inadequately mixed compared to their application in the pot experiments. The extended exposure of nematodes to ammonia as a result of nitrification inhibition by the neem extracts appeared to be the cause of the enhanced nematicidal activity of the ammonia-releasing amendments. PMID:19259469

Oka, Yuji; Tkachi, Nadia; Shuker, Shimshon; Yerumiyahu, Uri

2007-03-01

61

Effects of ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica L. on rat cognitive dysfunctions  

PubMed Central

Fumaria indica L. in Ayurveda is known as Parpat and traditionally used to calm the brain. Due to lack of scientific validation, 50% ethanolic extract of F. indica L. (FI) was evaluated for putative cognitive function modulating effects. Suspension of FI in 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was orally administered to rats during the entire experimental period of 16 days at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. Piracetam was used as standard nootropic. Behavioral models of learning and memory used were modified elevated plus-maze (M-EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests. Scopolamine (I mg/kg, s.c.), sodium nitrite (25 mg/kg, i.p.), and electroconvulsive shock (150 mA, 0.2 sec) were used to induce amnesia. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, muscarinic receptor density, oxidative status, and cytokine expressions [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-10] were also assessed. Piracetam (500 mg/kg/day)-like memory-enhancing and anti-amnesic activity of the extract was observed. FI showed dose-dependent decrease in brain AChE activity and increase in muscarinic receptor density, and such was also the case for its observed beneficial effects on the brain antioxidative status. FI also inhibited the scopolamine-induced overexpression of the three tested cytokines observed in rat's brain. FI possesses nootropic-like beneficial effects on cognitive functions. PMID:24696581

Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

2013-01-01

62

Comparison of Pouzolzia indica methanolic extract and Virkon against cysts of Acanthamoeba spp.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the morphological and structural changes of Acanthamoeba cysts after being treated with various concentrations of Pouzolzia indica methanolic extract fraction 3 (methanol eluted) and Virkon solution. Changes in the Acanthamoeba cysts were detected by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show Acanthamoeba cysts were killed by Pouzolzia indica methanolic extract fraction 3 at a concentration of 1:8 and by Virkon solution at a concentration of 0.25%, with a minimal cysticidal concentration (MCC) by 24 hours. Both agents caused similar structural damage to Acanthamoeba cysts in the same sequence. Step by step structural alterations occurred within the cyst. First, the cyst shrank, collapsed and had clumping of cytoplasmic stuctures inside the cyst walls. Second, the cysts began to bulge, swell, have a decrease in wrinkles in the cyst walls and spill the cytoplasmic contents into the environment. Finally, the cyst walls broke into small pieces. This study may be beneficial to compare with future studies of pharmaceutical agents against Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:21073052

Roongruangchai, Kosol; Kummalue, Tanawan; Sookkua, Tichaporn; Roongruangchai, Jantima

2010-07-01

63

Effect of meliaceous seed extracts on growth and survival ofSpodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith).  

PubMed

Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds from 10 plant species (including neem-Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) of the family Meliaceae were incorporated into artificial diet at various doses and fed to fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] larvae in nochoice tests. All produced significant mortality, reduced larval growth rate, increased time to pupation, or all three, at some concentration. The two highest doses of all of the ethanol extracts caused 100% mortality before pupation, but the hexane extracts tended to be less effective.Aglaia cordata Hiern. ethanol extract was as potent as the comparable neem seed extract at virtually all levels, and its hexane extract was active at much lower concentrations than the neem extract was. The sublethal effects (slower growth and increased time to pupation) were usually detectable at lower doses of extract than mortality was. PMID:24271431

Mikolajczak, K L; Zilkowski, B W; Bartelt, R J

1989-01-01

64

Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Samadera indica for skin diseases  

PubMed Central

Samadera indica Gaetrn (Simaroubaceae) is claimed to possess various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, antiviral, and so on, but its taste is bitter. The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity of the methanolic extract and to develop suitable herbal formulations of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica, having efficient antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract prepared from the dried leaves of Samadera indica by continuous hot percolation, were used to examine the toxicity, according to the OECD 423 guidelines, in Swiss Albino mice. Topical formulations were prepared by incorporating Samadera indica (5% w / w) in an emulsifying ointment and a carbopol gel base and evaluated for physical parameters and in-vitro antimicrobial activity (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans). The study reveals that no animals under the study showed any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality when administered a dose of 5 – 2000 mg / kg body weight. Therefore, the maximum tolerated dose of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica was above 2000 mg / kg body weight. The formulated ointment and gel had acceptable physical parameters that showed that they were compatible with the skin, and in addition to this, these formulations passed the short-term stability studies. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity studies showed that the formulated ointment showed significantly strong (p < 0.05) activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans than the formulated gel. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated ointment and gel are safe and efficient antimicrobial formulations for the topical delivery of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica. PMID:22837958

Viswanad, Vidya; Aleykutty, N. A.; Jayakar, B.; Zacharia, Subin Mary; Thomas, Litha

2012-01-01

65

Inducing-apoptotic activity of the ethanol extract of Duchesnea indica Focke on treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis.  

PubMed

This study explores the inducing-apoptotic activity of the ethanol extract of Duchesnea indica Focke on treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis. Cell models were employed and divided into 4 groups: normal group, virus group, Duchesnea indica group and dexamethasone group. Cytopathic effect examination was employed to detect apoptosis of PC-12 and BV-2 cells. ELISA was used to measure TNF-?, IL-1?, and Greiss method to measure NO secretion. Flow cytometry assay for caspase-3 expressions was performed. As a result, the ethanol extract of Duchesnea indica could protect the neuron cell model from impairment by virus. In the cell model of microglia stimulated by herpes simplex virus (HSV), with the ethanol extract intervention, TNF-?, IL-1? and NO levels were significantly decreased and cell death of BV-2 cells were markedly increased. The expression level of caspase-3 was notably elevated after the extract intervention. In conclusion, the ethanol extract of Duchesnea indica can reduce HSV-induced inflammatory injury on neuron due to the induction of microglia apoptosis. PMID:21978695

Li, X-F; Guo, Y-J; Wang, M-L; Zhang, D-M; Li, Y-H; Wang, Y-F; Tao, J-Y; Zhang, S-L; Dong, J-H; Li, Lv-Li; Zhao, Lei

2011-01-01

66

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica) Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using crude neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract at room temperature. The formation and crystallinity of synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The average size of these silver nanoparticles is about 20-50 nm as observed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Optical absorption measurements were performed to determine band-edge energy gap of these silver nanoparticles. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed to emphasize its emission properties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles could have major applications in the area of nanoscale optoelectronics devices and biomedical engineering. Our synthesis method has advantage over other conventional chemical routes because it is cost effective & environmental compatibility.

Shukla, Vineet Kumar; Pandey, Shipra; Pandey, Avinash C.

2010-10-01

67

Anti-venom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica L. against Daboia russellii (Russell's viper) venom.  

PubMed

Several plant extracts rich in pharmacologically active compounds have shown to antagonize venom of several species. Mangifera indica has been used against snakebite by the traditional healers. However, there is paucity of scientific data in support. In this study, we evaluated the antivenom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of M. indica against D. russellii venom-induced pharmacological effects such as life myotoxicity, edema, LD50 etc. The extract inhibited the phospholipase, protease, hyaluronidase, 5'nucleotidase, ATPase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities with varying IC50 values. It significantly inhibited both metalloproteases and serine proteases activities. Further, the extract significantly reduced the myotoxicity of the venom, as evident by the reduction of serum creatin kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Though the extract completely inhibited in vitro PLA2 activity, it was unable to completely inhibit in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema-inducing activities, usually brought about by PLA2s. In lethality studies, co-injection of the venom preincubated with the extract showed higher protection than the independent injection of venom, followed by the extract in the mice. However, in both the cases the extract -a cocktail of inhibitors significantly increased the survival time, when compared to that of mice injected (i.p) with the venom alone. These results encourage further studies on the potential use of cocktail of inhibitors in improving the treatment of snake envenomation. Further, this study substantiates the use of M. indica as an antidote against snakebite by the traditional healers. PMID:21793309

Dhananjaya, B L; Zameer, F; Girish, K S; D'Souza, Cletus J M

2011-06-01

68

Near-critical extraction of sage, celery, and coriander seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-critical extraction of coriander seed, Dalmatian sage, and celery was performed on a pilot-scale extraction apparatus. Sage and celery were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide to obtain oleoresins. Coriander seed was extracted at 250 bar and 40°C. Coriander extract was fractionated into triglycerides and essential oils by using two separation stages at different pressures. Extractions were carried out using a

Bruce M. Smallfield; J GREY

1996-01-01

69

Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the phenolics of Leea indica leaf extract.  

PubMed

This study investigated the phytochemical, antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Leea indica leaf ethanol extract. Phytochemical values namely total phenolic and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing power, DMSO superoxide scavenging effect and Iron chelating effects were studied by established methods. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects were screened by disk diffusion technique, food poison technique and brine shrimp bioassay, respectively. Results showed the total phenolic content 24.00 ± 0.81 g GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content 194.68 ± 2.43 g quercetin/100 g and total antioxidant capacity 106.61 ± 1.84 g AA/100 g dry extract. Significant (P < 0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (139.83 ± 1.40 ?g/ml), FeCl3 reduction (16.48 ± 0.64 ?g/ml), DMSO superoxide scavenging (676.08 ± 5.80 ?g/ml) and Iron chelating (519.33 ± 16.96 ?g/ml) methods. In antibacterial screening, the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) zone of inhibitions compared to positive controls Ampicillin and Tetracycline against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli. Significant minimum inhibitory concentrations compared to tetracycline were obtained against the above organisms. In antifungal assay, the extract inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Fusarium equisetii by 38.09 ± 0.59, 22.58 ± 2.22, and 22.58 ± 2.22%, respectively. The extract showed a significant LC50 value compared to vincristine sulfate in cytotoxic assay. The results evidenced the potential antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic capacities of Leea inidica leaf extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use. PMID:23961238

Rahman, Md Atiar; Imran, Talha Bin; Islam, Shahidul

2013-07-01

70

Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the phenolics of Leea indica leaf extract  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the phytochemical, antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Leea indica leaf ethanol extract. Phytochemical values namely total phenolic and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing power, DMSO superoxide scavenging effect and Iron chelating effects were studied by established methods. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects were screened by disk diffusion technique, food poison technique and brine shrimp bioassay, respectively. Results showed the total phenolic content 24.00 ± 0.81 g GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content 194.68 ± 2.43 g quercetin/100 g and total antioxidant capacity 106.61 ± 1.84 g AA/100 g dry extract. Significant (P < 0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (139.83 ± 1.40 ?g/ml), FeCl3 reduction (16.48 ± 0.64 ?g/ml), DMSO superoxide scavenging (676.08 ± 5.80 ?g/ml) and Iron chelating (519.33 ± 16.96 ?g/ml) methods. In antibacterial screening, the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) zone of inhibitions compared to positive controls Ampicillin and Tetracycline against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli. Significant minimum inhibitory concentrations compared to tetracycline were obtained against the above organisms. In antifungal assay, the extract inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Fusarium equisetii by 38.09 ± 0.59, 22.58 ± 2.22, and 22.58 ± 2.22%, respectively. The extract showed a significant LC50 value compared to vincristine sulfate in cytotoxic assay. The results evidenced the potential antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic capacities of Leea inidica leaf extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use. PMID:23961238

Rahman, Md. Atiar; Imran, Talha bin; Islam, Shahidul

2012-01-01

71

Potential of combining neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with varietal resistance for the management of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of different rates (25, 50, 75 and 100 mg\\/5 g seed) of application of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil (NSO) was assessed on four cowpea varieties (Kanannado, IT89KD-391, Borno brown and IT89KD-374) with differing susceptibilities to Callosobruchus maculatus. The different rates of NSO significantly interacted with cowpea varietal resistance and reduced oviposition and percentage adult emergence of C.

N. E. S. Lale; A. Mustapha

2000-01-01

72

Antihyperglycaemic activity of the stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. In 2002, WHO Expert Committee on diabetes mellitus recommended an urgent and further evaluation of the folkloric methods of managing the disease. In response to this recommendation, several medicinal plants are currently being investigated for their hypoglycaemic activity and one of such plants is Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica is a slow growing tree that is resistant to strong winds and perennial. The stem-bark extract of the plant is used locally for the management of diabetes. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg(-1) IP). The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg kg(-1). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract lowered the blood glucose level significantly (p < 0.05) at the 4th, 8th and 16th h. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the BGL significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study. In the oral glucose load method the 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract significantly (p < 0.05) lowered elevated blood glucose at the 3rd and 5th. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the blood glucose from the 1st to the 5th, while the 250 mg kg(-1) also lowered the blood glucose level but only significantly at the 5th h. The extract is practically non toxic when administered orally. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica Linn significantly lowered elevated Blood Glucose concentration (BGL) in the experimental animal models, while the crude extract was able to prevent an elevation in BGL when used in the oral glucose load model. PMID:24897797

Yerima, M; Anuka, J A; Salawu, O A; Abdu-Aguye, I

2014-02-01

73

Gastroprotective effect of Neem ( Azadirachta indica) bark extract: Possible involvement of H +-K +ATPase inhibition and scavenging of hydroxyl radical  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antisecretory and antiulcer effects of aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark have been studied along with its mechanism of action, standardisation and safety evaluation. The extract can dose dependently inhibit pylorus-ligation and drug (mercaptomethylimidazole)-induced acid secretion with ED50 value of 2.7 and 2 mg Kg?1 b.w. respectively. It is highly potent in dose-dependently blocking gastric ulcer induced by

Uday Bandyopadhyay; Kausik Biswas; Ratna Chatterjee; Debashis Bandyopadhyay; Ishita Chattopadhyay; Chayan Kumar Ganguly; Tapan Chakraborty; Kunal Bhattacharya; Ranajit K Banerjee

2002-01-01

74

Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05g%

Carolina B. Wandscheer; Jonny E. Duque; Mario A. N. da Silva; Yoshiyasu Fukuyama; Jonathan L. Wohlke; Juliana Adelmann; José D. Fontana

2004-01-01

75

Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica on the reproductive organs in male mice.  

PubMed

Effect of oral administration (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight/day, for 28 days) of aqucous leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) on the male reproductive organs of the Parkes (P) strain mice was investigated. The treatment had no effect on body weight and the reproductive organs weight. In treated mice, testes showed both normal and affected seminiferous tubules in the same sections; the affected seminiferous tubules showed intraepithelial vacuolation, loosening of germinal epithelium, marginal condensation of chromatin in round spermatids, occurrence of giant cells, mixing of germ cell types in stages of spermatogenesis and degenerated appearance of germ cells. In severe cases, the tubules were lined with Sertoli cells only, Sertoli cells and rare germ cells, or with Sertoli cells and several germ cells but without cellular association patterns. Also, the frequency of affected seminiferous tubules in testes of the extract-treated mice was significantly higher than the controls, though this remained unaffected in mice treated at 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract. Doses at 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight of neem leaf extract did not cause appreciable alterations in histological appearance of the epididymis, while a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight caused marked alterations both in histological appearance and the level of sialic acid in the duct. The treatment also had adverse effects on motility, morphology, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of fructose in the seminal vesicle, and on litter size. After 42 days of withdrawal of the treatment, the alterations induced in the reproductive organs recovered to control levels. Our results suggested that treatment with neem leaf extract caused reversible alterations in the male reproductive organs of P mice. PMID:16313072

Mishra, Raghav Kumar; Singh, Shio Kumar

2005-11-01

76

Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds  

PubMed Central

A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS–PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21?kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1?Å. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7?Å. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%. PMID:19574654

Patil, Dipak N.; Preeti; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K.; Tomar, ­Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

2009-01-01

77

Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).  

PubMed

In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus. PMID:19562373

Batabyal, Lata; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Maurya, Prejwltta; Srivastava, C N

2009-10-01

78

Anti-leukemic activity of Dillenia indica L. fruit extract and quantification of betulinic acid by HPLC.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of Dillenia indica L. fruits showed significant anti-leukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines U937, HL60 and K562. This finding led to fractionation of the methanolic extract, on the basis of polarity, in which the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-leukemic activity. A major compound, betulinic acid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography and was identified and characterized. Betulinic acid could explain the anti-leukemic activity of the methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction. Hence the quantitative estimation of betulinic acid was approached in methanolic extract and fractions using HPLC. PMID:19679456

Kumar, Deepak; Mallick, Sumana; Vedasiromoni, Joseph R; Pal, Bikas C

2010-05-01

79

Combination of Mangifera indica L. extract supplementation plus methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects and the safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty patients with active RA underwent a year of treatment with MTX (12.5 mg/week) associated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or prednisone (5-10 mg/day) were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n=10), that received the extract supplementation (900 mg/day) or preceding usual treatment (n=10) during 180 days. RA activity was evaluated using the tender and swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, disease activity score-28 (DAS 28), visual analogue scale (VAS) and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). Treatment's efficacy was demonstrated with ACR criteria. Only the patients of MTX-Vimang group revealed statistically significant improvement in DAS 28 parameters with respect baseline data but no differences were observed between groups. ACR improvements amounted 80% only in MTX-Vimang group at the 90 days (p<0.001). In MTX-Vimang group, 100% of patients decreased NSAIDs administration (p<0.01) and 70% of those eradicated gastrointestinal side effects (p<0.01) ensuing of the preceding treatment. Other adverse effects were not reported. PMID:24344049

López Mantecón, Ana M; Garrido, Gabino; Delgado-Hernández, René; Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B

2014-08-01

80

Effect of Alocasia indica Tuber Extract on Reducing Hepatotoxicity and Liver Apoptosis in Alcohol Intoxicated Rats  

PubMed Central

The possible protective role of ethanolic extract of A. indica tuber (EEAIT) in hepatotoxicity and apoptosis of liver caused by alcohol in rats was investigated. Treatment of rats with alcohol (3?g ethanol per kg body weight per day for 15 days intraperitoneally) produced marked elevation of liver biomarkers such as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT), and total bilirubin levels which were reduced by EEAIT in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EEAIT improved antioxidant status (MDA, NO, and GSH) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. Simultaneous supplementation with EEAIT significantly restored hepatic catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels towards normal. The studies with biochemical markers were strongly supported by the histopathological evaluation of the liver tissue. EEAIT also attenuated apoptosis and necrosis features of liver cell found in immunohistochemical evaluation. HPLC analysis of the extract showed the presence of three major peaks of which peak 2 (RT: 33.33?min) contains the highest area (%) and UV spectrum analysis identified it as flavonoids. It is therefore suggested that EEAIT can provide a definite protective effect against chronic hepatic injury caused by alcohol in rats, which may mainly be associated with its antioxidative effect. PMID:24977149

Bhattacharya, Koushik; Mukherjee, Soumya

2014-01-01

81

Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) inhibits 2-deoxyribose damage induced by Fe (III) plus ascorbate.  

PubMed

Vimang is an aqueous extract of selected species of Mangifera indica L, used in Cuba as a nutritional antioxidant supplement. Many in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress have been used to elucidate the antioxidant mechanisms of this extract. To further characterize the mechanism of Vimang action, its effect on the degradation of 2-deoxyribose induced by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or plus hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase was studied. Vimang was shown to be a potent inhibitor of 2-deoxyribose degradation mediated by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or superoxide (O2-). The results revealed that Vimang, at concentrations higher than 50 microM mangiferin equivalent, was equally effective in preventing degradation of both 15 mM and 1.5 mM 2-deoxyribose. At a fixed Fe (III) concentration, increasing the concentration of ligands (either EDTA or citrate) caused a significant reduction in the protective effects of Vimang. When ascorbate was replaced by O2- (formed by hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase) the protective efficiency of Vimang was also inversely related to EDTA concentration. The results strongly indicate that Vimang does not block 2-deoxyribose degradation by simply trapping *OH radicals. Rather, Vimang seems to act as an antioxidant by complexing iron ions, rendering them inactive or poorly active in the Fenton reaction. PMID:16444664

Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto Lázaro; Delgado, René; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Vercesi, Anibal E

2006-02-01

82

Effect of Alocasia indica tuber extract on reducing hepatotoxicity and liver apoptosis in alcohol intoxicated rats.  

PubMed

The possible protective role of ethanolic extract of A. indica tuber (EEAIT) in hepatotoxicity and apoptosis of liver caused by alcohol in rats was investigated. Treatment of rats with alcohol (3 g ethanol per kg body weight per day for 15 days intraperitoneally) produced marked elevation of liver biomarkers such as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT), and total bilirubin levels which were reduced by EEAIT in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EEAIT improved antioxidant status (MDA, NO, and GSH) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. Simultaneous supplementation with EEAIT significantly restored hepatic catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels towards normal. The studies with biochemical markers were strongly supported by the histopathological evaluation of the liver tissue. EEAIT also attenuated apoptosis and necrosis features of liver cell found in immunohistochemical evaluation. HPLC analysis of the extract showed the presence of three major peaks of which peak 2 (RT: 33.33 min) contains the highest area (%) and UV spectrum analysis identified it as flavonoids. It is therefore suggested that EEAIT can provide a definite protective effect against chronic hepatic injury caused by alcohol in rats, which may mainly be associated with its antioxidative effect. PMID:24977149

Pal, Swagata; Bhattacharjee, Ankita; Mukherjee, Sandip; Bhattacharya, Koushik; Mukherjee, Soumya; Khowala, Suman

2014-01-01

83

Protective effect of Azadirachta indica extract against Eimeria papillata-induced coccidiosis.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis in poultry is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria, which is responsible for worldwide economic losses. The methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves was used in vivo for its pharmacological, antioxidant, and anticoccidial properties. Four groups of mice were investigated. The first group was inoculated only with sterile saline and served as the control group. The second group was treated by oral gavage with neem extract (500 mg/kg) daily for 4 days. The third and fourth groups were infected with 10(3) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria papillata. The fourth group was also treated once daily with neem extract for 4 days. Paraffin sections from the jejunum as well as jejunal homogenate were prepared for the histopathological and biochemical investigations, respectively. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata revealed an output of 6.5?×?10(5)?±?29,753 oocysts per gram feces on day?4 postinoculation. This output is significantly decreased to 2.7?×?10(5)?±?37,341 oocysts in neem-treated mice. Infection with E. papillata induced marked histopathological alterations in the jejunum in the form of inflammation, vacuolation of the epithelium, and destruction of some villi. Also, the neem extract greatly diminished body weight loss of infected mice. Moreover, the number of goblet cells stained with Alcian blue within the infected villi was significantly lowered (P???0.05). In addition, E. papillata enhanced lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in both serum and jejunum with concomitant reduction in glutathione. Neem induced marked improvements in all of the studied parameters as well as the histopathological features of the jejunum. Our study revealed that neem as a natural product has protective effects against E. papillata-induced coccidiosis. PMID:22972359

Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Delic, Denis

2013-01-01

84

Cytotoxic effects of Mangifera indica L. kernel extract on human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and bioactive constituents in the crude extract  

PubMed Central

Background Waterlily Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is thought to be antioxidant-rich, conferred by its functional phytochemicals. Methods The potential anticancer effects of the ethanolic kernel extract on breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) using MTT, anti-proliferation, neutral red (NR) uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays were evaluated. Cytological studies on the breast cancer cells were also conducted, and phytochemical analyses of the extract were carried out to determine the likely bioactive compounds responsible for such effects. Results Results showed the extract induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 30 and 15 ?g/mL, respectively. The extract showed significant toxicity towards both cell lines, with low toxicity to normal breast cells (MCF-10A). The cytotoxic effects on the cells were further confirmed by the NR uptake, antiproliferative and LDH release assays. Bioactive analyses revealed that many bioactives were present in the extract although butylated hydroxytoluene, a potent antioxidant, was the most abundant with 44.65%. Conclusions M. indica extract appears to be more cytoxic to both estrogen positive and negative breast cancer cell lines than to normal breast cells. Synergistic effects of its antioxidant bioactives could have contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract. The extract of M. indica, therefore, has potential anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. This potential is worth studying further, and could have implications on future studies and eventually management of human breast cancers. PMID:24962691

2014-01-01

85

Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extract as an antineoplastic agent.  

PubMed

The antineoplastic effect of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract has been evaluated in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in Balb-C mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of the alcohol extract of the seed both before and after inoculation of EAC cell in mice produced more than 70% inhibition of tumour cell growth with respect to the control. Treatment with the extract was found to enhance both the peritoneal exudate cell and macrophage cell counts. The extract also produced a significant antiinflammatory effect. We report here the antiinflammatory and antineoplastic effects, of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract. PMID:11351364

Sur, P; Das, M; Gomes, A; Vedasiromoni, J R; Sahu, N P; Banerjee, S; Sharma, R M; Ganguly, D K

2001-05-01

86

Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.  

PubMed

Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

2010-02-01

87

Extractives of seeds of the meliaceae: Effects onSpodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith),Acalymma vittatum (F.), andArtemia salina Leach.  

PubMed

Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds from 22 species of plants of the family Meliaceae from a number of countries were prepared. The extracts were submitted to antifeedant and toxicity bioassays utilizing fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae and striped cucumber beetle [Acalymma vittatum (F.)] (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults. Toxicity tests were also performed with brine shrimp,Anemia salina Leach. Feeding inhibition and mortality produced by some of these extracts were comparable to and, in certain cases, slightly greater than the effects produced by comparable neem (Azadiracta indica A. Juss.) seed preparations. Brine shrimp toxicity data do not extrapolate to insect activity, and vice versa. PMID:24301362

Mikolajczak, K L; Reed, D K

1987-01-01

88

Antiangiogenic Effects and Therapeutic Targets of Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract in Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Azadirachta indica (common name: neem) leaves have been found to possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The present study evaluates anti-angiogenic potential of ethanol extract of neem leaves (EENL) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with EENL inhibited VEGF induced angiogenic response in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro proliferation, invasion and migration of HUVECs were suppressed with EENL. Nuclear fragmentation and abnormally small mitochondria with dilated cristae were observed in EENL treated HUVECs by transmission electron microscopy. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiling after treatment with EENL revealed differentially regulated genes. Expression changes of the genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, increase in the expression of HMOX1, ATF3 and EGR1 proteins were determined by immunoblotting. Analysis of the compounds in the EENL by mass spectrometry suggests the presence of nimbolide, 2?,3?-dehydrosalannol, 6-desacetyl nimbinene and nimolinone. We further confirmed antiproliferative activity of nimbolide and 2?,3?-dehydrosalannol in HUVECs. Our results suggest that EENL by regulating the genes involved in cellular development and cell death functions could control cell proliferation, attenuate the stimulatory effects of VEGF and exert antiangiogenic effects. EENL treatment could have a potential therapeutic role during cancer progression. PMID:22461839

Mahapatra, Saswati; Young, Charles Y. F.; Kohli, Manish; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Klee, Eric W.; Holmes, Michael W.; Tindall, Donald J.; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

2012-01-01

89

Antiangiogenic Effects and Therapeutic Targets of Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract in Endothelial Cells.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica (common name: neem) leaves have been found to possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The present study evaluates anti-angiogenic potential of ethanol extract of neem leaves (EENL) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with EENL inhibited VEGF induced angiogenic response in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro proliferation, invasion and migration of HUVECs were suppressed with EENL. Nuclear fragmentation and abnormally small mitochondria with dilated cristae were observed in EENL treated HUVECs by transmission electron microscopy. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiling after treatment with EENL revealed differentially regulated genes. Expression changes of the genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, increase in the expression of HMOX1, ATF3 and EGR1 proteins were determined by immunoblotting. Analysis of the compounds in the EENL by mass spectrometry suggests the presence of nimbolide, 2',3'-dehydrosalannol, 6-desacetyl nimbinene and nimolinone. We further confirmed antiproliferative activity of nimbolide and 2',3'-dehydrosalannol in HUVECs. Our results suggest that EENL by regulating the genes involved in cellular development and cell death functions could control cell proliferation, attenuate the stimulatory effects of VEGF and exert antiangiogenic effects. EENL treatment could have a potential therapeutic role during cancer progression. PMID:22461839

Mahapatra, Saswati; Young, Charles Y F; Kohli, Manish; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Klee, Eric W; Holmes, Michael W; Tindall, Donald J; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

2012-01-01

90

Ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss.) causing apoptosis by ROS upregulation in Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria.  

PubMed

Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the Canine family. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (EEA) against the microfilaria (mf) of D. immitis in vitro. EEA was evaluated for different compound classes through HPTLC. Relative motility, mortality and morphological alterations were observed in the mf after exposure to EEA. The effect of EEA on redox status in the treated mf was evaluated by some key enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters. An enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the treated mf along with altered redox status was evident. DNA fragmentation and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) confirmed apoptosis. In addition, western blotting revealed down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, the microfilaricidal activity of EEA can be attributed to its capacity to inflict oxidative stress culminating in apoptosis. PMID:25092478

Mukherjee, Niladri; Saini, Prasanta; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Roy, Priya; Gayen, Prajna; Babu, Santi P Sinha

2014-10-01

91

Anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract in a model of colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract from Mangifera indica L. (MIE) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. METHODS: MIE (150 mg/kg) was administered in two different protocols: (1) rectally, over 7 d at the same time as DSS administration; and (2) once daily over 14 d (by oral gavage, 7 d before starting DSS, and rectally for 7 d during DSS administration). General observations of clinical signs were performed. Anti-inflammatory activity of MIE was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Colonic lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, expression of inflammatory related mediators [inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, respectively] and cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and TNF receptors 1 and 2] in colonic tissue were also assessed. Interleukin (IL)-6 and TNF-? serum levels were also measured. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that MIE has anti-inflammatory properties by improvement of clinical signs, reduction of ulceration and reduced MPO activity when administered before DSS. In addition, administration of MIE for 14 d resulted in an increase in GSH and reduction of TBARS levels and iNOS, COX-2, TNF-? and TNF R-2 expression in colonic tissue, and a decrease in IL-6 and TNF-? serum levels. CONCLUSION: MIE has anti-inflammatory activity in a DSS-induced rat colitis model and preventive administration (prior to DSS) seems to be a more effective protocol. PMID:20954278

Márquez, Lucía; Pérez-Nievas, Beatriz G; Gárate, Icíar; García-Bueno, Borja; Madrigal, José LM; Menchén, Luis; Garrido, Gabino; Leza, Juan C

2010-01-01

92

Antifungal activity in seed coat extracts of woodland plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts from seeds of four woodland ground flora species (Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Allium ursinum, Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum) were tested for antifungal activity using a petriplate technique. Four species of fungi were investigated. The growth of three of these (Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) was not affected by any of the seed coat extracts. The growth of

Susan J. Warr; Ken Thompson; Martin Kent

1992-01-01

93

The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in advanced diabetic foot: an unexpected outcome  

PubMed Central

This is the first case reporting the results of using an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and neem oil (Azadirachta indica) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers. The effective use of this cheap treatment in patients with diabetic lesions on the feet, if confirmed in a wide controlled study, might allow the caregivers to take care of patients at home. PMID:23413284

Iabichella, Maria Letizia

2013-01-01

94

Production and Characterization of Cosmetic Nanoemulsions Containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill Extract as Moisturizing Agent.  

PubMed

This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy. PMID:25648593

Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

2015-01-01

95

Microwave-assisted extraction kinetics of terpenes from caraway seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with microwave-assisted extraction have been studied with respect to microwave power, radiation dose and extraction time in order to obtain the secondary metabolites selectively. Using classical solid–liquid extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were

Smain Chemat; Hamid Aït-Amar; Ahcène Lagha; D. C. Esveld

2005-01-01

96

Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 ?g/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 ?g/ml) and ?-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 ?g/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 ?M) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 ?g/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic. PMID:24602819

Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

2014-01-01

97

Feeding of water washed neem ( Azadirachta indica) seed kernel cake to growing goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To mitigate chronic shortage of feeds for livestock in developing countries, neem seed kernel cake (34–40% CP, bitter in taste, unsuitable for livestock feeding) was water washed (WWNSKC) and fed to 5–6-month-old male, growing goats for 180 days as a major source of protein by incorporating it at 15% (group II) and 25% (group III) in the concentrate mixtures. Their

A. K. Verma; V. R. B. Sastry; D. K. Agrawal

1995-01-01

98

Attenuation of nonenzymatic glycation, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by chloroform leaf extract of Azadirachta indica  

PubMed Central

Background: The hypoglycemic effects of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica (AI) were evaluated by oral administration in streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic rats (SD). Materials and Methods: The effect of chronic oral administration of the extract for 28 days was evaluated in streptozotozin diabetic rats. Lipid peroxidation, glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscles, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were determined. In addition, advanced glycation end product formation (AGEs) was evaluated. Results: The most active extracts were obtained with chloroform. Chloroform extract from AI shows increased levels of SOD, GSH, GSSG and CAT, hepatic glycogen content, glucose-6-phosphatase and insulin plasma levels, which also decreased the glucokinase (GK), lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. The chloroform extract exhibited significant inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end product formation with an IC50 average range of 79.1 mg/ml. Conclusion: Azadirachta indica can improve hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinema in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and, therefore, AI can be potentially considered to be an antidiabetic-safe agent. PMID:21969798

Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Pérez; Gómez, Yolanda Gómez Y.; Guzman, Mónica Damián

2011-01-01

99

Biosorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isosteric heat of sorption of Cu(II) onto Tamarindus indica seed powder.  

PubMed

Biosorption of Cu(II) by Tamarindus indica seed powder (TSP) was investigated as a function of temperature in a batch system. The Cu(II) biosorption potential of TSP increased with increasing temperature. The rate of the biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics while the sorption equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum monolayer Cu(II) biosorption capacity increased from 82.97 mg g(-1) at 303 K to 133.24 mg g(-1) at 333 K. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. Isosteric heat of sorption, determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation increased with increase in surface loading showing its strong dependence on surface coverage. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area and porosity analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of FTIR analysis of unloaded and Cu(II)-loaded TSP revealed that -NH(2), -OH, -C=O and C-O functional groups on the biosorbent surface were involved in the biosorption process. The present study suggests that TSP can be used as a potential, alternative, low-cost biosorbent for removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous media. PMID:21872453

Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

2011-12-01

100

Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct-seeded indica rice.  

PubMed

Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Assam rice (indica) using 98 SSR markers for dormancy-related traits and cooking quality. Analysis of population structure revealed 10 subgroups in the population. The mean r(2) and D' value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.24 and 0.51, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations (P < 0.01), with the R(2) values ranging from 12.0 to 18.0%. The significant marker associations were for grain dormancy (RM27 on chromosome 2), ?-amylase activity (RM27 and RM234 on chromosomes 2 and 7, respectively), germination (RM27 and RM106 on chromosome 2), amylose (RM282 on chromosome 3) and grain length elongation ratio (RM142 on chromosome 4). The present study revealed the association of marker RM27 with traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity and germination. Simple correlation analysis of these traits revealed that these traits were positively correlated with each other and this marker may be useful for simultaneous improvement of these traits. The study indicates the presence of novel QTLs for a few traits under consideration. The study reveals association of traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity, germination, amylose content, grain length elongation ratio with SSR markers indicating the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization. PMID:24840818

Rathi, Sunayana; Pathak, K; Yadav, R N S; Kumar, B; Sarma, R N

2014-04-01

101

Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.  

PubMed

Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

2012-12-01

102

Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp  

PubMed Central

Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT–PCR and real-time RT–PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp. PMID:21189869

Razali, Nurhanani; Aziz, Azlina A.

2010-01-01

103

Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp. PMID:21189869

Razali, Nurhanani; Aziz, Azlina A; Junit, Sarni M

2010-12-01

104

Effects of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract on abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins and their possible consequential impact on metabolism and inflammation.  

PubMed

The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism. PMID:24455694

Chong, Ursula R W; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina; Hashim, Onn H; Mat-Junit, Sarni

2013-01-01

105

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

106

Morphological alterations in the synganglion and integument of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks exposed to aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS).  

PubMed

Currently, the necessity of controlling infestation by ticks, especially by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has led researchers and public health managers around the world to search for new and more efficient control methods. This way, we can highlight neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf, bark, and seed extracts, which have been very effective on tick control, and moreover causing less damage to the environment and to the host. This study showed the potential of neem as a control method for R. sanguineus through morphological and morphometric evaluation of the integument and synganglion of females, in semiengorged stage. To attain this, routine techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of the cuticle and subcuticle of the integument were applied. Expressive morphological alterations were observed in both organs, presenting a dose-dependent effect. Integument epithelial cells and nerve cells of the synganglion showed signs of cell vacuolation, dilated intercellular boundaries, and cellular disorganization, alterations not previously reported in studies with neem. In addition, variations in subcuticle thickness were also observed. In general, the effects of neem are multiple, and affect the morphology and physiology of target animals in various ways. The results presented in this work are the first evidence of its effects in the coating and nervous system of ticks, thus allowing an indication of neem aqueous extracts as a potential control method of the brown dog tick and opening new perspectives on acaricide use. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:989-998, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25130979

Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Camargo-Mathias, M I

2014-12-01

107

Hypoglycemic Effect of Combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Ethanolic Extracts Standardized by Rutin and Quercetin in Alloxan-induced Hyperglycemic Rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Exploration of plant combinations could be an alternative approach for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of combination of A. indica and G. procumbens ethanolic extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Powder of A. indica and G. procumbens leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. Determination of rutin in A. indica and quercetin in G. procumbens were performed by TLC-densitometry. Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 150 mg/kgBW. The rats were treated with 3 dosage variation of combinations for 15 days. Hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats pancreas histological study. Results: A. indica contained 2.90±0.15% of rutin and G. procumbens contained 18.86±0.86% of quercetin. Combination at the ratio of 50mg/kgBW A. indica:112.5mg/kgBW G. procumbens showed the highest hypoglycemic effect: 68.74±4.83% (preprandial) and 73.91±3.18% (postprandial). Histological studies indicated that this combination improved the morphology of the islets of Langerhans and ? cells. It also increased insulin expression and decreased the elevated-glucose concentrations. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of both extracts has better hypoglycemic effect than the single treatment of A. indica or G. procumbens. Combination of both extracts was potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients.

Sunarwidhi, Anggit Listyacahyani; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nugroho, Agung Endro

2014-01-01

108

Chemopreventive potential of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf extract in murine carcinogenesis model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous laboratory studies reveal that various naturally occurring dietary substances can modify the patho-physiological process of various metabolic disorders and can be an effective preventive strategy for various diseases, including cancer. Indian Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae), contains at least 35 biologically active principles and is widely grown all over the tropics. The effect of two different

Trisha Dasgupta; S Banerjee; P. K Yadava; A. R Rao

2004-01-01

109

Determination of azadirachtin and fatty acid methyl esters of Azadirachta indica seeds by HPLC and GLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and economical method has been developed to estimate the azadirachtin content and fatty acid composition of neem kernels. Neem kernels are crushed and soaked overnight in ethanol. The extract obtained is analysed by HPLC after filtering through a 0.22 µm membrane. The peaks are separated using acetonitrile-water (40:60) 1 mL min-1 as the mobile phase on an RP-18

Nutan Kaushik

2002-01-01

110

Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Hyun-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

2009-07-01

111

Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8?kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)  

PubMed Central

An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8?kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5?µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75?µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1 × 10?10?M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%?w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5%?w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0%?w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K.

2014-01-01

112

IDENTIFICATION OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE IN COMMERCIAL GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS), and element...

113

Enhancement of immune responses to neem leaf extract (Azadirachta indica) correlates with antineoplastic activity in BALB/c-mice.  

PubMed

An aqueous plant extract from Azadirachta indica and its chromatographic fraction F1 (neem extract) exerted immunomodulating and antimetastatic activities in BALB/ c-mice. Regular subcutaneous administration of neem extract yielded significantly increased spleen weight and significant enhancement of peritoneal macrophage activity in the chemiluminescence assay, and activation marker CD-44 expression. The thymus weight and thymocyte counts did not show significant differences in the control and neem extract-treated groups, however, determination of peripheral blood cells revealed significant up-regulations of leukocyte subsets, the lymphocytes and monocytes. Flow cytometric analaysis of lymphocyte supopulations documented increased counts of CD-4 and CD-8 cells and an inreased activation marker expression on lymphocytes (CD-25) and monocytes (MAC-3) in neem-treated mice compared to the control animals. To evaluate the antimetastatic activity of neem extract, sarcoma L-1 cells and lymphosarcoma RAW cells were intravenously inoculated into BALB/c-mice. In these model systems the number of experimental lung and liver metastases decreased relevantly, however, biometrically non-significantly in neem extract-treated animals, as compared to the control mice which received injections of saline solutions. Neem extract can be regarded as an immunomodulating and antimetastatic substance which holds promise for further experimental and clinical investigation. PMID:16634526

Beuth, J; Schneider, H; Ko, H L

2006-01-01

114

Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system. PMID:24081779

Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

2013-12-01

115

Inhibition of aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus infected cotton bolls after treatment with neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In separate treatments, a spore suspension ofA. flavus (control), an aqueous leaf extract of the subtropical neem tree plus a spore suspension ofA. flavus, or an aqueous neem leaf extract followed by anA. flavus spore suspension were injected 48 hr later onto the surfaces of locks of developing cotton bolls (30-day post anthesis).\\u000a Thirteen days after the treatments, the seeds

Hampden J. Zeringue; Deepak Bhatnagar

1990-01-01

116

Control of some insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculuta) with neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss.) in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem (Azadirachta indica) products were effective in protecting stored cowpeas against bruchid damage for over 4 months under artificial infestation in the laboratory. This practice, part of an extension package, is becoming popular with farmers. In field trials, aqueous neem seed extracts, as well as leaf extracts reduced thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) incidence in cowpeas and increased yields significantly. Extracts also

P. B. Tanzubil

1991-01-01

117

Evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem seed oil obtained by extraction with analytical grade acetone using a Soxhlet apparatus, NSO(S) and that obtained by the traditional kneading method, NSO(K) were compared with the powder equivalent weights (PEW, the neem seed powder capable of yielding the equivalent amounts of the oil used for the treatments) for their relative efficacy in reducing the reproductive potential of the

N. E. S Lale; H. T Abdulrahman

1999-01-01

118

Saraca indica bark extract mediated green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bark extract of the traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant Saraca indica containing redox active polyphenolic compounds has been utilized for the one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The polyphenolic compounds acted as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent without any additional capping agent. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles of 15-23 nm size was complete in several minutes and no photo irradiation or heat treatment was necessary. Surface plasmon resonance, HRTEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR studies have been carried out to characterize the nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles synthesized were of triangular, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal, and spherical shapes. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature and the kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Majumdar, Rakhi; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Bag, Braja Gopal; Patra, Biplab Kumar

2013-04-01

119

Saraca indica bark extract mediated green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bark extract of the traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant Saraca indica containing redox active polyphenolic compounds has been utilized for the one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The polyphenolic compounds acted as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent without any additional capping agent. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles of 15-23 nm size was complete in several minutes and no photo irradiation or heat treatment was necessary. Surface plasmon resonance, HRTEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR studies have been carried out to characterize the nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles synthesized were of triangular, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal, and spherical shapes. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature and the kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Majumdar, Rakhi; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Bag, Braja Gopal; Patra, Biplab Kumar

2014-04-01

120

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) AND NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.)EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILAGE BACTERIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against a number of common food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Screening for antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay against 21...

121

Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids  

PubMed Central

Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

2014-01-01

122

Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots.  

PubMed

The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

Daneshkhah, R; Cabello, S; Rozanska, E; Sobczak, M; Grundler, F M W; Wieczorek, K; Hofmann, J

2013-09-01

123

Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots  

PubMed Central

The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

Hofmann, J.

2013-01-01

124

The effect of seed extraction methods on seed quality of two cultivar's tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).  

PubMed

In order to compare of different methods and identify the optimum condition for tomato seed extraction, factorial experiments with 3 replications was conducted. In the first experiment, pulp of two tomato cultivars (Faraon, Dominator) were fermented at two temperatures (25, 35 degrees C) and six periods (24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 h). The germination of seeds in laboratory as well as seedling emergence and preliminary growth in greenhouse were studied and measured. The results showed that effect of cultivar on traits (except of seedling emergence) was significant. Also the effect of temperature of fermentation, duration of fermentation and also interaction effects of them on seed germination were significant. Totally seed quality decreased with increasing temperature and duration of fermentation and the fermentation duration from 24 to 48 h at temperature 25 degrees C, is recommended. In the second experiment, tomato seeds were extracted by HCL (pH was arranged to 1, 2, 3 for 10, 20, 30 min), H2SO4 (pH was arranged to 1, 2, for 15, 30 min), Sodium carbonate (5, 10% for 24 and 48 h) and fermentation. Percentage germination, germination rate, length of radicle and length of plumule were used for seed quality assessment. The results showed that interaction effect between pH and duration of HCL treatments was significant for seed germination (percentage and rate) and there was an interaction effect between concentration and duration for germination rate in alkali treatments. Different extraction methods had not detrimental effect on percentage germination, but acid treatments produce very bright clean seeds in compare to other treatments. PMID:21313905

Nemati, H; Nazdar, T; Azizi, M; Arouiee, H

2010-09-01

125

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 44% ethanol, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 38:1, and extraction for 19.2 min at 60 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 58.46 ± 1.27 mg/g. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of mango leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of mangiferin from plant materials. PMID:24473205

Zou, Tang-Bin; Xia, En-Qin; He, Tai-Ping; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen

2014-01-01

126

Antifeedant activity of extracts from neem, Azadirachta indica , to strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf disk choice test bioassays demonstrated that formulated neem seed oil (NSO) was equally deterrent to first- and third-instar nymphs and adult strawberry aphids,Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell). Concentrations of NSO resulting in 50% feeding deterrence were approximately 1.1% for this species. The rapid disruption of aphid feeding (C. fragaefolii disappeared within 12–24 hr following application to strawberry in the greenhouse. NSO

D. Thomas Lowery; Murray B. Isman

1993-01-01

127

Antimutagenic properties of Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and evaluation of its effects on hepatic CYP1A1.  

PubMed

Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) is a Cuban natural product which has shown strong antioxidant properties. In this work, the antimutagenic effect of MSBE was tested against 10 well-known mutagens/carcinogens in the Ames test in the absence or presence of metabolic fraction (S9). The chemical mutagens tested included: cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C, bleomycin, cisplatin, dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA), benzo[a]pyrene (BP), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), sodium azide, 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and picrolonic acid. Protective effects of the extract were also evaluated by comparing the efficiency of S9 fraction obtained from rats treated during 28 days with oral doses of MSBE (50-500 mg/kg) with that obtained from rats treated with vehicle (control) to activate bleomycin and cyclophosphamide in the Ames test. MSBE concentrations between 50 and 500 ?g/plate significantly reduced the mutagenicity mediated by all the chemicals tested with the exception of sodium azide. Higher mutagenicity was found when bleomycin and cyclophosphamide (CP) were activated by control S9 than by MSBE S9. In addition, inhibition of CYP1A1 microsomal activity was observed in the presence of MSBE (10-20 ?g/ml). We can conclude that besides its potent antioxidant activity previously reported, MSBE may also exert a chemoprotective effect due to its capacity to inhibit CYP activity. PMID:22865094

Morffi, Janet; Rodeiro, Idania; Hernández, Sandra Luz; González, Leonora; Herrera, Jose; Espinosa-Aguirre, J Javier

2012-09-01

128

Role of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multiple cognitive deficits, is often accompanied by behavioral disorders and mood changes. Because of the non-availability of proper curative/preventive therapy for AD, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of Azadirachta indica in experimental AD in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental AD in rats was produced by nucleus basalis magnacellularis lesion with ibotenic acid (IB) and intacerebroventricular administration of colchicine (Col). Different behavioral tests and biochemical analysis were performed to explore the role to A. indica in AD. Results: A. indica exhibited anxiolytic activity in the open field test in Col lesion animals, which was comparable to that of diazepam. In the Elevated plus maze test, A. indica significantly alleviated IB and Col-induced anxiety. IB and Col-induced depression was mitigated by A. indica, and the results were comparable to that of imipramine. In Morris’ water maze test, A. indica pre-treatment improved reference memory, working memory and spatial learning, which are at par with the effects of donepezil. Both IB and Col-induced deficits in active avoidance learning and retention of learned behavior were significantly reversed by A. indica. IB and Col-induced increased lipid peroxidase activity was significantly reversed by A. indica (reductions in malondialdehyde level). A. indica stabilized rise in superoxide dismutase and a decreasing trend in acetylcholine-esterase (AChE) activity was seen with IB and Col lesions. A. indica had no effect over the AChE activity. Conclusion: A. indica might be effective in clinical AD by virtue of its cognition enhancement, antidepressant and antianxiety properties. PMID:23776838

Raghavendra, M; Maiti, Rituparna; Kumar, Shafalika; Acharya, SB

2013-01-01

129

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic Acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72-h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. PMID:16347053

Schaffner, D W; Beuchat, L R

1986-05-01

130

UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

131

Effects of fenugreek seed extract in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

It was found that fenugreek seed extract reduced the body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet in obese mice. The extract decreased plasma triglyceride gain induced by oil administration. The major component of the extract, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, also decreased plasma triglyceride gain. Consequently, fenugreek seed extract is expected to prevent the obesity induced by a high-fat diet. PMID:15973051

Handa, Toshiaki; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Sono, Yoshikatsu; Yazawa, Kazunaga

2005-06-01

132

The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology  

PubMed Central

Objective To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. Methods The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. Results It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. Conclusions It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries. PMID:23730555

Jorge, Aguirre Joya; Heliodoro, De La Garza Toledo; Alejandro, Zugasti Cruz; Ruth, Belmares Cerda; Noé, Aguilar Cristóbal

2013-01-01

133

Ethanolic leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) inhibits buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.  

PubMed

We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract in the initiation and post-initiation phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei as well as the concentrations of lipid peroxides, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of the GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas that showed diminished lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status associated with increased frequencies of bone marrow micronuclei. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of tumours in the initiation phase and reduced tumour incidence in the post-initiation phase. In addition, ethanolic neem leaf extract modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes and reduced the incidence of bone marrow micronuclei. The results of the present study, demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP tumours by protecting against oxidative stress. PMID:15473007

Subapriya, R; Bhuvaneswari, V; Ramesh, V; Nagini, S

2005-01-01

134

Antibacterial applications of silver nanoparticles synthesized by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are known to have bactericidal effects. A new generation of dressings incorporating antimicrobial agents like silver nanoparticles is being formulated to reduce or prevent infections. The particles can be incorporated in materials and cloth rendering them sterile. Recently, it was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Apart from being environmentally friendly process, use of Neem leaves extract might add synergistic antibacterial effect of Neem leaves to the biosynthesized nanoparticles. With this hypothesis the biosynthetic production of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Neem leaves and its bactericidal effect in cotton cloth against E. Coli were studied in this work. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by short-term (1 day) and long-term (21 days) interaction of Neem extract (20% w/v) and 0.01 M AgNO3 solution in 1:4 mixing ratio. The synthesized particles were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and incorporated into cotton disks by (i) centrifuging the disks with liquid broth containing nanoparticles, (ii) in-situ coating process during synthesis, and (iii) coating with dried and purified nanoparticles. The antibacterial property of the nanoparticles coated cotton disks was studied by disk diffusion method. The effect of consecutive washing of the coated disks with distilled water on antibacterial property was also investigated. This work demonstrates the possible use of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles by its incorporation in cloths leading them to sterilization. PMID:20055111

Tripathi, A; Chandrasekaran, N; Raichur, A M; Mukherjee, A

2009-02-01

135

Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam.  

PubMed

Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines. PMID:25189525

Rathi Sre, P R; Reka, M; Poovazhagi, R; Arul Kumar, M; Murugesan, K

2015-01-25

136

Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines.

Rathi Sre, P. R.; Reka, M.; Poovazhagi, R.; Arul Kumar, M.; Murugesan, K.

2015-01-01

137

Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf extract deteriorates oocyte quality by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis in mammals.  

PubMed

Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf has been widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine for fertility regulation for a long time. The molecular mechanism by which neem leaf regulates female fertility remains poorly understood. Animal studies suggest that aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mediated granulosa cell apoptosis. Granulosa cell apoptosis deprives oocytes from nutrients, survival factors and cell cycle proteins required for the achievement of meiotic competency of follicular oocytes prior to ovulation. Under this situation, follicular oocyte becomes more susceptible towards apoptosis after ovulation. The increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inside the follicular fluid results in the transfer of H2O2 from follicular fluid to the oocyte. The increased level of H2O2 induces p53 activation and over expression of Bax protein that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential and trigger cytochrome c release. The increased cytosolic cytochrome c level induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities that trigger destruction of structural and specific proteins leading to DNA fragmentation and thereby oocyte apoptosis. Based on these animal studies, we propose that NLE induces generation of ROS and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis both in granulosa cells as well as in follicular oocyte. The induction of apoptosis deteriorates oocyte quality and thereby limits reproductive outcome in mammals. PMID:25197620

Chaube, Shail K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ajai K

2014-01-01

138

Leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (neem): a potential antibiofilm agent for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well known for its ability to form biofilm on indwelling medical devices. These biofilms are difficult to remove because of their high tolerance to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, there is a need to look for alternative agents such as medicinal plants, which can eradicate or inhibit biofilm effectively. This study evaluated the role of neem in inhibiting biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. Factors contributing to adherence and biofilm formation were also studied. Results demonstrated that neem leaves extract was quite effective in disrupting formation and structure of biofilms. Moreover, the level of exopolysaccharide, alginate, hydrophobic interactions and uroepithelial cell attachment, which contributes to biofilm formation, was also affected significantly. Results confirm the effectiveness of neem extract in inhibiting biofilm formation. Such studies can lead to the discovery of safe antimicrobial drugs from natural sources without the risk of resistance. PMID:23737302

Harjai, Kusum; Bala, Anju; Gupta, Ravi K; Sharma, Radhika

2013-06-01

139

Viper and cobra venom neutralization by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae) could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.I., Auddy, B., Gomes, A., 1996. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and P. indica) root extracts. Phytother. Res. 10, 58-61]. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica Less. (Asteraceae). The active fraction (containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol) was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis (EIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR). Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA(2) activity. Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA(2) activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions. PMID:17293096

Gomes, A; Saha, Archita; Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K

2007-09-01

140

Evaluation of analgesic effect of Datura fastuosa leaves and seed extracts.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts of Datura fastuosa leaves and seeds were evaluated for the analgesic effect on acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate reaction in mice. According to the results, D. fastuosa leaves and seeds extracts at oral doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg are effective as analgesic. The analgesic activity of leaf extract is reduced by naloxone but not that of seed extract. PMID:12837368

Abena, A A; Miguel, L M; Mouanga, A; Hondi Assah, Th; Diatewa, M

2003-07-01

141

Anti-inflammatory studies on Adenanthera pavonina seed extract.  

PubMed

A methanol extract of the seeds of Adenanthera pavonina was evaluated for pharmacological effects in animal models. The extract (50-200 mg/kg) produced statistically significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in the rat, as well as the acetic-acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. At doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, pleurisy induced with carrageenan was also inhibited. The extract (50-200 mg/kg) exhibited a dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) analgesic activity in the acetic-induced writhing in mice. In addition, both early and late phases of the formalin-induced paw licking in mice was inhibited by the extract. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the extract produced reduced motor activity. The LD50 value of the extract was found to be 1.36 g/kg. This study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of A. pavonina extract. PMID:15265320

Olajide, Olumayokun A; Echianu, Chinonye A; Adedapo, Aduragbemi D A; Makinde, Janet M

2004-01-01

142

Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control. PMID:25346198

Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

2015-02-01

143

Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods  

PubMed Central

Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65? was the highest, at 17.48%. Color was not different based on the extraction method, but the b-value increased as the roasting time for compression extraction was increased. The b-values of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction were 3.54 to 15.6 and those following compression extraction after roasting treatment at 200? for 30 min, were 20.49, which was the highest value. The result of the phenolic compounds composition showed the presence of gentisic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid in the ginseng seed oil. No differences were detected in phenolic acid levels in ginseng seed oil extracted by compression extraction or solvent extraction, but vanillic acid tended to decrease as extraction pressure and temperature were increased for seed oil extracted by a supercritical fluid extraction method. The fatty acid composition of ginseng seed oil was not different based on the extraction method, and unsaturated fatty acids were >90% of all fatty acids, among which, oleic acid was the highest at 80%. Phytosterol analysis showed that ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol were detected. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction was 100.4 to 135.5 mg/100 g, and the phytosterol content following compression extraction and solvent extraction was 71.8 to 80.9 mg/100 g. PMID:24235861

Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

2013-01-01

144

Screening of various botanical extracts for antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical method.  

PubMed

Aiming at the exploration of herbal use by society, crude extracts of the seeds of some commonly used medicinal plants (Vitis vinifera, Tamarindus indica and Glycin max) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The overall antioxidant activity of grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) was the strongest, followed in descending order by soybean (Glycin max) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica). The seeds extract of Vitis vinifera, Glycin max and Tamarindus indica showed 85.61%, 83.45% and 79.26%, DPPH scavenging activity respectively. PMID:24311867

Waqas, Muhammad Khurram; Saqib, Najam-Us; Rashid, Saeed-Ur; Shah, Pervaiz Akhtar; Akhtar, Naveed; Murtaza, Ghulam

2013-01-01

145

Natural control of bacteria affecting meat quality by a neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cake extract.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of an ethylacetate neem cake extract (NCE) against bacteria that affect meat quality, namely Campylobacter jejuni, Carnobacterium spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc sp., is reported. The antibacterial activity was detected using standardised disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. The bacterial growth inhibition zone ranged from 11.33 ± 0.58 to 22.67 ± 0.58 mm (100 ?L NCE). There is significant difference between the growth inhibition zone of NCE and the control (ciprofloxacin 100 ?g). The percent of bacterial growth reduction range was 79.75 ± 1.53 to 90.73 ± 1.53 (100 ?g NCE) as compared with control (without NCE). NCE in different amounts counteracted the growth of all tested bacteria. PMID:25272067

Del Serrone, P; Failla, S; Nicoletti, M

2014-10-01

146

Effect of Tamarindus indica L. leaves' fluid extract on human blood cells.  

PubMed

Tamarind leaves are edible; however, their saponin content could be toxic to human blood cells. In this article, the effect of tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) on human blood cells was evaluated by using several tests. Results revealed that TFE did not cause significant haemolysis on human red blood cells even at the lowest evaluated concentration (20 mg/mL). Blood protein denaturalisation ratio was consistently lower than in control at TFE concentrations greater than 40 mg/mL. Erythrocyte membrane damage caused by the action of oxidative H2O2 displayed a steady reduction with increasing TFE concentrations. In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement by using flow cytometry assay, leucocyte viability was over 95% at tested concentrations, and a high ROS inhibition was also recorded. Protective behaviour found in TFE should be attributed to its polyphenol content. Thus, tamarind leaves can be regarded as a potential source of interesting phytochemicals. PMID:24773365

Escalona-Arranz, J C; Garcia-Diaz, J; Perez-Rosés, R; De la Vega, J; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J

2014-01-01

147

Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t...

148

Effect of aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves on offensive and diffensive gastric mucosal factors in rats.  

PubMed

Standardized aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves (AIE) has been reported to show both ulcer protective and ulcer healing effects in normal as well as in diabetic rats. To study the mechanism of its ulcer protective/healing actions, effects of AIE (500 mg/ kg) was studied on various parameters of offensive acid-pepsin secretion in 4 hr pylorus ligation, pentagastrin (PENTA, 5 microg/kg/hr)-stimulated acid secretion and gastric mucosal proton pump activity and defensive mucin secretion including life span of gastric mucosal cells in rats. AIE was found to inhibit acid-pepsin secretion in 4 hr pylorus ligated rats. Continuous infusion of PENTA significantly increased the acid secretion after 30 to 180 min or in the total 3 hr acid secretion in rat stomach perfusate while, AIE pretreatment significantly decreased them. AIE inhibited the rat gastric mucosal proton pump activity and the effect was comparable with that of omeprazole (OMZ). Further, AIE did not show any effect on mucin secretion though it enhanced life span of mucosal cells as evidenced by a decrease in cell shedding in the gastric juice. Thus, our present data suggest that the ulcer protective activity of AIE may be due to its anti-secretary and proton pump inhibitory activity rather than on defensive mucin secretion. Further, acute as well as sub acute toxicity studies have indicated no mortality with 2.5 g/kg dose of AIE in mice and no significant alterations in body or tissues weight, food and water intake, haematological profile and various liver and kidney function tests in rats when treated for 28 days with 1 g/kg dose of AIE. PMID:17193895

Dorababu, M; Joshi, M C; Bhawani, G; Kumar, M Mohan; Chaturvedi, Aditi; Goel, R K

2006-01-01

149

THE USE OF ACIDIC ELECTROLYZED WATER TO ELIMINATE MICROORGANISMS FROM WHEAT SEED OR SOIL TO DETECT TILLETIA INDICA TELIOSPORES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is a germicidal product of electrolysis of a dilute solution of sodium chloride, which can be used to disinfect wheat seed or soil samples being tested for Karnal bunt teliospores without risk of damaging the spores. The AEW we produced for our study had a pH of 2.5 ...

150

Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya linn. seeds in male rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I—control, Group II—administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg\\/animal\\/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III—administered the seed extract

Nirmal K Lohiya; N Pathak; Pradyumna K Mishra; B Manivannan

1999-01-01

151

Application of carboxyphenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for extracting nucleic acid from seeds.  

PubMed

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. The seed samples were genetically-modified maize seeds and unmodified soybean seeds infected by bean pod mottle virus and tobacco ringspot virus. The total nucleic acids, genomic DNA, and RNA could be separately extracted from these seeds with high qualities using CPBA-MNPs under different conditions. Furthermore, the results of real-time quantitative qPCR and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the nucleic acids extracted from these seeds using CPBA-MNPs were suitable for the detection of genetically-modified seeds and seed-borne viruses. PMID:25214223

Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Ge, Guanglu; Xia, Qiang

2015-01-01

152

Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).  

PubMed

The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

2013-01-01

153

Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)  

PubMed Central

The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

2013-01-01

154

Bio-potency of a 21?kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica seeds on the developmental physiology of H.?armigera.  

PubMed

A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H.?armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin were ~2.10?µg/ml and 1.68?µg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21?kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H.?armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H.?armigera larvae. These results suggest that TTI has toxic and adverse effect on the developmental physiology of H.?armigera and could be useful in controlling the pest H.?armigera. PMID:25454525

Pandey, Prabhash K; Jamal, Farrukh

2014-11-01

155

The potential for controlling post?flowering pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp. using neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insecticidal activity of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., was tested on two major cowpea pests using different concentrations of aqueous extracts, and powders of both neem seed and kernel. The pests were larvae of Maruca testulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the legume pod borer and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), the cowpea coreid bug. Ife Brown, an improved local cowpea

L. E. N. Jackai; E. E. Inang; P. Nwobi

1992-01-01

156

DNA extraction from rice endosperm (including a protocol for extraction of DNA from ancient seed samples).  

PubMed

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from endosperm can be effectively used for rapid genotyping using seed tissue, to evaluate seed quality from packaged grains and to determine the purity of milled grains. Methods outlined here are optimal procedures to isolate DNA from endosperm tissue of modern rice grains and of aged rice remains preserved between 50 and 100 years. The extracted DNA can be used to amplify regions of chloroplast genomic DNA (ctDNA), mitochondrial genomic DNA (mtDNA), and nuclear genomic DNA using standard PCR protocols. In addition, we describe an optimal procedure to process archaeological grain specimens, aged for a couple of thousand years, to isolate DNA from these ancient samples, referred to here as ancient DNA (aDNA). The aDNA can be successfully amplified by PCR using appropriate primer pairs designed specifically for aDNA amplification. PMID:24243191

Mutou, Chiaki; Tanaka, Katsunori; Ishikawa, Ryuji

2014-01-01

157

Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2? value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30?±?5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel, simple, and eco-friendly approach has been suggested to control blood-feeding parasites. PMID:25403378

Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

2015-02-01

158

[Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in laboratory].  

PubMed

Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume) were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) (soursop); flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L.) (Myrtaceae) (iamb), leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) (holy grass), leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) (neem) and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume) of A. indica (seeds). The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed) had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24%) and A. indica (65 and 38.49%). The seed extract of A. muricata reduced 100% larvae hatch. PMID:20040208

Broglio-Micheletti, Sônia Maria Forti; Valente, Ellen Carine Neves; de Souza, Leilianne Alves; Dias, Nivia da Silva; de Araújo, Alice Maria Nascimento

2009-01-01

159

Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.  

PubMed

Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development. PMID:25204070

Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

2014-09-01

160

Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from moringa oleifera seed by salt solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

161

Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii by Water-soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hot and cold water-soluble muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) seed extracts and their polar and polyphenol fractions from two Muscadine cultivars (‘Ison’, purple and ‘Carlos’, bronze) were investigated for their inhibition of Enterobacter sakazakii. The heat treatment on each seed extract not only incre...

162

Extraction of coriander seed oil by CO 2 and propane at super- and subcritical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil extraction from coriander seed was studied with carbon dioxide and propane as solvents, under sub- and supercritical conditions. The ratio of solvent to seed (g\\/g) required to achieve a complete oil extraction was between 20 and 40 using CO2 at pressures of 200 and 300 bar and temperature of 35°C. A complete oil recovery could be attained with propane

V. Illés; H. G. Daood; S. Perneczki; L. Szokonya; M. Then

2000-01-01

163

Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although

Rohan Kermanshai; Brian E McCarry; Jack Rosenfeld; Peter S Summers; Elizabeth A Weretilnyk; George J Sorger

2001-01-01

164

Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds: Extraction, purification, and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are traditionally assumed to have restorative properties. We have recently shown that a fenugreek seed extract containing steroid saponins increased food consumption and induced hypocholesterolemia in rats. This study aims to investigate the specific role of purified steroid saponins in these properties. For this purpose, an original technique for extraction and purification

Pierre R. Petit; Yves D. Sauvaire; Dominique M. Hillaire-Buys; Olivier M. Leconte; Yves G. Baissac; Gabriel R. Ponsin; Gérard R. Ribes

1995-01-01

165

A Novel Extraction Method and Some Physicochemical Properties of Extractives of Irvingia Gabonensis seeds  

PubMed Central

The plant Irvingia gabonensis contains lipids and polymer extractives that can be a good source of excipients for oral pharmaceutical formulations. These constituents are usually extracted from the seeds with the aid of either organic solvents or enzymes. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel, simpler, cheaper, and safer method for the simultaneous extraction of lipids and gum from I. gabonensis. A 100.0 g of seeds of I. gabonensis in 200 mL deionized water was heated at 78°C in the presence of 2.0 g sodium chloride for 1 h, and the mixture was allowed to stand for the lipids to be separated and removed by filtration. The samples were air dried at 25–30°C. The liquid fraction was centrifuged at 3445 rpm for 30 min, and the supernatant portion containing the gum was freeze dried. The samples were investigated for their true, bulk, and tapped densities as well as particle size and particle size distributions. The rheological, and near infrared absorption spectra as well as thermal behavior of the samples were also studied. The lipid and the polymeric components of I. gabonensis seeds were successfully extracted simultaneously. The true densities of the fatty and gum components were, respectively, 1.000 and 1.544 g/cm3. The melting point of the fat was 40°C and Tg of the gum was 232°C. These values were similar to those described in the literature for the components using the traditional method, demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of this simple novel method. PMID:22754256

Ogaji, Ikoni J; Nan, Anjan; Hoag, Stephen W

2012-01-01

166

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Analysis of Cichoriumintybus Seeds Extract and Various Organic Fractions  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant effectiveness of methanolic extract and different fractions (n-butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of C.intybus seeds. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a panel of microorganisms (four bacterial strains, i.e. P. multocida, E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureus and three fungal strains, i.e A. flavus, A. niger and R. solani). The results indicated that seeds extract and fractions of C. intybus showed moderate activity as antibacterial agent. While Antifungal activity of C. intybus seeds extract/fractions was very low against A. flavus and A. niger while mild against R. solani. The C.intybus seeds extract/fractions contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (50.8-285 GAE mg/100g of Dry plant matter) and total flavonoid contents (43.3-150 CE mg/100g of Dry plant matter). The C. intybus seed extract/fractions also exhibited good DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 ranging from 21.28-72.14 ?g/mL. Of the C .intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions tested, 100% methanolic extract and ethylacetate fraction exhibited the maximum antioxidant activity. The results of the present investigation demonstrated significant (p < 0.01) variations in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of C. intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions. PMID:24250548

Mehmood, Nasir; Zuba?r, Muhammad; R?zwan, Komal; Rasool, Nas?r; Shahid, Muhammad; Uddin Ahmad, Viqar

2012-01-01

167

Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds  

PubMed Central

Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1?. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1? levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the immunosuppressive potential of the extract. PMID:24349164

Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

2013-01-01

168

PRESSURIZED FLUID EXTRACTION OF PUMPKIN SEED AND PUMPKIN SEED PRESSED CAKE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pumpkin seed oil is one of the top three nutritional oils (hemp seed oil, flax seed oil, pumpkin seed oil) that provide the highest essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and Omega 6) required for healthy mind/body functioning. It is known to prevent and alleviate bladder and prostate problems. The oil th...

169

Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3  

PubMed Central

Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml?1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590

Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

2014-01-01

170

Antifilarial effects of polyphenol rich ethanolic extract from the leaves of Azadirachta indica through molecular and biochemical approaches describing reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis of Setaria cervi.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis, a global cause of morbidity needs much more attention in developing potent therapeutics that can be effective against both microfilariae (mf) and adults. Efficient botanicals that can induce apoptosis of filarial parasites possibly can provide a direction towards developing new class of antifilarials. In this work we have evaluated the antifilarial efficacy of an optimized polyphenol rich ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (EEA). A. indica A. Juss has been widely used in the traditional Indian medicinal system 'Ayurveda' for the treatment of a variety of ailments. A thorough investigation towards biochemical and molecular mechanisms describing ROS mediated apoptosis in Setaria cervi was performed. Motility reduction, MTT reduction assay and dye exclusion test have confirmed the micro- and macrofilaricidal potential of EEA. Alterations were visible in mf and trichrome stained section of EEA-treated adult worms. We have found cellular disturbances in EEA-treated parasites characterized by chromatin condensation, in situ DNA fragmentation and nucleosomal DNA laddering. Depletion in worm GSH level and elevation in parasite GST, SOD, catalase, GPx and superoxide anion indicated the generation of ROS. Our results provided experimental evidence supporting that EEA causes a decreased expression of anti-apoptotic genes and increased pro-apoptotic gene expression at the level of both transcription and translation. Here we are reporting for the first time that antifilarial activity of EEA is mediated by ROS up regulation and apoptosis. PMID:24275557

Mukherjee, Niladri; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Saini, Prasanta; Roy, Priya; Sinha Babu, Santi P

2014-01-01

171

Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

172

Allelopathic effects of sorghum extracts on Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

With regards to importance and abundance of Amaranthus retroflexus weed in fields an experiment was conducted using CRD based factorial design with three replications to study the allelopathic effects of sorghum extracts on germination and growth of Amaranthus retroflexus in 2008-2009. Treatments were: harvesting stage of extracted sorghum (vegetative, flowering and seed filling stage), extracted plant part (leaf, stem, root

M. Yarnia; M. B. Khorshidi Benam; E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi

2009-01-01

173

Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and

Ameer Shaheed; Michael R. Templeton; Robert L. Matthews; Sabitri K. Tripathi; Kiran Bhattarai

2009-01-01

174

A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) have long been used as a herbal medicine for treating metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions. They have been shown to modulate\\u000a feeding behaviour in animals. We have recently observed a selective decrease in fat consumption in healthy normal weight volunteers\\u000a treated with a hydro-alcoholic seed extract. However, strong clinical data on the effects of fenugreek seeds

Hugues Chevassus; Jean-Baptiste Gaillard; Anne Farret; Françoise Costa; Isabelle Gabillaud; Emilie Mas; Anne-Marie Dupuy; Françoise Michel; Caroline Cantié; Eric Renard; Florence Galtier; Pierre Petit

2010-01-01

175

In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and

C. Marie-Magdeleine; H. Hoste; M. Mahieu; H. Varo; H. Archimede

2009-01-01

176

UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

2012-01-01

177

Development of a new method to prepare nano-/microparticles loaded with extracts of Azadirachta indica, their characterization and use in controlling Plutella xylostella.  

PubMed

Biodegradable nanoparticles have been widely explored as carriers for controlled delivery of therapeutic molecules; however, studies describing the development of nanoparticles as carriers for biopesticide products are few. In this work, a new method to prepare nanoparticles loaded with neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts is presented. In this study, nanoparticles were formulated as colloidal suspension and (spray-dried) powder and characterized by evaluating pH, particle size, zeta potential, morphology, absolute recovery, and entrapment efficiency. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was used for nanoparticle characterization. The best formulations presented absolute recovery and entrapment efficiencies of approximately 100% and a release profile based on swelling and relaxation of the polymer or polymer erosion. The biological data of the formulated products against Plutella xylostella showed 100% larval mortality. The nanoparticle information improved the stability of neem products against ultraviolet radiation and increased their dispersion in the aqueous phase. PMID:23991702

Forim, Moacir Rossi; Costa, Eveline Soares; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Mondego, Janaina Marques; Boiça Junior, Arlindo Leal

2013-09-25

178

Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria. Materials and Methods: The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract. Results: The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36?g/ml and 182.19?g/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50) value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein. Conclusion: Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria.

Ishnava, Kalpesh B; Shah, Pankit P.

2014-01-01

179

Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), twice weekly and for 8weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g\\/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well

Alaaeldin A. Hamza

2010-01-01

180

INHIBITION OF TRIIODOTHYRONINE PRODUCTION BY FENUGREEK SEED EXTRACT IN MICE AND RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fenugreek seed extract on the alterations in serum thyroid hormone concentrations were studied in adult male mice and rats. Simultaneously, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were examined. Administration of methi seed extract (0.11 g kg body wt.?1day?1for 15 days) to both mice and rats

SUNANDA PANDA; PANKAJ TAHILIANI; ANAND KAR

1999-01-01

181

Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Fenugreek Seeds Protect Erythrocytes from Oxidative Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyphenol-rich extract from the seeds of fenugreek was evaluated for its protective effect against hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)-induced oxidation in normal and diabetic human erythrocytes (RBCs). RBCs, preincubated with increasing amounts of fenugreek seed extract and challenged with H2O2, were analyzed for hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. RBCs from diabetic subjects were more susceptible to oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation than those

S. KAVIARASAN; K. VIJAYALAKSHMI; C. V. ANURADHA

2004-01-01

182

Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds  

PubMed Central

Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

2013-01-01

183

Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.  

PubMed

Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as indicators of the presence or high levels of anti-oxidants in the oils. PMID:22530436

Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

2012-01-01

184

Full-Press Oil Extraction of Extruded Lesquerella Seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lesquerella fendleri is a winter annual oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family that is native to the desert Southwestern United States. The seed has 30% oil, which contains 55-64% lesquerolic and auricolic acids (hydroxy FA). The seeds contain glucosinolates that, upon hydrolysis by thi...

185

Grape seed extract attenuates arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is a recognized factor in nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (As). Grape seed extract (GSE) possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of GSE against arsenic-induced renal injury. Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to As in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg) for 12 months. The serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and mRNA expression levels of fibrogenic markers in the renal tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) subunits, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) were assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cotreatment with GSE significantly improved renal function, as demonstrated by the reductions in relative kidney weight (% of body weight) and blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in the creatinine clearance capacity. GSE attenuated the As-induced changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1? and the mRNA levels of TGF-?1, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in renal tissue. Furthermore, administration of GSE markedly reduced As-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nox activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the NADPH subunits (Nox2, p47phox and Nox4). In addition, GSE cotreatment was correlated with a significant reduction in TGF-?/Smad signaling, as demonstrated by the decreased protein levels of TGF-?1 and pSmad2/3 in renal tissue. This study indicated that GSE may be a useful agent for the prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to As. GSE may exert its effects through the suppression of Nox and inhibition of TGF-?/Smad signaling activation. PMID:24348802

Zhang, Jiangong; Pan, Xinjuan; Li, Ning; Li, Xing; Wang, Yongchao; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Yin, Xinjuan; Yu, Zengli

2014-01-01

186

Extraction of Essential Oils From the Seeds of Pomegranate Using Organic Solvents and Supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, essential oils from pomegranate seeds of the Malas variety from Shahreza, Iran, were extracted using hexane\\u000a and petroleum benzene applying four extraction methods: normal stirring, soxhlet, microwave irradiation, and ultrasonic irradiation.\\u000a Also, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 under different conditions was used for comparison. Different methods of extraction with organic solvents (normal stirring,\\u000a soxhlet, microwave irradiation,

Hajar Abbasi; Karamatollah Rezaei; Ladan Rashidi

2008-01-01

187

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with supercritical-CO2 (SC-CO2) have been optimized with respect to pressure, temperature, CO2-flow and extraction time in order to selectively obtain the essential oil. Using Soxhlet extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were extracted. From

T. Baysal; D. A. J. Starmans

1999-01-01

188

Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds ( Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175°C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components were carried out by

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

2007-01-01

189

Research note Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 ? C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4 ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

190

Antihyperglycaemic effect and acute toxicity of Securigera Securidaca L. seed extracts in mice.  

PubMed

The antihyperglycaemic activity of a Securigera securidaca aqueous infusion and an ethanol maceration extract of seeds was studied in normoglycaemic, glucose-induced hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The acute toxicity of the ethanol extract was more than that of the aqueous one. The phytochemical analysis showed that the seed extracts were rich in flavonoids. The intraperitoneal and oral administration of the aqueous and ethanol extracts significantly reduced blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In normoglycaemic and glucose-induced hyperglycaemic mice, the blood glucose levels were not significantly different from the control. Glibenclamide was not able to lower blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, while it significantly lowered the blood sugar in normoglycaemic mice. The results indicate that S. securidaca seed extracts significantly reduce blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice by a mechanism different from that of sulfonylurea agents. PMID:12458478

Hosseinzadeh, H; Ramezani, M; Danaei, A R

2002-12-01

191

A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

2015-01-01

192

Transmission blocking activity of Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis extracts on the sporogonic development of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Targeting the stages of the malaria parasites responsible for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector is a key pharmacological strategy for malaria control. Research efforts to identify compounds that are active against these stages have significantly increased in recent years. However, at present, only two drugs are available, namely primaquine and artesunate, which reportedly act on late stage gametocytes. Methods In this study, we assessed the antiplasmodial effects of 5 extracts obtained from the neem tree Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis against the early vector stages of Plasmodium falciparum, using field isolates. In an ex vivo assay gametocytaemic blood was supplemented with the plant extracts and offered to Anopheles coluzzii females by membrane feeding. Transmission blocking activity was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence and density on the mosquito midguts. Results Initial screening of the 5 plant extracts at 250 ppm revealed transmission blocking activity in two neem preparations. Up to a concentration of 70 ppm the commercial extract NeemAzal® completely blocked transmission and at 60 ppm mosquitoes of 4 out of 5 replicate groups remained uninfected. Mosquitoes fed on the ethyl acetate phase of neem leaves at 250 ppm showed a reduction in oocyst prevalence of 59.0% (CI95 12.0 - 79.0; p?extract from the same plant part did not exhibit any activity. No evidence of transmission blocking activity was found using G. senegalensis ethyl acetate extract from stem galls. Conclusions The results of this study highlight the potential of antimalarial plants for the discovery of novel transmission blocking molecules, and open up the potential of developing standardized transmission blocking herbal formulations as malaria control tools to complement currently used antimalarial drugs and combination treatments. PMID:24735564

2014-01-01

193

Legume seed exudates and Physcomitrella patens extracts influence swarming behavior in Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

PubMed

Plants are known to secrete chemical compounds that can change the behavior of rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria. We investigated the effects of extracts from legume host plants on the swarming behavior of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. We also investigated the effects on swarming when Rhizobium is exposed to extracts from an ancestor to vascular plants, the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Lentil and faba bean seed exudates enhanced and inhibited swarming motility, respectively, whereas pea seed exudates had no observable effect on swarming. Swarming was also enhanced by the moss extracts. Exposure to lentil seed exudates and the moss extract increased flaA expression 2-fold, while faba bean seed exudates exposure decreased expression 3-fold, suggesting that the swarming effect could, in part, be due to regulation of flagellin gene expression. However, the exudates and extracts did not significantly affect flaA gene expression in planktonic motile cells, indicating that the response to flagellar regulation is specific to a physiology unique to the swarming cell. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that addition of the lentil seed exudate and the moss extract results in earlier differentiation into swarmer cells, which could contribute to the development of a larger swarming surface area. To gain further mechanistic insight into the effect of the moss extract on swarming, a moss strigolactone-deficient mutant (Ppccd8?) was tested. A reduction in the promotive effect was observed, suggesting that the plant hormone strigolactone may be a signalling molecule activating swarming motility in R. leguminosarum. PMID:24392922

Tambalo, Dinah D; Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Shawn; Halmillawewa, Anupama; Hynes, Michael F; Yost, Christopher K

2014-01-01

194

Antifouling activity of the methanolic extract of Syringodium isoetifolium, and its toxicity relative to tributyltin on the ovarian development of brown mussel Perna indica.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated reproductive toxicity and antifouling activity of methanolic extract of seagrass Syringodium isoetifolium (25 ?g/ml) relative to the conventional antifoulant, tributyltin (TBT; 100 ng/l) on the ovarian development of the brown mussel Perna indica. Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and Digestive Gland Index (DGI) of TBT exposed mussels decreased in comparison with mussels exposed to S. isoetifolium extract. Interestingly, mussels treated with S. isoetifolium showed normal cellular architecture in gills, digestive gland, muscle and ovary. However, TBT increased interfilamental space and fusion of the filaments in gills, disruption in the digestive tubules and reduction in basement membrane thickness. Besides in adductor muscle, TBT induced muscle degeneration, and necrotic muscle layer. In ovary, TBT inflicted the fusion of developing oocytes. TBT had significantly retarded the ovarian development and substantially affected the biochemical constituents leading to an impairment of oogenesis as against the null effects noticed from the S. isoetifolium extract treated mussels. On the ground of eco-friendly properties, the seagrass S. isoetifolium could be used as a source for the production of green antifoulant. PMID:23294637

Iyapparaj, P; Revathi, P; Ramasubburayan, R; Prakash, S; Anantharaman, P; Immanuel, G; Palavesam, A

2013-03-01

195

Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700?mol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. PMID:25577085

Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

2015-05-15

196

Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ? -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

197

Identification of COX inhibitors in the hexane extract of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.  

PubMed

Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified. In the present study, COX inhibitors were isolated from the hexane extract of this seed by means of 4 steps of liquid chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The COX inhibitors in the extract of Japanese horse chestnut seeds were identified as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic acid. Their efficacies were in the following order: linolenic acid = linoleic acid > oleic acid. These active constituents are C18 unsaturated fatty acids; stearic acid, a C18 saturated fatty acid, had no activity. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid had high selectivity toward COX-2 (selectivity index = 10), whereas oleic acid had no selectivity. Considering the efficacy and yield of each fatty acid, linoleic acid may be the principal COX inhibitor in this seed. PMID:17675801

Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

2007-07-01

198

Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity  

PubMed Central

In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students’ ‘t’ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

Kannur, Dayanand M.; Paranjpe, Mukta P.; Sonavane, Lalit V.; Dongre, Prerana P.; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R.

2012-01-01

199

Coagulation–flocculation process for POME treatment using Moringa oleifera seeds extract: Optimization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent, POME is an important issue for the minimization of water pollution. The coagulation–flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seeds after oil extraction as natural coagulant is reported for POME treatment in the present study. The important process parameters pH, settling time, M. oleifera (after oil extraction) dosage and flocculant (NALCO 7751) dosage were optimized

Subhash Bhatia; Zalina Othman; Abdul Latif Ahmad

2007-01-01

200

SedativeHypnotic Activity of Extracts and Essential Oil of Coriander Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Coriandrum sativum L. has been recom- mended for relief of insomnia in Iranian traditional medi- cine. However, no pharmacological studies have yet evalu- ated its sedative effects. The aim of this study was to de- termine if extracts and essential oil of coriander seeds have sedative-hypnotic activity. Methods: The aqueous or hydro-alcohol ic extracts or essen- tial oil of

M. Emamghoreishi; G. Heidari-Hamedani

2006-01-01

201

Characterization of chia seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil yield, fatty acid composition and the physicochemical and quality characteristics of chia crude seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction were determined. The extraction methods assayed influenced significantly the oil yield, obtaining about 30% more oil by solvent than by pressing. The main fatty acids ranked in the following order of abundance: ?-linolenic acid (? Ln)>linoleic acid

Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Marcela L. Martínez; Viviana Spotorno; Carmen M. Mateo; Damián M. Maestri; Bernd W. K. Diehl; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás

2011-01-01

202

EFFECT OF FENUGREEK (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) SEED EXTRACT ON VISCERAL ORGANS OF BROILER CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the seed extract (aqueous) on the visceral organs of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty, day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments A, B, C and D. Each treatment was replicated four times with ten chicks per replicate. Group A, B, C received the aqueous extract of Fenugreek

Farman Ullah Khan; F. R. Durrani; Asad Sultan; Rifat Ullah Khan; Shabana Naz

203

Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

204

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

?uk, M.; Dymi?ska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; M?czka, M.; Zaj?c, A.; Szo?tysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

2011-03-01

205

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds.  

PubMed

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis. PMID:21237701

Zuk, M; Dymi?ska, L; Kulma, A; Boba, A; Prescha, A; Szopa, J; M?czka, M; Zaj?c, A; Szo?tysek, K; Hanuza, J

2011-03-01

206

Polyphenol-rich extract of fenugreek seeds protect erythrocytes from oxidative damage.  

PubMed

A polyphenol-rich extract from the seeds of fenugreek was evaluated for its protective effect against hydrogen peroxide(H202)-induced oxidation in normal and diabetic human erythrocytes (RBCs). RBCs, preincubated with increasing amounts of fenugreek seed extract and challenged with H2O2, were analyzed for hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. RBCs from diabetic subjects were more susceptible to oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation than those from normal subjects. However preincubation with the polyphenol-rich extract significantly reduced the oxidative modifications in both the groups. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was concentration-dependent up to 100 microl of extract, which contained 0.75mM gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the potent antioxidant properties of the fenugreek seeds. PMID:15678722

Kaviarasan, S; Vijayalakshmi, K; Anuradha, C V

2004-01-01

207

Shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the green synthesis of Ag-nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract.  

PubMed

The shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB, is reported to the green synthesis of Ag-nanoparticles for the first time using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract. UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns were used to monitor the growth kinetics, morphology and crystalline nature of Ag-nanoparticles, respectively. It was observed that the growths of Ag-nanoparticles are stopped within 40 min of reaction time. The Ag-nanoparticles are polydispersed spherical and exhibiting an interesting triangle, flat, plate-like hexagonal and some irregular morphology in presence of different [CTAB]. Hexagonal particles aggregated in a systematic manor, leads to produce a fine tiles-like arrangement of Ag-nanoparticles with dimensions between 10 and 37 nm. The nature of reaction-time curves to the reduction of Ag(+) ions by Neem leaf extract are much different than those observed by us in our earlier studies using different bio-reductants. PMID:22463846

Khan, Zaheer; Hussain, Javed Ijaz; Hashmi, Athar Adil

2012-06-15

208

Comparative study on hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts of fenugreek seeds.  

PubMed

The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloro-methane) of fenugreek seeds were investigated in cholesterol-fed rats. Only the ethyl acetate extract reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet (HCD). Furthermore, the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver, heart and kidney decreased significantly after oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The phenolic and flavonoïd contents were highest in the methanol and the ethyl acetate extracts. These results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of the fenugreek seeds had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect and antioxidant activity in cholesterol-fed rats, whether this is partly due to the presence of flavonoïds in the extract needs further study. PMID:23411266

Belguith-Hadriche, Olfa; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Jamoussi, Kamel; Simmonds, Monique S J; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Makni-Ayedi, Fatma

2013-06-01

209

Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0moll?1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500ml of low turbid water (50

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

1999-01-01

210

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Characterization of Argentinean Chia Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of chia seed oil was performed with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). To investigate the effects of pressure and temperature on the oil solubility and yield, two isobaric (250 and 450 bar)\\u000a and two isothermal (40 and 60 °C) extraction conditions were selected. The global extraction yield of chia oil increased with\\u000a pressure enhancement, but temperature had a little influence on it.

Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Facundo Mattea; Damián A. Cardarelli; Miguel A. Mattea; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás

2011-01-01

211

Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. PMID:19854235

Hamza, Alaaeldin A

2010-01-01

212

Mechanism of antiulcer effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract: effect on H + -K + ATPase, oxidative damage and apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the antiulcer effect of Neem leaf aqueous extract to block gastric lesions in rat has been studied with emphasis on acid secretion, oxidative damage and apoptosis. The extract dose-dependently inhibits gastric lesions induced by restraint–cold stress, indomethacin and ethanol. In stress ulcer model, it is more effective than ranitidine but less effective than omeprazole. It also dose-dependently

Ishita Chattopadhyay; Bithi Nandi; Ratna Chatterjee; Kaushik Biswas; Uday Bandyopadhyay; Ranajit K. Banerjee

2004-01-01

213

A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) are an old herbal remedy used to treat metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions. They have been shown to modulate feeding\\u000a behaviour in animals, but strong clinical data are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a repeated\\u000a administration of a fenugreek seed extract on energy intake and eating behaviour in healthy

Hugues Chevassus; Nathalie Molinier; Françoise Costa; Florence Galtier; Eric Renard; Pierre Petit

2009-01-01

214

Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

215

Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. ?-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes. PMID:23742045

Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

2013-07-17

216

Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.  

PubMed

The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (?), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug. PMID:24158737

Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

2014-02-01

217

Mechanism of antiulcer effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract: effect on H+-K+-ATPase, oxidative damage and apoptosis.  

PubMed

The mechanism of the antiulcer effect of Neem leaf aqueous extract to block gastric lesions in rat has been studied with emphasis on acid secretion, oxidative damage and apoptosis. The extract dose-dependently inhibits gastric lesions induced by restraint-cold stress, indomethacin and ethanol. In stress ulcer model, it is more effective than ranitidine but less effective than omeprazole. It also dose-dependently blocks pylorus ligation and mercaptomethylimidazole-induced acid secretion. In the pylorus-ligation model, it is less effective than omeprazole but as effective as ranitidine. It inhibits H+-K+-ATPase activity in vitro in concentration-dependent manner to inhibit acid secretion. Oxidative membrane damage by hydroxyl radical (*OH) as measured by lipid peroxidation in stress ulcer is significantly blocked by leaf extract. Stress-induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation is also protected. The extract also prevents *OH-mediated mucosal DNA damage in vitro by scavenging the *OH. Neem leaf extract, thus, offers antiulcer activity by blocking acid secretion through inhibition of H+-K+-ATPase and by preventing oxidative damage and apoptosis. PMID:15265317

Chattopadhyay, Ishita; Nandi, Bithi; Chatterjee, Ratna; Biswas, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Banerjee, Ranajit K

2004-01-01

218

Inhibition of triiodothyronine production by fenugreek seed extract in mice and rats.  

PubMed

The effects of fenugreek seed extract on the alterations in serum thyroid hormone concentrations were studied in adult male mice and rats. Simultaneously, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were examined. Administration of methi seed extract (0.11 g kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) for 15 days) to both mice and rats significantly decreases serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentration and T(3)/T(4) ratio, but increases thyroxine (T(4)) levels and body weight. While hepatic LPO and CAT activities were not altered, a significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both the animal models. These findings suggest that fenugreek seed extract induced inhibition in T(4)to T(3) conversion is not peroxidation-mediated and the inhibition in SOD activity could be the result of a decrease in the protein anabolic hormone, T3. PMID:10527654

Panda, S; Tahiliani, P; Kar, A

1999-11-01

219

Concurrent administration of aqueous Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract with DOCA-salt prevents the development of hypertension and accompanying electrocardiogram changes in the rat.  

PubMed

The effect of concurrent administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract with DOCA-salt was investigated in the development of hypertension.Over 5-6 week old, inbred male Wistar rats with a starting weight of 190 g were given either: (1) twice weekly subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of vehicle (soyabean oil, 0.25 mL per animal) for the first 2 weeks, plus normal drinking water (controls); (2) twice weekly (s.c.) injections (weeks 1 and 2 only) of 15 mg/kg DOCA dissolved in vehicle, plus drinking water containing 1.0% NaCl and 0.03% KCl (DOCA-salt group); or (3) 20 mg/kg of aqueous neem extract daily, in addition to the DOCA-salt treatment (DOCA-salt-neem group). All groups (8-12 animals) received normal rat pellets ad libitum and their BP was measured weekly. Terminally, the animals were anaesthetized and ECGs recorded using s.c. pins in a lead II configuration. The mean arterial pressure was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the control (97 +/- 3.7 mmHg) and DOCA-salt-neem (87 +/- 3.4 mm Hg) groups than in the DOCA-salt group (115 +/- 7.1 mm Hg). PR and RR intervals and the duration of the QRS complex were shorter (p < 0.05) in the DOCA-salt group than in the control and DOCA-salt-neem groups. Amplitude of the QRS complex was increased (p < 0.05) in the DOCA-salt group compared with both the DOCA-salt-neem and the control groups.Daily administration of 20 mg/kg neem-leaf extract concurrently with DOCA-salt for 5 weeks, prevents the development of hypertension and the accompanying alterations in the ECG patterns seen in DOCA-salt treated rats. PMID:16220573

Obiefuna, Idongesit; Young, Ronald

2005-09-01

220

Inhibitory action of neem aqueous extract (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.  

PubMed

The present study revealed unheard of data about the action of aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, proving that these extracts in 10 and 20% concentrations do not have the potential to kill the females; however, in lower concentrations (10%) provokes great morphological alterations in germinative cells such as the emergence of extended cytoplasmic vacuolization areas as well as the fragmentation of the germinal vesicle, even in those oocytes which were in initial stages of development (I-III), showing that neem is a potent agent which acts impeding one of the main metabolic stages of the ticks, i.e., the reproduction. In oocytes in final stages of development (IV-V) azadirachtin (neem's active principle) caused significant reduction in the size and quantity of proteic granules of the yolk and the inversion of their localization where the smaller granules before inside the cell (normal oocyte) were posteriorly observed in the periphery, and the bigger ones in the central region. Thus, the study showed that the alterations found both in the oocytes and in the pedicel cells indicated that azadirachtin acts on the process of tick's reproduction and signalizes that this plant can be used in the future to control ticks with the advantage of not being aggressive to nontarget organism or the environment. Furthermore, data here obtained showed that the most significant efficiency of the aqueous extract of neem is related to the concentration of 10%, proving that higher doses would not be so efficient. PMID:21936022

Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel

2011-10-01

221

In vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.  

PubMed

Bixa orellana L. (annatto), from Bixaceae family, is a native plant of tropical America, which accumulates several carotenoids (including bixin and norbixin), terpenoids, tocotrienols and flavonoids with potential antioxidant activity. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated and compared to the bixin standard. Annatto extracts were obtained using solvents with different polarities and their phenolic compounds and bixin levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. All annatto extracts were able to scavenge all the reactive species tested at the low ?g/mL range, with the exception of superoxide radical. The ethanol:ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate extracts of annatto seeds, which presented the highest levels of hypolaetin and bixin, respectively, were the extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity, although bixin standard presented the lowest IC(50) values. PMID:23140681

Chisté, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Gomes, Ana; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José Luís Fontes da Costa; Bragagnolo, Neura

2011-07-15

222

Characterisation of mediterranean grape pomace seed and skin extracts: polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:25642834

Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

2015-01-01

223

Extraction of oil from chia seeds with supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chia (Salvia Hispanic, L.) is a crop that was used as food, medicine and paints by the Aztec Indians in Mexico before 1492, and now has a promissory future in several countries. Chia seeds oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly omega-3 linolenic acid (54–67%) and omega-6 linoleic acid (12–21%) which pose great benefits for human and animal health.The

Jose Antonio Rocha Uribe; Jorge Ivan Novelo Perez; Henry Castillo Kauil; Gabriel Rosado Rubio; Carlos Guillermo Alcocer

2011-01-01

224

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic petals extract of Rosa indica and characterization of its antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using ethanolic extract of rose (Rosa indica) petals and testing their potential antibacterial activity using selective human pathogenic microbes, anticancer activity using human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cell line HCT 15 as well as anti-inflammatory activity using rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The biologically synthesized AgNPs were also characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterized AgNPs showed an effective antibacterial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) than Gram positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria. MTT assay, analysis of nuclear morphology, mRNA expression of Bcl-2, Bax and protein expression of caspase 3 as well as 9, indicated potential anticancer activity. In addition, green synthesized AgNPs also attenuated cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and free radical generation (O2(-) and NO) by rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The results of our study show the potential green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in mitigating their toxicity while retaining their antibacterial activities. PMID:25481491

Manikandan, Ramar; Manikandan, Beulaja; Raman, Thiagarajan; Arunagirinathan, Koodalingam; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu; Jothi Basu, Muthuramalingam; Perumal, Muthulakshmi; Palanisamy, Subramanian; Munusamy, Arumugam

2015-03-01

225

Phytochemical screening and evaluation of Monechma ciliatum (black mahlab) seed extracts as antimicrobial agents  

PubMed Central

Objective: Tribes in Nubia Mountains regions of Sudan used Monechma ciliatum seeds for common cold and other chest allergic conditions as a traditional medicine. The aim of this paper is to validate this traditional practice scientifically. Materials and Methods: Monechma ciliatum seeds were screened for major phytochemical groups using standard methods. Different extracts were bioassayed in- vitro for their bioactivity to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Results: Phytochemical screening results showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpens, and anthraquinones. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be sensitive to both water extract with zones of inhibition 22 – 26 mm at concentrations of 50 and 100mg/ml and ethanol extract 17 mm at concentration of 100 mg/ml. The growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited by ethanol extract with zones of inhibition equal to 16, 26, and 33 mm at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/ml, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to all extracts used. Similarly, all used fungi were found to be insensitive to extracts used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts against microorganisms were ranged from 12.5 to 25 mg/ml. Conclusion: The findings of the current study support the traditional uses of the plant's seed in the therapy of respiratory tract infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:25050266

Ahmed Oshi, Murtada; Mohmmed Abdelkarim, Abdelkarim

2013-01-01

226

Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

2014-09-01

227

Response surface optimization of mucilage aqueous extraction from flixweed (Descurainia sophia) seeds.  

PubMed

The effects of four factors of pH (4-8), temperature (50-95°C), weed-seed ratio (W/S, 15-45), and time (1-4 h) on the yield of mucilage extraction of Descurainia sophia seeds were investigated using response surface methodology-Box-Behnken design (RSM-BBD). Results showed that a second-order model for the studied response was adequately fitted with a coefficient of determination of 98.7% (p<0.0001). The optimum conditions to achieve the highest yield (10.45%) were extraction time of 2.9 h, extraction temperature of 94.32°C, pH of 7.55 and the W/S ratio of 44.2. The extracted mucilage at the optimal point effectively scavenged DPPH free radical, and more concentrations of this polysaccharide indicated potent antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25036599

Golalikhani, Mahshid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Khosravi, Azin

2014-09-01

228

Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v) and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and quinolinic acid (QA)) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 ?g/mL) and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 ?g/mL) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat's brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P < 0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications. PMID:25506036

Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Oyeleye, Idowu S.

2014-01-01

229

FENUGREEK (TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM) SEED EXTRACT PREVENTS ETHANOL-INDUCED TOXICITY AND APOPTOSIS IN CHANG LIVER CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of a polyphenolic extract of fenugreek seeds (FPEt) against ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicity was investigated in human Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated with either 30 mM EtOH alone or together in the presence of seed extract for 24 h. Assays were performed in treated cells to evaluate the ability of seeds to prevent the toxic effects of

SUBRAMANIAN KAVIARASAN; NALINI RAMAMURTY; PALANI GUNASEKARAN; ELANGO VARALAKSHMI; CARANI VENKATRAMAN ANURADHA

230

Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits mouse skin papillomagenesis.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to elucidate the inhibitory potential of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract on mouse skin papillomagensis with the modulatory influence of biotransformation system enzymes. Topical application of Momordica whole fruit extract (100 microl/animal per day) during the peri-initiation stage (1 week before and 2 weeks after initiation) by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and/or during the tumor promotion stage reduced the (i) tumor burden to 4.26, 3.72 and 3.11 (positive control value: 5.42); (ii) cumulative number of papillomas to 81, 67 and 53 (positive control value: 103); and (iii) percent incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 100, 94 and 94, respectively (positive control value: 100). In a comparison of the anticarcinogenic efficacy of Momordica peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract (100 microl/animal per day), after topical treatment during the peri-initiation and during the tumor promotion stage, revealed the modulation of the (i) tumor burden (tumors/mouse) to 3.06, 3.61, 3.17 and 3.11; (ii) cumulative number of papillomas to 49, 65, 54 and 53; and (iii) percent incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 84, 100, 94 and 94, respectively. Significant elevation in the sulfhydryl (-SH) level was observed in the liver and skin tissues by the topical treatment of Momordica peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract. Elevation in the hepatic levels of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and microsomal cytochrome b, was also observed by the topical treatment of Momordica peel, seed and whole fruit extract. The results suggest the maximum chemopreventive potential is in the Momordica peel. Equivocal efficacy is in the Momordica seed and whole fruit extract. Biotransformation system enzymes may be the cause of this reduced papillomagenesis. PMID:9544697

Singh, A; Singh, S P; Bamezai, R

1998-01-16

231

SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF THE SEED OF COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the oil and fat in a mixture of the hull and the testa of the seed of Coix Lachryma-Jobi L. is extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. The investigated temperature and pressure ranges from 35 to 50 o C and from 20.7 to 48.3 MPa. It is found that the weight fraction of extractable oil and fat in

Ming-Tsai Liang; Chia-Chen Liang; Wen-Hao Wu; Ling-Yea Wang; Chia-Yen Ho; Chun-Hao Chena; Jer-Yi Liaoa

232

Comparison of chemical composition of Aerva javanica seed essential oils obtained by different extraction methods.  

PubMed

Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult. seed essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and dry steam distillation (SD) extracting methods and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Twenty and eighteen components representing 90.5% and 95.6% of the seed essential oil were identified, using hydrodistillation and dry steam distillation, respectively. The major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by HD were heptacosane (25.4%), 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (14.1%), pentacosane (12.1%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentade-canone (7.9%), nonacosane (7.1%), tricosane (3.6%), ?-farnesene (3.5%), dodecanal (2.7%) and octacosane (2.1%). Whereas the major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by SD were heptacosane (41.4%), pentacosane (21.2%), nonacosane (14.8%), tricosane (6.3%), octacosane (4.2%) and tetracosane (3.0%). PMID:23811454

Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

2013-07-01

233

Aqueous fenugreek seed extract ameliorates adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity and testicular alterations in albino rats.  

PubMed

The present work studied the effect of fenugreek seed extracts on cytotoxicity and testicular damage induced by adriamycin (ADR) in albino rats. Administrating animals with ADR caused significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index, and induced DNA damage in bone marrow. Testes of ADR-treated rats showed many histopathological alterations and the number of sperm head abnormalities increased. Moreover, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased and the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased in the testis. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous seed extracts of fenugreek led to an improvement in the cytogenetic effect and testicular alterations induced by ADR. Lipid peroxidation was reduced and the activities of CAT and SOD were increased. In conclusion, the results indicated that fenugreek seeds ameliorated the cytotoxicity and testicular alterations induced by ADR in albino rats and this may be mediated by its potent antioxidant effects. PMID:22051850

Sakr, Saber A; El-Shenawy, Salama M; Al-Shabka, Ahmed M

2012-01-01

234

Extractable amounts of trans-resveratrol in seed and berry skin in Vitis evaluated at the germplasm level.  

PubMed

Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins and seeds were studied in 120 grape (Vitis) germplasm cultivars during two consecutive years to determine the distribution of resveratrol among the main grape genotypes. Interspecific rootstock cultivars had much higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in skin and seed than all other grape genotypes studied in both years. Extremely high extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins [>100 microg g(-1) of skin fresh weight (FW)] and seeds (>20 microg g(-1) of seed FW) were observed on two rootstock cultivars obtained from hybrids of V. monticula x V. riparia. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berries of rootstock cultivars that are the descendants of V. riparia were also very high. The cultivated European type (V. vinifera) cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low levels of extractable resveratrol in berry skin and seed, and the extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were, with a few exceptions, <2 microg g(-1) of skin or seed FW. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were closely related with fruit traits or purpose of uses and climate. Significantly higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin were found in seeded cultivars than in seedless ones, in both berry skin and seeds in winemaking grapes than in table grapes, and in red grapes than in green ones. Moreover, rainfall during fruit development resulted in higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin, whereas resveratrol synthesis and accumulation in grape seeds were not related to climate change. PMID:17090126

Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Benhong; Wang, Lijun; Li, Shaohua

2006-11-15

235

Temperature-dependent kinetics of grape seed phenolic compounds extraction: experiment and model.  

PubMed

The kinetics of a batch solid-liquid extraction of total phenolic compounds (PC) from milled grape seed (Vitis vinifera L. cv. "Frankovka") using 50% ethanol at different extraction temperatures (25-80°C) was studied. The maximum yield of PC was 0.13 kg(GAE)/kg(db) after 200 min of extraction in agitated vessel at 80°C. A new model based on the assumptions of a first order kinetics mechanism for the solid-liquid extraction and a linear equilibrium at the solid-liquid interface was developed. The model involves the concept of broken and intact cells in order to describe two successive extraction periods: a very fast surface washing process followed by slow diffusion of phenolic compounds from grape seeds to the solvent. The proposed model is suited to fit experimental data and to simulate the extraction of phenolic compounds, which was confirmed by the correlation coefficient (r?0.965), the root mean square error (RMSE?0.003 kg(GAE)/kg(db)) and the mean relative deviation modulus (E?2.149%). The temperature influenced both equilibrium partition coefficients of phenolic compounds and transport properties, which is manifested by a relatively high value of activation energy (23-24) kJ/mol and by values of effective diffusivity in seed particles. PMID:23194505

Buci?-Koji?, Ana; Sovová, Helena; Planini?, Mirela; Tomas, Sre?ko

2013-02-15

236

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>?-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

2013-01-01

237

Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution.  

PubMed

It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The active component was isolated and purified from the crude extract through a sequence of steps that included salting-out by dialysis, removal of lipids and carbohydrates by homogenization with acetone, and anion exchange. Specific coagulation activity of the active material increased up to 34 times more than the crude extract after the ion exchange. The active component was not the same as that of water extract. The molecular weight was about 3000 Da. The Lowry method and the phenol-sulfuric acid method indicated that the active component was neither protein nor polysaccharide. The optimum pH of the purified active component for coagulation of turbidity was pH 8 and above. Different from the conventional water extracts, the active component can be used for waters with low turbidity without increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration. PMID:11228992

Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

2001-02-01

238

A New Seeded Region Growing Technique for Retinal Blood Vessels Extraction  

PubMed Central

Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation. PMID:25298931

Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

2014-01-01

239

Development of a fescue toxicosis model using a fescue seed extract  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was designed to examine the efficacy of a fescue seed extract for inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. Four growing Holstein steers (BW = 309±36kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas were utilized in a four phase crossover design experiment. The basal diet consisted of endophyte fr...

240

Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

241

EFFECTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED EXTRACT ON RUMEN FERMENTATION IN VITRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot

EM HOFFMANN; S. Muetzel; K. Becker

2003-01-01

242

Antioxidant activity of various extracts and fractions of Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus spp. seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant potency of various extracts and fractions from Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus sp. was evaluated using three established methods, specifically the DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP, and ?-carotene bleaching assays. Satisfying results were obtained, which lead to expect the use of these seeds as health-promoting ingredients. The antioxidant activity was less correlated to the phenolics content suggesting that non-phenolic compounds

Robert Yawadio Nsimba; Hiroe Kikuzaki; Yotaro Konishi

2008-01-01

243

Formulation and characterization of a cream containing extract of fenugreek seeds.  

PubMed

Fenugreek seeds possess antioxidant effects and contain a mucilage which has emollient properties. It can also produce skin healing, whitening, moisturizing, skin soothening and antiwrinkle effects. The purpose of study was to formulate a stable W/O emulsion containing fenugreek seeds extract using liquid paraffin oil. Fenugreek seeds extract, which was obtained by concentrating methanolic extract of fenugreek seeds, was entrapped in the inner aqueous phase of W/O emulsion. A base containing no active material and a formulation containing concentrated extract of fenugreek (in a concentration of 4%) in the internal aqueous phase (W/O emulsion) were prepared and stored at different accelerated conditions for a period of four weeks to predict the stability of these creams. It was found that both, the base and the formulation, were stable at all the accelerated conditions regarding color, liquifaction and phase separation. However, insignificant changes in the pH of base and significant changes in the pH of the formulation were observed with the passage of time. Both the base and the formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for six weeks and various parameters of the skin were evaluated every week to measure any effect produced by these creams. All the effects of base were statistically significant except the sebum contents and pH, which changed but insignificantly. A significant decrease on skin melanin and erythma was produced by the formulation. An insignificant decrease in TEWL was observed for the formulation. PMID:20369794

Waqas, Muhammad K; Akhtar, Naveed; Ahmad, Mahmood; Murtaza, Ghulam; Khan, Haji M S; Iqbal, Muhammad; Rasul, Akhtar; Bhatti, Naveed S

2010-01-01

244

Effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour in the rat: metabolic-endocrine correlates.  

PubMed

Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are assumed to have restorative and nutritive properties. The present work was designed to investigate the effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour. Experiments were performed to determine food consumption and motivation to eat as well as metabolic-endocrine changes in chronically treated animals. Male Wistar rats were given the seed extract orally (10 and 100 mg/day per 300 g body weight), mixed together with food, and control animals were monitored in parallel. The results show that chronic oral administration of the fenugreek extract significantly increases food intake and the motivation to eat. The treatment, however, does not prevent the anorexia nor the decreased motivation to eat induced by d-fenfluramine (2 mg/kg, IP). An increase in plasma insulin and a decrease in total cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) total cholesterol were also observed. In conclusion, chronic administration of a fenugreek seed extract enhances food consumption and motivation to eat in rats and also induces hyperinsulinemia as well as hypocholesterolemia. PMID:8327543

Petit, P; Sauvaire, Y; Ponsin, G; Manteghetti, M; Fave, A; Ribes, G

1993-06-01

245

Methanol-Water Extraction of Saponins From Seeds of Saponaria Vaccaria L. — Calibration Equation, Extraction Condition Analysis, and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisdesmosides, monodesmosides, and other bisdesmosidic saponins were observed in the particles of Saponaria vaccaria L seeds (15.35% dry basis) with diameter of 0.044 to 1.19 mm and an average thickness of 124 µm as investigated with liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy at methanol concentration of 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% (vol., aq.), temperature of 30°C, 45°C, and 60°C, and eight extraction time intervals between

B. L. Shrestha; O. D. Baik

2012-01-01

246

Phytotoxic Effects and Chemical Analysis Of Leaf Extracts from Three Phytolaccaceae Species in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed phenolic compounds and other elements in leaf extracts and compared morphology of three species of the Phytolaccaceae family found in South Korea. To test allelochemical effects of the three Phytolacca species, we also examined seed germination and dry weight of seedlings of Lactuca indica and Sonchus oleraceus treated with leaf extracts. The concentrations of total phenolic compounds were

Yong Ok Kim; Jon D. Johnson; Eun Ju Lee

2005-01-01

247

Antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Diospyros lotus seeds.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective effects of Diospyros lotus seeds extract in experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant potential of Diospvyos lotus seeds extract was examined by employing seven in vito models i.e., DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activity, iron ion chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation through linoleic acid. Antihemolytic activity of extract was examined against hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocytes hemolysis. Also, nephroprotective effect of extract against gentamicin (GM)-induced renal injury was evaluated. Renal injury was achieved by injecting 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) of GM in normal saline. Extracts were administrated i.p. in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood samples were examined for serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after 10 consecutive days of treatment. Results show that extract showed different level of antioxidant and antihemolytic activity in the studied models. Also, results show that GM-induced nephrotoxic animal model was successfully constructed. Extract attenuated the gentamicin-induced increase in level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The present study shows that the extract offered significant biological action compared with standard compound. PMID:22876611

Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bigdellou, Rata; Mohammadzadeh, Sakineh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

2012-01-01

248

Facile, eco-friendly and template free photosynthesis of cauliflower like ZnO nanoparticles using leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) and its biological evolution of antibacterial and antifungal activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present investigation, we chose the very simple and eco-friendly chemical method for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) (T. indica) and developed the new green route for synthesis of nanoparticles. Formed product has been studied by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and with corresponding energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Mainly, the present results depicted that the synthesized nanoproducts are moderately stable, hexagonal phase, roughly spherical with maximum particles in size range within 19-37 nm in diameter. The antibacterial and fungal activities of aqueous extracts of T. indica were ended with corresponding disk diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The highest mean zones of inhibition were observed in the ZnO NPs (200 ?g/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus (13.1 ± 0.28). Finally, it can be concluded that microbial activity of ZnO NPs has more susceptible S. aureus than the other micro organisms. Further, the present investigation suggests that ZnO NPs has the potential applications for various medical and industrial fields.

Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Ashokkumar, S.

2015-02-01

249

Facile, eco-friendly and template free photosynthesis of cauliflower like ZnO nanoparticles using leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) and its biological evolution of antibacterial and antifungal activities.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, we chose the very simple and eco-friendly chemical method for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) (T. indica) and developed the new green route for synthesis of nanoparticles. Formed product has been studied by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and with corresponding energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Mainly, the present results depicted that the synthesized nanoproducts are moderately stable, hexagonal phase, roughly spherical with maximum particles in size range within 19-37nm in diameter. The antibacterial and fungal activities of aqueous extracts of T. indica were ended with corresponding disk diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The highest mean zones of inhibition were observed in the ZnO NPs (200?g/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus (13.1±0.28). Finally, it can be concluded that microbial activity of ZnO NPs has more susceptible S. aureus than the other micro organisms. Further, the present investigation suggests that ZnO NPs has the potential applications for various medical and industrial fields. PMID:25459502

Elumalai, K; Velmurugan, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Ashokkumar, S

2015-02-01

250

Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on methanolic seeds' extract of Dolichos biflorus.  

PubMed

The Dolichos biflorus is a well known medicinal plant in folklore for its medicinal properties. In herbal medicine the seeds of it are mainly used as tonic, astringent, diuretic, and are also recommended in asthma, bronchitis, urinary discharges, hiccoughs, ozoena, heart trouble and other diseases of brain. The main purpose of this study is to explore and to provide experimental data on the traditional use of plant Dolichos biflorus. For this purpose we investigated the plant seed extract phytochemically and pharmacologically. Phytochemical analysis was performed on extract and powder form of the drug. Procedure use for evaluation were Identification of chemical constituent by color reaction, Fluorescence analysis of powder drug, pH (in powder and extract forms), loss on drying, Thin layer chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy, acid and saponification values. In pharmacological studies (diuretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities) were tested on the extract of plant seed. The tests were carried out over albino mice taking different concentration of seed extract. Seeds extract of Dolichos biflorus has exhibited mild analgesic activity, the results were (84.6±6.68) at dose 300mg/kg and (92.2±6.81) at dose 500mg/kg which were not much significant as compared to reference drug Aspirin (300mg/kg) having result (36.4±2.27). While seed extract of Dolichos biflorus exhibited remarkable diuretic activity, the values at 300 mg/kg was (1.33±0.13) and at 500 mg/kg were (2.66±0.31) which are highly significant as compared to drug Lasix (20mg /kg) having result (2.38±0.23). Anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract of Dolichos biflorus obtained at 0.06mg/kg and 01mg/kg were (26.6±2.96) and (36±1.67) respectively. While the value for aspirin as standard drug (300mg/kg) were (17.44±1.59).This study provides a platform for further investigation for the isolation of active principles responsible for biological activity. PMID:24577923

Ahmad, Mansoor; Sharif, Sadaf; Mehjabeen; Sharif, Hina; Jahan, Noor; Naqvi, Ghazala Raza

2014-03-01

251

In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.  

PubMed

A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets. PMID:15913299

Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

2005-06-01

252

New efficient DNA extraction method to access the microbiome of Ricinus communis seeds.  

PubMed

Ricinus communis (castor bean) seeds are used to produce an alcohol-soluble oil that is used in more than 400 industrial processes. Despite its economic importance, there has been little research on the endophytic microbiota of castor bean seeds. This microbiota is important for plant metabolic processes and may have considerable biotechnological potential, such as production of lipases and plant growth promoter agents. We evaluated several DNA extraction methodologies in order to access the microbial diversity of castor bean through a metagenomic approach. Based on our observations, we developed a new methodology that takes advantage of the low solubility of calcium phosphates and the high affinity of these phosphates for proteins and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA quality was evaluated by PCR, using a selective primer pair for bacterial and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes (799F and 1492R). We found this methodology quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient than the other approaches. In evaluating this new extraction methodology, we found that the difficulties of DNA extraction from castor bean seeds, such as abundant oil, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and plant enzymes, could be overcome. The resulting extracts had high concentration and purity, and they were obtained faster than with previous methods. The samples contained virtually all of the DNA, including the microbial DNA; this was validated by PCR analysis. PMID:23479168

Santos, C D; Dias, A C C; Amaral, I M R; Bonetti, A M; Campos, T A

2013-01-01

253

Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

2013-06-01

254

Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.  

PubMed

The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses. PMID:23652639

Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

2013-01-01

255

An enzymatic extraction of proanthocyanidins from País grape seeds and skins.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) from the skins and seeds of País grapes were obtained by enzymatic extraction by using three enzymes (pectinase, cellulase and tannase) and an enzymatic blend to increase the phenol concentrations and reduce the PA molecular size. The total phenol concentrations (as indicated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), galloylation percentage (%G) and structural proportion (phloroglucinolysis) were analysed, in addition to the extract's capacity to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On grape skins, pectinase had the greatest effective on the release of total phenols, to 0.01g/ml solid/liquid (S/L) and 1% enzyme/substrate (E/S). On grape seed, the three enzymes were effective in increasing the phenolic extraction (p<0.05). The effects of enzymes on the mDP and %G of the extracts were related to their enzymatic activity. All the extracts inhibited ACE, but ACE inhibition was thought to be improved by the increased number of terminal units in the seed samples. PMID:25172676

Fernández, Katherina; Vega, Marco; Aspé, Estrella

2015-02-01

256

Preclinical evaluation of the supercritical extract of azadirachta indica (neem) leaves in vitro and in vivo on inhibition of prostate cancer tumor growth.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin ?1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2',3'-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonimbolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonimbolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer. PMID:24674886

Wu, Qiang; Kohli, Manish; Bergen, H Robert; Cheville, John C; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Cao, Hong; Young, Charles Y F; Tindall, Donald J; McNiven, Mark A; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

2014-05-01

257

Preclinical Evaluation of the Supercritical Extract of Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Leaves In Vitro and In Vivo on Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin ?1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2?,3?-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonim-bolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonim-bolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer. PMID:24674886

Wu, Qiang; Kohli, Manish; Bergen, H. Robert; Cheville, John C.; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Cao, Hong; Young, Charles Y.F.; Tindall, Donald J.; McNiven, Mark A.; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

2015-01-01

258

Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

2014-12-01

259

New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.  

PubMed

The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate. PMID:24372268

Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

2013-01-01

260

Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.  

PubMed

In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs. PMID:19904502

Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

2010-04-01

261

Effects of marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract on ethanol toxicity in male rats.  

PubMed

Natural dietary antioxidants are extensively studied for their ability to protect cells from miscellaneous damages. Marjoram volatile oil (Origanum majorana L., Lamiaceae) and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae) are potent antioxidants. Effects of administration of marjoram volatile oil or grape seed extract on oral administration of ethanol, simultaneously, daily for 10 weeks were studied through determining epididymal spermatozoal analysis, serum testosterone level, weight and histopathological examination of testis, liver and brain. Glutathione level and lipid peroxidation content as malondialdehyde in the testis, liver and brain were measured. The repeated intake of a great amount of ethanol (10 ml/kg body weight, 25% v/v) was followed by fertility disturbances with low sperm count, impaired sperm motility and decrease in serum testosterone level. Moreover, ethanol toxicity induced significant alterations in the histological structures of the testis, liver and brain. The results revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the level of glutathione in the testis, liver and brain in the ethanol-treated group. However, co-administration of the extracts of protective plants resulted in minimizing the hazard effects of ethanol toxicity on male fertility, liver and brain tissues. It may be concluded that marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract are useful herbal remedies, especially for controlling oxidative damages. PMID:17910615

El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Saleh, Amal; Salama, Osama M

2007-11-01

262

Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400??g/mL concentration) produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement. PMID:24955096

Onoja, Samuel Okwudili; Omeh, Yusuf Ndukaku; Ezeja, Maxwell Ikechukwu; Chukwu, Martins Ndubuisi

2014-01-01

263

Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.  

PubMed

Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp. PMID:25212152

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-09-15

264

Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

2012-01-01

265

Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells.  

PubMed

Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

2012-01-01

266

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria] [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

1999-08-01

267

Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.  

PubMed

The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. PMID:19448924

Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

2009-01-01

268

Reproductive toxicity of Momordica charantia ethanol seed extracts in male rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Momordica charantia (M. charantia) seed has been supposed to have an antifertility property but mechanisms underlying the infertility effect have not been investigated. Objective: We investigated the antifertility effect of M. charantia ethanol seed extracts on reproductive toxicology and seminal and plasma testosterone in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The control group (I) was provided daily 1 ml dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the experimental groups II and III were given daily 400 and 800 mg dry matter/kg body weight of the extracts dissolved in 1 ml DMSO via the esophageal route. All groups were administered for 42 days (day 42). Changes in body weight, fertility, reproductive characteristics, testicular histopathology and levels of seminal and plasma testosterone among three groups were compared. Results: On day 42, the extracts caused antifertility (p=0.001). The extracts demonstrated significant reductions in diameters of seminiferous tubules and epididymides, spermatid density, daily sperm production and caudal epididymal spermatozoa, sperm motility and viability (p=0.046). Pathological changes in seminiferous tubules revealed atrophy, desquamation, pyknosis nucleus and multinucleated giant cell. Plasma cells were evident in three parts of epididymides of rats treated with high dose of the extract. Furthermore, the high dose of the extract suppressed seminal testosterone level (p=0.001) and plasma testosterone level (p=0.002). Conclusion: Our data showed that high dose of M. Charantia seed extracts caused infertility in male rats. The interruption in their fertility was probably attributed to the direct toxic to seminiferous tubules, epididymis and the lowered testosterone level which might impact on sperm parameters. PMID:25469128

Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Ploypattarapinyo, Ravicha; Pongchairerk, Urai; Thong-asa, Wachiryah

2014-01-01

269

Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

2011-01-01

270

Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.

Parimala, Mabel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

2013-01-01

271

The impact of seed extraction on the population dynamics of Pinus maximartinezii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 × 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (?) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, ? decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on ?. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.

López-Mata, Lauro

2013-05-01

272

Breaking of seed dormancy by catalase inhibition.  

PubMed Central

Germination of some dormant seeds is promoted by solutions of thiourea, sodium nitrite, and hydroxylamine salts. The promotions are accompanied by irreversible inhibition of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) in extracts from the seeds. The seeds are also promoted in germination by catechol and pyrogallol solutions. These effects are recorded for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) and pigweed (Amaranthus albus L.) seeds. The results indicae that metabolically derived hydrogen peroxide, spared from decomposition by catalase inhibition, oxidizes reduced NADPH required as the oxidant in the pentose pathway of glucose use. The metabolic system for such use of H2O2 involves the enzymes, peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) and pyridine nucleotide quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.2), which are present in the dormant seed prior to imbibition of water. PMID:235126

Hendricks, S B; Taylorson, R B

1975-01-01

273

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

274

Isolation and structural characterization of the water-extractable polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia seeds.  

PubMed

The seed of Cassia obtusifolia is a food or herbal medicine used for improving eyesight, treating constipation and other disorders, and polysaccharides have been implicated in these pharmacological activities. The endosperm of the seeds, Cassia gum, is a commercial thickening or gelling agent, composed mainly of galactomannans. However, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia, rather than the endosperm, are used in folk medicine or food, which might contain more complex constituents of polysaccharides. In this study, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia were extracted with boiling water, and from the water extract, three homogeneous fractions were isolated, designated CFAA-1, CFAA-3, and CFBB2, respectively, after treatment with Fehling solution followed by anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Using chemical and spectroscopic methods, CFAA-1, and CFAA-3 were elucidated to be both branched galactomannans with different molecular weights, consisting of 1,4-linked ?-d-mannopyranosyl backbone with single-unit ?-d-galactopyranosyl branches attached to O-6 of mannose, while CFBB2 was shown to be a linear (1?4)-?-polygalacturonic acid. PMID:22840008

Shang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Xiaoman; Dong, Qun; Yao, Jian; Liu, Qin; Ding, Kan

2012-10-01

275

Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation.  

PubMed

Many protein misfolding diseases, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in an amyloid fibrillar form. Natural products which inhibit fibril formation are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In this study we have shown, using in vitro thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy, that grape seed extract inhibits fibril formation of kappa-casein (?-CN), a milk protein which forms amyloid fibrils spontaneously under physiological conditions. Among the components of grape seed extract, gallic acid was the most active component at inhibiting ?-CN fibril formation, by stabilizing ?-CN to prevent its aggregation. Concomitantly, gallic acid significantly reduced the toxicity of ?-CN to pheochromocytoma12 cells. Furthermore, gallic acid effectively inhibited fibril formation by the amyloid-beta peptide, the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease. It is concluded that the gallate moiety has the fibril-inhibitory activity. PMID:24157371

Liu, Yanqin; Pukala, Tara L; Musgrave, Ian F; Williams, Danielle M; Dehle, Francis C; Carver, John A

2013-12-01

276

Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions. PMID:23743034

Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

2013-10-01

277

Optimised amylases extraction from oat seeds and its impact on bread properties.  

PubMed

Statistical approaches were employed for the optimisation of the extraction of amylolytic activity from oat (Avena sativa) seeds. The application of the response surface methodology allows us to determine a set of optimal conditions (ratio seed weight/buffer volume 0.1, germination days 10 days, temperature 20°C and pH 5.6). Experiments carried out under these conditions led to amylase production yield of 91U/g. Its maximal activity was in the pH 5.6 and at 55°C. Study of the incorporation of the optimised oat extract into the bread formulation revealed an improvement of the sensory quality and the textural properties of fresh and stored bread. Three-dimensional elaborations of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) images were performed on crumb of the different breads to evaluate the influence of amylase activity on microstructure. The result showed improved baking characteristics as well as overall microscopic and macroscopic appearance. PMID:25453287

Ben Halima, Nihed; Borchani, Maha; Fendri, Imen; Khemakhem, Bassem; Gosset, David; Baril, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Ayadi, Mohamed-Ali; Abdelkafi, Slim

2015-01-01

278

Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 ? g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 ? g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

2013-01-01

279

Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (?) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32?mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15?mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73??g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51??g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9?µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

2013-01-01

280

A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (?max=343±2nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in

H. M. Kwaambwa; R. Maikokera

2007-01-01

281

Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate by coagulation\\/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among other natural flocculant\\/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation\\/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin–Fowler–Guggenheim (FFG) and

J. Beltrán-Heredia; J. Sánchez-Martín

2009-01-01

282

Coagulation Mechanism of Salt Solution-Extracted Active Component in Moringa oleifera Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC–pc) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-pc tap water formed insoluble matters. This formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-pc was added into distilled water. The

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

283

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of volatile oil from Italian coriander seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction of the volatile oil from Italian coriander seeds was carried out under different conditions of temperature (40 and 50°C), pressure (90, 100 and 150bar), mean particle size (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8mm) and CO2 flow rate (0.79, 1.10 and 1.56kg\\/h) in order to evaluate their influence on the yield and composition of the volatile oil. Hydrodistillation with

C. Grosso; V. Ferraro; A. C. Figueiredo; J. G. Barroso; J. A. Coelho; A. M. Palavra

2008-01-01

284

Extraction, purification and characterization of globulin from common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt-soluble globulin was extracted from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seeds. The protein content of buckwheat globulin (BWG) was over 90%. Anion-exchange chromatography (with stepwise salt gradient elution) was used to obtain two fractions of BWG, corresponding to the basic and acidic polypeptides, respectively, at a ratio of approximately 1:2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the acidic

Siu-Mei Choi; Ching-Yung Ma

2006-01-01

285

Chronic effect of datura (seed) extract on the brain of albino rats.  

PubMed

The effect of chronic treatment with datura (seed) extract was studied to investigate its effect on the energy metabolism and peroxidative activities in the brain of rats. Datura treatment was found to cause an increase in the activity of brain lipid peroxidase and catalase, while it caused a decrease in the activity of fructose diphosphate aldolase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme. A marked reduction was noted in the protein, DNA and RNA contents of datura administered rats. PMID:2442442

Hasan, S S; Kushwaha, A K

1987-05-01

286

Anticancer activity of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Pharmacological and preventive properties of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts are well known, but the anticancer activity of alcoholic extracts and oil of Petroselinum sativum seeds on human breast cancer cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic activities of these extracts against MCF-7 cells. Cells were exposed to 10 to 1000 ?g/ml of alcoholic seed extract (PSA) and seed oil (PSO) of Petroselinum sativum for 24 h. Post-treatment, percent cell viability was studied by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed that PSA and PSO significantly reduced cell viability, and altered the cellular morphology of MCF-7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. Concentrations of 50 ?g/ml and above of PSA and 100 ?g/ml and above of PSO were found to be cytotoxic in MCF-7 cells. Cell viability at 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 ?g/ml of PSA was recorded as 81%, 57%, 33%, 8% and 5%, respectively, whereas at 100, 250, 500, and 1000 ?g/ml of PSO values were 90%, 78%, 62%, and 8%, respectively by MTT assay. MCF-7 cells exposed to 250, 500 and 1000 ?g/ml of PSA and PSO lost their typical morphology and appeared smaller in size. The data revealed that the treatment with PSA and PSO of Petroselinum sativum induced cell death in MCF-7 cells. PMID:24289568

Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

2013-01-01

287

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic\\/synapic) and lignan–secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and

M. ?uk; L. Dyminska; A. Kulma; A. Boba; A. Prescha; J. Szopa; M. Maczka; A. Zajac; K. Szoltysek; J. Hanuza

2011-01-01

288

Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi (black Zeera) seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants play a key role in preventing various diseases. Hyperlipidemia is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. 2% cholesterol diet were given to rats for six weeks and rats showed high lipid levels were included in the study. Then all rats were divided into, normal control group (A), hyperlipidemia positive control group (B), and the remaining two groups (C and D) served as experimental groups. Group C hyperlipidemic experimental rats received aqueous dried extract of Carum carvi seeds at 60 mg/kg of body weight for eight weeks on daily basis. On the other hand group D rats received simvastatin at 1.0 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Blood samples were collected after eight weeks. The hyperlipidemic positive control group rats showed variable increase in serum triglycerides, LDL and total cholesterol levels. Serum HDL levels decreased in hyperlipidemic positive control groups. Carum carvi and simvastatin significantly decreased the levels of these parameters in rats. On comparison Carum carvi reduced lipid levels more, effectively than the simvastatin. Carum carvi constituents, especially flavonoids and carvone have strong anti-oxidant activity which might be involved in hypolipidemia. In conclusion, Carum carvi aqueous seeds extract decrease lipid levels in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:22459457

Saghir, Muhammad Rashad; Sadiq, Soban; Nayak, Salma; Tahir, Muhammad Usman

2012-04-01

289

Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats. PMID:22082829

Sakr, Saber A; Abo-El-Yazid, Samah M

2012-11-01

290

Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.  

PubMed

Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains ?cta1, ?gsh1 and ?oye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in ?sod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. PMID:23993573

Ignea, Codru?a; Doroban?u, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

2013-12-15

291

Solution properties of the galactomannans extracted from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Cassia javanica: comparison with locust bean gum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The galactomannans from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Cassia javanica were extracted from the milled seeds in water at room temperature. Both products, as well as a commercial sample of locust bean gum (LBG), were purified by precipitation in isopropyl alcohol. The intrinsic viscosity determined for LBG, [?]=15.2 dl\\/g, was slightly higher than those for the other two galactomannans.

C. T Andrade; E. G Azero; L Luciano; M. P Gonçalves

1999-01-01

292

Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

293

Coffea arabica Seed Extract Stimulate the Cellular Immune Function and Cyclophosphamide-induced Immunosuppression in Mice  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigate the immunostimulatory effects of alcoholic extract of the coffee seed on cell-mediated immune response and cyclophosphamide-induced (CP) immunosuppressed mice. The assessment of cellular immune function was carried out by the measurement of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. According to the literature survey, cyclophosphamide has only suppressing effect on the lymphoid organ, white blood cell (WBC) and other parts of humoral immunity. Humoral immunity was assessed by the hemagglutination antibody titre. Mice were treated with three doses of extract (50, 150 and 250 mg/Kg body weight per os). Relative organ weight and WBC counts were also studied in these animals. At doses of 50 and 150, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in relative organ weight of spleen and thymus was observed but there was no effect on kidney and liver weights. WBC counts was also increased significantly (p < 0.001) in all doses of the plant extract. Coffea arabica extract elicited a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the DTH response at doses of 50 and 150 mg/Kg, but the change at higher dose of 250 mg/Kg was not statistically significant. In the HT test, plant extract also showed modulatory effect at all doses groups. Over all, coffee seed showed the stimulatory effect on cellular immune function and cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression in mice. PMID:24250577

Rafiul Haque, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid Hussain; Rashikh, Azhar

2013-01-01

294

Determination of the genotoxic effects of Convolvulus arvensis extracts on corn (Zea mays L.) seeds.  

PubMed

In this research, the methanolic extracts of Convolvulus arvensis were tested for genotoxic and inhibitor activity on the total soluble protein content and the genomic template stability against corn Zea mays L. seed. The methanol extracts of leaf, stem and root of C. arvensis were diluted to 50, 75 and 100 ?l concentrations and applied to corn seed. The total soluble protein and genomic template stability results were compared with the control. The results showed that especially 100 ?l extracts of diluted leaf, stem and root had a strong inhibitory activity on the genomic template stability. The changes occurred in random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of C. arvensis extract treatment included variation in band intensity, loss of bands and appearance of new bands compared with control. Also, the results obtained from this study revealed that the increase in the concentrations of C. arvensis extract increased the total soluble protein content in maize. The results suggested that RAPD analysis and total protein analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals. PMID:22362015

Sunar, Serap; Yildirim, Nalan; Aksakal, Ozkan; Agar, Guleray

2013-06-01

295

Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of ?-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit ?-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

2012-09-12

296

The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as ?Eq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co ?-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with ?-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Fori?, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

2009-05-01

297

Some physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil extracted using solvent and aqueous enzymatic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical properties of oil from Moringa oleifera seed were determined following extraction either with petroleum ether or 2% Neutrase 0.8L (a neutral bacterial protease from Bacillus amyloiquefaciens, Novozyme Bagsvaerd Denmark). The enzyme was chosen following a preliminary study conducted on the enzymatic extraction of M. oleifera seed oil using four commercial enzymes that showed Neutrase to be the best

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2005-01-01

298

Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds: extraction, purification, and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol.  

PubMed

The seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are traditionally assumed to have restorative properties. We have recently shown that a fenugreek seed extract containing steroid saponins increased food consumption and induced hypocholesterolemia in rats. This study aims to investigate the specific role of purified steroid saponins in these properties. For this purpose, an original technique for extraction and purification of steroid saponins was carried out. Thereafter, the effects of these steroid saponins were investigated on feeding behavior and metabolic endocrine changes in normal and diabetic rats. All the steroid saponins (furostanol type) were extracted from the seeds and separated from all other constituents of the entire extract by using several purification procedures to give an extract containing at least 90% of steroid saponins. Pharmcological experiments were performed in vivo in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats: steroid saponins were administered chronically mixed with food (12.5 mg/day per 300 g body weight). Our data show that the treatment with steroid saponins significantly increased food intake and the motivation to eat in normal rats, while modifying the circadian rhythm of feeding behavior; it also stabilized the food consumption in diabetic rats, which resulted in a progressive weight gain in these animals, in contrast to untreated diabetic controls. Both in normal and diabetic rats, steroid saponins decreased total plasma cholesterol without any change in triglycerides. In conclusion, the present work reports a clear methodology to obtain all the steroid saponins and demonstrates that these saponins enhance food consumption and motivation to eat, and reduce plasma cholesterol levels in rats. PMID:8539775

Petit, P R; Sauvaire, Y D; Hillaire-Buys, D M; Leconte, O M; Baissac, Y G; Ponsin, G R; Ribes, G R

1995-10-01

299

Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2?000 µg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 µg/mL as compared to 1.1 µg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant. PMID:23570014

Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Belkacem, Nacera; Kadiata, Marcel; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

2013-01-01

300

Recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds: effect of extraction time and solid-liquid ratio.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds, by-products from winemaking industries, using ethanolic solid-liquid extraction. For such a purpose, the combined effects of the extraction time (9, 19 and 29?h) and the solid-liquid ratio (0.10, 0.20 and 0.30?gdw?mL(-1)), were investigated (where dw?=?dry waste). Results demonstrated that Pinot Noir seeds had high levels of both total polyphenols (73.66?mg(Gallic Acid Equivalent)?gdw(-1)) and flavonoids (30.90?mg(Catechin Equivalent)?gdw(-1)), being the optimum extraction time 19?h approximately. The main phenolic compounds analysed with high performance liquid chromatography were catechin and quercetin with a maximum extraction yield obtained at 29?h (362.23 and 339.35?mg/100?gdw, respectively). Concentration of the polyphenols and their antiradical powers are demonstrated to have a significant linear correlation. PMID:21707256

Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Perego, Patrizia

2011-10-01

301

In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds  

PubMed Central

Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

2012-01-01

302

Insulinotropic action of Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts in rat pancreatic islets.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the direct in vitro effects of several distinct Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts on glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets isolated from rats. Six extracts were tested, a crude aqueous, defatted aqueous, ethyl acetate, H2O-methanol and n-butanol extract and an extract containing a major component (fraction A) identified by gel chromatography in the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H2O-methanol extracts. Under selected experimental conditions, the majority of extracts exhibited a positive insulinotropic action, at least when tested in the presence of 8.3 mM D-glucose. The concentration-response correlation observed with distinct extracts revealed the participation of distinct chemical compounds, including compounds with an inhibitory insulinotropic potential, in the modulation of the insulin secretory response to D-glucose. The results of the present study are relevant for further investigations which aim to identify compounds exhibiting positive insulinotropic actions. These agents may be suitable for the treatment of human diabetic subjects. PMID:23128986

Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Hupkens, Emeline; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

2013-01-01

303

Modulation of quorum sensing controlled behaviour of bacteria by growing seedling, seed and seedling extracts of leguminous plants.  

PubMed

Effect of growing seedling, seeds and seedlings extracts from seven leguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo, Cajanus cajan, Lentil culinaris, Cicer arietinum and Trigonella foenum graecum) were screened for their ability to influence quorum sensing controlled pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum indicator strains (CV12472 and CVO26). Germinating seedling and seedling extracts of only P. sativum (pea) showed inhibition of violacein production. Interestingly, the T. foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extracts enhances the pigment production. Quorum sensing regulated swarming motility in Pseudomonas aerugionsa PAO1 was reduced by pea seedling extract while enhanced by the fenugreek seed extracts. These findings suggest that plant metabolites of some legumes interact actively with bacterial quorum sensing and could modulate its associated functions. PMID:23100836

Fatima, Qaseem; Zahin, Maryam; Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

2010-06-01

304

Proteomic identification of Syzygium cumini seed extracts by MALDI-TOF/MS.  

PubMed

Syzygium cumini is traditionally used medicinal plant. The different part of the plant such as bark, leaves, seed and fruits are widely used as an alternative medicine in various diseases. Although the scientific community has a strong interest on S. cumini seed biochemistry focusing on metabolite composition, proteins have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we have applied a proteomic approach to study the proteome of the S. cumini seed using phenol extraction method for protein isolation, which were never analysed before. Fifteen brightly silver stained protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry after resolving on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These proteins have been found to involve in various functions such as antifungal, sulphur metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, fruit ripening and softening, dormancy breaking and seed germination, hormone signalling, secondary metabolite transport, defence and stress response, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis and stabilization. Amongst the identified protein, lactoferrin was a mammalian origin protein with high nutritious and pharmaceutical value, which was purified by different types of chromatographic techniques and confirmed by western blotting. The antibacterial activity of lactoferrin was assessed by disc diffusion assay. We suggest that the protein constituents of S. cumini may have role in various functions required for plant physiology and its dietary values. PMID:24338207

Binita, Kumari; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Veena; Yadav, Savita

2014-02-01

305

Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extract under drought.  

PubMed

This research evaluated the effect of drought on total and individual polyphenol contents as well as the antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds of 2 geographic origins, Tunisia (TCS) and India (ICS). Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control. Our results indicated that, in both varieties, moderate water deficit (MWD) improved the number of umbels per plant as well as the number of umbellets per umbel and the seed yield, in comparison to the control, but it decreased under severe water deficit (SWD). Besides, total phenolic contents were higher in the treated seeds and drought increased the level of total and individual polyphenols. This increase was appreciably more important in TCS than in ICS. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by 4 different test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ?-carotene/linoleic acid chelating, and reducing power assays, and showed that treated seeds exhibited the highest activity, for both TCS and ICS. PMID:22671525

Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Zakhama, Nesrine; Karoui, Iness Jabri; Marzouk, Brahim

2012-06-01

306

In vitro antimutagenic, antioxidant activities and total phenolics of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) seed extracts.  

PubMed

The present work explores antimutagenic and antioxidant potential as well as total phenolics of aqueous and acidified methanol extractable components from clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) seed. The magnitude of antimutagenic activity of clove seed extracts (CSE) against two mutant bacterial strains: S. typhimurium TA98 and S. typhimurium TA100 (Ames bacterial test) ranged from 34.11-79.74%. Antioxidant activity in terms of measurement of DPPH radical scavenging capacity and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation was noted to be 71.16-94.58% and 54.96-86.89%, respectively. CSE also exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics with contribution between 22.80 and 115.33 GAE mg/100g. A strong correlation between total phenolics and tested biological activities were recorded. The results of this study advocate that clove seed can be explored as a viable source of bioactives for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs against cancer in addition to acting as nutraceutical and functional food ingredient. PMID:25015457

Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Aslam, Maryam; Ijaz, Sidra

2014-07-01

307

Blood pressure lowering, vasodilator and cardiac-modulatory potential of Carum roxburghianum seed extract.  

PubMed

Abstract In current study, we describe blood pressure (BP)-lowering, endothelium-dependent, and independent vasodilator and cardio-modulatory actions of Carum roxburghianum seed. The crude extract of C. roxburghianum seed (Cr.Cr) induced dose-dependent (10-100?mg/kg) fall in arterial BP of anaesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta, Cr.Cr (0.3-10?mg/mL) inhibited high K(+) (80?mM) and phenylephrine (PE, 1?µM)-induced contractions, like verapamil and papaverine. In endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations, N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-sensitive vasodilator activity was observed with Cr.Cr, which also relaxed endothelium-denuded aorta tissues. In guinea-pig atria, Cr.Cr initially caused mild cardiac stimulation, followed by inhibition, as shown by papaverine. These results reveal that cardiovascular effects of C. roxburghianum seed extract are mediated possibly through combination of Ca(++) antagonist, nitric oxide modulating and phosphodiesterase inhibitory mechanisms, though further in-depth studies are required for elucidating precise mode of action. PMID:24785464

Khan, Munasib; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Rehman, Najeeb-Ur-; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

2014-04-30

308

Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.  

PubMed

In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (?3) and omega-6 (?6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ?3 (linolenic acid) and ?6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. PMID:24909999

Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

2014-09-01

309

Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid ?-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons  

PubMed Central

AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid ? (A?) peptide. A? is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds’ aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on A? (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against A?-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on A?-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in A?-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from A? treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the A?-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against A?-mediated cell death. PMID:23833520

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

2013-01-01

310

Influence of chemical extraction conditions on the physicochemical and functional properties of polysaccharide gum from durian (Durio zibethinus) seed.  

PubMed

Durian seed is an agricultural biomass waste of durian fruit. It can be a natural plant source of non-starch polysaccharide gum with potential functional properties. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of chemical extraction variables (i.e., the decolouring time, soaking temperature and soaking time) on the physicochemical properties of durian seed gum. The physicochemical and functional properties of chemically-extracted durian seed gum were assessed by determining the particle size and distribution, solubility and the water- and oil-holding capacity (WHC and OHC). The present work revealed that the soaking time should be considered as the most critical extraction variable affecting the physicochemical properties of crude durian seed gum. PMID:22643356

Mirhosseini, Hamed; Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee

2012-01-01

311

High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 ?g/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 ?g/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance. PMID:23067263

Körpe, Didem Aksoy; ??er?, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

2013-05-01

312

Extraction and purification of human interleukin-10 from transgenic rice seeds.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein production system using transgenic rice grain offers many advantages in higher accumulation, preservation, lower production cost, ease of scale up and low risk of contamination by toxic materials. We developed a transgenic rice strain whose seeds accumulate human interleukin (IL)-10, a cytokine that suppresses inflammation-related immune responses. We also developed a method of extracting and purifying IL-10 from rice seeds. A biochemical crosslinking method was used to detect the biologically active noncovalent dimer of IL-10. This method was useful for developing efficient methods of refolding and purification. The purified IL-10 comprised only noncovalent dimers and showed higher activity than the commercial IL-10. The purified IL-10 had very low endotoxin contamination and is expected to have broad clinical application. PMID:20159041

Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Yang, Lijun; Takaiwa, Fumio; Kosaka, Akemi; Tsuji, Noriko M; Shiraki, Kentaro; Sekikawa, Kenji

2010-07-01

313

Anxiolytic and hyperlocomotive effects of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds in rats.  

PubMed

Use of the herbal drugs increasing all over the world due to its minimum side effect. Nigella sativa black seeds used in folk medicine for the promotion of good health and for the treatment of many diseases .The present study is designed to investigate the neurochemical and behavioral effect of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds in rats. Neurochemical studies were performed for DA and DOPAC levels in whole rats' brain. Locomotive behavior was observed in novel environment and familiar environment. Elevated plus maze and light dark behavioral modules were used to monitor anxiety in rats. The oral administration of AENS for six weeks increased time spent in open arm of elevated plus maze and light compartment in light dark box. Increased locomotors activity in novel environment (open field) was noticed suggesting that increased in DA level may be related to increased locomotive activity in rats. PMID:25176249

Bano, Farhat; Ahmed, Afrinah; Parveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

2014-09-01

314

Antioxidant and antilisterial effect of seed essential oil and organic extracts from Zizyphus jujuba.  

PubMed

Hydrodistilled volatile oil from the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba was analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty three compounds representing 91.59% of the total oil was identified. The oil and organic extracts revealed a great potential of antilisterial effect against all five strains of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, 19116, 19118, 19166 and 15313. Also the oil had strong detrimental effect on the viable count of the tested bacteria. The samples were also subjected to screening for the antioxidant activity by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals scavenging activities assay. In the first case, the IC(50) value of the Z. jujuba essential oil was determined to be 5.21+/-0.01 microg/ml. Among the extracts, the strongest activity was exhibited by the methanol extract with an IC(50) value of 20.44+/-0.18 microg/ml. In the superoxide radicals scavenging activities assay, methanol extract was superior to all other extracts (IC(50)=18.60+/-0.3 microg/ml). Furthermore, the amount of total phenolic compounds was determined. The results indicate that the essential oil and extracts of Z. jujuba could serve as natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents for the food industry. PMID:19563858

Al-Reza, Sharif M; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kang, Sun Chul

2009-09-01

315

Extracts of Phenolic Compounds from Seeds of Three Wild Grapevines—Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activities and the Content of Phenolic Compounds  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from three wild grapevine species: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH• anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds— while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent. PMID:22489161

Weidner, Stanis?aw; Powa?ka, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

316

Extracts of phenolic compounds from seeds of three wild grapevines-comparison of their antioxidant activities and the content of phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS WERE EXTRACTED FROM THREE WILD GRAPEVINE SPECIES: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH(•) anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds- while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent. PMID:22489161

Weidner, Stanis?aw; Powa?ka, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

317

Study of the antiproliferative potential of seed extracts from Northeastern Brazilian plants.  

PubMed

This study assessed the antiproliferative and cytotoxic potential against tumor lines of ethanolic seed extracts of 21 plant species belonging to different families from Northeastern Brazil. In addition, some underlying mechanisms involved in this cytotoxicity were also investigated. Among the 21 extracts tested, the MTT assay after 72 h of incubation demonstrated that only the ethanolic extract obtained from Myracrodruon urundeuva seeds (EEMUS), which has steroids, alkaloids and phenols, showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells, being 2-fold more active on leukemia HL-60 line [IC(50) value of 12.5 (9.5-16.7) ?g/mL] than on glioblastoma SF-295 [IC(50) of 25.1 (17.3-36.3) ?g/mL] and Sarcoma 180 cells [IC(50) of 38.1 (33.5-43.4) ?g/mL]. After 72h exposure, flow cytometric and morphological analyses of HL-60-treated cells showed that EEMUS caused decrease in cell number, volume and viability as well as internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent way, suggesting that the EEMUS triggers apoptotic pathways of cell death. PMID:21779655

Ferreira, Paulo Michel P; Farias, Davi F; Viana, Martônio P; Souza, Terezinha M; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Soares, Bruno M; Pessoa, Cláudia; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Moraes, Manoel O; Carvalho, Ana F U

2011-09-01

318

Extraction, purification, and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata).  

PubMed

Protease inhibitors against trypsin were extracted from cowpea seeds, purified, and characterized. After the seed powder was defatted with hexane, the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was extracted with 0.15 M NaCl for 30 min. The crude extracts were then heated at 90°C for 10 min, followed by precipitation with 40-65% saturation ammonium sulfate, by which the protein purity increased approximately 15-fold. The CpTI had approximate 88-fold and 186-fold purification after anion-exchange chromatography (Super-Q) and gel filtration (Sephadex G-200), respectively. A broad band of the purified CpTI on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicates a degree of heterogeneity and partial denaturation of CpTI, having a molecular mass of ?8000 kD. Multiple peaks between 7451 and 8898 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy also suggest heterogeneity. The purified CpTI was stable at 90°C for 60 min, pH 5-10, and 0-3.0% of NaCl. The purification method described here can be used to obtain highly purified CpTI for its studies such as risk assessment of CpTI genetically modified foods. PMID:24117148

Wang, Jia; Li, Xiaona; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Hao; Liu, Jing; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

2014-01-01

319

Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from seeds in fresh Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste.  

PubMed

The antioxidant potential of ethanol extracts from defatted Bokbunja seed wastes generated during wine processing were estimated by radical scavenging abilities (DPPH(*), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(*-)), retardation of lipid oxidation, and iron ion-chelating characteristics. For comparison, ethanol extracts from seeds of fresh ripe Bokbunja fruits were also used. The ethanol extracts from the wine seed waste always showed higher scavenging activities against DPPH(*), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(*-) than those from the fresh seeds. The oxidation of linoleic acid in dimethylsulfoxide at 105 degrees C revealed that the kinetic behavior clearly obeyed pseudo-zero-order regardless of the linoleic acid concentration. The Fe(II)-chelating capacity was determined by the Freundlich isotherm. The results showed high potential and favorability of the two extracts for Fe(II) chelation. The Freundlich chelation capacities (mg(1-1/n)L(1/n)/g) of both ethanol extracts from seeds of fresh Bokbunja and wine processing wastes, tannic acid, and proanthocyanidin from Pinus radiata bark were 100, 224, 260, and 307, respectively. The Fe(III)-chelating properties of the ethanol extracts were considered to be deeply associated with its 3',4',5'-trihydroxyl (galloyl) group as with tannic acid. PMID:17931856

Ku, Chang Sub; Mun, Sung Phil

2008-07-01

320

Interfacial properties and fluorescence of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds and its interaction with sodium dodecyl sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surfactant behaviour of aqueous coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds has been investigated by surface tension measurements. The interaction of the coagulant protein with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) has been monitored by surface tension and intrinsic protein fluorescence measurements. The extracted protein shows some weak surface activity at low concentrations. To achieve maximum surface activity

R. Maikokera; H. M. Kwaambwa

2007-01-01

321

Modulation of quorum sensing controlled behaviour of bacteria by growing seedling, seed and seedling extracts of leguminous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of growing seedling, seeds and seedlings extracts from seven leguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo, Cajanus cajan, Lentil culinaris, Cicer arietinum and Trigonella foenum graecum) were screened for their ability to influence quorum sensing controlled pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum indicator strains (CV12472 and CVO26). Germinating seedling and seedling extracts of only P. sativum (pea) showed inhibition

Qaseem Fatima; Maryam Zahin; Mohd Sajjad Ahmad Khan; Iqbal Ahmad

2010-01-01

322

Biological and chemical evaluation of chick pea seed proteins as affected by germination, extraction and ?-amylase treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of germination, extraction (double extraction with 70% ethanol and water at isoelectric point) and a-amylase treatments of chick pea seed flours on crude protein, total carbohydrate, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological value (BV), true digestibility (TD), net protein utilization (NPU), essential amino acid composition, in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and actual amino acid indices (essential amino acid index or

E. H. Mansour

1996-01-01

323

Anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract of Punica granatum L. seed.  

PubMed

Objective: Various morphological parts of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) have extensively been used in the folk medicine to treat an array of human ailments. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the anticonvulsant potential of the ethanolic extract of P. granatum L. seed in chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. Method: The anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract was investigated in strychnine (STR)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure models in mice. Diazepam was used as reference anticonvulsant drug. Ethanolic extract (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg per os, p.o.), diazepam (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally, i.p.), and distilled water (10 ml/kg, i.p.) were administered before induction of seizures by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or STR (2·5 mg/kg, i.p.). The latent time before the onset of convulsions, the duration of convulsions, the percentage of seizure protection, and mortality rate were recorded. Results: The seed ethanolic extract did not show any toxicity and did not protect the animals against seizures but demonstrated a significant increase in seizure latency at 300 and 600 mg/kg in both STR and PTZ seizure models (P < 0·001). It also showed a significant reduction in seizure duration at 300 mg/kg (P < 0·05) and 600 mg/kg (P < 0·001) in the STR seizure model and 600 mg/kg (P < 0·01) in the PTZ seizure model compared with the control group. Conclusion: Ethanol extract has dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity against STR- and PTZ-induced seizures. This activity might be due to its saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes, and alkaloids ingredients. PMID:25413687

Mehrzadi, Saeed; Sadr, Samir; Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Gholamine, Babak; Shahbazi, Ali; FallahHuseini, Hasan; Ghaznavi, Habib

2014-11-21

324

The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume.  

PubMed

We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24425949

Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Tze, Liong Min; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

2013-06-01

325

A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds.  

PubMed

The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (lambda(max)=343+ or -2nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in the tryptophan fluorescence above pH 9 whereas the ionic strength had minimal effect. The exposure and environments of the tryptophan residue were determined using collisional quenchers. PMID:17646090

Kwaambwa, H M; Maikokera, R

2007-11-15

326

Bioremediation of turbid surface water using seed extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) tree.  

PubMed

An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for simplified, point-of-use, low-risk water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. PMID:20131221

Lea, Michael

2010-02-01

327

Biocide activity of Annona coriacea seeds extract on Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).  

PubMed

The use of synthetic insecticides for insect control may lead to different kind of problems, such as vector resistance to insecticides. To avoid these problems, a new research area to study botanical products as possible disease vectors controls, has become a feasible alternative. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biocide activity of the ethanol extract of seeds of Annona coriacea on Rhodnius neglectus (Chagas disease vector) nymphs and adults. For this, different concentrations extracts were evaluated: 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/ mL, and water in DMSO (20%) was used as control. The experimental design was completely randomized and we conducted the bioassay with nymphs and adults, with 10 nymphs and 10 adults (five males and five females) per treatment. Extract action was evaluated in both bioassays, in order to identify possible effects of mortality and life cycle interruption of nymphs and adults during a 28-day-period. The results obtained showed that the extract of A. coriacea was able to disrupt the development of nymphs and adults of R. neglectus, with a mortality rate of more than 90%, 36% and 100%, at the highest concentrations, respectively. There was also molting inhibition in nymphs, lower reproductive capacity in females, feeding deterrence and morphological changes in nymphs and adults. We concluded that the extract of A. coriacea has insecticide action on nymphs and adults of R. neglectus. PMID:23894992

Carneirol, Angela Pinheiro; Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa; Galbiati, Carla

2013-03-01

328

Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of flavonoids compounds (FC) from hawthorn seed (HS).  

PubMed

Hawthorn seed (HS), an important by-product of the Hawthorn industry, is rich in potentially health-promoting flavonoids compounds. In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of FC from HS was investigated. Important variables and their levels were obtained using Plackett-Burman (PB) design and Box-Behnken (BB) design. A mathematical model was developed to show the effects of each variable and their combinatorial interactions on extraction yield of FC. A high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 91.26%) indicated good agreement between the experimental and predicted values of FC yield. The optimum levels of these significant parameters were determined using response surface methodology (RSM), which revealed these as follows: ultrasound temperature 65 °C, ultrasonic time 37 min, extraction temperature 91 °C, extraction time 1.5h, solid-liquid ratio of 1:18, and 72% ethanol. Under the optimum condition, the UAE rate of FC was up to 91.7%, and the yield of FC was 16.45 ± 0.02 mg/g (P<0.05) that was 1.32-fold the yield of conventional reflux extraction (CRE). PMID:22142939

Pan, Guangyan; Yu, Guoyong; Zhu, Chuanhe; Qiao, Julin

2012-05-01

329

Comparison of proanthocyanidins in commercial antioxidants: grape seed and pine bark extracts.  

PubMed

The major constituents in grape seed and pine bark extracts are proanthocyanidins. To evaluate material available to consumers, select lots were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC/MS was used to identify monomers, dimers, and trimers present. GC/MS analyses led to the identification of ethyl esters of hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, as well as smaller phenolic and terpene components. The GPC molecular weight (MW) distribution indicated components ranging from approximately 162 to approximately 5500 MW (pine bark less than 1180 MW and grape seed approximately 1180 to approximately 5000 MW). MALDI-TOF MS analyses showed that pine bark did not contain oligomers with odd numbers of gallate units and grape seed contained oligomers with both odd and even numbers of gallate. Reflectron MALDI-TOF MS identified oligomers up to a pentamer and heptamer, and linear MALDI-TOF MS showed a mass range nearly double that of reflectron analyses. PMID:17199326

Weber, Holly A; Hodges, Andrew E; Guthrie, Jill R; O'Brien, Brandon M; Robaugh, David; Clark, Alice P; Harris, Roger K; Algaier, Joseph W; Smith, Cynthia S

2007-01-10

330

Characterization and rheological study of the galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis.  

PubMed

Galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation, presented a yield of 36 ± 8%. The polysaccharide has a constant mannose/galactose ratio (2.44:1). Methylation analysis, one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the polysaccharide has a central core composed of 4-linked ?-mannose units, with branches of galactose, linked to the carbohydrate core through ?(1-6) linkage. The amorphous nature of the galactomannan was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Rheological characterization exhibited Newtonian plateaus followed by shear-thinning zones characteristic of polymer solutions up to 1.5% (w/v) and above this value the system exhibited yield stress associated with a weak gel. Adjusting stress-strain curves confirmed a 1.6% (w/v) as the galactomannan concentration value for the sol-gel transition. These results indicate that the galactomannan extracted from C. grandis seeds presents rheological characteristics suitable for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic and food industries. PMID:24607169

Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Barros, Wilson; Santos, Gustavo R C; Correia, Maria T S; Mourão, Paulo A S; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

2014-04-15

331

Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

2014-01-01

332

Remineralization of artificial caries in primary teeth by grape seed extract: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Background and aims. Promoting remineralization is the ultimate goal of clinical prevention of caries lesion. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on artificial enamel caries in primary human teeth. Materials and methods. Seventeen human sound primary incisors were sectioned mesiodistally. The tooth slices were placed in a demineralizing solution for 96 hours at 37ºC and 50% relative humidity to create lesions. The demineralized fragments of each tooth were randomly divided into two case (immersed in GSE solution in phosphate buffer for 8 days) and control (immersed in distilled water) groups. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a scanning electron microscope and a micro-hardness tester. Data were analyzed using independent t-test. Results. The mean ± SD micro-hardness values for the case and control groups were 358.6±83.42 and 296.51± 69.41, respectively. Grape seed extract significantly increased the micro-hardness of the lesions (P=0.03). The morphology of GSE treated enamel was clearly different from that in the control group, and there were deposits of scaffolding insoluble complexes on the enamel surface. Conclusion. GSE enhanced the remineralization process of artificial enamel lesions of primary teeth, and thus, might be considered an effective natural agent in non-invasive dentistry. PMID:24578818

Mirkarimi, Mahkameh; Eskandarion, Solmauz; Bargrizan, Majid; Delazar, Abbas; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

2013-01-01

333

Remineralization of Artificial Caries in Primary Teeth by Grape Seed Extract: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. Promoting remineralization is the ultimate goal of clinical prevention of caries lesion. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on artificial enamel caries in primary human teeth. Materials and methods. Seventeen human sound primary incisors were sectioned mesiodistally. The tooth slices were placed in a demineralizing solution for 96 hours at 37ºC and 50% relative humidity to create lesions. The demineralized fragments of each tooth were randomly divided into two case (immersed in GSE solution in phosphate buffer for 8 days) and control (immersed in distilled water) groups. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a scanning electron microscope and a micro-hardness tester. Data were analyzed using independent t-test. Results. The mean ± SD micro-hardness values for the case and control groups were 358.6±83.42 and 296.51± 69.41, respectively. Grape seed extract significantly increased the micro-hardness of the lesions (P=0.03). The morphology of GSE treated enamel was clearly different from that in the control group, and there were deposits of scaffolding insoluble complexes on the enamel surface. Conclusion. GSE enhanced the remineralization process of artificial enamel lesions of primary teeth, and thus, might be considered an effective natural agent in non-invasive dentistry. PMID:24578818

Mirkarimi, Mahkameh; Eskandarion, Solmauz; Bargrizan, Majid; Delazar, Abbas; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

2013-01-01

334

Biological effects of hydrolyzed quinoa extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.  

PubMed

An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000?mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000?mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition. PMID:21480793

Meneguetti, Quele Adriana; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Batista, Marcia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício

2011-06-01

335

Ripening Stage and Extraction Method Effects on Physical Properties, Polyphenol Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Seeds.  

PubMed

The effects of two extraction methods, used at three ripening stages on the total polyphenol contents and the antioxidant activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were studied. The ripening stage effect on some physical properties of cumin seed was significant. The increase of dry matter (from 10.3 to 87.5 %) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that of moisture content (from 89.7 to 12.5 %). Besides results showed that the full ripe seeds were richer on polyphenols and condensed tannin than unripe ones, and consequently exhibited higher antioxidant activities. However, the unripe seeds had a higher total flavonoid content compared to those of half ripe and full ripe ones. The comparison of two extraction methods showed that soxhlet extracts contained the greatest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, while maceration samples exhibited higher antiradical and bleaching power assay. Total phenolic contents and IC50 (concentration required to cause a 50 % DPPH inhibition) values in cumin seed during their maturation allowed to conclude that antioxidant activity does not depend only on the high content of total phenolics but also on the phenolic composition. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were successfully identified by HPLC analysis during the ripening of cumin seeds. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic acid for the unripe seeds. Furthermore, half ripe and full ripe seeds were dominated by p-coumaric acid. These compounds might be considered as interesting bioactive natural substances that may be used in several fields, such as nutraceuticals, cosmetics and agro-food industry. PMID:25277369

Bettaieb Rebey, Iness; Kefi, Sarra; Bourgou, Soumaya; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Ksouri, Riadh; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Marzouk, Brahim

2014-12-01

336

Composition and physicochemical properties of locust bean gum extracted from whole seeds by acid or water dehulling pre-treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to extract locust bean gum (LBG) from whole seeds by two different dehulling pre-treatments. The first process consisted in separating the endosperm (gum) from the hull and the germ after seeds’ pre-treatment with boiling water. The second one used acidic pre-treatment. Then the composition and the physicochemical characteristics of the isolated gum were studied

Patrick Aubin Dakia; Christophe Blecker; Christelle Robert; Bernard Wathelet; Michel Paquot

2008-01-01

337

Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts against lipid oxidation in model systems.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal was studied in comparison with mimosine. Both extracts showed similar hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, singlet oxygen inhibition and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity (p?>?0.05). Nevertheless, the extract without prior chlorophyll removal had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity than that with prior chlorophyll removal (p?seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal possessed a lower antioxidant activity, compared with mimosine. When lead seed extract without prior chlorophyll removal (100 and 200?ppm) was used in different lipid oxidation model systems, including ?-carotene-linoleic acid and lecithin liposome systems, the preventive effect toward lipid oxidation was dose-dependent. At the same level of use, mimosine exhibited a higher efficacy in prevention of lipid oxidation in both systems as indicated by the lower increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. A similar result was obtained in minced mackerel. Therefore, lead seed extract containing mimosine could act as a natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. PMID:23729420

Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Maqsood, Sajid

2013-08-01

338

Growth-disrupting, larvicidal and neurobehavioral toxicity effects of seed extract of Seseli diffusum against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Plant extracts that kill, deform the post-embryonic molting stages of mosquitoes could be a valuable approach in integrated vector management programmes to replace synthetic chemical pesticides, containing persistent toxic substances. Crude ethanolic seed extract was obtained by maceration of seeds of Indian celery, Seseli diffusum (Apiaceae). The ethanolic seed extract induced strong neurobehavioral toxicity against the 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti which resulted in a high level of larval knock-down with EC(50) of 238.15 ppm, after 4h of treatment. The extract at concentration of 200 ppm exhibited a potent larvicidal effect against 4th instar A. aegypti, produced 88% and 96% mortality, after 24 and 48 h of treatment with LC(50) of 126.13 ppm and LC(50) of 112.53 ppm, respectively. The ethanolic seed extract at higher concentration (>400 ppm) produced 100% mortality, after 24 h and 48 h of treatment. At lower concentration of 100 ppm, extract induced a high level of morphological deformities in larvae, after 48 h of treatment. A high level of growth and/or molting disrupting effect of extract against larvae was also observed which resulting in the formation of larval-pupal intermediates, after 48 h of treatment. At concentrations of 200-300 ppm, ethanolic seed extract induced morphological deformities in dead pupae, after 72 h of treatment. The results showed that S. diffusum is a promising candidate for the development of new botanical biopesticide having multiple potentials for controlling insect pest of medical and agricultural importance. PMID:23357563

Kabir, Khondkar Ehteshamul; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmed, Shakil; Tariq, Rajput Muhammed

2013-04-01

339

Toxicity of Moringa oleifera seed extract on some hematological and biochemical profiles in a freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to investigate the acute and sublethal toxicity of Moringa oleifera seed extract on hematological and biochemical variables of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio under laboratory conditions. The 96 h LC50 value of M. oleifera seed extract to the fish C. carpio was estimated by probit analysis method and was found to be 124.0 mg/L (with 95% confidence limits). For sublethal studies a non lethal dose of 1/10th of 96 h LC50 value (12.40 mg/L) was taken. During acute treatment (96 h), hematological variables like red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in fish exposed to seed extract. However a significant (P<0.05) increase in white blood cell count (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) value was observed in the exposed fish during above treatment period when compared to that of the control groups. Biochemical parameters such as plasma protein and glucose levels significantly declined in fish exposed to seed extract while a significant (P<0.05) increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was observed. During sublethal treatment (12.40 mg/L), WBC count, MCV, MCH, plasma glucose, AST, ALT and ALP activities were gradually elevated (P<0.05) at the end of 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35th days in seed extract exposed fish, whereas plasma protein level declined. However, a biphasic trend was noticed in Hb, Hct, RBC and MCHC levels. This study may provide baseline information about the toxicity of M. oleifera seed extract to C. carpio and to establish safer limit in water purification. PMID:21282048

Kavitha, Chokkalingam; Ramesh, Mathan; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthil; Lakshmi, Srinivasan Audhi

2012-11-01

340

Antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity of methanol extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the exploitation of the residues generated by plants. This study explored the potential beneficial health effects from the main biowaste, tea seed pomace, produced when tea seed is processed. DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as in vivo model to evaluate the beneficial health effects, including antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity. Among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia, the methanol (MeOH)-soluble fraction has the best in vivo antioxidant activities. The MeOH-soluble extraction was further divided into six fractions by chromatography with a Diaion HP-20 column eluted with water/MeOH, and fraction 3 showed the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Further analysis in C. elegans showed that the MeOH extract (fraction 3) of tea seed pomace significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, prolonged C. elegans lifespan, and reduced amyloid-? (A?) toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Moreover, bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded two potent constituents from fraction 3 of the MeOH extract, namely, kaempferol 3-O-(2?-glucopyranosyl)-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2?-xylopyranosyl)-rutinoside, and both compounds exhibited excellent in vivo antioxidant activity. Taken together, MeOH extracts of tea seed pomace from C. tenuifolia have multiple beneficial health effects, suggesting that biowaste might be valuable to be explored for further development as nutraceutical products. Furthermore, the reuse of agricultural byproduct tea seed pomace also fulfills the environmental perspective. PMID:25295856

Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chan-Wei; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

2014-11-01

341

Chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Although cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent, is used in the treatment of cancer owing to its broad-spectrum efficacy, its metabolites exhibit severe undesired toxicities in normal cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Rodents were orally pre-treated with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) for five consecutive days. On 5th day, these animals were injected with CP (50 mg/kg i.p) and sacrificed after 24 hrs. for the evaluation of oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, micronucleus formation, and chromosomal aberrations. Results: We found that the CP significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased catalase and glutathione (GSH) levels in brain, and it was significantly reversed by Coccinia indica extract (400 and 600 mg/kg). Further, pre-treatment with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced micronuclei formation and incidence of aberrant cells. We also found that the CP-induced increase in the serum biomarker enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced by Coccinia indica extract. Conclusion: Thus, the present results indicate the protective effect of Coccinia indica extract against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, as well as hepatotoxicity. PMID:24130387

Nitharwal, Ramesh K; Patel, Hasit; Karchuli, Manvendra Singh; Ugale, Rajesh Ramesh

2013-01-01

342

Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of extract from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100 mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40 min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the polyphenol extraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50 mL of solvent volume, 20 min of extraction time and 70 °C of ultrasonic temperature. PMID:23993457

Teh, Sue-Siang; Birch, Edward John

2014-01-01

343

Flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract and evaluation of its neuroprotective effect.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract (PE) and to evaluate its effect as a phytoestrogen on the morphometric parameters of CA3 hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rats (OVX). L. mexicanus seeds, germinated for 48 h, were homogenized and macerated using an 80% ethanol solution. The extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. Thirty young Wistar strain female rats (200±10 g) were randomly distributed into four groups: sham operated (S) treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); ovariectomized and treated with 1250 ?g of PE extract (OVX-PE); ovariectomized and treated with 5 ?g estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB); and ovariectomized and vehicle treated (OVX). All substances were injected subcutaneously daily for 28 days. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed, perfused, and fixed to obtain the brains for histological processing. Each brain was cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The thickness of the stratum oriens (SO), the nuclear diameter, and the neuronal density were measured in the hippocampus CA3 area. Nine different flavonoids and one non-identified compound were detected. The histological analysis demonstrated that the thickness of the SO was higher in the OVX-EB and S groups than in the OVX-PE and OVX groups (p?0.05); in addition, the nuclear diameters of the neurons in the OVX-EB and S groups were higher compared with the other groups (p?0.05). The OVX group had the highest cellular density among groups (p?0.05). Based on our results, the PE obtained did not have beneficial effects on CA3 hippocampal neurons. PMID:24723146

Uribe-Gómez, José de Jesús; Zamora-Natera, Juan Francisco; Bañuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej; García-López, Pedro Macedonio

2014-11-01

344

Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.  

PubMed

Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected. PMID:19427016

Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

2009-07-01

345

Inhibition of the growth and development of asexual and sexual stages of drug-sensitive and resistant strains of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum by Neem ( Azadirachta indica) fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been shown to possess anti-malarial activity. In this study we systematically evaluated extracts of neem seeds and purified fractions further enriched in polar or non-polar constituents for their effect on in vitro growth and development of asexual and sexual stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Use of synchronized stages of parasites suggested trophozoites\\/schizonts as

Ravi Dhar; Kunyan Zhang; G. P Talwar; Sanjay Garg; Nirbhay Kumar

1998-01-01

346

Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and phenolics of different solvent extracts from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.  

PubMed

This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value, 3.21 ?g/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50-6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18-4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52-0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22466852

Sajid, Zahid Iqbal; Anwar, Farooq; Shabir, Ghulam; Rasul, Ghulam; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

2012-01-01

347

H{sup -} beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source  

SciTech Connect

H{sup -} beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H{sup -} ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents.

Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N. [School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2012-02-15

348

H- beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source.  

PubMed

H(-) beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 10(19) m(-3) was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H(-) ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents. PMID:22380279

Ando, A; Matsuno, T; Funaoi, T; Tanaka, N; Tsumori, K; Takeiri, Y

2012-02-01

349

Preliminary study on the effects of Buchholzia coriacea seed extract on male reproductive parameters in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of methanol extract of Buchholzia coriacea seed was studied on male reproductive system of albino rats. Administration of 200mg/kg b.w.(p.o.) of the extract for 6 weeks resulted in significant reduction (P?0.05) in the weight of the epididymis and seminal vesicle, but not the testes and prostate gland. Also the weight of the visceral organs- lungs, liver, heart and kidney were unaffected. A marked decrease (P<0.05) in sperm motility and volume was also observed in sperm collected from the caudal epididymis of the treated animals. Sperm count and morphology were not significantly affected (P<0.05). Total tissue protein of the epididymis and testes of the treated rats was significantly increased (P<0.05) and fertility was zero in the treated rats. Histological section showed that the epididymal ducts were mostly empty, though the epithelial lining appeared normal. There were fewer spermatozoa and late stage spermatids in the testes, with normal testicular epithelium. The results suggest that the extract of Buchholzia coriacea may have antifertility effects in male rats, the site of action most probably the epididymis. PMID:23652231

Obembe, O O; Onasanwo, S A; Raji, Y

2012-01-01

350

Docynia indica, Docynia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Docynia (Docynia indica [Well.] Decne, Rosaceae) is native to southeast Asia, from Vietnam through India and north into central China. While generally referred to as Docynia i...

351

Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies.  

PubMed

DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invasive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces and regurgitated seeds. The presence of contaminants and inhibitors is minimized and samples are preserved intact for use in other ecological research (e.g. trophic studies). The amplification efficiency and purity of the extracted DNA from feces were significantly higher than in commonly used extraction procedures. Moreover, DNA of two bird species was identified from seeds expelled by regurgitation. Therefore, this method may be suitable for future ecological studies of birds, and other vertebrate groups. PMID:19746259

Marrero, Patricia; Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M; Nogales, Manuel

2009-01-01

352

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 24, 1771-1785 (2008) A New Seed-Set Finding Approach for Iso-Surface Extraction*  

E-print Network

proposed linear-time algorithms. Keywords: iso-surface extraction, iso-contouring, seed-set, min-max spanJOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 24, 1771-1785 (2008) 1771 A New Seed-Set Finding Approach for Iso-Surface Extraction* CHUAN-KAI YANG AND CHIANG-HAN HUNG Department of Information

Wang, Hsin-Min

353

Biosynthesis of (—)-Kaurene in Cell-free Extracts of Immature Pea Seeds 1  

PubMed Central

Mevalonate-14C was incorporated into (—)-kaurene-14C in cell-free extracts of immature pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds. The identification of 14C-product as (—)-kaurene was based on: A) comparison with authentic (—)-kaurene on thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography; and B) oxidation of 14C-product and (—)-kaurene with osmium tetroxide to form the common derivative kaurane-16,17-diol. The enzyme system is heat labile and is dependent upon ATP and Mg2+ or Mn2-, with Mn2+ being a more effective activator than Mg2+. The reaction rate was proportional to enzyme concentration in reaction mixtures containing 0.45 to 1.8 mg protein n/ml, and was linear with time through 120 minutes in standard reaction mixtures. Enzyme preparations from immature seeds of tall and dwarf peas appeared to synthesize (—)-kaurene at the same rate. Synthesis of (—)-kaurene was readily inhibited by Amo-1618. (2-Chloroethyl)-trimethylammonium chloride (CCC) also inhibited (—)-kaurene synthesis; however, approximately 1000-fold higher concentrations of CCC were required to evoke the same percentages of inhibition as Amo-1618. PMID:16656689

Anderson, James D.; Moore, Thomas C.

1967-01-01

354

Grape seed extracts inhibit platelet aggregation by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase.  

PubMed

Platelets play an important role in various thrombotic diseases, including myocardial infarction. Because red wine consumption is inversely associated with death due to ischemic heart diseases, the effects of grape components on platelet function have been extensively investigated. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) reportedly inhibit platelet aggregation; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. We discovered that GSEs inhibit platelet aggregation induced by collagen and thrombin-receptor agonist peptide and increase basal levels of tyrosine phosphorylation, which was also observed in the presence of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor. An in vitro phosphatase assay indicated that GSE dose dependently inhibited PTP-1B and Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 activity, which positively regulates platelet aggregation. We propose that GSEs inhibit platelet aggregation by inhibiting tyrosine phosphatase activity. Moreover, we showed that GSE ingestion inhibited platelet aggregation in mice without enhancing tail bleeding, implying that GSE supplementation might be beneficial to prevention of thrombotic diseases. PMID:23478570

Jin, Joseph Wuxun; Inoue, Osamu; Suzuki-Inoue, Katsue; Nishikawa, Go; Kawakami, Yoshinori; Hisamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Tohru; Ozaki, Yukio

2014-04-01

355

Dietary grape seed extract ameliorates symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease in IL10-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Grape seed extract (GSE) is a by-product of the wine industry, with abundant polyphenolic compounds known for their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Using IL10-deficient mice (IL10KO), here we showed that GSE (1% of dry feed weight) ameliorated inflammatory bowel disease indices, increased colonic goblet cell numbers and decreased myeloperoxidase levels in the large intestine. Concomitantly, GSE supplementation attenuated inflammation, decreased the expression of pore forming tight junction protein claudin2, and increased levels of Lactobacilli and Bacteroides in the gut microbiota of IL10KO mice. In summary, our study shows that GSE has protective roles on inflammatory bowel disease through altering gut inflammation, tight junction protein expression, and gut microbiota composition. PMID:23963706

Wang, Hui; Xue, Yansong; Zhang, Hanying; Huang, Yan; Yang, Guan; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

2013-12-01

356

Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.  

PubMed

An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 33:1G.1-1G.8. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24789599

Lea, Michael

2014-01-01

357

Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate by coagulation/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract.  

PubMed

Among other natural flocculant/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim (FFG) and Gu-Zhu (GZ) models were used to adjust experimental data in a solid-liquid adsorption hypothesis. Last one resulted to be the most accurate one. Several data fit parameters were determined, as Freundlich order, which was found to be 1.66, Flory-Huggins interaction parameter from FFG model, which was found to be 4.87; and limiting Moringa surfactant adsorption capacity from GZ model, which was found to be 2.13 x 10(-3)mol/g. PMID:18824298

Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

2009-05-30

358

Dietary grape seed extract ameliorates symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease in interleukin-10 deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Grape seed extract (GSE) is a by-product of the wine industry, with abundant polyphenolic compounds known for their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Using IL10-deficient mice (IL10KO), here we showed that GSE (1% of dry feed weight) ameliorated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) indices, increased colonic goblet cell numbers and decreased myeloperoxidase levels in the large intestine. Concomitantly, GSE supplementation attenuated inflammation, decreased the expression of pore forming tight junction protein claudin2, and increased levels of Lactobacilli and Bacteroides in the gut microbiota of IL10KO mice. In summary, our study shows that GSE has protective roles on IBD through altering gut inflammation, tight junction protein expression, and gut microbiota composition. PMID:23963706

Wang, Hui; Xue, Yansong; Zhang, Hanying; Huang, Yan; Yang, Guan; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

2013-01-01

359

Effects of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum greaecum) extract on endurance capacity in mice.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to determine the effect of fenugreek seed extract (FG) on endurance capacity in male mice aged 4 wk. Mice were given orally either vehicle or FG (150, 300 mg/kg body weight) by stomach intubation for 4 wk. The 300 mg/ kg FG group showed a significant increase in swimming time to exhaustion as compared to the control group. In the FG groups, blood lactate concentration was significantly lower than in the control group. In the control group, plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and plasma glucose were decreased by swimming exercise. But in the FG group, NEFA and plasma glucose were significantly increased by swimming. FG treatment also significantly decreased fat accumulation. These results suggest that improvement in swimming endurance by the administration of FG is caused by the increase in utilization of fatty acids as an energy source. PMID:17087056

Ikeuchi, Mayumi; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Sono, Yoshikatsu; Yazawa, Kazunaga

2006-08-01

360

In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of coastal medicinal plants along Palk Strait against Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera), Acalypha indica (A. indica), Jatropha glandulifera (J. glandulifera) and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus). Methods The A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were collected along Palk Strait and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. Results Of the selected plants species parts, the stem extract of A. indica showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50= 43.81µg/mL) followed by stem extract of J. glandulifera (IC50= 49.14µg/mL). The stem extract of A. aspera, leaf and root extracts of A. indica, leaf, root and seed extracts of J. glandulifera and leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus showed IC50 values between 50 and 100 µg/mL. Statistical analysis revealed that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of all the tested plant extracts. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. Conclusions The ethanolic stem extracts of P. amarus and J. glandulifera possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs. PMID:23569931

Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Suganthi, Palavesam

2012-01-01

361

Extraction and identification of natural antioxidant from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree variety of Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil from the dried seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (variety of Malawi) was extracted with a mixture of chloroform\\/methanol (50?50). The induction period measurements demonstrated\\u000a a great resistance to oxidative rancidity. After degumming, there was a reduction of 74% in induction periods. The gums produced\\u000a were extracted with diethylether, n-butanol, and water, yielding four fractions: Fraction 1 (81.8%

Stavros Lalas; John Tsaknis

2002-01-01

362

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oil from Mexican chia seed ( Salvia hispanica L.): Characterization and process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was employed to extract oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) from chia seeds, and the physicochemical properties of the oil were determined. A central composite rotatable design was used to analyze the impact of temperature (40°C, 60°C and 80°C), pressure (250bar, 350bar and 450bar) and time (60min, 150min and 240min) on oil extraction yield, and

Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Andrea Vega; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás; Miquel Gimeno; Eduardo Bárzana; Alberto Tecante

2010-01-01

363

Extraction, purification, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of urease from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds  

PubMed Central

Background Urease, one of the highly efficient known enzymes, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The present study aimed to extract urease from pea seeds (Pisum Sativum L). The enzyme was then purified in three consequence steps: acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-200 column). Results The purification fold was 12.85 with a yield of 40%. The molecular weight of the isolated urease was estimated by chromatography to be 269,000 Daltons. Maximum urease activity (190 U/g) was achieved at the optimum conditions of 40°C and pH of 7.5 after 5 min of incubation. The kinetic parameters, K m and V max , were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk fits and found to be 500 mM and 333.3 U/g, respectively. The thermodynamic constants of activation, ?H, E a , and ?S, were determined using Arrhenius plot and found to be 21.20 kJ/mol, 23.7 kJ/mol, and 1.18 kJ/mol/K, respectively. Conclusions Urease was purified from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds. The purification fold, yield, and molecular weight were determined. The effects of pH, concentration of enzyme, temperature, concentration of substrate, and storage period on urease activity were examined. This may provide an insight on the various aspects of the property of the enzyme. The significance of extracting urease from different sources could play a good role in understanding the metabolism of urea in plants. PMID:25065975

2014-01-01

364

Effect of synthetic combinations and tobacco root extract and the mixture of them on broomrape seed germination.  

PubMed

Various types of broomrape (Orobanche cermua), such as parasitic weeds, live on the roots of many important crops. Different methods may be advised to eradicate this parasite. But the seed size is so tiny with high stability in the soil and having strong connection with the host, it is very difficult to eradicate this parasite and there is no useful and economic method has not been suggested in this regard yet. The seeds of all types of broomrape germinate in the soil only when they are exposed to the secretions of the host's roots, therefore, providing special combinations that cause the parasite's seeds germinate in the absence of the host, can be an effective way in controlling this parasite. The effect of the tobacco root's extract and the synthetic combinations as well as their mixtures with different concentrations on the germination of the seeds of Orobanche cermua Loefi were tested to introduce an effective combination that can be used in controlling this parasite. This experiment includes 28 treatments in three replications. The tobacco root's extract was derived from the tobacco roots planted in pots containing Perlit in different stages and were prepared in different concentrations. Synthetic combinations (including combinations 1, 2 and 3) were also prepared with concentration of 1, 2 and 3 parts per million (ppm), then these combinations were tested as treatments on Broomrape's seeds. At the end of experiment, it was concluded that all the combinations used in different concentrations in this experiment significantly differ from the control treatment in their effects in causing the Broomrape's seeds germinate. Among all the combinations examined, the following were the most effective ones in the process of the germination of the Broomrape's seeds: 1. combination 2 with the concentration of one part per million, 2. combination 2 with the concentration of two parts per million, and 3 tobacco root's extract in the third stage. PMID:15759394

Zad, S J; Hossieny, Z

2004-01-01

365

Ameliorative Potential of Tamarindus indica on High Fat Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180?mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:24688399

Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Ariyattu Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair; Agarwal, Amit

2014-01-01

366

Ameliorative potential of Tamarindus indica on high fat diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:24688399

Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair Ariyattu; Agarwal, Amit

2014-01-01

367

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract.  

PubMed

The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2013-01-01

368

Optimization of DNA extraction from seeds and leaf tissues of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum) for polymerase chain reaction  

PubMed Central

Chrysanthemums constitute approximately 30 species of perennial flowering plants, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to Asia and Northeastern Europe. Chrysanthemum is a natural cosmetic additive extracted from Chinese herb by modern biochemical technology. It has the properties of anti-bacterial, anti-viral, reducing (detoxification) and anti-inflammation. It possesses antioxidant characteristics, which could assist in minimizing free-radical induced damage. Therefore, it is widely used in skin and hair care products. Chemical composition of this herbal remedy includes kikkanols, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, various essential oils containing camphor, cineole, sabinol, borneole and other elements that interfere with DNA, causing erroneous or no PCR products. In the present study, testing and modification of various standard protocols for isolation of high-quality DNA from leaf tissues and seeds of C. indicum was done. It was observed that the DNA obtained from seeds and leaf tissues with a modified cetyltrimethylammonium bromide buffer protocol was of good quality, with no colored pigments and contaminants. Also, DNA could be extracted from leaf tissues without using liquid nitrogen. Quality of DNA extracted from seeds was much better as compared to that extracted from leaf tissues. The extracted DNA was successfully amplified by PCR using arbitrary RAPD primers. The same protocol will probably be useful for extraction of high-molecular weight DNA from other plant materials containing large amounts of secondary metabolites and essential oils. PMID:22493524

Hasan, Saba; Prakash, Jyoti; Vashishtha, Abhinav; Sharma, Agnivesh; Srivastava, Kuldeep; Sagar, Faizuddin; Khan, Nausheen; Dwivedi, Keshav; Jain, Payal; Shukla, Saransh; Gupta, Swati Prakash; Mishra, Saumya

2012-01-01

369

Constriction of bovine vasculature by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergovaline has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte- (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However, preliminary in vitro tests indicated that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ergovaline alone in a right rumin...

370

Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A mixture of ergot alkaloids does not increase the contractile response of peripheral bovine vasculature, but may increase the contractile response of foregut vasculature. Preliminary data indicated that an extract of tall fescue seed induced a greater contractile response in ruminal artery and vein...

371

Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.  

PubMed

Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. PMID:22885021

Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

2012-12-01

372

Ball milling improves extractability and affects molecular properties of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk arabinoxylan.  

PubMed

Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk (PSH) is very rich in arabinoxylan (AX). However, its high gelling capacity and the complex nature of the AX make it difficult to process. In this study, ball milling was investigated as a tool for enhancing PSH AX water extractability and molecular mass (MM). A 48 h laboratory-scale ball mill treatment under standardized optimal conditions reduced the PSH average particle size from 161 microm for the untreated sample to 6 microm. Concurrently, it increased the water-extractable AX (WE-AX) level from 13 (untreated PSH) to 90% of the total PSH AX. While the WE-AX of the untreated PSH had a peak MM of 216 kDa and an arabinose to xylose (A/X) ratio of 0.20, WE-AX fragments from ball mill-pretreated PSH had a peak MM of 22 kDa and an A/X ratio of 0.31. Ball milling further drastically reduced the intrinsic viscosity of PSH extracts and their water-holding capacity. Prolonged treatment brought almost all AX (98%) in solution and yielded WE-AX fragments with an even higher A/X ratio (0.42) and a lower peak MM (11 kDa). While impact and jet milling of PSH equally led to significant reductions in particle size, these technologies only marginally affected the water extractability of PSH AX. This implies that ball milling affects PSH particles and their constituent molecules differently than impact and jet milling. PMID:19007123

Van Craeyveld, Valerie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

2008-12-10

373

Limonoid and Steroidal Saponin from Azadirachta indica.  

PubMed

A new limonoid, 17-(5-methoxy-2-oxofuran-3-yl)-28-deoxonimbolide (1), and a new C21 steroidal saponin, 2?,4?-dihydroxy-pregn-5-en-16-one-3?-O-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with 11 known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica. The structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis and putative biosynthetic origins. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against six bacterial strains. PMID:25381190

Liu, Lu; Zhao, Yun-Li; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Chen, Ying-Ying; Qin, Xu-Jie; Song, Chang-Wei; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

2014-11-01

374

Cardioprotective mechanisms of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed extract against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in isolated rat hearts.  

PubMed

The effects of kernel extract obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed on the postischemic cardiac recovery were studied in isolated working rat hearts. Rats were treated with various daily doses of the extract for 14 days, and hearts were then isolated and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and tachycardia (VT) fell from their control values of 92% and 100% to 50% (not significant) and 58% (not significant), 17% (P<0.05), and 25% (P<0.05) with the doses of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Lower concentrations of the extract (1 and 5 mg/kg) failed to significantly reduce the incidence of VF and VT during reperfusion. Sour cherry seed kernel extract (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly improved the postischemic recovery of cardiac function (coronary flow, aortic flow, and left ventricular developed pressure) during reperfusion. We have also demonstrated that the extract-induced protection in cardiac function significantly reflected in a reduction of infarct size. Immunohistochemistry indicates that a reduction in caspase-3 activity and apoptotic cells by the extract, beside other potential action mechanisms of proanthocyanidin, trans-resveratrol, and flavonoid components of the extract, could be responsible for the cardioprotection in ischemic-reperfused myocardium. PMID:16617126

Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Nagy, Norbert; Varga, Edit; Varadi, Judit; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szabo, Gergo; Szendrei, Levente; Bacskay, Ildiko; Vecsernyes, Miklos; Antal, Miklos; Fesus, Laszlo; Boucher, Francois; de Leiris, Joel; Tosaki, Arpad

2006-09-01

375

Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this article: Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP, Patil AK, Kakde DD. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):61-6 . PMID:24453446

Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

2013-01-01

376

Antiulcerogenic effect of Securigera securidaca L. seed extract on various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats.  

PubMed

Securigera securidaca belongs to the family Fabaceae is used in Iranian folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the Securigera securidaca seed hydroalcoholic extract (SSE) and its subfractions for their gastroprotective effect in rat. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of ethanol (100%; 1 mL/200 g of body weight) or water immersion restraint-stress (5 h, water immersion restraint stress at 20-22 degrees C). Ranitidine (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) was used as the reference antiulcer drug. After ethanol administration, the gastric wall mucus was examined. Chronic gastric ulceration was produced by injection of acetic acid in rat gastric subserosa. The antisecretory effect of the extract and its subfractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and aqueous fractions) were investigated in pylorus-ligated rats. Administration of SSE significantly inhibited gastric mucosa damage induced by ethanol, water immersion restraint-stress and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. In pylorus ligature rats, SSE and its subfractions significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion and total acidity; moreover, it inhibited the increase in total acidity induced by carbachol. However, the antisecretory effect of the chloroform fraction was more potent than two other fractions. Administration of SSE did not affect the gastric mucus production. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the SSE has gastroprotective and antisecretory effects on gastric mucosa in rats. PMID:19630213

Mard, S A; Bahari, Z; Eshaghi, N; Farbood, Y

2008-12-01

377

Long-Term Effect of an Aqueous Fraxinus excelsior L. Seed Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.  

PubMed

The effect of long-term intake of different doses (20, 40, and 60?mg/kg/day) of a Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract (FESE) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was evaluated. Water was used as control and captopril (50?mg/kg/day) was used as positive control. Systolic blood pressure, body weight, and food and liquid intake were registered weekly in SHR. The antioxidant and vascular relaxing properties of FESE were also studied in these animals. The development of hypertension was attenuated in the groups treated with captopril or FESE. The antihypertensive effect was more accentuated in the captopril group than in the FESE groups, and it was paradoxically more accentuated in the groups treated with 20?mg/kg/day or 40?mg/kg/day of FESE than in the group treated with the highest dose of this extract. Body weight gain and food intake increased in the FESE groups. After removing the corresponding antihypertensive treatment, the arterial blood pressure and the body weight of the FESE treated animals returned to control values. In addition, FESE increased plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma and liver malondialdehyde levels. Moreover, acetylcholine relaxation improved in the aorta rings from the FESE treated rats. PMID:24696778

López-Carreras, Noemi; Fernández-Vallinas, Sandra; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

2014-01-01

378

Safety evaluation and nutritional composition of a Fraxinus excelsior seed extract, FraxiPure™.  

PubMed

A natural extract obtained from the seeds of Fraxinus excelsior L. (FraxiPure™) has been previously reported to reduce glycemia in animal models and in humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the safety of FraxiPure™ at in vitro, in vivo and human levels. In addition, nutritional analyses revealed an extract high in carbohydrates, with minor levels of protein, dietary fiber, glucose and sucrose. IC(50) and IC(90) values of 1.447 and 2.530 mg/mL, respectively, after 72 h incubation were calculated using the MTT assay. FraxiPure™ conferred a magnitude of protection of 69.2% against the formation of micronuclei in irradiated human lymphocytes as determined by the micronucleus assay. An LD(50) of greater than 2500 mg/kg was concluded following an acute oral toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats. A human safety evaluation in a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study of 100 healthy volunteers revealed no significant differences between daily consumption of 1000 mg of FraxiPure™ for 90 days and placebo (maltodextrin) for any of the biochemical or hematological parameters studied. Numbers of adverse events were similar in both groups, and were deemed mild to moderate. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the safety and tolerability of FraxiPure™ for consumption in healthy subjects. PMID:23201448

Flanagan, John; Meyer, Marjolaine; Pasamar, María Angeles; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Alvarez i Genoher, Nuria; Leiva, Sandra; Gomez-García, Francisco; Alcaraz, Miguel; Martínez-Carrasco, Alberto; Vicente, Vicente

2013-03-01

379

Long-Term Effect of an Aqueous Fraxinus excelsior L. Seed Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

The effect of long-term intake of different doses (20, 40, and 60?mg/kg/day) of a Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract (FESE) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was evaluated. Water was used as control and captopril (50?mg/kg/day) was used as positive control. Systolic blood pressure, body weight, and food and liquid intake were registered weekly in SHR. The antioxidant and vascular relaxing properties of FESE were also studied in these animals. The development of hypertension was attenuated in the groups treated with captopril or FESE. The antihypertensive effect was more accentuated in the captopril group than in the FESE groups, and it was paradoxically more accentuated in the groups treated with 20?mg/kg/day or 40?mg/kg/day of FESE than in the group treated with the highest dose of this extract. Body weight gain and food intake increased in the FESE groups. After removing the corresponding antihypertensive treatment, the arterial blood pressure and the body weight of the FESE treated animals returned to control values. In addition, FESE increased plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma and liver malondialdehyde levels. Moreover, acetylcholine relaxation improved in the aorta rings from the FESE treated rats. PMID:24696778

López-Carreras, Noemi; Fernández-Vallinas, Sandra; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

2014-01-01

380

Milk thistle seed extract protects rat C6 astroglial cells from acute cocaine toxicity  

PubMed Central

Cocaine is a powerful addictive drug, widely abused in most Western countries. It easily reaches various domains within and outside of the central nervous system (CNS), and triggers varying levels of cellular toxicity. No pharmacological treatment is available to alleviate cocaine-induced toxicity in the cells without side-effects. Here, we discerned the role of milk thistle (MT) seed extract against cocaine toxicity. First, we investigated acute cytotoxicity induced by treatment with 2, 3 and 4 mM cocaine for 1 h in astroglial, liver and kidney cells in vitro, and then in living shrimp larvae in vivo. We showed that astroglial cells are more sensitive to cocaine than liver, kidney cells or larvae. Cocaine exposure disrupted the general architecture of astroglial cells, induced vacuolation, decreased cell viability, and depleted the glutathione (GSH) level. These changes may represent the underlying pathology of cocaine in the astrocytes. By contrast, MT pretreatment (200 ?g/ml) for 30 min sustained the cell morphological features and increased both cell viability and the GSH level. Besides its protective effects, the MT extract was revealed to be non-toxic to astroglial cells, and displayed high free-radical scavenging activity. The results from this study suggest that enhanced GSH level underlies cell protection, and indicate that compounds that promote GSH synthesis in the cells may be beneficial against cocaine toxicity. PMID:25174449

BADISA, RAMESH B.; FITCH-PYE, CHERYL A.; AGHARAHIMI, MARYAM; PALM, DONALD E.; LATINWO, LEKAN M.; GOODMAN, CARL B.

2014-01-01

381

Isolation of quinic acid derivatives and flavonoids from the aerial parts of Lactuca indica L. and their hepatoprotective activity in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our continuing study of biologically active compounds from Korean medicinal plants, we investigated the hepatoprotective constituents of the aerial parts of Lactuca indica L. (Compositae), since the methanolic extract of L. indica has hepatoprotective activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) production. The bioactivity-guided separation of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of L. indica resulted in the isolation

Ki Hyun Kim; Young Ho Kim; Kang Ro Lee

2007-01-01

382

Chemomodulatory Effect of Trigonella foenum graecum (L.) Seed Extract on Two Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Cancer is not a single disease but a group of complex genetic diseases of aged cells. Chemoprevention of cancer is the attempt to use natural and synthetic compounds to intervene in the early stages of cancer, before invasive disease begins. Consuming a diet rich in plant foods can provide a milieu of phytochemicals and non-nutritive plant substances that possess health-protective effects. Some phytochemicals derived in spices and herbs as well as other plants possess substantial cancer preventive properties. Thus the cancer chemo preventive potential of naturally occurring phytochemicals is of great interest because of their preventive role and as they are not perceived as "medicine". During the course of present study Trigonella foenum graecum (L.) seed- TFGS (commonly called fenugreek) extract was given at pre-initiational, post-initiational, promotional and throughout the experiment along with 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene DMBA and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate TPA treatment in Swiss albino mice. A significant reduction of papillomas in DMBA + TPA + TFGS (400 mg/kg. body wt.) treated group was found to be effective in decreasing the rate of tumor incidence in comparison to control. Furthermore, cumulative number of papillomas, tumor yield and tumor burden were also found to be reduced. The TFGS extract treatment before DMBA and TPA application (i.e. Pre initiation) were more effective than that of treatment during, and /or after DMBA treatment, however TFGS extract treatment was most effective when treated throughout all the stages of tumorigenesis. The TFGS treatment also showed a modulatory influence on mouse hepatic antioxidant defense system (GSH and LPO level). PMID:23293468

Chatterjee, Sreemoyee; Kumar, Madhu; Kumar, Ashok

2012-09-01

383

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in Chang liver cells.  

PubMed

The protective effect of a polyphenolic extract of fenugreek seeds (FPEt) against ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicity was investigated in human Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated with either 30 mM EtOH alone or together in the presence of seed extract for 24 h. Assays were performed in treated cells to evaluate the ability of seeds to prevent the toxic effects of EtOH. EtOH treatment suppressed the growth of Chang liver cells and induced cytotoxicity, oxygen radical formation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration was significantly elevated in EtOH-treated cells as compared with normal cells. Incubation of FPEt along with EtOH significantly increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, caused a reduction in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and normalized GSH/GSSG ratio. The extract dose-dependently reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation. Apoptosis was observed in EtOH-treated cells while FPEt reduced apoptosis by decreasing the accumulation of sub-G1 phase cells. The cytoprotective effects of FPEt were comparable with those of a positive control silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent. The findings suggest that the polyphenolic compounds of fenugreek seeds can be considered cytoprotective during EtOH-induced liver damage. PMID:16574673

Kaviarasan, Subramanian; Ramamurty, Nalini; Gunasekaran, Palani; Varalakshmi, Elango; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

2006-01-01

384

Neuroprotective effect of defatted sesame seeds extract against in vitro and in vivo ischemic neuronal damage.  

PubMed

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop that possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. Many studies have been conducted to investigate its health-promoting effects. Compared to other plant oils, sesame seed oil is highly stable to oxidation and has been demonstrated to have protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat brain. However; the effects of defatted sesame seeds extract (DSE) have not been studied yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of DSE against ischemia models. For in vitro ischemia, oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD-R, 4 h OGD followed by 24 h reoxygenation) in HT22 cells was used to investigate the protective effects on cell death and the inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. For in vivo ischemia, the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo, 2 h of MCAo followed by 22 h of reperfusion) rat model was used. Twenty-two h after occlusion the rats were assessed for neurobehavioral deficit and infarct volume. DSE (0.1-10 microg/mL) significantly reduced the cell death and inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by OGD-R. DSE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) given twice at 0 h and 2 h after onset of ischemia reduced brain infarct volume dose-dependently and improved sensory-motor function. The therapeutic time window of DSE (300 mg/kg, p.o.) was 2 h after MCAo in rats. In conclusion, our results show that DSE may be effective in ischemia models by an antioxidative mechanism. PMID:19598078

Jamarkattel-Pandit, Nirmala; Pandit, Naba Raj; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Si Hyung; Kim, Kwan Su; Choi, Hoyoung; Kim, Hocheol; Bu, Youngmin

2010-01-01

385

Effect of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seeds on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats.  

PubMed

Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) fruit has been reported to give soothing effect on human digestive system. Present study includes the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of E. jambolana (EJE) against gastric ulcers induced by 2 h cold restraint stress (CRS), aspirin (ASP, 200 mg/kg, 4 h), 95% ethanol (EtOH, 1 ml/200 g, 1 h) and 4 h pylorus ligation (PL) in rats. To ascertain the mechanism of action of EJE, its effect was studied on mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion, lipid peroxidation (LPO, free radical) and defensive mucin secretion, cell proliferation, glycoprotein and glutathione (GSH, an antioxidant). Acute and subacute toxicity studies were also conducted for the safety profile of Eugenia jambolana. EJE 200 mg/kg, when administered orally for 10 days in rats was found to reduce the ulcer index in all gastric ulcer models. It tended to decrease acid-pepsin secretion, enhanced mucin and mucosal glycoprotein and decreased cell shedding but had no effect on cell proliferation. It showed antioxidant properties indicated by decrease in LPO and increase in GSH levels in the gastric mucosa of rats. Acute toxicity study indicated LD50 to be more than 10 times (>2000 mg/kg) of the effective ulcer protective dose while subactue toxicity study (>1000 mg/kg) indicated no significant change in the general physiological and haematological parameters, liver and renal function tests. The result of the present study indicates that E. jambolana seed has gastro-protective properties mainly through promotion of mucosal defensive factors and antioxidant status and decreasing lipid peroxidation. PMID:18175656

Chaturvedi, Aditi; Kumar, M Mohan; Bhawani, G; Chaturvedi, Harish; Kumar, Mohan; Goel, R K

2007-01-01

386

Scolicidal effects of squash (Corylus spp) seeds, hazel (Curcurbia spp) nut and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts on hydatid cyst protoscolices  

PubMed Central

Background: Because there is no effective drug therapy for hydatid cyst yet, assessment and finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. Hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts’ scolicidal effects were examined. Materials and Methods: Suspension of protoscolices was obtained from infected liver and or lung of sheep and goats from Ziyaran abattoir. The chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts from hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic were extracted using the succilate method. Scolicidal effect of each extract assessed in different concentrations and effected time using microscopy and 0.1% eosin solution stained only killed protoscolices. Results: Present study showed that garlic had more potent scolicidal effects among all the 3 plants and the chloroformic extract of garlic was the most potent protoscolicid among all of the extracts and killed 98% of protoscolices in 50 mg/ml on a minimum of 20 minutes exposure. Conclusion: Garlic chloroformic extract is a safe and potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence. PMID:23833573

Eskandarian, Abbas Ali

2012-01-01

387

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16–10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11–12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11–6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K.; Gupta, V.C.

2013-01-01

388

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains.  

PubMed

A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16-10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11-12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11-6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K; Gupta, V C

2014-04-01

389

Influence of Grape Seed Extract and Zinc Containing Multivitamin-Mineral Nutritional Food Supplement on Lipid Profile in Normal and Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Zincovit tablet is combination of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement. Aims: To investigate the influence of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement tablets (Zincovit) on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets doses ranged from 40 to 160 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Results: Hypercholesterolemic animals treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (nutritional food supplement) at 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg exhibited drastic decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and rise of HDL-C in comparison to hypercholesterolemic control group animals. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet was comparable with the standard drug atorvastatin treated animals and the variations were statistically non-significant. There was no significant impact of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets on lipid profile among normal animals in comparison with normal control group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet is the potential functional nutritional food supplements that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats. PMID:25653967

Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai

2014-01-01

390

Grape Seed Extract Dose-Responsively Decreases Disease Severity in a Rat Model of Mucositis; Concomitantly Enhancing Chemotherapeutic Effectiveness in Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective Mucositis is a serious disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that results from cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of increasing grape seed extract doses on the severity of chemotherapy in a rat model and its coincident impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells. Design Female Dark Agouti rats were gavaged with grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) or water (day 3–11) and were injected intraperitoneally with 5-Fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) on day 9 to induce mucositis. Daily metabolic data were collected and rats were sacrificed on day 12. Intestinal tissues were collected for histological and myeloperoxidase analyses. Caco-2 cell viability was examined in response to grape seed extract in combination with 5-Fluorouracil by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results Compared with 5-Fluorouracil controls, grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the histological damage score (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Grape seed extract (1000 mg/kg) increased jejunal crypt depth by 25% (P<0.05) in 5-Fluorouracil treated rats compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls, and attenuated the 5-Fluorouracil -induced reduction of mucosal thickness (25%, P<0.05). Grape seed extract (600 mg/kg) decreased myeloperoxidase activity by 55% (P<0.01) compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls. Grape seed extract was more effective at ameliorating 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal injury, with effects most pronounced in the proximal jejunum. Grape seed extract (10–25 ug/mL) significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-Fluorouracil by 26% (P<0.05) in Caco-2 cells and was more potent than 5-Fluorouracil at 50–100 µg/mL. Conclusion Grape seed extract may represent a new therapeutic option to decrease the symptoms of intestinal mucositis while concurrently impacting on the viability of colon cancer cells. PMID:24465501

Cheah, Ker Yeaw; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Bastian, Susan Elaine Putnam

2014-01-01

391

Therapeutic efficacy of Nigella sativa Linn. seed extract against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intake damages liver. We evaluated therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. The hepatic damage induced by CCl4 @ 1.5 mL/kg, ip was evidenced by a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, protein and urea lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as reduction in hepatic antioxidant system e.g. reduced glutathione. Hepatic total protein and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were found decreased. Histological studies substantiated the above biochemical findings. However, after 48 h of administration of aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, po) it not only detoxified the toxicity but also reversed LPO, GSH, AST, ALT and serum protein changes at all the three doses. Both higher doses of extract were found effective in monitoring urea, albumin, total protein and G-6-Pase activity. However, on the basis of percent protection highest dose i.e., 750 mg/kg proved better. The result suggests that the aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds can be used as a hepatoprotective agent. PMID:25675711

Jaswal, Amita; Shukla, Sangeeta

2015-01-01

392

Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).  

PubMed

Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:24128509

Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

2014-02-15

393

Inhibitory effect of liposomal solutions of grape seed extract on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) encapsulated in liposomes to inhibit the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) during frying of beef patties was assessed. All liposomal systems were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 22?500 psi. A total of six samples (rapeseed oil (control), GSE at 0.1% and 0.2%, and GSE-containing liposomes with 1%, 2%, and 5% soy lecithin) were investigated. MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found after the marinade application and frying. PhIP concentrations decreased upon marination with GSE (0.1%) and GSE-containing liposomes (1% and 5%) (p < 0.05). MeIQx contents decreased in all samples compared to the oil control (p < 0.01) while no effect on ?-carboline formation was observed. Results are in contrast to previous studies that had shown that liposomal encapsulation may enhance effectiveness of polyphenols to inhibit radical reactions. A mechanistic model was proposed to explain the observed differences. PMID:24313544

Natale, Daniela; Gibis, Monika; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Weiss, Jochen

2014-01-01

394

The effect of grape seed extract on estrogen levels of postmenopausal women: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The role of estrogens in breast cancer (BC) development is widely accepted, leading to the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for BC treatment and prevention. However, because of potential adverse effects, healthy women with high risk of BC are hesitant to take them. Preliminary evidence from animal studies shows that grapes may have an aromatase-inhibiting effect, decreasing estrogen synthesis and increasing androgen precursors. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding early-phase trial on the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on estrogen levels. Postmenopausal women who met study inclusion criteria (N = 46) were randomly assigned to daily GSE at a dose of 200, 400, 600, or 800 mg for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was change in plasma levels of estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks posttreatment. Thirty-nine participants (84.8%) completed the study. GSE in the 4 daily doses did not significantly decrease estrogen or increase androgen precursors. PMID:24670122

Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Bauer, Brent A; Loehrer, Laura L; Cha, Stephen S; Hoskin, Tanya L; Olson, Janet E

2014-06-01

395

Role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity of grape seed extract in human bladder cancer cells.  

PubMed

In present study, we evaluated grape seed extract (GSE) efficacy against bladder cancer and associated mechanism in two different bladder cancer cell lines T24 and HTB9. A significant inhibitory effect of GSE on cancer cell viability was observed, which was due to apoptotic cell death. Cell death events were preceded by vacuolar appearance in cytoplasm, which under electron microscopy was confirmed as swollen mitochondrial organelle and autophagosomes. Through detailed in vitro studies, we established that GSE generated oxidative stress that initiated an apoptotic response as indicated by the reversal of GSE-mediated apoptosis when the cells were pre-treated with antioxidants prior to GSE. However, parallel to a strong apoptotic cell death event, GSE also caused a pro-survival autophagic event as evidenced by tracking the dynamics of LC3-II within the cells. Since the pro-death apoptotic response was stronger than the pro-survival autophagy induction within the cells, cell eventually succumbed to cellular death after GSE exposure. Together, the findings in the present study are both novel and highly significant in establishing, for the first time, that GSE-mediated oxidative stress causes a strong programmed cell death in human bladder cancer cells, suggesting and advocating the effectiveness of this non-toxic agent against this deadly malignancy. PMID:23831192

Raina, Komal; Tyagi, Alpna; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

2013-11-01

396

Oxidative stability and chemical safety of mayonnaise enriched with grape seed extract.  

PubMed

Grape seed extract (GSE), a by-product from the wine industry, was explored for its use as enrichment to mayonnaise, due to its potential health effects. Mayonnaises were enriched with 0 mg GSE per mL, 0.5 mg GSE per mL (~0.050%), 0.9 mg GSE per mL (~0.10%) and 1.4 mg GSE per mL (~0.15%) during preparation and stored in the dark at room temperature for 8 weeks. The antioxidative capacity of the mayonnaises was evaluated by their ability to scavenge the stable radical TEMPO by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The oxidative stability of the mayonnaises was determined by the content of lipid hydroperoxides (peroxide value, POV), the content of conjugated diene hydroperoxides and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The highest antioxidative capacity and the lowest content of lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS were found in the mayonnaise with the highest percentage of GSE (0.15%). Therefore, the oxidative stability of the mayonnaises enriched with GSE was slightly improved through storage. However, mayonnaise without GSE had the highest sensorial acceptability compared to mayonnaise enriched with GSE. In the Artemia salina assay, a fast screening method for overall toxicity, the death rate of brine shrimps larvae was found to increase for increasing percentage of GSE. A level of 0.05% GSE in mayonnaise is concluded not to constitute any toxicological risks, but to provide significant protection against oxidation during storage. PMID:24064585

Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

2013-11-01

397

Grape seed extract improves epithelial structure and suppresses inflammation in ileum of IL-10-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Defect in intestinal epithelial structure is a critical etiological factor of several intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), which contains a mixture of polyphenols, on ileal mucosal structure and inflammation in interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice, a common model for studying inflammatory bowel disease. Wild-type and IL-10-deficient mice were fed GSE at 0 or 1% (based on dry feed weight) for 16 weeks. GSE supplementation decreased crypt depth and increased (P < 0.05) the ratio of villus/crypt length in the terminal ileum. Consistently, the dietary GSE decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation and enhanced (P < 0.05) differentiation of epithelial cells. These changes in gut epithelium were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cell (NF-?B) signaling. Furthermore, compared with WT mice, IL-10 deletion promoted beclin-1 and AMPK expression, both of which were decreased to normal by GSE supplementation. These changes were associated with alterations in epithelial barrier function as indicated by reduced pore forming claudin-2 protein expression and increased barrier forming claudin-1 protein expression in the ileum of GSE supplemented mice. In summary, our data indicates that GSE exerts protective effects to the ileal epithelial structure in IL-10-deficient mice possibly through the suppression of inflammatory response. PMID:25137131

Yang, Guan; Wang, Hui; Kang, Yifei; Zhu, Mei-Jun

2014-10-01

398

Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.  

PubMed

The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 ?g/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. PMID:24507339

Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-02-15

399

Addition of Grape Seed Extract Renders Phosphoric Acid a Collagen-stabilizing Etchant.  

PubMed

Previous studies found that grape seed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, could protect demineralized dentin collagen from collagenolytic activities following clinically relevant treatment. Because of proanthocyanidin's adverse interference to resin polymerization, it was believed that GSE should be applied and then rinsed off in a separate step, which in effect increases the complexity of the bonding procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining GSE treatment with phosphoric acid etching to address the issue. It is also the first attempt to formulate collagen-cross-linking dental etchants. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and digestion assay, it was established that in the presence of 20% to 5% phosphoric acid, 30 sec of GSE treatment rendered demineralized dentin collagen inert to bacterial collagenase digestion. Based on this positive result, the simultaneous dentin etching and collagen protecting of GSE-containing phosphoric acid was evaluated on the premise of a 30-second etching time. According to micro-Raman spectroscopy, the formulation containing 20% phosphoric acid was found to lead to overetching. Based on scanning and transmission electronic microscopy, this same formulation exhibited unsynchronized phosphoric acid and GSE penetration. Therefore, addition of GSE did render phosphoric acid a collagen-stabilizing etchant, but the preferable phosphoric acid concentration should be <20%. PMID:24935065

Liu, Y; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y

2014-06-16

400

Structure and rheological properties of a xyloglucan extracted from Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril seeds.  

PubMed

Hymenaea courbaril var courbaril seed xyloglucan was efficiently extracted with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation (yield=72±5% w/w). Its amorphous structure was identified by the pattern of X-ray diffraction. The monosaccharide composition was determined by GC/MS analysis of the alditol acetates and showed the occurrence of glucose:xylose:galactose:arabinose (40:34:20:6). One-(1D) and two-dimensional-(2D) NMR spectra confirmed a central backbone composed by 4-linked ?-glucose units partially branched at position 6 with non-reducing terminal units of ?-xylose or ?-galactose-(1?2)-?-xylose disaccharides. The xyloglucan solution was evaluated by dynamic light scattering and presents a polydisperse and practically neutral profile, and at 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) the solutions behave as a viscoelastic fluid. The polysaccharide did not show significant antibacterial or hemolytic activities. Overall our results indicate that xyloglucan from H. courbaril is a promising polysaccharide for food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25450047

Arruda, Isabel R S; Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Santos, Gustavo R C; Silva, Alexandre G; Mourão, Paulo A S; Correia, Maria T S; Vicente, António A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

2015-02-01

401

Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.  

PubMed

Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6?g/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications. PMID:24832986

Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-07-01

402

Evaluation of Physiological Activities of the Citron (Citrus junos Sieb. ex TANAKA) Seed Extracts  

PubMed Central

Citron seed extracts (CSEs) were made using distilled water (CSEW), ethanol (CSEE), and n-hexane (CSEH), to measure the total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The total polyphenol content was observed the highest in CSEE (188.71 ?g/mL), and occurred in the following order: CSEE>CSEW (141.11 ?g/mL)>CSEH (26.19 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL. CSEE (63.56%) and CSEW (56.61%) showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activities when compared with CSEH (28.57%). ABTS radical scavenging activities of CSEE (45.53%) and CSEW (40.02%) were also observed to be higher, whereas CSEH did not show ABTS radical scavenging activity. Anti-complementary activity of CSEE (26.85%) showed a greater activity than that of CSEW (7.84%) at 1,000 ?g/mL. Limonin and nomilin contents had the highest values (1.882% and 2.089%) in CSEE, and with 0.327% and 0.139% in CSEW; however, CSEH showed relatively very low values at 0.061% and 0.026%, respectively. Among the CSEs tested, CSEE as a by-product from citron may provide an important source of dietary antioxidant compounds with rich polyphenol and limonoid contents, and immunopotentiating activity, including the complement activation factor. PMID:24471132

Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

2013-01-01

403

Mechanical evaluation of effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract on debilitated mandibles in rats.  

PubMed

Grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE), whose principal ingredient is proanthocyanidins, shows many activities such as cholesterol lowering effects, antioxidant effects, anti-tumor effects, cardioprotective effects, and protection against ultraviolet rays. However, reports of the effects of GSPE on bone are rare. We performed a mechanical analysis of the effect of GSPE on the interior structure of rat mandibular bone in the growth period, using three-dimensional peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). A low-calcium/high-calcium diet with supplementary GSPE was compared to a low-calcium/high-calcium diet in rats with debilitated mandibular bones. The group who received added GSPE showed a significant increase in cortical bone density, cross-sectional area, and trabecular bone mineral content (p<0.05). A significant increase was also seen in the results of a non-invasive stress strain index (SSI) (p<0.01) in the added GSPE. Our findings suggest that GSPE can increase bone quality and bone strength of rat mandibles in the growth period. PMID:15287548

Gunjima, Masaru; Tofani, Iwan; Kojima, Yukimi; Maki, Kenshi; Kimura, Mitsutaka

2004-06-01

404

Pancreatic islet proteome profile in Zucker fatty rats chronically treated with a grape seed procyanidin extract.  

PubMed

Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to modify glucose metabolism and ?-cell functionality through its lipid-lowering effects in a diet-induced obesity model. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronically administrated GSPE on the proteomic profile of pancreatic islets from Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) experiment was conducted and 31 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in ZF rats treated with GSPE compared to untreated ZF rats. Of these proteins, five subcategories of biological processes emerged: hexose metabolic processes, response to hormone stimulus, apoptosis and cell death, translation and protein folding, and macromolecular complex assembly. Gene expression analysis supported the role of the first three biological processes, concluding that GSPE limits insulin synthesis and secretion and modulates factors involved in apoptosis, but these molecular changes are not sufficient to counteract the genetic background of the Zucker model at a physiological level. PMID:22953944

Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pallarès, Victor; Ubaida Mohien, Ceereena; Baiges, Isabel; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

2012-12-01

405

Proanthocyanidin from Grape Seed Extracts Protects Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Mucosal Injury  

PubMed Central

Proanthocyanidin (grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts, GSPEs) is an antioxidant and scavenges free radicals. Excessive oxidative stress and free radical production are major components in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. We investigated the effect of GSPEs on indomethacin-induced intestinal mucosal injury in the rat. Rats were allocated into four groups: the null control group, the indomethacin control group, the low-dose GSPEs group, and the high-dose GSPEs group. GSPEs were administered for 4 days. Then indomethacin and GSPEs were coadministered for the following 2 days by oral route. The dose of indomethacin was 200?mg/Kg. The doses of GSPEs were 100?mg/Kg for low-dose group and 300?mg/Kg for high-dose group. Luminal bleeding was solely observed in one of 5 rats from indomethacin control group. The number of ulcer count was reduced to 0.1 ± 0.3 per rat in GSPEs treated group compared to 1.4 ± 0.5 per rat in indomethacin control group. Submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration was also reduced to 50% in GSPEs treated group. The tissue level of prostaglandin E2 was not affected by GSPEs treatment. GSPEs attenuated the indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury irrespective of the tissue PGE2 depletion and glutathione consumption. PMID:24868202

Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jae Kwang

2014-01-01

406

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract prevents DDP-induced testicular toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin (DDP)-induced toxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible protective role of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in DDP-induced spermiotoxicity. GSPE at 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) and 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1) was orally administered for 15 consecutive days, starting 10 days before a single intraperitoneal dose of DDP (7 mg kg(-1)). Results revealed that testicular and epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count, motility and morphology, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD, and GSH levels were significantly decreased whereas the level of MDA was significantly increased in the DDP group rats. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated the harmful effects of DDP-induced lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, loss of genital organ weight, as well as function of reproductive organs. These changes were restored to near normal levels by GSPE at 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1). In conclusion, GSPE has dose dependent protective effects against DDP-induced rat testicular toxicity. PMID:24504493

Zhao, Yan-meng; Gao, Li-ping; Zhang, Hai-lian; Guo, Jun-xia; Guo, Pei-pei

2014-03-01

407

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seed) extract.  

PubMed

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were examined in a partially purified fraction (MTH) of the Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract. The analgesic effects of graded doses of fraction (MTH in 10-40 mg/kg p.o.) were evaluated in mice against acetic acid induced writhing (chemically induced pain) and hot-plate method (thermally induced pain). The analgesia produced by MTH was compared with the standard analgesics pentazocine (PTZ, 5 mg/kg p.o.) and diclofenac sodium (DIS, 5 mg/kg p.o.). Acute anti-inflammatory activity of fraction (MTH) was also evaluated in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model at the doses 10 and 20 mg/kg i.p. and compared with diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg i.p.). In comparison to control group MTH showed highly significant, dose dependent analgesic activity against thermally as well as chemically induced pain (p < 0.001). MTH at the dose of 40 mg/kg has shown significant analgesic activity (p < 0.001) as compared to diclofenac sodium and pentazocine at the doses employed. In comparison to control, MTH at the employed doses produced marked acute anti-inflammatory activity in rats (p <0.001). The results suggest that the water soluble fraction (MTH) of herbal origin has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential as reflected by the parameters investigated. Further investigations are, however, necessary to explore mechanism(s) of action involved in these pharmacological activities. PMID:19051589

Vyas, Savita; Agrawal, Rajendra Prasad; Solanki, Pooja; Trivedi, Piyush

2008-01-01

408

Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini seed extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and bio-inspired Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) were synthesized using Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) seed extract, which is a non-toxic ecofriendly fruit waste material. S. cumini seed extract acts as a green solvent, reducing and capping agent in which sodium acetate acts as electrostatic stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis techniques. The XRD study divulged that the synthesized SMNPs have inverse spinel cubic structure. The hysteresis loop of Fe3O4 nanoparticles shows an excellent ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization value of 13.6 emu/g.

Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prasad, C. H.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

2014-09-01

409

Oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol retention in soybean oil with lemon seed extract (Citrus limon) under thermoxidation.  

PubMed

The synergistic effect of lemon seed extract with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in soybean oil subjected to thermoxidation by Rancimat was investigated, and the influence of these antioxidants on a-tocopherol degradation in thermoxidized soybean oil. Control, LSE (2400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract), TBHQ (50 mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180 degrees C for 20 h. Samples were taken at time 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analysed for oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol content. LSE and Mixtures 1 and 2 showed the capacity of retarding lipid oxidation when added to soya oil and also contributed to alpha-tocopherol retention in oil heated at high temperatures. However, Mixtures 1 and 2 added to the oil presented a greater antioxidant power, consequently proving the antioxidants synergistic effect. PMID:19967989

Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

2009-11-01