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1

In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.  

PubMed

Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 ?g/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal. PMID:21031260

Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

2010-01-01

2

Larvicidal Efficiency of Certain Seed Extracts Against Anopheles Stephensi, with Reference to Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of seed extracts of three Indian medicinal plants, Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia and Ricinus communis, was evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against Anopheles stephensi. The methanol extract of A. indica exhibited potent larvicidal activity with LC50 15.25 and 12.70 ppm and LC90 46.79 and 45.56 ppm after 24 and 48 hrs, respectively, followed by methanol extract of R.

Lata Batabyal; Preeti Sharma; Lalit Mohan; Prejwltta Maurya; C. N. Srivastava

2007-01-01

3

Antiulcer effect of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica seeds in different experimental models  

PubMed Central

Background: Peptic ulcer is a global health problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion which occurs due to due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Objective: The present study was carried out with methanolic extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica Linn. to evaluate its antiulcer potential on ibuprofen, alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Doses of 100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract wre administered orally to rats of different groups. Ranitidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg was used as a standard drug for these gastric ulcer models. The gastric content was collected and the volume was measured. The ulceration index was determined by examining the inner lining of each stomach. Furthermore, the effect was assessed by free acidity, pepsin activity, total carbohydrate (TC), protein content (PK). Result: The result showed that the methanolic extract of seed coats of Tamarindus indica significantly reduce the total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion (P < 0.01) in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model as is comparable with the standard drug ranitidine. There was also a significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.01) as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of seed coat of Tamarindus indica can be used as a new source of antiulcer agent in animals. PMID:21687352

Kalra, Pankaj; Sharma, Sunil; Suman; Kumar, Suresh

2011-01-01

4

Effects of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) seed kernel extracts from different solvents on the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernels prepared from various solvents affected the behavior and fecundity of the carmine spider mite,Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.).\\u000a \\u000a Bean leaf discs freshly sprayed with different concentrations of the extracts strongly repelled the females from the treated\\u000a leaves and egg-laying was reduced. On the basis of EC 50s for both parameters, the order of

K. R. S. Ascher

1983-01-01

5

Morphological alterations in toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus exposed to neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf and seed aqueous extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mode of action of the extracts prepared from neem plant i.e., Azadirachta indica on aflatoxin formation in toxigenic Aspergillus species is not well understood. Aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was suppressed depending on the concentration of the plant aqueous extract (0, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, and 50% v\\/v) added to the culture media at the time of spore inoculation.

Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh; Abdolamir Allameh; Taki Tiraihi; Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi; Mehdi Ghorbanian

2005-01-01

6

In vitro acaricidal effect of plant extract of neem seed oil ( Azadirachta indica) on egg, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the plant extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) on eggs, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum was studied at concentrations of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8%. The extract was found to have a significant effect on the hatching rate of eggs. It significantly increased the hatching rate during the first 7 days post-treatment (DPT) giving incompletely

S. Abdel-Shafy; A. A. Zayed

2002-01-01

7

In vitro acaricidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts with known azadirachtin concentrations against Rhipicephalus microplus.  

PubMed

The effect of four extracts from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) containing 2000, 5000, 9000 and 10,000 ppm of azadirachtin A (AZA), quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diluted to 1.25%; 2.5%; 5.0%; 10.0% and 12.8% was verified by in vitro tests with engorged females and larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The results from the bioassays with the engorged females showed that the main toxic effect of the extracts was reduction of the reproductive parameters, with a sharp drop in the number of eggs laid and the hatching rate, mainly when the extracts were diluted to 10.0% and 12.8%. The product effectiveness (PE) calculations for all the solutions tested showed that the AZA solution at 10,000 ppm (N10) was the most effective. However, statistical analysis of the PE data obtained for the proportional AZA concentrations in the different diluted extracts showed significance (P<0.05) of the effects included in the model (extract dilution, principle effect (classificatory) of the assay (extract) and the interaction between the two), indicating significant variations due to the dilution, the test and the interaction between the two factors in the tests with engorged females. For solutions N2, N5, and N9, it was not possible to estimate LC(90) values in the dilution range tested. The lowest LC(50) was observed for extract N5, and although extract N10 was the only extract for which the LC(90) could be estimated within the range tested, the LC(50) was higher than for N5 and N9. These results suggest that substances other than AZA present in the extracts influenced the efficacy, especially up to a certain LC range. In the tests with larvae, no mortality was observed, indicating zero effectiveness of all the extracts tested. The results of the tests with engorged females showed that the neem extracts had acaricide activity, inhibiting egg laying and the larval hatching rate. Complementary studies are necessary to develop new methods to isolate and/or identify other substances besides AZA contained in this plant, to enable using products made from it as acaricides. PMID:21536387

Giglioti, R; Forim, M R; Oliveira, H N; Chagas, A C S; Ferrezini, J; Brito, L G; Falcoski, T O R S; Albuquerque, L G; Oliveira, M C S

2011-09-27

8

Toxicity of neem (Azadirachta Indica) seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents, on the spider chiracanthium mildei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of neem seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents against the predatory spider,Chiracanthium mildei L. Koch, was investigated. The order of toxicity of the 4% extracts was pentane < acetone < ethanol << methanol = water (nontoxic).\\u000a All extracts were nontoxic at 2.5%.

F. A. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; N. Omari

1986-01-01

9

Antifeedant activity of fruit and seed extracts of Melia azedarach and azadirachta indica on larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of seeds and fruits of the chinaberry tree,Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae), showed strong antifeedant activity against 2nd instar larvae ofSesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a very serious pest of maize(Zea mays L.) in Mediterranean countries. Extracts were applied in an artificial diet at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 ppm. The parameters\\u000a used to evaluate the activity were larval

Andreu Juan; Albert Sans; Magí Riba

2000-01-01

10

Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis  

PubMed Central

The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T?=?40°C, P = 180 bar, time?=?135?mn, CO2 flow rate?=?15?mL·s?1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2:?57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2:?22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO2:?14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US?=?4.44–5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US?=?4.44 (T?=?40°C) and 4.13 (T?=?70°C). PMID:22754699

Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

2012-01-01

11

Controlling rice blast in vitro and in vivo with extracts of Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and ethanol leaf extracts, and oil extract of seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem) significantly reduced the in vitro radial growth of Pyricularia oryzae and the development and spread of blast disease in rice plants in the greenhouse. Oil extracts exhibited the best control of the pathogen and subsequent disease followed by ethanol extract, cold water and then hot water

A. C. Amadioha

2000-01-01

12

Microbiological and Chemical Analysis of Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) Extracts: New Data on Antimicrobial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial effects of extracts of neem seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) were investigated using microbial growth inhibition assays. A laboratory-prepared neem seed extract along with\\u000a a commercially available formulated product, were characterized using HPLC, and shown to be effective against a range of bacteria\\u000a in an agar diffusion assay. The active ingredient,i.e., the unformulated seed extract of the commercial

E. Coventry; E. J. Allan

2001-01-01

13

effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts from different solvents on the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and the phytophagous mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of neem seed kernel extracts from different solvents on the predacious mitePhytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and the phytophagous miteTetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) were compared. All extracts were much more toxic to the latter pest than to the former. Using the respective LC50 for the two species, the toxicity index (LC50\\u000a Phytoseiulus\\/LC50\\u000a Tetranychus) was found to be 3 for the methanol,

F. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; N. Omari

1987-01-01

14

Grape Seed Extract  

MedlinePLUS

... Extract Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera grapes.jpg © Steven Foster On this page: What ... naturaldatabase.com on June 25, 2009. Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed ...

15

Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.  

PubMed

Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD?? values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD?? values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity. PMID:23983398

Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

2012-01-01

16

Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 ± 2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26 ± 2 °C; -38 ± 2 °C; and -26 ± 2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher ( P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers.

Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

2013-01-01

17

Spermicidal activity of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effective concentration of aqueous extract of old and tender Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves to immobilize and kill 100% human spermatozoa within 20 s. Sander–Cramer test was used to study the spermicidal activity of neem leaf extract. Under the test conditions, minimum effective spermicidal concentrations for tender and old leaf extracts were

B Khillare; T. G Shrivastav

2003-01-01

18

Possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract: Part V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on serotonin inhibition in glucose mediated insulin release in rat pancreas was studied in vitro to elucidate the possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic effect of A. indica leaf extract. A. indica leaf extract blocks significantly (P<0.05) the inhibitory effect of serotonin on insulin secretion mediated by glucose.

R. R Chattopadhyay

1999-01-01

19

Pollen-limited seed set in pods of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.)  

E-print Network

Pollen-limited seed set in pods of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) K.R. Thimmaraju, V. Bhaskar K) pollen grain limitation. Materials and Methods Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpinae) is a tropical tree°/a (n= 10) and fruit set in these was compared with control branches; 5) effect of pollen quality

Boyer, Edmond

20

Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica) Almond Seed Fat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica) almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF) was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8°C and 10.9 min at 12°C). The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8°C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12°C, respectively) and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

21

Possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract: Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats has already been reported. In the present investigation effects of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on blood and liver glutathione, Na+K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats have been studied with a view to elucidate possible mechanism behind its hepatoprotective

R. R. Chattopadhyay

2003-01-01

22

Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.  

PubMed

The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent. PMID:21391790

Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

2011-08-01

23

Cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activities of limonoids from the seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem).  

PubMed

Thirty-five limonoids, including 15 of the azadiradione type (1-15), five of the gedunin type (16-20), four of the azadirachtin type (21-24), nine of the nimbin type (25-33), and two degraded limonoids (34, 35), isolated from Azadirachta indica seed extracts, were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. Seven compounds (3, 6, 7, 16, 18, 28, and 29) exhibited cytotoxic activity against one or more cell lines. Among these compounds, 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylepoxyazadiradione (7), 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylgeduin (18), and 28-deoxonimbolide (28) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HL60 leukemia cells with IC(50) values in the range 2.7-3.1 ?M. Compounds 7, 18, and 28 induced early apoptosis in HL60 cells, observed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that compounds 7, 18, and 28 activated caspases-3, -8, and -9 in HL60 cells. This suggested that compounds 7, 18, and 28 induced apoptotic cell death in HL60 cells via both the mitochondrial- and the death receptor-mediated pathways. Futhermore, compound 7 was shown to possess high selective cytotoxicity for leukemia cells since it exhibited only weak cytotoxicity against a normal lymphocyte cell line (RPMI 1788). PMID:21381696

Kikuchi, Takashi; Ishii, Koichi; Noto, Taisuke; Takahashi, Akitomo; Tabata, Keiichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2011-04-25

24

Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia f?cus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition. PMID:22886626

Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

2013-05-01

25

Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L.) The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity.

Awad El-Gied, Amgad A.; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M.; Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I.

2015-01-01

26

Possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Part IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Effect of epinephrine on the increment index calculated from intravenous glucose tolerance tests and on hepatic glycogen before and after A. indica leaf extract treatment was studied in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rabbits.2.2. A. indica leaf extract, in itself, was found to have no action on peripheral utilization of glucose or on hepatic glycogen.3.3. The reduction in peripheral utilization

R. R. Chattopadhyay

1996-01-01

27

Effects of Azadirachta indica extract on gastric ulceration and acid secretion in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of Azadirachta indica extract on gastric ulceration was studied in albino rats. Azadirachta indica extract (100-800 mg/kg p.o., 100-25 mg/kg i.p.) significantly inhibited gastric ulceration induced by indomethacin (40 mg/kg). Administration of 800 mg/kg p.o. and 250 mg/kg i.p. caused 100% cytoprotection against indomethacin (40mg/kg, i.p.)-induced gastric ulceration. This action was accompanied by a dose-dependent decrease in total gastric acidity. In order to investigate the probable mechanism of Azadirachta indica antiulcer activity, the effect of the extract alone and in combination with histamine (1mg/kg) and cimetidine (0.12 mg/kg) on gastric acid secretion in situ was studied. Azadirachta indica (250 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the basal and histamine-induced gastric acid secretion. Cimetidine seemed to augment Azadirachta indica inhibition of gastric acid secretion. The results suggest that the stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica possesses antiulcer agents, which probably act via histamine H(2) receptor. PMID:14698526

Raji, Yinusa; Ogunwande, Isiaka Ajani; Osadebe, Caleb Amaechi; John, Godwin

2004-01-01

28

Effect of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on the immune response in mice.  

PubMed

Because of the very wide spectrum of infectious and non-infectious diseases for which preparations from Azadirachta indica are said to be efficacious, it was suspected that a general immunopotentiating ability could be part of the mechanisms by which it ameliorates so many disease conditions. Using the haemolytic plaque technique, an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark was shown to enhance the immune response of BALB/C mice to sheep red blood cells in vivo. PMID:10396765

Njiro, S M; Kofi-Tsekpo, M W

1999-03-01

29

A study of water relations in neem (Azadirachta indica) seed that is characterised by complex storage behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed is reputed to have limited tolerance to desiccation, to be sensitive to chilling and imbibitional stress, and to display intermediate storage behaviour. To understand this behaviour the properties of water in seed tissues were studied. Water sorption isotherms showed that at similar relative humidity (RH), the water content was consistently higher in axes than in cotyledons,

M. Sacandé; J. Buitink; F. A. Hoekstra

2000-01-01

30

The inhibitory effect of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extracts on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts onAspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis was investigated. The extracts were prepared by blending 50 g (wet weight) of fresh leaves\\u000a in one 1 of 10 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0) or by boiling the leaves in the buffer. Extracts were added to fungal growth\\u000a media at 1, 5, 10, 20 and

Deepar Bhatnagar; Susan P. mcCormick

1988-01-01

31

Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract protects neurons from apoptosis and mitigates brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. Methods Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Infected mice were administered with Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract at doses of 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) in experimental groups, or with the anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) or artemether (1.6 mg/kg, i.p.), in the positive control groups. Treatment was initiated at the onset of signs of brain involvement and pursued for five days on a daily basis. Mice brains were dissected out and processed for the study of the effects of the extract on pyramidal cells’ fate and on markers of neuroinflammation and apoptosis, in the medial temporal lobe. Results Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract mitigated neuroinflammation, decreased the severity of brain oedema, and protected pyramidal neurons from apoptosis, particularly at the highest dose used, comparable to chloroquine and artemether. Conclusions The present findings suggest that Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract has protective effects on neuronal populations in the inflamed central nervous system, and justify at least in part its use in African and Asian folk medicine and practices. PMID:23984986

2013-01-01

32

Evaluation of antiplaque activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract gel—a 6-week clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity; however, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract against plaque formation was assessed in males between the age group of 20–30 years over a period of

M. Raveendra Pai; Leelavathi D Acharya; N Udupa

2004-01-01

33

Azadirachta indica leaf extract induces resistance in barley against leaf stripe disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica Juss.), provided control of leaf stripe pathogen (Drechslera graminea) on barley that was as effective as the fungicide bavistin (carbendazim). The treated leaves exhibited significantly high activity of enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) alongwith rapid and distinct accumulation of fungitoxic phenolic compounds. The population of most phylloplane

P. K Paul; P. D Sharma

2002-01-01

34

Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Identification and Differential Diagnosis of T. Indica with Other Seed-Borne Pathogens of Wheat and Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photoacoustic study of dry spores (PAS) described in the present paper proved to be a suitable technique (when compared with other conventional methods) for the identification of Karnal bunt (KB) amongst other seed borne pathogens. Spores of six pathogens, i.e., Tilletia. indica, T. barclayana, Ustilago tritici, Ustilaginoidea virens, Helminthosporium sativum, and Alternaria triticina were isolated and their PA spectra

Vikrant Gupta; Anil Kumar; G. K. Garg; A. K. Rai

2001-01-01

35

Implication of reproductive endocrine malfunction in male antifertility efficacy of Azadirachta indica extract in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of the ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark on body and organ weights, sperm morphology, counts and viability, serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were studied in albino rats. Intraperitoneal administration (i.p) of the extract for ten weeks caused significant dose-dependent decreases in weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles but an increase in that of the adrenal gland. Sperm counts, morphology and viability were adversely affected in the extract treated rats. Rats that received 150 mgkg(-1) b.w. Azadirachta extract were unable to impregnate female rats throughout the duration of the study. However, these female rats conceived and sired physically normal litters about four weeks after cohabitation with untreated male rats. Azadirachta indica produced dose-dependent reduction in serum testosterone and LH but no change in FSH levels. Most of the changes produced in this study were restored in recovery experiments. PMID:15032463

Raji, Y; Udoh, U S; Mewoyeka, O O; Ononye, F C; Bolarinwa, A F

2003-06-01

36

Immunomodulatory activity of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark.  

PubMed

The interference of an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Azadirachta indica with different parts of the human immune system was investigated. The extract showed strong anticomplementary effects which were dose-and time-dependent and most pronounced in the classical complement pathway assay. Moreover, a dose-dependent decrease in the chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was observed and a dose-dependent increase in the production of migration inhibition factor by lymphocytes. PMID:3302545

van der Nat, J M; Klerx, J P; van Dijk, H; de Silva, K T; Labadie, R P

1987-01-01

37

Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

1984-01-01

38

Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

1980-01-01

39

Protective role of extracts of neem seeds in diabetes caused by streptozotocin in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of petroleum ether extracts of kernel (NSK) and husk (NSH) of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae) seeds on the prevention of oxidative stress caused by streptozotocin (STZ) was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in adult male Wistar rats after administration of STZ (55mg\\/kg b.wt., i.p., tail vein).The effect of NSK (2gm\\/kg, b.wt.) and NSH (0.9gm\\/kg, b.wt.) orally for

S Gupta; M Kataria; P. K Gupta; S Murganandan; R. C Yashroy

2004-01-01

40

Characterization of novel antimicrobial compounds from mango ( Mangifera indica L.) kernel seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial properties of mango seed kernel ethanol extract (MKE) were investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the MKE against 18 species, of 43 strains, containing food-borne pathogenic bacteria were determined using the agar dilution method. The MKE had a broad antimicrobial spectrum, and was more active against gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria with a few exceptions. The antimicrobial activity of

Toshihide Kabuki; Hadjime Nakajima; Megumi Arai; Shigeko Ueda; Yoshiharu Kuwabara; Shun'ichi Dosako

2000-01-01

41

Comparative Study of Erythrina indica Lam. (Febaceae) Leaves Extracts for Antioxidant Activity  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam leaves by in vitro methods viz. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method on isolated rat liver tissues. Quantitative analysis of antioxidative components like total amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols were estimated using the spectrophotometric method. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate the IC50 value. Results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited significant DPPH radicals scavenging activity with an IC50 value 342.59 ± 19.59, 283.24 ± 12.28 µg/mL respectively. Nitric oxide radicals were significantly scavenged by the aqueous and methanol extracts (IC50 = 250.12 ± 10.66; 328.29 ± 3.74 µg/mL). Lipid peroxidation induced by the Fe2+ was inhibited by the aqueous extract with low IC50 value (97.29 ± 2.05 µg/mL) as compared to methanol extract (IC50 = 283.74 ± 5.70 µg/mL). Both the extracts were exhibited similar quantities of total phenolics. Total flavonoids were found to be in higher quantities than total flavonols in aqueous extract as compared to methanol extract. From the results, it is concluded that the aqueous and methanol extracts of E. indica leaves possesses significant antioxidant activity that may be due to the presence of flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds. PMID:21331194

Sakat, SS; Juvekar, AR

2010-01-01

42

Limonoids from Azadirachta indica var. siamensis extracts and their cytotoxic and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities.  

PubMed

Six new limonoids, 7-benzoyl-17-epinimbocinol (5), 3-acetyl-7-tigloylnimbidinin (8), 1-isovaleroyl-1-detigloylsalanninolide (15), 2,3-dihydro-3?-methoxynimbolide (16), deacetyl-20,21-epoxy-20,22-dihydro-21-deoxyisonimbinolide (26), and deacetyl-20,21,22,23-tetrahydro-20,22-dihydroxy-21,23-dimethoxynimbin (27), along with 28 known limonoids, 1-4, 6, 7, 9-14, 17-25, and 28-34, and two known flavonoids, 35 and 36, have been isolated from the extracts of bark, leaves, roots, and seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton (Siamese neem tree; Meliaceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), stomach (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines. Eleven compounds, 1, 2, 4-7, 13, 16, 17, 29, and 30, exhibited potent cytotoxicities against one or more cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 0.1-9.3??M. Compound 16 induced apoptotic cell death in AZ521 cells upon evaluation of the apoptosis-inducing activity by flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis on AZ521 cells revealed that compound 16 activated caspases-3, -8, and -9, while increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. This suggested that 16 induced apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in AZ521. In addition, upon evaluation of all compounds against the melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), 20 limonoids, i.e., 1-3, 6, 9-11, 18, 19, 21-29, 32, and 34, and two flavonoids, 35 and 36, exhibited melanogenesis-inhibitory activities, with no, or almost no, toxicities to the cells at lower and/or higher concentrations, which were more potent than the reference arbutin, a known melanogenesis inhibitor. Western blot analysis showed that nimbin (18) reduced the protein levels of microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that 18 inhibits melanogenesis on a ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. PMID:24706622

Manosroi, Aranya; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Ishii, Kenta; Shinozaki, Takuro; Tachi, Yosuke; Takagi, Mio; Ebina, Kodai; Zhang, Jie; Manosroi, Jiradej; Akihisa, Rima; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2014-04-01

43

Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary. PMID:23569852

Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

2012-01-01

44

Anti dermatophytic activity of Azardirachta indica (neem) by invitro study.  

PubMed

The leaf and seed extracts of the Plant Azardirachta indica were tested for antidermatophytic activity against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton ruberum, Trichophyton, Mentagrophytes, Trichophyton violaceum, Microsporum nanum and Epidermophyton floccosum by tube dilution technique. The minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of neem seed extract was found to be lower tan that of neem leaf when tested against different species of Dermatophytes. PMID:12785173

Natarajan, V; Pushkala, S; Karuppiah, V P; Prasad, P V S

2002-07-01

45

Antitumor and apoptotic activities of the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia indica.  

PubMed

Cancer is one of the most eminent diseases of modern times and numerous natural products derived from medicinal plants have been identified as potential sources of antitumor drugs. A successful anticancer drug must target or inhibit tumor cells whilst causing minimal damage to healthy cells. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor efficacy of ethyl acetate extract, and other isolated compounds from Artemisia indica, on MCF?7, BHY, Miapaca?2, Colo?205 and A?549 cell lines. The apoptotic activity of the compounds was studied using flow cytometry. The different cancer cell lines were treated with the ethyl acetate extract and varying concentrations of compounds (denoted a?g) isolated from the A. indica. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and the apoptotic properties of the compounds and the extract were assessed using flow cytometry. In MCF?7 cells, the effect on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m) induced by compounds b and d was also studied. Bioassay?guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract from the shoot and root parts of A. indica led to the identification of the compounds a?g as: 5?hydroxy?3,7,4'?trimethoxyflavone; ludartin; maackiain; lupeol; cis?matricaria ester; trans?matricaria ester; and 6?methoxy?7,8?methylenedioxy coumarin, respectively. All the compounds exhibited mild to potent inhibition of cell proliferation in all the cell lines, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25.18?88.12 µM. Ludartin and lupeol were observed to have the most potent inhibitory effects. Based on the initially identified antiproliferative effects, these two compounds were evaluated for their effects on cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and their effects on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m). The two compounds induced DNA damage and mitochondrial membrane potential loss in MCF?7 cells. The results of the current study suggest that lupeol and ludartin, isolated from A. indica, produce anticancer effects by inducing DNA damage and a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and may be used as potent anticancer agents, subsequent to further study. PMID:25434991

Zeng, Ying-Tong; Jiang, Jian-Min; Lao, Hai-Yan; Guo, Jie-Wen; Lun, Yu-Ning; Yang, Min

2015-03-01

46

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

47

The Inhibiting Effect of Aqueous Azadirachta indica (Neem) Extract Upon Bacterial Properties Influencing in vitro Plaque Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts derived from the bark-containing sticks (Neem stick) of Azadirachta indica upon bacterial aggregation, growth, adhesion to hydroxyapatite, and production of insoluble glucan, which may affect in vitro plaque formation. Neem stick extracts were screened for minimal bacterial growth inhibition (MIC) against a panel of streptococci by

L. E. Wolinsky; S. Mania; S. Nachnani; S. Ling

1996-01-01

48

THE KILL KINETICS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS. (MELIACEAE) EXTRACTS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, ESCHERICHIA COLI, PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND CANDIDA ALBICANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts of the neem plant Azadirachta indica A. Juss (meliaceae) which were previously determined to have strong antibacterial activity were investigated for their rate and extent of bacterial killing (kill kinetics). Various extract dilutions related to the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of type culture strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were used. Inoculated strains

P. O. Okemo; W. E. Mwatha; S. C. Chhabra; W. Fabry

49

Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of tamarind seed coat extracts (TSCEs) were compared between the two extracts using boiling-water (TSCE-W) and 70% ethanol (TSCE-E) for extraction. TSCE-W, consisting of the highest phenolic content, possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1 -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities much higher than TSCE-E and Trolox. Additionally, both TSCEs also exhibited superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities higher than Trolox and BHA. Anti-lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of TSCE-W were also studied in human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells. Cytotoxic effect was not observed when exposed to TSCE-W up to 1 mg/mL for 12-48 h. However, TSCE-W significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in H202-damaged cells. HPLC analysis showed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in TSCE-W, which could be responsible for antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. The results suggest that an inexpensive and simple boiling-water extraction of TSCE-W may provide a valuable natural antioxidant source having anti-lipid peroxidation for health food additives, nutraceuticals as well as cosmeceuticals. PMID:24597144

Nakchat, Oranuch; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

2014-02-01

50

Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.  

PubMed

Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

Basiri, Shadi

2015-02-01

51

Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Samadera indica for skin diseases  

PubMed Central

Samadera indica Gaetrn (Simaroubaceae) is claimed to possess various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, antiviral, and so on, but its taste is bitter. The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity of the methanolic extract and to develop suitable herbal formulations of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica, having efficient antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract prepared from the dried leaves of Samadera indica by continuous hot percolation, were used to examine the toxicity, according to the OECD 423 guidelines, in Swiss Albino mice. Topical formulations were prepared by incorporating Samadera indica (5% w / w) in an emulsifying ointment and a carbopol gel base and evaluated for physical parameters and in-vitro antimicrobial activity (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans). The study reveals that no animals under the study showed any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality when administered a dose of 5 – 2000 mg / kg body weight. Therefore, the maximum tolerated dose of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica was above 2000 mg / kg body weight. The formulated ointment and gel had acceptable physical parameters that showed that they were compatible with the skin, and in addition to this, these formulations passed the short-term stability studies. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity studies showed that the formulated ointment showed significantly strong (p < 0.05) activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans than the formulated gel. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated ointment and gel are safe and efficient antimicrobial formulations for the topical delivery of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica. PMID:22837958

Viswanad, Vidya; Aleykutty, N. A.; Jayakar, B.; Zacharia, Subin Mary; Thomas, Litha

2012-01-01

52

Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 ?g/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC50 value of rutin was found to be 161.7 ?g/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC50 values of 38.1 and 5.84 ?g/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH- radical generated from Fe2+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 ?g equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220

Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A.

2012-01-01

53

Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.  

PubMed

This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. PMID:25466036

Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

2015-04-15

54

Raman bands in Ag nanoparticles obtained in extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles have been obtained in an extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant. The size and distribution of nanoparticles were quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter was estimated to be about 15 nm. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) peaks of silver were observed in these samples. Three Raman bands have been experimentally detected at 83, 110 and 160 cm-1. The bands at 83 and 110 cm-1 are assigned to the silver-silver Raman modes (skeletal modes) and the Raman mode located at 160 cm-1 has been assigned to breathing modes. Vibrational assignments of Raman modes have been carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum mechanical calculation. Structural and vibrational properties for small Agn clusters with 2?n?9 were determined. Calculated Raman modes for small metal clusters have an approximation trend of Raman bands. These Raman bands were obtained experimentally for silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

Bocarando-Chacon, J.-G.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Vargas-Vazquez, D.; Rodríguez Melgarejo, F.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.; Leon-Sarabia, E.; Navarro-Badilla, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.

2014-05-01

55

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica) Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using crude neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract at room temperature. The formation and crystallinity of synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The average size of these silver nanoparticles is about 20-50 nm as observed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Optical absorption measurements were performed to determine band-edge energy gap of these silver nanoparticles. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed to emphasize its emission properties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles could have major applications in the area of nanoscale optoelectronics devices and biomedical engineering. Our synthesis method has advantage over other conventional chemical routes because it is cost effective & environmental compatibility.

Shukla, Vineet Kumar; Pandey, Shipra; Pandey, Avinash C.

2010-10-01

56

Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the phenolics of Leea indica leaf extract  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the phytochemical, antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Leea indica leaf ethanol extract. Phytochemical values namely total phenolic and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing power, DMSO superoxide scavenging effect and Iron chelating effects were studied by established methods. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects were screened by disk diffusion technique, food poison technique and brine shrimp bioassay, respectively. Results showed the total phenolic content 24.00 ± 0.81 g GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content 194.68 ± 2.43 g quercetin/100 g and total antioxidant capacity 106.61 ± 1.84 g AA/100 g dry extract. Significant (P < 0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (139.83 ± 1.40 ?g/ml), FeCl3 reduction (16.48 ± 0.64 ?g/ml), DMSO superoxide scavenging (676.08 ± 5.80 ?g/ml) and Iron chelating (519.33 ± 16.96 ?g/ml) methods. In antibacterial screening, the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) zone of inhibitions compared to positive controls Ampicillin and Tetracycline against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli. Significant minimum inhibitory concentrations compared to tetracycline were obtained against the above organisms. In antifungal assay, the extract inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Fusarium equisetii by 38.09 ± 0.59, 22.58 ± 2.22, and 22.58 ± 2.22%, respectively. The extract showed a significant LC50 value compared to vincristine sulfate in cytotoxic assay. The results evidenced the potential antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic capacities of Leea inidica leaf extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use. PMID:23961238

Rahman, Md. Atiar; Imran, Talha bin; Islam, Shahidul

2012-01-01

57

Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the phenolics of Leea indica leaf extract.  

PubMed

This study investigated the phytochemical, antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Leea indica leaf ethanol extract. Phytochemical values namely total phenolic and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing power, DMSO superoxide scavenging effect and Iron chelating effects were studied by established methods. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects were screened by disk diffusion technique, food poison technique and brine shrimp bioassay, respectively. Results showed the total phenolic content 24.00 ± 0.81 g GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content 194.68 ± 2.43 g quercetin/100 g and total antioxidant capacity 106.61 ± 1.84 g AA/100 g dry extract. Significant (P < 0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (139.83 ± 1.40 ?g/ml), FeCl3 reduction (16.48 ± 0.64 ?g/ml), DMSO superoxide scavenging (676.08 ± 5.80 ?g/ml) and Iron chelating (519.33 ± 16.96 ?g/ml) methods. In antibacterial screening, the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) zone of inhibitions compared to positive controls Ampicillin and Tetracycline against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli. Significant minimum inhibitory concentrations compared to tetracycline were obtained against the above organisms. In antifungal assay, the extract inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Fusarium equisetii by 38.09 ± 0.59, 22.58 ± 2.22, and 22.58 ± 2.22%, respectively. The extract showed a significant LC50 value compared to vincristine sulfate in cytotoxic assay. The results evidenced the potential antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic capacities of Leea inidica leaf extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use. PMID:23961238

Rahman, Md Atiar; Imran, Talha Bin; Islam, Shahidul

2013-07-01

58

Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05g%

Carolina B. Wandscheer; Jonny E. Duque; Mario A. N. da Silva; Yoshiyasu Fukuyama; Jonathan L. Wohlke; Juliana Adelmann; José D. Fontana

2004-01-01

59

Gastroprotective effect of Neem ( Azadirachta indica) bark extract: Possible involvement of H +-K +ATPase inhibition and scavenging of hydroxyl radical  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antisecretory and antiulcer effects of aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark have been studied along with its mechanism of action, standardisation and safety evaluation. The extract can dose dependently inhibit pylorus-ligation and drug (mercaptomethylimidazole)-induced acid secretion with ED50 value of 2.7 and 2 mg Kg?1 b.w. respectively. It is highly potent in dose-dependently blocking gastric ulcer induced by

Uday Bandyopadhyay; Kausik Biswas; Ratna Chatterjee; Debashis Bandyopadhyay; Ishita Chattopadhyay; Chayan Kumar Ganguly; Tapan Chakraborty; Kunal Bhattacharya; Ranajit K Banerjee

2002-01-01

60

Potential of combining neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with varietal resistance for the management of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of different rates (25, 50, 75 and 100 mg\\/5 g seed) of application of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil (NSO) was assessed on four cowpea varieties (Kanannado, IT89KD-391, Borno brown and IT89KD-374) with differing susceptibilities to Callosobruchus maculatus. The different rates of NSO significantly interacted with cowpea varietal resistance and reduced oviposition and percentage adult emergence of C.

N. E. S. Lale; A. Mustapha

2000-01-01

61

Combination of Mangifera indica L. extract supplementation plus methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects and the safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty patients with active RA underwent a year of treatment with MTX (12.5 mg/week) associated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or prednisone (5-10 mg/day) were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n=10), that received the extract supplementation (900 mg/day) or preceding usual treatment (n=10) during 180 days. RA activity was evaluated using the tender and swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, disease activity score-28 (DAS 28), visual analogue scale (VAS) and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). Treatment's efficacy was demonstrated with ACR criteria. Only the patients of MTX-Vimang group revealed statistically significant improvement in DAS 28 parameters with respect baseline data but no differences were observed between groups. ACR improvements amounted 80% only in MTX-Vimang group at the 90 days (p<0.001). In MTX-Vimang group, 100% of patients decreased NSAIDs administration (p<0.01) and 70% of those eradicated gastrointestinal side effects (p<0.01) ensuing of the preceding treatment. Other adverse effects were not reported. PMID:24344049

López Mantecón, Ana M; Garrido, Gabino; Delgado-Hernández, René; Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B

2014-08-01

62

Effect of Alocasia indica Tuber Extract on Reducing Hepatotoxicity and Liver Apoptosis in Alcohol Intoxicated Rats  

PubMed Central

The possible protective role of ethanolic extract of A. indica tuber (EEAIT) in hepatotoxicity and apoptosis of liver caused by alcohol in rats was investigated. Treatment of rats with alcohol (3?g ethanol per kg body weight per day for 15 days intraperitoneally) produced marked elevation of liver biomarkers such as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT), and total bilirubin levels which were reduced by EEAIT in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EEAIT improved antioxidant status (MDA, NO, and GSH) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. Simultaneous supplementation with EEAIT significantly restored hepatic catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels towards normal. The studies with biochemical markers were strongly supported by the histopathological evaluation of the liver tissue. EEAIT also attenuated apoptosis and necrosis features of liver cell found in immunohistochemical evaluation. HPLC analysis of the extract showed the presence of three major peaks of which peak 2 (RT: 33.33?min) contains the highest area (%) and UV spectrum analysis identified it as flavonoids. It is therefore suggested that EEAIT can provide a definite protective effect against chronic hepatic injury caused by alcohol in rats, which may mainly be associated with its antioxidative effect. PMID:24977149

Bhattacharya, Koushik; Mukherjee, Soumya

2014-01-01

63

Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia. PMID:24383324

Agnihotri, Anoop; Singh, Vijender

2013-01-01

64

Development of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technology for mature seed-derived callus tissues of indica rice cultivar IR64.  

PubMed

Indica rice cultivar IR64 is most recalcitrant to regenerate, which affects the transformation efficiency especially when mature seed-derived callus tissues are used as explants. Therefore, a simple, rapid and improved genetic transformation protocol has been developed for the indica rice cultivar IR64 using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. With different hormonal combination tested, the maximum callus induction was observed on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.15 mg/l BAP from the scutellum explants. Three weeks old scutellum derived callus explants were immersed in Agrobacterium suspension (strain LBA4404, OD600=1.0) and co-cultured at 26±2°C in dark for 2 d. The maximum transformation efficiency (12%) was achieved with infection of callus explants for 20 min along with use of 150 ?m acetosyringone. The maximum plant regeneration was observed on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l Kinetin and 0.5 mg/l NAA. The maximum root induction was observed on MS medium along with 10 g/l glucose and 20 g/l sucrose. The integration of the transgene in T1 transgenic plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses. The copy number of transgenes has been found to vary from 1 to 2 in transgenic plants. By using this improved method we have successfully raised transgenic rice plants within 3 mo from seed inoculation to plant regeneration. PMID:22538224

Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

2012-01-01

65

Cytotoxic effects of Mangifera indica L. kernel extract on human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and bioactive constituents in the crude extract  

PubMed Central

Background Waterlily Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is thought to be antioxidant-rich, conferred by its functional phytochemicals. Methods The potential anticancer effects of the ethanolic kernel extract on breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) using MTT, anti-proliferation, neutral red (NR) uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays were evaluated. Cytological studies on the breast cancer cells were also conducted, and phytochemical analyses of the extract were carried out to determine the likely bioactive compounds responsible for such effects. Results Results showed the extract induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 30 and 15 ?g/mL, respectively. The extract showed significant toxicity towards both cell lines, with low toxicity to normal breast cells (MCF-10A). The cytotoxic effects on the cells were further confirmed by the NR uptake, antiproliferative and LDH release assays. Bioactive analyses revealed that many bioactives were present in the extract although butylated hydroxytoluene, a potent antioxidant, was the most abundant with 44.65%. Conclusions M. indica extract appears to be more cytoxic to both estrogen positive and negative breast cancer cell lines than to normal breast cells. Synergistic effects of its antioxidant bioactives could have contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract. The extract of M. indica, therefore, has potential anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. This potential is worth studying further, and could have implications on future studies and eventually management of human breast cancers. PMID:24962691

2014-01-01

66

Ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss.) causing apoptosis by ROS upregulation in Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria.  

PubMed

Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the Canine family. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (EEA) against the microfilaria (mf) of D. immitis in vitro. EEA was evaluated for different compound classes through HPTLC. Relative motility, mortality and morphological alterations were observed in the mf after exposure to EEA. The effect of EEA on redox status in the treated mf was evaluated by some key enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters. An enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the treated mf along with altered redox status was evident. DNA fragmentation and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) confirmed apoptosis. In addition, western blotting revealed down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, the microfilaricidal activity of EEA can be attributed to its capacity to inflict oxidative stress culminating in apoptosis. PMID:25092478

Mukherjee, Niladri; Saini, Prasanta; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Roy, Priya; Gayen, Prajna; Babu, Santi P Sinha

2014-10-01

67

Protective effect of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily, for 10 days, with either NiCl(2) solution (4mg (30micromol)/kg body weight) or with the same volume of saline solution (300mM NaCl). Significant increases of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase activities and of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were observed in blood of nickel-treated rats. In the liver, nickel chloride was found to induce an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidant enzymes activities. Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity was found to be increased whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased. These changes did not occur in animals previously given cactus juice, demonstrating a protective effect of this vegetal extract. PMID:18950672

Hfaiedh, Najla; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Zourgui, Lazhar; Croute, Françoise

2008-12-01

68

Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

2015-01-01

69

Removal of Phenolic Pollutants from Water Utilizing Mangifera indica (Mango) Seed Waste and Cement Fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the removal of two chlorophenols (2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol) from water using surface modified mango seed waste by adsorption process followed by cement fixation of the phenols-laden adsorbent is investigated. The two main objectives of this study were to develop efficient adsorbent utilizing mango seed waste by physiochemical activation and to an environmentally-friendly disposal of phenols-laden adsorbent into

Amit Bhatnagar; A. K. Minocha; Eva Kumar; Mika Sillanpää; Byong-Hun Jeon

2009-01-01

70

Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30–60%) following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated. PMID:25789523

do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro, Joycellane Alline; Serquiz, Alexandre Coellho; dos Santos Silva, Priscila Fabíola; Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; Sampaio, Tarcísio Bruno Montenegro; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; Machado, Richele Janaina Araújo; Maciel, Bruna Leal Lima; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; dos Santos, Elizeu Antunes; de Araújo Morais, Ana Heloneida

2015-01-01

71

Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 1. Influence of a seed oil supplemented diet on rats.  

PubMed

Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) is native to Tunisia and the fruit is consumed exclusively as fresh fruit. The seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids but the nutritive value of the oil is unknown. The objective of our research was to determine the fatty acid content of cactus pear seed oil and to evaluate the effect of an oil supplemented diet on rats. The main fatty acids of prickly pear seed oil were C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 with an exceptional level of linoleic acid, up to 700 g kg(-1), and a total content of unsaturated fatty acids of 884.8 g kg(-1). Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during the nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noted for the oil enriched diet. The results indicated a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (22%) over the control group. However, an increase in the concentration of glycogen was noted in liver and muscle. Blood cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased in the treated group. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration remained unaltered during the treatment. These findings support the nutritional value of cactus pear as a natural source of edible oil containing essential fatty acids and reinforce the possibility of cactus pear as a new crop for Tunisia especially in semi-arid regions, where conventional crops are difficult to establish. PMID:16129601

Ennouri, Monia; Fetoui, Hamadi; Bourret, Evelyne; Zeghal, Najiba; Attia, Hamadi

2006-08-01

72

Inhibition of secretary PLA2 - VRV-PL-VIIIa of Russell's viper venom by standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 ?g/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 ?g/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 ?g/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25801252

Dhananjaya, B L; Sudarshan, S

2015-03-01

73

Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.  

PubMed

Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

2010-02-01

74

Antifungal activity in seed coat extracts of woodland plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts from seeds of four woodland ground flora species (Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Allium ursinum, Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum) were tested for antifungal activity using a petriplate technique. Four species of fungi were investigated. The growth of three of these (Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) was not affected by any of the seed coat extracts. The growth of

Susan J. Warr; Ken Thompson; Martin Kent

1992-01-01

75

Feeding of water washed neem ( Azadirachta indica) seed kernel cake to growing goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To mitigate chronic shortage of feeds for livestock in developing countries, neem seed kernel cake (34–40% CP, bitter in taste, unsuitable for livestock feeding) was water washed (WWNSKC) and fed to 5–6-month-old male, growing goats for 180 days as a major source of protein by incorporating it at 15% (group II) and 25% (group III) in the concentrate mixtures. Their

A. K. Verma; V. R. B. Sastry; D. K. Agrawal

1995-01-01

76

A high-throughput DNA extraction method for barley seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-destructive, quick DNA extraction method for barley seed is described. The method is simple and consists of drilling\\u000a out a sample from the seed, adding sodium hydroxide, heating in a microwave oven and neutralizing with Tris-HCl. The seed\\u000a DNA extract can be used directly for PCR with extra cycles added to the PCR programme compared to PCR programmes used

Rebecka von Post; Lars von Post; Christophe Dayteg; Marie Nilsson; Brian P. Forster; Stine Tuvesson

2003-01-01

77

Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct-seeded indica rice.  

PubMed

Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Assam rice (indica) using 98 SSR markers for dormancy-related traits and cooking quality. Analysis of population structure revealed 10 subgroups in the population. The mean r(2) and D' value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.24 and 0.51, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations (P < 0.01), with the R(2) values ranging from 12.0 to 18.0%. The significant marker associations were for grain dormancy (RM27 on chromosome 2), ?-amylase activity (RM27 and RM234 on chromosomes 2 and 7, respectively), germination (RM27 and RM106 on chromosome 2), amylose (RM282 on chromosome 3) and grain length elongation ratio (RM142 on chromosome 4). The present study revealed the association of marker RM27 with traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity and germination. Simple correlation analysis of these traits revealed that these traits were positively correlated with each other and this marker may be useful for simultaneous improvement of these traits. The study indicates the presence of novel QTLs for a few traits under consideration. The study reveals association of traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity, germination, amylose content, grain length elongation ratio with SSR markers indicating the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization. PMID:24840818

Rathi, Sunayana; Pathak, K; Yadav, R N S; Kumar, B; Sarma, R N

2014-04-01

78

Microwave-assisted extraction kinetics of terpenes from caraway seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with microwave-assisted extraction have been studied with respect to microwave power, radiation dose and extraction time in order to obtain the secondary metabolites selectively. Using classical solid–liquid extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were

Smain Chemat; Hamid Aït-Amar; Ahcène Lagha; D. C. Esveld

2005-01-01

79

Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200?g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200?mg·kg?1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200?mg·kg?1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism. PMID:24672632

Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

2014-01-01

80

Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp. PMID:21189869

Razali, Nurhanani; Aziz, Azlina A; Junit, Sarni M

2010-12-01

81

Chemopreventive potential of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf extract in murine carcinogenesis model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous laboratory studies reveal that various naturally occurring dietary substances can modify the patho-physiological process of various metabolic disorders and can be an effective preventive strategy for various diseases, including cancer. Indian Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae), contains at least 35 biologically active principles and is widely grown all over the tropics. The effect of two different

Trisha Dasgupta; S Banerjee; P. K Yadava; A. R Rao

2004-01-01

82

Effects of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract on Abundance of HepG2 Cell Lysate Proteins and Their Possible Consequential Impact on Metabolism and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism. PMID:24455694

Chong, Ursula R. W.; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S.; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina; Hashim, Onn H.; Mat-Junit, Sarni

2013-01-01

83

Hypoglycemic Effect of Combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Ethanolic Extracts Standardized by Rutin and Quercetin in Alloxan-induced Hyperglycemic Rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Exploration of plant combinations could be an alternative approach for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of combination of A. indica and G. procumbens ethanolic extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Powder of A. indica and G. procumbens leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. Determination of rutin in A. indica and quercetin in G. procumbens were performed by TLC-densitometry. Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 150 mg/kgBW. The rats were treated with 3 dosage variation of combinations for 15 days. Hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats pancreas histological study. Results: A. indica contained 2.90±0.15% of rutin and G. procumbens contained 18.86±0.86% of quercetin. Combination at the ratio of 50mg/kgBW A. indica:112.5mg/kgBW G. procumbens showed the highest hypoglycemic effect: 68.74±4.83% (preprandial) and 73.91±3.18% (postprandial). Histological studies indicated that this combination improved the morphology of the islets of Langerhans and ? cells. It also increased insulin expression and decreased the elevated-glucose concentrations. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of both extracts has better hypoglycemic effect than the single treatment of A. indica or G. procumbens. Combination of both extracts was potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients. PMID:25671197

Sunarwidhi, Anggit Listyacahyani; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nugroho, Agung Endro

2014-01-01

84

Morphological alterations in the synganglion and integument of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks exposed to aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS).  

PubMed

Currently, the necessity of controlling infestation by ticks, especially by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has led researchers and public health managers around the world to search for new and more efficient control methods. This way, we can highlight neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf, bark, and seed extracts, which have been very effective on tick control, and moreover causing less damage to the environment and to the host. This study showed the potential of neem as a control method for R. sanguineus through morphological and morphometric evaluation of the integument and synganglion of females, in semiengorged stage. To attain this, routine techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of the cuticle and subcuticle of the integument were applied. Expressive morphological alterations were observed in both organs, presenting a dose-dependent effect. Integument epithelial cells and nerve cells of the synganglion showed signs of cell vacuolation, dilated intercellular boundaries, and cellular disorganization, alterations not previously reported in studies with neem. In addition, variations in subcuticle thickness were also observed. In general, the effects of neem are multiple, and affect the morphology and physiology of target animals in various ways. The results presented in this work are the first evidence of its effects in the coating and nervous system of ticks, thus allowing an indication of neem aqueous extracts as a potential control method of the brown dog tick and opening new perspectives on acaricide use. PMID:25130979

Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Camargo-Mathias, M I

2014-12-01

85

Determination of azadirachtin and fatty acid methyl esters of Azadirachta indica seeds by HPLC and GLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and economical method has been developed to estimate the azadirachtin content and fatty acid composition of neem kernels. Neem kernels are crushed and soaked overnight in ethanol. The extract obtained is analysed by HPLC after filtering through a 0.22 µm membrane. The peaks are separated using acetonitrile-water (40:60) 1 mL min-1 as the mobile phase on an RP-18

Nutan Kaushik

2002-01-01

86

Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8?kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)  

PubMed Central

An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8?kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5?µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75?µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1 × 10?10?M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%?w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5%?w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0%?w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K.

2014-01-01

87

Negative effects of a nonhost proteinase inhibitor of ~19.8?kDa from Madhuca indica seeds on developmental physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner).  

PubMed

An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8?kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5?µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75?µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a K i value of 4.1 × 10(-10)?M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%?w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5%?w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0%?w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K

2014-01-01

88

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

89

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera) seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seeds were powdered and the fatty material was extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether (60–80 °C) for 6 h. The defatted powder was extracted with acetone:water:acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) and methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) for 8 h each separately. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum to obtain crude extracts, which were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection

G. K. Jayaprakasha; Tamil Selvi; K. K. Sakariah

2003-01-01

90

Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system. PMID:24081779

Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

2013-12-01

91

Inhibition of aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus infected cotton bolls after treatment with neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In separate treatments, a spore suspension ofA. flavus (control), an aqueous leaf extract of the subtropical neem tree plus a spore suspension ofA. flavus, or an aqueous neem leaf extract followed by anA. flavus spore suspension were injected 48 hr later onto the surfaces of locks of developing cotton bolls (30-day post anthesis).\\u000a Thirteen days after the treatments, the seeds

Hampden J. Zeringue; Deepak Bhatnagar

1990-01-01

92

IDENTIFICATION OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE IN COMMERCIAL GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS), and element...

93

Control of some insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculuta) with neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss.) in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem (Azadirachta indica) products were effective in protecting stored cowpeas against bruchid damage for over 4 months under artificial infestation in the laboratory. This practice, part of an extension package, is becoming popular with farmers. In field trials, aqueous neem seed extracts, as well as leaf extracts reduced thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) incidence in cowpeas and increased yields significantly. Extracts also

P. B. Tanzubil

1991-01-01

94

Saraca indica bark extract mediated green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bark extract of the traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant Saraca indica containing redox active polyphenolic compounds has been utilized for the one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The polyphenolic compounds acted as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent without any additional capping agent. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles of 15-23 nm size was complete in several minutes and no photo irradiation or heat treatment was necessary. Surface plasmon resonance, HRTEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR studies have been carried out to characterize the nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles synthesized were of triangular, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal, and spherical shapes. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature and the kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Majumdar, Rakhi; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Bag, Braja Gopal; Patra, Biplab Kumar

2013-04-01

95

The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in a neuropathic patient with advanced diabetic foot.  

PubMed

The successful use of an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and nimh oil (Azadirachta indica; Hyperoil) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers, has been reported previously. It was hypothesised that this amelioration was linked with the improved glycaemic control and peripheral microvascular circulation. In this case report, the surprisingly successful outcome of another patient using Hyperoil for infection damaged diabetic foot, without prior use of surgical procedure, is described. The patient had no macrovascular pattern impairment. Diabetic foot healing paralleled with controlled local infection and enhanced glycaemic control. The outcome of this patient suggests that the effectiveness of this inexpensive therapy using Hyperoil for diabetic foot is not only linked with the presence of severe microvascular disorder, but also with the appropriate local treatment for ulcer being a must for its recovery. PMID:25378221

Iabichella, Maria Letizia; Caruso, Claudio; Lugli, Marzia

2014-01-01

96

Saraca indica bark extract mediated green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bark extract of the traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant Saraca indica containing redox active polyphenolic compounds has been utilized for the one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The polyphenolic compounds acted as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent without any additional capping agent. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles of 15-23 nm size was complete in several minutes and no photo irradiation or heat treatment was necessary. Surface plasmon resonance, HRTEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR studies have been carried out to characterize the nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles synthesized were of triangular, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal, and spherical shapes. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature and the kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Majumdar, Rakhi; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Bag, Braja Gopal; Patra, Biplab Kumar

2014-04-01

97

Extraction of borage seed oil by compressed CO 2: Effect of extraction parameters and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of borage seed oil using compressed CO2 was studied on a pilot plant apparatus with the aim of optimise plant performance and collect data for scale-up purposes. The seeds were pre-treated by flaking them into 0.3mm flake prior to the extraction tests for achieving quantitative recovery of the oil. Effects of extraction pressure (200–300bar) and temperature (10–55°C), solvent

Tiejun Lu; Filipe Gaspar; Ray Marriott; Steve Mellor; Colin Watkinson; Bushra Al-Duri; Jonathan Seville; Regina Santos

2007-01-01

98

Extraction optimization of a hydrocolloid extract from cress seed ( Lepidium sativum) using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction conditions for maximum values of yield, viscosity and minimum protein content of hydrocolloid extract from Lepidium sativum seed were investigated using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Face Design (CCFD) with four independent variables: temperature (25–85 °C); pH (3–10); extraction time (10–25 min) and water to seed ratio (10:1–80:1) was used to study the response variables (yield, viscosity and protein content). Data

Hojjat Karazhiyan; Seyed M. A. Razavi; Glyn O. Phillips

2011-01-01

99

Evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem seed oil obtained by extraction with analytical grade acetone using a Soxhlet apparatus, NSO(S) and that obtained by the traditional kneading method, NSO(K) were compared with the powder equivalent weights (PEW, the neem seed powder capable of yielding the equivalent amounts of the oil used for the treatments) for their relative efficacy in reducing the reproductive potential of the

N. E. S Lale; H. T Abdulrahman

1999-01-01

100

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) AND NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.)EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILAGE BACTERIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against a number of common food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Screening for antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay against 21...

101

Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

Mangiferin is the main bioactive component in mango leaves, which possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antitumor activities. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 45% ethanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 30:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 123 s under microwave irradiation of 474 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 36.10 ± 0.72 mg/g, significantly higher than that of conventional extraction. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials. PMID:23929791

Zou, Tangbin; Wu, Hongfu; Li, Huawen; Jia, Qing; Song, Gang

2013-10-01

102

The effect of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from Opuntia ficus-indica in a mouse model of diet induced obesity.  

PubMed

A diet rich in polyphenols can ameliorate some metabolic alterations associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a plant rich in isorhamnetin glycosides and is highly consumed in Mexico. The purpose of this research was to determine the metabolic effect of an OFI extract on a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and in isolated pancreatic islets. OFI extract was added to a high fat (HF) diet at a low (0.3%) or high (0.6%) dose and administered to C57BL/6 mice for 12 weeks. Mice fed the HF diet supplemented with the OFI extract gained less body weight and exhibited significantly lower circulating total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to those fed the HF diet alone. The HF-OFI diet fed mice presented lower glucose and insulin concentration than the HF diet fed mice. However, the HF-OFI diet fed mice tended to have higher insulin concentration than control mice. The OFI extract stimulated insulin secretion in vitro, associated with increased glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) mRNA content. Furthermore, the OFI extract improved glucose tolerance, and additionally increased energy expenditure. These metabolic improvements were associated with reduced adipocyte size, increased hepatic IRS1 tyr-608 and S6 K thr-389 phosphorylation. OFI isorhamnetin glycosides also diminished the hepatic lipid content associated with reduced mRNA expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and lipogenic enzymes and increased mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation. Overall, the OFI extract prevented the development of metabolic abnormalities associated with diet-induced obesity. PMID:25588195

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Torres, Nimbe; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Noriega, Lilia G; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Leal-Díaz, Ana M; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Márquez-Mota, Claudia; Ordaz, Guillermo; Chavez-Santoscoy, Rocío A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Tovar, Armando R

2015-03-11

103

In vitro antiviral activity of neem (Azardirachta indica L.) bark extract against herpes simplex virus type-1 infection  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) causes significant health problems from periodical skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. We report here that an aqueous extract preparation from the barks of neem plant Azardirachta indica acts as a potent entry inhibitor against HSV-1 infection into natural target cells. The extract from neem bark (NBE) significantly blocked HSV-1 entry into cells at concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 ?g/ml. The blocking activity of NBE was observed when the extract was pre-incubated with the virus but not with the target cells suggesting a direct anti-HSV-1 property of the neem bark. Further, virions treated with NBE failed to bind the cells which implicate a role of NBE as an attachment step blocker. Cells treated with NBE also inhibited HSV-1 glycoprotein mediated cell to cell fusion and polykaryocytes formation suggesting an additional role of NBE at the viral fusion step. These finding open a potential new avenue for the development of NBE as a novel anti-herpetic microbicide. PMID:20041417

Tiwari, Vaibhav; Darmani, Nissar A.; Yue, Beatrice Y. J. T.; Shukla, Deepak

2013-01-01

104

A new natural gel of Fagonia indica Burm f. extract for the treatment of burn on rats.  

PubMed

Fagonia indica Burm f. (Mushikka or white spine) is a plant distributed in the deserts of Asia and Africa and reported to be medicinal in the scientific literature as well as in the folk medicine. Earlier investigations, the authors isolated a number of bioactive constituents from the plant including flavonoids, sterols and tritepenoids; In addition its flavonoidal content was found remarkably high reaching 3% (calculated as flavonol on dry weight). The present study is an attempt to formulate, characterize and evaluate a natural wound-healing gel preparation containing the crude plant extract. Three formulae (F1-F3) were prepared. The gel properties such as viscosity, swelling ratio, bio-adhesion, in vitro release, stability, microbiological studies, in vivo burn healing test on rats and histopathological features were assessed. The results of the in vitro evaluation and stability studies showed that F3 (0.5% (w/w) of plant extract in 4% (w/w) chitosan) was significantly (p<0.05) the superior compared to other formulations. Besides, from the in vivo burn healing and histological results, F3 enhanced the skin wound re-epithelialization and speed up the healing process compared to the conventional commercial product. Thus, the Fagonia extract loaded chitosan topical gel would be used successfully in burn wound care. PMID:24374456

Rasool, Bazigha Kadhim Abdul; Shehab, Naglaa Gamil; Khan, Saeed Ahmed; Bayoumi, Fatehia Aly

2014-01-01

105

Insecticidal effects of acetogenins from Rollinia occidentalis seed extract.  

PubMed

From the methanol seed extract of Rollinia occidentalis five acetogenins were isolated, sylvaticin (1), rolliniastatin-1 (2), rolliniastatin-2 (3), motrilin (4) and desacetyluvaricin (5), and evaluated for their toxicity and nutritional alterations on Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). All but one of the compounds produced more than 90% mortality on early larval instars at 50 and 100 microg per g of diet. Sylvaticin caused 15 and 60% mortality at 50 and 100 microg/g, respectively, while the methanol seed extract reached 35 and 50% at 100 and 250 microg/g, respectively. The addition of R. occidentalis methanolic seed extract (100 and 250 microg/g) and sylvaticin (100 microg/g) to the larval diet brought about significant changes to the nutritional indices in connection with larvae fed the control diet. This is the first report on the isolation of acetogenins from R. occidentalis and their insecticidal effects on S. frugiperda. PMID:23413573

Tolosa, Diego; Alvarez, Colom Olga; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

2012-12-01

106

Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots.  

PubMed

The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

Daneshkhah, R; Cabello, S; Rozanska, E; Sobczak, M; Grundler, F M W; Wieczorek, K; Hofmann, J

2013-09-01

107

Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots  

PubMed Central

The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

Hofmann, J.

2013-01-01

108

Antifeedant activity of extracts from neem, Azadirachta indica , to strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf disk choice test bioassays demonstrated that formulated neem seed oil (NSO) was equally deterrent to first- and third-instar nymphs and adult strawberry aphids,Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell). Concentrations of NSO resulting in 50% feeding deterrence were approximately 1.1% for this species. The rapid disruption of aphid feeding (C. fragaefolii disappeared within 12–24 hr following application to strawberry in the greenhouse. NSO

D. Thomas Lowery; Murray B. Isman

1993-01-01

109

Mathematical modeling of sunflower seed extraction by supercritical COâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of oil from crushed sunflower seeds with supercritical COâ was performed at 280 bar and 40 C on a laboratory apparatus of 0.15 à 10⁻³ m³ volume and on a pilot plant of 1.5 à 10⁻³ m³ volume. COâ flow rate ranged between 5 and 45 kg\\/h. To study the influence of the vegetable matrix on the extraction rate,

M. Perrut; J. Y. Clavier; M. Poletto; E. Reverchon

1997-01-01

110

Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

Bush, Lowell

2014-12-01

111

Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids  

PubMed Central

Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

2014-01-01

112

Extraction and utilization of breadfruit seed oil ( Treculia africana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil was extracted from crushed breadfruit (Treculia africana) seeds by Soxhlet. The yield of the oil was 20·83 ± 0·57%. Tests showed the oil to be a semi-drying oil which is unsaturated, with a high saponification value, acidic and requires purification. The oil could be used for making soap, hair shampoo and alkyd resin.

V. I. E. Ajiwe; C. A. Okeke; H. U. Agbo

1995-01-01

113

Extraction of proteins from pennycress seeds and press cake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...

114

Fatty acid composition of oils extracted from Canadian weed seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of the diethyl ether extract from nine varieties of Canadian weed seeds is reported. Fatty acid\\u000a compositions forRumex pseudonatronatus L. Borbus,Setaria viridis L. Beauv., andChenopodium album L. have not been previously reported.

J. K. Daun; R. Tkachuk

1976-01-01

115

Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf extract deteriorates oocyte quality by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis in mammals.  

PubMed

Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf has been widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine for fertility regulation for a long time. The molecular mechanism by which neem leaf regulates female fertility remains poorly understood. Animal studies suggest that aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mediated granulosa cell apoptosis. Granulosa cell apoptosis deprives oocytes from nutrients, survival factors and cell cycle proteins required for the achievement of meiotic competency of follicular oocytes prior to ovulation. Under this situation, follicular oocyte becomes more susceptible towards apoptosis after ovulation. The increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inside the follicular fluid results in the transfer of H2O2 from follicular fluid to the oocyte. The increased level of H2O2 induces p53 activation and over expression of Bax protein that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential and trigger cytochrome c release. The increased cytosolic cytochrome c level induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities that trigger destruction of structural and specific proteins leading to DNA fragmentation and thereby oocyte apoptosis. Based on these animal studies, we propose that NLE induces generation of ROS and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis both in granulosa cells as well as in follicular oocyte. The induction of apoptosis deteriorates oocyte quality and thereby limits reproductive outcome in mammals. PMID:25197620

Chaube, Shail K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ajai K

2014-01-01

116

Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam.  

PubMed

Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines. PMID:25189525

Rathi Sre, P R; Reka, M; Poovazhagi, R; Arul Kumar, M; Murugesan, K

2015-01-25

117

Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines.

Rathi Sre, P. R.; Reka, M.; Poovazhagi, R.; Arul Kumar, M.; Murugesan, K.

2015-01-01

118

The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology  

PubMed Central

Objective To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. Methods The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. Results It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. Conclusions It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries. PMID:23730555

Jorge, Aguirre Joya; Heliodoro, De La Garza Toledo; Alejandro, Zugasti Cruz; Ruth, Belmares Cerda; Noé, Aguilar Cristóbal

2013-01-01

119

Extraction of DNA suitable for PCR applications from mature leaves of Mangifera indica L.*  

PubMed Central

Good quality deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the pre-requisite for its downstream applications. The presence of high concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, proteins, and other secondary metabolites in mango leaves poses problem in getting good quality DNA fit for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications. The problem is exacerbated when DNA is extracted from mature mango leaves. A reliable and modified protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for DNA extraction from mature mango leaves is described here. High concentrations of inert salt were used to remove polysaccharides; Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ?-mercaptoethanol were employed to manage phenolic compounds. Extended chloroform-isoamyl alcohol treatment followed by RNase treatment yielded 950?1050 µg of good quality DNA, free of protein and RNA. The problems of DNA degradation, contamination, and low yield due to irreversible binding of phenolic compounds and coprecipitation of polysaccharides with DNA were avoided by this method. The DNA isolated by the modified method showed good PCR amplification using simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. This modified protocol can also be used to extract DNA from other woody plants having similar problems. PMID:22467363

Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Cheema, Hafiza Masooma Naseer; Rajwana, Ishtiaq Ahmad; Khan, Ahmad Sattar; Khan, Asif Ali

2012-01-01

120

A new shampoo based on neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is highly effective against head lice in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because topical compounds based on insecticidal chemicals are the mainstay of head lice treatment, but resistance is increasing, alternatives, such as herbs and oils are being sold to treat head lice. To test a commercial shampoo based on seed extract of Azadirachta indica (neem tree) for its in vitro effect, head lice (n=17) were collected from school children in Australia

Jörg Heukelbach; Richard Speare

2006-01-01

121

Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous extraction process: Feasibility  

E-print Network

Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous the feasibility of an aqueous process to extract sunflower seed oil using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder rates of sunflower seeds and water. Liquid/solid separation required the addition of a lignocellulosic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

Antiobesity effect of Tamarindus indica L. pulp aqueous extract in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.  

PubMed

Obesity and overweight are associated with atherosclerosis, fatty liver, hyperlipemia, diabetes mellitus, and various types of cancer. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Here, we investigated the effect of Tamarindus indica pulp aqueous extract (TIE) in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into five groups and labeled as follows: the normal control (NC) group received normal diet; the positive control (PC) group received high-fat diet; and the TIE 5, 25, and 50 groups, after the induction of obesity via a high-fat diet, received TIE at 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg orally for 10 weeks. It was observed that TIE decreased the levels of plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride, and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL), with the concomitant reduction of body weight. Moreover, TIE decreased plasma leptin and reduced fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity and enhanced the efficiency of the antioxidant defense system. TIE exhibits antiobesity effects, as indicated by a significant reduction in adipose tissue weights, as well as lowering the degree of hepatic steatosis in the obesity-induced rats. The extract possesses hepatoprotective activity, as it reversed the plasma liver enzymes level elevation prior to the high-fat diet. In conclusion, TIE improved obesity-related parameters in blood, liver, and adipose tissue in a rat model and suppressed obesity induced by a high-fat diet, possibly by regulating lipid metabolism and lowering plasma leptin and FAS levels. A dose-dependant effect of TIE is detected, where TIE at 50 mg/kg showed the most prominent effect, followed by TIE at 25 mg/kg and, subsequently, 5 mg/kg. PMID:21989999

Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Shah, Zamree Md; Kadir, Khairul Kamilah Abdul

2012-04-01

123

Evaluation of extractive contact units for oil extraction from dehulled sunflower seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of an extractive system generally depends on kinetic, thermodynamic and technological parameters. Each of these\\u000a factors affects the extractive effectiveness, although the overall result depends on their interaction. In the present work\\u000a this interaction is analyzed for oil extraction from dehulled sunflower seed. Experiments on laboratory scale were made to\\u000a calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the

L. Tranchino; F. Melle

1984-01-01

124

Natural control of bacteria affecting meat quality by a neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cake extract.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of an ethylacetate neem cake extract (NCE) against bacteria that affect meat quality, namely Campylobacter jejuni, Carnobacterium spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc sp., is reported. The antibacterial activity was detected using standardised disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. The bacterial growth inhibition zone ranged from 11.33 ± 0.58 to 22.67 ± 0.58 mm (100 ?L NCE). There is significant difference between the growth inhibition zone of NCE and the control (ciprofloxacin 100 ?g). The percent of bacterial growth reduction range was 79.75 ± 1.53 to 90.73 ± 1.53 (100 ?g NCE) as compared with control (without NCE). NCE in different amounts counteracted the growth of all tested bacteria. PMID:25272067

Del Serrone, P; Failla, S; Nicoletti, M

2014-10-01

125

The comparative efficacy of some botanicals for the control of the seed weevil Caryedon serratus Olivier (Col., Bruchidae) in seeds of Acacia seyal Del  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study on the efficacy of powder and oil extracts from leaves and seed kernels of Azadirachta indica Juss. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. against the seed weevil Caryedon serratus Olivier infesting seeds of Acacia seyal Del. was carried out. EO 1, EO 5 and NSKO5% were comparable to BHC 3% in significantly reducing egg laying by C. serratus. With

H. A. El Atta; I. M. Aref; A. El Sheikh

2011-01-01

126

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

1986-05-01

127

Fermentation of Aqueous Plant Seed Extracts by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72-h period at 37°C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. PMID:16347053

Schaffner, Donald W.; Beuchat, Larry R.

1986-01-01

128

Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control. PMID:25346198

Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

2015-02-01

129

Enhanced germination of artificial seeds by marine cynobacterial extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an improved artificial seed system by using a hot-water extract from a marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. NKBG 042902. Carrot somatic embryos (Daucus carota L.) were divided into two size categories (> 800 µm and 425–800 µm). High frequency germination (91%) was obtained using the large somatic embryos encapsulated in calcium alginate gel containing 400 mg 1-1 of

Hitoshi Wake; Akinobu Akasaka; Hironori Umetsu; Yoshihiro Ozeki; Koichiro Shimomura; Tadashi Matsunaga

1992-01-01

130

Modeling of Supercritical Fluid Extraction from Hippophae rhamnoides L. seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of supercritical CO2 extraction of Hippophae rhamnoides L. seed oil was studied at 15 to 30 MPa and 30 to 45°C. Four mean Hippophae rhamnoides L. particle sizes raging from 0.4 to 1.0 mm were tested. CO2 flow rate ranged between 0.05 and 0.2 m h. A new method that can be used for the simulation of SCFE process

Jianzhong Yin; Xianwen Sun; Xinwei Ding; Hanhua Liang

2003-01-01

131

UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

132

Analysis of the operation conditions for supercritical fluid extraction of seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a SCFE set-up with an extraction volume of 1L was established, with which Hippophae rhamnoides L. seed oil was extracted using supercritical CO2. The experiments show that many factors have impacts on the oil yield, such as extraction pressure, temperature, and fluid flow rate, as well as seed particle size and filling quantity. For the extraction process

Jian-Zhong Yin; Ai-Qin Wang; Wei Wei; Yi Liu; Wen-Hua Shi

2005-01-01

133

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction of Seed Oil For Hippophae Rhamnoides L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a SCFE set-up with an extraction volume of 1L was established, with which Hippophae Rhamnoides L. seed oil was extracted using supercritical CO2. The experiments show that many factors have impacts on the oil yield, such as extraction pressure, temperature, and fluid flow rate, as well as seed particle size and filling quantity. For the extraction process

Jianzhong Yin; Runjie Liu; Yuan Ma; Che Zhu

134

THE USE OF ACIDIC ELECTROLYZED WATER TO ELIMINATE MICROORGANISMS FROM WHEAT SEED OR SOIL TO DETECT TILLETIA INDICA TELIOSPORES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is a germicidal product of electrolysis of a dilute solution of sodium chloride, which can be used to disinfect wheat seed or soil samples being tested for Karnal bunt teliospores without risk of damaging the spores. The AEW we produced for our study had a pH of 2.5 ...

135

Safflower seed extract lowers plasma and hepatic lipids in rats fed high-cholesterol diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies showed that powdered safflower seed lowered the plasma cholesterol concentration in high-fat and high-cholesterol fed rats. These studies were designed to test the hypolipidemic activity of safflower seed extracts prepared with ethanol or hot water. Male rats were fed a high-cholesterol (1%, wt\\/wt) or high-cholesterol diet supplemented with safflower seed powder (5%, wt\\/wt; SSP), safflower seed ethanol extract

Kwang-Deog Moon; Seoung-Sook Back; Jun-Han Kim; Seon-Min Jeon; Mi-Kyung Lee; Myung-Sook Choi

2001-01-01

136

Comparison of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction experiments with hexane were carried out at atmospheric pressure in Soxhlet, conventional and ultrasound extractions of flaked caraway seeds, and detailed results are given for two major plant extract components, carvone and limonene. The results indicate that carvone yield and plant extract quality are better in ultrasound extraction compared to those given by conventional methodology. Extraction rates of carvone

Smain Chemat; Ahcène Lagha; Hamid AitAmar; Paul V. Bartels; Farid Chemat

2004-01-01

137

Additive insulinogenic action of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin extract and leucine after exercise in healthy males  

PubMed Central

Background Oral intake of a specific extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin (OpunDia™) (OFI) has been shown to increase serum insulin concentration while reducing blood glucose level for a given amount of glucose ingestion after an endurance exercise bout in healthy young volunteers. However, it is unknown whether OFI-induced insulin stimulation after exercise is of the same magnitude than the stimulation by other insulinogenic agents like leucine as well as whether OFI can interact with those agents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: 1) to compare the degree of insulin stimulation by OFI with the effect of leucine administration; 2) to determine whether OFI and leucine have an additive action on insulin stimulation post-exercise. Methods Eleven subjects participated in a randomized double-blind cross-over study involving four experimental sessions. In each session the subjects successively underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 30-min cycling bout at ~70% VO2max. At t0 and t60 during the OGTT, subjects ingested 75 g glucose and capsules containing either 1) a placebo; 2) 1000 mg OFI; 3) 3 g leucine; 4) 1000 mg OFI + 3 g leucine. Blood samples were collected before and at 30-min intervals during the OGTT for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. Results Whereas no effect of leucine was measured, OFI reduced blood glucose at t90 by ~7% and the area under the glucose curve by ~15% and increased serum insulin concentration at t90 by ~35% compared to placebo (P<0.05). From t60 to the end of the OGTT, serum insulin concentration was higher in OFI+leucine than in placebo which resulted in a higher area under the insulin curve (+40%, P<0.05). Conclusion Carbohydrate-induced insulin stimulation post-exercise can be further increased by the combination of OFI with leucine. OFI and leucine could be interesting ingredients to include together in recovery drinks to resynthesize muscle glycogen faster post-exercise. Still, it needs to be confirmed that such nutritional strategy effectively stimulates post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis. PMID:24144232

2013-01-01

138

Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2? value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30?±?5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel, simple, and eco-friendly approach has been suggested to control blood-feeding parasites. PMID:25403378

Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

2015-02-01

139

Antitumor and Immunopotentiating Activity of Polysaccharide PST001 Isolated from the Seed Kernel of Tamarindus indica: An In Vivo Study in Mice  

PubMed Central

Antitumor activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica was evaluated using different cancer cell lines. Human cancer cell lines A549, KB, and MCF-7 and murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC were treated with PST001 and cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out for toxicity, tumor reduction and immunomodulation. The respective IC50 of PST001 in A549, KB, and DLA was at 80.72, 190.99, and 91.14??g/mL. Significant tumor reduction was obtained in both DLA and EAC tumors on treatment with PST001 which was more prominent when PST001 was administered with CTX/5-fluorouracil. Increase in total WBC, CD4+ T-cell population, and bone marrow cellularity suggested strong immunomodulatory activity for this compound. No significant abnormality was observed in toxicity studies. Thus the results of the present study suggest that PST001 has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent and immunomodulator either as a sole agent or as an adjuvant to other chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:22593679

Aravind, S. R.; Joseph, Manu M.; Varghese, Sheeja; Balaram, Prabha; Sreelekha, T. T.

2012-01-01

140

Bio-potency of a 21?kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica seeds on the developmental physiology of H.?armigera.  

PubMed

A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H.?armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin were ~2.10?µg/ml and 1.68?µg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21?kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H.?armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H.?armigera larvae. These results suggest that TTI has toxic and adverse effect on the developmental physiology of H.?armigera and could be useful in controlling the pest H.?armigera. PMID:25454525

Pandey, Prabhash K; Jamal, Farrukh

2014-11-01

141

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure ?? T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of ?? T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on ?? T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-? production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. ?? T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

2014-01-01

142

Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.  

PubMed

The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ?g.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage. PMID:23010205

Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

2013-02-01

143

The potential for controlling post?flowering pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp. using neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insecticidal activity of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., was tested on two major cowpea pests using different concentrations of aqueous extracts, and powders of both neem seed and kernel. The pests were larvae of Maruca testulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the legume pod borer and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), the cowpea coreid bug. Ife Brown, an improved local cowpea

L. E. N. Jackai; E. E. Inang; P. Nwobi

1992-01-01

144

Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.  

PubMed

Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development. PMID:25204070

Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

2014-09-01

145

Nigella sativa seed extract: 1. Enhancement of sheep macrophage immune functions in vitro.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed, Black cumin, immunomodulatory activity has been investigated in human and mice. Little is known about the immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed extract on animals' immune cells, specifically, antigen presenting cells such as macrophages. This study focused on the immunomodulatory effect of N. sativa seed extract on sheep macrophage functions in vitro. Sheep peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and derived to macrophages (MDM). The MDM were cultured with N. sativa seed extract and their morphological changes, phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production, and microbicidal activity were investigated. Marked morphological changes were observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract including cell size enlargement; increase in both cytoplasmic space and cytoplasmic granules. Significant increases in phagocytic activity to Candida albicans yeast and in number of yeast engulfed per individual MDM were observed in cells cultured with seed extract. MDM capacity to produce nitric oxide was higher in the culture media of the seed extract-cultured cells compared to the control. Interestingly, prominent enhancement in MDM microbicidal activity to yeast or bacteria was observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract confirming the potent immunostimulatory effect of the extract. From this study, it could be concluded that N. sativa seed extract can enhance macrophages' important innate immune functions that could control infectious diseases and regulate adaptive immunity. PMID:23664216

Elmowalid, Gamal; Amar, Ahmad M; Ahmad, Adel Attia M

2013-10-01

146

Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).  

PubMed

The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

2013-01-01

147

A Rapid DNA Extraction Method for RFLP and PCR Analysis from a Single Dry Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-seed DNA extraction method was developed for rapid identification of plant genotype. The method was applied to 12 plant species, including the oil seeds sesame and soybean. The results were comparable to those obtained for oil-less seeds such as rice. This method will be useful for genotypic selection which requires rapid screening of large populations. It can also be

Hee Wan Kang; Yong Gu Cho; Ung Han Yoon; Moo Young Eun

1998-01-01

148

Differential neuroprotective activity of two different grape seed extracts.  

PubMed

Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major events that takes place during various neurotoxic injuries such as brain ischemia. We prepared grape seed extracts, from two different varieties, containing high amounts of polyphenols but little resveratrol. Their neuroprotective effects were investigated using primary culture of neonatal mouse hippocampal neurons treated with an excitotoxic concentration of glutamate. Koshu, a white, local variety of V. vinifera, alleviated the acute inactivation of Erk1/2 and dendrite retraction in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to a toxic concentration of glutamate (1.0 ng/ml). By contrast, Muscat Bailey A, a red, hybrid variety (Muscat Humburg × Bailey), failed to show any neuroprotective effect. Unlike brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other neuroprotective cytokines, Koshu extract did not induce Akt phosphorylation. Koshu extract also augmented neuron survival rate 24 hours after glutamate toxicity. The comparison of polyphenols between the two samples by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that Koshu had higher amounts of low molecular weight polyphenols along with several Koshu-specific procyanidin oligomers. These data suggest the presence of high affinity molecular targets for polyphenols in hippocampal neurons, which induce neuroprotective effects in a manner different from BDNF, and the importance of low molecular weight polyphenols and/or procyanidin oligomers for neuroprotection. PMID:21283677

Narita, Keishi; Hisamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Tohru; Takeda, Sen

2011-01-01

149

Extraction rates of oil from high oleic sunflower seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical CO2 extraction of oleic sunflower seeds was shown to be effective and yielded a product very similar to pure refined oil. In our work extraction pressure was restricted to 250 bar, due to technical constraints, and for this pressure, a temperature increase (up to 60°C) was observed to be detrimental. Grinded seeds were used, segregated into average small particles

H. K Kiriamiti; E Rascol; A Marty; J. S Condoret

2002-01-01

150

Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds: Extraction, purification, and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are traditionally assumed to have restorative properties. We have recently shown that a fenugreek seed extract containing steroid saponins increased food consumption and induced hypocholesterolemia in rats. This study aims to investigate the specific role of purified steroid saponins in these properties. For this purpose, an original technique for extraction and purification

Pierre R. Petit; Yves D. Sauvaire; Dominique M. Hillaire-Buys; Olivier M. Leconte; Yves G. Baissac; Gabriel R. Ponsin; Gérard R. Ribes

1995-01-01

151

Antifilarial effects of polyphenol rich ethanolic extract from the leaves of Azadirachta indica through molecular and biochemical approaches describing reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis of Setaria cervi.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis, a global cause of morbidity needs much more attention in developing potent therapeutics that can be effective against both microfilariae (mf) and adults. Efficient botanicals that can induce apoptosis of filarial parasites possibly can provide a direction towards developing new class of antifilarials. In this work we have evaluated the antifilarial efficacy of an optimized polyphenol rich ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (EEA). A. indica A. Juss has been widely used in the traditional Indian medicinal system 'Ayurveda' for the treatment of a variety of ailments. A thorough investigation towards biochemical and molecular mechanisms describing ROS mediated apoptosis in Setaria cervi was performed. Motility reduction, MTT reduction assay and dye exclusion test have confirmed the micro- and macrofilaricidal potential of EEA. Alterations were visible in mf and trichrome stained section of EEA-treated adult worms. We have found cellular disturbances in EEA-treated parasites characterized by chromatin condensation, in situ DNA fragmentation and nucleosomal DNA laddering. Depletion in worm GSH level and elevation in parasite GST, SOD, catalase, GPx and superoxide anion indicated the generation of ROS. Our results provided experimental evidence supporting that EEA causes a decreased expression of anti-apoptotic genes and increased pro-apoptotic gene expression at the level of both transcription and translation. Here we are reporting for the first time that antifilarial activity of EEA is mediated by ROS up regulation and apoptosis. PMID:24275557

Mukherjee, Niladri; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Saini, Prasanta; Roy, Priya; Sinha Babu, Santi P

2014-01-01

152

Evaluation of Wound Closure Activity of Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum Extracts on Scratched Monolayer of Human Gingival Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum are common Asian traditional medicines to treat minor wounds. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of aqueous extracts of these plants using human gingival fibroblast (HGF) monolayer as study model. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated and effect on HGF proliferation was determined. Their effect on HGF's function to synthesize collagen was indicated by the level of hydroxyproline produced and effect on wound healing activity was assessed using an in vitro scratch assay. The influence of the extracts on expression of bFGF and TGF-? was also determined. Results revealed all four extracts to exhibit low free radical scavenging activity. The extract from N. sativa (NSSE) compared to the others showed favourable enhancement of HGF proliferation with EC50 of 22.67 ± 3.06?µg/mL (P < 0.05) with accelerated wound closure activity despite its nonsignificant effect on collagen synthesis. In addition to the elevated level of bFGF by up to 15% at 100?µg/mL of NSSE, a slightly better effect was observed on the expression of TGF-?. NSSE thus showed that promising wound healing properties and data obtained may contribute towards validation of its traditional use for the healing of oral wounds. PMID:25371695

Ab Rahman, Mas Rizal; Mohd Bakri, Marina

2014-01-01

153

A Novel Extraction Method and Some Physicochemical Properties of Extractives of Irvingia Gabonensis seeds  

PubMed Central

The plant Irvingia gabonensis contains lipids and polymer extractives that can be a good source of excipients for oral pharmaceutical formulations. These constituents are usually extracted from the seeds with the aid of either organic solvents or enzymes. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel, simpler, cheaper, and safer method for the simultaneous extraction of lipids and gum from I. gabonensis. A 100.0 g of seeds of I. gabonensis in 200 mL deionized water was heated at 78°C in the presence of 2.0 g sodium chloride for 1 h, and the mixture was allowed to stand for the lipids to be separated and removed by filtration. The samples were air dried at 25–30°C. The liquid fraction was centrifuged at 3445 rpm for 30 min, and the supernatant portion containing the gum was freeze dried. The samples were investigated for their true, bulk, and tapped densities as well as particle size and particle size distributions. The rheological, and near infrared absorption spectra as well as thermal behavior of the samples were also studied. The lipid and the polymeric components of I. gabonensis seeds were successfully extracted simultaneously. The true densities of the fatty and gum components were, respectively, 1.000 and 1.544 g/cm3. The melting point of the fat was 40°C and Tg of the gum was 232°C. These values were similar to those described in the literature for the components using the traditional method, demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of this simple novel method. PMID:22754256

Ogaji, Ikoni J; Nan, Anjan; Hoag, Stephen W

2012-01-01

154

Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds  

PubMed Central

Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1?. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1? levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the immunosuppressive potential of the extract. PMID:24349164

Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

2013-01-01

155

PRESSURIZED FLUID EXTRACTION OF PUMPKIN SEED AND PUMPKIN SEED PRESSED CAKE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pumpkin seed oil is one of the top three nutritional oils (hemp seed oil, flax seed oil, pumpkin seed oil) that provide the highest essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and Omega 6) required for healthy mind/body functioning. It is known to prevent and alleviate bladder and prostate problems. The oil th...

156

Optimization of the enzymatic treatment during aqueous oil extraction from sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially dehulled sunflower seeds were subjected to a hydrolytic treatment with cellulases during aqueous processing for oil and protein extraction. Sub-optimal extraction conditions (particle size and separation technology) were established in order to appreciate the potential improvement caused by the enzymatic treatment and to select the best operational conditions. The effects of three operational variables (extraction–treatment time, water\\/seeds ratio and

J Sineiro; H Dom??nguez; M. J Núñez; J. M Lema

1998-01-01

157

Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds  

PubMed Central

Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

2013-01-01

158

Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and dose-dependent. The maximum coliform inactivation achieved in any trial was 86%. Fruit extracts were more successful at inactivating total coliforms than faecal coliforms. Seed extracts achieved higher coliform inactivation levels than fruit extracts generally. Overall, the antimicrobial potential of seeds and fruit from L. cylindrica was demonstrated; however the disinfection performance was less than would be required for these extracts to be considered reliable disinfectants for drinking water treatment. PMID:20088208

Shaheed, Ameer; Templeton, Michael R; Matthews, Robert L; Tripathi, Sabitri K; Bhattarai, Kiran

2009-12-01

159

Inhibition of ?-Amylase and ?-Glucosidase Activity by Tea and Grape Seed Extracts and their Constituent Catechins  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, glucosidases required for starch digestion. The abundant flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) in these extracts were also tested for their inhibitory potential and evaluated against the pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. To evaluate relative potency of these extracts and catechins, the concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess an inhibitor’s relative efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. While tea extracts and individual catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of ?-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase. Our data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase, and suggest that procyanidins found in grape seed extract strongly inhibit ?-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M.; Michels, Alexander J.; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

2015-01-01

160

?-Sitosterol: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15–60 MPa and temperatures of 40–80 °C. Oil and ?-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of ?-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of ?-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 °C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 °C. Both ?-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide. PMID:20480045

Sajfrtová, Marie; Li?ková, Ivana; Wimmerová, Martina; Sovová, Helena; Wimmer, Zden?k

2010-01-01

161

Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3  

PubMed Central

Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml?1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590

Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

2014-01-01

162

Antifouling activity of the methanolic extract of Syringodium isoetifolium, and its toxicity relative to tributyltin on the ovarian development of brown mussel Perna indica.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated reproductive toxicity and antifouling activity of methanolic extract of seagrass Syringodium isoetifolium (25 ?g/ml) relative to the conventional antifoulant, tributyltin (TBT; 100 ng/l) on the ovarian development of the brown mussel Perna indica. Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and Digestive Gland Index (DGI) of TBT exposed mussels decreased in comparison with mussels exposed to S. isoetifolium extract. Interestingly, mussels treated with S. isoetifolium showed normal cellular architecture in gills, digestive gland, muscle and ovary. However, TBT increased interfilamental space and fusion of the filaments in gills, disruption in the digestive tubules and reduction in basement membrane thickness. Besides in adductor muscle, TBT induced muscle degeneration, and necrotic muscle layer. In ovary, TBT inflicted the fusion of developing oocytes. TBT had significantly retarded the ovarian development and substantially affected the biochemical constituents leading to an impairment of oogenesis as against the null effects noticed from the S. isoetifolium extract treated mussels. On the ground of eco-friendly properties, the seagrass S. isoetifolium could be used as a source for the production of green antifoulant. PMID:23294637

Iyapparaj, P; Revathi, P; Ramasubburayan, R; Prakash, S; Anantharaman, P; Immanuel, G; Palavesam, A

2013-03-01

163

Inhibition of the mechanical activity of mouse ileum by cactus pear (Opuntia Ficus Indica, L, Mill.) fruit extract and its pigment indicaxanthin.  

PubMed

We investigated, using an organ bath technique, the effects of a hydrophilic extract from Opuntia ficus indica fruit pulp (cactus fruit extract, CFE) on the motility of mouse ileum, and researched the extract component(s) responsible for the observed responses. CFE (10-320 mg of fresh fruit pulp equivalents/mL of organ bath) reduced dose-dependently the spontaneous contractions. This effect was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, a neuronal blocker, N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase blocker, tetraethylammonium, a potassium channel blocker, or atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. CFE also reduced the contractions evoked by carbachol, without affecting the contractions evoked by high extracellular potassium. Indicaxanthin, but not ascorbic acid, assayed at concentrations comparable with their content in CFE, mimicked the CFE effects. The data show that CFE is able to exert direct antispasmodic effects on the intestinal motility. The CFE inhibitory effects do not involve potassium channels or voltage-dependent calcium channels but rather pathways of calcium intracellular release. The fruit pigment indicaxanthin appears to be the main component responsible for the CFE-induced effects. PMID:20518499

Baldassano, S; Tesoriere, L; Rotondo, A; Serio, R; Livrea, M A; Mulè, F

2010-07-14

164

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract ameliorates monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint disease that is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage and chronic pain. Oxidative stress is considered one of the pathophysiological factors in the progression of OA. We investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), which is an antioxidant, on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritis of the knee joint of rat, which is an animal model of human OA. GSPE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) or saline was given orally three times per week for 4 weeks after the MIA injection. Pain was measured using the paw withdrawal latency (PWL), the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and the hind limb weight bearing ability. Joint damage was assessed using histological and microscopic analysis and microcomputerized tomography. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) and nitrotyrosine were detected using immunohistochemistry. Administration of GSPE to the MIA-treated rats significantly increased the PWL and PWT and this resulted in recovery of hind paw weight distribution (P < 0.05). GSPE reduced the loss of chondrocytes and proteoglycan, the production of MMP13, nitrotyrosine and IL-1? and the formation of osteophytes, and it reduced the number of subchondral bone fractures in the MIA-treated rats. These results indicate that GSPE is antinociceptive and it is protective against joint damage in the MIA-treated rat model of OA. GSPE could open up novel avenues for the treatment of OA. PMID:21795829

Woo, Yun Ju; Joo, Young Bin; Jung, Young Ok; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Mi La; Oh, Hye Jwa; Jhun, Joo Youn; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Jin Sil; Kang, Chang Min; Sung, Mi Sook; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ho Youn; Min, Jun Ki

2011-10-31

165

Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts  

PubMed Central

Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 ?g/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 ?g/mL) and TH (165.44 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 ?g/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 ?g/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation. PMID:24471075

Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

2012-01-01

166

Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise ( Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of water and ethanol extracts of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed (PAS) were investigated. The antioxidant properties of both extracts of PAS were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Twenty ?g\\/ml of water and ethanol extracts exhibited

Münir Oktay; Ekrem K?reçc?; Ö. ?rfan Küfrev?o?lu

2003-01-01

167

Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

168

Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and

Ameer Shaheed; Michael R. Templeton; Robert L. Matthews; Sabitri K. Tripathi; Kiran Bhattarai

2009-01-01

169

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-12-01

170

Anti-obesity and antihyperlipidaemic effect of Hunteria umbellata seed extract in experimental hyperlipidaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyIn Nigerian folk medicine, water infusion of the dried seeds of Hunteria umbellata (K. Schum.) Hallier f. has a reputation for the local management of obesity and hyperlipidaemia. The present study is aimed at evaluating the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidaemic activities as well as the underlying mechanisms of action of the aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata (HU)

Adejuwon Adewale Adeneye; Olufunmilayo Olaide Adeyemi; Esther Oluwatoyin Agbaje

2010-01-01

171

In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and

C. Marie-Magdeleine; H. Hoste; M. Mahieu; H. Varo; H. Archimede

2009-01-01

172

Effect of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed extract on stability of olive oil.  

PubMed

In this study, the antioxidant effect of date (Phoenix dactylifera L., Arecaceae) seed extracts at different concentrations (0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the oxidative stability of olive oil at 60 °C was determined. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was used as positive control in the experiment. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activity compared to BHA up to 21 days. When antioxidant effect of extract concentrations were compared with BHA, the effect of 0.5 % extract concentration was more remarkable for olive oil up to 21 days. After 14 days of assay, all of seed extracts was effective at 60 °C in comparison with control. On the other hand, an important increase was observed in both the peroxide and free fatty acidity values during the experiment period. It concluded that date seed extract could be used as a oxidative inhibitor agent in oil and oil products. PMID:25694743

Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

2015-02-01

173

Design of a press for oil extraction from moringa seeds for Haiti  

E-print Network

The project here presented focuses on the development of a harvesting tool for Haiti, a developing country, for the extraction of oil from the seeds of the moringa trees. Moringas have an extraordinarily nutritional potential ...

Sabelli, Alessandra Maria, 1976-

2004-01-01

174

Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract.  

PubMed

These ingredients are all derived from hazelnut trees. The two seed oils are expressed from the nuts of the hazelnut tree of the particular species identified. Most current reported cosmetic uses are of the seed oils. The seed extracts are the extract of the nuts of the identified species tree. There is one current report of use of seed extract in cosmetics. The leaf extracts are the extract from the leaves of the particular species tree. There are no current reports of use of these extracts in cosmetics. Analysis of seed oil from one species identified Oleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Eicosaenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Eicosanoic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Stearic Acid, and Tetraeicosanoic Acid. Little information is available to characterize the extracts, however. The functions of most of these ingredients in cosmetics are not reported. In studies of hazelnuts from Spain and Egypt, aflatoxin was reported as a possible contaminant. Aflatoxins are considered carcinogenic in humans. Virtually no safety test data are available on these ingredients. Negative results in one comedogenicity study using a seed oil are reported. Cross-sensitivity to proteins in peanuts and those in hazelnuts are reported, but the presence or absence of protein in nut extract and plant extract from hazelnut trees is not known. Additional data were provided regarding concentration of use, method of extraction and contaminants, comedogenicity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption, but these data related to nut oil from only one species, and were not overall sufficient to resolve questions about irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization. Because of the absence of data, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic products. Because of the limited information that characterizes any of these oils or extracts, data are needed on each (except that items 1, 2, and 3 below are not needed for Hazel [Corylus Avellana] Nut Oil). The additonal data needs include: (1) current concentration of use; (2) method of extraction/manufacture and quality control (i.e., chemical analyses); (3) contaminants and methods of extraction (especially pesticides and heavy metals); (4) dermal irritation and sensitization; (5) UV absorption; if there is significant absorption, then a photosensitization study will be needed; (6) 28-day dermal toxicity; (7) reproductive and developmental toxicity; and (8) two genotoxicity assays, one in a mammalian system; if positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenesis study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed. PMID:11358108

Madhaven, N

2001-01-01

175

Quality of borage seed oil extracted by liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the extraction of borage seed oil by liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide, from the point of view of both operative method and pre-treatment of raw material. The best conditions for borage seed oil extraction are obtained at 300bar, 40°C and a solvent flow rate of 1.5l\\/min at STP. The yields obtained are very similar to those resulting

A Molero Gómez; E Mart??nez de la Ossa

2002-01-01

176

Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), twice weekly and for 8weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g\\/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well

Alaaeldin A. Hamza

2010-01-01

177

A twin-screw extruder for oil extraction: I. Direct expression of oleic sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipids are traditionally removed from seeds by mechanical crushing and solvent extraction. During the mechanical crushing\\u000a process the oilseed is cleaned, cracked, flaked, and cooked before entering a mechanical screw press. Seventy-five percent\\u000a of the oil of sunflower seeds can be extracted by crushing, and the fatty cake then contains about 15% of oil. The oil levels\\u000a remaining in the

Corinne Dufaure; Juliette Leyris; Luc Rigal; Zéphirin Mouloungui

1999-01-01

178

Recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds: effect of extraction time and solid–liquid ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to study the recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds, by-products from winemaking industries, using ethanolic solid–liquid extraction. For such a purpose, the combined effects of the extraction time (9, 19 and 29?h) and the solid–liquid ratio (0.10, 0.20 and 0.30?gdw?mL), were investigated (where dw?=?dry waste). Results demonstrated that Pinot Noir seeds had high

Alessandro A. Casazza; Bahar Aliakbarian; Patrizia Perego

2011-01-01

179

Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria. Materials and Methods: The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract. Results: The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36?g/ml and 182.19?g/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50) value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein. Conclusion: Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria. PMID:25628685

Ishnava, Kalpesh B; Shah, Pankit P.

2014-01-01

180

Efficacy of Piper guineense (Schum & Thonn) seed extract against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) as influenced by different extraction solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seed extract of black pepper Piper guineense Schum & Thonn was evaluated for its biological activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky at 30°C, 65 ± 2% R.H and 12:12-h light:dark regimes in the laboratory. The different solvents used for the extraction were acetone, ethanol, n-hexane, petroleum ether (60:80) and distilled water at 0.3% dosage level. The acetone extract had

Elechi F. Asawalam; Steve O. Emosairue; Friday Ekeleme; Roland Wokocha

2007-01-01

181

Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan. PMID:24300515

Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

2013-01-01

182

Grape seed extract attenuates arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is a recognized factor in nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (As). Grape seed extract (GSE) possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of GSE against arsenic-induced renal injury. Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to As in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg) for 12 months. The serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and mRNA expression levels of fibrogenic markers in the renal tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) subunits, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) were assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cotreatment with GSE significantly improved renal function, as demonstrated by the reductions in relative kidney weight (% of body weight) and blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in the creatinine clearance capacity. GSE attenuated the As-induced changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1? and the mRNA levels of TGF-?1, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in renal tissue. Furthermore, administration of GSE markedly reduced As-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nox activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the NADPH subunits (Nox2, p47phox and Nox4). In addition, GSE cotreatment was correlated with a significant reduction in TGF-?/Smad signaling, as demonstrated by the decreased protein levels of TGF-?1 and pSmad2/3 in renal tissue. This study indicated that GSE may be a useful agent for the prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to As. GSE may exert its effects through the suppression of Nox and inhibition of TGF-?/Smad signaling activation. PMID:24348802

ZHANG, JIANGONG; PAN, XINJUAN; LI, NING; LI, XING; WANG, YONGCHAO; LIU, XIAOZHUAN; YIN, XINJUAN; YU, ZENGLI

2014-01-01

183

Grape seed extract attenuates arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is a recognized factor in nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (As). Grape seed extract (GSE) possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of GSE against arsenic-induced renal injury. Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to As in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg) for 12 months. The serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and mRNA expression levels of fibrogenic markers in the renal tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) subunits, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) were assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cotreatment with GSE significantly improved renal function, as demonstrated by the reductions in relative kidney weight (% of body weight) and blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in the creatinine clearance capacity. GSE attenuated the As-induced changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1? and the mRNA levels of TGF-?1, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in renal tissue. Furthermore, administration of GSE markedly reduced As-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nox activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the NADPH subunits (Nox2, p47phox and Nox4). In addition, GSE cotreatment was correlated with a significant reduction in TGF-?/Smad signaling, as demonstrated by the decreased protein levels of TGF-?1 and pSmad2/3 in renal tissue. This study indicated that GSE may be a useful agent for the prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to As. GSE may exert its effects through the suppression of Nox and inhibition of TGF-?/Smad signaling activation. PMID:24348802

Zhang, Jiangong; Pan, Xinjuan; Li, Ning; Li, Xing; Wang, Yongchao; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Yin, Xinjuan; Yu, Zengli

2014-01-01

184

Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.  

PubMed

Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as indicators of the presence or high levels of anti-oxidants in the oils. PMID:22530436

Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

2012-01-01

185

Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

186

Extraction of Field Pennycress Seed Oil by Full Pressing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in the temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (db) with the major fatty acid as erucic acid (38%). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a major source of...

187

Extraction of Essential Oils From the Seeds of Pomegranate Using Organic Solvents and Supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, essential oils from pomegranate seeds of the Malas variety from Shahreza, Iran, were extracted using hexane\\u000a and petroleum benzene applying four extraction methods: normal stirring, soxhlet, microwave irradiation, and ultrasonic irradiation.\\u000a Also, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 under different conditions was used for comparison. Different methods of extraction with organic solvents (normal stirring,\\u000a soxhlet, microwave irradiation,

Hajar Abbasi; Karamatollah Rezaei; Ladan Rashidi

2008-01-01

188

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with supercritical-CO2 (SC-CO2) have been optimized with respect to pressure, temperature, CO2-flow and extraction time in order to selectively obtain the essential oil. Using Soxhlet extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were extracted. From

T. Baysal; D. A. J. Starmans

1999-01-01

189

A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

2015-01-01

190

Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.  

PubMed

The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

2014-01-01

191

Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ?-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

192

Complementary and Comparative Study on Hypoglycemic and Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Extracts of Eugenia jambolana Seed, Momordica charantia Fruits, Gymnema sylvestre , and Trigonella foenum graecum Seeds in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol,\\u000a hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and\\/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract

Mukesh Yadav; Amita Lavania; Radha Tomar; G. B. K. S. Prasad; Shalini Jain; Hariom Yadav

2010-01-01

193

Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 ?mol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. PMID:25577085

Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

2015-05-15

194

Inhibitory action of neem aqueous extract (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.  

PubMed

The present study revealed unheard of data about the action of aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, proving that these extracts in 10 and 20% concentrations do not have the potential to kill the females; however, in lower concentrations (10%) provokes great morphological alterations in germinative cells such as the emergence of extended cytoplasmic vacuolization areas as well as the fragmentation of the germinal vesicle, even in those oocytes which were in initial stages of development (I-III), showing that neem is a potent agent which acts impeding one of the main metabolic stages of the ticks, i.e., the reproduction. In oocytes in final stages of development (IV-V) azadirachtin (neem's active principle) caused significant reduction in the size and quantity of proteic granules of the yolk and the inversion of their localization where the smaller granules before inside the cell (normal oocyte) were posteriorly observed in the periphery, and the bigger ones in the central region. Thus, the study showed that the alterations found both in the oocytes and in the pedicel cells indicated that azadirachtin acts on the process of tick's reproduction and signalizes that this plant can be used in the future to control ticks with the advantage of not being aggressive to nontarget organism or the environment. Furthermore, data here obtained showed that the most significant efficiency of the aqueous extract of neem is related to the concentration of 10%, proving that higher doses would not be so efficient. PMID:21936022

Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel

2011-10-01

195

Grape Seed Extract for Control of Human Enteric Viruses ?  

PubMed Central

Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ?7 log10 PFU/ml or ?5 log10 PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (?7 log10 PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log10 PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log10 PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. GSE treatment of low titers (?5 log10 PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety. PMID:21498749

Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H.

2011-01-01

196

Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression. PMID:18955355

Chatelain, Kourt; Phippen, Spencer; McCabe, Jonathan; Teeters, Christopher A.; O'Malley, Susan; Kingsley, Karl

2011-01-01

197

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic petals extract of Rosa indica and characterization of its antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was aimed at biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using ethanolic extract of rose (Rosa indica) petals and testing their potential antibacterial activity using selective human pathogenic microbes, anticancer activity using human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cell line HCT 15 as well as anti-inflammatory activity using rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The biologically synthesized AgNPs were also characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterized AgNPs showed an effective antibacterial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) than Gram positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria. MTT assay, analysis of nuclear morphology, mRNA expression of Bcl-2, Bax and protein expression of caspase 3 as well as 9, indicated potential anticancer activity. In addition, green synthesized AgNPs also attenuated cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and free radical generation (O2- and NO) by rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The results of our study show the potential green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in mitigating their toxicity while retaining their antibacterial activities.

Manikandan, Ramar; Manikandan, Beulaja; Raman, Thiagarajan; Arunagirinathan, Koodalingam; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu; Jothi Basu, Muthuramalingam; Perumal, Muthulakshmi; Palanisamy, Subramanian; Munusamy, Arumugam

2015-03-01

198

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

?uk, M.; Dymi?ska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; M?czka, M.; Zaj?c, A.; Szo?tysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

2011-03-01

199

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds.  

PubMed

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis. PMID:21237701

Zuk, M; Dymi?ska, L; Kulma, A; Boba, A; Prescha, A; Szopa, J; M?czka, M; Zaj?c, A; Szo?tysek, K; Hanuza, J

2011-03-01

200

Efficacy of certain plant extracts against seed-borne infection of Collectotrichum destructivum on cowpea (Vigna uniguculata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam, Vernonia amygdalina and Annona muricata were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea (Vigna uniguculata). The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w\\/v) of the leaves for 6, 12 and 18 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on

201

Differences in the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera seeds extracts.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae) seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power. PMID:23493104

Weidner, Stanis?aw; Rybarczyk, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Król, Angelika; Mostek, Agnieszka; Gr?bosz, Joanna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2013-01-01

202

Effect of the extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit on the complement system: studies in vitro and in hamsters submitted to a cholesterol-enriched diet.  

PubMed

This work evaluated a crude hydroalcoholic extract (ExT) from the pulp of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit as a source of compounds active on the complement system (CS) in vitro. ExT, previously characterized by other authors, had time and concentration dependent effects on the lytic activity of the CS. The activity of 0.8 mg/mL of the extract on the classical/lectin pathways (CP/LP) increased after 30 min of pre-incubation, while that of the alternative pathway (AP) decreased after 15 min at 1mg/mL. Since the CS is a mediator of inflammation, studies were also made in vivo, taking advantage of a model of hypercholesterolemia in hamsters to investigate the role of CS in the phase preceding the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis. Hamsters submitted to a diet rich in cholesterol showed increased lytic activity of the CP/LP and AP after 45 days. The activity levels of C2 and factor B components on respectively, classical/lectin and alternative pathways of the CS also increased. Early events cooperating to trigger the process of atherosclerotic lesions are not completely understood, and these alterations of complement may participate in these events. When treatment with a diet rich in cholesterol was associated to the furnishing of ExT, evaluation of complement components and complement lytic activity showed values similar to those of the controls, showing that treatment with ExT blocked the increase of complement activity caused by the cholesterol-rich diet. By itself, ExT had no effect on the complement system in vivo. ExT activity on the CS may be of interest for therapy and research purposes. PMID:17383788

Landi Librandi, Ana Paula; Chrysóstomo, Taís Nader; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Recchia, Carem Gledes Vargas; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; de Assis-Pandochi, Ana Isabel

2007-08-01

203

Antioxidant activity of grape seed ( Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) using various solvents, such as acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and mixtures of different solvents, such as ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water in 9:1, 17:3 and 4:1 ratios. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using a ?-carotene-linoleate model system and linoleic acid peroxidation method. At 100 ppm concentration, various extracts

G. K. Jayaprakasha; R. P. Singh; K. K. Sakariah

2001-01-01

204

A toxicological investigation of a celery seed extract having anti-inflammatory activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  An extract of the seed from celery (Apium graviolens) (CSE), and fractions thereof, have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity, gastro-protective activity, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. In view of the potential for employing these extracts for therapeutic use, toxicological investigations were undertaken\\u000a with an alcoholic extract (A-CSE) which has previously been shown to have the above pharmacological activities.

M. C. Powanda; K. D. Rainsford

2011-01-01

205

Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. PMID:19854235

Hamza, Alaaeldin A

2010-01-01

206

Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage.  

PubMed

Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 °C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods. PMID:24679777

Vergara, Cristina; Saavedra, Jorge; Sáenz, Carmen; García, Paula; Robert, Paz

2014-08-15

207

REGISTRATION OF FOUR INDICA RICE GENETIC STOCKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture released four indica rice genetic stocks (Oryza sativa L.), apoptosis, chives, extreme dwarf, and gold leaf, Reg. No. GS ___ to _____,and PI _______ to _______, respectively, in May, 2006. These specialized seed stocks are expected to...

208

CULTIVOS DE CÉLULAS EN SUSPENSIÓN DE Azadirachta indica PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE UN BIOINSECTICIDA CELL SUSPENSION CULTURE OF Azadirachta indica FOR PRODUCTION OF A BIOINSECTICIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Azadirachta indica are an important source for production of bioinsecticides, being Azadirachtin (Aza) the main compound. However, agricultural and climate adversity limit the seed production, thereby plant cell culture in vitro is an alternative technology for Aza production. In this work, the state of the knowledge of A. indica cell culture is presented and the strategies for improving

F. Orozco-Sánchez; M. Rodríguez

209

Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

210

Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. ?-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes. PMID:23742045

Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

2013-07-17

211

Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.  

PubMed

The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (?), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug. PMID:24158737

Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

2014-02-01

212

alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica bark.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves, Holarrhena antidysenterica bark, Swertia chirata whole plant and Mangifera indica bark were tested (in-vitro) for alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. M. indica extract was found to be the most potent, with an IC(50) value of 314 microg/ml. PMID:11543970

Prashanth, D; Amit, A; Samiulla, D S; Asha, M K; Padmaja, R

2001-08-01

213

In vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.  

PubMed

Bixa orellana L. (annatto), from Bixaceae family, is a native plant of tropical America, which accumulates several carotenoids (including bixin and norbixin), terpenoids, tocotrienols and flavonoids with potential antioxidant activity. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated and compared to the bixin standard. Annatto extracts were obtained using solvents with different polarities and their phenolic compounds and bixin levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. All annatto extracts were able to scavenge all the reactive species tested at the low ?g/mL range, with the exception of superoxide radical. The ethanol:ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate extracts of annatto seeds, which presented the highest levels of hypolaetin and bixin, respectively, were the extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity, although bixin standard presented the lowest IC(50) values. PMID:23140681

Chisté, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Gomes, Ana; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José Luís Fontes da Costa; Bragagnolo, Neura

2011-07-15

214

Cytotoxic evaluation of Melia azedarach in comparison with, Azadirachta indica and its phytochemical investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages. Methods In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study. Results Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1). In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively) than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1). The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine. Conclusions The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows that flavonols are abundant in the leaves of M. azedarach and these compounds seem to be responsible for many of medicinal effects exploited in the traditional uses. PMID:23679992

2013-01-01

215

Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity  

PubMed Central

Background: Strychnos nux-vomica, commonly known as kuchla, contains strychnine and brucine as main constituents. Minor alkaloids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and a glycoside. Seeds are used traditionally to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and antidiabetic activity of S. nux-vomica seed. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostical characters were performed as per the WHO guideline. Extraction was carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and phytochemical constituents present in extracts were detected by different chemical tests. Among these extracts hydroalcoholic, aqueous extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity on the basis of extractive yield and phytoconstituents, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard. Results: Various analytical values of S. nux-vomica extract were established. Phytoconstituents present in S. nux-vomica extracts were detected. Conclusion: S. nux-vomica extracts show antihyperglycemic activity in experimental animals. PMID:22707864

Bhati, Rajesh; Singh, Anupama; Saharan, Vikas Anand; Ram, Veerma; Bhandari, Anil

2012-01-01

216

Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

2012-03-01

217

Characterisation of mediterranean grape pomace seed and skin extracts: polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:25642834

Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

2015-01-01

218

Facile, eco-friendly and template free photosynthesis of cauliflower like ZnO nanoparticles using leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) and its biological evolution of antibacterial and antifungal activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present investigation, we chose the very simple and eco-friendly chemical method for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) (T. indica) and developed the new green route for synthesis of nanoparticles. Formed product has been studied by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and with corresponding energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Mainly, the present results depicted that the synthesized nanoproducts are moderately stable, hexagonal phase, roughly spherical with maximum particles in size range within 19-37 nm in diameter. The antibacterial and fungal activities of aqueous extracts of T. indica were ended with corresponding disk diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The highest mean zones of inhibition were observed in the ZnO NPs (200 ?g/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus (13.1 ± 0.28). Finally, it can be concluded that microbial activity of ZnO NPs has more susceptible S. aureus than the other micro organisms. Further, the present investigation suggests that ZnO NPs has the potential applications for various medical and industrial fields.

Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Ashokkumar, S.

2015-02-01

219

Preclinical evaluation of the supercritical extract of azadirachta indica (neem) leaves in vitro and in vivo on inhibition of prostate cancer tumor growth.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin ?1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2',3'-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonimbolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonimbolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer. PMID:24674886

Wu, Qiang; Kohli, Manish; Bergen, H Robert; Cheville, John C; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Cao, Hong; Young, Charles Y F; Tindall, Donald J; McNiven, Mark A; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

2014-05-01

220

Phytochemical screening and evaluation of Monechma ciliatum (black mahlab) seed extracts as antimicrobial agents  

PubMed Central

Objective: Tribes in Nubia Mountains regions of Sudan used Monechma ciliatum seeds for common cold and other chest allergic conditions as a traditional medicine. The aim of this paper is to validate this traditional practice scientifically. Materials and Methods: Monechma ciliatum seeds were screened for major phytochemical groups using standard methods. Different extracts were bioassayed in- vitro for their bioactivity to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Results: Phytochemical screening results showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpens, and anthraquinones. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be sensitive to both water extract with zones of inhibition 22 – 26 mm at concentrations of 50 and 100mg/ml and ethanol extract 17 mm at concentration of 100 mg/ml. The growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited by ethanol extract with zones of inhibition equal to 16, 26, and 33 mm at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/ml, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to all extracts used. Similarly, all used fungi were found to be insensitive to extracts used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts against microorganisms were ranged from 12.5 to 25 mg/ml. Conclusion: The findings of the current study support the traditional uses of the plant's seed in the therapy of respiratory tract infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:25050266

Ahmed Oshi, Murtada; Mohmmed Abdelkarim, Abdelkarim

2013-01-01

221

Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

2014-09-01

222

Response surface optimization of mucilage aqueous extraction from flixweed (Descurainia sophia) seeds.  

PubMed

The effects of four factors of pH (4-8), temperature (50-95°C), weed-seed ratio (W/S, 15-45), and time (1-4 h) on the yield of mucilage extraction of Descurainia sophia seeds were investigated using response surface methodology-Box-Behnken design (RSM-BBD). Results showed that a second-order model for the studied response was adequately fitted with a coefficient of determination of 98.7% (p<0.0001). The optimum conditions to achieve the highest yield (10.45%) were extraction time of 2.9 h, extraction temperature of 94.32°C, pH of 7.55 and the W/S ratio of 44.2. The extracted mucilage at the optimal point effectively scavenged DPPH free radical, and more concentrations of this polysaccharide indicated potent antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25036599

Golalikhani, Mahshid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Khosravi, Azin

2014-09-01

223

Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).  

PubMed

This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

2011-03-15

224

Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v) and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and quinolinic acid (QA)) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 ?g/mL) and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 ?g/mL) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat's brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P < 0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications. PMID:25506036

Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Oyeleye, Idowu S.

2014-01-01

225

Effect of Black Seed Extract (Nigella sativa) on Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage of Partridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Çetin, M., Yurtseven, S., ?engiil, T. and Sögüt, B. 2008. Effect of black seed extract (Nigella sativa) on growth performance, blood parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage of partridges. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 34: 121–125.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different doses of black seed extract on fattening performance, some blood parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage

Mehmet Çetin; Sabri Yurtseven; Turgay ?engül; Bünyamin Sögüt

2008-01-01

226

Extraction of canola seed ( Brassica napus) oil using compressed propane and supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the extraction of canola seed (Brassica napus) oil using supercritical carbon dioxide and compressed propane as solvents. The extractions were performed in a laboratory scale unit at temperatures and pressures of 40, 50 and 60°C and 20, 22.5 and 25MPa for carbon dioxide and 30, 45 and 60°C and 8, 10 and 12MPa for propane

Márcia Mantovani Pederssetti; Fernando Palú; Edson Antonio da Silva; Jurandir Hillmann Rohling; Lúcio Cardozo-Filho; Cláudio Dariva

2011-01-01

227

Supercritical fluid extraction of sunflower seed oil with CO 2 -ethanol mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ethanol addition to supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), up to 20%, on sunflower seed oil extraction over the range of 150 to 350 bars and 42 to 80C was studied. A nonrecirculating\\u000a home-made bench-scale system was used as extraction equipment. The oil-SC-CO2-ethanol mixture was reduced to atmospheric pressure in a test tube, where two phases, oil and ethanol,

María José Cocero; Lourdes Calvo

1996-01-01

228

Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Oil and Protein Hydrolysates from Roasted Peanut Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of the roasting process on the extraction yield and oil quality, peanut seeds were roasted at different\\u000a temperatures (130–220 °C) for 20 min prior to the aqueous extraction of both oil and protein hydrolysates with Alcalase 2.4 L.\\u000a Roasting temperatures did not significantly affect the yields of free oil, whereas the temperature of 220 °C led to a reduced\\u000a recovery

Shao Bing Zhang; Qi Yu Lu; Hongshun Yang; Yu Li; Shuai Wang

2011-01-01

229

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

2011-01-01

230

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>?-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

2013-01-01

231

A New Seeded Region Growing Technique for Retinal Blood Vessels Extraction  

PubMed Central

Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation. PMID:25298931

Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

2014-01-01

232

EFFECTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED EXTRACT ON RUMEN FERMENTATION IN VITRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot

EM HOFFMANN; S. Muetzel; K. Becker

2003-01-01

233

Optimization of extraction, antioxidant activity and functional properties of quince seed mucilage by RSM.  

PubMed

The effect of extraction temperature (25-65°C), extraction time (5-25 min) and water to seed ratio (10:1-50:1) on yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability of quince seed mucilage was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Face Center Design with these seven factors, including central and axial points. Numerical optimization determined the optimum extraction conditions based on the highest yield, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability and the lowest protein content and turbidity as being time 5 min, temperature 65°C and water to seed ratio 25.1:1. At this optimum point, extraction yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability were found to be 11.58 (%), 2.71 (%), 068 (Å), 1473.96 (mPas), 29.88 (%), 94.89 (%) and 21.36 (%), respectively. The results demonstrated that quince seed mucilage had desirable antioxidant activity, viscosity, emulsifying and foaming properties. PMID:24556115

Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

2014-05-01

234

Dehulling of Cuphea PSR23 Seeds to Reduce Color of the Extracted Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oil extracted from the seeds Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid hybrid from C. viscosissima x C. lanceolata, by screw-pressing contained 200-360 ppm of chlorophyll. A high amount of bleaching clay was needed during refining to remove the chlorophyll in the oil. In this paper, dehu...

235

Rheological properties of Lepidium sativum seed extract as a function of concentration, temperature and time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of Lepidium sativum (Garden Cress) were selected as a new source of hydrocolloid and its chemical composition and molecular parameters were determined. The macromolecular component of the extract had a molecular weight of 540 kDa, and was nearly as rigid as xanthan with regard to chain conformation. The main rheological features were investigated as a function of shear rate,

Hojjat Karazhiyan; Seyed M. A. Razavi; Glyn O. Phillips; Yapeng Fang; Saphwan Al-Assaf; Katsuyoshi Nishinari; Reza Farhoosh

2009-01-01

236

Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

237

Nigella sativa (Black Cumin) Seed Extract Alleviates Symptoms of Allergic Diarrhea in Mice, Involving Opioid Receptors  

PubMed Central

The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa- (U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy. PMID:22768141

Duncker, Swantje C.; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

2012-01-01

238

Antihyperglycemic effect of the alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla on streptozotocin-diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Streptozotocin (STZ) selectively destroys the pancreatic insulin secreting cells, leaving less active cells and resulting in a diabetic state. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the ethanolic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla (SME) in normal and STZ-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight [BW]). Rats with glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into 5 groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered, daily with seed extract at a dosage of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and the other group was orally administered 600 ?g/kg BW glibenclamide daily. Results: Graded doses of seed extract and glibenclamide showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and improvement in serum insulin levels. The extract also improved body weight and promoted liver glycogen content. After treatment, hemoglobin (Hb) level increased and glycosylated Hb level significantly decreased in diabetic rats. The activities of the carbohydrate metabolic enzymes showed significant changes in the rats. Of the 3 doses, 100 mg dose showed maximum activity. Histological investigations of pancreas also supported the biochemical findings. Conclusions: Thus, our findings indicate the folklore use of the seed for diabetes and the mechanism seems to be insulin secretion. PMID:21731399

Kalaivanan, Kalpana; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Vishwanthan

2011-01-01

239

Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases including congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. We have demonstrated that IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) provides superior antioxidant efficacy as compared to Vitamins C, E and ?-carotene. A series of studies were

Debasis Bagchi; Chandan K Sen; Sidhartha D Ray; Dipak K Das; Manashi Bagchi; Harry G Preuss; Joe A Vinson

2003-01-01

240

In vitro azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in nutrient mist bioreactor.  

PubMed

Azadirachtin, a well-known biopesticide is a secondary metabolite conventionally extracted from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. The present study involved in vitro azadirachtin production by developing hairy roots of A. indica via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of A. indica explants. Liquid culture of hairy roots was established in shake flask to study the kinetics of growth and azadirachtin production. A biomass production of 13.3 g/L dry weight (specific growth rate of 0.7 day(-1)) was obtained after 25 days of cultivation period with an azadirachtin yield of 3.3 mg/g root biomass. To overcome the mass transfer limitation in conventionally used liquid-phase reactors, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in gas-phase reactors (nutrient spray and nutrient mist bioreactor) to investigate the possible scale-up of A. indica hairy root culture. The nano-size nutrient mist particles generated from the nozzle of the nutrient mist bioreactor could penetrate till the inner core of the inoculated root matrix, facilitating uniform growth during high-density cultivation of hairy roots. A biomass production of 9.8 g/L dry weight with azadirachtin accumulation of 2.8 mg/g biomass (27.4 mg/L) could be achieved in 25 days of batch cultivation period, which was equivalent to a volumetric productivity of 1.09 mg/L per day of azadirachtin. PMID:22083394

Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

2012-01-01

241

Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

2013-06-01

242

An enzymatic extraction of proanthocyanidins from País grape seeds and skins.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) from the skins and seeds of País grapes were obtained by enzymatic extraction by using three enzymes (pectinase, cellulase and tannase) and an enzymatic blend to increase the phenol concentrations and reduce the PA molecular size. The total phenol concentrations (as indicated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), galloylation percentage (%G) and structural proportion (phloroglucinolysis) were analysed, in addition to the extract's capacity to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On grape skins, pectinase had the greatest effective on the release of total phenols, to 0.01g/ml solid/liquid (S/L) and 1% enzyme/substrate (E/S). On grape seed, the three enzymes were effective in increasing the phenolic extraction (p<0.05). The effects of enzymes on the mDP and %G of the extracts were related to their enzymatic activity. All the extracts inhibited ACE, but ACE inhibition was thought to be improved by the increased number of terminal units in the seed samples. PMID:25172676

Fernández, Katherina; Vega, Marco; Aspé, Estrella

2015-02-01

243

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars  

PubMed Central

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

Gözlekçi, ?adiye; Saraço?lu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Özgen, Mustafa

2011-01-01

244

Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

2014-12-01

245

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars.  

PubMed

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

Gözlekçi, Sadiye; Saraço?lu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

2011-04-01

246

Anticoagulant effect of polyphenols-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Blood coagulation consists of a series of zymogens that can be converted by limited proteolysis to active enzymes leading to the generation of thrombin. Fresh plasma and human thrombin was incubated with extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5; 5; 50 ?g/ml). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts prolonged clotting time and decreased the maximal velocity of fibrin polymerization in human plasma. Moreover thrombin incubation with both extracts results in the inhibition of amidolytic activity of this enzyme. It gives hopes for development of diet supplements, which may be preventing thrombosis in pathological states. PMID:21596108

Bijak, Micha?; Bobrowski, Mateusz; Borowiecka, Marta; Pods?dek, Anna; Gola?ski, Jacek; Nowak, Pawe?

2011-09-01

247

Effect of heat treatment of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the antioxidant potential of their extracts.  

PubMed

The effect of different heat treatments of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of their hydrolyzed extracts was investigated. The results showed that total phenol contents increased in thermally treated seeds. Heat treatment affected also the quantities of individual phenolic compounds in extracts. Phenolics in unheated camelina seeds existed in bound rather than in free form. A temperature of 160 °C was required for release of insoluble bound phenolics, whereas lower temperatures were found to be optimal to liberate those present as soluble conjugates. The best reducing power and alkyl peroxyl radical scavenging activity in the emulsion was expressed by phenolics which were bound to the cell wall, whereas the best iron chelators and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavengers were found to be those present in free form. The heat treatment of seeds up to 120 °C increased the reducing power and DPPH• radical scavenging ability of extracts, but negatively affected iron chelating ability and their activity in an emulsion against alkyl peroxyl radicals. PMID:21744787

Terpinc, Petra; Polak, Tomaz; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abramovic, Helena

2011-08-24

248

Experimental antithrombotic effects of sesame seed whole grains and extracts.  

PubMed

Prevention of arterial thrombotic diseases has a high priority in developed countries. An inappropriate diet is known to enhance the risks for acute thrombotic events, and nutritional products experimentally shown to be antithrombotic, might contribute beneficial effects. The present study forms part of a series of investigations into the antithrombotic effect of various foods and vegetables. Roasted and crushed whole grains from six varieties of sesame seeds were added to the diet of mice. Antithrombotic activity was measured in the carotid artery in vivo, using a He-Ne laser-induced thrombosis technique after 12 weeks. Col/Chichibu/Maruteru-2/1995 and T016 varieties showed significant antithrombotic activity, whilst 00037803 was prothrombotic. The acute effects of purified ingredients, sesamin, sesamolin and sesamol, given orally or intra-arterially, were also examined after a single dose. The most effective ingredient was sesamol, followed by sesamolin and sesamin. Daily intake of specific antithrombotic sesame whole grains or purified active ingredients might help to prevent atherothrombotic diseases. PMID:21577091

Kinugasa, Chifumi; Naemura, Aki; Hyodo, Kanae; Nakai, Yoshiki; Katsuta, Masumi; Yamamoto, Junichiro

2011-09-01

249

Bioinspired reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using Terminalia chebula seeds extract.  

PubMed

A green one step facile synthesis of graphene nanosheets by Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) extract mediated reduction of graphite oxide (GO) is reported in this work. This method avoids the use of harmful toxic reducing agents. The comparative results of various characterizations of GO and T. chebula reduced graphene oxide (TCG) provide a strong indication of the exclusion of oxygen containing groups from graphene oxide and successive stabilization of the formed reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with the oxidized polyphenols causes their stability by preventing the aggregation. We also have proposed how the oxidized polyphenols are accountable for the stabilization of the formed graphene sheets. PMID:25770934

Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Pamanji, Sreedhara Reddy

2015-06-15

250

Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.  

PubMed

In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs. PMID:19904502

Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

2010-04-01

251

Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.  

PubMed

Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

2014-08-01

252

Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.  

PubMed

In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 °C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ?100 °C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation. PMID:25053062

Ravber, Matej; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

2015-01-01

253

Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

2012-01-01

254

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria] [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

1999-08-01

255

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

2011-01-01

256

Reproductive toxicity of Momordica charantia ethanol seed extracts in male rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Momordica charantia (M. charantia) seed has been supposed to have an antifertility property but mechanisms underlying the infertility effect have not been investigated. Objective: We investigated the antifertility effect of M. charantia ethanol seed extracts on reproductive toxicology and seminal and plasma testosterone in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The control group (I) was provided daily 1 ml dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the experimental groups II and III were given daily 400 and 800 mg dry matter/kg body weight of the extracts dissolved in 1 ml DMSO via the esophageal route. All groups were administered for 42 days (day 42). Changes in body weight, fertility, reproductive characteristics, testicular histopathology and levels of seminal and plasma testosterone among three groups were compared. Results: On day 42, the extracts caused antifertility (p=0.001). The extracts demonstrated significant reductions in diameters of seminiferous tubules and epididymides, spermatid density, daily sperm production and caudal epididymal spermatozoa, sperm motility and viability (p=0.046). Pathological changes in seminiferous tubules revealed atrophy, desquamation, pyknosis nucleus and multinucleated giant cell. Plasma cells were evident in three parts of epididymides of rats treated with high dose of the extract. Furthermore, the high dose of the extract suppressed seminal testosterone level (p=0.001) and plasma testosterone level (p=0.002). Conclusion: Our data showed that high dose of M. Charantia seed extracts caused infertility in male rats. The interruption in their fertility was probably attributed to the direct toxic to seminiferous tubules, epididymis and the lowered testosterone level which might impact on sperm parameters. PMID:25469128

Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Ploypattarapinyo, Ravicha; Pongchairerk, Urai; Thong-asa, Wachiryah

2014-01-01

257

A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract.  

PubMed

Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation. We report a case of intoxication following intentional ingestion of P. harmala seed infusion; P. harmala seeds were bought over the Internet. The harmala alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the seed extract and the patient's urine. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of P. harmala intoxication corroborated by toxicological findings. PMID:18603389

Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Zancanaro, Flavio; Fazzin, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

2008-08-01

258

Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

2011-01-01

259

The impact of seed extraction on the population dynamics of Pinus maximartinezii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 × 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (?) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, ? decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on ?. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.

López-Mata, Lauro

2013-05-01

260

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

261

Effect of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) extracts on blood glucose level of normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic extracts of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) on blood glucose levels both in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Treatment with both extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level in STZ diabetic rats during the first three hours of treatment. L. aegyptiaca extract decreased blood glucose

Fathy K. El-Fiky; Mohamed A. Abou-Karam; Elham A. Afify

1996-01-01

262

Attenuation of diabetic disorders in experimentally induced diabetic rat by methanol extract of seed of Holarrhena antidysenterica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of methanol extract of seed of Holarrhena antidysenterica in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Extract was administered orally at a dose of 400 mg \\/ kg body weight \\/ day for 21 days, to STZ-induced diabetic rats. The fasting blood glucose level was decreased significantly after the treatment of methanolic extract

Kazi Monjur Ali; Tushar Kanti Bera; Suvra Mandal; Bikash Ranjan Barik; Debidas Ghosh

263

Optimised amylases extraction from oat seeds and its impact on bread properties.  

PubMed

Statistical approaches were employed for the optimisation of the extraction of amylolytic activity from oat (Avena sativa) seeds. The application of the response surface methodology allows us to determine a set of optimal conditions (ratio seed weight/buffer volume 0.1, germination days 10 days, temperature 20 °C and pH 5.6). Experiments carried out under these conditions led to amylase production yield of 91 U/g. Its maximal activity was in the pH 5.6 and at 55 °C. Study of the incorporation of the optimised oat extract into the bread formulation revealed an improvement of the sensory quality and the textural properties of fresh and stored bread. Three-dimensional elaborations of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) images were performed on crumb of the different breads to evaluate the influence of amylase activity on microstructure. The result showed improved baking characteristics as well as overall microscopic and macroscopic appearance. PMID:25453287

Ben Halima, Nihed; Borchani, Maha; Fendri, Imen; Khemakhem, Bassem; Gosset, David; Baril, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Ayadi, Mohamed-Ali; Abdelkafi, Slim

2015-01-01

264

Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (?) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32?mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15?mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73??g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51??g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9?µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

2013-01-01

265

Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract  

PubMed Central

Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification). Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and Methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification without affecting its therapeutic potential. PMID:25336846

Dhoble, Sagar B.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

2014-01-01

266

Effects of processing on oxidative stability of sesame oil extracted from intact and dehulled seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stability of oils extracted from intact and dehulled sesame seeds was determined by monitoring changes in fatty\\u000a acid composition, iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene (CD), para-anisidine value (p-AV), and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy after storage under Schaal oven\\u000a conditions at 65C for up to 35 d. The oils from coated

H. A. Abou-Gharbia; F. Shahidi; A. Adel; Y. Shehata; M. M. Youssef

1997-01-01

267

Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty heavily lice-infested male and female children (4–15 years) were selected and subjected to the treatment with a neem seed extract shampoo. Twenty to thirty milliliter of the shampoo were thoroughly mixed with completely wet hair and rubbed in to reach the skin of the scalp. After 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, the shampoo was washed out and the hair basically

Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Margit Semmler

2007-01-01

268

Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aegle marmelos Corr. (Rutaceae) is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos seeds was administered orally at different doses (100, 250 and 500mg\\/kg) to normal as well as sub (fasting blood glucose (FBG) normal; glucose tolerance abnormal) and mild (FBG 120–250mg\\/dl) diabetic rats. The dose of 250mg\\/kg was found

Achyut Narayan Kesari; Rajesh Kumar Gupta; Santosh Kumar Singh; Sandhya Diwakar; Geeta Watal

2006-01-01

269

Prevention of aortic lesions and hyperlipidaemia by alfalfa seed extract in cholesterol fed rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract of alfalfa seed (ethanolic 50 % v\\/v) prevents the development of plaque formation and hyperlipidaemia in cholesterol\\u000a fed rabbits. It inhibits the elevation of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL-cholesterol and total\\u000a cholesterol\\/phospholipid ratio, while HDL-cholesterol\\/total cholesterol ratio increases, which is associated with a reduced\\u000a incidence of atherosclerosis. Further reduction in total cholesterol and phospholipid contents of liver and

V. P. Dixit; S. C. Joshi; Prabha Jain

1986-01-01

270

Effect of grape seed extract on puromycin-aminonucleoside-induced nephrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that an excessive production of oxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of glomerular disease. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a potent antioxidant, and the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate its effect on puromycin-aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced nephrosis in rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 rats received water

Tej K. Mattoo; Larisa Kovacevic

2003-01-01

271

Anti-microbial effect of Nigella sativa seed extract against staphylococcal skin Infection  

PubMed Central

Background: The development of microbial resistance to the existing anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious problem facing patients suffering from skin infections. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine for the treatment of skin infections. Production of new potent agents is urgently needed, especially for hospitals and health care centers. This study is designed to explore anti-microbial effect of extract from the Nigella sativa seeds against skin pustules infection. Methods: The in vivo anti-microbial effect of the Nigella sativa seeds extract at a concentration of 33% on pustules staphylococcal Skin Infections was assessed and compared with standard drug mupirocin on 40 neonates .All neonates were divided and examined into two experimental and control groups randomly. Recovery times were compared between two groups. Results: The mean of recovery time in experimental group was 75/1 with SD= ± 12, and the mean of recovery time in control group was 69/4 with SD = ± 8/7.There was no significant difference in recovery time between two groups (p value = 0/131). Conclusion: In clinical practice, the agent of Nigella Sativa recovered as pustular from tissues of all patients. While the extract was as nearly effective as the standard drug, mupirocin, no side effect was observed. PMID:25405108

Rafati, Shiva; Niakan, Mohammad; Naseri, Mohsen

2014-01-01

272

Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi (black Zeera) seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants play a key role in preventing various diseases. Hyperlipidemia is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. 2% cholesterol diet were given to rats for six weeks and rats showed high lipid levels were included in the study. Then all rats were divided into, normal control group (A), hyperlipidemia positive control group (B), and the remaining two groups (C and D) served as experimental groups. Group C hyperlipidemic experimental rats received aqueous dried extract of Carum carvi seeds at 60 mg/kg of body weight for eight weeks on daily basis. On the other hand group D rats received simvastatin at 1.0 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Blood samples were collected after eight weeks. The hyperlipidemic positive control group rats showed variable increase in serum triglycerides, LDL and total cholesterol levels. Serum HDL levels decreased in hyperlipidemic positive control groups. Carum carvi and simvastatin significantly decreased the levels of these parameters in rats. On comparison Carum carvi reduced lipid levels more, effectively than the simvastatin. Carum carvi constituents, especially flavonoids and carvone have strong anti-oxidant activity which might be involved in hypolipidemia. In conclusion, Carum carvi aqueous seeds extract decrease lipid levels in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:22459457

Saghir, Muhammad Rashad; Sadiq, Soban; Nayak, Salma; Tahir, Muhammad Usman

2012-04-01

273

Phenolic compounds from the edible seeds extract of Chinese Mei ( Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc) and their antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prunus mume seeds have been used as a healthy food and traditional drug in China. The present study investigated the phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract from seeds of P. mume. Total phenolic content was determined as gallic acid equivalents by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The antibacterial activity was measured by a filter paper disc method. Three chlorogenic acid

Daozong Xia; Xiaoqin Wu; Jiayi Shi; Qing Yang; Ying Zhang

2011-01-01

274

Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

275

Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of ?-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit ?-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

2012-09-12

276

Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections. PMID:23569812

Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

2011-01-01

277

The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as ?Eq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co ?-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with ?-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Fori?, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

2009-05-01

278

Suitability of dyed latex bead agglutination test for immunodiagnosis of Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) teliospores in a single seed of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunodiagnosticum for this test was prepared extempore by mixing blue color dyed latex beads (1% suspension) with equal volume of diluted anti-teliospore serum. This test was considered to be better for the detection of solubilized teliosporic antigens over intact teliospores of Karnal bunt. The teliosporic antigens solubilized using sonication and detergent extraction were used for the standardization of the

R. Kesari; D. P. Mishra; G. K. Garg; A. Kumar

2005-01-01

279

Some physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil extracted using solvent and aqueous enzymatic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical properties of oil from Moringa oleifera seed were determined following extraction either with petroleum ether or 2% Neutrase 0.8L (a neutral bacterial protease from Bacillus amyloiquefaciens, Novozyme Bagsvaerd Denmark). The enzyme was chosen following a preliminary study conducted on the enzymatic extraction of M. oleifera seed oil using four commercial enzymes that showed Neutrase to be the best

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2005-01-01

280

LiDAR Segmentation using Suitable Seed Points for 3D Building Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective building detection and roof reconstruction has an influential demand over the remote sensing research community. In this paper, we present a new automatic LiDAR point cloud segmentation method using suitable seed points for building detection and roof plane extraction. Firstly, the LiDAR point cloud is separated into "ground" and "non-ground" points based on the analysis of DEM with a height threshold. Each of the non-ground point is marked as coplanar or non-coplanar based on a coplanarity analysis. Commencing from the maximum LiDAR point height towards the minimum, all the LiDAR points on each height level are extracted and separated into several groups based on 2D distance. From each group, lines are extracted and a coplanar point which is the nearest to the midpoint of each line is considered as a seed point. This seed point and its neighbouring points are utilised to generate the plane equation. The plane is grown in a region growing fashion until no new points can be added. A robust rule-based tree removal method is applied subsequently to remove planar segments on trees. Four different rules are applied in this method. Finally, the boundary of each object is extracted from the segmented LiDAR point cloud. The method is evaluated with six different data sets consisting hilly and densely vegetated areas. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method offers a high building detection and roof plane extraction rates while compared to a recently proposed method.

Abdullah, S. M.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

2014-08-01

281

Evaluation of a ruminally dosed tall fescue seed extract as a model for fescue toxicosis in steers.  

PubMed

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) toxicosis research is often complicated by a reduction in intake of infected forage or seed, making treatment comparisons difficult. This study was conducted to develop a fescue toxicosis model that would allow for variations in DMI without altering the quantity of alkaloids consumed over the course of the experiment. Ground tall fescue seed and a tall fescue seed extract were used in two 2-period crossover experiments to determine the effectiveness of ruminal dosing of a tall fescue seed extract to induce fescue toxicosis. This experiment used 4 growing Holstein steers (BW = 337 ± 24 kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Steers were maintained on a diet of endophyte-free fescue hay fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Endophyte-infected (E+; 4.1 mg/kg of ergovaline) and uninfected (E-; 0.0 mg/kg of ergovaline) KY-31 tall fescue seed was ground and dosed or extracted with ethanol, concentrated, and lyophilized before ruminal dosing. Ergovaline concentration of the final extract was 102 mg/kg. Animals were given a minimum of a 3-wk washout period between treatments. Physiological indicators were measured over 7 d at 22°C (d 1 to 3) and 32°C (d 4 to 7) during both seed and extract dosing. Seed and extract E+ dosing reduced serum prolactin concentrations such that they were not different from zero (P < 0.10). Treatment with E+ reduced feed intake (P < 0.05) and heart rate (P < 0.001), and increased respiration rate (P < 0.01) and core temperature (P < 0.05) during both seed and extract dosing. Increasing environmental temperature from 22 to 32°C reduced total intake (P < 0.05) and increased core temperature (P < 0.001) and respiration rate (P < 0.001) during both seed and extract dosing. Diastolic blood pressure tended (P < 0.09) to be increased during E+ extract dosing and reduced during heat stress. These physiological alterations are consistent with those reported for cattle grazing or consuming seed from endophyte-infected tall fescue. These data indicate that a ruminally dosed ethanol extract of tall fescue seed is efficacious in inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. PMID:22064740

Koontz, A F; Bush, L P; Klotz, J L; McLeod, K R; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

2012-03-01

282

The antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of dietary phenolic extracts from horse gram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total phenolics and the antioxidative properties of two varieties of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) were studied. The raw and dry-heated seed samples were extracted successively with methanol and 70% acetone separately. After removing the solvents, the extracts were freeze-dried. The black seeds contained relatively high levels of total phenolics and tannins than the brown seeds with respect to the treatments

Perumal Siddhuraju; Sellamuthu Manian

2007-01-01

283

Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2?000 µg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 µg/mL as compared to 1.1 µg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant. PMID:23570014

Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Belkacem, Nacera; Kadiata, Marcel; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

2013-01-01

284

Ultrasound-assisted Soxhlet extraction: an expeditive approach for solid sample treatment. Application to the extraction of total fat from oleaginous seeds.  

PubMed

Conventional Soxhlet extraction assisted in the cartridge by ultrasound has been developed and used to extract the total fat content from oleaginous seeds such as sunflower, rape and soybean seeds. The application of ultrasound to the sample cartridge enormously decreases the number of Soxhlet extraction cycles needed for quantitative extraction of the fat, thus reducing the extraction time at least to half the time needed by the conventional procedures. The results agree well with those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction and the ISO reference method, both in terms of efficiency and precision. The repeatability of the proposed approach, expressed as relative standard deviation, was 0.9%; the within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.3%. Qualitative analysis of the extracted fat showed that the application of ultrasound does not change the composition of the oil. PMID:15116936

Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

2004-04-23

285

Antithrombin effect of polyphenol-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Thrombin is a serine protease that cleaves the peptide bonds in proteins located on the carboxyl side of arginine. Thrombin plays a central role in thromboembolic diseases, which are the major cause of mortality. The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of plant extracts on proteolytic properties of thrombin. Thrombin was incubated with polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5, 5, 50 µg/mL) and with polyphenols ((+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, cyanidin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, quercetin). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts in all used concentrations inhibited proteolytic activity of thrombin observed as inhibition of thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization, stabilized fibrin formation, and platelet aggregation. Moreover, thrombin amidolytic activity was inhibited by polyphenols belonging to the flavonoid class. Results presented in this study indicate that polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of A.?melanocarpa and seeds of V.?vinifera may become promising dietary supplements in the prevention of thrombotic states. PMID:22473647

Bijak, Micha?; Saluk, Joanna; Ponczek, Micha? B?a?ej; Nowak, Pawe?

2013-01-01

286

In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds  

PubMed Central

Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

2012-01-01

287

In vitro antilisterial properties of crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.  

PubMed

Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

2012-01-01

288

Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural pigment from annatto seeds by response surface methodology (RSM).  

PubMed

The present study reports on the extraction of natural pigment from annatto seeds. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Four independent variables including temperature (20-80°C), sonication time (2-10 min), duty cycle (0.2-0.8s) and the ratio of seeds to the solvent (5-20%) were studied. According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with a temperature of 72.7°C, extraction time of 7.25 min, the ratio of seed to solvent of 14% and duty cycle of 0.8s. At these conditions, extraction yield determined as 6.35% and the absorbance value as 0.865%. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values, which suggested UAE is more efficient process as compared to conventional extraction. PMID:24594191

Yolmeh, Mahmoud; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Farhoosh, Reza

2014-07-15

289

Blood pressure lowering, vasodilator and cardiac-modulatory potential of Carum roxburghianum seed extract.  

PubMed

In current study, we describe blood pressure (BP)-lowering, endothelium-dependent, and independent vasodilator and cardio-modulatory actions of Carum roxburghianum seed. The crude extract of C. roxburghianum seed (Cr.Cr) induced dose-dependent (10-100?mg/kg) fall in arterial BP of anaesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta, Cr.Cr (0.3-10?mg/mL) inhibited high K(+) (80?mM) and phenylephrine (PE, 1?µM)-induced contractions, like verapamil and papaverine. In endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations, N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-sensitive vasodilator activity was observed with Cr.Cr, which also relaxed endothelium-denuded aorta tissues. In guinea-pig atria, Cr.Cr initially caused mild cardiac stimulation, followed by inhibition, as shown by papaverine. These results reveal that cardiovascular effects of C. roxburghianum seed extract are mediated possibly through combination of Ca(++) antagonist, nitric oxide modulating and phosphodiesterase inhibitory mechanisms, though further in-depth studies are required for elucidating precise mode of action. PMID:24785464

Khan, Munasib; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Rehman, Najeeb-Ur-; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

2015-01-01

290

Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.  

PubMed

In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (?3) and omega-6 (?6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ?3 (linolenic acid) and ?6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. PMID:24909999

Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

2014-09-01

291

Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid ?-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons  

PubMed Central

AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid ? (A?) peptide. A? is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds’ aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on A? (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against A?-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on A?-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in A?-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from A? treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the A?-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against A?-mediated cell death. PMID:23833520

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

2013-01-01

292

Protection from antimycin A-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by Nelumbo nucifera seed extracts.  

PubMed

Antimycin A (AMA) damages the mitochondria through inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport. In this study, exposure of L6 rat skeletal muscle cells to AMA induced a decrease in ATP content, followed by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis. We evaluated the protective effects of water and ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds on L6 cells with AMA-induced oxidative stress. We found that the extracts reduced cellular apoptosis; preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential; protected mitochondrial ATP production; inhibited p53, Bax, and caspase 3 activities; and induced Bcl-2 production. Our results suggested that AMA induced apoptosis in L6 cells via impairment of mitochondrial function. N. nucifera extracts protected the cells from this mitochondria-mediated cell death. PMID:23542413

Im, A-Rang; Kim, Young-Hwa; Uddin, Md Romij; Chae, Seong Wook; Lee, Hye Won; Jung, Woo Suk; Kim, Yun Hee; Kang, Bong Ju; Kim, Yeong Shik; Lee, Mi-Young

2013-07-01

293

High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 ?g/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 ?g/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance. PMID:23067263

Körpe, Didem Aksoy; ??er?, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

2013-05-01

294

Anxiolytic and hyperlocomotive effects of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds in rats.  

PubMed

Use of the herbal drugs increasing all over the world due to its minimum side effect. Nigella sativa black seeds used in folk medicine for the promotion of good health and for the treatment of many diseases .The present study is designed to investigate the neurochemical and behavioral effect of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds in rats. Neurochemical studies were performed for DA and DOPAC levels in whole rats' brain. Locomotive behavior was observed in novel environment and familiar environment. Elevated plus maze and light dark behavioral modules were used to monitor anxiety in rats. The oral administration of AENS for six weeks increased time spent in open arm of elevated plus maze and light compartment in light dark box. Increased locomotors activity in novel environment (open field) was noticed suggesting that increased in DA level may be related to increased locomotive activity in rats. PMID:25176249

Bano, Farhat; Ahmed, Afrinah; Parveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

2014-09-01

295

Mathematical modeling of sunflower seed extraction by supercritical CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Extraction of oil from crushed sunflower seeds with supercritical CO{sub 2} was performed at 280 bar and 40 C on a laboratory apparatus of 0.15 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} volume and on a pilot plant of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} volume. CO{sub 2} flow rate ranged between 5 and 45 kg/h. To study the influence of the vegetable matrix on the extraction rate, a re-extraction experiment on the extraction product was also performed on the pilot scale apparatus. A mathematical model of the supercritical extraction process was developed on the basis of the experimental evidence. The equilibrium between the solids and the fluid phase appeared to be the controlling step during the extraction process. A simplified form of a sigmoidal-shaped equilibrium curve was adopted to fit the experimental data in the whole range of CO{sub 2} flow rates explored. The meaning of this nonlinear equilibrium relationship was also discussed.

Perrut, M.; Clavier, J.Y. [Separex, Champigneulles (France)] [Separex, Champigneulles (France); Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare

1997-02-01

296

Extracts of phenolic compounds from seeds of three wild grapevines-comparison of their antioxidant activities and the content of phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS WERE EXTRACTED FROM THREE WILD GRAPEVINE SPECIES: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH(•) anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds- while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent. PMID:22489161

Weidner, Stanis?aw; Powa?ka, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

297

Extraction, purification, and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata).  

PubMed

Protease inhibitors against trypsin were extracted from cowpea seeds, purified, and characterized. After the seed powder was defatted with hexane, the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was extracted with 0.15 M NaCl for 30 min. The crude extracts were then heated at 90°C for 10 min, followed by precipitation with 40-65% saturation ammonium sulfate, by which the protein purity increased approximately 15-fold. The CpTI had approximate 88-fold and 186-fold purification after anion-exchange chromatography (Super-Q) and gel filtration (Sephadex G-200), respectively. A broad band of the purified CpTI on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicates a degree of heterogeneity and partial denaturation of CpTI, having a molecular mass of ?8000 kD. Multiple peaks between 7451 and 8898 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy also suggest heterogeneity. The purified CpTI was stable at 90°C for 60 min, pH 5-10, and 0-3.0% of NaCl. The purification method described here can be used to obtain highly purified CpTI for its studies such as risk assessment of CpTI genetically modified foods. PMID:24117148

Wang, Jia; Li, Xiaona; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Hao; Liu, Jing; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

2014-01-01

298

Interfacial properties and fluorescence of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds and its interaction with sodium dodecyl sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surfactant behaviour of aqueous coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds has been investigated by surface tension measurements. The interaction of the coagulant protein with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) has been monitored by surface tension and intrinsic protein fluorescence measurements. The extracted protein shows some weak surface activity at low concentrations. To achieve maximum surface activity

R. Maikokera; H. M. Kwaambwa

2007-01-01

299

Modulation of quorum sensing controlled behaviour of bacteria by growing seedling, seed and seedling extracts of leguminous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of growing seedling, seeds and seedlings extracts from seven leguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo, Cajanus cajan, Lentil culinaris, Cicer arietinum and Trigonella foenum graecum) were screened for their ability to influence quorum sensing controlled pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum indicator strains (CV12472 and CVO26). Germinating seedling and seedling extracts of only P. sativum (pea) showed inhibition

Qaseem Fatima; Maryam Zahin; Mohd Sajjad Ahmad Khan; Iqbal Ahmad

2010-01-01

300

Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

301

In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Daucus carota seeds in experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the In vivo antioxidFant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Daucus carota (D. carota) seeds in experimental animals. Methods Methanolic extracts of D. carota seeds is used for hepatoprotection assessment. Oxidative stress were induced in rats by thioacetamide 100 mg/kg s.c, in four groups of rats (two test, standard and toxic control). Two test groups received D. carota seeds extract (DCSE) at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Standard group received silymarin (25 mg/kg) and toxic control received only thioacetamide. Control group received only vehicle. On the 8th day animals were sacrificed and liver enzyme like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in blood serum and antioxidant enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated in liver homogenate. Results A significant decrease in SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels was observed in all drug treated groups as compared to thioacetamide group (P < 0.001) and in case of antioxidant enzyme a significant (P < 0.001) increase in SOD, CAT, GRD, GPX and GST was observed in all drug treated groups as compared with thioacetamide group. But in case of LPO a significant (P < 0.001) reduction was observed as compared to toxic control group. Conclusions DCSE has contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and the protection of liver in experimental rats. PMID:23569935

Singh, Kamlesh; Singh, Nisha; Chandy, Anish; Manigauha, Ashish

2012-01-01

302

The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume.  

PubMed

We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24425949

Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Tze, Liong Min; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

2013-06-01

303

Chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Although cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent, is used in the treatment of cancer owing to its broad-spectrum efficacy, its metabolites exhibit severe undesired toxicities in normal cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Rodents were orally pre-treated with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) for five consecutive days. On 5th day, these animals were injected with CP (50 mg/kg i.p) and sacrificed after 24 hrs. for the evaluation of oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, micronucleus formation, and chromosomal aberrations. Results: We found that the CP significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased catalase and glutathione (GSH) levels in brain, and it was significantly reversed by Coccinia indica extract (400 and 600 mg/kg). Further, pre-treatment with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced micronuclei formation and incidence of aberrant cells. We also found that the CP-induced increase in the serum biomarker enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced by Coccinia indica extract. Conclusion: Thus, the present results indicate the protective effect of Coccinia indica extract against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, as well as hepatotoxicity. PMID:24130387

Nitharwal, Ramesh K; Patel, Hasit; Karchuli, Manvendra Singh; Ugale, Rajesh Ramesh

2013-01-01

304

Adverse effects by artificial grapefruit seed extract products in patients on warfarin therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The aim of this\\u000a study was to investigate the composition of some commercially available GSE products and evaluate their effect in vitro on\\u000a two cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A couple on lifelong treatment with warfarin and continuous regular follow-ups took some drops of

Helena Brandin; Olle Myrberg; Torgny Rundlöf; Ann-Kristin Arvidsson; Gunilla Brenning

2007-01-01

305

A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds.  

PubMed

The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (lambda(max)=343+ or -2nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in the tryptophan fluorescence above pH 9 whereas the ionic strength had minimal effect. The exposure and environments of the tryptophan residue were determined using collisional quenchers. PMID:17646090

Kwaambwa, H M; Maikokera, R

2007-11-15

306

Docynia indica, Docynia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Docynia (Docynia indica [Well.] Decne, Rosaceae) is native to southeast Asia, from Vietnam through India and north into central China. While generally referred to as Docynia i...

307

In vitro lethal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seed on hydatid cyst protoscoleces  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): There are several scolicidal agents for inactivation of hydatid cyst protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects such as sclerosing cholangitis and liver necrosis. The present study was aimed to evaluate scolicidal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seeds against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst in an in vitro model. Materials and Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of the different extracts of N. sativa (5 to 50 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results: The findings exhibited that methanolic extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 10 min of incubation, and aqueous extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation can kill 100% of protoscoleces. In addition, all of experiments revealed dose-dependent and also time-dependent scolicidal effect of various extracts of N. sativa on the protoscoleces of hydatid cyst. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that N. sativa may be a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be required to evaluate scolicidal effects of N. sativa in the in vivo model.

Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Asadi, Arash; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Sharififar, Fariba; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Dezaki, Ebrahimm Saedi

2014-01-01

308

Biocide activity of Annona coriacea seeds extract on Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).  

PubMed

The use of synthetic insecticides for insect control may lead to different kind of problems, such as vector resistance to insecticides. To avoid these problems, a new research area to study botanical products as possible disease vectors controls, has become a feasible alternative. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biocide activity of the ethanol extract of seeds of Annona coriacea on Rhodnius neglectus (Chagas disease vector) nymphs and adults. For this, different concentrations extracts were evaluated: 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/ mL, and water in DMSO (20%) was used as control. The experimental design was completely randomized and we conducted the bioassay with nymphs and adults, with 10 nymphs and 10 adults (five males and five females) per treatment. Extract action was evaluated in both bioassays, in order to identify possible effects of mortality and life cycle interruption of nymphs and adults during a 28-day-period. The results obtained showed that the extract of A. coriacea was able to disrupt the development of nymphs and adults of R. neglectus, with a mortality rate of more than 90%, 36% and 100%, at the highest concentrations, respectively. There was also molting inhibition in nymphs, lower reproductive capacity in females, feeding deterrence and morphological changes in nymphs and adults. We concluded that the extract of A. coriacea has insecticide action on nymphs and adults of R. neglectus. PMID:23894992

Carneirol, Angela Pinheiro; Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa; Galbiati, Carla

2013-03-01

309

Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile components from Bunium persicum Boiss. (black cumin) and Mespilus germanica L. (medlar) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile constituents of black cumin and medlar seeds were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 16 compounds accounting for 99.36% of the black cumin supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) extracts were identified. ?-terpinene (37.98%), cuminaldehyde (11.48%) and ?-methyl-benzenemethanol (25.55%) were the major compounds identified in black cumin. The SFE method has

Seied Mahdi Pourmortazavi; Modjtaba Ghadiri; Seiedeh Somayyeh Hajimirsadeghi

2005-01-01

310

Effect of Temperature and Pressure on the Extraction Yield of Oil from Sunflower Seed with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunflower seed oil was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide in a semi-continuous flow extractor with the temperature range 313-343 K and the pressure range 20-40 MPa. The extraction rates increased with pressure at each temperature, but decreased with temperature increase up to about 28 MPa. After this pressure, higher temperature favored the extraction rate because of the competitive effects of

Bhupesh C. Roy; M. Sasaki; M. Goto

2006-01-01

311

Comparison of proanthocyanidins in commercial antioxidants: grape seed and pine bark extracts.  

PubMed

The major constituents in grape seed and pine bark extracts are proanthocyanidins. To evaluate material available to consumers, select lots were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC/MS was used to identify monomers, dimers, and trimers present. GC/MS analyses led to the identification of ethyl esters of hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, as well as smaller phenolic and terpene components. The GPC molecular weight (MW) distribution indicated components ranging from approximately 162 to approximately 5500 MW (pine bark less than 1180 MW and grape seed approximately 1180 to approximately 5000 MW). MALDI-TOF MS analyses showed that pine bark did not contain oligomers with odd numbers of gallate units and grape seed contained oligomers with both odd and even numbers of gallate. Reflectron MALDI-TOF MS identified oligomers up to a pentamer and heptamer, and linear MALDI-TOF MS showed a mass range nearly double that of reflectron analyses. PMID:17199326

Weber, Holly A; Hodges, Andrew E; Guthrie, Jill R; O'Brien, Brandon M; Robaugh, David; Clark, Alice P; Harris, Roger K; Algaier, Joseph W; Smith, Cynthia S

2007-01-10

312

Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts.  

PubMed

Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi recorded on each crop by the blotter test. Six essential oils of plants were investigated for their inhibitory activity against eight pathogenic fungi. Thirty four and 27 fungal species were found in seed samples of sorghum and pearl millet, respectively. Phoma sp. and Fusarium moniliforme infected 95 to 100% of the seed samples of both sorghum and pearl millet. Sphacelotheca sorghi and Tolyposporium ehrenbergii were encountered in respectively, 75 and 33% of seed samples of sorghum. T. penicillariae, Sclerospora graminicola and Claviceps fusiformis were present in 88, 41 and 32% of seed samples of pearl millet, respectively. Seeds inoculated with Acremonium strictum, Curvularia oryzae, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans and sown in sterilized soil, showed considerable mortality of the seedlings. Three essential oils inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of all the fungi used by 85 to 100% and reduced significantly sorghum and pearl millet seed infection rates of Phoma sp., Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum graminicola and Exserohilum sp. Presence of many pathogenic fungi in considerable number of seed samples indicates the need of field surveys for these and other pathogens. Development of plant extracts for the control of seed-borne pathogens and public awareness on seed-borne diseases management measures for maintaining quality seed should be increased. PMID:18817152

Zida, Pawindé Elisabeth; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke; Sankara, Philippe; Somda, Irénée; Néya, Adama

2008-02-01

313

Development of phytovesicles containing triterpenoids from Samadera indica  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Samadera indica belonging to Simaroubaceae family is being used traditionally for many diseases including arthritis, edema, itching, skin diseases, constipation, and general debility. Objective: The effectiveness of any drug delivery system depends upon its ability to deliver the active components at therapeutic level. In this study, a novel phyto vesicular formulation for the enhanced topical delivery of methanol extract of S. indica in order to treat skin infections was developed. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract fraction of leaves of S. indica which showed more antifungal activity was purified to separate an antifungal compound. Phytovesicles were formulated using the more antifungal fraction in order to treat topical and deep seated fungal infections. Pytovesicles were prepared using 1:2 molar ratio of antifungal triterpenoid from S. indica (AFTSI)-phosphatidylcholine by film hydration method. Results and Discussion: Chloroform 100% fraction of methanol extract of S. indica showed more activity against the fungus Candida albicans. Further purification gave a fraction with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 15.6 mg/ml against C. albicans and showed positive test for triterpenoids. The fraction was named as AFTSI. A compound (20 mg) was isolated from this fraction at an RF value. The phytovesicle gel formulated using AFTSI showed enhanced skin permeability and antifungal activity. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the phytovesicular gel developed using methanol extract of S. indica would be beneficial for treating deep seated fungal infections.

Viswanad, Vidya; Zachariah, Subin Mary; Sathi, Aiswarya; Aleykutty, N.A.

2015-01-01

314

Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

2014-01-01

315

Anticonvulsant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Seed Extract of Croton Tiglium in Rats and Mice  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of hydro-alcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium in rats and mice. Materials and Methods: Forty -eight each of rats and mice of either sex were randomised into four groups and subjected to seizures induced by electroconvulsiometer and pentylenetetrazole. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium (250 and 500mg/kg) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect using sodium valproate (200mg/kg) as standard and distilled water as control. The parameters observed were time for onset of HLE (Hind Limb Extension) and duration of HLE in electrically induced seizures, and time for onset of convulsions and duration of convulsions in chemically induced seizures. Mortality of the animals over 24 hours was observed in both the models. For testing statistical significance between various groups unpaired student t-test was used. Observations and Results: In electrically induced seizures croton tiglium produced dose dependant prolongation of time for onset of HLE and a reduction in duration of HLE and in chemically induced convulsions, it prolonged time for onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of convulsions indicating its anticonvulsant effect in both models. However, anticonvulsant effect was less compared to sodium valproate. There was a higher percentage of mortality in croton tiglium group in chemically induced convulsions when compared to sodium valproate. Conclusion: Croton tiglium has dose dependant anticonvulsant effect in electrically induced seizures, while in pentylenetetrazole induced-seizures the protection is very minimal. PMID:24783071

Mudium, Raghunandan; Kolasani, Bhanuprakash

2014-01-01

316

Preventive Effects of Pomegranate Seed Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rat  

PubMed Central

Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and many antioxidant agents have been used for the treatment of this disease in animals. Objectives To evaluate the antioxidant effects of pomegranate seed extract (PSE) on bleomycin treated rats. Materials and Methods Male Spraque – Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: rats in groups I (bleomycin) and II (control) were given a single dose of bleomycin (7.5 IU/kg, intratracheally) in the bleomycin group and same amount of saline in the control, respectively. Treatment groups (III-V) were given PSE (100,200,400 mg/kg) orally a week before the bleomycin injection and this was continued for 3 weeks. At day 28, animals were sacrificed and lungs were removed for histological investigation. Results Histological analysis showed that PSE could prevent pathological changes that were seen in the bleomycin group. Conclusions Results of the present study showed that hydroalcoholic extracts of pomegranate seeds had a significant protective effect against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by its antioxidant properties. The highest protective effect was observed for the 400 mg/kg dose. PMID:24624192

Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Rezaie, Annahita; Darabpour, Pegah

2013-01-01

317

Ripening stage and extraction method effects on physical properties, polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds.  

PubMed

The effects of two extraction methods, used at three ripening stages on the total polyphenol contents and the antioxidant activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were studied. The ripening stage effect on some physical properties of cumin seed was significant. The increase of dry matter (from 10.3 to 87.5%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that of moisture content (from 89.7 to 12.5%). Besides results showed that the full ripe seeds were richer on polyphenols and condensed tannin than unripe ones, and consequently exhibited higher antioxidant activities. However, the unripe seeds had a higher total flavonoid content compared to those of half ripe and full ripe ones. The comparison of two extraction methods showed that soxhlet extracts contained the greatest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, while maceration samples exhibited higher antiradical and bleaching power assay. Total phenolic contents and IC50 (concentration required to cause a 50% DPPH inhibition) values in cumin seed during their maturation allowed to conclude that antioxidant activity does not depend only on the high content of total phenolics but also on the phenolic composition. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were successfully identified by HPLC analysis during the ripening of cumin seeds. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic acid for the unripe seeds. Furthermore, half ripe and full ripe seeds were dominated by p-coumaric acid. These compounds might be considered as interesting bioactive natural substances that may be used in several fields, such as nutraceuticals, cosmetics and agro-food industry. PMID:25277369

Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Kefi, Sarra; Bourgou, Soumaya; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Ksouri, Riadh; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Marzouk, Brahim

2014-12-01

318

The cytotoxic effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cultured human cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seed proanthocyanidins are natural antioxidants which possess a broad spectrum of chemoprotective properties against free radicals and oxidative stress. In this study, we have assessed the cytotoxicity of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, A-427 human lung cancer cells, CRL-1739 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and K562 chronic myelogenous leukemic cells at

X. Ye; R. L. Krohn; W. Liu; S. S. Joshi; C. A. Kuszynski; T. R. McGinn; M. Bagchi; H. G. Preuss; S. J. Stohs; D. Bagchi

1999-01-01

319

Inhibition of the growth and development of asexual and sexual stages of drug-sensitive and resistant strains of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum by Neem ( Azadirachta indica) fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been shown to possess anti-malarial activity. In this study we systematically evaluated extracts of neem seeds and purified fractions further enriched in polar or non-polar constituents for their effect on in vitro growth and development of asexual and sexual stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Use of synchronized stages of parasites suggested trophozoites\\/schizonts as

Ravi Dhar; Kunyan Zhang; G. P Talwar; Sanjay Garg; Nirbhay Kumar

1998-01-01

320

Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models.  

PubMed

Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and seeds using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were screened for their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) model systems. The methanol extract of peels showed 83 and 81% antioxidant activity at 50 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. Similarly, the methanol extract of seeds showed 22.6 and 23.2% antioxidant activity at 100 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. As the methanol extract of pomegranate peel showed the highest antioxidant activity among all of the extracts, it was selected for testing of its effect on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The methanol extract showed 56, 58, and 93.7% inhibition using the thiobarbituric acid method, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and LDL oxidation, respectively, at 100 ppm. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from pomegranate peel and seeds. Owing to this property, the studies can be further extended to exploit them for their possible application for the preservation of food products as well as their use as health supplements and neutraceuticals. PMID:11754547

Singh, R P; Chidambara Murthy, K N; Jayaprakasha, G K

2002-01-01

321

Influence of the addition of raspberry seed extract on changes in the volatile pattern of stored model breakfast cereal.  

PubMed

Laboratory-prepared muesli-type breakfast cereal (mixture of oat flakes, wheat flakes, corn flakes, hazelnuts, raisins, sunflower seeds, and flax seeds) was subjected to accelerated storage test at 60 degrees C with or without the addition of red raspberry seed extract. The oxidative changes in muesli resulting in the formation of secondary oxidation products were evaluated using solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) to isolate volatiles and GC-MS and chromatography-olfactometry to quantify them and determine the key odorants. During 14 days of storage the total amount of volatile compounds changed from 1.0 mg/kg, in freshly prepared muesli, to 32 mg/kg after storage. The predominant compound was hexanal; its content during storage increased 20-fold, reaching 17 mg/kg. Red raspberry seed extract addition limited the rate of lipid oxidation, and the total amount of volatiles was estimated at 11 mg/kg and that of hexanal at almost 5 mg/kg. An elevated temperature of the storage test also influenced the crucial flavor compounds determined using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The flavor dilution factor (FD) values for volatile lipid oxidation products were lower in samples with red raspberry seed extract added. PMID:18407655

Klensporf, Dorota; Jele?, Henryk H

2008-05-14

322

Antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity of methanol extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the exploitation of the residues generated by plants. This study explored the potential beneficial health effects from the main biowaste, tea seed pomace, produced when tea seed is processed. DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as in vivo model to evaluate the beneficial health effects, including antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity. Among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia, the methanol (MeOH)-soluble fraction has the best in vivo antioxidant activities. The MeOH-soluble extraction was further divided into six fractions by chromatography with a Diaion HP-20 column eluted with water/MeOH, and fraction 3 showed the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Further analysis in C. elegans showed that the MeOH extract (fraction 3) of tea seed pomace significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, prolonged C. elegans lifespan, and reduced amyloid-? (A?) toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Moreover, bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded two potent constituents from fraction 3 of the MeOH extract, namely, kaempferol 3-O-(2?-glucopyranosyl)-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2?-xylopyranosyl)-rutinoside, and both compounds exhibited excellent in vivo antioxidant activity. Taken together, MeOH extracts of tea seed pomace from C. tenuifolia have multiple beneficial health effects, suggesting that biowaste might be valuable to be explored for further development as nutraceutical products. Furthermore, the reuse of agricultural byproduct tea seed pomace also fulfills the environmental perspective. PMID:25295856

Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chan-Wei; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

2014-11-01

323

Limonoid and Steroidal Saponin from Azadirachta indica.  

PubMed

A new limonoid, 17-(5-methoxy-2-oxofuran-3-yl)-28-deoxonimbolide (1), and a new C21 steroidal saponin, 2?,4?-dihydroxy-pregn-5-en-16-one-3?-O-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with 11 known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica. The structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis and putative biosynthetic origins. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against six bacterial strains. PMID:25381190

Liu, Lu; Zhao, Yun-Li; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Chen, Ying-Ying; Qin, Xu-Jie; Song, Chang-Wei; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

2014-11-01

324

Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of extract from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100 mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40 min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the polyphenol extraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50 mL of solvent volume, 20 min of extraction time and 70 °C of ultrasonic temperature. PMID:23993457

Teh, Sue-Siang; Birch, Edward John

2014-01-01

325

Flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract and evaluation of its neuroprotective effect.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract (PE) and to evaluate its effect as a phytoestrogen on the morphometric parameters of CA3 hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rats (OVX). L. mexicanus seeds, germinated for 48 h, were homogenized and macerated using an 80% ethanol solution. The extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. Thirty young Wistar strain female rats (200±10 g) were randomly distributed into four groups: sham operated (S) treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); ovariectomized and treated with 1250 ?g of PE extract (OVX-PE); ovariectomized and treated with 5 ?g estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB); and ovariectomized and vehicle treated (OVX). All substances were injected subcutaneously daily for 28 days. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed, perfused, and fixed to obtain the brains for histological processing. Each brain was cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The thickness of the stratum oriens (SO), the nuclear diameter, and the neuronal density were measured in the hippocampus CA3 area. Nine different flavonoids and one non-identified compound were detected. The histological analysis demonstrated that the thickness of the SO was higher in the OVX-EB and S groups than in the OVX-PE and OVX groups (p?0.05); in addition, the nuclear diameters of the neurons in the OVX-EB and S groups were higher compared with the other groups (p?0.05). The OVX group had the highest cellular density among groups (p?0.05). Based on our results, the PE obtained did not have beneficial effects on CA3 hippocampal neurons. PMID:24723146

Uribe-Gómez, José de Jesús; Zamora-Natera, Juan Francisco; Bañuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej; García-López, Pedro Macedonio

2014-11-01

326

Separation and purification of both tea seed polysaccharide and saponin from camellia cake extract using macroporous resin.  

PubMed

A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. PMID:25491912

Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian

2015-02-01

327

Effect of instant controlled pressure drop treatments on the oligosaccharides extractability and microstructure of Tephrosia purpurea seeds.  

PubMed

The study of the oligosaccharides extracted from Tephrosia purpurea seeds was undertaken using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) as a pre-treatment prior to conventional solvent extraction. This DIC procedure provided structural modification in terms of expansion, higher porosity and improvement of specific surface area; diffusion of solvent inside such seeds and availability of oligosaccharides increase notably. In this paper, we investigated and quantified the impact of the different DIC operative parameters on the yields of ciceritol and stachyose extracted from T. purpurea seeds. The treatment could be optimized with a steam pressure (P) (P=0.2 MPa), initial water content (W) (W=30% dry basis (DB)) and thermal treatment time (t) (t=30s). By applying DIC treatment in these conditions, the classic process of extraction was intensified in both aspects of yields (145% of ciceritol and 185% of stachyose), and kinetics (1h of extraction time instead of 4h for conventional process). The scanning electron microscopy micrographs provided evident modifications of structure of seeds due to the DIC treatment. PMID:18992889

Amor, Bouthaina Ben; Lamy, Cécile; Andre, Patrice; Allaf, Karim

2008-12-12

328

H- beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion sourcea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H- beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 1019 m-3 was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H- ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents.

Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.

2012-02-01

329

H{sup -} beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source  

SciTech Connect

H{sup -} beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H{sup -} ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents.

Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N. [School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2012-02-15

330

Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study explores that the aqueous extract of the seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (aka night jasmine) is very efficient for the synthesis of stable AgNPs from aqueous solution of AgNO3. The extract acts as both reducing (from Ag+ to Ag0) and capping agent in the aqueous phase. The constituents in extract are mainly biomolecules like carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the preparation of stable AgNPs within 20 min of reaction time at 25 °C using without any severe conditions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis showed peak at 420 nm, which corresponds to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. XRD results showed peaks at (111), (200), (220), which confirmed the presence of AgNPs with face-centered cubic structure. The uniform spherical nature of the AgNPs and size (between 50 and 80 nm) were further confirmed by SEM analysis.

Basu, Shibani; Maji, Priyankar; Ganguly, Jhuma

2015-02-01

331

Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.  

PubMed

The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ?2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ?128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars. PMID:24766361

Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

2014-05-21

332

Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cassia tora seeds on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. After being fed a HFD for two weeks, rats were orally dosed with Cassia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) (100, 200, or 300mg/kg) once daily for 8weeks. CSEE induced dose-dependent reductions in plasma lipid levels, as well as decreased the over hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, CSEE treatment improved HFD-induced hepatic histological lesions. CSEE enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the livers of HFD-fed rats. AMPK inhibition by compound C retarded CSEE-induced reduction in triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells stimulated by insulin. Our findings suggest that CSEE may regulate hepatic lipid homeostasis related with an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation with CSEE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:23026700

Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

2013-01-01

333

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera seed extract and its antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using a Nelumbo nucifera dry seed extract, which is a simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly "green material". The synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by the color changes and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The AgNPs were stable at room temperature for 2 months. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the formation of well-dispersed and spherical shapes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the synthesized AgNPs showed the formation of spherical nanoparticles, 5.03-16.62 nm in size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the involvement of amine, aromatic and alkynes groups in the synthetic process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystalline nature of AgNPs. These AgNPs were highly toxic to found to Gram negative bacteria. PMID:24169723

Tho, Nguyen Thi Mai; An, Tran Nguyen Minh; Tri, Mai Dinh; Sreekanth, Thupakula Venkata Madhukar; Lee, Jae-Soon; Nagajyothi, Patnamsetty Chidanandha; Lee, Kap Duk

2013-01-01

334

Preparation and characterization of inclusion complex of benzyl isothiocyanate extracted from papaya seed with ?-cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

The inclusion complex of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), extracted from papaya seed with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), was prepared. Different analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, particle size distribution analysis and (1)H Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, were used to investigate the characterization of the inclusion complex (BITC-?-CD). All these approaches indicated that the inclusion complex was capable of being formed. The inclusion complex exhibited different spectroscopic and thermodynamic features and properties from BITC, and we deduced the possible inclusion modes for BITC-?-CD. The calculated apparent stability constant of the BITC-?-CD was 600.8l/mol, and the aqueous solubility of BITC was indistinctively improved by phase solubility studies. The results illustrated that ?-CD was a proper excipient for increasing the stability and controlled release of BITC. Thus, ?-CD complexation technology would be a promising approach, in expanding the application of BITC as a food antibacterial agent. PMID:25872431

Li, Wenzhao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qingfeng; Zhang, Ning; Du, Yideng; Zhu, Huaping

2015-10-01

335

Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.  

PubMed

An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 33:1G.1-1G.8. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24789599

Lea, Michael

2014-01-01

336

Grape seed extracts inhibit platelet aggregation by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase.  

PubMed

Platelets play an important role in various thrombotic diseases, including myocardial infarction. Because red wine consumption is inversely associated with death due to ischemic heart diseases, the effects of grape components on platelet function have been extensively investigated. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) reportedly inhibit platelet aggregation; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. We discovered that GSEs inhibit platelet aggregation induced by collagen and thrombin-receptor agonist peptide and increase basal levels of tyrosine phosphorylation, which was also observed in the presence of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor. An in vitro phosphatase assay indicated that GSE dose dependently inhibited PTP-1B and Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 activity, which positively regulates platelet aggregation. We propose that GSEs inhibit platelet aggregation by inhibiting tyrosine phosphatase activity. Moreover, we showed that GSE ingestion inhibited platelet aggregation in mice without enhancing tail bleeding, implying that GSE supplementation might be beneficial to prevention of thrombotic diseases. PMID:23478570

Jin, Joseph Wuxun; Inoue, Osamu; Suzuki-Inoue, Katsue; Nishikawa, Go; Kawakami, Yoshinori; Hisamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Tohru; Ozaki, Yukio

2014-04-01

337

Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of swietenia macrophylla king (meliaceae) seed extracts in normoglycaemic rats undergoing glucose tolerance tests  

PubMed Central

Background Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) is used to treat diabetes mellitus in Malaysia. This study aims to evaluate the anti-hyperglycaemic potential of petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE) and methanol (ME) extracts of S. macrophylla seeds, in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Following treatment of normoglycaemic rats with S. macrophylla seed extracts, hypoglycaemic and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured. Similarly, glucose concentrations were measured after 1 and 14 days of extract treatment of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Glucose absorption by isolated everted intestine and glucose uptake by isolated abdominal muscle were tested after treatment with seed extracts. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed on PE of S. macrophylla seeds to identify the compounds responsible for its activity. Results None of the extracts had a significant effect on the blood glucose levels of 60 randomly selected normoglycaemic (normal) and diabetic rats undergoing hypoglycaemic tests. PE, however, significantly reduced blood glucose levels in 30 randomly selected normoglycaemic rats undergoing IPGTT tests 30–120 minutes after glucose administration. Repeated doses of 1000 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg PE to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 14 days did not reduce blood glucose levels significantly. PE did not significantly reduced the intestinal absorption of glucose, but significantly increased glucose uptake by abdominal muscle in the absence or presence of insulin. GC-MS analysis indicated that diterpenes, triterpenoids, fatty acid methyl esters, aldehydes and phytosterols may be responsible for the glucose lowering effects of PE. Conclusion PE extracts of S. macrophylla seeds showed anti-hyperglycaemic activity on IPGTTs . GC-MS analysis on the PE revealed that several compounds, including fucosterol and ?-sitosterol, may be responsible for these anti-hyperglycaemic properties. PMID:23684219

2013-01-01

338

Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic effect of proanthocyanidin-rich extracts from grape seeds in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Proanthocyanidin-rich extracts (0.1% and 1% in diets [w\\/w]) did not appreciably affect the changes in serum lipid profile of cholesterol-fed rabbits. The level of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (ChE-OOH) induced by 2,2?-azobis(2-amidinopropane-dihydrochloride (AAPH) were lower in the plasma of rabbits fed

Jun Yamakoshi; Shigehiro Kataoka; Takuro Koga; Toshiaki Ariga

1999-01-01

339

Differential cytotoxic effects of Annona squamosa seed extracts on human tumour cell lines: Role of reactive oxygen species and glutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annonaceous acetogenins are a new class of compounds that have been reported to have potent pesticidal, parasiticidal, anti-microbial,\\u000a cell growth inhibitory activities. In this study, organic and aqueous extracts from the defatted seeds ofAnnona squamosa (custard apple) were tested on different human tumour cell lines for antitumoural activity. While organic and aqueous extracts\\u000a induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells,

B. V. V. Pardhasaradhi; Madhurima Reddy; A. Mubarak Ali; A. Leela Kumari; Ashok Khar

2005-01-01

340

A comparative study of extraction methods reveals preferred solvents for cystine knot peptide isolation from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds.  

PubMed

MCoTI-I and MCoTI-II (short for Momordica cochinchinensis Trypsin Inhibitor-I and -II, respectively) are attractive candidates for developing novel intracellular-targeting drugs because both are exceptionally stable and can internalize into cells. These seed-derived cystine knot peptides are examples of how natural product discovery efforts can lead to biomedical applications. However, discovery efforts are sometimes hampered by the limited availability of seed materials, highlighting the need for efficient extraction methods. In this study, we assessed five extraction methods using M. cochinchinensis seeds, a source of well-characterized cystine knot peptides. The most efficient extraction of nine known cystine knot peptides was achieved by a method based on acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1), followed by methods based on sodium acetate (20 mM, pH 5.0), ammonium bicarbonate (5 mM, pH 8.0), and boiling water. On average, the yields obtained by these four methods were more than 250-fold higher than that obtained using dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extraction, a previously applied standard method. Extraction using acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1) yielded the highest number of reconstructed masses within the majority of plant-derived cystine knot peptide mass range but only accounted for around 50% of the total number of masses, indicating that any single method may result in under-sampling. Applying acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1), boiling water, and ammonium bicarbonate (5 mM, pH 8.0) extractions either successively or discretely significantly increased the sampling number. Overall, acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1) can facilitate efficient extraction of cystine-knot peptides from M. cochinchinensis seeds but for discovery purposes the use of a combination of extraction methods is recommended where practical. PMID:24613804

Mahatmanto, Tunjung; Poth, Aaron G; Mylne, Joshua S; Craik, David J

2014-06-01

341

Extraction, purification, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of urease from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds  

PubMed Central

Background Urease, one of the highly efficient known enzymes, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The present study aimed to extract urease from pea seeds (Pisum Sativum L). The enzyme was then purified in three consequence steps: acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-200 column). Results The purification fold was 12.85 with a yield of 40%. The molecular weight of the isolated urease was estimated by chromatography to be 269,000 Daltons. Maximum urease activity (190 U/g) was achieved at the optimum conditions of 40°C and pH of 7.5 after 5 min of incubation. The kinetic parameters, K m and V max , were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk fits and found to be 500 mM and 333.3 U/g, respectively. The thermodynamic constants of activation, ?H, E a , and ?S, were determined using Arrhenius plot and found to be 21.20 kJ/mol, 23.7 kJ/mol, and 1.18 kJ/mol/K, respectively. Conclusions Urease was purified from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds. The purification fold, yield, and molecular weight were determined. The effects of pH, concentration of enzyme, temperature, concentration of substrate, and storage period on urease activity were examined. This may provide an insight on the various aspects of the property of the enzyme. The significance of extracting urease from different sources could play a good role in understanding the metabolism of urea in plants. PMID:25065975

2014-01-01

342

Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Anethum Graveolens Seed on Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizure in Adult Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Regarding chronic nature of epilepsy and its side effects and to access the effective treatment procedures, herbal medicine has received remarkable interest. The aim of this study was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) -induced seizure in male mice. Methods Fifty-six albino male mice were divided randomly into seven groups including the negative control (saline), positive control (Phenobarbital) and treatment groups using different doses of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (50, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg/ kg). To provoke convulsion, PTZ was injected to all groups and initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures as well as surveillance after 24 h were measured. Results The results indicated that hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (AGS) delayed the initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures in comparison with saline group. The latency was considerable for myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures at all above mentioned doses of AGS extract except for the lowest one. Moreover, the protective effect of AGS extract against mortality was statistically significant at all doses except for 50 mg/kg. Discussion As the hydro-alcoholic extract of AGS showed an appropriate response in experimental model of convulsion, it might be considered as an adjuvant therapy with other traditional antiepileptic medications. PMID:25337380

Rostampour, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Arghavan; Salehi, Peyman; Saadat, Farshid

2014-01-01

343

Determination of low molecular weight polyphenolic constituents in grape ( Vitis vinifera sp.) seed extracts: Correlation with antiradical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl acetate extracts of seeds originating from nine Hellenic native and international Vitis vinifera varieties cultivated in Greece were screened for their contents of characteristic polyphenols. The compounds determined were principal constituents of low molecular weight, including gallic acid (GA), catechin (CT), epicatechin (ECT), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and the procyanidins B1 and B2 (dimers). Total

Ramila Guendez; Stamatina Kallithraka; Dimitris P Makris; Panagiotis Kefalas

2005-01-01

344

Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A mixture of ergot alkaloids does not increase the contractile response of peripheral bovine vasculature, but may increase the contractile response of foregut vasculature. Preliminary data indicated that an extract of tall fescue seed induced a greater contractile response in ruminal artery and vein...

345

Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.  

PubMed

Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. PMID:22885021

Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

2012-12-01

346

Constriction of bovine vasculature by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergovaline has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte- (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However, preliminary in vitro tests indicated that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ergovaline alone in a right rumin...

347

In vivo anthelmintic activity of Dorycnium rectum and grape seed extract against Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To assess the in vivo anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins (CT) in the forage species Dorycnium rectum and Medicago sativa, and in an extract from grape (Vitus vinifera) seeds (GSE), against two species of parasite, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis, at different stages of their life cycle, in sheep that were parasite-naïve or previously exposed to nematodes.METHODS: In

TS Waghorn; AL Molan; M Deighton; RA Alexander; DM Leathwick; WC McNabb; LP Meagher

2006-01-01

348

Grape seed and skin extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced renal lipotoxicity and prevents copper depletion in rat.  

PubMed

Obesity is a public health problem that contributes to morbidity and mortality from diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancers. The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the link between obesity-induced oxidative stress, renal steatosis, and kidney dysfunction, as well as the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and were either treated or not treated with grape seed and skin extract. Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated in the kidney with a special emphasis on transition metals. High-fat diet induced triglyceride deposition and disturbances in kidney function parameters, which are linked to an oxidative stress status and depletion of copper from the kidney. Grape seed and skin extract abrogated almost all fat-induced kidney disturbances. Grape seed and skin extract exerted potential protection against fat-induced kidney lipotoxicity and should find potential application in other kidney-related diseases. PMID:23537016

Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Hassine, Fethy Ben; El May, Michèle Veronique; El May, Ahmed; Aouani, Ezzedine

2013-03-01

349

Extraction, isolation and characterisation of oil bodies from pumpkin seeds for therapeutic use.  

PubMed

Pumpkin, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family has been used frequently as functional medicines for therapeutic use. Several phytochemicals such as polysaccharides, phenolic glycosides, 13-hydroxy-9Z, 11E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of pumpkin, proteins from germinated seeds, have been isolated. Here the influence of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on the properties and stability of oil bodies from pumpkin (Cucurbita) were determined with a view to patterning oil body size and structure for future therapeutic intervention. Oil bodies from pumpkin seeds were extracted, isolated, characterised using optical microscopy, zeta potential and particle size distribution obtained. During microscopic analysis, the oil bodies were more intact and in an integrated form at the time of extraction but were ruptured with time. Water extracted oil bodies were spherical for all four layers where cream had larger oil bodies then upper curd. Lower curd and supernatant had considerably smaller size with lower curd densely packed and seemed to be rich in oil bodies than any of the four layers. At pH 3, in the absence of salt, the zeta potential is approximately +30 mV, but as the salt concentration increases, the ? potential rises at 10 mM but then decreases over the salt range. This trend continues for the upper curd, lower curd and the supernatant and the degree of the reduction (mV) in zeta potential is of the order creamseed oil bodies at an increasing pH (3, 7.4 and 9) and salt concentration (0, 10, 50 and 100 mM) across all four layers. The lowest average size distributions are seen at pH 7.4 across all four layers especially within the cream and upper curd layers. At pH 3 and 9, the highest average size distributions are seen in the lower curd and cream layers. Oil bodies can be extracted, isolated and from pumpkins using an aqueous extraction method and may prove to be a useful new source of lipids for application in patterning therapeutics for clinical use. PMID:23442639

Adams, Gary G; Imran, Shahwar; Wang, Sheng; Mohammad, Abubaker; Kok, M Samil; Gray, David A; Channell, Guy A; Harding, Stephen E

2012-10-15

350

Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this article: Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP, Patil AK, Kakde DD. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):61-6 . PMID:24453446

Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

2013-01-01

351

Cardioprotective mechanisms of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed extract against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in isolated rat hearts.  

PubMed

The effects of kernel extract obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed on the postischemic cardiac recovery were studied in isolated working rat hearts. Rats were treated with various daily doses of the extract for 14 days, and hearts were then isolated and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and tachycardia (VT) fell from their control values of 92% and 100% to 50% (not significant) and 58% (not significant), 17% (P<0.05), and 25% (P<0.05) with the doses of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Lower concentrations of the extract (1 and 5 mg/kg) failed to significantly reduce the incidence of VF and VT during reperfusion. Sour cherry seed kernel extract (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly improved the postischemic recovery of cardiac function (coronary flow, aortic flow, and left ventricular developed pressure) during reperfusion. We have also demonstrated that the extract-induced protection in cardiac function significantly reflected in a reduction of infarct size. Immunohistochemistry indicates that a reduction in caspase-3 activity and apoptotic cells by the extract, beside other potential action mechanisms of proanthocyanidin, trans-resveratrol, and flavonoid components of the extract, could be responsible for the cardioprotection in ischemic-reperfused myocardium. PMID:16617126

Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Nagy, Norbert; Varga, Edit; Varadi, Judit; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szabo, Gergo; Szendrei, Levente; Bacskay, Ildiko; Vecsernyes, Miklos; Antal, Miklos; Fesus, Laszlo; Boucher, Francois; de Leiris, Joel; Tosaki, Arpad

2006-09-01

352

Milk thistle seed extract protects rat C6 astroglial cells from acute cocaine toxicity  

PubMed Central

Cocaine is a powerful addictive drug, widely abused in most Western countries. It easily reaches various domains within and outside of the central nervous system (CNS), and triggers varying levels of cellular toxicity. No pharmacological treatment is available to alleviate cocaine-induced toxicity in the cells without side-effects. Here, we discerned the role of milk thistle (MT) seed extract against cocaine toxicity. First, we investigated acute cytotoxicity induced by treatment with 2, 3 and 4 mM cocaine for 1 h in astroglial, liver and kidney cells in vitro, and then in living shrimp larvae in vivo. We showed that astroglial cells are more sensitive to cocaine than liver, kidney cells or larvae. Cocaine exposure disrupted the general architecture of astroglial cells, induced vacuolation, decreased cell viability, and depleted the glutathione (GSH) level. These changes may represent the underlying pathology of cocaine in the astrocytes. By contrast, MT pretreatment (200 ?g/ml) for 30 min sustained the cell morphological features and increased both cell viability and the GSH level. Besides its protective effects, the MT extract was revealed to be non-toxic to astroglial cells, and displayed high free-radical scavenging activity. The results from this study suggest that enhanced GSH level underlies cell protection, and indicate that compounds that promote GSH synthesis in the cells may be beneficial against cocaine toxicity. PMID:25174449

BADISA, RAMESH B.; FITCH-PYE, CHERYL A.; AGHARAHIMI, MARYAM; PALM, DONALD E.; LATINWO, LEKAN M.; GOODMAN, CARL B.

2014-01-01

353

Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764

Poiana, Mariana-Atena

2012-01-01

354

Upregulation of oxidant-induced VEGF expression in cultured keratinocytes by a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis plays a central role in wound healing. Among many known growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is believed to be the most prevalent, efficacious, and long-term signal that is known to stimulate angiogenesis in wounds. The wound site is rich in oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide mostly contributed by neutrophils and macrophages. Proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins are a group of biologically active polyphenolic bioflavonoids that are synthesized by many plants. This study provides first evidence showing that natural extracts such as grape seed proanthocyanidin extract containing 5000 ppm resveratrol (GSPE) facilitates oxidant-induced VEGF expression in keratinocytes. Using a ribonuclease protection assay (RPA), the ability of GSPE to regulate oxidant-induced changes in several angiogenesis-related genes were studied. While mRNA responses were studied using RPA, VEGF protein release from cells to the culture medium was studied using ELISA. Pretreatment of HaCaT keratinocytes with GSPE upregulated both hydrogen peroxide as well as TNF-alpha-induced VEGF expression and release. The current results suggest that GSPE may have beneficial therapeutic effects in promoting dermal wound healing and other related skin disorders. PMID:11425488

Khanna, S; Roy, S; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Sen, C K

2001-07-01

355

Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on garlic-induced erythrocyte oxidative stress.  

PubMed

High garlic dose could exert adverse health properties and grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibit a variety of beneficial effects, even at high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxic effect of high garlic dose treatment on antioxidant status of the blood compartment and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered either with garlic extract (5 g/kg bw) or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily during one month. Plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. Data confirmed that high garlic dose induced anemia and a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes characterized by increased malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl protein and antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Garlic also elevated intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and free iron whereas GSSE treatment counteracted almost all garlic deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes via the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties. PMID:23070087

Hamlaoui, S; Mokni, M; Limam, N; Zouaoui, K; Ben Rayana, M C; Carrier, A; Limam, F; Amri, M; Marzouki, L; Aouani, E

2012-08-01

356

Orally Delivered Sour Cherry Seed Extract (SCSE) Affects Cardiovascular and Hematological Parameters in Humans.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effects of sour cherry seed extract (SCSE) on a variety of systemic processes that contribute to general health and viability of human subjects. The experiments were conducted according to a double-blind protocol in which six healthy individuals were administered 250-mg/day SCSE for 14?days, while four were treated with placebo. Peripheral blood was collected before and after the treatment period. Samples were analyzed for levels of selected cells, enzymes, or metabolites. Subjects that received SCSE showed increases in the values of mean cell volume, serum transferrin, mean peroxidase index, and representation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. On the other hand, decreases were observed in circulating neutrophils and ferritin levels. Changes observed in the present study do not fit into a clear pattern that might yield additional in-depth understanding of SCSE-mediated alterations in physiologic responses. The most encouraging result of the present study is the absence of any indication of toxicity by subjects consuming the extract. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25640007

Csiki, Zoltan; Papp-Bata, Agnes; Czompa, Attila; Nagy, Aniko; Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Javor, Andras; Haines, David D; Balla, Gyorgy; Tosaki, Arpad

2015-03-01

357

Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600-800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764

Poiana, Mariana-Atena

2012-01-01

358

Optimization of subcritical water extraction parameters of antioxidant polyphenols from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) seed residue.  

PubMed

Polyphenols was extracted with subcritical water from the sea buckthorn seed residue (after oil recovery), and the extraction parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent processing variables were extraction temperature, extraction time and the ratio of water to solid. The optimal extraction parameters for the extracts with highest ABTS radical scavenging activity were 120 °C, 36 min and the water to solid ratio of 20, and the maximize antioxidant capacity value was 32.42 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolics, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins was 36.62 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, 19.98 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 10.76 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g, respectively. PMID:25745222

Gong, Ying; Zhang, Xiaofei; He, Li; Yan, Qiuli; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

2015-03-01

359

Effect of lipid extraction methods on total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharide contents of selected nuts and seeds.  

PubMed

Three extraction methods were used to remove lipid materials from 8 edible nuts and seeds before analysis for their total dietary fiber (TDF) and nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) contents. Portions of ground materials were extracted by: n-hexane, followed by 80% methanol, n-hexane-acetic acid (95 + 5, v/v), and supercritical carbon dioxide. Defatted samples were gelatinized in water and incubated with amyloglucosidase; 95% ethanol was added to the hydrolyzates, and the residues were collected on tared glass crucibles. TDF was calculated according to a simplified enzymatic-gravimetric method developed in our laboratory, and NSP was determined as described by Englyst and coworkers. Dietary fiber values obtained with any of the extraction methods range from 3.47 g/100 g for cashews to 28.56 g/100 g for sunflower seeds. Nonstarch polysaccharide values range from 2.43 g/100 g for pecans to 5.56 g/100 g for peanuts. With the exception of sunflower seeds, samples extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide had lower TDF contents but similar amounts of NSP compared with samples extracted by the other 2 methods. PMID:9011063

Li, B W; Zhao, Z; Jekot, J J

1997-01-01

360

Proanthocyanidin-Rich Date Seed Extract Protects Against Chemically Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Abstract A hydroacetone extract was prepared from seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. var. Khalas, which is an industrial by-product of date processing. The proanthocyanidin nature of the extract (coded as DTX) was characterized by phytochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The total phenol/proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity of DTX were estimated by Folin–Ciocalteu, vanillin-sulfuric acid, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. The hepatorenal protective activity of DTX was evaluated using CCl4-induced toxicity model in rats, in comparison with silymarin (SYL). Results of the histopathological examination and measurements of various hepatorenal serum indices and tissue biochemical markers demonstrated that DTX displayed marked protective potential against CCl4-induced liver and kidney injury at 100?mg/kg/rat. Relative to the control CCl4-intoxicated group, pretreatment with DTX significantly (P<.001) suppressed the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), bilirubin, creatinine, and calcium, whereas it significantly (P<.001) increased the diminished serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP). Moreover, DTX significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and increased TP synthesis in hepatorenal tissues compared with the intoxicated control. The improvement in biochemical parameters by DTX was observed in a dose-dependent manner and confirmed by restoration of normal histological features. The acute toxicity test of DTX in rats revealed safety of the extract. This study reveals that DTX enhances the recovery from xenobiotics-induced toxicity initiated by free radicals. PMID:25569813

Al-Qahtani, Jawaher H.; Al-Yousef, Hanan M.; Al-Said, Mansour S.; Ashour, AbdelKader E.; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

2015-01-01

361

Proanthocyanidin-rich date seed extract protects against chemically induced hepatorenal toxicity.  

PubMed

A hydroacetone extract was prepared from seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. var. Khalas, which is an industrial by-product of date processing. The proanthocyanidin nature of the extract (coded as DTX) was characterized by phytochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The total phenol/proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity of DTX were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu, vanillin-sulfuric acid, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. The hepatorenal protective activity of DTX was evaluated using CCl4-induced toxicity model in rats, in comparison with silymarin (SYL). Results of the histopathological examination and measurements of various hepatorenal serum indices and tissue biochemical markers demonstrated that DTX displayed marked protective potential against CCl4-induced liver and kidney injury at 100?mg/kg/rat. Relative to the control CCl4-intoxicated group, pretreatment with DTX significantly (P<.001) suppressed the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), bilirubin, creatinine, and calcium, whereas it significantly (P<.001) increased the diminished serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP). Moreover, DTX significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and increased TP synthesis in hepatorenal tissues compared with the intoxicated control. The improvement in biochemical parameters by DTX was observed in a dose-dependent manner and confirmed by restoration of normal histological features. The acute toxicity test of DTX in rats revealed safety of the extract. This study reveals that DTX enhances the recovery from xenobiotics-induced toxicity initiated by free radicals. PMID:25569813

Ahmed, Atallah F; Al-Qahtani, Jawaher H; Al-Yousef, Hanan M; Al-Said, Mansour S; Ashour, AbdelKader E; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

2015-03-01

362

The Allelopathic Effect of Pictacia Leaf Extracts and Pure Essential Oil Components on Pelargonium Ringo Deep Scarlet F1 Hybrid Seed Germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelopathic effects of leaf extracts obtained from Pictacia vera, Pictacia lentiscus and Pictacia terebinthus and limonene, beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene and terpinen-4-ol, which occur in essential oils of plants, on seed germination at 1000 and 5000 ppm doses were investigated. Among the tested extracts000 ppm doses of chloroform and ethyl alcohol extracts of P. terebinthus increased the seed germination with

Yahya Bulutsaban Kordali; Omer Atabeyoglu

2006-01-01

363

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Arabidopsis thaliana Seed Morphology Features Extracted Computationally From Images  

PubMed Central

Seeds are studied to understand dispersal and establishment of the next generation, as units of agricultural yield, and for other important reasons. Thus, elucidating the genetic architecture of seed size and shape traits will benefit basic and applied plant biology research. This study sought quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the size and shape of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds by computational analysis of seed phenotypes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the small-seeded Landsberg erecta × large-seeded Cape Verde Islands accessions. On the order of 103 seeds from each recombinant inbred line were automatically measured with flatbed photo scanners and custom image analysis software. The eight significant QTL affecting seed area explained 63% of the variation, and overlapped with five of the six major-axis (length) QTL and three of the five minor-axis (width) QTL, which accounted for 57% and 38% of the variation in those traits, respectively. Because the Arabidopsis seed is exalbuminous, lacking an endosperm at maturity, the results are relatable to embryo length and width. The Cvi allele generally had a positive effect of 2.6–4.0%. Analysis of variance showed heritability of the three traits ranged between 60% and 73%. Repeating the experiment with 2.2 million seeds from a separate harvest of the RIL population and approximately 0.5 million seeds from 92 near-isogenic lines confirmed the aforementioned results. Structured for download are files containing phenotype measurements, all sets of seed images, and the seed trait measuring tool. PMID:23316443

Moore, Candace R.; Gronwall, David S.; Miller, Nathan D.; Spalding, Edgar P.

2013-01-01

364

In-vitro antagonistic characteristics of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds against some Vibrio bacteria.  

PubMed

The methanolic and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds were screened for their anti-Vibrio activities against 50 Vibrio isolates obtained from wastewater final effluents in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The crude extracts at 10 mg/mL exhibited appreciable inhibitory activities against most of the test Vibrio isolates, with zones of inhibition ranging from 10-19 mm for methanol extract and 8-15 mm for the aqueous extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the methanol extract varied from 0.313 to 2.5 mg/mL while that for the aqueous extract was 10 mg/mL for all the susceptible Vibrio isolates. Rate of kill assay of the methanolic extracts against three selected Vibrio species showed bacteriostatic activities against all of them achieving 58% and 60% (Vibrio vulnificus AL042); 68% and 69% (Vibrio parahaemolyticus AL049); and 70% and 78% (Vibrio fluvialis AL040) killing of the test bacteria at 3× and 4 ×MIC values, respectively, after 2 h exposure time. We conclude that Garcinia kola seeds hold promise as a potential source of therapeutic compounds of relevance in Vibrio infections management. PMID:21441874

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Omobola O; Okoh, Anthony I

2011-01-01

365

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16–10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11–12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11–6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K.; Gupta, V.C.

2013-01-01

366

Mangifera Indica (Mango)  

PubMed Central

Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

2010-01-01

367

Antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects of methanolic extract from seeds of Garcinia kola on isolated rat small intestine.  

PubMed

The antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects of methanolic extract of seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel were studied on smooth muscle preparations in vitro. The influence of the extract on rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum was investigated using acetylcholine and barium chloride as agonists. The extract exhibited dose-dependent antispasmodic effects on contractions induced by acetylcholine, and dose-dependent spasmolytic effects on spasms induced by cumulatively increased concentrations of acetylcholine and barium chloride. The graded log concentration-response curves for acetylcholine were non-parallel but shifted to the right in the presence of the extract. It is concluded that the Garcinia kola extract inhibits smooth muscle activity via other mechanisms but not involving neither cholinergic nor adrenergic receptor interaction. PMID:20234749

Udia, P M; Braide, V B; Owu, D U

2009-12-01

368

Grape Seed Extract Dose-Responsively Decreases Disease Severity in a Rat Model of Mucositis; Concomitantly Enhancing Chemotherapeutic Effectiveness in Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective Mucositis is a serious disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that results from cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of increasing grape seed extract doses on the severity of chemotherapy in a rat model and its coincident impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells. Design Female Dark Agouti rats were gavaged with grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) or water (day 3–11) and were injected intraperitoneally with 5-Fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) on day 9 to induce mucositis. Daily metabolic data were collected and rats were sacrificed on day 12. Intestinal tissues were collected for histological and myeloperoxidase analyses. Caco-2 cell viability was examined in response to grape seed extract in combination with 5-Fluorouracil by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results Compared with 5-Fluorouracil controls, grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the histological damage score (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Grape seed extract (1000 mg/kg) increased jejunal crypt depth by 25% (P<0.05) in 5-Fluorouracil treated rats compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls, and attenuated the 5-Fluorouracil -induced reduction of mucosal thickness (25%, P<0.05). Grape seed extract (600 mg/kg) decreased myeloperoxidase activity by 55% (P<0.01) compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls. Grape seed extract was more effective at ameliorating 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal injury, with effects most pronounced in the proximal jejunum. Grape seed extract (10–25 ug/mL) significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-Fluorouracil by 26% (P<0.05) in Caco-2 cells and was more potent than 5-Fluorouracil at 50–100 µg/mL. Conclusion Grape seed extract may represent a new therapeutic option to decrease the symptoms of intestinal mucositis while concurrently impacting on the viability of colon cancer cells. PMID:24465501

Cheah, Ker Yeaw; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Bastian, Susan Elaine Putnam

2014-01-01

369

Therapeutic efficacy of Nigella sativa Linn. seed extract against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intake damages liver. We evaluated therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. The hepatic damage induced by CCl4 @ 1.5 mL/kg, ip was evidenced by a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, protein and urea lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as reduction in hepatic antioxidant system e.g. reduced glutathione. Hepatic total protein and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were found decreased. Histological studies substantiated the above biochemical findings. However, after 48 h of administration of aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, po) it not only detoxified the toxicity but also reversed LPO, GSH, AST, ALT and serum protein changes at all the three doses. Both higher doses of extract were found effective in monitoring urea, albumin, total protein and G-6-Pase activity. However, on the basis of percent protection highest dose i.e., 750 mg/kg proved better. The result suggests that the aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds can be used as a hepatoprotective agent. PMID:25675711

Jaswal, Amita; Shukla, Sangeeta

2015-01-01

370

Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil.  

PubMed

Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, ?-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given. PMID:25745251

Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D

2015-03-01

371

Mechanistic pathways of antioxidant cytoprotection by a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.  

PubMed

To understand the bioavailability and mechanistic pathways of cytoprotection by IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE, commercially known as ActiVin) a series of in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted. Comparative protective abilities of GSPE, and vitamins C and E, singly and in combination, were assessed against smokeless tobacco extract (STE)-induced oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell death in a primary culture of normal human oral keratinocytes. GSPE protected against STE-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic cell death, and provided better protection as compared to vitamins C and E, singly and in combination. The bioavailability and protective ability of GSPE were examined against acetaminophen (AP)-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity, amiodarone (AM)-induced lung toxicity, doxorubicin (DX)-induced cardiotoxicity and dimethylnitrosamine (DM)-induced spleenotoxicity in mice. GSPE-fed animals were compared with GSPE-untreated mice to evaluate the protective ability of GSPE against these structurally diverse drugs/chemicals. Serum chemistry changes, histopathology and DNA damage were evaluated. Results indicate that GSPE preexposure prior to the drugs/chemicals such as AP, AM, DX or DM treatment, provided near complete protection in terms of serum chemistry changes and inhibition of both forms of cell death, e.g., apoptosis and necrosis. DNA damage in various tissues triggered by these agents was significantly reduced in GSPE-fed animals. Histopathological examination of multiple target organs provided similar data. The results suggest that GSPE exposure is bioavailable and provides significant multiorgan protection against structurally diverse drug- and chemical-induced toxic assaults. Further, these studies exhibited a series of mechanistic information including free radical scavenging ability, anti-endonucleolytic activity, cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibitory activity, anti-necrotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-carcinogenic activities, modulatory effects on antioxidative and apoptotic regulatory genes such as Bcl2, c-myc and p53, which may be responsible for the novel chemoprotective properties exhibited by GSPE. PMID:12587719

Bagchi, Debasis; Ray, Sidhartha D; Bagchi, Manashi; Preuss, Harry G; Stohs, Sidney J

2002-06-01

372

Effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

As a highly toxic environmental pollutant, methylmercury (MeHg) can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans. Considering the antioxidant property of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE), this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of GSPE on MeHg-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Rats were exposed to MeHg by intraperitoneal injection (4, 12 ?mol/kg, respectively) and GSPE was administered by gavage (250 mg/kg) 2 h later. After a 4-week treatment, phosphate-activated glutaminase, glutamine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, glutamate, glutamine, malondialdehyde and glutathione contents in cerebral cortex were measured. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were also estimated in cells. The results showed that the MeHg-induced neurotoxicity was significantly attenuated. GSPE significantly decreased the production of ROS, counteracted oxidative damage and increased the antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes activities in rats prior to MeHg exposure. Moreover, the effects on the rate of apoptotic cells and the disturbance of glutamate homeostasis were correspondingly modulated. These observations highlighted the potential of GSPE in offering protection against MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:22116679

Yang, Haibo; Xu, Zhaofa; Liu, Wei; Wei, Yangang; Deng, Yu; Xu, Bin

2012-06-01

373

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract alleviates ouabain-induced vascular remodeling through regulation of endothelial function.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that chronic ouabain treatment leads to hypertension and hypertensive vascular remodeling. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to be effective in treating arteriosclerosis, while little is known about its effect on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling. In this study, the effects of GSPE on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling were analyzed by treating ouabain-induced hypertensive rats with GSPE (250 mg/kg·d). The expression of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in thoracic aorta was examined by ELISA; the mRNA and protein levels of TGF-?1 were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased following treatment with GSPE, with blocked vascular remodeling. The ET-1 content was reduced while NO production was increased in the GSPE group, which showed improved vascular endothelial function. Moreover, GSPE also reduced TGF-?1 expression in the thoracic aorta, which is a determinant in vascular remodeling. In conclusion, GSPE antagonized ouabain-induced hypertension and vascular remodeling and is recommended as a potential anti-hypertensive agent for patients with hypertensive vascular diseases. PMID:22895622

Liu, Xiangju; Qiu, Jie; Zhao, Shaohua; You, Beian; Ji, Xiang; Wang, Yan; Cui, Xiaopei; Wang, Qian; Gao, Haiqing

2012-11-01

374

Oxidative stability and chemical safety of mayonnaise enriched with grape seed extract.  

PubMed

Grape seed extract (GSE), a by-product from the wine industry, was explored for its use as enrichment to mayonnaise, due to its potential health effects. Mayonnaises were enriched with 0 mg GSE per mL, 0.5 mg GSE per mL (~0.050%), 0.9 mg GSE per mL (~0.10%) and 1.4 mg GSE per mL (~0.15%) during preparation and stored in the dark at room temperature for 8 weeks. The antioxidative capacity of the mayonnaises was evaluated by their ability to scavenge the stable radical TEMPO by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The oxidative stability of the mayonnaises was determined by the content of lipid hydroperoxides (peroxide value, POV), the content of conjugated diene hydroperoxides and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The highest antioxidative capacity and the lowest content of lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS were found in the mayonnaise with the highest percentage of GSE (0.15%). Therefore, the oxidative stability of the mayonnaises enriched with GSE was slightly improved through storage. However, mayonnaise without GSE had the highest sensorial acceptability compared to mayonnaise enriched with GSE. In the Artemia salina assay, a fast screening method for overall toxicity, the death rate of brine shrimps larvae was found to increase for increasing percentage of GSE. A level of 0.05% GSE in mayonnaise is concluded not to constitute any toxicological risks, but to provide significant protection against oxidation during storage. PMID:24064585

Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

2013-11-01

375

Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.  

PubMed

Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6?g/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications. PMID:24832986

Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-07-01

376

Grape seed extract improves epithelial structure and suppresses inflammation in ileum of IL-10-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Defect in intestinal epithelial structure is a critical etiological factor of several intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), which contains a mixture of polyphenols, on ileal mucosal structure and inflammation in interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice, a common model for studying inflammatory bowel disease. Wild-type and IL-10-deficient mice were fed GSE at 0 or 1% (based on dry feed weight) for 16 weeks. GSE supplementation decreased crypt depth and increased (P < 0.05) the ratio of villus/crypt length in the terminal ileum. Consistently, the dietary GSE decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation and enhanced (P < 0.05) differentiation of epithelial cells. These changes in gut epithelium were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cell (NF-?B) signaling. Furthermore, compared with WT mice, IL-10 deletion promoted beclin-1 and AMPK expression, both of which were decreased to normal by GSE supplementation. These changes were associated with alterations in epithelial barrier function as indicated by reduced pore forming claudin-2 protein expression and increased barrier forming claudin-1 protein expression in the ileum of GSE supplemented mice. In summary, our data indicates that GSE exerts protective effects to the ileal epithelial structure in IL-10-deficient mice possibly through the suppression of inflammatory response. PMID:25137131

Yang, Guan; Wang, Hui; Kang, Yifei; Zhu, Mei-Jun

2014-10-01

377

Amelioration of the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.  

PubMed

Anticancer chemotherapeutic agents are effective in inhibiting growth of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, however, toxicity to normal cells is a major problem. In this study, we assessed the effect of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) to ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxic effects in cultured Chang epithelial cells, established from nonmalignant human tissue. These cells were treated in vitro with idarubicin (Ida) (30 nM) or 4-hydroxyperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC) (1 microg/ml) with or without GSPE (25 microg/ml). The cells were grown in vitro and the growth rate of the cells was determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; thiazolyl blue] assay. Our results showed that GSPE decreased the growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of Ida as well as 4HC on Chang epithelial cells in vitro. Because these chemotherapeutic agents are known to induce apoptosis in the target cells, we analyzed the Chang epithelial cells for apoptotic cell population by flow cytometry. There was a significant decrease in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis following treatment with GSPE. We also found increased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in GSPE-treated cells using western blot techniques. Thus, these results indicate that GSPE can be a potential candidate to ameliorate the toxic effects associated with chemotherapeutic agents and one of the mechanisms of action of GSPE includes upregulation of Bcl-2 expression. PMID:11233153

Joshi, S S; Kuszynski, C A; Benner, E J; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

1999-01-01

378

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract prevents DDP-induced testicular toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin (DDP)-induced toxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible protective role of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in DDP-induced spermiotoxicity. GSPE at 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) and 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1) was orally administered for 15 consecutive days, starting 10 days before a single intraperitoneal dose of DDP (7 mg kg(-1)). Results revealed that testicular and epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count, motility and morphology, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD, and GSH levels were significantly decreased whereas the level of MDA was significantly increased in the DDP group rats. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated the harmful effects of DDP-induced lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, loss of genital organ weight, as well as function of reproductive organs. These changes were restored to near normal levels by GSPE at 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1). In conclusion, GSPE has dose dependent protective effects against DDP-induced rat testicular toxicity. PMID:24504493

Zhao, Yan-meng; Gao, Li-ping; Zhang, Hai-lian; Guo, Jun-xia; Guo, Pei-pei

2014-03-01

379

Protective effects of Syzygium cumini seed extract against methylmercury-induced sistemic toxicity in neonatal rats.  

PubMed

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Sc) belongs to the medicinal plants with an important source of phenolic compounds. Sc has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Methylmercury (MeHg), a highly toxic environmental pollutant, induces oxidative stress and dysfunction in many cell types. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of Sc (ASc) on MeHg-induced toxicity in rats. Two-day-old rats (P2) received a single dose of MeHg (10 mg/kg) and two doses of ASc (0.9 mg/kg) per os. After two days, the effects of the treatment were investigated in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, kidney, liver and urine samples. Our results demonstrated that N-acetyl-?-D: -glucosaminidase (NAG) activity in the kidney and urine, the lipid peroxidation levels in the liver and kidney samples, as well as the adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the hippocampus, kidney and liver were higher in MeHg-group when compared to the control group. The administration of ASc reverted the toxic effects of MeHg. It is noteworthy to observe that the main compounds present in the ASc, as gallic acid (the major component), chlorogenic acid and rutin, might be the responsible for such benefit, since they were found to display antioxidant properties. PMID:21207116

Abdalla, F H; Bellé, L P; Bitencourt, P E R; De Bona, K S; Zanette, R A; Boligon, A A; Athayde, M L; Pigatto, A S; Moretto, M B

2011-04-01

380

Resveratrol potentiates grape seed extract induced human colon cancer cell apoptosis.  

PubMed

Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in men and women. Grape seed extract (GSE) and resveratrol (RSV) are potent chemopreventive agents against colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo, at relatively high concentrations. We hypothesized that RSV and GSE may act in concert with each other in potentiating their anti-cancer properties at sub-optimal doses, because they occur as complex mixtures in grapes. In this study, we showed that RSV (~25 micromolar) potentiated GSE (? 35 microg/mL) induced colon cancer cell apoptosis via activation of p53 dependent pathways. Elevation of apoptosis was much more pronounced in p53 +/+ cells compared to p53 -/- cells. Apoptosis was strongly correlated with pp53 levels and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, key players in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Caspase-3 inhibition and reactive oxygen species suppression attenuated apoptosis induced by the combination. RSV-GSE combination suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis even in the presence of mitogenic growth factor IGF-1, suggesting the importance of understanding the potentiating effects of phytonutrients in combination as they would occur in nature rather than individually. PMID:21622155

Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Reddivari, Lavanya; Sclafani, Robert; Das, Undurti N; Vanamala, Jairam

2011-01-01

381

Evaluation of Physiological Activities of the Citron (Citrus junos Sieb. ex TANAKA) Seed Extracts  

PubMed Central

Citron seed extracts (CSEs) were made using distilled water (CSEW), ethanol (CSEE), and n-hexane (CSEH), to measure the total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The total polyphenol content was observed the highest in CSEE (188.71 ?g/mL), and occurred in the following order: CSEE>CSEW (141.11 ?g/mL)>CSEH (26.19 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL. CSEE (63.56%) and CSEW (56.61%) showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activities when compared with CSEH (28.57%). ABTS radical scavenging activities of CSEE (45.53%) and CSEW (40.02%) were also observed to be higher, whereas CSEH did not show ABTS radical scavenging activity. Anti-complementary activity of CSEE (26.85%) showed a greater activity than that of CSEW (7.84%) at 1,000 ?g/mL. Limonin and nomilin contents had the highest values (1.882% and 2.089%) in CSEE, and with 0.327% and 0.139% in CSEW; however, CSEH showed relatively very low values at 0.061% and 0.026%, respectively. Among the CSEs tested, CSEE as a by-product from citron may provide an important source of dietary antioxidant compounds with rich polyphenol and limonoid contents, and immunopotentiating activity, including the complement activation factor. PMID:24471132

Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

2013-01-01

382

The effect of grape seed extract on estrogen levels of postmenopausal women: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The role of estrogens in breast cancer (BC) development is widely accepted, leading to the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for BC treatment and prevention. However, because of potential adverse effects, healthy women with high risk of BC are hesitant to take them. Preliminary evidence from animal studies shows that grapes may have an aromatase-inhibiting effect, decreasing estrogen synthesis and increasing androgen precursors. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding early-phase trial on the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on estrogen levels. Postmenopausal women who met study inclusion criteria (N = 46) were randomly assigned to daily GSE at a dose of 200, 400, 600, or 800 mg for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was change in plasma levels of estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks posttreatment. Thirty-nine participants (84.8%) completed the study. GSE in the 4 daily doses did not significantly decrease estrogen or increase androgen precursors. PMID:24670122

Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Bauer, Brent A; Loehrer, Laura L; Cha, Stephen S; Hoskin, Tanya L; Olson, Janet E

2014-06-01

383

Inhibitory effect of liposomal solutions of grape seed extract on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) encapsulated in liposomes to inhibit the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) during frying of beef patties was assessed. All liposomal systems were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 22?500 psi. A total of six samples (rapeseed oil (control), GSE at 0.1% and 0.2%, and GSE-containing liposomes with 1%, 2%, and 5% soy lecithin) were investigated. MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found after the marinade application and frying. PhIP concentrations decreased upon marination with GSE (0.1%) and GSE-containing liposomes (1% and 5%) (p < 0.05). MeIQx contents decreased in all samples compared to the oil control (p < 0.01) while no effect on ?-carboline formation was observed. Results are in contrast to previous studies that had shown that liposomal encapsulation may enhance effectiveness of polyphenols to inhibit radical reactions. A mechanistic model was proposed to explain the observed differences. PMID:24313544

Natale, Daniela; Gibis, Monika; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Weiss, Jochen

2014-01-01

384

Addition of Grape Seed Extract Renders Phosphoric Acid a Collagen-stabilizing Etchant.  

PubMed

Previous studies found that grape seed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, could protect demineralized dentin collagen from collagenolytic activities following clinically relevant treatment. Because of proanthocyanidin's adverse interference to resin polymerization, it was believed that GSE should be applied and then rinsed off in a separate step, which in effect increases the complexity of the bonding procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining GSE treatment with phosphoric acid etching to address the issue. It is also the first attempt to formulate collagen-cross-linking dental etchants. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and digestion assay, it was established that in the presence of 20% to 5% phosphoric acid, 30 sec of GSE treatment rendered demineralized dentin collagen inert to bacterial collagenase digestion. Based on this positive result, the simultaneous dentin etching and collagen protecting of GSE-containing phosphoric acid was evaluated on the premise of a 30-second etching time. According to micro-Raman spectroscopy, the formulation containing 20% phosphoric acid was found to lead to overetching. Based on scanning and transmission electronic microscopy, this same formulation exhibited unsynchronized phosphoric acid and GSE penetration. Therefore, addition of GSE did render phosphoric acid a collagen-stabilizing etchant, but the preferable phosphoric acid concentration should be <20%. PMID:24935065

Liu, Y; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y

2014-06-16

385

Extraction of antioxidative and antihypertensive bioactive peptides from Parkia speciosa seeds.  

PubMed

Antioxidative and antihypertensive bioactive peptides were successfully derived from Parkia speciosa seed using alcalase. The effects of temperature (25 and 50 °C), substrate-to-enzyme ratio (S/E ratio, 20 and 50), and incubation time (0.5, 1, 2 and 5h) were evaluated based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) assays. Bioactive peptide extracted at a hydrolysis condition of: temperature=50 °C, S/E ratio=50 and incubation time=2h, exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (2.9 mg GAE/g), reducing power (11.7 mM) and %ACE-inhibitory activity (80.2%). The sample was subsequently subjected to fractionation and the peptide fraction of <10 kDa showed the strongest bioactivities. A total of 29 peptide sequences from peptide fraction of <10 kDa were identified as the most potent contributors to the bioactivities. These novel bioactive peptides were suggested to be beneficial to nutraceutical and food industries. PMID:23993504

Siow, Hwee-Leng; Gan, Chee-Yuen

2013-12-15

386

Antioxidative and hypolipidemic efficacy of alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine the antioxidative potential and antihyperlipidemic activity of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg body weight, BW). Rats with glucose levels >200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into five groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered daily with seed extract (SME) at a dosage of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and another group orally administered 600 ?g/kg BW glibenclamide daily. Repeated daily oral administration of S. macrophylla significantly reduced blood glucose levels after 45 days of treatment. The lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides of SME treated rats decreased in the plasma, liver and kidney. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were significantly increased in SME treated rats. Antioxidants such as reduced glutathione level in the plasma, liver and kidney and vitamins C and E levels in the plasma increased in SME treated rats. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids and lipoproteins levels increased. Altered lipid profile of treated rats lead to normality with treatment of S. macrophylla. Thus, our results indicate that the administration of 100 mg/kg BW SME restores near normal blood glucose, redox status and lipid profile in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:22865358

Kalpana, Kalaivanan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

2011-01-01

387

Grape-Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract as Suppressors of Bone Destruction in Inflammatory Autoimmune Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Chronic autoimmune inflammation, which is commonly observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), disrupts the delicate balance between bone resorption and formation causing thedestruction of the bone and joints. We undertook this study to verify the effects of natural grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), an antioxidant, on chronic inflammation and bone destruction. GSPE administration ameliorated the arthritic symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which are representative of cartilage and bone destruction. GSPE treatment reduced the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells and osteoclast activity and increased differentiation of mature osteoblasts. Receptor activator of NF?B ligand expression in fibroblasts from RA patients was abrogated with GSPE treatment. GSPE blocked human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived osteoclastogenesis and acted as an antioxidant. GSPE improved the arthritic manifestations of CIA mice by simultaneously suppressing osteoclast differentiation and promoting osteoblast differentiation. Our results suggest that GSPE may be beneficial for the treatment of inflammation-associated bone destruction. PMID:23251512

Oh, Hye-Joa; Woo, Yun-Ju; Lim, Mi-Ae; Lee, Jong-Ho; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Jung, Young Ok; Lee, Zang Hee; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La; Min, Jun-Ki

2012-01-01

388

Proanthocyanidin from Grape Seed Extracts Protects Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Mucosal Injury  

PubMed Central

Proanthocyanidin (grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts, GSPEs) is an antioxidant and scavenges free radicals. Excessive oxidative stress and free radical production are major components in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. We investigated the effect of GSPEs on indomethacin-induced intestinal mucosal injury in the rat. Rats were allocated into four groups: the null control group, the indomethacin control group, the low-dose GSPEs group, and the high-dose GSPEs group. GSPEs were administered for 4 days. Then indomethacin and GSPEs were coadministered for the following 2 days by oral route. The dose of indomethacin was 200?mg/Kg. The doses of GSPEs were 100?mg/Kg for low-dose group and 300?mg/Kg for high-dose group. Luminal bleeding was solely observed in one of 5 rats from indomethacin control group. The number of ulcer count was reduced to 0.1 ± 0.3 per rat in GSPEs treated group compared to 1.4 ± 0.5 per rat in indomethacin control group. Submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration was also reduced to 50% in GSPEs treated group. The tissue level of prostaglandin E2 was not affected by GSPEs treatment. GSPEs attenuated the indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury irrespective of the tissue PGE2 depletion and glutathione consumption. PMID:24868202

Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jae Kwang

2014-01-01

389

Role of leaf extracts of some medicinal plants in the management of seed-borne fungal diseases of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to manage the fungal pathogens in okra, seeds of variety Arka Anamika were subjected to soaking treatment with the aqueous leaf extracts of Coleus aromaticus, Adathoda vasica, Vitex negundo, Solanum nigrum, Leucas aspera, Ocimum sanctum and Catharanthus roseus. Among the extracts used, Coleus aromaticus, Vitex negundo extracts were found superior in reducing the incidence of mycoflora. These leaf

Mashooda Begum; S. Lokesh; V. B. Raghavendra

2009-01-01

390

Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini seed extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and bio-inspired Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) were synthesized using Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) seed extract, which is a non-toxic ecofriendly fruit waste material. S. cumini seed extract acts as a green solvent, reducing and capping agent in which sodium acetate acts as electrostatic stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis techniques. The XRD study divulged that the synthesized SMNPs have inverse spinel cubic structure. The hysteresis loop of Fe3O4 nanoparticles shows an excellent ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization value of 13.6 emu/g.

Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prasad, C. H.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

2014-09-01

391

Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos. PMID:25056942

Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria

2014-10-01

392

Valorization of an agro-industrial waste, mango seed, by the extraction and characterization of its cellulose nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Mango seeds are lignocellulosic agro-industrial residues available in large quantities in tropical countries and are simply discarded or used as animal feed. They are a natural and renewable resource, and were used to generate new polymeric materials in this work. This new materials can be used as alternatives to fossil resources such as petroleum. This work aimed to extract and characterize cellulose nanocrystals (CN) from mango seed by acid hydrolysis to obtain a material suitable as a reinforcing agent in the manufacturing of nanocomposites. The fibers of mango seeds were ground in mills and purified mainly to remove lignin. The raw mango seed (MS) and the purified mango seed (PMS) were analyzed for chemical composition and characterized by infrared and X-rays. Cellulose nanocrystals from the mango seed (CNM) were isolated by acid hydrolysis at 40 °C for 10 min, with 20 ml of H2SO4 (11.21 M) used for every gram of cellulose. The yield at this step was 22.8%. CNM were needle-shaped, with high crystallinity (90.6%), good thermal stability (around 248 °C), a medium length (L) of 123.4 ± 22.1 nm and a diameter (D) of 4.59 ± 2.22 nm, giving an aspect ratio (L/D) of about 34.1 ± 18.6. The diameter measurements of CNM were also confirmed by Scherrer's equation. This work also aimed to reuse mango seed produced as industrial waste, giving it a useful application and preventing its role as an environmental pollutant. PMID:23542530

Henrique, Mariana Alves; Silvério, Hudson Alves; Flauzino Neto, Wilson Pires; Pasquini, Daniel

2013-05-30

393

Effects of roasting on pyrazine contents and oxidative stability of red pepper seed oil prior to its extraction.  

PubMed

Red pepper seeds were roasted with constant stirring for 6, 9, 10, and 12 min at 210 degrees C, and oils were extracted from the roasted red pepper seeds using an expeller. The iodine values and fatty acid compositions of red pepper seed oils did not change with roasting time. The fatty acid composition of the oil obtained from the red pepper seeds roasted for 6 min was 0.24% myristic acid, 13. 42% palmitic acid, 0.33% palmitoleic acid, 2.07% stearic acid, 10. 18% oleic acid, 73.89% linoleic acid, and 0.37% linolenic acid, showing a fatty acid composition similar to that of high-linoleate safflower oil. Thirteen alkylpyrazines were identified in the roasted red pepper seed oils: 2-methylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, 2,6-diethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, 2, 3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 2-isobutyl-3-methylpyrazine, and 3, 5-diethyl 2-methylpyrazine. The pyrazine content increased markedly as the roasting time increased, showing 2.63, 5.01, 8.48, and 13.10 mg of total pyrazine/100 g of oils from the red pepper seeds roasted for 6, 8, 10, and 12 min, respectively, at 210 degrees C. 2, 5-Dimethylpyrazine in the roasted red pepper seed oil seemed to be the component most responsible for the pleasant nutty aroma of the oils. The oxidative stabilities of oils increased greatly as the roasting time increased. PMID:10564041

Jung, M Y; Bock, J Y; Baik, S O; Lee, J H; Lee, T K

1999-04-01

394

Evaluation of chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of lemon seed extracts on human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells.  

PubMed

Extracts from lemon seed were investigated for the radical scavenging activity and apoptotic effects in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells and non-malignant breast (MCF-12F) cells for the first time. Defatted seed powder was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol (MeOH), and MeOH:water (80:20). The chemical constituents were identified and quantified by LC-MS and HPLC analysis, respectively. The highest radical scavenging activity of 62.2% and 91.3% was exhibited by MeOH:water (80:20) at 833?g/mL in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)), respectively. In addition, the MeOH:water (80:20) extract showed the highest (29.1%, P<0.01) inhibition of MCF-7 cells in MTT assay. Treatment of the MeOH:water (80:20) extract induced DNA fragmentation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Increased levels of Bax and cytosolic cytochrome C and decreased levels of Bcl2 were also observed in MeOH:water (80:20) treated MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, the MeOH:water (80:20) extract from lemon seed has potent antioxidant activity and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, leading to the inhibition of proliferation. These results suggest that aglycones and glucosides of the limonoids and flavonoid present in MeOH:water (80:20) extract may potentially serve as a chemopreventive agent for breast cancer. PMID:22056335

Kim, Jinhee; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Uckoo, Ram M; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

2012-02-01

395

Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE) alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1). ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2) in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers. PMID:24624140

Sharma, Chhavi; Vas, Andrea J.; Goala, Payal; Gheewala, Taher M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-01-01

396

Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE) alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1). ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2) in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers. PMID:24624140

Sharma, Chhavi; Vas, Andrea J; Goala, Payal; Gheewala, Taher M; Rizvi, Tahir A; Hussain, Arif

2014-01-01

397

Selection of optimal conditions for separating lignan-containing extract from oil flax seed by thin-layer chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimum conditions for separating a lignan-containing extract from seeds of the oil flax (Linum usitatissimum) by thin-layer chromatography were identified. Elution using the method proposed here allowed identification of a brilliant\\u000a blue fluorescent spot associated with the main lignan, which was secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), giving clear identification\\u000a of this component in mixtures even without a standard. This method can

O. V. Stasevich; S. G. Mikhalenok; V. P. Kurchenko

2009-01-01

398

Optimizing mechanical oil extraction of Jatropha curcas L. seeds with respect to press capacity, oil recovery and energy efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to optimize the mechanical oil extraction of Jatropha curcas seeds by increasing the efficiency of oil recovery and decreasing oil residues in press cake. The experiments were carried out with mechanical screw press type – Komet D85-1G. Four setups were created by parameter combination of two different screws (16 and 21.5mm choke ring size),

S. Karaj; J. Müller

2011-01-01

399

Grape Seed Extract Acting on Astrocytes Reveals Neuronal Protection Against Oxidative Stress via Interleukin6-mediated Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape polyphenols are known to protect neurons against oxidative stress. We used grape seed extract (GSE) from “Koshu” grapes\\u000a (Vitis vinifera) containing a variety of polyphenols, and performed transcriptome analysis to determine the effects of GSE on primary cultures\\u000a of astrocytes in the hippocampus. GSE upregulated various mRNAs for cytokines, among which interleukin-6 (IL-6) showed the\\u000a biggest increase after treatment

Kayoko Fujishita; Tetsuro Ozawa; Keisuke Shibata; Shihori Tanabe; Yoji Sato; Masashi Hisamoto; Tohru Okuda; Schuichi Koizumi

2009-01-01

400

Effects of Moringa oleifera seed extract on rumen fermentation in vitro.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot blot assay able to directly detect true protein in rumen fluid samples was used to quantify protein degradation. For complex substrates the interpretation of protein degradation profiles was amended by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of the samples. When incubated with pure carbohydrates at a concentration of 1 mg ml(-1), the extract reduced microbial degradation of the model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), such that its concentration was at least 40% above the control after 12 h of incubation. Total protein degradation was thus delayed by approximately 9 h. When fermented along with wheat straw, leaf protein (Rubisco) was almost entirely protected during 12 h of fermentation. The degradation of soy proteins was retarded by at least 4-6 h, depending on the protein band. There were strong side effects on the fermentation of pure cellulose (SCFA yield-60% after 12 h), whereas cellobiose and starch fermentation were less affected (-18 and -8%, respectively). When the complex substrates were fermented, SCFA yield was reduced by approximately 30% after 12 h. In our work we clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the new substance, which is neither a tannin nor a saponin, in an in vitro system, using pure as well as complex substrates. The properties shown in vitro for the crude extract suggest that it could have a positive effect on the protein metabolism of ruminants under intensive management and that negative side effects can be overcome by an optimized dosage. If the chemical nature of the active substance and its mechanism of action can be clarified, it may provide an alternative to replace critical synthetic feed additives (such as antibiotics) for high yielding dairy cows. PMID:12801080

Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Becker, K

2003-02-01

401

The enhancing effects of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on fertility potential, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone in male rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The task force on plants for fertility regulation in men continued with its program to identify novel prototypes in plants alleged to have fertility regulating properties. Nigella Sativa seeds are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and treatment of many ailments. Objective: To evaluated the role of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on fertility potential, Pituitary-testicular axis hormones and Testosterone in male rats. Materials and Methods: 24 male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; control, group A and group B, each group comprising of 8 rats. Animals in control group received 1 ml of normal saline and treatment groups (A and B) received (gavage) graded doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on a daily basis for 60 days. At the end of treatment period, fertility parameters such as body and reproductive organs weight, sperm motility, viability and count, epididymal sperm reserve (ESR), daily sperm production (DSP), blood testosterone concentration, Gonadotropins levels and fertility index were measured. Results: There was a significant difference in testes and epididymidis weight, sperm count, ESR, DSP, blood testosterone concentration, LH and fertility index in both the lower dose group and the higher group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed especially in higher doses could increase fertility potential, LH and testosterone concentration in male rats. PMID:25246898

Parandin, Rahmatollah; Yousofvand, Namdar; Ghorbani, Rostam

2012-01-01

402

Rice, indica (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Indica varieties, which are generally recalcitrant to tissue culture and transformation, occupy 80 % of rice cultivation area in the world. Therefore, transformation method for indica rice must be improved greatly so that global rice production would take full advantage of cutting-edge biotechnology. An efficient protocol for indica transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is hereby described. Immature embryos collected from plants in a greenhouse are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens after pretreatment with heat and centrifuging. The protocol was successfully tested in many elite indica cultivars such as IR8, IR24, IR58025B, IR64, IR72, Suweon 258, and Nanjing 11, yielding between 5 and 15 of independent transgenic plants per immature embryo. The use of immature embryos is recommended because gene transfer to them could be much more efficient and much less genotype dependent than gene transfer to callus. PMID:25300838

Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

2015-01-01

403

Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from Nigella sativa with anti cancer acitivity. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Organic extracts of Nigella sativa seed powder for its clonogenic inhibition and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cancer cell. Results Methanolic, n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa seedz effectively killed HeLa cells. The IC50 values of methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa were 2.28 ?g/ml, 2.20 ?g/ml and 0.41 ng/ml, respectively. All three extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, western blot and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Conclusion Western Blot and TUNEL results suggested that Nigella sativa seed extracts regulated the expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes, indicating its possible development as a potential therapeutic agent for cervical cancer upon further investigation. PMID:19943925

2009-01-01

404

Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction and Quantification of Alpinetin in Amomum Seed using Validated HPLC and HPTLC Methods  

PubMed Central

Alpinetin is a flavonoidal constituent of seeds of Amomum subulatum Roxb., recently reported to possess vasorelaxant and antiHIV activities. Simple, accurate and precise HPLC and HPTLC methods were developed for the analysis of alpinetin in A. subulatum seed extracts and extraction technique was optimized to get maximum yield using conventional, ultrasonic and matrix solid phase dispersion extraction. HPLC was performed on a C18 column with methanol and water (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min whereas HPTLC on silica aluminum sheet (60F254) using toluene, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as solvent system. A sharp peak was obtained for alpinetin at a retention time (Rt) of 5.7 min by HPLC and retardation factor (Rf) of 0.48 by HPTLC. Both methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines and the content of alpinetin was estimated in different extracts. Matrix solid phase dispersion technique was found most suitable for extracting alpinetin as compared to other techniques. Validation data are indicative of good precision and accuracy and proved the reliability of the methods.

Singh, M.; Kamal, Y. T.; Khan, M. A.; Parveen, Rabea; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, S.

2015-01-01

405

Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds.  

PubMed

Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi

2013-04-01

406

Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds  

PubMed Central

Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi

2013-01-01

407

Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction and Quantification of Alpinetin in Amomum Seed using Validated HPLC and HPTLC Methods.  

PubMed

Alpinetin is a flavonoidal constituent of seeds of Amomum subulatum Roxb., recently reported to possess vasorelaxant and antiHIV activities. Simple, accurate and precise HPLC and HPTLC methods were developed for the analysis of alpinetin in A. subulatum seed extracts and extraction technique was optimized to get maximum yield using conventional, ultrasonic and matrix solid phase dispersion extraction. HPLC was performed on a C18 column with methanol and water (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min whereas HPTLC on silica aluminum sheet (60F254) using toluene, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as solvent system. A sharp peak was obtained for alpinetin at a retention time (Rt) of 5.7 min by HPLC and retardation factor (Rf) of 0.48 by HPTLC. Both methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines and the content of alpinetin was estimated in different extracts. Matrix solid phase dispersion technique was found most suitable for extracting alpinetin as compared to other techniques. Validation data are indicative of good precision and accuracy and proved the reliability of the methods. PMID:25767318

Singh, M; Kamal, Y T; Khan, M A; Parveen, Rabea; Ansari, S H; Ahmad, S

2015-01-01

408

AGROBACTERIUM -MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF INDICA RICE CULTIVARS GROWN IN VIETNAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been performed on 5 indica cultivars grown in Vietnam. Embryogenic calli derived from mature seeds were inoculated with A. tumefaciens LBA4044 in which the T-DNA contained plasmid pSBbarB-UbiCre or plasmid pSB35L-Hyg-L-Gus. Transformation efficiency recorded as the number of independent transgenic plants showing Southern blot + per the number

TRAN THI; CUC HOA; AMIRHUSIN BAHAGIAWATI; THOMAS K. HODGES

409

Safety evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data

Sara J. Boeke; Marelle G. Boersma; Gerrit M. Alink; Joop J. A. van Loon; Arnold van Huis; Marcel Dicke; Ivonne M. C. M. Rietjens

2004-01-01

410

Insecticidal activities of bark, leaf and seed extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.  

PubMed

The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii) is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis]), a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis), and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis). The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female), but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides. PMID:25525826

Overgaard, Hans J; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl E; Wangensteen, Helle; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Paulsen, Berit S; Massamba, Daniel; Duchon, Stephane; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice

2014-01-01

411

Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic beta-cell death is known to be the cause of deficient insulin production in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of beta-cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS) extract on beta-cell death. Oral administration of PCS extract resulted in a significant improvement of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PCS extract treatment improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. To study the mechanisms involved, we investigated the effects of PCS extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Treatment with PCS extract inhibited cell death. PCS extract treatment decreased reactive oxygen species level and activated antioxidative enzymes. Among the major components of PCS extract, psoralen and isopsoralen (coumarins), but not bakuchiol, showed preventive effects against H2O2-induced beta-cell death. These findings indicate that PCS extract may be a potential pharmacological agent to protect against pancreatic beta-cell damage caused by oxidative stress associated with diabetes. PMID:24803987

Seo, Eunhui; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Lee, Cheol Soon; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Young; Jun, Hee-Sook

2014-01-01

412

EPR study of the toxicological effects of gas-phase cigarette smoke and the protective effects of grape seed extract on the mitochondrial membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping and spin labeling techniques were used to study the effects of grape seed extract\\u000a on the biophysical propertiers of the mitochondrial membrane exposed to gas-phase cigarette smoke. The spin trapping results\\u000a indicated that grape seed extract can effectively scavenge free radicals in cigarette smoke and the lipid free radicals generated\\u000a from the lipid peroxidation of

J. Gao; H. Tang; Y. Li; H. Liu; B. Zhao I

2002-01-01

413

Chemiluminescent screening of quenching effects of natural colorants against reactive oxygen species: Evaluation of grape seed, monascus, gardenia and red radish extracts as multi-functional food additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quenching effects of commercial available natural colorants against reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated. The effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the quenching ratio of chemiluminescence (CL) intensity with each colorant on luminol or methyl-6-(p-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidaz[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-one CL induced by ROS. As a result, the grape seed extracts and polyphenolics dose-dependently quenched CL. The quenching effects of grape seed extract A at

M. Wada; H. Kido; K. Ohyama; T. Ichibangase; N. Kishikawa; Y. Ohba; M. N. Nakashima; N. Kuroda; K. Nakashima

2007-01-01

414

Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is known to be an effective natural polyphenol capable of removing free radicals in vivo. It has been reported that GSPE has biological functions including antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-radiation, and prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the effects of GSPE on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats induced with low-dose streptozotocin and a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. Rats (n=12 per group) were administered GSPE at either a low (125 mg/kg · bw), medium (250 mg/kg · bw) or high (500 mg/kg · bw) dose, while control rats and diabetes mellitus group rats received no specific treatment. After 16 weeks, GSPE slightly increased body weight and decreased food consumption, water intake and urine volume in rats. Diabetic rats treated with GSPE demonstrated decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). GSPE significantly improved renal function parameters, reduced the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and also increased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, GSPE (particularly at a dose of 500 mg/kg · bw) increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the levels of c-reactive proteins (P<0.01) in serum and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-?, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P<0.05) in the kidney. These findings suggest that GSPE ameliorates renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats through its antioxidative activity and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25351255

Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Dai, Xiaoqian; Ding, Ye; Jiang, Yanfei; Li, Yujie; Li, Yong

2015-01-01

415

Chemopreventive effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on Chang liver cells.  

PubMed

In an attempt to ameliorate the chemotherapy associated normal cell toxicity, in this study a known antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) using Chang liver cells has been used. Chang liver cells were treated in vitro with idarubicin (Ida) (30 nM) and 4-hydroxyperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC) (1 microg/ml) with or without proanthocyanidin (25 microg/ml). The cells were grown in vitro and the growth rate of the cells were determined using MTT assay. The results showed that the GSPE decreased growth inhibitory effects of Ida and 4-HC on Chang liver cells in vitro. Since these chemotherapeutic agents are known to induce apoptosis in the target cells, these cells were also analyzed for presence of apoptotic cells using flow cytometry. The GSPE decreased the number of apoptotic cell population induced by either chemotherapy. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms of ameliorating effects of proanthocyanidin, the expression of apoptosis/cell cycle/growth related genes, Bcl-2, p53 and c-myc was determined in the treated and control cells using Western blotting or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. There was an increased expression of Bcl-2 in the cells treated with GSPE. However, there was a significant decrease in the expression of other cell cycle related genes such as p53 and c-myc in these cells following treatment with GSPE. Thus, these results indicate that proanthocyanidin can be a potential candidate to ameliorate the toxic effects associated with chemotherapeutic agents used in treatment of cancer. PMID:11154800

Joshi, S S; Kuszynski, C A; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

2000-11-30

416