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1

Evaluation of acute toxicity of water extract of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds in rats.  

PubMed

This study 'in vivo' was applied on rats "Rattus norvegicus" to determine the acute toxicity of water extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds during 48 hours and the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values were calculated. Different doses of A. indica water extracts of leaves and seeds were injected to the rats (Rattus norvegicus) and the percentage of death was recorded during 48 hours. The present study, found that the percentage of death in all treated rats with A. indica leaves and seeds water extracts were increased by doses increased (R2 = 0.9). Rats injected with higher doses of water extract ofA. indica leaves (0.1 and 0.092 g mL(-1)) and seeds (0.2 g mL(-1)) showed 100% death. The LD50 of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds were 6.2, 9.4 mL kg(-1), respectively. Based on these results, it may be concluded that doses of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds injected to rats showed significant acute toxicity. PMID:24505996

Bakr, Shori Amal

2013-07-15

2

Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal activity in seed extracts of Mangifera indica.  

PubMed

Mangifera indica is commonly grown in many parts of the world. Its seeds have been used for anti-diarrhoeal activity in Indian traditional medicine. This study evaluates the potential anti-diarrhoeal activity of methanolic (MMI) and aqueous (AMI) extracts of seeds of M. indica in experimental diarrhoea, induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice. Both MMI and AMI were given orally in the dose of 250 mg/kg, showed significant anti-diarrhoeal activity comparable with that of the standard drug loperamide. However, only MMI significantly reduced intestinal transit in charcoal meal test as compared with atropine sulphate (5 mg/kg; im). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of MMI and AMI showed variable results. While, AMI significantly inhibited growth of Streptococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris, both MMI and AMI did not show any significant effect on growth of E. coli and Klebsiella. The results illustrate that the extracts of M. indica have significant anti-diarrhoeal activity and part of the activity of MMI may be attributed to its effect on intestinal transit. PMID:12499070

Sairam, K; Hemalatha, S; Kumar, Ashok; Srinivasan, T; Ganesh, Jai; Shankar, M; Venkataraman, S

2003-01-01

3

Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).  

PubMed

A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h. PMID:22270115

González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

2012-03-01

4

The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (leguminosae) seed extract.  

PubMed

In Indian traditional medicine, various plants have been used widely as a remedy for treating snake bites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica seed extract on the pharmacological as well as the enzymatic effects induced by V. russelli venom. Tamarind seed extract inhibited the PLA(2), protease, hyaluronidase, l-amino acid oxidase and 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activities of venom in a dose-dependent manner. These are the major hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the early effects of envenomation, such as local tissue damage, inflammation and hypotension. Furthermore, the extract neutralized the degradation of the Bbeta chain of human fibrinogen and indirect hemolysis caused by venom. It was also observed that the extract exerted a moderate effect on the clotting time, prolonging it only to a small extent. Edema, hemorrhage and myotoxic effects including lethality, induced by venom were neutralized significantly when different doses of the extract were preincubated with venom before the assays. On the other hand, animals that received extract 10 min after the injection of venom were protected from venom induced toxicity. Since it inhibits hydrolytic enzymes and pharmacological effects, it may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of PLA(2), metalloproteinases, serine proteases, hyaluronidases and 5 cent-nucleotidases, the enzymes involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases. PMID:16847999

Ushanandini, S; Nagaraju, S; Harish Kumar, K; Vedavathi, M; Machiah, D K; Kemparaju, K; Vishwanath, B S; Gowda, T V; Girish, K S

2006-10-01

5

Efficacy of Azadirachta indica extracts against Boophilus microplus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts were prepared from leaf, bark, and seed of Azadirachta indica, leaf and seed of Prunus persica, bark of Mangifera indica, and leaf of Psidium guajava and were evaluated against Boophilus microplus. Of the eight extracts screened, the extracts prepared from the A. indica seed showed very high level of efficacy (80%) after 5 h of treatment. Besides the immediate effect

Rahul Srivastava; S. Ghosh; D. B. Mandal; P. Azhahianambi; P. S. Singhal; N. N. Pandey; D. Swarup

2008-01-01

6

EFFECT OF NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.JUSS) SEED EXTRACTS AGAINST GREATER WAX MOTH (GALLERIA MELLONELLA L.) LARVAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed (NSE) at different concentrations, viz., 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4%, were tested against Greater wax moth, (Galleria mellonella L.). Post spray mean mortality (83.33%) of the pest insect was with 4% aqueous NSE, followed by 73.33%, 56.67%, 50%, 50 % with 3, 2, 1 and 0.5 per cent NSE as compared to

M. Izhar-ul-Haq; Muhammad Saleem; Sohail Ahmed

7

Nutritional Composition, in vitro Antioxidant Activity and Artemia salina L. Lethality of Pulp and Seed of Tamarindus indica L. Extracts.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and medium lethal concentration (LC50 value) of Tamarindus indica L. pulp and seed extracts in vitro. The extraction was set at 40?C, 60?C and 100?C for 12 hours, 6 hours and 15 minutes respectively to determine the optimum extraction parameter whereas the anti-oxidant activity of the extracts was measured using iron (III) reduction (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts was estimated as gallic acid equivalent by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Toxicity potential of the extract was assessed in vitro by Artemia salina lethality test both in seed and pulp samples. The results showed that tamarind seed contained a higher percentage of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy (15%, 82%, 95% and 33.13% respectively) than the pulp. On the other hand, the pulp demonstrated a high moisture (51.1%) and ash (34.84%) content than the seed. For the mineral analysis, tamarind seed contained higher Ca and C (1.0% and 50.73% respectively) than the pulp (0.27% and 40.40% respectively). No heavy metals were detected in both samples. Seed extracted at 60?C/6 hours and 100?C/15 minutes showed the highest TPC value and were significantly different (p<0.05) than the seed extracted at 40?C/12 hours. Anti-oxidant activity is positively correlated to the TPC value of the extracts (R=0.991). The pulp and seed extracted at 100?C/15 minutes showed the highest FRAP value among its groups (216.17 ± 14.06 ?mol (Fe)/g and 659.74 ± 16.40 ?mol (Fe)/g respectively). This study indicates that tamarind pulp and seed extracts possess beneficial antioxidant properties and the optimum extraction parameter is 100?C for 15 minutes. In Artemia salina lethality test, tamarind pulp caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC50 in the range of 26-28 ?L/mL. Tamarind seed were not toxic to Artemia salina since the LC50 of the extracts was higher than 1000 ?L/mL. PMID:22691806

Khairunnuur, F A; Zulkhairi, A; Azrina, A; Moklas, Ma M; Khairullizam, S; Zamree, M S; Shahidan, M A

2009-03-01

8

Inhibitive and Adsorption Properties of Ethanol Extract of Seeds and Leaves of Azadirachta Indica on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion of mild steel in H 2SO 4 was studied using gravimetric, gasometric and IR methods. The results indicate that the rate of corrosion of mild steel in H 2SO 4 increases with increase in the concentration of the acid and that ethanol extracts of the seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica inhibit the corrosion of mild steel in

N. O. Eddy; P. A. P. Mamza

2009-01-01

9

In vitro acaricidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts with known azadirachtin concentrations against Rhipicephalus microplus.  

PubMed

The effect of four extracts from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) containing 2000, 5000, 9000 and 10,000 ppm of azadirachtin A (AZA), quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diluted to 1.25%; 2.5%; 5.0%; 10.0% and 12.8% was verified by in vitro tests with engorged females and larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The results from the bioassays with the engorged females showed that the main toxic effect of the extracts was reduction of the reproductive parameters, with a sharp drop in the number of eggs laid and the hatching rate, mainly when the extracts were diluted to 10.0% and 12.8%. The product effectiveness (PE) calculations for all the solutions tested showed that the AZA solution at 10,000 ppm (N10) was the most effective. However, statistical analysis of the PE data obtained for the proportional AZA concentrations in the different diluted extracts showed significance (P<0.05) of the effects included in the model (extract dilution, principle effect (classificatory) of the assay (extract) and the interaction between the two), indicating significant variations due to the dilution, the test and the interaction between the two factors in the tests with engorged females. For solutions N2, N5, and N9, it was not possible to estimate LC(90) values in the dilution range tested. The lowest LC(50) was observed for extract N5, and although extract N10 was the only extract for which the LC(90) could be estimated within the range tested, the LC(50) was higher than for N5 and N9. These results suggest that substances other than AZA present in the extracts influenced the efficacy, especially up to a certain LC range. In the tests with larvae, no mortality was observed, indicating zero effectiveness of all the extracts tested. The results of the tests with engorged females showed that the neem extracts had acaricide activity, inhibiting egg laying and the larval hatching rate. Complementary studies are necessary to develop new methods to isolate and/or identify other substances besides AZA contained in this plant, to enable using products made from it as acaricides. PMID:21536387

Giglioti, R; Forim, M R; Oliveira, H N; Chagas, A C S; Ferrezini, J; Brito, L G; Falcoski, T O R S; Albuquerque, L G; Oliveira, M C S

2011-09-27

10

Toxicity of neem (Azadirachta Indica) seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents, on the spider chiracanthium mildei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of neem seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents against the predatory spider,Chiracanthium mildei L. Koch, was investigated. The order of toxicity of the 4% extracts was pentane < acetone < ethanol << methanol = water (nontoxic).\\u000a All extracts were nontoxic at 2.5%.

F. A. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; N. Omari

1986-01-01

11

[Effects of tomato genotypes and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].  

PubMed

Insecticide plants are an important tool among the new alternatives for pest control in IPM systems because they reduce the use of synthetic insecticides, preserving human health and the environment. We investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds and three tomato genotypes, 'Santa Clara', 'IPA-5'--Solanum lycopersicum (=Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), and LA444-1--S. peruvianum (=L. peruvianum), on the development, reproduction and longevity of the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), under laboratory conditions. The trials were set up in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments [three genotypes x two extracts (M. azedarach and A. indica) and control]. The replication consisted on five tubes, each with three newly hatched larvae, totalizing 90 individuals per treatment. The larvae were fed with tomato leaves treated with aqueous extracts at 0.1% concentration or distilled water (control) and daily observed until adults' emergence. Larval and pupal development and mortality, pupal weight, longevity and fecundity were evaluated. The accession LA444-1 negatively affected the development and reproduction of T. absoluta; the tomato pinworm had similar development and reproduction on 'IPA-5' and 'Santa Clara' (the susceptible control). The association of resistant tomato genotypes and extracts of M. azedarach leaves and neem seeds did not result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on T. absoluta. PMID:21120389

Brunherotto, Rogério; Vendramim, José D; de G Oriani, Maria A

2010-01-01

12

In vivo anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the in vivo anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta indica seeds to justify their use in South-Asia by traditional animal healers. Seeds of A. indica were administered as crude powder (CP), crude aqueous (CAE) and crude methanolic extracts (CME) at the doses of 1 and 3g\\/kg of body weight to sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes.

Z. Iqbal; M. Lateef; A. Jabbar; A. H. Gilani

2010-01-01

13

Transmission blocking activity of a standardized neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extract on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in its vector Anopheles stephensi  

PubMed Central

Background The wide use of gametocytocidal artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) lead to a reduction of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in several African endemic settings. An increased impact on malaria burden may be achieved through the development of improved transmission-blocking formulations, including molecules complementing the gametocytocidal effects of artemisinin derivatives and/or acting on Plasmodium stages developing in the vector. Azadirachtin, a limonoid (tetranortriterpenoid) abundant in neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae) seeds, is a promising candidate, inhibiting Plasmodium exflagellation in vitro at low concentrations. This work aimed at assessing the transmission-blocking potential of NeemAzal®, an azadirachtin-enriched extract of neem seeds, using the rodent malaria in vivo model Plasmodium berghei/Anopheles stephensi. Methods Anopheles stephensi females were offered a blood-meal on P. berghei infected, gametocytaemic BALB/c mice, treated intraperitoneally with NeemAzal, one hour before feeding. The transmission-blocking activity of the product was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence, oocyst density and capacity to infect healthy mice. To characterize the anti-plasmodial effects of NeemAzal® on early midgut stages, i.e. zygotes and ookinetes, Giemsa-stained mosquito midgut smears were examined. Results NeemAzal® completely blocked P. berghei development in the vector, at an azadirachtin dose of 50 mg/kg mouse body weight. The totally 138 examined, treated mosquitoes (three experimental replications) did not reveal any oocyst and none of the healthy mice exposed to their bites developed parasitaemia. The examination of midgut content smears revealed a reduced number of zygotes and post-zygotic forms and the absence of mature ookinetes in treated mosquitoes. Post-zygotic forms showed several morphological alterations, compatible with the hypothesis of an azadirachtin interference with the functionality of the microtubule organizing centres and with the assembly of cytoskeletal microtubules, which are both fundamental processes in Plasmodium gametogenesis and ookinete formation. Conclusions This work demonstrated in vivo transmission blocking activity of an azadirachtin-enriched neem seed extract at an azadirachtin dose compatible with 'druggability' requisites. These results and evidence of anti-plasmodial activity of neem products accumulated over the last years encourage to convey neem compounds into the drug discovery & development pipeline and to evaluate their potential for the design of novel or improved transmission-blocking remedies.

2010-01-01

14

Biosorption of aqueous chromium(VI) by Tamarindus indica seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of low cost agro-based materials namely, Tamarindus indica seed (TS), crushed coconut shell (CS), almond shell (AS), ground nut shell (GS) and walnut shell (WS) were evaluated for Cr(VI) removal. Batch test indicated that hexavalent chromium sorption capacity (qe) followed the sequence qe(TS)>qe(WS)>qe(AS)>qe(GS)>qe(CS). Due to high sorptive capacity, tamarind seed was selected for detailed sorption studies. Sorption kinetic

G. S. Agarwal; Hitendra Kumar Bhuptawat; Sanjeev Chaudhari

2006-01-01

15

Hair waving natural product: Dillenia indica seed sap.  

PubMed

Knowing keratin is the main component and mechanical strength of hair a study was performed to evaluate whether Dillenia indica seed sap can affect molecular strength of hair or not. In the present study the human hair collected from barber shop waste were subjected to purified sap for 12 h and then analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for documenting evidence for keratin degradation. Further the deterioration was confirmed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:23124020

Saikia, Jyoti Prasad

2013-02-01

16

Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 ± 2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26 ± 2 °C; -38 ± 2 °C; and -26 ± 2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher ( P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers.

Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

2013-01-01

17

Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26?±?2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38?±?2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26?±?2 °C; -38?±?2 °C; and -26?±?2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38?±?2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower (P?

Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

2013-01-01

18

DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACT OF VITIS INDICA  

PubMed Central

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Vitis indica were tested for diuretic activity in rats. The parameters studied on individual rats were body weight before and after test period, total urine volume, urine concentration of Na+,Ka+ and Cr. In the present study, alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Vitis indica leaves (200 mg/kg body weight) shows increase in urine volume, cationic and anionic excretion. Fruosemide (100 mg/kg body weight) is used as a standard.

Sunilson, J. Anbujeba; Venkatenarayanan, R.; Thangathirupathi, A.; Saraswathi, A.; Praveen, M.; Anithagnanakumari, A. V.

2004-01-01

19

Diuretic activity of the extract of vitis indica.  

PubMed

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Vitis indica were tested for diuretic activity in rats. The parameters studied on individual rats were body weight before and after test period, total urine volume, urine concentration of Na+,Ka+ and Cr. In the present study, alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Vitis indica leaves (200 mg/kg body weight) shows increase in urine volume, cationic and anionic excretion. Fruosemide (100 mg/kg body weight) is used as a standard. PMID:22557137

Sunilson, J Anbujeba; Venkatenarayanan, R; Thangathirupathi, A; Saraswathi, A; Praveen, M; Anithagnanakumari, A V

2004-04-01

20

Antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts of Coccinia indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactive compounds of fruits of Coccinia indica were investigated for antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria. The aqueous extracts did not show much significant activity, while the organic extracts (petroleum ether and methanol) showed the highest activity against the test bacteria. The activity was more pronounced on gram-positive organisms with Staphylococcus aureus being more susceptible and Salmonella paratyphi A

Syed Zeenat Shaheen; Krishna Boll; Kandukuri Vasu; M. A. Singar

2009-01-01

21

Purification of Azadirachta indica seed cake and its impact on nutritional and antinutritional factors.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica Juss. (family Meliaceae) is a vital plant with multiple agricultural and medicinal utilities. The seed cake after oil extraction can be a good source of nutrition in animal feed. The limitation to its use is the presence of azadirachtin, salannin, and other bitter constituents. To make it palatable for use as a source of animal nutrition it was detoxified using 50 and 80% methanol and was analyzed for contents of azadirachtin, salannin, and nutritional contents such as total carbohydrates, protein, crude fiber, in vitro protein digestibility, and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), prior to and after purification. The contents of azadirachtin and salannin were quantified using HPTLC and HPLC. Various validation parameters were also investigated. A highly significant decrease of antinutritional factor (TIA) was recorded after purification of samples, retaining the contents of protein, carbohydrates, crude fiber, and in vitro protein digestibility. The purified seed cake was found to be free of azadirachtin and salannin contents. PMID:20218605

Saxena, Mohanji; Ravikanth, Kotagiri; Kumar, Abhishek; Gupta, Ashish; Singh, Brijpal; Sharma, Anirudh

2010-04-28

22

Antiinflammatory evaluation of a Pluchea indica root extract.  

PubMed

A methanolic fraction of a chloroform extract of defatted Pluchea indica roots was investigated for its antiinflammatory potential against several models of inflammation. The extract showed significant inhibitory activity against carrageenin-, histamine-, serotonin-, hyaluronidase- and sodium urate-induced pedal inflammation. The extract inhibited protein exudation and leucocyte migration. The extract also inhibited carrageenin- and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation as well as turpentine-induced joint oedema and adjuvant-induced polyarthritis. The present observations establish the efficacy of the extract in the exudative, proliferative and chronic stages of inflammation. PMID:1943162

Sen, T; Nag Chaudhuri, A K

1991-01-01

23

Comparative efficacy of Annona squamosa and Azadirachta indica extracts against Boophilus microplus Izatnagar isolate.  

PubMed

In the search of developing herbal acaricides, eight medicinal plants were screened for their efficacy against Boophilus microplus, the widely distributed tick species in India. Of the seven extracts screened, the extracts prepared from the Annona squamosa seed showed very high level of efficacy (70.8%) after 24 h of treatment. The effect of treatment on oviposition of the survived ticks was also assessed, and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the reproductive index was noted in comparison to control. When efficacy of the in vitro optimized concentration of A. squamosa was compared with previously tested extract of Azadirachta indica in in vivo model, it was observed that the extracts prepared from A. indica is more efficacious than the extracts of A. squamosa. A comparable efficacy against B. microplus fed on animals treated with herbal extracts and commonly used synthetic acaricide was noted. The possibility of using the herbal extracts in IPM format for the management of ticks is discussed. PMID:19557436

Magadum, Shivanand; Mondal, D B; Ghosh, S

2009-10-01

24

Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves  

PubMed Central

Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

Escalona-Arranz, Julio Cesar; Peres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodriguez-Amado, Jesus; Licea-Jimenez, Irina

2010-01-01

25

Stimulation and Promotion of Germination in Opuntia ficus-indica Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opuntia ficus-indica seeds, as many other Opuntia species, show low germination capacity due mainly to their hard lignified integuments, the most inward of these is the funiculus that envelops the embryo, obstructing radicle protrusion. The purpose of this study was to accelerate the initiation of the germination process and to shorten their completion time by the action of physical and

Mariela Altare; Sinibaldo Trione; Juan C. Guevara; Mariano Cony

26

Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.

Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Obiiyeke, Grace E.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Okoh, Anthony I.

2011-01-01

27

Cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activities of limonoids from the seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem).  

PubMed

Thirty-five limonoids, including 15 of the azadiradione type (1-15), five of the gedunin type (16-20), four of the azadirachtin type (21-24), nine of the nimbin type (25-33), and two degraded limonoids (34, 35), isolated from Azadirachta indica seed extracts, were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. Seven compounds (3, 6, 7, 16, 18, 28, and 29) exhibited cytotoxic activity against one or more cell lines. Among these compounds, 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylepoxyazadiradione (7), 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylgeduin (18), and 28-deoxonimbolide (28) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HL60 leukemia cells with IC(50) values in the range 2.7-3.1 ?M. Compounds 7, 18, and 28 induced early apoptosis in HL60 cells, observed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that compounds 7, 18, and 28 activated caspases-3, -8, and -9 in HL60 cells. This suggested that compounds 7, 18, and 28 induced apoptotic cell death in HL60 cells via both the mitochondrial- and the death receptor-mediated pathways. Futhermore, compound 7 was shown to possess high selective cytotoxicity for leukemia cells since it exhibited only weak cytotoxicity against a normal lymphocyte cell line (RPMI 1788). PMID:21381696

Kikuchi, Takashi; Ishii, Koichi; Noto, Taisuke; Takahashi, Akitomo; Tabata, Keiichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2011-04-25

28

Investigations on Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae): A Traditional Medicinal Plant of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to screen and evaluate antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Petroleum ether, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extract of leaves of A. indica were tested against selected Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial species. Phytochemical leaf extracts of A. indica exhibited significant anti-bacterial activity against all the test microorganisms. However,

2008-01-01

29

Efficacy of crude neem seed kernel extracts against natural infestation of Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of crude aqueous-methanol and aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel against sarcoptic mange of sheep. Crude aqueous-methanol (AME) and aqueous extracts (AE) of neem seed kernel (NSK) were prepared and formulated as 10% and 20% ointments (w\\/w), using Vaseline as vehicle. Forty-two lambs of Pak Karakul breed, having natural infection

Shahid Maqsood Tabassam; Zafar Iqbal; Abdul Jabbar; Zia-ud-Din Sindhu; Amjad Iqbal Chattha

2008-01-01

30

'ANTIANDROGENIC PROPERTIES OF NEEM SEED OIL (AZADIRACHTA INDICA) IN MALE RAT AND RABBI'  

PubMed Central

Azadirachta indica (Neem) seed oil brings about a significant diminution in spermatozoan motility and density. It leads to reduction of fertility rate in rats and rabbits. The body weight of the animals remain unaffected but the weights of reproductive oranges declined. Reduction of cauda epididymal protein, sialic acid, acid phosphatase and seminal vesicular fructose concentration in rats and rabbits could bedue to antiandrogenic action of the seed oil as confirmed with the help of bioassay techniques. Histopathology of testis revealed arrest of spermatogenesis and sever degenerative changes in the cauda epididymis.

Sharma, J. D.; Jha, R. K.; Gupta, Ira; Jain, Prabha; Dixit, V.P.

1987-01-01

31

Larvicidal activity of Saraca indica, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea extracts against three mosquito vector species.  

PubMed

Screening of natural products for mosquito larvicidal activity against three major mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles stephensi resulted in the identification of three potential plant extracts viz., Saraca indica/asoca, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea for mosquito larval control. In the case of S. indica/asoca, the petroleum ether extract of the leaves and the chloroform extract of the bark were effective against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus with respective LC(50) values 228.9 and 291.5 ppm. The LC(50) values of chloroform extract of N. arbor-tristis leaves were 303.2, 518.2, and 420.2 ppm against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The methanol and chloroform extracts of flowers of N. arbor-tristis showed larvicidal activity against larvae of A. stephensi with the respective LC(50) values of 244.4 and 747.7 ppm. Among the methanol extracts of C. ternatea leaves, roots, flowers, and seeds, the seed extract was effective against the larvae of all the three species with LC(50) values 65.2, 154.5, and 54.4 ppm, respectively, for A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Among the three plant species studied for mosquito larvicidal activity, C. ternatea was showing the most promising mosquito larvicidal activity. The phytochemical analysis of the promising methanolic extract of the seed extract was positive for carbohydrates, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, and proteins. In conclusion, bioassay-guided fractionation of effective extracts may result in identification of a useful molecule for the control of mosquito vectors. PMID:19039604

Mathew, Nisha; Anitha, M G; Bala, T S L; Sivakumar, S M; Narmadha, R; Kalyanasundaram, M

2009-04-01

32

A Search for Hepatoprotective Activity of Fruit Extract of Mangifera indica L. Against Oxidative Stress Cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and their components are commonly used in folk medicine for many curative effects. The protective\\u000a effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. fruit (Mango Extract) (20, 50 and 100 ?g\\/ml)\\u000a and also gallic acid (100 ?M) as a pure compound in the extract were examined against oxidative stress toxicity induced by\\u000a cumene hydroperoxide (CHP)

Jalal Pourahmad; Mohammad Reza Eskandari; Rashin Shakibaei; Mohammad Kamalinejad

2010-01-01

33

Determination of Anthelmintic Activity of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Tamarindus Indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

Das, S. S.; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A. K.

2011-01-01

34

Supercritical fluid extraction of celery seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of oil from milled celery seeds, using CO2 as a solvent, is presented in this study. The effect of the process parameters — pressure and temperature of extraction, particle size of celery seeds and flow rate of CO2 — on the extraction rate was examined in a series of experiments. The results indicated a significant increase

I. Papamichail; V. Louli; K. Magoulas

2000-01-01

35

Effects of Azadirachta indica extract on gastric ulceration and acid secretion in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of Azadirachta indica extract on gastric ulceration was studied in albino rats. Azadirachta indica extract (100-800 mg/kg p.o., 100-25 mg/kg i.p.) significantly inhibited gastric ulceration induced by indomethacin (40 mg/kg). Administration of 800 mg/kg p.o. and 250 mg/kg i.p. caused 100% cytoprotection against indomethacin (40mg/kg, i.p.)-induced gastric ulceration. This action was accompanied by a dose-dependent decrease in total gastric acidity. In order to investigate the probable mechanism of Azadirachta indica antiulcer activity, the effect of the extract alone and in combination with histamine (1mg/kg) and cimetidine (0.12 mg/kg) on gastric acid secretion in situ was studied. Azadirachta indica (250 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the basal and histamine-induced gastric acid secretion. Cimetidine seemed to augment Azadirachta indica inhibition of gastric acid secretion. The results suggest that the stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica possesses antiulcer agents, which probably act via histamine H(2) receptor. PMID:14698526

Raji, Yinusa; Ogunwande, Isiaka Ajani; Osadebe, Caleb Amaechi; John, Godwin

2004-01-01

36

Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice.  

PubMed

Mangifera indica Linn, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India, has been reported to possess antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the alcoholic extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica Linn (Extract I containing mangiferin 2.6%), has been investigated for its effect on cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system in mice. Administration of test extract I produced increase in humoral antibody (HA) titre and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice. It is concluded that test extract I is a promising drug with immunostimulant properties. PMID:11694357

Makare, N; Bodhankar, S; Rangari, V

2001-12-01

37

Effect of Coccinia indica leaf extract on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin- induced experimental diabetes in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of an ethanolic extract of Coccinia indica leaves, an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic Medicine in India, in Streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Oral administration of Coccinia indica leaf extract (CLEt) (200 mg/kg body weight) for 45 days resulted in a significant reduction in plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, vitamin E and ceruloplasmin. The extract also caused a significant increase in plasma vitamin C and reduced glutathione, which clearly shows the antioxidant property of CLEt. The effect of CLEt at 200 mg/kg body weight was more effective than glibenclamide. PMID:12820225

Venkateswaran, S; Pari, L

2003-06-01

38

Deposition of stearate-oleate rich seed fat in Mangifera indica is mediated by a FatA type acyl-ACP thioesterase.  

PubMed

Although the mechanism of accumulation of C8-C16 saturated fatty acids in seed oils has been well-studied, the control of stearic (C18:0) acid deposition in high stearate seed fat is still unclear. We investigated the mechanism that regulates high level of stearate and oleate (C18:1) accumulation in mango (Mangifera indica) seeds during its development, and examined the seed plastid extracts for induction of any specialized fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (Fat) that may control this high level of deposition. Though the specificity of the Fat enzymes does not account directly for the fatty acid composition of mango seeds, our result suggested that an induced synthesis of a FatA type of thioesterase could be responsible for the high content of oleate and stearate in its seed fat. The major thioesterase from developing seed kernel was purified to near homogeneity, and characterized as a heat-labile, dimeric, neutral protein with relative substrate specificity of 100:35:1.8 towards oleoyl-, stearoyl- and palmitoyl-ACP, respectively. This enzyme was confirmed as Mi FatA by mass spectrometric analysis. Additionally, a heat-stable FatB type enzyme (Mi FatB) was also partially purified, with relative substrate specificity for the same substrates as 9:8.5:100, respectively. Mi FatA is an enzyme of great biotechnological interest because of its involvement in the regulation of stearate rich seed fat in mango. PMID:21130480

Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Ghosh, Santosh K; Neogi, Krishnakali; Aich, Aniruddha; Willard, Belinda; Kinter, Michael; Sen, Soumitra K; Ghosh, Dolly; Ghosh, Sudhamoy

2011-02-01

39

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension secondary to ingestion of Morinda coreia and Azadirachta indica leaves extract in infant  

PubMed Central

We report a case of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) secondary to ingestion of Morinda coreia (Nonan) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves extract in a nine months old child. This herbal extract is believed to accelerate weight gain in infants and is commonly used in South India.

Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun; Ananthakrishnan, Shanthi

2013-01-01

40

Protective effects of Flacourtia indica aerial parts extracts against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxiciy in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr., were evaluated for hepato-protective properties. In paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis in rat models, all extracts were found to reduce serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP). The most significant reduction of the serum level of

Marina Nazneen; Abdul Mazid; Joydev K. Kundu; Sitesh C. Bachar; Farida Begum; Bidyut K. Datta

41

Optimization of solid–liquid extraction of phytochemicals from Garcinia indica Choisy by response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite rotatable design was employed to study the effect of ultrasound assisted extraction conditions namely sonication amplitude (10–90%), sonication cycle (0.1–1.0s?1), solid–liquid ratio (2–10) and extraction time (5–35min) on the total anthocyanin extraction from Garcinia indica Choisy. Overall extractions of total anthocyanin, acidity and antioxidant activity were considered as response variables. The significant (p<0.05) response surface models with

Chetan A. Nayak; Navin K. Rastogi

42

Utilization of Water Washed Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Kernel Cake as a Protein Source for Growing Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen 80 days old indigenous pigs, divided in two groups, were fed diets containing either 35, 10, 47, 6, 1.5 and 0.5 parts maize, groundnut cake (GNC), wheat bran, fish meal, mineral mixture and salt (Control) or the same diet with GNC replaced by water washed neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel cake (experimental). The pigs on experimental diet, during 180

V. R. B. Sastry; D. K. Agrawal

1992-01-01

43

The inhibitory effect of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extracts on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts onAspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis was investigated. The extracts were prepared by blending 50 g (wet weight) of fresh leaves\\u000a in one 1 of 10 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0) or by boiling the leaves in the buffer. Extracts were added to fungal growth\\u000a media at 1, 5, 10, 20 and

Deepar Bhatnagar; Susan P. mcCormick

1988-01-01

44

The antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of different plant seeds extracts.  

PubMed

Different plant seeds extracts of Citrus sinensis, Hordeum sativum, Triticum sativum, Canna indica, Citrullus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycril-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, RBCs hemolysis and linoleic acid oxidation, a long with the determination of total phenolic and flavonoids contents. All the methanolic extracts showed high antioxidant activity and have high contents of phenolic and flavonoid. The Canna indica extract exhibited strong antioxidant as a reducing power and as DPPH radical-scavenging (3.61 absorbance, 87.12%, respectively), while the Hordeum sativum extract exhibited highest inhibitory effect on RBCs hemolysis (59.55%) and the Capsicum annuum extract has highest inhibitory effect on linoleic acid peroxidation (65.06%). PMID:19943462

Atrooz, Omar M

2009-08-01

45

A bioactive prodelphinidin from Mangifera indica leaf extract.  

PubMed

A new trimeric proanthocyanidin, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallat-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin (1), was isolated together with three known flavan-3-ols, catechin (2), epicatechin (3), and epigallocatechin (4), and three dimeric proanthocyanidins, 5-7, from the air-dried leaves of Mangifera indica. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra (HSQC, HMBC) of their peracetylated derivatives, MALDI-TOF-mass spectra, and by acid-catalyzed degradation with phloroglucinol. The isolated compounds 1-7 were in vitro tested for their inhibitory activities against COX-1 and COX-2. Compound 1 was found to have a potent inhibitory effect on COX-2, while compounds 1 and 5-7 exhibited moderate inhibition against COX-1. PMID:20653233

Tawaha, Khaled; Sadi, Rasha; Qa'dan, Fadi; Matalka, Khalid Z; Nahrstedt, Adolf

2010-01-01

46

Protective role of extracts of neem seeds in diabetes caused by streptozotocin in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of petroleum ether extracts of kernel (NSK) and husk (NSH) of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae) seeds on the prevention of oxidative stress caused by streptozotocin (STZ) was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in adult male Wistar rats after administration of STZ (55mg\\/kg b.wt., i.p., tail vein).The effect of NSK (2gm\\/kg, b.wt.) and NSH (0.9gm\\/kg, b.wt.) orally for

S Gupta; M Kataria; P. K Gupta; S Murganandan; R. C Yashroy

2004-01-01

47

Sedative and anxiolytic effects of the methanolic extract of Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr. leaf.  

PubMed

The sedative and anxiolytic potential of Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr., a Bangladeshi tribal medicinal plant was studied for the first time. The crude methanol extract of L. indica leaves was evaluated for its central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect using rodent behavioral models, such as hole cross, open field and thiopental sodium induced sleeping time tests for its sedative properties and an elevated plus-maze (EPM) test for its anxiolytic potential, respectively. The methanol extract of L. indica at doses of 200 mg/kg, p.o. and 400 mg/kg, p.o., displayed a dose dependent suppression of motor activity, exploratory behavior (in hole cross and open field tests) and prolongation of thiopental induced sleeping time in mice; the highest CNS depressant effect was shown at a dose of 400 mg/kg, p.o. In the EPM test, both dose of methanol extract significantly (p < 0.01) increased exploration to and time spent by the treated mice in EPM open arms in a dose dependent manner. These results provide in vivo evidence that leaves of L. indica in general have significant sedative and anxiolytic effects. However, these results may rationalize the scientific basis for use of this plant in traditional medicine for treatment of anxiety and related disorders. PMID:22466299

Raihan, M O; Habib, M R; Brishti, A; Rahman, M M; Saleheen, M M; Manna, M

2011-08-01

48

Effect of the extracts from Aristolochia indica Linn. on interception in female mice.  

PubMed

The crude petroleum ether, chloroform and alcoholic extracts from the roots of Aristolochia indica (Linn.) showed 100% interceptive activity in mature female mice at the single dose of 100 mg/kg body wt. The follow-up studies with the chloroform extract showed the most significant effect in the basic part and two acidic fractions at the single dose levels of 50 mg/kg body wt. No toxic effect was observed at the dose levels used. PMID:1253927

Pakrashi, A; Chakrabarty, B; Dasgupta, A

1976-03-15

49

Pectinesterase extraction from Mexican lime ( Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) and prickly pear ( Opuntia ficus indica L.) peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.) peels were tested for their pectinesterase activity. A factorial design was applied in this study as a method for enzyme extraction in which the variables were the source of enzyme (prickly pear and Mexican lime peels) and the NaCl solution concentration (0–3.0M). In all cases, enzyme

J. C. Contreras-Esquivel; C. Correa-Robles; C. N. Aguilar; J Rodr??guez; J. Romero

1999-01-01

50

Antioxidant, Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Schott.)  

PubMed Central

Extracts obtained from the leaves of various Alocasia species have been used in India as folk remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments including rheumatism and bruise. The ethanolic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica Schott. was evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical. The antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response, hot plate method, and tail flick method in albino rats. The anti-inflammatory potential of gels of ethanolic extract has been determined by using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, formalin-induced paw edema assay, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema assay, and xylene-induced ear edema assay. The extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity in all models, comparable to the standard reference drug ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extract of Alocasia indica and its gels produced dose-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. This finding suggests that ethanolic extract of A. indica possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity possibly due to its free radical scavenging properties.

Mulla, WA; Kuchekar, SB; Thorat, VS; Chopade, AR; Kuchekar, BS

2010-01-01

51

EVALUATION OF THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF Mangifera indica Linn. ON GENTAMICIN-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica (M. indica) in gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity. 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in 4 equal groups. Group 1 was kept as normal healthy control and Group 2 was maintained as gentamicin control in which the animals were intraperitoneally administered gentamicin @

K. J. Bibu; A. D. Joy; Mammen J Abraham; K. A. Mercey

2011-01-01

52

Antibacterial activity of plumbagin derivative-rich Plumbago indica root extracts and chemical stability.  

PubMed

The extraction studies and a one-step purification of the crude extract of Plumbago indica using silica-gel vacuum chromatography provided a plumbagin derivative-rich P. indica root extract (PPE). The PPE was standardised to contain total plumbagin derivatives not less than 13% w/w. Antibacterial activities of the standardised PPE and three naphthoquinones, plumbagin, elliptinone and 3,3'-biplumbagin, against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were evaluated by using the microdilution assay. The bactericidal activities of the PPE against these bacteria were much stronger than those of elliptinone and 3,3'-biplumbagin and almost equal to those of plumbagin. Stability of the PPE was determined under various conditions through a period of four months. The PPE was stable over a period of four months when stored as a dried powder but only in a well-closed container protected from light under 4 ± 2°C. PMID:24483166

Kaewbumrung, Sermwut; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

2014-01-01

53

Lowering of blood sugar by water extract of Azadirachta indica and Abroma augusta in diabetes rats.  

PubMed

Combination (1:1 ) of water extract of dried powder of root and leaves (200 mg/kg body wt) of A. augusta and A. indica respectively was administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats once a day for 8 weeks. This treatment caused significant lowering of blood sugar in fasted as estimated by glucose tolerance test. The treatment resulted in a significant reduction in serum lipids. Aqueous extract also decreased the formation of lipid peroxides estimated as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, (TBARS), and increased antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase) in erythrocytes. There was reduction in LPO as TBARS in heart, liver, kidney, and muscles. It also prevented decrease in body weight. Present study showed that Abroma augusta roots and A. indica leaves when given together as water extract had hypoglycaemic action and had better effect than given alone. PMID:15266913

Halim, Eshrat M

2003-06-01

54

Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities and phytochemical properties of extracts of Tamaridus indica against some diseases causing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude aqueous and ethanol extracts of Tamaridus indica were investigated for antibacterial activity. The susceptibility of five clinical bacterial isolates against these two crude extracts was determined using the disk diffusion method. The ethanol extracts produce strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi A and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Staphylococcus aureus was resistant to the extracts. The aqueous extracts

S. Y. Daniyan; H. B. Muhammad

55

Mature seed-derived callus of the model indica rice variety Kasalath is highly competent in Agrobacterium -mediated transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously established an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using primary calli derived from mature seeds of the model japonica rice variety Nipponbare. We expected that the shortened tissue culture period would reduce callus browning—a common problem\\u000a with the indica transformation system during prolonged tissue culture in the undifferentiated state. In this study, we successfully applied\\u000a our efficient transformation system to

Hiroaki Saika; Seiichi Toki

2010-01-01

56

Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05 g% in an aqueous medium for 24 and 48 h, at 25 or 30 degrees C, with or without feeding of the larvae. LC50, LC95 and LC99 were determined. Both seed extracts proved lethal for third to fourth instar larvae. Non-fed A. aegypti larvae were more susceptible to Azadirachta extracts at both temperatures. Under a more realistic environmental situation, namely with fed larvae at 25 degrees C, the death rates caused by the Melia extract were higher, although at 30 degrees C the extract of Azadirachta had an even higher lethality. Inter allia, the LC50 values for the crude extracts of these two members of the Meliaceae ranged from 0.017 to 0.034 g% while the LC99 values ranged from 0.133 to 0.189 g%. Since no downstream processing was undertaken to purify the active agents in the extracts, our findings seem very promising, suggesting that it may be possible to increase the larvicidal activity further by improving the extraction and the fractionation of the crude limonoids, for instance removing the co-extracted natural fats. PMID:15530964

Wandscheer, Carolina B; Duque, Jonny E; da Silva, Mario A N; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Wohlke, Jonathan L; Adelmann, Juliana; Fontana, José D

2004-12-15

57

Comparative Study of Erythrina indica Lam. (Febaceae) Leaves Extracts for Antioxidant Activity  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam leaves by in vitro methods viz. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method on isolated rat liver tissues. Quantitative analysis of antioxidative components like total amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols were estimated using the spectrophotometric method. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate the IC50 value. Results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited significant DPPH radicals scavenging activity with an IC50 value 342.59 ± 19.59, 283.24 ± 12.28 µg/mL respectively. Nitric oxide radicals were significantly scavenged by the aqueous and methanol extracts (IC50 = 250.12 ± 10.66; 328.29 ± 3.74 µg/mL). Lipid peroxidation induced by the Fe2+ was inhibited by the aqueous extract with low IC50 value (97.29 ± 2.05 µg/mL) as compared to methanol extract (IC50 = 283.74 ± 5.70 µg/mL). Both the extracts were exhibited similar quantities of total phenolics. Total flavonoids were found to be in higher quantities than total flavonols in aqueous extract as compared to methanol extract. From the results, it is concluded that the aqueous and methanol extracts of E. indica leaves possesses significant antioxidant activity that may be due to the presence of flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds.

Sakat, SS; Juvekar, AR

2010-01-01

58

A search for hepatoprotective activity of fruit extract of Mangifera indica L. against oxidative stress cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and their components are commonly used in folk medicine for many curative effects. The protective effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. fruit (Mango Extract) (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) and also gallic acid (100 microM) as a pure compound in the extract were examined against oxidative stress toxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in isolated rat hepatocytes. The extracts and gallic acid (100 microM) protected the hepatocyte against all oxidative stress markers including cell lysis, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, lysosomal membrane oxidative damage and cellular proteolysis. Mango Extracts (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) were more effective than gallic acid (100 microM) in protecting hepatocytes against CHP induced lipid peroxidation. On the other hand gallic acid (100 microM) acted more effective than Mango Extracts (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) at preventing lysosomal membrane damage. In addition H(2)O(2) scavenging effect of all extracts were determined in hepatocytes and compared with gallic acid (100 microM). There were no significance differences (P<0.05) between all plant extracts and gallic acid (100 microM) in H(2)O(2) scavenging activity. These results suggest a hepatoprotective role for Mango Extract against liver injury associated with oxidative stress. PMID:20204522

Pourahmad, Jalal; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Shakibaei, Rashin; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

2010-03-01

59

The effects of combination of methanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica and diminazene diaceturate in the treatment of experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of combination therapy of methanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) and diminazene diaceturate (DDA) in the treatment of experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. brucei brucei) infection in rats.

VU Omoja; AO Anaga; IR Obidike; TE Ihedioha; PU Umeakuana; LI Mhomga; IU Asuzu; SM Anika

2011-01-01

60

Antioxidant property of an ethanol extract of the stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.  

PubMed

An ethanol extract of the stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) was assessed to determine the mechanism(s) of its antioxidant activity. The ethanol extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in a thiocyanate assay system. In addition, the OFS extract showed dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity, including DPPH radicals, superoxide anions (O(2)(*-)), and hydroxyl radicals (*OH), using different assay systems. The OFS ethanol extract was also found to be effective in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton's reaction mixture. Furthermore, the extract showed significant (p < 0.01) dose-dependent protection of mouse splenocytes against glucose oxidase-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, the OFS extract was characterized as containing a high amount of phenolics (180.3 mg/g), which might be the active compounds responsible for the antioxidant properties of the OFS extract. PMID:12381138

Lee, Jeong-Chae; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Kim, Ju; Jang, Yong-Suk

2002-10-23

61

Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg\\/kg of MI and 100mg\\/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic

Hamendra Singh Parmar; Anand Kar

2009-01-01

62

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Coccinia indica.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate both post- and pre-treatment anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Coccinia indica in rats using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method at various dose levels. Analgesic and antipyretic properties were evaluated using tail flick model and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia, respectively. Ceiling effect of the extract was observed at 50 mg/kg in pre-treatment carrageenan test. In post-treatment studies, a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the dose range of 25-300 mg/kg. The effect was equivalent to diclofenac (20 mg/kg) at 50 mg/kg but it was significantly pronounced at higher doses. Effectiveness of extract in the early phase of inflammation suggests the inhibition of histamine and serotonin release. The extract produced marked analgesic activity comparable to morphine at 300 mg/kg, which suggests the involvement of central mechanisms. A significant reduction in hyperpyrexia in rats was also produced by all doses of extract with maximum effect at 300 mg/kg comparable to paracetamol. In conclusion, this study has established the anti-inflammatory activity, analgesic and antipyretic activity of C. indica and, thus, justifies the ethnic uses of the plant. PMID:19626277

Niazi, Junaid; Singh, Parabhdeep; Bansal, Yogita; Goel, R K

2009-08-01

63

Limonoids from Azadirachta indica var. siamensis extracts and their cytotoxic and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities.  

PubMed

Six new limonoids, 7-benzoyl-17-epinimbocinol (5), 3-acetyl-7-tigloylnimbidinin (8), 1-isovaleroyl-1-detigloylsalanninolide (15), 2,3-dihydro-3?-methoxynimbolide (16), deacetyl-20,21-epoxy-20,22-dihydro-21-deoxyisonimbinolide (26), and deacetyl-20,21,22,23-tetrahydro-20,22-dihydroxy-21,23-dimethoxynimbin (27), along with 28 known limonoids, 1-4, 6, 7, 9-14, 17-25, and 28-34, and two known flavonoids, 35 and 36, have been isolated from the extracts of bark, leaves, roots, and seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton (Siamese neem tree; Meliaceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), stomach (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines. Eleven compounds, 1, 2, 4-7, 13, 16, 17, 29, and 30, exhibited potent cytotoxicities against one or more cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 0.1-9.3??M. Compound 16 induced apoptotic cell death in AZ521 cells upon evaluation of the apoptosis-inducing activity by flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis on AZ521 cells revealed that compound 16 activated caspases-3, -8, and -9, while increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. This suggested that 16 induced apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in AZ521. In addition, upon evaluation of all compounds against the melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), 20 limonoids, i.e., 1-3, 6, 9-11, 18, 19, 21-29, 32, and 34, and two flavonoids, 35 and 36, exhibited melanogenesis-inhibitory activities, with no, or almost no, toxicities to the cells at lower and/or higher concentrations, which were more potent than the reference arbutin, a known melanogenesis inhibitor. Western blot analysis showed that nimbin (18) reduced the protein levels of microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that 18 inhibits melanogenesis on a ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. PMID:24706622

Manosroi, Aranya; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Ishii, Kenta; Shinozaki, Takuro; Tachi, Yosuke; Takagi, Mio; Ebina, Kodai; Zhang, Jie; Manosroi, Jiradej; Akihisa, Rima; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2014-04-01

64

Antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract.  

PubMed

Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that some members of Anacardiaceae family possess antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects in man and mammalian experimental animals. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic properties of the stem-bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica Linn., M. indica a member of the Anacardiaceae family, in rats and mice. The stem-bark powder of M. indica was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The analgesic effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the hot-plate and acetic acid test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the stem-bark extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. M. indica stem-bark aqueous extract (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p<0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different chemical constituents of the plant, especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, mangiferin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant may be involved in the observed antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant in the management and control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management of adult-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural African communities. PMID:16273134

Ojewole, J A O

2005-10-01

65

Safety evaluation of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proanthocyanidins, extracted from grape seeds, are widely used mainly as nutritional supplements. However, there has not been a systematic report to investigate toxicological studies on proanthocyanidins, especially in oral administration. In our studies, proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to document its safety for use in various foods. The grape seed extract (GSE)

J Yamakoshi; M Saito; S Kataoka; M Kikuchi

2002-01-01

66

Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of tamarind seed coat extracts (TSCEs) were compared between the two extracts using boiling-water (TSCE-W) and 70% ethanol (TSCE-E) for extraction. TSCE-W, consisting of the highest phenolic content, possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1 -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities much higher than TSCE-E and Trolox. Additionally, both TSCEs also exhibited superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities higher than Trolox and BHA. Anti-lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of TSCE-W were also studied in human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells. Cytotoxic effect was not observed when exposed to TSCE-W up to 1 mg/mL for 12-48 h. However, TSCE-W significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in H202-damaged cells. HPLC analysis showed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in TSCE-W, which could be responsible for antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. The results suggest that an inexpensive and simple boiling-water extraction of TSCE-W may provide a valuable natural antioxidant source having anti-lipid peroxidation for health food additives, nutraceuticals as well as cosmeceuticals. PMID:24597144

Nakchat, Oranuch; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

2014-02-01

67

Medicinal properties of fractionated acetone/water neem [Azadirachta indica] leaf extract from Nigeria: a review.  

PubMed

The global scenario is now supporting the development of modern drugs from less toxic plant products with proven medicinal properties. Each part of neem plant [Azadirachta indica A. Juss] reportedly have various medicinal properties and has been in use in many continents for centuries. Recently, a fractionated neem-leaf extract known as IRAB with reported activities against Malaria, HIV/AIDS and cancer has been developed into a drug and currently marketed in Nigeria as IRACAP. This paper reviews the medicinal properties, clinical studies and safety concerns of this fractionated acetone-water neem leaves extract as a footstep to further studies both on the extract and/or its chemical constituents. PMID:20234757

Anyaehie, Ugochukwu B

2009-12-01

68

Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.  

PubMed

Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (?-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and ?-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%). PMID:21970446

Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

2012-03-01

69

A cell wall extract from Piriformospora indica promotes tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) via enhanced expression of Ca(+2) signaling pathway and lipoxygenase gene.  

PubMed

Piriformospora indica is an axenically cultivable phytopromotional endosymbiont that mimics capabilities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This is a basidiomycete of the Sebacinaceae family, which promotes growth, development, and seed production in a variety of plant species. We report that the cell wall extract (CWE) from P. indica induces tuberization in vitro and promotes tuber growth and yield in potato. The CWE altered the calcium signaling pathway that regulates tuberization process. An increase in tuber number and size was correlated with increased transcript expression of the two Ca(2+)-dependant proteins (CaM1 and St-CDPK1) and the lipoxygenase (LOX) mRNA, which are known to play distinct roles in potato tuberization. External supplementation of Ca(2+) ions induced a similar set of tuberization pathway genes, indicating presence of an active Ca(2+) in the CWE of P. indica. Since potato tuberization is directly influenced by the presence of microflora in nature, the present study provides an insight into the novel mechanism of potato tuberization in relation to plant-microbe association. Ours is the first report on an in vitro tuber-inducing beneficial fungus. PMID:23609909

Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Prasad, Ram; Verma, Ajit

2013-06-01

70

Antibacterial efficacy of stem bark extracts of Mangifera indica against some bacteria associated with respiratory tract infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemical screening of the crude stem bark extracts of Mangifera indica revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The antibacterial activity of the crude extracts were assayed using the agar well diffusion methods on clinical bacterial isolates of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Streptococcus pneumonia obtained from patients previously diagnosed with respiratory

El-Mahmood Muhammad Abubakar

71

The Inhibiting Effect of Aqueous Azadirachta indica (Neem) Extract Upon Bacterial Properties Influencing in vitro Plaque Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts derived from the bark-containing sticks (Neem stick) of Azadirachta indica upon bacterial aggregation, growth, adhesion to hydroxyapatite, and production of insoluble glucan, which may affect in vitro plaque formation. Neem stick extracts were screened for minimal bacterial growth inhibition (MIC) against a panel of streptococci by

L. E. Wolinsky; S. Mania; S. Nachnani; S. Ling

1996-01-01

72

Synergistic effect of tincture of Crataegus and Mangifera indica L. extract on hyperlipidemic and antioxidant status in atherogenic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to address the synergistic effect of tincture of Crataegus (TCR) and Mangifera indica L. (MNG) extracts on the lipid and antioxidant parameters in the development of aortic lesions in diet-induced atherosclerosis in rats. TCR, is an alcoholic extract made from the berries of Hawthorn, Crataegus oxyacantha with flavanoids as the main constituent. MNG, is an alcoholic

Manickam Akila; Halagowder Devaraj

2008-01-01

73

Chemopreventive potential of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf extract in murine carcinogenesis model systems.  

PubMed

Numerous laboratory studies reveal that various naturally occurring dietary substances can modify the patho-physiological process of various metabolic disorders and can be an effective preventive strategy for various diseases, including cancer. Indian Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae), contains at least 35 biologically active principles and is widely grown all over the tropics. The effect of two different doses (250 and 500 mg per kilogram body weight) of 80% ethanolic extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica were examined on drug metabolizing Phase-I and Phase-II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase, and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 7-week-old Swiss albino mice. Also anticarcinogenic potential of Azadirachta indica leaf extract was studied adopting protocol of benzo(a)pyrene-induced fore-stomach and 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin papillomagenesis. Our primary findings reveal its potential to induce only the Phase-II enzyme activity associated mainly with carcinogen detoxification in liver of mice. The hepatic glutathione S-transferase (P < 0.005) and DT-diaphorase specific activities (P < 0.01) were elevated above basal level. With reference to antioxidant enzymes the investigated doses were effective in increasing the hepatic glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities significantly (from P < 0.005 to P < 0.001). Reduced glutathione measured as non-protein sulphydryl was found to be significantly elevated in liver (P < 0.005) and in extrahepatic organs (from P < 0.005 to P < 0.001) examined in our study. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and DT-diaphorase (DTD) showed a dose-dependent increase in extrahepatic organs. Chemopreventive response was measured by the average number of papillomas per mouse, as well as percentage of tumor-bearing animals. There was a significant inhibition of tumor burden, in both the tumor model system studied (from P < 0.005 to P < 0.001). Tumor incidence was also reduced by both the doses of Azadirachta indica extract. PMID:15099843

Dasgupta, Trisha; Banerjee, S; Yadava, P K; Rao, A R

2004-05-01

74

In Vivo Biochemical and Gene Expression Analyses of the Antioxidant Activities and Hypocholesterolaemic Properties of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract  

PubMed Central

Background Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9±10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9±2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. Conclusion/Significance It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia.

Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

2013-01-01

75

Effects of ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica L. on rat cognitive dysfunctions.  

PubMed

Fumaria indica L. in Ayurveda is known as Parpat and traditionally used to calm the brain. Due to lack of scientific validation, 50% ethanolic extract of F. indica L. (FI) was evaluated for putative cognitive function modulating effects. Suspension of FI in 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was orally administered to rats during the entire experimental period of 16 days at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. Piracetam was used as standard nootropic. Behavioral models of learning and memory used were modified elevated plus-maze (M-EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests. Scopolamine (I mg/kg, s.c.), sodium nitrite (25 mg/kg, i.p.), and electroconvulsive shock (150 mA, 0.2 sec) were used to induce amnesia. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, muscarinic receptor density, oxidative status, and cytokine expressions [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-10] were also assessed. Piracetam (500 mg/kg/day)-like memory-enhancing and anti-amnesic activity of the extract was observed. FI showed dose-dependent decrease in brain AChE activity and increase in muscarinic receptor density, and such was also the case for its observed beneficial effects on the brain antioxidative status. FI also inhibited the scopolamine-induced overexpression of the three tested cytokines observed in rat's brain. FI possesses nootropic-like beneficial effects on cognitive functions. PMID:24696581

Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

2013-10-01

76

Molecular docking studies and anti-tyrosinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.  

PubMed

The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear copper active site. The results indicated a possible mechanism for their anti-tyrosinase activity which may involve an ability to chelate the copper atoms which are required for the catalytic activity of tyrosinase. PMID:19136913

Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

2009-01-01

77

Near-critical extraction of sage, celery, and coriander seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-critical extraction of coriander seed, Dalmatian sage, and celery was performed on a pilot-scale extraction apparatus. Sage and celery were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide to obtain oleoresins. Coriander seed was extracted at 250 bar and 40°C. Coriander extract was fractionated into triglycerides and essential oils by using two separation stages at different pressures. Extractions were carried out using a

Bruce M. Smallfield; J GREY

1996-01-01

78

Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Samadera indica for skin diseases  

PubMed Central

Samadera indica Gaetrn (Simaroubaceae) is claimed to possess various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, antiviral, and so on, but its taste is bitter. The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity of the methanolic extract and to develop suitable herbal formulations of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica, having efficient antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract prepared from the dried leaves of Samadera indica by continuous hot percolation, were used to examine the toxicity, according to the OECD 423 guidelines, in Swiss Albino mice. Topical formulations were prepared by incorporating Samadera indica (5% w / w) in an emulsifying ointment and a carbopol gel base and evaluated for physical parameters and in-vitro antimicrobial activity (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans). The study reveals that no animals under the study showed any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality when administered a dose of 5 – 2000 mg / kg body weight. Therefore, the maximum tolerated dose of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica was above 2000 mg / kg body weight. The formulated ointment and gel had acceptable physical parameters that showed that they were compatible with the skin, and in addition to this, these formulations passed the short-term stability studies. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity studies showed that the formulated ointment showed significantly strong (p < 0.05) activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans than the formulated gel. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated ointment and gel are safe and efficient antimicrobial formulations for the topical delivery of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica.

Viswanad, Vidya; Aleykutty, N. A.; Jayakar, B.; Zacharia, Subin Mary; Thomas, Litha

2012-01-01

79

Eco-dyeing using Tamarindus indica L. seed coat tannin as a natural mordant for textiles with antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamarind seed coat tannin was extracted and its tannin class was determined. The extracted tannin was employed as a natural mordant alone and in combination with metal mordant namely copper sulphate for cotton, wool and silk fabrics and dyed using natural dyes namely turmeric and pomegranate rind. The colour strength, colour coordinates, wash and light fastness were evaluated and compared

K. H. Prabhu; M. D. Teli

80

Enzymatic extraction of mustard seed and rice bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous enzymatic extraction was investigated for recovery of oil from mustard seed and rice bran. The extraction process\\u000a was reproducible based on statistical analysis of extraction data under different extraction conditions. The most significant\\u000a factors for extraction were the time of digestion with enzymes, seed or bran concentration in water, volume of hexane added\\u000a before recovery, and amount of enzyme(s)

R. Sengupta; D. K. Bhattacharyya

1996-01-01

81

Mature seed-derived callus of the model indica rice variety Kasalath is highly competent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.  

PubMed

We previously established an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using primary calli derived from mature seeds of the model japonica rice variety Nipponbare. We expected that the shortened tissue culture period would reduce callus browning--a common problem with the indica transformation system during prolonged tissue culture in the undifferentiated state. In this study, we successfully applied our efficient transformation system to Kasalath--a model variety of indica rice. The Luc reporter system is sensitive enough to allow quantitative analysis of the competency of rice callus for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We unexpectedly discovered that primary callus of Kasalath exhibits a remarkably high competency for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation compared to Nipponbare. Southern blot analysis and Luc luminescence showed that independent transformation events in primary callus of Kasalath occurred successfully at ca. tenfold higher frequency than in Nipponbare, and single copy T-DNA integration was observed in ~40% of these events. We also compared the competency of secondary callus of Nipponbare and Kasalath and again found superior competency in Kasalath, although the identification and subsequent observation of independent transformation events in secondary callus is difficult due to the vigorous growth of both transformed and non-transformed cells. An efficient transformation system in Kasalath could facilitate the identification of QTL genes, since many QTL genes are analyzed in a Nipponbare × Kasalath genetic background. The higher transformation competency of Kasalath could be a useful trait in the establishment of highly efficient systems involving new transformation technologies such as gene targeting. PMID:20853107

Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

2010-12-01

82

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica) Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using crude neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract at room temperature. The formation and crystallinity of synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The average size of these silver nanoparticles is about 20-50 nm as observed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Optical absorption measurements were performed to determine band-edge energy gap of these silver nanoparticles. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed to emphasize its emission properties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles could have major applications in the area of nanoscale optoelectronics devices and biomedical engineering. Our synthesis method has advantage over other conventional chemical routes because it is cost effective & environmental compatibility.

Shukla, Vineet Kumar; Pandey, Shipra; Pandey, Avinash C.

2010-10-01

83

Raman bands in Ag nanoparticles obtained in extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles have been obtained in an extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant. The size and distribution of nanoparticles were quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter was estimated to be about 15 nm. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) peaks of silver were observed in these samples. Three Raman bands have been experimentally detected at 83, 110 and 160 cm-1. The bands at 83 and 110 cm-1 are assigned to the silver-silver Raman modes (skeletal modes) and the Raman mode located at 160 cm-1 has been assigned to breathing modes. Vibrational assignments of Raman modes have been carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum mechanical calculation. Structural and vibrational properties for small Agn clusters with 2?n?9 were determined. Calculated Raman modes for small metal clusters have an approximation trend of Raman bands. These Raman bands were obtained experimentally for silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

Bocarando-Chacon, J.-G.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Vargas-Vazquez, D.; Rodríguez Melgarejo, F.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.; Leon-Sarabia, E.; Navarro-Badilla, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.

2014-05-01

84

Antioxidant activity of the methanol fraction of Pluchea indica root extract.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out to evaluate the influence of the methanol fraction of Pluchea indica Less root extract (PIRE), the dual inhibitors (BW 755C and phenidone) and vitamin on both in vivo and in vitro free radical-scavenging activities, CCl(4)-induced lipid peroxidation and the metabolism of arachidonic acid by lipoxygenase. PIRE produced significant antiinflammatory activity against glucose oxidase-induced paw oedema (in vivo), inhibited hydroxyl radical and superoxide generation, lysis of erythrocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide, CCl(4)-induced lipid peroxidation and also dioxygenase activity of lipoxygenase (both in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide). Significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity was observed with BW 755C and phenidone compared with PIRE. However, both BW 755C and phenidone stimulated hydroxyl radical generation compared with the observed inhibitory effects of PIRE and vitamin E. PMID:12112288

Sen, T; Dhara, A K; Bhattacharjee, S; Pal, S; Nag Chaudhuri, A K

2002-06-01

85

Anti-venom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica L. against Daboia russellii (Russell's viper) venom.  

PubMed

Several plant extracts rich in pharmacologically active compounds have shown to antagonize venom of several species. Mangifera indica has been used against snakebite by the traditional healers. However, there is paucity of scientific data in support. In this study, we evaluated the antivenom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of M. indica against D. russellii venom-induced pharmacological effects such as life myotoxicity, edema, LD50 etc. The extract inhibited the phospholipase, protease, hyaluronidase, 5'nucleotidase, ATPase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities with varying IC50 values. It significantly inhibited both metalloproteases and serine proteases activities. Further, the extract significantly reduced the myotoxicity of the venom, as evident by the reduction of serum creatin kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Though the extract completely inhibited in vitro PLA2 activity, it was unable to completely inhibit in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema-inducing activities, usually brought about by PLA2s. In lethality studies, co-injection of the venom preincubated with the extract showed higher protection than the independent injection of venom, followed by the extract in the mice. However, in both the cases the extract -a cocktail of inhibitors significantly increased the survival time, when compared to that of mice injected (i.p) with the venom alone. These results encourage further studies on the potential use of cocktail of inhibitors in improving the treatment of snake envenomation. Further, this study substantiates the use of M. indica as an antidote against snakebite by the traditional healers. PMID:21793309

Dhananjaya, B L; Zameer, F; Girish, K S; D'Souza, Cletus J M

2011-06-01

86

EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA) LEAVES ON OFFENSIVE AND DIFFENSIVE GASTRIC MUCOSAL FACTORS IN RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardized aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves (AIE) has been reported to show both ulcer protective and ulcer healing effects in normal as well as in diabetic rats. To study the mechanism of its ulcer protective\\/healing actions, effects of AIE (500 mg\\/ kg) was studied on various parameters of offensive acid-pepsin secretion in 4 hr pylorus ligation, pentagastrin (PENTA,

M. DORABABU; M. C. JOSHI; M. MOHAN KUMAR; ADITI CHATURVEDI; R. K. GOEL

2006-01-01

87

Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of

D. S. Charleston; R. Kfir; L. E. M. Vet; M. Dicke

2005-01-01

88

Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.  

PubMed

A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS-PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21 kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1 A. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 A. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%. PMID:19574654

Patil, Dipak N; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

2009-07-01

89

Comparison of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Siamese Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton) Leaf Extracts Prepared by Different Methods of Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton) from several extracting and drying methods using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging assay. Materials and Methods: The leaves of Siamese neem tree were extracted using percolation, decoction, maceration, soxhlet extraction, freeze drying or spray

Pongtip Sithisarn; Roongtawan Supabphol; Wandee Gritsanapan

2006-01-01

90

Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the phenolics of Leea indica leaf extract  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the phytochemical, antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Leea indica leaf ethanol extract. Phytochemical values namely total phenolic and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing power, DMSO superoxide scavenging effect and Iron chelating effects were studied by established methods. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects were screened by disk diffusion technique, food poison technique and brine shrimp bioassay, respectively. Results showed the total phenolic content 24.00 ± 0.81 g GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content 194.68 ± 2.43 g quercetin/100 g and total antioxidant capacity 106.61 ± 1.84 g AA/100 g dry extract. Significant (P < 0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (139.83 ± 1.40 ?g/ml), FeCl3 reduction (16.48 ± 0.64 ?g/ml), DMSO superoxide scavenging (676.08 ± 5.80 ?g/ml) and Iron chelating (519.33 ± 16.96 ?g/ml) methods. In antibacterial screening, the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) zone of inhibitions compared to positive controls Ampicillin and Tetracycline against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli. Significant minimum inhibitory concentrations compared to tetracycline were obtained against the above organisms. In antifungal assay, the extract inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Fusarium equisetii by 38.09 ± 0.59, 22.58 ± 2.22, and 22.58 ± 2.22%, respectively. The extract showed a significant LC50 value compared to vincristine sulfate in cytotoxic assay. The results evidenced the potential antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic capacities of Leea inidica leaf extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use.

Rahman, Md. Atiar; Imran, Talha bin; Islam, Shahidul

2012-01-01

91

Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the phenolics of Leea indica leaf extract.  

PubMed

This study investigated the phytochemical, antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Leea indica leaf ethanol extract. Phytochemical values namely total phenolic and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing power, DMSO superoxide scavenging effect and Iron chelating effects were studied by established methods. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects were screened by disk diffusion technique, food poison technique and brine shrimp bioassay, respectively. Results showed the total phenolic content 24.00 ± 0.81 g GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content 194.68 ± 2.43 g quercetin/100 g and total antioxidant capacity 106.61 ± 1.84 g AA/100 g dry extract. Significant (P < 0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (139.83 ± 1.40 ?g/ml), FeCl3 reduction (16.48 ± 0.64 ?g/ml), DMSO superoxide scavenging (676.08 ± 5.80 ?g/ml) and Iron chelating (519.33 ± 16.96 ?g/ml) methods. In antibacterial screening, the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) zone of inhibitions compared to positive controls Ampicillin and Tetracycline against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli. Significant minimum inhibitory concentrations compared to tetracycline were obtained against the above organisms. In antifungal assay, the extract inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Fusarium equisetii by 38.09 ± 0.59, 22.58 ± 2.22, and 22.58 ± 2.22%, respectively. The extract showed a significant LC50 value compared to vincristine sulfate in cytotoxic assay. The results evidenced the potential antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic capacities of Leea inidica leaf extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use. PMID:23961238

Rahman, Md Atiar; Imran, Talha Bin; Islam, Shahidul

2013-07-01

92

Effect of Mangifera indica L. extract (QF808) on protein and hepatic microsome peroxidation.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of QF808, a steam bark extract of Mangifera indica L., were studied on hydroxyl-mediated oxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and in a hepatic microsome system. The extract was effective in reducing the oxidation of BSA, since its half- maximal inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 0.0049% w/v in the inhibition of carbonyl group formation and lower than 0.0025% w/v in the inhibition of sulfhydryl group loss. QF808 inhibited lipid peroxidation which was initiated enzymatically by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), IC(50)= 0.00075% w/v, or non-enzymatically by ascorbic acid, IC(50) = 0.0126% w/v. The extract tested did not inhibit NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450 reductase activity, since it had no effect on the oxidation rate of NADPH. These results suggest that QF808 has an antioxidant activity, probably due to its ability to scavenge free radicals involved in microsome lipid peroxidation. In addition, QF808 antioxidant profile in vitro is probably similar to its principal polyphenolic component, mangiferin, a glycosylated xanthone. PMID:11746837

Martínez, G; Giuliani, A; León, O S; Pérez, G; Núñez Selles, A J

2001-11-01

93

Antihyperglycaemic activity of the stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. In 2002, WHO Expert Committee on diabetes mellitus recommended an urgent and further evaluation of the folkloric methods of managing the disease. In response to this recommendation, several medicinal plants are currently being investigated for their hypoglycaemic activity and one of such plants is Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica is a slow growing tree that is resistant to strong winds and perennial. The stem-bark extract of the plant is used locally for the management of diabetes. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg(-1) IP). The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg kg(-1). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract lowered the blood glucose level significantly (p < 0.05) at the 4th, 8th and 16th h. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the BGL significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study. In the oral glucose load method the 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract significantly (p < 0.05) lowered elevated blood glucose at the 3rd and 5th. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the blood glucose from the 1st to the 5th, while the 250 mg kg(-1) also lowered the blood glucose level but only significantly at the 5th h. The extract is practically non toxic when administered orally. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica Linn significantly lowered elevated Blood Glucose concentration (BGL) in the experimental animal models, while the crude extract was able to prevent an elevation in BGL when used in the oral glucose load model. PMID:24897797

Yerima, M; Anuka, J A; Salawu, O A; Abdu-Aguye, I

2014-02-01

94

Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Leaves  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves (HTI) along with its possible mode of action. The anti-inflammatory activity of HTI was estimated by carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in male Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, HTI was assessed to determine its effects on membrane stabilization. The antinociceptive action was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick, and the hot plate model. Oral administration of HTI at the dose of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body weight produced significant (P< 0.01) anti-inflammatory as well as antinociceptive actions in a dose-dependent manner. Among all tested doses, 1000 mg/kg, p. o. reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. Moreover, the 1000 mg/kg dose exhibited maximum percentage inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing (48.9%), whereas standard drug diclofenac (25 mg/kg, p. o.) showed maximum inhibition (50.9%) of writhing. In the hot plate model, HTI (1000 mg/kg, orally) increased mean basal reaction time after 120 min (7.12±0.05 sec). In the tail flick model, HTI increased the maximum percentage of latency (36.06%), whereas the standard drug pethidine (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) showed maximum percentage of latency (43.85%) after 60 min. The findings of the present study supported anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive claims of T. indica as were mentioned in Indian traditional and folklore practices.

Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Mishra, Vijay; Raut, Sushil; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Jain, Sunil K.

2012-01-01

95

Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia. PMID:24383324

Agnihotri, Anoop; Singh, Vijender

2013-01-01

96

Effect of Alocasia indica Tuber Extract on Reducing Hepatotoxicity and Liver Apoptosis in Alcohol Intoxicated Rats  

PubMed Central

The possible protective role of ethanolic extract of A. indica tuber (EEAIT) in hepatotoxicity and apoptosis of liver caused by alcohol in rats was investigated. Treatment of rats with alcohol (3?g ethanol per kg body weight per day for 15 days intraperitoneally) produced marked elevation of liver biomarkers such as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT), and total bilirubin levels which were reduced by EEAIT in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EEAIT improved antioxidant status (MDA, NO, and GSH) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. Simultaneous supplementation with EEAIT significantly restored hepatic catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels towards normal. The studies with biochemical markers were strongly supported by the histopathological evaluation of the liver tissue. EEAIT also attenuated apoptosis and necrosis features of liver cell found in immunohistochemical evaluation. HPLC analysis of the extract showed the presence of three major peaks of which peak 2 (RT: 33.33?min) contains the highest area (%) and UV spectrum analysis identified it as flavonoids. It is therefore suggested that EEAIT can provide a definite protective effect against chronic hepatic injury caused by alcohol in rats, which may mainly be associated with its antioxidative effect.

Bhattacharya, Koushik; Mukherjee, Soumya

2014-01-01

97

Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg/kg of MI and 100mg/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic LPO, were administered to Wistar albino male rats for 10 consecutive days and the changes in tissue (heart, liver and kidney) LPO and in the concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)), insulin, glucose, alpha-amylase and different lipids were examined. Administration of three test peel extracts significantly increased both the thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) with a concomitant decrease in tissue LPO, suggesting their thyroid stimulatory and antiperoxidative role. This thyroid stimulatory nature was also exhibited in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid animals. However, only minor influence was observed in serum lipid profile in which CM reduced the concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), while CV decreased triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C). When the combined effects of either two (MI+CV) or three (MI+CV+CM) peel extracts were evaluated in euthyroid animals, serum T(3) concentration was increased in response to MI+CV and MI+CV+CM treatments, while T(4) level was elevated by the combinations of first two peels only. Interestingly, both the categories of combinations increased T(4) levels, but not T(3) in PTU treated hypothyroid animals. Moreover, a parallel increase in hepatic and renal LPO was observed in these animals, suggesting their unsafe nature in combination. In conclusion the three test peel extracts appear to be stimulatory to thyroid functions and inhibitory to tissue LPO but only when treated individually. PMID:19059228

Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

2009-02-12

98

Extraction of safflower seed oil by supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safflower seed oil extraction with supercritical CO2 at series operational parameters of pressure, temperature, flow rate and particle size was investigated in a bench scale apparatus. The results show that the extraction yields plotted as a function of time are significantly affected by the extraction pressure, flow rate and particle size, but extraction yields plotted versus CO2 used are scarcely

Xiaojin Han; Leming Cheng; Rong Zhang; Jicheng Bi

2009-01-01

99

Cytotoxic effects of Mangifera indica L. kernel extract on human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and bioactive constituents in the crude extract  

PubMed Central

Background Waterlily Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is thought to be antioxidant-rich, conferred by its functional phytochemicals. Methods The potential anticancer effects of the ethanolic kernel extract on breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) using MTT, anti-proliferation, neutral red (NR) uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays were evaluated. Cytological studies on the breast cancer cells were also conducted, and phytochemical analyses of the extract were carried out to determine the likely bioactive compounds responsible for such effects. Results Results showed the extract induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 30 and 15 ?g/mL, respectively. The extract showed significant toxicity towards both cell lines, with low toxicity to normal breast cells (MCF-10A). The cytotoxic effects on the cells were further confirmed by the NR uptake, antiproliferative and LDH release assays. Bioactive analyses revealed that many bioactives were present in the extract although butylated hydroxytoluene, a potent antioxidant, was the most abundant with 44.65%. Conclusions M. indica extract appears to be more cytoxic to both estrogen positive and negative breast cancer cell lines than to normal breast cells. Synergistic effects of its antioxidant bioactives could have contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract. The extract of M. indica, therefore, has potential anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. This potential is worth studying further, and could have implications on future studies and eventually management of human breast cancers.

2014-01-01

100

Microwave-assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Grape Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave-assisted extraction technique was developed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds from grape seeds. The microwave power (300-150W) and time of extraction (20-200s) were varied during the optimization process. The polyphenol content of the resulting extracts were measured as mg of tannic acid equivalent per gram of crude extract (mg TAE\\/g of crude extract), using a Folin-Ciocalteau reagent.

Ni Hong; Varoujan A. Yaylayan; G. S. Vijaya Raghavan; J. R. Jocelyn Paré; Jacqueline M. R. Bélanger

2001-01-01

101

Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Grape Seed Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seed extracts (GSEs,) obtained from Italian and Rhine Rieslings, were examined for polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activities using HPLC and ESR spectrometry. The seed extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate and ethanol. The contents of polyphenols, flavan-3-ols and antioxidant activities were found to be higher in ethyl acetate than in ethanolic extracts. IC50 values were 0.1045 mg\\/mL and

Anamarija I. Mandic; Sonja M. ?ilas; Gordana S. ?etkovi?; Jasna M. ?anadanovi?-Brunet; Vesna T. Tumbas

2008-01-01

102

Inhibitory effect of Azadirachta indica A. juss leaf extract on the activities of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase.  

PubMed

In recent decades, there has been a drastic increase in the incidence and prevalence of diabetic mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of Azadirachita indica leaf extract on the activity of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase as a means of alleviating hyperglycemia and managing diabetes mellitus. Aqueous extract of Azadirachita indica exhibited most potent alpha-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 9.15 mg mL(-1) and acetone extract exhibited most potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 5.00 mg mL(-1). Kinetic studies revealed both acetone and aqueous extract to exhibit mixed non-competitive inhibition for alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. It can be concluded that the antidiabetic potential of Azadirachta indica may be due to its ability to inhibit both alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The presence of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannins and saponins in this plant may be responsible for its inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied. PMID:24511747

Kazeem, M I; Dansu, T V; Adeola, S A

2013-11-01

103

Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract.  

PubMed

Carica papaya seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported ability "to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy". The product claims to improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. The present study was initiated to analyze the chemical constituents of the Carica Seed Extract and determine the potential immunomodulatory properties of the different bioactive fractions. These immunomodulatory activities of crude Carica Seed Extract and its bioactive fractions were examined in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation assays and complement-mediated hemolytic assay. Three major observations were made in this study: (1) the crude Carica Seed Extract and two other bioactive fractions significantly enhanced the phytohemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes; (2) none of the Carica Seed Extract (at the concentrations used in this study) was able to protect the lymphocytes from the toxic effects of chromium; and (3) some of the bioactive fractions of Carica Seed Extract were able to significantly inhibit the classical complement-mediated hemolytic pathway. These findings provide evidence for immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of Carica Seed Extract. No single compound is likely responsible for these activities. Further purification, isolation and characterization of the active components are needed. PMID:14724345

Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Francisco, Angelica D; De Guzman, Florecita; Tigno, Xenia T

2003-01-01

104

Malachite green adsorption by mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed husks: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango seed husks (MSH), an agricultural waste, was evaluated as an adsorbent for removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption tests were performed at room temperature and the effects of contact time and initial solution pH were investigated. Equilibrium was attained after 2 h for all the tested initial MG concentrations (100–500 mg L). Adsorption kinetics was

Adriana S. Franca; Leandro S. Oliveira; Silvanio A. Saldanha; Pedro I. A. Santos; Samantha S. Salum

2010-01-01

105

Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional hydrodistillation in the extraction of essential oils from mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowers.  

PubMed

Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) is an advanced hydrodistillation (HD) technique, in which a microwave oven is used in the extraction process. MAHD and HD methods have been compared and evaluated for their effectiveness in the isolation of essential oils from fresh mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowers. MAHD offers important advantages over HD in terms of energy savings and extraction time (75 min against 4 h). The composition of the extracted essential oils was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results indicate that the use of microwave irradiation did not adversely influence the composition of the essential oils. MAHD was also found to be a green technology. PMID:21042260

Wang, Hong-Wu; Liu, Yan-Qing; Wei, Shou-Lian; Yan, Zi-Jun; Lu, Kuan

2010-11-01

106

Azadirachta indica leaf extract modulates initiation phase of murine forestomach tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

The effects of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced forestomach tumorigenesis, B(a)P-DNA adduct formation and certain parameters of carcinogen biotransformation system in mice have been reported earlier from our laboratory. In this study, the effects of AAILE on the enzymes of B(a)P biotransformation, which play crucial role in initiation of chemical carcinogenesis - aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and uridinediphosphoglucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) have been evaluated in murine forestomach and liver. In addition, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in forestomach as well as liver and the activities of tissue injury marker enzymes - lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in the serum have also been evaluated. Oral administration of AAILE (100 mg/kg body wt for 2 weeks) reduces the AHH activity and enhances the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in both the tissues, suggesting its potential in decreasing the activation and increasing the detoxification of carcinogens. The LPO levels decrease upon AAILE treatment in the hepatic tissue, suggesting its antioxidative and hence anti-carcinogenic effects. Non-significant alterations have been observed in tissue injury marker enzymes upon AAILE treatment, suggesting its safety at the given dose. In conclusion, AAILE appears to modulate initiation phase of carcinogenesis and may be suggested as safe and an effective agent for chemoprevention. PMID:17970278

Gangar, Subhash Chander; Koul, Ashwani

2007-08-01

107

Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Azadirachta indica fruit skin extract and its isolated constituent azadiradione  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of carbon tetrachloride extract (CTCE) of Azadirachta indica fruit skin and its isolated constituent azadiradione at two different dose levels (50 and 100?mg?kg body weight). Anti-nociceptive screening by writhing test and hot-plate technique supported both peripheral and central mechanisms, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was observed using carrageenan-induced paw oedema

K. Ilango; G. Maharajan; S. Narasimhan

2012-01-01

108

Supercritical fluid extraction of daphne ( Laurus nobilis L.) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurus nobilis L., commonly known as daphne tree, is an evergreen that belongs to the Lauraceae family. Daphne trees produce grape-sized\\u000a shiny purplish berries having three parts: flesh, skin, and an inner kernel (single seed). This study examines supercritical\\u000a CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction of oil from daphne seeds. The oil yield of ground seeds varied from 14 to 28% depending on

Sedat H. Beis; Nurhan T. Dunford

2006-01-01

109

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuphea seed oil (CSO) is a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids. Although CSO has been obtained using solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from disadvantages. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a promising alternative extraction technology. It is a very effective means to extract vegetable oils, non-toxic, non-flammable, easy to separate from extracts (i.e., no

F. J. Eller; S. C. Cermak; S. L. Taylor

2011-01-01

110

Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Passiflora seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates extraction of Passiflora seed oil by using supercritical carbon dioxide. Artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied for modeling and the prediction of the oil extraction yield. Moreover, process optimization were carried out by using both methods to predict the best operating conditions, which resulted in the maximum extraction yield of the Passiflora

Gholamreza Zahedi; Abbas Azarpour

2011-01-01

111

Biosorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isosteric heat of sorption of Cu(II) onto Tamarindus indica seed powder.  

PubMed

Biosorption of Cu(II) by Tamarindus indica seed powder (TSP) was investigated as a function of temperature in a batch system. The Cu(II) biosorption potential of TSP increased with increasing temperature. The rate of the biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics while the sorption equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum monolayer Cu(II) biosorption capacity increased from 82.97 mg g(-1) at 303 K to 133.24 mg g(-1) at 333 K. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. Isosteric heat of sorption, determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation increased with increase in surface loading showing its strong dependence on surface coverage. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area and porosity analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of FTIR analysis of unloaded and Cu(II)-loaded TSP revealed that -NH(2), -OH, -C=O and C-O functional groups on the biosorbent surface were involved in the biosorption process. The present study suggests that TSP can be used as a potential, alternative, low-cost biosorbent for removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous media. PMID:21872453

Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

2011-12-01

112

Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct-seeded indica rice.  

PubMed

Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Assam rice (indica) using 98 SSR markers for dormancy-related traits and cooking quality. Analysis of population structure revealed 10 subgroups in the population. The mean r(2) and D' value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.24 and 0.51, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations (P < 0.01), with the R(2) values ranging from 12.0 to 18.0%. The significant marker associations were for grain dormancy (RM27 on chromosome 2), ?-amylase activity (RM27 and RM234 on chromosomes 2 and 7, respectively), germination (RM27 and RM106 on chromosome 2), amylose (RM282 on chromosome 3) and grain length elongation ratio (RM142 on chromosome 4). The present study revealed the association of marker RM27 with traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity and germination. Simple correlation analysis of these traits revealed that these traits were positively correlated with each other and this marker may be useful for simultaneous improvement of these traits. The study indicates the presence of novel QTLs for a few traits under consideration. The study reveals association of traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity, germination, amylose content, grain length elongation ratio with SSR markers indicating the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization. PMID:24840818

Rathi, Sunayana; Pathak, K; Yadav, R N S; Kumar, B; Sarma, R N

2014-04-01

113

Antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract.  

PubMed

The seeds of C. sativum are used as a traditional drug for the treatment of diabetes. The antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of seeds in vitro was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Incorporation of seed powder in the diet led to marked lowering of blood glucose and a rise in the levels of insulin in diabetic rats. A parallel beneficial effect was observed on oxidant -antioxidant balance in the kidney. Addition of coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of peroxidative damage but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels in diabetic rats. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while total flavanoid content was found to be 12.6 quercetin equivalents/g. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum free radical-scavenging action and free radical reducing power of coriander seed extract was observed at a concentration of 50 microg GAE. Islet histology structures showed degeneration of pancreatic islets in diabetic rats which was also reduced in diabetic rats treated with seed powder. These results show that C. sativum seeds not only possess antihyperglycemic properties but antioxidative properties also. Increased dietary intake of coriander seeds decrease the oxidative burden in diabetes mellitus. PMID:21365993

Deepa, B; Anuradha, C V

2011-01-01

114

Effects of Extract from Mangifera indica Leaf on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats  

PubMed Central

The leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is used as a medicinal material in traditional herb medicine for a long time in India, China, and other Eastern Asian countries. Our present study investigated the therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract from Mangifera indica (EMI) in rat with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Effects of EMI (50, 100, and 200?mg/kg, p.o.) administrated for 9 days on the ankle swelling, synovial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) levels were assessed in MSU crystal rat. Data from our study showed that rat with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystal demonstrated an elevation in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-?, IL-1? mRNA, and protein levels. Oral administration of 100 and 200?mg/kg EMI for 9 days reversed the abnormalities in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-?, IL-1? mRNA, and protein levels. The results indicated that the beneficial antigouty arthritis effect of EMI may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting TNF-? and IL-1? expression in the synovial tissues. Our study suggests that Mangifera indica and its extract may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application.

Jiang, Yan; You, Xiao-Ying; Fu, Kong-Long; Yin, Wan-Le

2012-01-01

115

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.  

PubMed

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

116

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

117

Neuropharmacological actions of Pluchea indica Less root extract in socially isolated mice.  

PubMed

The effects of Pluchea indica Less root extract (PI-E) on locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleep, social isolation-induced aggressive behavior, motor coordination in the rotarod test, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion and nociceptive responses in the tail-pinch test were examined in mice. Socially isolated mice showed higher locomotor activity and shorter duration of pentobarbital sleep than group-housed mice. PI-E (50-100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased locomotor activity and prolonged pentobarbital sleep in a dose-dependent manner in isolated mice but not in group-housed mice. At a large dose (400 mg/kg, p.o.), PI-E not only decreased locomotor activity but also prolonged pentobarbital sleep in group-housed mice. The reference drug diazepam, at 0.5 mg/kg, also suppressed the locomotor activity in isolated mice but not in group-housed mice. Moreover, diazepam, at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, significantly prolonged pentobarbital sleep in both isolated mice and group-housed mice. The effects of PI-E and diazepam on pentobarbital sleep in isolated mice were significantly attenuated by flumazenil (1 mg/kg, i.v.). PI-E (50-100 mg/kg), as well as diazepam (0.5-5 mg/kg, p.o.), dose-dependently suppressed social isolation-induced aggressive behavior, but it had no effect on pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion, motor coordination in the rotarod test, or nociceptive response in the tail pinch test in group-housed mice. These results suggest that PI-E attenuates pathophysiological changes caused by social isolation stress in mice, and that the GABAergic system is partly involved in the action of PI-E on a social isolation-induced decrease in pentobarbital sleep. PMID:8924905

Thongpraditchote, S; Matsumoto, K; Temsiririrkkul, R; Tohda, M; Murakami, Y; Watanabe, H

1996-03-01

118

Molecular docking studies and anti-snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.  

PubMed

Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the binding pockets of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The phenolic principles could form hydrogen bonds with the three histidine residues in the conserved zinc-binding motif and could chelate the Zn(2+) atom of the SVMPs, which could potentially result in inhibition of the venom enzymatic activities and thereby inhibit tissue necrosis. PMID:19783918

Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

2009-01-01

119

Efficacy of crude neem seed kernel extracts against natural infestation of Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of crude aqueous-methanol and aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel against sarcoptic mange of sheep. Crude aqueous-methanol (AME) and aqueous extracts (AE) of neem seed kernel (NSK) were prepared and formulated as 10% and 20% ointments (w/w), using Vaseline as vehicle. Forty-two lambs of Pak Karakul breed, having natural infection of sarcoptic mange were divided into seven experimental groups. Skin scrapings and clinical examination were carried out at scheduled intervals after treatment. Ivermectin (positive control) completely cleared infesting mites from animals after 10 days and 20% AME after 16 days. While, clinical mange was completely cured after 16 and 20 days with ivermectin and 20% AME, respectively, under field conditions. Only the higher concentration (20% AME) of NSK extracts completely cured the clinical mange, suggesting a dose-dependent response. Our results consolidate the belief that use of folk remedies can provide an effective and economic way of combating sarcoptic mange in sheep. PMID:18023309

Tabassam, Shahid Maqsood; Iqbal, Zafar; Jabbar, Abdul; Sindhu, Zia-ud-Din; Chattha, Amjad Iqbal

2008-01-17

120

Synergistic effect of tincture of Crataegus and Mangifera indica L. extract on hyperlipidemic and antioxidant status in atherogenic rats.  

PubMed

This study was designed to address the synergistic effect of tincture of Crataegus (TCR) and Mangifera indica L. (MNG) extracts on the lipid and antioxidant parameters in the development of aortic lesions in diet-induced atherosclerosis in rats. TCR, is an alcoholic extract made from the berries of Hawthorn, Crataegus oxyacantha with flavanoids as the main constituent. MNG, is an alcoholic extract made from the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. with polyphenols as the main constituent. Simultaneous oral administration of these two extracts (0.5 ml/100 g body weight) to rats fed with an atherogenic (4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, 0.5% thiouracil) diet prevented the elevation of lipids in the serum and heart and also caused a significant decrease in lipid accumulation in the liver and aorta reverting the hyperlipidaemic condition of these rats. These extracts significantly restored the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, thereby restoring the antioxidant status of the organism to almost normal levels. This effect could be attributed to the synergistic activity of flavonoids in TCR and polyphenols of MNG. PMID:18755296

Akila, Manickam; Devaraj, Halagowder

2008-01-01

121

Erythrocytic profile of rats infected with T. brucei brucei and treated with a combination of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and diminazene diaceturate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the erythrocytic profile of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and treated with a combination of methanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica and diminazene diaceturate (DDA). Acute toxicity study of the drug and extract combinations was carried; selection of the\\u000a best drug and extract combinations was carried out using 54 rats of both sexes separated into

Valentine U. Omoja; Arua O. Anaga; Ikechukwu R. Obidike; Thelma E. Ihedioha; Paschal U. Umeakuana; Linus I. Mhomga; Isaac U. Asuzu; Silvanus M. Anika

122

Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200?g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200?mg·kg?1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200?mg·kg?1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism.

Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

2014-01-01

123

Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. PMID:24767054

Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; Ramírez de León, J A; Navarro-Ocaña, A

2014-09-15

124

Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp. PMID:21189869

Razali, Nurhanani; Aziz, Azlina A; Junit, Sarni M

2010-12-01

125

Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp  

PubMed Central

Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT–PCR and real-time RT–PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp.

Razali, Nurhanani; Aziz, Azlina A.

2010-01-01

126

Supercritical fluid extraction of tea seed oil and its comparison with solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of tea seed oil was performed to study the effects of various parameters such as pressure, temperature, extraction time (dynamic) and modifier (ethanol) on the yield and composition of the oil. The results were also compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and DGF (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Fettwissenschaft) standard method B-I5 (87) in lab

Ahmad Rajaei; Mohsen Barzegar; Yaddollah Yamini

2005-01-01

127

Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaf (Neem Leaf) and Chloroquine Sulphate Toxic to the Histology of the Rabbit Cerebellum?  

PubMed Central

Background: Herbal medication is commonly employed in treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf (A. indica) is commonly used in treatment of malaria by Nigerians. Most often, aqueous extract of A. indica leaf is taken in combination with chloroquine in order to cure malaria infection without knowledge of the side effect especially by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. Objectives: This study is designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. indica leaf, and concomitant administration of chloroquine phosphate + aqueous extract of A. indica leaf on the Brain tissue (cerebellum) of rabbit. Methods: Eight adult male Rabbits with average weight range between 1.29kg – 1.52kg obtained from Department of Zoology University of Ekpoma, Edo state were used for this study. They were weighed at intervals of five days before and after the experiment. They were randomly divided into four groups (A– D) of two rabbits each. The chloroquine and aqueous extract of A. indica leaf was administered to the animals orally via a cannula inserted through the oral cavity. They were treated as follows; group A received (100mg ml-1 dry extract solution of aqueous extract of A. indica), group B received (15mg kg-1 of chloroquine sulphate), group C received (100mg ml-1 dry extract solution of aqueous extract of A. indica + 15mg kg-1 of chloroquine sulphate and the control animals (group D) were given normal saline. Both the treatment and control animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. The cerebellum was carefully dissected out and immediately fixed in Bouin's fluid for histological studies. Results: Groups A-C animals showed normal Cerebellar histoarchitecture and average weight gain of 2.1% (group A), 1.4% (group B), 0.7% (group C) and 1.4% (group D) respectively. When the average weight gain by the treated animals was compared to the average weight gain by the control animals, it was statistically not significant (P>0.06). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that aqueous extract of A. indica has no effect on the histology of the Cerebellum and weight of adult male rabbits, even when it is administered concomitantly with Chloroquine Sulphate at a reported and recommended safe dose.

Ucheya, RE; Ochei, UM; Amiegheme, FE

2011-01-01

128

Protective effect of cactus ( Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily,

Najla Hfaiedh; Mohamed Salah Allagui; Mbarka Hfaiedh; Abdelfattah El Feki; Lazhar Zourgui; Françoise Croute

2008-01-01

129

Antioxidant Efficacy of Mulberry (Morus Indica L.) Leaves Extract and Powder in Edible Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of mulberry (Morus Indica L.) leaves was evaluated in rice bran oil (RBO). The oil was subjected to accelerated oxidation at 100° C for 5 days and heat treatment at 180°C for 1 h. In order to examine its potential antioxidant activity, the oxidative stability of the oils was evaluated by employing peroxide value (PV), radical scavenging

Linda Grace Roy; Saeedeh Arabshahi-Delouee; Asna Urooj

2010-01-01

130

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of triglycerides from Aquilaria crassna seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of pressure, temperature and solvent to solid ratio (SSR) on extraction efficiency of triglycerides from powdered Aquilaria crassna seeds by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. Supercritical extractions were designed for pressures ranging from 250 to 350bar, temperatures ranging from 313 to 333K and SSR values ranging from 60:1 to 120:1. All values were selected

Wei-Heng Chen; Ching-Hung Chen; Chieh-Ming J. Chang; Bing-Chung Liau; Daina Hsiang

2010-01-01

131

Extraction of polyphenols from grape seeds and concentration by ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solvent extraction method utilizing 50% ethanol and 50% water as solvent was used for the extraction of polyphenols from grape seeds. An additional ultrafiltlration step was also included to determine its beneficial effect. Various experimental conditions, such as solid to liquid ratio (0.1–0.25g\\/ml), number of extraction stages (single, double and triple) and membrane pore size (0.22 and 0.45?m) were

Haseeb Nawaz; John Shi; Gauri S. Mittal; Yukio Kakuda

2006-01-01

132

Extraction and refining of oil from amaranth seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil was extracted with hexane on a pilot plant scale from seeds ofAmaranthus cruentus after the seeds were subjected to an efficient abrasive milling. Optimum conditions were then determined for refining and\\u000a bleaching this oil. The yellow oil obtained is similar in appearance and composition to corn oil, but comparison with previously\\u000a published analyses reveals a considerable variation in the

C. K. Lyon; R. Becker

1987-01-01

133

Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.  

PubMed

A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, ?-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23099617

Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

2012-01-01

134

Evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem seed oil obtained by extraction with analytical grade acetone using a Soxhlet apparatus, NSO(S) and that obtained by the traditional kneading method, NSO(K) were compared with the powder equivalent weights (PEW, the neem seed powder capable of yielding the equivalent amounts of the oil used for the treatments) for their relative efficacy in reducing the reproductive potential of the

N. E. S Lale; H. T Abdulrahman

1999-01-01

135

Control of some insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculuta) with neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss.) in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem (Azadirachta indica) products were effective in protecting stored cowpeas against bruchid damage for over 4 months under artificial infestation in the laboratory. This practice, part of an extension package, is becoming popular with farmers. In field trials, aqueous neem seed extracts, as well as leaf extracts reduced thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) incidence in cowpeas and increased yields significantly. Extracts also

P. B. Tanzubil

1991-01-01

136

The effect of seed extraction methods on seed quality of two cultivar's tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).  

PubMed

In order to compare of different methods and identify the optimum condition for tomato seed extraction, factorial experiments with 3 replications was conducted. In the first experiment, pulp of two tomato cultivars (Faraon, Dominator) were fermented at two temperatures (25, 35 degrees C) and six periods (24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 h). The germination of seeds in laboratory as well as seedling emergence and preliminary growth in greenhouse were studied and measured. The results showed that effect of cultivar on traits (except of seedling emergence) was significant. Also the effect of temperature of fermentation, duration of fermentation and also interaction effects of them on seed germination were significant. Totally seed quality decreased with increasing temperature and duration of fermentation and the fermentation duration from 24 to 48 h at temperature 25 degrees C, is recommended. In the second experiment, tomato seeds were extracted by HCL (pH was arranged to 1, 2, 3 for 10, 20, 30 min), H2SO4 (pH was arranged to 1, 2, for 15, 30 min), Sodium carbonate (5, 10% for 24 and 48 h) and fermentation. Percentage germination, germination rate, length of radicle and length of plumule were used for seed quality assessment. The results showed that interaction effect between pH and duration of HCL treatments was significant for seed germination (percentage and rate) and there was an interaction effect between concentration and duration for germination rate in alkali treatments. Different extraction methods had not detrimental effect on percentage germination, but acid treatments produce very bright clean seeds in compare to other treatments. PMID:21313905

Nemati, H; Nazdar, T; Azizi, M; Arouiee, H

2010-09-01

137

Azadirachta indica extract-artesunic acid combination produces an increased cure rate of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Available artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs) are expensive. Various traditional herbal remedies for malaria involve plants, proven scientifically to have antiplasmodial effects, e.g., Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Objective: Combination of an artemisinin-based compound and a medicinal herb extract will provide an indigenous alternative/herb-based ACT. Materials and methods: The in vivo schizontocidal activity of the crude aqueous extract of 100, 500, and 1000?mg/kg of A. indica fresh leaves (NCE) and 6, 15, and 20?mg/kg of artesunic acid were determined, alone and in combination, while keeping the dose of artesunic acid constant at 15?mg/kg, using the Peter's 4-day suppressive test and Swiss albino mice. The ED50 was calculated from the dose-response relationships. Percentage survival and cure were also determined. Results: The average yield of two extractions of NCE was 8.33?±?1.67%. Combination of 1000?mg/kg of NCE and 15?mg/kg of artesunic acid, produced a significant reduction of parasitemia (96.87%), compared to 20?mg/kg of artesunic acid alone (68.14%). The combination had an ED50 of 0.58?mg/kg while that of artesunic acid alone was 8.814?mg/kg. The combinations of NCE with artesunic acid produced a cure, although the artesunic acid did not produce a cure in 30?d. Discussion: NCE increased the activity of artesunic acid in terms of reduction in parasitemia, and increased survival time and cure rate. Conclusion: The combination of an artemisinin and aqueous extract of neem leaf is possible, providing a potentiated reduction of parasitemia, and increased cure rate. PMID:24517279

Anagu, Onyeka Linda; Attama, Anthony Amaechi; Okore, Vincent Chima; Gugu, Harrison Thaddeus; Ngene, Augustine Arinze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

2014-07-01

138

Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system. PMID:24081779

Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

2013-12-01

139

The inhibitory potential of Thai mango seed kernel extract against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Plant extracts are a valuable source of novel antibacterial compounds to combat pathogenic isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a global nosocomial infection. In this study, the alcoholic extract from Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') seed kernel extract (MSKE) and its phenolic principles (gallic acid, methyl gallate and pentagalloylglucopyranose) demonstrated potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and 19 clinical MRSA isolates in studies of disc diffusion, broth microdilution and time-kill assays. Electron microscopy studies using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed impaired cell division and ultra-structural changes in bacterial cell morphology, including the thickening of cell walls, of microorganisms treated with MSKE; these damaging effects were increased with increasing concentrations of MSKE. MSKE and its phenolic principles enhanced and intensified the antibacterial activity of penicillin G against 19 clinical MRSA isolates by lowering the minimum inhibitory concentration by at least 5-fold. The major phenolic principle, pentagalloylglucopyranose, was demonstrated to be the major contributor to the antibacterial activity of MSKE. These results suggest that MSKE may potentially be useful as an alternative therapeutic agent or an adjunctive therapy along with penicillin G in the treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:21788933

Jiamboonsri, Pimsumon; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Chomnawang, Mullika T

2011-01-01

140

Hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic activity of stem bark extracts Erythrina indica in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study is to investigate the alcoholic (AlcE) and aqueous (AqsE) extracts of stem bark of Erythrina indica (Papilionaceae) for hypoglycaemic effects in normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single dose administration of alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p.) or by injecting dexamethasone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days. In normal rats, AlcE and AqsE had significantly decreased the blood glucose level (BGL) in a dose dependent manner after repeated administration for 7 days. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, both the extracts decreased blood sugar levels with significant improvement in glucose tolerance and body weight at the end of 1st, 2nd and 3rd week after test extract treatment. In case of dexamethasone induced insulin resistant diabetic rats, repeated administration of AlcE and AqsE inhibited the increase in blood glucose level and improved glucose tolerance induced by dexamethasone as compared to dexamethasone induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that both extracts possess hypoglycaemic activity in normal as well as in diabetic rats. Among AlcE and AqsE, AqsE possesses better hypoglycaemic activity than AlcE in all the models. Preliminary phytochemical investigations revealed that alcoholic extracts contain carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, phenolics and tannins. Aqueous extract contains carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols and triterpenoids. These phytoconstituents may be responsible for the hypoglycaemic activity of the plant.

Yashwant Kumar, A.; Nandakumar, K.; Handral, M.; Talwar, Sahil; Dhayabaran, Daniel

2010-01-01

141

Inhibitory effects of grape seed extract on lipases  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to assess the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on the fat-metabolizing enzymes pancreatic lipase, lipoprotein lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase in vitro and evaluate its potential application as a treatment for obesity.

Diego A. Moreno; Nebojsa Ilic; Alexander Poulev; Dawn L. Brasaemle; Susan K. Fried; Ilya Raskin

2003-01-01

142

Inhibition of aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus infected cotton bolls after treatment with neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In separate treatments, a spore suspension ofA. flavus (control), an aqueous leaf extract of the subtropical neem tree plus a spore suspension ofA. flavus, or an aqueous neem leaf extract followed by anA. flavus spore suspension were injected 48 hr later onto the surfaces of locks of developing cotton bolls (30-day post anthesis).\\u000a Thirteen days after the treatments, the seeds

Hampden J. Zeringue; Deepak Bhatnagar

1990-01-01

143

Leucocytic profile of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and treated with a combination of methanolic leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica and diminazene diaceturate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the leucocytic profile of rats experimentally infected with T\\u000a rypanosoma brucei brucei and treated with a combination of methanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extracts (MAILE) plus diminazene diaceturate (DDA). Acute toxicity study of the drug and extract combinations was carried.\\u000a Selection of the best drug and extract combinations was carried out using 54 rats of both sexes separated

Valentine U. Omoja; Arua O. Anaga; Reginald I. Obidike; Thelma E. Ihedioha; Paschal U. Umeakuana; Linus I. Mhomga; Martina C. Onu; Isaac U. Asuzu; Silvanus M. Anika

144

Seed treatment with aqueous extract of Viscumalbum induces resistance to pearl millet downy mildew pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Downy mildew (Sclerosporagraminicola [Sacc.] Schroet.) is a serious agricultural problem for pearl millet (Pennisetumglaucum [L.] R. Br.) grain production under field conditions. Six medicinally important plant species Azadirachta indica, Argemone mexicana, Commiphora caudata, Mentha piperita, Emblica officinalis and Viscum album were evaluated for their efficacy against pearl millet downy mildew. Seeds of pearl millet were treated with different concentrations of

Chandrashekhara; S. Niranjan Raj; G. Manjunath; S. Deepak; H. Shekar Shetty

2010-01-01

145

Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica.  

PubMed

The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of cabbage leaves and consuming less of the treated half of cabbage leaves. The botanical insecticides had less of an effect on the oviposition behaviour of P. xylostella moths. In laboratory and glasshouse trials, significantly fewer eggs were oviposited on the plants that had been treated with syringa extracts. Therefore, the syringa extracts appear to have a repellent effect. In contrast, when exposed to the neem extracts the moths did not discriminate between control plants and treated plants. Behavioural observation indicated that, despite the lower number of eggs oviposited on cabbage treated with syringa extracts, the moths chose cabbage treated with the highest dose of syringa more often than they chose control cabbage plants. Similar observations were found in cabbage plants treated with neem, moths chose the medium dose more often than they chose the control. Oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are important factors in pest control, and results from this study indicate that botanical insecticides have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for P. xylostella in South Africa. PMID:16197566

Charleston, D S; Kfir, R; Vet, L E M; Dicke, M

2005-10-01

146

Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.  

PubMed

This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein. PMID:11030480

Sen, M; Bhattacharyya, D K

2000-01-01

147

Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots.  

PubMed

The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

Daneshkhah, R; Cabello, S; Rozanska, E; Sobczak, M; Grundler, F M W; Wieczorek, K; Hofmann, J

2013-09-01

148

Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots  

PubMed Central

The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii.

Hofmann, J.

2013-01-01

149

Antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) and Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) extracts against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against 21 strains of foodborne pathogens were determined--Listeria monocytogenes (five strains), Staphylococcus aureus (four strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (six strains), Salmonella Enteritidis (four strains), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus, and five food spoilage bacteria: Pseudomonas aeroginosa, P. putida, Alcaligenes faecalis, and Aeromonas hydrophila (two strains). Guava and neem extracts showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria except for V. parahaemolyticus, P. aeroginosa, and A. hydrophila. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethanol extracts of guava showed the highest inhibition for L. monocytogenes JCM 7676 (0.1 mg/mL), S. aureus JCM 2151 (0.1 mg/mL), S. aureus JCM 2179 (0.1 mg/mL), and V. parahaemolyticus IFO 12711 (0.1 mg/mL) and the lowest inhibition for Alcaligenes faecalis IFO 12669, Aeromonas hydrophila NFRI 8282 (4.0 mg/mL), and A. hydrophila NFRI 8283 (4.0 mg/mL). The MIC of chloroform extracts of neem showed similar inhibition for L. monocytogenes ATCC 43256 (4.0 mg/mL) and L. monocytogenes ATCC 49594 (5.0 mg/mL). However, ethanol extracts of neem showed higher inhibition for S. aureus JCM 2151 (4.5 mg/mL) and S. aureus IFO 13276 (4.5 mg/mL) and the lower inhibition for other microorganisms (6.5 mg/mL). No significant effects of temperature and pH were found on guava and neem extracts against cocktails of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. The results of the present study suggest that guava and neem extracts possess compounds containing antibacterial properties that can potentially be useful to control foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms. PMID:18041957

Mahfuzul Hoque, M D; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Kawamoto, S

2007-01-01

150

Saraca indica bark extract mediated green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bark extract of the traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant Saraca indica containing redox active polyphenolic compounds has been utilized for the one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The polyphenolic compounds acted as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent without any additional capping agent. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles of 15-23 nm size was complete in several minutes and no photo irradiation or heat treatment was necessary. Surface plasmon resonance, HRTEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR studies have been carried out to characterize the nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles synthesized were of triangular, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal, and spherical shapes. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature and the kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Majumdar, Rakhi; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Bag, Braja Gopal; Patra, Biplab Kumar

2013-04-01

151

Saraca indica bark extract mediated green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bark extract of the traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant Saraca indica containing redox active polyphenolic compounds has been utilized for the one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The polyphenolic compounds acted as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent without any additional capping agent. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles of 15-23 nm size was complete in several minutes and no photo irradiation or heat treatment was necessary. Surface plasmon resonance, HRTEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR studies have been carried out to characterize the nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles synthesized were of triangular, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal, and spherical shapes. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature and the kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Majumdar, Rakhi; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Bag, Braja Gopal; Patra, Biplab Kumar

2014-04-01

152

"Mangifera indica L. extract (QF808) reduces ischaemia-induced neuronal loss and oxidative damage in the gerbil brain".  

PubMed

The effect of oral administration of Mangifera indica L. extract (QF808) on ischemia-reperfusion-induced neuronal death in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 sector was examined. Oral administration of QF808 for 7 days dose-dependently protected against neuronal cell death following transient ischaemia and reperfusion as assessed by histopathology. In addition, locomotor activity assessment prior to ischaemia and 7 days after correlated well with the histological results. To evaluate redox alterations by reactive oxygen species, total sulfhydryl, non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NPSH), malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals and total nitrogen oxide levels were assayed in hippocampus and cortex homogenates. QF808 treatment attenuated NPSH loss, nitrogen oxide levels and lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus. These results suggest that orally administered QF808 is absorbed across the blood-brain barrier and attenuates neuronal death of the hippocampal CA1 area after ischaemia-reperfusion. These protective effects are most likely due to the antioxidant activity of QF808. PMID:11767405

Martínez Sánchez, G; Candelario-Jalil, E; Giuliani, A; León, O S; Sam, S; Delgado, R; Núñez Sellés, A J

2001-11-01

153

Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by Eriobotrya japonica seed extract.  

PubMed

We have clarified that Eriobotrya japonica seed extract has strong antioxidative activity, and is effective for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as hepatopathy and nephropathy. In this study, to investigate the influences of components of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on its antioxidative activity, extracts were prepared using various solvents (n-hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH), methanol (MeOH) and H2O) and the antioxidative activity of the solvent fractions and components was evaluated based on the scavenging of various radicals (DPPH and O2(-)) measured by the ESR method and the inhibition of Fe3+-ADP induced NADPH dependent lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. The radical scavenging activities and inhibitory activities on lipid peroxidation differed among the solvent fractions and components. In the n-BuOH, MeOH and H2O fractions, radical scavenging activity and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation were high. In addition, these fractions contained abundant polyphenols, and the radical scavenging activity increased with the polyphenol content. In the low-polar Hex and EtOAc fractions, the radical scavenging activity was low, but the lipid peroxidation inhibition activity was high. These fractions contained beta-sitosterol, and the inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation was high. Based on these findings, the antioxidative activity of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract may be derived from many components involved in a complex mechanism, resulting in high activity. PMID:16508147

Yokota, Junko; Takuma, Daisuke; Hamada, Atsuhide; Onogawa, Masahide; Yoshioka, Saburo; Kusunose, Masahiko; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Kyotani, Shojiro; Nishioka, Yutaka

2006-03-01

154

Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities investigation of tomato seed extracts.  

PubMed

Biological activities of different varieties of tomato seed extracts were evaluated to verify the potential antioxidant and/or antiproliferative activity of the bioactive metabolites present in them. Findings demonstrated that among all the varieties investigated (San Marzano Rosso, San Marzano Giallo, Corbarino, Black Tomato and San Marzano/Black Tomato hybrid) San Marzano Rosso seed extract exhibited the highest free radical-scavenging activity with 68% of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical inhibition, and the best cytotoxic activity evaluated by using the brine shrimp test (LD50: 23,198 ppm) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay on A375 cell line (IC50: 137.7 ?g/mL). PMID:24483342

Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Caporale, Angelamaria; De Martino, Laura; Popolo, Ada; De Prisco, Rocco; Nicolaus, Barbara; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Saturnino, Carmela

2014-01-01

155

Comparison of Supercritical Fluid and Hexane Extraction Methods in Extracting Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus ) Seed Oil Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate and compare fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols of kenaf seed oil extracted\\u000a by supercritical carbon dioxide and traditional solvent methods. Fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols were determined in the\\u000a extracted oils as functions of the pressure (400 bar, 600 bar), temperature (40 °C, 80 °C) and CO2 flow rate (25 g\\/min) using a 1-L extraction vessel. Gas

Abdalbasit Adam Mariod; Bertrand Matthäus; Maznah Ismail

2011-01-01

156

Supercritical fluid extraction of Cucurbita ficifolia seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pumpkin, Cucurbita ficifolia, seed oil was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2) in the temperature range of 308–318 K and in the pressure range of 18–20 MPa. In addition, the influence of the superficial velocity within a tubular extractor was studied. The oil content determined by a Soxhlet apparatus was 43.5%. Physical and chemical characteristics of the oil were obtained. The

M. Gabriela Bernardo-Gil; Lina M. Cardoso Lopes

2004-01-01

157

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) attenuates collagen-induced arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) which is known to act as an antioxidant has therapeutic effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. Mice were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of GSPE (10, 50, or 100mg\\/kg) or saline. Clinical, histological, and biochemical parameters were assessed. The effects of GSPE on osteoclastogenesis were

Mi-La Cho; Yu-Jung Heo; Mi-Kyung Park; Hye-Jwa Oh; Jin-Sil Park; Yun-Ju Woo; Ji-Hyeon Ju; Sung-Hwan Park; Ho-Youn Kim; Jun-Ki Min

2009-01-01

158

Stability of polyphenolic extracts from grape seeds after thermal treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five commercial grape seed extracts (GSEs) were put under pasteurisation (HTST and LTLT), cooking, baking and sterilisation\\u000a conditions. After each treatment, the tannin content, antioxidant activity, browning and characteristics of eight phenolic\\u000a compounds were determined. For nearly all quantified parameters, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between at least two treatments. The gallic acid, gallocatechin and browning parameters showed a greater

Gabriel Davidov-Pardo; Iñigo Arozarena; María R. Marín-Arroyo

2011-01-01

159

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography of polyphenolic compounds in grape seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Supercritical Fluid Chromatography with a packed column on a mixture of eight polyphenols has been optimized. Carbon dioxide\\u000a which was modified with methanol which contained less than 1% (w\\/w) citric acid as a secondary additive served as the mobile\\u000a phase. Two tandem diol columns were used sequentially. The optimized method was applied to a supercritical fluid grape seed\\u000a extract. Various

A. Karnangerpour; M. Ashraf-Khorassani; L. T. Taylor; H. M. McNair; L. Chorida

2002-01-01

160

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

1986-05-01

161

Purification of the seven tetranortriterpenoids in neem (Azadirachta indica) seed by counter-current chromatography sequentially followed by isocratic preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Counter-current chromatography (CCC) sequentially followed by isocratic preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to isolate the seven bio-actives (azadirachtin A, azadirachtin B, azadirachtin H, desacetylnimbin, desacetylsalannin, nimbin and salannin) from the seed concentrate (NSC) of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Reproducible, narrow polarity range, high purity fractions were obtained from repeated injections of the NSC (700 mg loadings/injection), on to a relatively small volume CCC coil (116 mL). The CCC biphasic solvent system chosen was hexane:butanol:methanol:water (1:0.9:1:0.9, v/v). A mass balance of injected material showed that 95+% were recovered. PMID:17428489

Silva, Júlio César T; Jham, Gulab N; Oliveira, Rosângela D'arc L; Brown, Leslie

2007-06-01

162

Identification of benzethonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts.  

PubMed

Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (by proton-induced X-ray emission [PIXE] analysis). The main constituent was identified as benzethonium chloride, a synthetic antimicrobial agent commonly used in cosmetics and other topical applications. This compound comprised 8.03% (n = 2) of the liquid GSE sample. Higher amounts of benzethonium chloride were found in powder GSE samples. PMID:11453769

Takeoka, G; Dao, L; Wong, R Y; Lundin, R; Mahoney, N

2001-07-01

163

Identification of benzalkonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts.  

PubMed

Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS), tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS), and elemental analysis (by proton-induced X-ray emission analysis). Three major constituents were observed by HPLC and were identified as benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride, and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride. This mixture of homologues is commonly known as benzalkonium chloride, a widely used synthetic antimicrobial ingredient used in cleaning and disinfection agents. PMID:16159196

Takeoka, Gary R; Dao, Lan T; Wong, Rosalind Y; Harden, Leslie A

2005-09-21

164

Extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Leaf Induces Apoptosis in 4T1 Breast Cancer BALB/c Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: Azadirachta indica (Neem) has been used traditionally for many centuries. Some impressive therapeutic qualities have been discovered. However, the therapeutic effect of neem leaf extract in 4T1 breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of ethanolic Neem leaf extract in an in vivo 4T1 breast cancer model in mice. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into 7 groups (3 non-cancerous groups and 4 cancerous groups) consisting of 12 mice per group. The 3 non-cancerous groups were normal mice treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) (NC), 250 mg/kg Neem (N250) or 500 mg/kg Neem (N500). The 4 cancerous groups were; cancer controls treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 in PBS (CC), and cancerous mice treated with 0.5 µg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT), 250 mg/kg Neem leaf extract (CN 250) or 500 mg/kg Neem leaf extract (CN 500). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to evaluate apoptosis (cell death) in the breast cancer tissues. SPSS software, version 14 was used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was defined as p?0.05. Non parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with the Kruskal Wallis test for the TUNEL assays. Parametric data among the groups was compared using ANOVA. Results: TUNEL assays showed that the CN 250 and CN 500 groups had a higher incidence of apoptosis compared with the cancer controls. Conclusion: The findings showed that neem leaf extract induces apoptosis in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice.

Othman, Fauziah; Motalleb, Gholamreza; Lam Tsuey Peng, Sally; Rahmat, Asmah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Pei Pei, Chong

2011-01-01

165

Analysis of Proanthocyanidins in Grape Seed Extracts, Health Foods and Grape Seed Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seed extract (GSE) is one of Japan's natu- ral food additives, and is recommended for use as an antioxidant. The component of interest is polyphenol, mainly proanthocyanidins, which are condensed tannins. A vanillin-hydrochloric acid (HCl) assay is spe- cific for flavan-3-ol. The sensitivity of GSE components to the vanillin-HCl assay differed according to the chemical structure. We applied this

Yumiko Nakamura; Sumiko Tsuji; Yasuhide Tonogai

2003-01-01

166

Antifeedant activity of extracts from neem, Azadirachta indica , to strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf disk choice test bioassays demonstrated that formulated neem seed oil (NSO) was equally deterrent to first- and third-instar nymphs and adult strawberry aphids,Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell). Concentrations of NSO resulting in 50% feeding deterrence were approximately 1.1% for this species. The rapid disruption of aphid feeding (C. fragaefolii disappeared within 12–24 hr following application to strawberry in the greenhouse. NSO

D. Thomas Lowery; Murray B. Isman

1993-01-01

167

Role of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multiple cognitive deficits, is often accompanied by behavioral disorders and mood changes. Because of the non-availability of proper curative/preventive therapy for AD, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of Azadirachta indica in experimental AD in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental AD in rats was produced by nucleus basalis magnacellularis lesion with ibotenic acid (IB) and intacerebroventricular administration of colchicine (Col). Different behavioral tests and biochemical analysis were performed to explore the role to A. indica in AD. Results: A. indica exhibited anxiolytic activity in the open field test in Col lesion animals, which was comparable to that of diazepam. In the Elevated plus maze test, A. indica significantly alleviated IB and Col-induced anxiety. IB and Col-induced depression was mitigated by A. indica, and the results were comparable to that of imipramine. In Morris’ water maze test, A. indica pre-treatment improved reference memory, working memory and spatial learning, which are at par with the effects of donepezil. Both IB and Col-induced deficits in active avoidance learning and retention of learned behavior were significantly reversed by A. indica. IB and Col-induced increased lipid peroxidase activity was significantly reversed by A. indica (reductions in malondialdehyde level). A. indica stabilized rise in superoxide dismutase and a decreasing trend in acetylcholine-esterase (AChE) activity was seen with IB and Col lesions. A. indica had no effect over the AChE activity. Conclusion: A. indica might be effective in clinical AD by virtue of its cognition enhancement, antidepressant and antianxiety properties.

Raghavendra, M; Maiti, Rituparna; Kumar, Shafalika; Acharya, SB

2013-01-01

168

Molecular docking studies and anti-enzymatic activities of Thai mango seed kernel extract against snake venoms.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (MSKE) (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloyl glucopyranose) exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on enzymatic activities of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), hyaluronidase and L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) of Calloselasma rhodostoma (CR) and Naja naja kaouthia (NK)venoms by in vitro tests. The anti-hemorrhagic and anti-dermonecrotic activities of MSKE against both venoms were clearly supported by in vivo tests. Molecular docking studies indicated that the phenolic molecules of the MSKE could selectively bind to the active sites or their proximity, or modify conserved residues that are critical for the catalysis of PLA(2), and selectively bind to the LAAO binding pocket of both CR and NK venoms and thereby inhibit their enzymatic activities. The results imply a potential use of MSKE against snake venoms. PMID:19384272

Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

2009-01-01

169

Removal of free fatty acid in Azadirachta indica (Neem) seed oil using phosphoric acid modified mordenite for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

In this study free fatty acids present in Azadirachta indica (Neem) oil were esterified with our synthesized phosphoric acid modified catalyst. During the esterification, the acid value was reduced from 24.4 to 1.8 mg KOH/g oil. Synthesized catalyst was characterized by NH(3) TPD, XRD, SEM, FTIR and TGA analysis. During phosphoric acid modification hydrophobic character and weak acid sites of the mordenite were increased, which lead to better esterification when compared to H-mordenite. A kinetic study demonstrates that the esterification reaction followed pseudo-first order kinetics. Thermodynamic studies were also done based on the Arrhenius model. PMID:20346652

SathyaSelvabala, Vasanthakumar; Varathachary, Thiruvengadaravi Kadathur; Selvaraj, Dinesh Kirupha; Ponnusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Subramanian, Sivanesan

2010-08-01

170

Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods  

PubMed Central

Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65? was the highest, at 17.48%. Color was not different based on the extraction method, but the b-value increased as the roasting time for compression extraction was increased. The b-values of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction were 3.54 to 15.6 and those following compression extraction after roasting treatment at 200? for 30 min, were 20.49, which was the highest value. The result of the phenolic compounds composition showed the presence of gentisic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid in the ginseng seed oil. No differences were detected in phenolic acid levels in ginseng seed oil extracted by compression extraction or solvent extraction, but vanillic acid tended to decrease as extraction pressure and temperature were increased for seed oil extracted by a supercritical fluid extraction method. The fatty acid composition of ginseng seed oil was not different based on the extraction method, and unsaturated fatty acids were >90% of all fatty acids, among which, oleic acid was the highest at 80%. Phytosterol analysis showed that ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol were detected. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction was 100.4 to 135.5 mg/100 g, and the phytosterol content following compression extraction and solvent extraction was 71.8 to 80.9 mg/100 g.

Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

2013-01-01

171

Urea-treated neem ( Azadirachta indica A. juss) seed kernel cake as a protein supplement for lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of 12 male and 12 female Mandya×Merino lambs weighing between 5.4 and 12.4kg was investigated by feeding neem seed kernel cake (NSKC) after treatment with 2.5% urea. Lambs of each sex were allotted randomly to concentrate mixture containing either 30% groundnut cake (GNC) or 33% urea-treated neem seed kernel cake (UTNSKC). Over a period of 182 days the

L. M Musalia; S Anandan; V. R. B Sastry; D. K Agrawal

2000-01-01

172

Hypolipidemic and weight reducing activity of the ethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp in cafeteria diet- and sulpiride-induced obese rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of Tamarindus indica Linn. (Family: Caesalpiniaceae) on obesity in rats using cafeteria diet-induced obesity and antipsychotic drug (sulpiride)-induced obesity. Materials and Methods: Cafeteria dietwas administered for 40 successive days to male Wistar rats and sulpiride (20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered for 28 successive days to female Wistar rats. In separate groups of animals, the ethanolic extract (50 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) of Tamarindus indica fruit was administered along with cafeteria diet for 40 successive days to Wistar male rats and along with sulpiride for 28 successive days to Wistar female rats. Results: Cafeteria diet alone significantly increased body weight, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels and decreased HDL cholesterol in male rats as compared to control. Sulpiride per se significantly increased the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and there was no significant effect on HDL-cholesterol in female rats as compared to control. Ethanolic extract showed a significant decrease in body weight, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol in cafeteria diet- and sulpiride-induced obese rats as compared to their respective control groups. Conclusions: Thus, the ethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp showed a significant weight-reducing and hypolipidemic activity in cafeteria diet- and sulpiride-induced obese rats.

Jindal, Vaneeta; Dhingra, Dinesh; Sharma, Sunil; Parle, Milind; Harna, Rajinder Kumar

2011-01-01

173

Recovery of grape seed oil by liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction: a comparison with conventional solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the extraction of grape seed oil by means of liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent is described. The operating conditions to determine the maximum extraction yield were studied. The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was similar to that obtained by conventional liquid extraction, but the quality of the supercritically extracted oil was higher, equivalent to

A. Molero Gómez; C. Pereyra López; E. Martinez de la Ossa

1996-01-01

174

Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract.  

PubMed

Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective activities and other therapeutic properties. Mango peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and others. In the present study, the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe and ripe mango fruits of two varieties namely, Raspuri and Badami on hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, degradation of membrane proteins and its morphological changes are reported. The oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide was inhibited by mango peel extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) value for lipid peroxidation inhibition on erythrocyte ghost membrane was found to be in the range of 4.5-19.3 microg gallic acid equivalents. The mango peel extract showed protection against membrane protein degradation caused by hydrogen peroxide. Morphological changes to erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by mango peel extract. The results demonstrated that mango peel extracts protected erythrocytes against oxidative stress and may impart health benefits and it could be used as a valuable food ingredient or a nutraceutical product. PMID:17919803

Ajila, C M; Prasada Rao, U J S

2008-01-01

175

Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts.  

PubMed

Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid. The phenolic acid derivatives present in acetone extracts of raw and ripe peels were tentatively identified by LC-MS. Gallic acid, syringic acid, mangiferin, ellagic acid, gentisyl-protocatechuic acid, quercetin were the phenolic compounds identified in both raw and ripe peels, while raw peel showed the presence of glycosylated iriflophenone and maclurin derivatives also. ?-Carotene was the major carotenoid followed by violaxanthin and lutein. Thus, both raw and ripe mango peel extracts have different phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which will have various pharmaceutical applications. PMID:20851730

Ajila, C M; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Rao, U J S Prasada

2010-12-01

176

RNA extraction from developing or mature wheat seeds.  

PubMed

Cereal grains, as storage tissues of the plant, contain high amounts of starch. Purification of RNA from plant tissue especially from seed tissue can be challenging due to this high starch content. Starch coprecipitates with RNA in the presence of isopropanol or ethanol and can interfere with the extraction process and downstream reactions. Thus the removal of starch by using appropriate methods is necessary for obtaining pure RNA to be processed for functional genomics analysis. We describe a method to isolate large amount of good-quality RNA from developing and mature wheat grain which can also be adapted to other cereal grains. PMID:24243193

Furtado, Agnelo

2014-01-01

177

The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology  

PubMed Central

Objective To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. Methods The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. Results It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. Conclusions It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries.

Jorge, Aguirre Joya; Heliodoro, De La Garza Toledo; Alejandro, Zugasti Cruz; Ruth, Belmares Cerda; Noe, Aguilar Cristobal

2013-01-01

178

An increase of granulosa cell apoptosis mediates aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract-induced oocyte apoptosis in rat  

PubMed Central

Objective: Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) has been extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for female fertility regulation for a long time, but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine whether an increase of granulosa cell apoptosis is associated with aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE)-induced oocyte apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Sexually immature female rats of 20 days old were fed NLE (50 mg/day) for 10 days and then subjected to superovulation induction protocol. The morphological changes in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), rate of oocyte apoptosis, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total nitrite, and cytochrome c concentrations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytochrome c, p53, Bcl2 and Bax expressions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation, and estradiol 17? level in granulosa cells collected from preovulatory COCs were analyzed. Results: Aqueous NLE increased H2O2 concentration and decreased catalase activity, increased iNOS expression and total nitrite concentration, increased p53, Bax, and p53 expressions but decreased Bcl2 expression, increased cytochrome c concentration and induced DNA fragmentation in granulosa cells. An increased granulosa cell apoptosis resulted in reduced estradiol 17? concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that aqueous NLE-induced granulosa cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway, reduced estradiol 17? concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Thus, granulosa cell apoptosis mediates NLE-induced oocyte apoptosis during female fertility regulation in rat.

Tripathi, Anima; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

2013-01-01

179

Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using

Giancarlo Cravotto; Carlo Bicchi; Stefano Mantegna; Arianna Binello; Valérie Tomao; Farid Chemat

2011-01-01

180

Antioxidative activity of persimmon and grape seed extract: in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined in vitro radical scavenging activity of persimmon seed extract (PSE) and grape seed extract (GSE), and quantified total tannin concentrations of each extract. It has been found that both PSE and GSE have radical scavenging activities, and total tannin concentration of PSE was significantly higher than GSE (p < 0.05). In order to investigate the protective effect on

Hong Seok Ahn; Tae Il Jeon; Joo Yong Lee; Seong Gu Hwang; Yoongho Lim; Dong Ki Park

2002-01-01

181

Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic

C. M. Ajila; L. Jaganmohan Rao; U. J. S. Prasada Rao

2010-01-01

182

Viper and cobra venom neutralization by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae) could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.I., Auddy, B., Gomes, A., 1996. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and P. indica) root extracts. Phytother. Res. 10, 58-61]. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica Less. (Asteraceae). The active fraction (containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol) was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis (EIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR). Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA(2) activity. Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA(2) activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions. PMID:17293096

Gomes, A; Saha, Archita; Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K

2007-09-01

183

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? The Study of appropriate extraction methods and analysis composition of Passion fruit seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to extract and analyses composition of passion fruit seed oil and develop cosmetics from oil extract. Two different techniques were investigated, soxhlet extraction by hexane and petroleum ether, and hydraulic press, to obtain oil directly, resulting the yields of passion fruit seed oil of 23.36 %, 24.46% and 20.06% respectively. The composition of seed

Pongsiri Winitchai

184

Grape seed extract suppresses lipid peroxidation and reduces hypoxic ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen radicals play a crucial role in brain injury. Grape seed extract is a potent anti-oxidant. Does grape seed extract reduce brain injury in the rat pup? Seven-day-old rat pups had the right carotid arteries permanently ligated followed by 2.5h of hypoxia (8% oxygen). Grape seed extract, 50mg\\/kg, or vehicle was administered by i.p. 5min prior to hypoxia and 4h

Yangzheng Feng; Yi-Ming Liu; Jonathan D. Fratkins; Michael H. LeBlanc

2005-01-01

185

The influence of sunflower and mustard leaf extracts on the germination of mustard seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracts from sunflower and mustard leaves were separated using SPE-Columns. The mustard seeds were germinated on water\\u000a (24 h) and subsequently on crude extracts or separate fractions. The heat production rate was measured by isothermal calorimetry\\u000a at 21°C and changes in seed cotyledons by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Crude extracts strongly inhibited seed germination. The water\\u000a and ‘methanol’ fractions of mustard

Magdalena Tro?; A. Skoczowski; Ma?gorzata Bara?ska

2009-01-01

186

Phytochemical extraction, characterisation and comparative distribution across four mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties.  

PubMed

In this study we determined the qualitative composition and distribution of phytochemicals in peel and flesh of fruits from four different varieties of mango using mass spectrometry profiling following fractionation of methanol extracts by preparative HPLC. Gallic acid substituted compounds, of diverse core structure, were characteristic of the phytochemicals extracted using this approach. Other principal compounds identified were from the quercetin family, the hydrolysable tannins and fatty acids and their derivatives. This work provides additional information regarding mango fruit phytochemical composition and its potential contribution to human health and nutrition. Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies. PMID:24295704

Pierson, Jean T; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Shaw, Paul N

2014-04-15

187

Extraction of DNA suitable for PCR applications from mature leaves of Mangifera indica L.*  

PubMed Central

Good quality deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the pre-requisite for its downstream applications. The presence of high concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, proteins, and other secondary metabolites in mango leaves poses problem in getting good quality DNA fit for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications. The problem is exacerbated when DNA is extracted from mature mango leaves. A reliable and modified protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for DNA extraction from mature mango leaves is described here. High concentrations of inert salt were used to remove polysaccharides; Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ?-mercaptoethanol were employed to manage phenolic compounds. Extended chloroform-isoamyl alcohol treatment followed by RNase treatment yielded 950?1050 µg of good quality DNA, free of protein and RNA. The problems of DNA degradation, contamination, and low yield due to irreversible binding of phenolic compounds and coprecipitation of polysaccharides with DNA were avoided by this method. The DNA isolated by the modified method showed good PCR amplification using simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. This modified protocol can also be used to extract DNA from other woody plants having similar problems.

Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Cheema, Hafiza Masooma Naseer; Rajwana, Ishtiaq Ahmad; Khan, Ahmad Sattar; Khan, Asif Ali

2012-01-01

188

Extraction of fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds with supercritical CO 2: Comparison with hydrodistillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds, growing wild in Montenegro, were extracted with supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) at a flow rate of 0.2 kg CO2\\/h under varying extraction conditions in order to determine yield, composition and organoleptic characteristics of extract. The extracts obtained were compared to fennel seed oil isolated by hydrodistillation. In the SC-CO2, extracts as well in the hydrodistilled

Biljana Damjanovi?; Žika Lepojevi?; Vladimir Živkovi?; Aleksandar Toli?

2005-01-01

189

Grape seed extract effects in brain after hypobaric hypoxia.  

PubMed

Hypoxia induces a wide range of deleterious effects at the cellular level due to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Polyphenols from grape seeds, which are potent antioxidants might protect the brain against oxidative stress produced by hypobaric hypoxia. The brain effects of three doses of grape seed extract intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered in rats after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia corresponding to 5500 m altitude were investigated. Some oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and molecules involved in angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], matrix metalloproteinase 2 [MMP2], and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 [TIMP1]) were determined. Forty-two rats were divided in seven groups: group 1, control; groups 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 24 h in a hypobaric chamber; groups 5, 6, and 7 were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 5 days. After returning to normal atmospheric pressure, rats from groups 2 and 5 were sacrificed without other treatment. Animals from groups 3 and 6 were i.p treated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) vehicle and those from groups 4 and 7 were i.p. treated with grape seed extract (GSE) (50 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg body weight in 0.5 mL CMC suspension/animal). The treatment was applied at 2, 24, and 72 h from returning to normoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia produced increased brain levels of ROS, nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and VEGF after both time intervals (P<.05). The MMP2 concentration was significantly increased in groups treated only with vehicle, whereas TIMP1 was slightly changed. GSE produced a significant reduction of ROS and NO levels proving its antioxidant capacity. It also decreased IL-6 and MMP2 concentrations to values similar to controls. The VEGF concentration was also significantly reduced. These effects are indicative for anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties of GSE. PMID:24044492

Muresan, Adriana; Suciu, Soimita; Daicoviciu, Doina; Filip, Adriana Gabriela; Clichici, Simona

2013-09-01

190

Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).  

PubMed

The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

2013-01-01

191

Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)  

PubMed Central

The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Villanueva-Rodriguez, Socorro

2013-01-01

192

Nigella sativa seed extract: 1. Enhancement of sheep macrophage immune functions in vitro.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed, Black cumin, immunomodulatory activity has been investigated in human and mice. Little is known about the immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed extract on animals' immune cells, specifically, antigen presenting cells such as macrophages. This study focused on the immunomodulatory effect of N. sativa seed extract on sheep macrophage functions in vitro. Sheep peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and derived to macrophages (MDM). The MDM were cultured with N. sativa seed extract and their morphological changes, phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production, and microbicidal activity were investigated. Marked morphological changes were observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract including cell size enlargement; increase in both cytoplasmic space and cytoplasmic granules. Significant increases in phagocytic activity to Candida albicans yeast and in number of yeast engulfed per individual MDM were observed in cells cultured with seed extract. MDM capacity to produce nitric oxide was higher in the culture media of the seed extract-cultured cells compared to the control. Interestingly, prominent enhancement in MDM microbicidal activity to yeast or bacteria was observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract confirming the potent immunostimulatory effect of the extract. From this study, it could be concluded that N. sativa seed extract can enhance macrophages' important innate immune functions that could control infectious diseases and regulate adaptive immunity. PMID:23664216

Elmowalid, Gamal; Amar, Ahmad M; Ahmad, Adel Attia M

2013-10-01

193

A simple DNA extraction method for PCR amplification from dry seeds of Brassica napus.  

PubMed

A simple and reliable DNA extraction method for dry seeds of Brassica napus has been developed in our laboratory. The NaCl and PVP were used to remove polysaccharides and polyphenols during DNA purification. The oil and proteins of dry seeds were removed only through centrifugation in this method. The RAPD amplification patterns have no obviously difference between the DNA extracted from dry seeds and fresh leaves extracted with control method. The good results of SSR molecular markers on the DNA of dry seeds of another 12 B. napus indicating that the DNA extracted from dry seeds was freedom from common contaminating compounds. In conclusion, this method could be widely used in DNA extraction from dry seeds of B. napus. PMID:19070063

Maoteng, Li; Jianmin, Liu; Zhangyi; Pei, Wang; Lu, Gan; Longjiang, Yu

2007-04-01

194

Effect of Tamarindus indica L. leaves' fluid extract on human blood cells.  

PubMed

Tamarind leaves are edible; however, their saponin content could be toxic to human blood cells. In this article, the effect of tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) on human blood cells was evaluated by using several tests. Results revealed that TFE did not cause significant haemolysis on human red blood cells even at the lowest evaluated concentration (20 mg/mL). Blood protein denaturalisation ratio was consistently lower than in control at TFE concentrations greater than 40 mg/mL. Erythrocyte membrane damage caused by the action of oxidative H2O2 displayed a steady reduction with increasing TFE concentrations. In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement by using flow cytometry assay, leucocyte viability was over 95% at tested concentrations, and a high ROS inhibition was also recorded. Protective behaviour found in TFE should be attributed to its polyphenol content. Thus, tamarind leaves can be regarded as a potential source of interesting phytochemicals. PMID:24773365

Escalona-Arranz, J C; Garcia-Diaz, J; Perez-Rosés, R; De la Vega, J; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J

2014-09-01

195

Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seed: Process scale-up, extract chemical composition and economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scale-up of the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process for grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed was studied from the laboratory (0.29L) to the pilot scale (5.15L) at 35MPa and 313K. The scale-up criterion adopted consisted of maintaining a constant solvent to feed ratio (S\\/F), and the criterion was successfully used to predict the approximate behavior of the SFE process from

Juliana M. Prado; Irede Dalmolin; Natália D. D. Carareto; Rodrigo C. Basso; Antonio J. A. Meirelles; J. Vladimir Oliveira; Eduardo A. C. Batista; M. Angela A. Meireles

196

The Methanol Extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Leaf Protects Mice Against Lethal Endotoxemia and Sepsis  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the inhibitory effect of neem leaf extract (NLE) on lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) production was examined both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro study revealed that NLE treatment (100 ?g/ml) inhibits LPS (100 ng/ml)-induced NO production by 96% and TNF-? production by 32%. The reduction in NO production is probably conferred by the complete suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Interestingly, in vivo NLE significantly improved the survival rate of mice in an experimental sepsis model. Administration of NLE (100 mg/kg) 24 h before LPS treatment (20 mg/kg) improved the survival rate of mice by 60%. The inhibition of plasma NO and TNF-? production by NLE is likely to account for the improved survival of mice. Our results suggest that NLE may present a promising avenue in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Kim, Woong-Hyun; Song, Hyun-Ok; Jin, Chun Mei; Hur, Jong Moon; Lee, Hwa Sung; Jin, Han Yong; Kim, Sung Yeon; Park, Hyun

2012-01-01

197

Functional properties of protein isolates, globulin and albumin extracted from Ginkgo biloba seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the functional properties of Ginkgo seed protein isolate (GPI), Ginkgo seed globulin protein (GGP) and Ginkgo seed albumin protein (GAP) extracted from Ginkgo biloba seeds were investigated. The protein contents of GPI, GGP and GAP were 91.0%, 93.4% and 87.8%, respectively in the samples in which the sugar, polyphenol and crude fibre were removed by the preparation

Qianchun Deng; Lan Wang; Fang Wei; Bijun Xie; FengHong Huang; Wen Huang; John Shi; Qingde Huang; Binqiang Tian; Sophia Xue

2011-01-01

198

Extraction of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) seed oil using superheated hexane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superheated hexane extraction (SHHE), Soxhlet extraction and cold pressing method were compared for the extraction of pomegranate seed oil. The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (80, 100, 120°C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00mm), and n-hexane flow rates (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mL\\/min) were investigated. The fatty acids profile of the seed oils were quantitatively determined by GC-FID. The optimum

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Seyed Saied Homami

199

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from Opuntia dillenii Haw. and its antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from Opuntia dillenii Haw. and its antioxidant activity were investigated in this study. The effects of main operating parameters including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow rate on the extraction yield of seed oil were studied. The maximum extraction yield of 6.65% was achieved at a pressure of 46.96MPa, a temperature of

Wei Liu; Yu-Jie Fu; Yuan-Gang Zu; Mei-Hong Tong; Nan Wu; Xiao-Lei Liu; Su Zhang

2009-01-01

200

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Valuable Compounds from Citrus junos Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of Citrus junos seed was carried out at temperatures of 40–70 °C, pressures of 20–50 MPa, and CO2 flow rate of 3 ml\\/min with supercritical carbon dioxide to obtain the valuable compounds. Seed oil was also extracted by\\u000a using Soxhlet extraction with hexane as the solvent during 360 min for comparison with the efficiency of supercritical carbon\\u000a dioxide extraction. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)

Hiro Ueno; Masahiro Tanaka; Siti Machmudah; Mitsuru Sasaki; Motonobu Goto

2008-01-01

201

In vitro antitumor activity of broccolini seeds extracts.  

PubMed

Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica × Alboglabra) is a hybrid of broccoli and kai-lan, Chinese broccoli. To date, no report on antitumor activity of Broccolini (NOT Broccoli) is available. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of broccolini seeds extract (BSE) on human lung and ovarian cancer cells. It was found that BSE induces A549 and OVCAR-3 cells apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by using MTT assay. The IC(50) values of BSE in A549 and OVCAR-3 cells were estimated to be 81.94 and 78.6?µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the phase contrast microscope showed that in high-dose group (90?120?µg/ml), the morphology structure of OVCAR-3 cells become irregular and exhibited characteristics of apoptosis such as cell membrane shrinkage, condensation and fragmentation of nuclear chromatin as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. PMID:21695707

Yang, Yanjing; Zhang, Xuewu

2011-01-01

202

Extraction and recovery of karanjin: A value addition to karanja ( Pongamia pinnata) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) seed oil contains karanjin, a bioactive molecule with important biological attributes. The objective of this study was to develop a facile method for efficient recovery of karanjin. The seed oil was subjected to liquid–liquid extraction with methanol. The extract was further purified by chromatography on alumina followed by crystallization to afford karanjin, whose purity was ascertained by

Vismaya; W. Sapna Eipeson; J. R. Manjunatha; P. Srinivas; T. C. Sindhu Kanya

2010-01-01

203

Pressurized liquid extraction of vitamin E from Brazilian grape seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to optimize the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of vitamin E from grape seed oil from residues of the wine industry. For this purpose an experimental planning to optimize the extraction of Brazilian grape seed oil by means of PLE with hexane as solvent was applied and the results are compared with conventional methods (Soxhlet

Lisiane dos Santos Freitas; Rosângela Assis Jacques; Marc François Richter; Andréia Loviane da Silva; Elina Bastos Caramão

2008-01-01

204

Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from moringa oleifera seed by salt solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

205

Rejuvenation of antioxidant system in central nervous system of aged rats by grape seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress is considered as a major risk factor that contributes to age-related increase in lipid peroxidation and declined antioxidants in the central nervous system during aging. Grape seed extract, one of the bioflavonoid, is widely used for its medicinal properties. In the present study, we evaluated the role of grape seed extract on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in

Muthaiya Balu; Purushotham Sangeetha; Dayalan Haripriya; Chinnakannu Panneerselvam

2005-01-01

206

The potential for controlling post?flowering pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp. using neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insecticidal activity of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., was tested on two major cowpea pests using different concentrations of aqueous extracts, and powders of both neem seed and kernel. The pests were larvae of Maruca testulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the legume pod borer and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), the cowpea coreid bug. Ife Brown, an improved local cowpea

L. E. N. Jackai; E. E. Inang; P. Nwobi

1992-01-01

207

Total polyphenols, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of different extracts in mungbean seeds and sprouts.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the biological, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and antiproliferative activities of different extracts of mungbean seeds and sprouts. All extracts from the sprouts showed higher contents of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than from seeds. The highest DPPH and tyrosinase inhibition activities were registered in ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract. ADH activity of methanol (MeOH), n-hexane (n-hexane) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts from sprouts was significantly higher (P?seeds. However, the highest ADH activity was found in water extract of seeds. According to 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol -2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay, extracts from sprouts were more effective against Calu-6 (human pulmonary carcinoma) and SNU-601 (human gastric carcinoma) cells than from seeds. EtOAc extract showed the highest antiproliferative activity in both sprouts and seeds, followed by n-hexane extraction. During sprouting of mungbean, all the studied components significantly increased. In conclusion, the extracts of sprouts are more effective than from seeds and could be a potential source of antioxidants linked with health benefits. PMID:22350499

Kim, Dong-Kwan; Jeong, Seok Cheol; Gorinstein, Shela; Chon, Sang-Uk

2012-03-01

208

[Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in laboratory].  

PubMed

Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume) were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) (soursop); flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L.) (Myrtaceae) (iamb), leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) (holy grass), leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) (neem) and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume) of A. indica (seeds). The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed) had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24%) and A. indica (65 and 38.49%). The seed extract of A. muricata reduced 100% larvae hatch. PMID:20040208

Broglio-Micheletti, Sônia Maria Forti; Valente, Ellen Carine Neves; de Souza, Leilianne Alves; Dias, Nivia da Silva; de Araújo, Alice Maria Nascimento

2009-01-01

209

Green tea and grape seed extracts — Potential applications in food safety and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using “natural green” plant extracts or their derived products in various food and beverage applications is an increasing trend in the food industry. Selection of these plant extracts and their application depends on their functional properties, availability, cost effectiveness, consumer awareness and their effect on the sensory attributes of the final product. Green tea extract (GTE) and grape seed extract

A. V. S. Perumalla; Navam. S. Hettiarachchy

2011-01-01

210

Extraction of sesame seed oil using supercritical CO 2 and mathematical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, extraction of sesame oil from sesame seeds using supercritical CO2 was carried out. The effect of operating parameters such as pressure, temperature, and supercritical CO2 flow rate and particle size on extraction yield were investigated. An increase in the pressure and the supercritical CO2 flow rate improved the extraction yield and also shortened the extraction time. The

Onur Döker; U?ur Salgin; Nuray Yildiz; Mihrican Aydo?mu?; Ayla Çalimli

2010-01-01

211

Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts  

PubMed Central

Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 ?g/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 ?g/mL) and TH (165.44 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 ?g/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 ?g/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation.

Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

2012-01-01

212

Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts.  

PubMed

Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 ?g/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 ?g/mL) and TH (165.44 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 ?g/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 ?g/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation. PMID:24471075

Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

2012-06-01

213

Extraction and identification of isothiocyanates from broccolini seeds.  

PubMed

Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica x Alboglabra) is a cross between broccoli and kai-lan (Chinese broccoli), which contains abundant glucosinolates. The intact glucosinolates are believed to be inactive, while their hydrolysis products, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), are found to have bacteriocidal and anticarcinogenic activities. So far, no report is available about generation of ITCs during the process of glucosinolate hydrolysis in broccolini. In this study, the hydrolysis of broccolini seed glucosinolates was investigated under controlled conditions of pH, time and temperature, and the ITCs produced were determined. The results showed that an optimum hydrolysis of glucosinolates could be achieved at a temperature of 250C, at pH 7.0, and a reaction time of eight hours. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis indicated that the extracted ITCs primarily were: 3-BITC (3-benzyl-ITC) (10.8%), 4-methylpentyl-ITC (0.5%), 1-isothiocyanato-butane (26.8%), PEITC (phenethyl-ITC) (22.6%) and SFN (sulforaphane) (19.2%). PMID:21366048

Zhang, Bochao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Yang, Yanjing; Zhang, Xuewu

2011-01-01

214

Effects of safflower seed extract on arterial stiffness  

PubMed Central

Safflower seed extract (SSE) contains characteristic polyphenols and serotonin derivatives (N-( p-coumaroyl) serotonin and N-feruloylserotonin), which are reported to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), formation of atherosclerotic plaques, and improve arterial stiffness as assessed by pulse wave analysis in animal models. The effects of long-term supplementation with SSE on arterial stiffness in human subjects were evaluated. This doubleblind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 77 males (35–65 years) and 15 postmenopausal females (55–65 years) with high-normal blood pressure or mild hypertension who were not undergoing treatment. Subjects received SSE (70 mg/day as serotonin derivatives) or placebo for 12 weeks, and pulse wave measurements, ie, second derivative of photoplethysmogram (SDPTG), augmentation index, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were conducted at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Vascular age estimated by SDPTG aging index improved in the SSE-supplemented group when compared with the placebo group at four (P = 0.0368) and 12 weeks (P = 0.0927). The trend of augmentation index reduction (P = 0.072 versus baseline) was observed in the SSE-supplemented group, but reduction of baPWV by SSE supplementation was not observed. The SSE-supplemented group also showed a trend towards a lower malondialdehyde-modified-LDL autoantibody titer at 12 weeks from baseline. These results suggest long-term ingestion of SSE in humans could help to improve arterial stiffness.

Suzuki, Katsuya; Tsubaki, Shigekazu; Fujita, Masami; Koyama, Naoto; Takahashi, Michio; Takazawa, Kenji

2010-01-01

215

?-Sitosterol: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15–60 MPa and temperatures of 40–80 °C. Oil and ?-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of ?-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of ?-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 °C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 °C. Both ?-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide.

Sajfrtova, Marie; Lickova, Ivana; Wimmerova, Martina; Sovova, Helena; Wimmer, Zdenek

2010-01-01

216

Protein extraction optimisation, characterisation, and functionalities of protein isolate from bitter melon ( Momordica charantia) seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitter melon seeds are a rich source of protein. Optimum conditions for protein extraction from the seeds, determined using a response surface design, were at a pH 9.0 and 1.3M NaCl. Soy protein isolate (SPI) was included for comparison. Surface hydrophobicity of bitter melon seed protein isolate (BMSPI) (690) was significantly higher than that of SPI (399). Electrophoretograms of BMSPI

Ronny Horax; Navam Hettiarachchy; A. Kannan; Pengyin Chen

2011-01-01

217

Production of biodiesel from winery waste: Extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol

Carmen María Fernández; María Jesús Ramos; Ángel Pérez; Juan Francisco Rodríguez

2010-01-01

218

Effect of low frequency ultrasonic assisted extraction on the quality of seed oils of Indian origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study gives an insight into the effect of low frequency ultrasonic enhancement of solvent extraction on the quality of non-edible oils (Jatropha and Pongamia as model seed varieties) in comparison to conventional methods of extraction i.e. direct reflux or soxhlet extraction using hexane. A series of experiments have been carried out to study the effect of variables; solute to

Savita Kaul; Garima Sharma; Jyoti Porwal; Neha Bisht

2011-01-01

219

Evaluation of the analgesic properties of the Datura metel seeds aqueous extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was carried out to investigate the analgesic activity of dried seed of Datura metel Linn. A concentrated aqueous extract was obtained, mimicking conditions used in traditional treatment setting, which includes dissolving the extract in water. As in this part of the world, experiments were carried out with the aqueous extract for its peripheral and central antinociceptive potentials on

N. N. Wannang; H. C. Ndukwe; C. Nnabuife

220

Extraction of polyphenolic compounds from grape seeds with near critical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analytical method using near critical carbon dioxide to extract polyphenolic compounds from white grape seeds has been developed. Carbon dioxide density, organic modifier, percentage of modifier, and extraction temperature were optimized utilizing an experimental design. Gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were the main phenolic compounds detected in the HPLC chromatogram of each extract. Recovery and reproducibility of catechin

M Palma; L. T Taylor

1999-01-01

221

Regulation of inducible adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered expression of cell adhesion molecule expression has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions. Regulation of adhesion molecule expression by specific redox sensitive mechanisms has been reported. Grape seed proanthocyanidins have been reported to have potent antioxidant properties. We evaluated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the expression of TNFa-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression

Chandan K. Sen; Debasis Bagchi

2001-01-01

222

In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and

C. Marie-Magdeleine; H. Hoste; M. Mahieu; H. Varo; H. Archimede

2009-01-01

223

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-12-01

224

UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements.

Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

2012-01-01

225

Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract.  

PubMed

These ingredients are all derived from hazelnut trees. The two seed oils are expressed from the nuts of the hazelnut tree of the particular species identified. Most current reported cosmetic uses are of the seed oils. The seed extracts are the extract of the nuts of the identified species tree. There is one current report of use of seed extract in cosmetics. The leaf extracts are the extract from the leaves of the particular species tree. There are no current reports of use of these extracts in cosmetics. Analysis of seed oil from one species identified Oleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Eicosaenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Eicosanoic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Stearic Acid, and Tetraeicosanoic Acid. Little information is available to characterize the extracts, however. The functions of most of these ingredients in cosmetics are not reported. In studies of hazelnuts from Spain and Egypt, aflatoxin was reported as a possible contaminant. Aflatoxins are considered carcinogenic in humans. Virtually no safety test data are available on these ingredients. Negative results in one comedogenicity study using a seed oil are reported. Cross-sensitivity to proteins in peanuts and those in hazelnuts are reported, but the presence or absence of protein in nut extract and plant extract from hazelnut trees is not known. Additional data were provided regarding concentration of use, method of extraction and contaminants, comedogenicity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption, but these data related to nut oil from only one species, and were not overall sufficient to resolve questions about irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization. Because of the absence of data, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic products. Because of the limited information that characterizes any of these oils or extracts, data are needed on each (except that items 1, 2, and 3 below are not needed for Hazel [Corylus Avellana] Nut Oil). The additonal data needs include: (1) current concentration of use; (2) method of extraction/manufacture and quality control (i.e., chemical analyses); (3) contaminants and methods of extraction (especially pesticides and heavy metals); (4) dermal irritation and sensitization; (5) UV absorption; if there is significant absorption, then a photosensitization study will be needed; (6) 28-day dermal toxicity; (7) reproductive and developmental toxicity; and (8) two genotoxicity assays, one in a mammalian system; if positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenesis study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed. PMID:11358108

Madhaven, N

2001-01-01

226

Quality of borage seed oil extracted by liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the extraction of borage seed oil by liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide, from the point of view of both operative method and pre-treatment of raw material. The best conditions for borage seed oil extraction are obtained at 300bar, 40°C and a solvent flow rate of 1.5l\\/min at STP. The yields obtained are very similar to those resulting

A Molero Gómez; E Mart??nez de la Ossa

2002-01-01

227

Antioxidant effects of a grape seed extract in a rat model of diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated the anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of grape seed extract, a polyphenolic flavonoid, in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Group I: non-diabetic control; Group II: diabetic control; Group III: diabetic rats treated with grape seed extract, administered via an intragastric tube (0.6 ml\\/rat), at a

Irina C. Chis; Marius I. Ungureanu; Adriana Marton; Ramona Simedrea; Adriana Muresan; Ion-Dan Postescu; Nicoleta Decea

2009-01-01

228

Antioxidant effects of a grape seed extract in a rat model of diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated the anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of grape seed extract, a polyphenolic flavonoid, in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Group I: non-diabetic control; Group II: diabetic control; Group III: diabetic rats treated with grape seed extract, administered via an intragastric tube (0.6 ml\\/rat), at a

Irina C. Chis; Marius I. Ungureanu; Adriana Marton; Ramona Simedrea; Adriana Muresan; Ion-Dan Postescu; Nicoleta Decea

2010-01-01

229

Grape seed oil supercritical extraction kinetic and solubility data: Critical approach and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on supercritical CO2 extraction of grape seed oil which has been analyzed both experimentally and theoretically.Extractions on crushed seeds at pressures varying in the range 280–550bar and at a fixed temperature of 313K were performed. From the initial linear portion of the experimental curves oil solubility data in the supercritical solvent have been obtained. By modeling the

L. Fiori

2007-01-01

230

Grape seed extract attenuates arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is a recognized factor in nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (As). Grape seed extract (GSE) possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of GSE against arsenic-induced renal injury. Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to As in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg) for 12 months. The serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and mRNA expression levels of fibrogenic markers in the renal tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) subunits, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) were assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cotreatment with GSE significantly improved renal function, as demonstrated by the reductions in relative kidney weight (% of body weight) and blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in the creatinine clearance capacity. GSE attenuated the As-induced changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1? and the mRNA levels of TGF-?1, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in renal tissue. Furthermore, administration of GSE markedly reduced As-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nox activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the NADPH subunits (Nox2, p47phox and Nox4). In addition, GSE cotreatment was correlated with a significant reduction in TGF-?/Smad signaling, as demonstrated by the decreased protein levels of TGF-?1 and pSmad2/3 in renal tissue. This study indicated that GSE may be a useful agent for the prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to As. GSE may exert its effects through the suppression of Nox and inhibition of TGF-?/Smad signaling activation.

ZHANG, JIANGONG; PAN, XINJUAN; LI, NING; LI, XING; WANG, YONGCHAO; LIU, XIAOZHUAN; YIN, XINJUAN; YU, ZENGLI

2014-01-01

231

[Study of anti-atherosclerosic effect of grape seed extract and its mechanism].  

PubMed

In order to observe the anti-atherosclerosic effect of the grape seed extract and its mechanism, the 50C57/6J mice are divided randomly into 5 group (normal control group, hyperlipidemia model group, low and high grape seed extract groups(0.2 mg/gBW, 0.6 mg/gBW), and drug control group(0.2 mg/gBW). After twenty-one weeks, plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein (OX-LDL), serum nitric oxide (NO) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are measured and the form of aortic valves are observed pathologically. The results show that the levels of plasma OX-LDL, and ICAM-1 are significantly lower in grape seed extract group than those in model group while the levels of NO are higher in grape seed extract group than that in model group (P < 0.01). The thickness of aortic valves consisting of foam cell and endothelium hyperplasia in grape seed extract group is lighter than that of model group. The results indicate that the grape seed extract has inhibitary effect on atherosclerosis in C57BL/6J mice, and the possible mechanism may be related to inhibition of the increase of OX-LDL, and ICAM-1, reduction of the damage of vascular endothelium and protection of the function of vascular endothelium. PMID:12600036

Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Shu-e; Zhao, Changfeng; Xu, Guifa

2002-08-01

232

90-day oral toxicity study of a grape seed extract (IH636) in rats.  

PubMed

To assess the safety of grape seed extract with less than 5.5% catechin monomers (IH636), 4 groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided grape seed extract in the diet at levels of 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% for a period of 90 days. All animals survived the duration of the study, and no significant changes in clinical signs, hematological parameters, organ weights, ophthalmology evaluations, or histopathological findings were observed. A significant increase in food consumption was observed in male and female rats provided the grape seed extract diets compared to that of the control rats, especially in male rats consuming 2.0% grape seed extract. This effect was not accompanied by increases in body weight gains. Grape seed extract appeared to increase the insoluble fraction of the diet. Male rats in the high-dose group exhibited decreased serum iron levels and decreased serum iron/total iron binding capacity ratio compared to those of the controls, although all values were within historical ranges for Sprague-Dawley rats. In conclusion, administration of the grape seed extract IH636 to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats in the feed at levels of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% for 90 days did not induce any significant toxicological effects. PMID:11902976

Wren, Allison F; Cleary, Michael; Frantz, Christopher; Melton, Shawn; Norris, Leslie

2002-03-27

233

Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although both appeared when these extracts were incubated with a myrosinase-containing fraction prepared from papaya seeds. A 10 h incubation of crude seed extracts at room temperature led to a decrease in anthelmintic activity and fractionated samples showed a lower benzyl isothiocyanate content relative to non-incubated controls. Benzyl thiocyanate, benzyl cyanide, and benzonitrile were not detected in any preparations and cyanogenic glucosides. which were present, could not account for the anthelmintic activity detected. Thus, our results are best explained if benzyl isothiocyanate is the predominant or sole anthelmintic agent in papaya seed extracts regardless of how seeds are extracted. PMID:11393524

Kermanshai, R; McCarry, B E; Rosenfeld, J; Summers, P S; Weretilnyk, E A; Sorger, G J

2001-06-01

234

Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds  

PubMed Central

Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae) is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screening of antipsoriatic activity of 95% of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds by using mouse tail model for psoriasis and in vitro antipsoriatic activity was carried out by SRB Assay using HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds extract produced a significant epidermal differentiation, from its degree of orthokeratosis (71.36±2.64) when compared to the negative control (17.30±4.09%). This was equivalent to the effect of the standard positive control, tazarotene (0.1%) gel, which showed a (90.03±2.00%) degree of orthokeratosis. The 95% ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa shown IC50 239 ?g/ml, with good antiproliferant activity compared to Asiaticoside as positive control which showed potent activity with IC50 value of 20.13 ?g/ml. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds also showed increase in relative epidermal thickness when compared to control group by confirming its traditional use in psoriasis treatment.

Dwarampudi, Lalitha Priyanka; Palaniswamy, Dhanabal; Nithyanantham, Muruganantham; Raghu, P. S.

2012-01-01

235

Physical and oxidative stability of uncoated and chitosan-coated liposomes containing grape seed extract.  

PubMed

Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan. PMID:24300515

Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

2013-01-01

236

Inhibitory effect of celery seeds extract on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis: modulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and altered hepatic foci development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemopreventive activity of methanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds (celery seeds) has been investigated against Solt Farber protocol of hepatocarcinogenesis, oxidative stress and induction of positive foci of ?-GT in the liver of Wistar rats. The prophylactic treatment of celery seeds extract protected dose dependently against diethylnitrosoamine (DEN)+2-acetylaminofluorine (AAF)+partial hepatectomy (PH) induced hepatocarcinogenesis and other related events such as

Sarwat Sultana; Salahuddin Ahmed; Tamanna Jahangir; Sonia Sharma

2005-01-01

237

Effect of Biopesticides on Foliar Diseases and Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) Adults in Roses (Rosa spp.), Oakleaf Hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated efficacy of biopesticides for reducing foliar diseases and feeding damage from Japanese beetle adults on hybrid T rose (Rosa spp.), oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica). The materials tested included household soaps with Triclosan active ingredient (Equate and Ajax), kaolin clay (Surround), neem seed oil extract (Triact 70 and Neem Gold), potassium salt of fatty

M. T. Mmbaga; J. B. Oliver

2007-01-01

238

Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.  

PubMed

The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

2014-01-01

239

Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

2014-01-01

240

Anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative effects of a methanolic neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extract are mediated via modulation of the nuclear factor-?B pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azadirachta indica (neem tree) is used in traditional Indian medicine for its pharmacological properties including cancer prevention and treatment.\\u000a Here, we studied a neem extract’s anti-inflammatory potential via the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway, linked\\u000a to cancer, inflammation, and apoptosis. Cultured human leukemia cells were treated with a methanolic neem leaf extract with\\u000a or without tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? stimulation.

Marc Schumacher; Claudia Cerella; Simone Reuter; Mario Dicato; Marc Diederich

2011-01-01

241

Antifilarial effects of polyphenol rich ethanolic extract from the leaves of Azadirachta indica through molecular and biochemical approaches describing reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis of Setaria cervi.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis, a global cause of morbidity needs much more attention in developing potent therapeutics that can be effective against both microfilariae (mf) and adults. Efficient botanicals that can induce apoptosis of filarial parasites possibly can provide a direction towards developing new class of antifilarials. In this work we have evaluated the antifilarial efficacy of an optimized polyphenol rich ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (EEA). A. indica A. Juss has been widely used in the traditional Indian medicinal system 'Ayurveda' for the treatment of a variety of ailments. A thorough investigation towards biochemical and molecular mechanisms describing ROS mediated apoptosis in Setaria cervi was performed. Motility reduction, MTT reduction assay and dye exclusion test have confirmed the micro- and macrofilaricidal potential of EEA. Alterations were visible in mf and trichrome stained section of EEA-treated adult worms. We have found cellular disturbances in EEA-treated parasites characterized by chromatin condensation, in situ DNA fragmentation and nucleosomal DNA laddering. Depletion in worm GSH level and elevation in parasite GST, SOD, catalase, GPx and superoxide anion indicated the generation of ROS. Our results provided experimental evidence supporting that EEA causes a decreased expression of anti-apoptotic genes and increased pro-apoptotic gene expression at the level of both transcription and translation. Here we are reporting for the first time that antifilarial activity of EEA is mediated by ROS up regulation and apoptosis. PMID:24275557

Mukherjee, Niladri; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Saini, Prasanta; Roy, Priya; Sinha Babu, Santi P

2014-01-01

242

Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds ( Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175°C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components were carried out by

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

2007-01-01

243

Research note Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 ? C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4 ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

244

Complementary and Comparative Study on Hypoglycemic and Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Extracts of Eugenia jambolana Seed, Momordica charantia Fruits, Gymnema sylvestre , and Trigonella foenum graecum Seeds in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol,\\u000a hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and\\/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract

Mukesh Yadav; Amita Lavania; Radha Tomar; G. B. K. S. Prasad; Shalini Jain; Hariom Yadav

2010-01-01

245

Antihyperglycemic effects of separate and composite extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat.  

PubMed

We evaluated the antihyperglycaemic properties of aqueous-methanolic (40:60) extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in separate as well as in composite manner by conducting experiment on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We measured food and water intake ability, the fasting blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, activities of important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase in liver along with quantification of glycogen in liver and in skeletal muscle and serum insulin level. We noted that after treatment of aqueous methanolic extract of above plant parts in separate as well as in composite manner at a concentration of 80 mg/100 g body weight/day to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat resulted in a significant remedial effect on blood glucose level as well as carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and the quantity of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen. Serum insulin level that was diminished in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat recovered significantly after the co-administration of extract of above plant parts. All the above parameters showed a more potent remedial effect after composite extract treatment with respect to separate treatment and none of the extract has any general metabolic toxicity induction. PMID:20161901

Mallick, Chhanda; Chatterjee, Kausik; Guhabiswas, Mehuli; Ghosh, Debidas

2007-01-01

246

Effect of Neem Leaf Extract (Azadirachta indica) on c-Myc Oncogene Expression in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells of BALB/c Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women both worldwide and in Malaysia. Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), commonly known as neem, is one of the most versatile medicinal plants that has gained worldwide prominence due to its medicinal properties. However, the anticancer effect of ethanolic neem leaf extract against breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of neem leaf extract on c-Myc oncogene expression in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, A total of 48 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into four groups of 12 mice per group: i.cancer control (CC) treated with 0.5% Tween 20 in PBS, ii. 0.5 µg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT), iii. 250 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C250), and iv. 500 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C500). in situ reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR) was applied to evaluate suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression in breast cancer tissue. Results: The C500 group showed significant (p<0.05) suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression compared to the CC group. Conclusion: c-Myc was found to be down regulated under the effect of 500 mg/kg ethanolic neem leaf extract.

Othman, Fauziah; Motalleb, Gholamreza; Lam Tsuey Peng, Sally; Rahmat, Asmah; Basri, Rusliza; Pei Pei, Chong

2012-01-01

247

Legume seed exudates and Physcomitrella patens extracts influence swarming behavior in Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

PubMed

Plants are known to secrete chemical compounds that can change the behavior of rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria. We investigated the effects of extracts from legume host plants on the swarming behavior of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. We also investigated the effects on swarming when Rhizobium is exposed to extracts from an ancestor to vascular plants, the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Lentil and faba bean seed exudates enhanced and inhibited swarming motility, respectively, whereas pea seed exudates had no observable effect on swarming. Swarming was also enhanced by the moss extracts. Exposure to lentil seed exudates and the moss extract increased flaA expression 2-fold, while faba bean seed exudates exposure decreased expression 3-fold, suggesting that the swarming effect could, in part, be due to regulation of flagellin gene expression. However, the exudates and extracts did not significantly affect flaA gene expression in planktonic motile cells, indicating that the response to flagellar regulation is specific to a physiology unique to the swarming cell. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that addition of the lentil seed exudate and the moss extract results in earlier differentiation into swarmer cells, which could contribute to the development of a larger swarming surface area. To gain further mechanistic insight into the effect of the moss extract on swarming, a moss strigolactone-deficient mutant (Ppccd8?) was tested. A reduction in the promotive effect was observed, suggesting that the plant hormone strigolactone may be a signalling molecule activating swarming motility in R. leguminosarum. PMID:24392922

Tambalo, Dinah D; Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Shawn; Halmillawewa, Anupama; Hynes, Michael F; Yost, Christopher K

2014-01-01

248

Extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seed kernels by combination of ultrasonication and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction.  

PubMed

Use of ultrasonication as a pretreatment before aqueous oil extraction and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction was found to be useful in the case of extraction of oil from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. The use of ultrasonication for 10 min at pH 9.0 followed by aqueous oil extraction gave a yield of 67%. However, the maximum yield of 74% was obtained by ultrasonication for 5 min followed by aqueous enzymatic oil extraction using an alkaline protease at pH 9.0. Use of ultrasonication also resulted in reducing the process time from 18 to 6 h. PMID:15364090

Shah, Shweta; Sharma, Aparna; Gupta, M N

2005-01-01

249

Identification of COX inhibitors in the hexane extract of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.  

PubMed

Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified. In the present study, COX inhibitors were isolated from the hexane extract of this seed by means of 4 steps of liquid chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The COX inhibitors in the extract of Japanese horse chestnut seeds were identified as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic acid. Their efficacies were in the following order: linolenic acid = linoleic acid > oleic acid. These active constituents are C18 unsaturated fatty acids; stearic acid, a C18 saturated fatty acid, had no activity. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid had high selectivity toward COX-2 (selectivity index = 10), whereas oleic acid had no selectivity. Considering the efficacy and yield of each fatty acid, linoleic acid may be the principal COX inhibitor in this seed. PMID:17675801

Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

2007-07-01

250

Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.  

PubMed

To investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery. BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE. This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact. The effects of both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing. Exposure of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl and then washing. Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to addition of the papaya seed extract. We conclude that these extracts, when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief bio-active ingredient. PMID:12052434

Wilson, Ruth K; Kwan, Tony K; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Sorger, George J

2002-06-21

251

Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

Chatelain, Kourt; Phippen, Spencer; McCabe, Jonathan; Teeters, Christopher A.; O'Malley, Susan; Kingsley, Karl

2011-01-01

252

Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity.  

PubMed

In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students' 't' test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

Kannur, Dayanand M; Paranjpe, Mukta P; Sonavane, Lalit V; Dongre, Prerana P; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R

2012-07-01

253

Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted.

Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

254

Characterization of chia seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil yield, fatty acid composition and the physicochemical and quality characteristics of chia crude seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction were determined. The extraction methods assayed influenced significantly the oil yield, obtaining about 30% more oil by solvent than by pressing. The main fatty acids ranked in the following order of abundance: ?-linolenic acid (? Ln)>linoleic acid

Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Marcela L. Martínez; Viviana Spotorno; Carmen M. Mateo; Damián M. Maestri; Bernd W. K. Diehl; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás

2011-01-01

255

Coagulation–flocculation process for POME treatment using Moringa oleifera seeds extract: Optimization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent, POME is an important issue for the minimization of water pollution. The coagulation–flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seeds after oil extraction as natural coagulant is reported for POME treatment in the present study. The important process parameters pH, settling time, M. oleifera (after oil extraction) dosage and flocculant (NALCO 7751) dosage were optimized

Subhash Bhatia; Zalina Othman; Abdul Latif Ahmad

2007-01-01

256

Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.  

PubMed

Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients. PMID:23869935

Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

2013-08-14

257

Subchronic 3-month oral toxicity study of grape seed and grape skin extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meganatural™ brand grape seed extract (GSE) and grape skin extract (GSKE), containing proanthocyanidin (PAC) polyphenolic compounds, are intended for use in food as functional ingredients exhibiting antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidins, as well as the minor constituent phenolic compounds in GSE and GSKE, are present naturally in many foods such as fruits, vegetables, chocolate, tea, etc., and on average people consume 460–1000

S. S Bentivegna; K. M Whitney

2002-01-01

258

In vitro and in vivo anticandidal activity of Swietenia mahogani methanolic seed extract.  

PubMed

Swietenia mahogani crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract was investigated for the antifungal activity against Candida albicans which has not been evaluated previously. The antifungal activity was evaluated against C. albicans via disk diffusion, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and time killing profile. The MIC value of SMCM seed extract is 12.5 mg/ml. The SEM and TEM findings showed there is morphological changes and cytological destruction of C. albicans at the MIC value. Animal model was used to evaluate the in vivo antifungal activity of SMCM seed extract. The colony forming unit (CFU) were calculated per gram of kidney sample and per ml of blood sample respectively for control, curative and ketaconazole treated groups. There was significant reduction for the CFU/ml of blood and CFU/g of kidney. This indicated that the extract was observed to be effective against C. albicans in vitro and in vivo conditions. PMID:21602779

Sahgal, G; Ramanathan, S; Sasidharan, S; Mordi, M N; Ismail, S; Mansor, S M

2011-04-01

259

Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory. PMID:21762099

Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

2011-10-01

260

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

?uk, M.; Dymi?ska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; M?czka, M.; Zaj?c, A.; Szo?tysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

2011-03-01

261

Comparative study on hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts of fenugreek seeds.  

PubMed

The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloro-methane) of fenugreek seeds were investigated in cholesterol-fed rats. Only the ethyl acetate extract reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet (HCD). Furthermore, the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver, heart and kidney decreased significantly after oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The phenolic and flavonoïd contents were highest in the methanol and the ethyl acetate extracts. These results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of the fenugreek seeds had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect and antioxidant activity in cholesterol-fed rats, whether this is partly due to the presence of flavonoïds in the extract needs further study. PMID:23411266

Belguith-Hadriche, Olfa; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Jamoussi, Kamel; Simmonds, Monique S J; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Makni-Ayedi, Fatma

2013-06-01

262

Effects of crude aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in male albino mice.  

PubMed

The effect of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds (5 mg/kg body/day im and 20 mg/kg body wt/day oral) were investigated in male mice treated for 60 days. Reversibility studies were also carried out to elucidate if any induced effects were transient. The aqueous extract did not manifest any estrogenic effects in male mice, and LD50 studies indicated its nontoxic nature. The body weight or the weights of reproductive organs, kidney, and adrenal were not affected, indicating that the extract did not promote body weight gain through obesity or water retention. The serum SGOT, SGPT, protein, and cholesterol levels were also within the normal range in the extract-treated mice, suggesting that the extract does not influence liver function or cholesterol and protein metabolism. These data suggest that the aqueous extracts of papaya seeds is safe and could serve as an effective male contraceptive in rodents. PMID:8186628

Chinoy, N J; D'Souza, J M; Padman, P

1994-01-01

263

Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from seeds in fresh Bokbunja ( Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant potential of ethanol extracts from defatted Bokbunja seed wastes generated during wine processing were estimated by radical scavenging abilities (DPPH, H2O2, and O2-), retardation of lipid oxidation, and iron ion-chelating characteristics. For comparison, ethanol extracts from seeds of fresh ripe Bokbunja fruits were also used. The ethanol extracts from the wine seed waste always showed higher scavenging activities

Chang Sub Ku; Sung Phil Mun

2008-01-01

264

In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora. Methods The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Conclusions The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants.

Shrestha, Binit; Theerathavaj, M.L. Srithavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

2012-01-01

265

Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0moll?1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500ml of low turbid water (50

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

1999-01-01

266

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds.  

PubMed

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds aqueous extract was screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activities (reducing power, DPPH and liposome model system) showed a good antioxidant activity. The extract was also found to possess antibacterial activity with a MIC values with respect to Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica found to be 750 and 1000 ppm, respectively. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the extract implicate its potential for natural preservation. PMID:17651916

Chauhan, Attar Singh; Negi, Pradeep Singh; Ramteke, Ramesh Shyam

2007-12-01

267

Effect of methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed on the immune response of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed was evaluated in mice with regards to delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DTR), primary and secondary antibody response\\u000a and in vivo inflammatory leucocyte mobilization. The extract at 250 and 500 mg\\/kg produced significant (p?extract caused elevation of secondary SRBCs-specific\\u000a antibody titre

James Ifeanyichukwu Eze; Sunday Ndukwe

268

Dormancy break of celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds by plant derived smoke extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy of a highly-dormant cultivar of celery (Apium graveolens L.) was broken by combinations of plant-derived smoke extract or N6-benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellins A4\\/7 (GA4\\/7) in the dark at temperatures between 18 and 26°C. A less dormant cultivar which responded to GA4\\/7 alone showed no additional response to smoke extract or BA. Neither smoke extract nor BA affected either

T. H. Thomas; J. Staden

1995-01-01

269

A toxicological investigation of a celery seed extract having anti-inflammatory activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  An extract of the seed from celery (Apium graviolens) (CSE), and fractions thereof, have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity, gastro-protective activity, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. In view of the potential for employing these extracts for therapeutic use, toxicological investigations were undertaken\\u000a with an alcoholic extract (A-CSE) which has previously been shown to have the above pharmacological activities.

M. C. Powanda; K. D. Rainsford

2011-01-01

270

Transmission blocking activity of Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis extracts on the sporogonic development of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Targeting the stages of the malaria parasites responsible for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector is a key pharmacological strategy for malaria control. Research efforts to identify compounds that are active against these stages have significantly increased in recent years. However, at present, only two drugs are available, namely primaquine and artesunate, which reportedly act on late stage gametocytes. Methods In this study, we assessed the antiplasmodial effects of 5 extracts obtained from the neem tree Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis against the early vector stages of Plasmodium falciparum, using field isolates. In an ex vivo assay gametocytaemic blood was supplemented with the plant extracts and offered to Anopheles coluzzii females by membrane feeding. Transmission blocking activity was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence and density on the mosquito midguts. Results Initial screening of the 5 plant extracts at 250 ppm revealed transmission blocking activity in two neem preparations. Up to a concentration of 70 ppm the commercial extract NeemAzal® completely blocked transmission and at 60 ppm mosquitoes of 4 out of 5 replicate groups remained uninfected. Mosquitoes fed on the ethyl acetate phase of neem leaves at 250 ppm showed a reduction in oocyst prevalence of 59.0% (CI95 12.0 - 79.0; p?extract from the same plant part did not exhibit any activity. No evidence of transmission blocking activity was found using G. senegalensis ethyl acetate extract from stem galls. Conclusions The results of this study highlight the potential of antimalarial plants for the discovery of novel transmission blocking molecules, and open up the potential of developing standardized transmission blocking herbal formulations as malaria control tools to complement currently used antimalarial drugs and combination treatments.

2014-01-01

271

Characterization of Crude Watermelon Seed Oil by Two Different Extractions Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to study the physical–chemical composition of the watermelon seed oil extracted by a mechanical\\u000a process using an expeller and by a chemical process using hexane as the solvent. The watermelon seed oil had a high concentration\\u000a of unsaturated fatty acids. The two primary sterols were stigmasterol and ?-sitosterol, which corresponded to approximately\\u000a 47 and

Leilane Costa de ContoMarco; Marco Antonio Lefevre Gragnani; Diogo Maus; Hiria Cristina Ifanger Ambiel; Ming Chih Chiu; Renato Grimaldi; Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo Gonçalves

272

Effect of storage temperature and extraction methods on dormancy and germination of true potato seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed treatments, methods of extraction and storage temperature were examined for effects on viability and dormancy of true\\u000a potato seed. Dormancy of 4x?2x (S. tuberosum ×S. phureja) hybrids was eliminated after 7 months at room temperature and after 10 months at 4 C. However, data on the velocity and\\u000a uniformity of germination (coefficient of velocity) revealed the presence of a

Vincent L. D’Antonio; Neil A. McHale

1988-01-01

273

Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. ?-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes. PMID:23742045

Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

2013-07-17

274

Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment. PMID:23956872

Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

2013-01-01

275

Cytotoxic Effects of Alcoholic Extract of Dorema Glabrum Seed on Cancerous Cells Viability  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In the present study cytotoxic effects of the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed on viability of WEHI-164 cells, mouse Fibrosarcoma cell line and L929 normal cells were compared with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol (anticancer and apoptosis inducer drug).Methods: To find out the plant extract cytotoxic effects, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay, the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis were performed on cultured and treated cells.Results: According to the findings the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed can alter cells morphology and because of chromatin condensation and other changes they shrink and take a spherical shape, and lose their attachment too. So the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time and dose dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA.Conclusion: Our data well established the anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro, but the mechanism of its activities remained unknown. These results demonstrated that Dorema Glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment in clinical practices.

Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemieh, Hosein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; baradaran, behzad

2013-01-01

276

Cytotoxic effects of alcoholic extract of dorema glabrum seed on cancerous cells viability.  

PubMed

Purpose: In the present study cytotoxic effects of the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed on viability of WEHI-164 cells, mouse Fibrosarcoma cell line and L929 normal cells were compared with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol (anticancer and apoptosis inducer drug). Methods: To find out the plant extract cytotoxic effects, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay, the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis were performed on cultured and treated cells. Results: According to the findings the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed can alter cells morphology and because of chromatin condensation and other changes they shrink and take a spherical shape, and lose their attachment too. So the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time and dose dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Conclusion: Our data well established the anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro, but the mechanism of its activities remained unknown. These results demonstrated that Dorema Glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment in clinical practices. PMID:24312867

Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemieh, Hosein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

2013-01-01

277

Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells  

PubMed Central

We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment.

Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

2013-01-01

278

Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.  

PubMed

The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (?), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug. PMID:24158737

Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

2014-02-01

279

Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques.  

PubMed

Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using classic Soxhlet as well as under power ultrasound (US), microwaves (MWs; closed vessel) and MW-integrated Soxhlet. Supercritical CO? was also employed and compared to the other techniques in term of yield, extraction time, fatty acid profiles and organoleptic properties. All these non-conventional techniques are fast, effective and safe. A sensory evaluation test showed the presence of off-flavours in oil samples extracted by Soxhlet and US, an indicator of partial degradation. PMID:21644177

Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bicchi, Carlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Binello, Arianna; Tomao, Valerie; Chemat, Farid

2011-06-01

280

Possible amelioration of atherogenic diet induced dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and hyperglycemia by the peel extracts of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris fruits in rats.  

PubMed

Hitherto unknown efficacy of the peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Cucumis melo (CM) and Citrullus vulgaris (CV) fruits in ameliorating the diet-induced alterations in dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus have been investigated in rats. In one study, out of 4 different doses (50-300 mg/kg), 200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for other two peel extracts could inhibit lipidperoxidation (LPO) maximally in liver. In the second experiment rats were maintained on pre-standardized atherogenic diet CCT (supplemented with 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0.5% 2-thiouracil) to induce dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus and the effects of the test peel extracts (200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for CM and CV for 10 consecutive days) were studied by examining the changes in tissue LPO (in heart, liver and kidney), concentrations of serum lipids, thyroid hormones, insulin and glucose. Rats, treated simultaneously with either of the peel extracts reversed the CCT-diet induced increase in the levels of tissue LPO, serum lipids, glucose, creatinine kinase-MB and decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones and insulin indicating their potential to ameliorate the diet induced alterations in serum lipids, thyroid dysfunctions and hyperglycemia/diabetes mellitus. A phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of a high amount of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the test peel extracts suggesting that the beneficial effects could be the result of the rich content of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the studied peels. PMID:19276533

Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

2008-01-01

281

Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

2012-03-01

282

Evaluation of genotoxicity and DNA protective effects of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract.  

PubMed

Mangiferin is a glucosylxantone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark. Several studies have shown its pharmacological properties which make it a promising candidate for putative therapeutic use. This study was focused to investigate the in vitro genotoxic effects of mangiferin in the Ames test, SOS Chromotest and Comet assay. The genotoxic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes from NMRI mice orally treated with mangiferin (2000 mg/kg) were also evaluated. Additionally, its potential antimutagenic activity against several mutagens in the Ames test and its effects on CYP1A1 activity were assessed. Mangiferin (50-5000 ?g/plate) did not increased the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test, nor induced primary DNA damage (5-1000 ?g/mL) to Escherichia coli PQ37 cells under the SOS Chromotest. It was observed neither single strand breaks nor alkali-labile sites in blood peripheral lymphocytes or hepatocytes after 1h exposition to 10-500 ?g/mL of mangiferin under the Comet assay. Furthermore, micronucleus studies showed mangiferin neither induced cytotoxic activity nor increased the frequency of micronucleated/binucleated cells in mice bone marrow. In short, mangiferin did not induce cytotoxic or genotoxic effects but it protect against DNA damage which would be associated with its antioxidant properties and its capacity to inhibit CYP enzymes. PMID:22749943

Rodeiro, I; Hernandez, S; Morffi, J; Herrera, J A; Gómez-Lechón, M J; Delgado, R; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J

2012-09-01

283

Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.  

PubMed

American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed. PMID:20411504

Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

2007-01-01

284

Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper carried out experimental study, through extraction and characterization of both crude and refined castor oil. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through degumming, neutralization and bleaching process using local adsorbent (activated clay). The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value

U. G. AKPAN; A. JIMOH; A. D. MOHAMMED

285

Shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the green synthesis of Ag-nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract.  

PubMed

The shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB, is reported to the green synthesis of Ag-nanoparticles for the first time using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract. UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns were used to monitor the growth kinetics, morphology and crystalline nature of Ag-nanoparticles, respectively. It was observed that the growths of Ag-nanoparticles are stopped within 40 min of reaction time. The Ag-nanoparticles are polydispersed spherical and exhibiting an interesting triangle, flat, plate-like hexagonal and some irregular morphology in presence of different [CTAB]. Hexagonal particles aggregated in a systematic manor, leads to produce a fine tiles-like arrangement of Ag-nanoparticles with dimensions between 10 and 37 nm. The nature of reaction-time curves to the reduction of Ag(+) ions by Neem leaf extract are much different than those observed by us in our earlier studies using different bio-reductants. PMID:22463846

Khan, Zaheer; Hussain, Javed Ijaz; Hashmi, Athar Adil

2012-06-15

286

Supercritical fluid reactive extraction of Jatropha curcas L. seeds with methanol: A novel biodiesel production method.  

PubMed

The novel biodiesel production technology using supercritical reactive extraction from Jatropha curcas L. oil seeds in this study has a promising role to fill as a more cost-effective processing technology. Compared to traditional biodiesel production method, supercritical reactive extraction can successfully carry out the extraction of oil and subsequent esterification/transesterification process to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) simultaneously in a relatively short total operating time (45-80 min). Particle size of the seeds (0.5-2.0 mm) and reaction temperature/pressure (200-300 degrees C) are two primary factors being investigated. With 300 degrees C reaction temperature, 240 MPa operating pressure, 10.0 ml/g methanol to solid ratio and 2.5 ml/g of n-hexane to seed ratio, optimum oil extraction efficiency and FAME yield can reach up to 105.3% v/v and 103.5% w/w, respectively which exceeded theoretical yield calculated based on n-hexane Soxhlet extraction of Jatropha oil seeds. PMID:20395131

Lim, Steven; Hoong, Shuit Siew; Teong, Lee Keat; Bhatia, Subhash

2010-09-01

287

ANTIHEPATOTOXIC ACTICITY OF COCCINIA INDICA  

PubMed Central

Aqueous, light petroleum, chloroform, alcohol, benzene and acetone extracts of the leaves of Coccinia indica. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with Ccl4 Liver function was assessed based on liver to body weight ratio pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP and bilirubin. Alcohol and light petroleum was found to have good anti-hepatotoxic activity.

Gopalakrishnan, V.; Rao, K.N.V.; Devi, M.; Padmaha, N.; Lakshmi, P. Manju; Srividya, T.; Vadivukarasi, G.

2001-01-01

288

Antihepatotoxic acticity of coccinia indica.  

PubMed

Aqueous, light petroleum, chloroform, alcohol, benzene and acetone extracts of the leaves of Coccinia indica. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with Ccl4 Liver function was assessed based on liver to body weight ratio pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP and bilirubin. Alcohol and light petroleum was found to have good anti-hepatotoxic activity. PMID:22557027

Gopalakrishnan, V; Rao, K N; Devi, M; Padmaha, N; Lakshmi, P M; Srividya, T; Vadivukarasi, G

2001-07-01

289

Phytochemical screening and evaluation of Monechma ciliatum (black mahlab) seed extracts as antimicrobial agents  

PubMed Central

Objective: Tribes in Nubia Mountains regions of Sudan used Monechma ciliatum seeds for common cold and other chest allergic conditions as a traditional medicine. The aim of this paper is to validate this traditional practice scientifically. Materials and Methods: Monechma ciliatum seeds were screened for major phytochemical groups using standard methods. Different extracts were bioassayed in- vitro for their bioactivity to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Results: Phytochemical screening results showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpens, and anthraquinones. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be sensitive to both water extract with zones of inhibition 22 – 26 mm at concentrations of 50 and 100mg/ml and ethanol extract 17 mm at concentration of 100 mg/ml. The growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited by ethanol extract with zones of inhibition equal to 16, 26, and 33 mm at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/ml, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to all extracts used. Similarly, all used fungi were found to be insensitive to extracts used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts against microorganisms were ranged from 12.5 to 25 mg/ml. Conclusion: The findings of the current study support the traditional uses of the plant's seed in the therapy of respiratory tract infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Ahmed Oshi, Murtada; Mohmmed Abdelkarim, Abdelkarim

2013-01-01

290

Production of biodiesel from winery waste: extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil.  

PubMed

In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol and bioethanol, being the methyl and ethyl ester contents higher than 97 wt.%. Finally, several in situ transesterifications were done. In situ transesterification did not reach either the oil yield extraction or the alkyl ester contents but the obtained biodiesel had better oxidation stability in comparison with the conventional process. PMID:20435475

Fernández, Carmen María; Ramos, María Jesús; Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco

2010-09-01

291

Comparison of chemical composition of Aerva javanica seed essential oils obtained by different extraction methods.  

PubMed

Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult. seed essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and dry steam distillation (SD) extracting methods and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Twenty and eighteen components representing 90.5% and 95.6% of the seed essential oil were identified, using hydrodistillation and dry steam distillation, respectively. The major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by HD were heptacosane (25.4%), 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (14.1%), pentacosane (12.1%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentade-canone (7.9%), nonacosane (7.1%), tricosane (3.6%), ?-farnesene (3.5%), dodecanal (2.7%) and octacosane (2.1%). Whereas the major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by SD were heptacosane (41.4%), pentacosane (21.2%), nonacosane (14.8%), tricosane (6.3%), octacosane (4.2%) and tetracosane (3.0%). PMID:23811454

Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

2013-07-01

292

Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. The antimicrobial activity of the oily extract against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, yeast and fungus strains was evaluated based on the inhibition zone using disc diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. The crude extract was subjected to various phytochemicals analysis. The demonstrated qualitative phytochemical tests exhibited the presences of common phytocompounds including alkaloids, terpenoids, antraquinones, cardiac glycosides, saponins, and volatile oils as major active constituents. The SMCM seed extract had inhibitory effects on the growth of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Streptococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabillase and illustrated MIC and MBC values ranging from 25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml. PMID:20237441

Sahgal, G; Ramanathan, S; Sasidharan, S; Mordi, M N; Ismail, S; Mansor, S M

2009-12-01

293

Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).  

PubMed

This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

2011-03-15

294

Effect of the grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the free radical and energy metabolism indicators during the movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the mechanism of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against exercise- induced fatigue, the mice movement model was used, and the free radical and energy metabolism indicators during movement were measured. The results show that grape seed proanthocyanidin extract can improve the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GSH-Px in the liver in exercised mice,

Ying Shan; Xiao-hang Ye; Hui Xin

2010-01-01

295

The Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Cardiovascular Risk Markers: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent animal studies have suggested that grape seed extract has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Randomized trials in human beings have yielded conflicting results. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of grape seed extract on changes in blood pressure, heart rate, lipid levels, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We searched MEDLINE (January 1, 1950,

Harm H. H. Feringa; Dayne A. Laskey; Justine E. Dickson; Craig I. Coleman

2011-01-01

296

Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using 1H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV–Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO2

N. M. Gómez-Ortíz; I. A. Vázquez-Maldonado; A. R. Pérez-Espadas; G. J. Mena-Rejón; J. A. Azamar-Barrios; G. Oskam

2010-01-01

297

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

2011-01-01

298

Ascorbate, green tea and grape seed extracts increase the shelf life of low sulphite beef patties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green tea (GTE) and grape seed (GSE) extracts are proposed as preservatives for increasing the shelf life of low sulphite raw beef patties. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both extracts were compared with ascorbate. Five groups were established for the patties: Control (with no additives), S (100 SO2), SA (100 SO2+400 sodium ascorbate), ST (100 SO2+300 GTE) and SG

Sancho Bañón; Pedro Díaz; Mariano Rodríguez; María Dolores Garrido; Alejandra Price

2007-01-01

299

Extractable amounts of trans-resveratrol in seed and berry skin in Vitis evaluated at the germplasm level.  

PubMed

Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins and seeds were studied in 120 grape (Vitis) germplasm cultivars during two consecutive years to determine the distribution of resveratrol among the main grape genotypes. Interspecific rootstock cultivars had much higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in skin and seed than all other grape genotypes studied in both years. Extremely high extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins [>100 microg g(-1) of skin fresh weight (FW)] and seeds (>20 microg g(-1) of seed FW) were observed on two rootstock cultivars obtained from hybrids of V. monticula x V. riparia. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berries of rootstock cultivars that are the descendants of V. riparia were also very high. The cultivated European type (V. vinifera) cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low levels of extractable resveratrol in berry skin and seed, and the extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were, with a few exceptions, <2 microg g(-1) of skin or seed FW. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were closely related with fruit traits or purpose of uses and climate. Significantly higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin were found in seeded cultivars than in seedless ones, in both berry skin and seeds in winemaking grapes than in table grapes, and in red grapes than in green ones. Moreover, rainfall during fruit development resulted in higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin, whereas resveratrol synthesis and accumulation in grape seeds were not related to climate change. PMID:17090126

Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Benhong; Wang, Lijun; Li, Shaohua

2006-11-15

300

Optimization of extraction, antioxidant activity and functional properties of quince seed mucilage by RSM.  

PubMed

The effect of extraction temperature (25-65°C), extraction time (5-25min) and water to seed ratio (10:1-50:1) on yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability of quince seed mucilage was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Face Center Design with these seven factors, including central and axial points. Numerical optimization determined the optimum extraction conditions based on the highest yield, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability and the lowest protein content and turbidity as being time 5min, temperature 65°C and water to seed ratio 25.1:1. At this optimum point, extraction yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability were found to be 11.58 (%), 2.71 (%), 068 (Å), 1473.96 (mPas), 29.88 (%), 94.89 (%) and 21.36 (%), respectively. The results demonstrated that quince seed mucilage had desirable antioxidant activity, viscosity, emulsifying and foaming properties. PMID:24556115

Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

2014-05-01

301

Effect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine whether grape seed extracts (GSE) that contain powerful vasodilator phenolic compounds lower blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups—(a) placebo, (b) 150 mg GSE per day, and (c) 300 mg GSE per day—and treated for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose were measured at the

Brahmesh Sivaprakasapillai; Indika Edirisinghe; Jody Randolph; Francene Steinberg; Tissa Kappagoda

2009-01-01

302

Nigella sativa (Black Cumin) Seed Extract Alleviates Symptoms of Allergic Diarrhea in Mice, Involving Opioid Receptors  

PubMed Central

The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa- (U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy.

Duncker, Swantje C.; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

2012-01-01

303

Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic antitumor drugs. Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin-induced toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the antioxidant potential of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against the toxicity of cisplatin in male rats. Cisplatin treated animals revealed a significant elevation in plasma, heart, kidney and liver thiobarbituric

M. I. Yousef; A. A. Saad; L. K. El-Shennawy

2009-01-01

304

Application of Moringa Oleifer Seed Extract and Polyaluminum Chloride in Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of synthetic coagulants is not regarded as suitable due to health and economic considerations. Studies were carried out in laboratory scale on deionised water containing synthetic turbidity of kaolinite. Experiments were carried out in four turbidity ranges: 10, 50, 500, 1000 (NTU) and the pH range 5-8. The efficiency of moringa oleifera seed extract and polyaluminum chloride was

M. Yarahmadi; M. Hossieni; B. Bina; M. H. Mahmoudian; A. Naimabadie; A. Shahsavani

2009-01-01

305

NSAID gastropathy: prevention by celery seed extracts in disease-stressed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies showed that some anti-inflammatory celery seed extracts (CSEs) were not gastrotoxic, in contrast to many OTC NSAIDs, when dosed to arthritic rats. The present investigation was designed to quantify the potential activity of CSEs against NSAID injury in rats with severe acute or chronic inflammation and to define the possible relationship of this to effects on mucosal prostaglandin

M. W. Whitehouse; D. E. Butters; M. L. Clarke; K. D. Rainsford

2001-01-01

306

Oral Grape Seed Extract Inhibits Prostate Tumor Growth and Progression in TRAMP Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate cancer chemoprevention is an alternative and potential strategy to control this malignancy. Herein, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) against prostate cancer in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice where animals were fed with GSE by oral gavage at 200 mg\\/kg body weight dose during 4 to 28 weeks of age. Our results

Komal Raina; Rana P. Singh; Rajesh Agarwal; Chapla Agarwal

307

Haematopoetic effect of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (grape fruit) in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the blood-forming effects of (100% methanol seed extract) of Citrus paradisi Macfad in adult Wistar rats for 30 days as a way of evaluat- ing its traditional use in the treatment of blood deficiencies. Acute oral toxicity study was also conducted using limit dose test of the Up and Down Procedure statistical program

A. A. Adeneye

308

Nigella sativa (black cumin) seed extract alleviates symptoms of allergic diarrhea in mice, involving opioid receptors.  

PubMed

The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa-(U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy. PMID:22768141

Duncker, Swantje C; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

2012-01-01

309

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia.  

PubMed

Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>?-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

2013-09-01

310

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>?-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress.

Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

2013-01-01

311

Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution.  

PubMed

It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The active component was isolated and purified from the crude extract through a sequence of steps that included salting-out by dialysis, removal of lipids and carbohydrates by homogenization with acetone, and anion exchange. Specific coagulation activity of the active material increased up to 34 times more than the crude extract after the ion exchange. The active component was not the same as that of water extract. The molecular weight was about 3000 Da. The Lowry method and the phenol-sulfuric acid method indicated that the active component was neither protein nor polysaccharide. The optimum pH of the purified active component for coagulation of turbidity was pH 8 and above. Different from the conventional water extracts, the active component can be used for waters with low turbidity without increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration. PMID:11228992

Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

2001-02-01

312

CULTIVOS DE CÉLULAS EN SUSPENSIÓN DE Azadirachta indica PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE UN BIOINSECTICIDA CELL SUSPENSION CULTURE OF Azadirachta indica FOR PRODUCTION OF A BIOINSECTICIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Azadirachta indica are an important source for production of bioinsecticides, being Azadirachtin (Aza) the main compound. However, agricultural and climate adversity limit the seed production, thereby plant cell culture in vitro is an alternative technology for Aza production. In this work, the state of the knowledge of A. indica cell culture is presented and the strategies for improving

F. Orozco-Sánchez; M. Rodríguez

313

Inhibitory action of neem aqueous extract (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.  

PubMed

The present study revealed unheard of data about the action of aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, proving that these extracts in 10 and 20% concentrations do not have the potential to kill the females; however, in lower concentrations (10%) provokes great morphological alterations in germinative cells such as the emergence of extended cytoplasmic vacuolization areas as well as the fragmentation of the germinal vesicle, even in those oocytes which were in initial stages of development (I-III), showing that neem is a potent agent which acts impeding one of the main metabolic stages of the ticks, i.e., the reproduction. In oocytes in final stages of development (IV-V) azadirachtin (neem's active principle) caused significant reduction in the size and quantity of proteic granules of the yolk and the inversion of their localization where the smaller granules before inside the cell (normal oocyte) were posteriorly observed in the periphery, and the bigger ones in the central region. Thus, the study showed that the alterations found both in the oocytes and in the pedicel cells indicated that azadirachtin acts on the process of tick's reproduction and signalizes that this plant can be used in the future to control ticks with the advantage of not being aggressive to nontarget organism or the environment. Furthermore, data here obtained showed that the most significant efficiency of the aqueous extract of neem is related to the concentration of 10%, proving that higher doses would not be so efficient. PMID:21936022

Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel

2011-10-01

314

Laboratory evaluation of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) wood chippings on Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica A. Juss (the neem tree), a source of limonoid insect growth regulatory (IGRs), grows well in many places in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the potential of neem wood and bark chippings in malaria vector control by evaluating their aqueous extracts as a larvicide and growth disruptor of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Immature stages of the mosquito were tested using WHO guidelines. Fifty percent inhibition of adult emergence (IE50) of all larval instars was obtained with <0.4 g of neem chippings in 1 liter of distilled water. For pupae, significant mortality occurred at 5 g/liter. Inhibition of pupation was seen with some larvae staying as LIVs for 9 d before dying. In addition to growth retardation, reduced reaction by larvae to visual and mechanical stimuli observed at higher neem concentrations may make them more susceptible to natural predators. There were no significant differences in the sex ratio of emerged adults or wing length of females compared with the controls. High-performance liquid chromatography of aqueous extracts showed a series of constituents of varying polarity, including the limonoids nimbin and salannin, which were quantified. Azadirachtin was not detected and the observed activities are attributed to other constituents of the chippings. Such larvicides can be particularly effective where larval habitats are relatively large and readily identifiable. Aqueous extracts of neem wood chippings can be produced locally and their use has the potential to be a low-tech component of integrated malaria vector control schemes in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19198524

Howard, Annabel F V; Adongo, Elizabeth A; Hassanali, Ahmed; Omlin, Francois X; Wanjoya, Anthony; Zhou, Guofa; Vulule, John

2009-01-01

315

Effect of enzymes on extraction of volatiles from celery seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celery (Apium graveolens L.), belonging to the family Apiaceae, is widely used as a spice, in perfumery and pharmaceutical applications. It is reported to possess several nutraceutical attributes, such as anticoagulation activity of blood plasma and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Effects of various enzymes on the extraction of volatile oil of celery are reported in the present study. The oil

H. B. Sowbhagya; P. Srinivas; N. Krishnamurthy

2010-01-01

316

Antitumor activity of an ethanol extract of Nigella sativa seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of ethanol extract of Nigella sativa L. on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT), mitotic index, labeling index and on the life span of tumor bear- ing mice were studied. The results from treated animals showed a decrease in viable cell count, an increase in the life span of EAT bearing mice and an increase in the glutathione

Daoud Musa; Nihat Dilsiz; Muharrem Bitiren

317

Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on methanolic seeds' extract of Dolichos biflorus.  

PubMed

The Dolichos biflorus is a well known medicinal plant in folklore for its medicinal properties. In herbal medicine the seeds of it are mainly used as tonic, astringent, diuretic, and are also recommended in asthma, bronchitis, urinary discharges, hiccoughs, ozoena, heart trouble and other diseases of brain. The main purpose of this study is to explore and to provide experimental data on the traditional use of plant Dolichos biflorus. For this purpose we investigated the plant seed extract phytochemically and pharmacologically. Phytochemical analysis was performed on extract and powder form of the drug. Procedure use for evaluation were Identification of chemical constituent by color reaction, Fluorescence analysis of powder drug, pH (in powder and extract forms), loss on drying, Thin layer chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy, acid and saponification values. In pharmacological studies (diuretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities) were tested on the extract of plant seed. The tests were carried out over albino mice taking different concentration of seed extract. Seeds extract of Dolichos biflorus has exhibited mild analgesic activity, the results were (84.6±6.68) at dose 300mg/kg and (92.2±6.81) at dose 500mg/kg which were not much significant as compared to reference drug Aspirin (300mg/kg) having result (36.4±2.27). While seed extract of Dolichos biflorus exhibited remarkable diuretic activity, the values at 300 mg/kg was (1.33±0.13) and at 500 mg/kg were (2.66±0.31) which are highly significant as compared to drug Lasix (20mg /kg) having result (2.38±0.23). Anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract of Dolichos biflorus obtained at 0.06mg/kg and 01mg/kg were (26.6±2.96) and (36±1.67) respectively. While the value for aspirin as standard drug (300mg/kg) were (17.44±1.59).This study provides a platform for further investigation for the isolation of active principles responsible for biological activity. PMID:24577923

Ahmad, Mansoor; Sharif, Sadaf; Mehjabeen; Sharif, Hina; Jahan, Noor; Naqvi, Ghazala Raza

2014-03-01

318

Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.  

PubMed

Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia. PMID:19650877

Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

2010-12-01

319

Antiproliferative effect on human cancer cell lines after treatment with nimbolide extracted from an edible part of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica).  

PubMed

Nimbolide, a triterpenoid extracted from the flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), was found to have antiproliferative activity against some cancer cell lines. Treatment of cells with 0.5-5.0 microm concentrations of nimbolide resulted in moderate to very strong growth inhibition in U937, HL-60, THP1 and B16 cell lines. Flow cytometric analysis of U937 cells showed that nimbolide treatment (1-2.5 microm) resulted in cell cycle disruption by decreasing the number of cells in G0/G1 phase, with initial increases in S and G2/M phases. Cells exposed to a higher dose of nimbolide for a longer period displayed a severely damaged DNA profile, resulting in a remarkable increase in the number of cells in the sub-G1 fraction, with a reciprocal decrease of cells in all phases. Quantification of the expression of phosphatidylserine in the outer cell membrane showed that doses of nimbolide higher than 0.4 microm exerted remarkable lethality, with over 60% of cells exhibiting apoptotic features after exposure to 1.2 microm nimbolide. The antiproliferative effect of nimbolide and its apoptosis-inducing property raise hope for its use in anticancer therapy by enhancing the effectiveness of cell cycle disruption. PMID:17163581

Roy, Molay Kumar; Kobori, Masuko; Takenaka, Makiko; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Isobe, Seiichiro; Tsushida, Tojiro

2007-03-01

320

Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus by Garcinia indica extract and its antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garcinia is a large genus of polygamous trees or shrubs, distributed in the tropical Asia, Africa and Polynesia and is a rich source of bioactive molecules including xanthones, flavonoids, benzophenones, lactones and phenolic acids. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Garcinia sp. Concentrated and vacuum dried chloroform extract of rinds

A. Tamil Selvi; G. S. Joseph; G. K. Jayaprakasha

2003-01-01

321

Chemical composition of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Chemical composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide at two different conditions that result in total extract (28 MPa/50°C, SFE 1) and major volatile part (12 MPa/40°C, SFE 2) and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of SFE-1 (HD SFE). SFE have been carried out to characterize the compounds and the variation of quinones and phenolics. The extracts were analysed by GC and GC-MS and the presence of phenolic compounds was further confirmed by 2D HSQCT (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Forty-seven volatile compounds were detected where sixteen compounds were reported for the first time in the oil of this seed. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ), dithymoquinone (DTQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ) and thymol (THY) were the major phenolic compounds. It can be concluded that the chemical composition of extracts obtained by SC CO2 extraction of the seeds showed better recovery of phenolic compounds than HD SFE and proved the occurrence of thermally labile or photosensitive bioactive volatiles of four major quinonic phenol compounds. PMID:23572692

Tiruppur Venkatachallam, Suresh Kumar; Pattekhan, Hajimalang; Divakar, Soundar; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

2010-12-01

322

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars  

PubMed Central

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.

Gozlekci, Sadiye; Saracoglu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

2011-01-01

323

Antifertility investigations on the crude chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male albino rats.  

PubMed

Crude chloroform extract of C. papaya seeds (5 mg/animal/day, po, for 20, 40 and 60 days) was investigated for contraceptive efficacy and related side effects in male albino rats. The crude extract reduced fertility to zero per cent by 40 to 60 days of treatment. Suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility was the most pronounced effect of the drug administration. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed treatment induced abnormalities in sperms. Cauda epididymal and testicular sperm counts decreased following treatment. Clinical parameters did not show any alterations. Results suggest that the contraceptive effects of chloroform extract of papaya seeds are mainly post-testicular in nature without influencing toxicological profile and libido of the animals. PMID:1293029

Lohiya, N K; Goyal, R B

1992-11-01

324

Effects of Carica papaya seed extracts on the physiology of the vas deferens of albino rats.  

PubMed

The physiology of vas deferens after administrating papaya seed extract (1 mg/0.2 ml/day/rat) for 7 and 15 days was studied with reference to organ weights, fertility rate, some biochemical parameters and contractile pattern of isolated right and left vas deferens. Studies on combined extract + ascorbic acid feeding and discontinuation of treatment for 1 and 2 1/2 months were also carried out. The results revealed that the treatment altered the biochemical parameters except cholesterol levels and the contractile pattern was reduced in comparison to control. However, significant recovery occurred by withdrawal of treatment in all parameters studied. AA feeding was efficaceous in restoring the androgenicity of vas deferens under treated conditions. On the whole, the distal vas deferens was affected more by the seed extract treatment than proximal vas and recovery was slower probably due to its higher threshold requirement for androgen. The results are discussed in the light of recent work. PMID:6730867

Chinoy, N J; Ranga Geetha, M

1984-01-01

325

Extraction and characterization of Dimorphotheca pluvialis seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimorphotheca pluvialis is increasingly recognized as an interesting industrial new oilseed crop because it contains up to 60% of the unusual fatty\\u000a acid dimorphecolic acid (9-hydroxy,10t,12t-18?2) (DA) for which new applications are being developed. In this paper, the yield, composition and quality are evaluated\\u000a for dimorphotheca oils (DMO) which were recovered by pressing, conventional solvent extraction and supercritical carbon dioxide

Bart G. Muuse; F. Petrus Cuperus; Johannes T. P. Derksen

1994-01-01

326

Cytotoxic evaluation of Melia azedarach in comparison with, Azadirachta indica and its phytochemical investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages. Methods In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study. Results Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1). In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively) than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1). The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine. Conclusions The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows that flavonols are abundant in the leaves of M. azedarach and these compounds seem to be responsible for many of medicinal effects exploited in the traditional uses.

2013-01-01

327

Anticoagulant effect of polyphenols-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Blood coagulation consists of a series of zymogens that can be converted by limited proteolysis to active enzymes leading to the generation of thrombin. Fresh plasma and human thrombin was incubated with extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5; 5; 50 ?g/ml). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts prolonged clotting time and decreased the maximal velocity of fibrin polymerization in human plasma. Moreover thrombin incubation with both extracts results in the inhibition of amidolytic activity of this enzyme. It gives hopes for development of diet supplements, which may be preventing thrombosis in pathological states. PMID:21596108

Bijak, Micha?; Bobrowski, Mateusz; Borowiecka, Marta; Pods?dek, Anna; Gola?ski, Jacek; Nowak, Pawe?

2011-09-01

328

Reactive extraction of Jatropha curcas L. seed for production of biodiesel: process optimization study.  

PubMed

Biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. seed is conventionally produced via a two-step method: extraction of oil and subsequent esterification/transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), commonly known as biodiesel. Contrarily, in this study, a single step in situ extraction, esterification and transesterification (collectively known as reactive extraction) of J. curcas L. seed to biodiesel, was investigated and optimized. Design of experiments (DOE) was used to study the effect of various process parameters on the yield of FAME. The process parameters studied include reaction temperature (30-60 degrees C), methanol to seed ratio (5-20 mL/g), catalyst loading (5-30 wt %), and reaction time (1-24 h). The optimum reaction condition was then obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with central composite design (CCD). Results showed that an optimum biodiesel yield of 98.1% can be obtained under the following reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, methanol to seed ratio of 10.5 mL/g, 21.8 wt % of H(2)SO(4), and reaction period of 10 h. PMID:20455588

Shuit, Siew Hoong; Lee, Keat Teong; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun; Yusup, Suzana

2010-06-01

329

Effect of heat treatment of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the antioxidant potential of their extracts.  

PubMed

The effect of different heat treatments of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of their hydrolyzed extracts was investigated. The results showed that total phenol contents increased in thermally treated seeds. Heat treatment affected also the quantities of individual phenolic compounds in extracts. Phenolics in unheated camelina seeds existed in bound rather than in free form. A temperature of 160 °C was required for release of insoluble bound phenolics, whereas lower temperatures were found to be optimal to liberate those present as soluble conjugates. The best reducing power and alkyl peroxyl radical scavenging activity in the emulsion was expressed by phenolics which were bound to the cell wall, whereas the best iron chelators and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavengers were found to be those present in free form. The heat treatment of seeds up to 120 °C increased the reducing power and DPPH• radical scavenging ability of extracts, but negatively affected iron chelating ability and their activity in an emulsion against alkyl peroxyl radicals. PMID:21744787

Terpinc, Petra; Polak, Tomaz; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abramovic, Helena

2011-08-24

330

In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.  

PubMed

A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets. PMID:15913299

Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

2005-06-01

331

Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction of Kalahari Melon Seed Oil: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic extraction of oil from Kalahari melon seeds was investigated and evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM).\\u000a Two commercial protease enzyme products were used separately: Neutrase® 0.8 L and Flavourzyme® 1000 L from Novozymes (Bagsvaerd, Denmark). RSM was applied to model and optimize the reaction conditions namely concentration\\u000a of enzyme (20–50 g kg?1 of seed mass), initial pH of mixture (pH 5–9), incubation temperature

Kar Lin Nyam; Chin Ping Tan; Oi Ming Lai; Kamariah Long; Yaakob B. Che Man

2009-01-01

332

Effects of extracts and neferine from the embryo of Nelumbo nucifera seeds on the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of embryos of the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera on the central nervous system were studied in mice. MeOH extracts of embryos of Nelumbo nucifera seeds significantly inhibited locomotor activity in mice. The MeOH extract was successively partitioned between H2O and n-hexane, between H2O and CHCl3, and between H2O and n-BuOH. CHCl3 extracts strongly inhibited locomotor activity in mice,

Yumi Sugimoto; Sachiko Furutani; Atsuko Itoh; Takao Tanahashi; Hiroshi Nakajima; Hideo Oshiro; Shujian Sun; Jun Yamada

2008-01-01

333

New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.  

PubMed

The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate. PMID:24372268

Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

2014-10-01

334

Rheological characterization of galactomannans extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima.  

PubMed

The galactomannan from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. was isolated and purified by precipitation method using alcohol to get C. pulcherrima (CP) gum. CP gum was studied for its physicochemical and rheological properties. The composition of CP gum was found to contain mannose:galactose:glucose:xylose in a proportion of 2.8:1:0.1:0.08, with M/G ratio 2.80. The molecular weight (Mw) for CP gum was obtained to be approximately 2.72×10(6) Da by static light scattering measurements and 2.79×10(6) Da using Mark-Houwink relationship. The intrinsic viscosity by Huggins and Kraemer plots using capillary viscometry was obtained as 12-12.5 dl/g. The rheological behavior of aqueous galactomannan solutions was studied at 25°C, using steady-shear and dynamic oscillatory measurements. The various concentrations of CP gum exhibits shear thinning non newtonian behavior at high shear rate and newtonian flow at low shear rate. Experimental data in steady shear has been correlated and found a better fitting with the Cross and Carreau models. A graph of the specific viscosity at zero shear rate (?(sp0)) against coil overlap parameter (C[?]) was plotted and the slope of the lines in dilute and semi-dilute regions were found to be 1.23 and 4.1 respectively. The critical concentration (C*) was found to be about 3.8/[?]. The linear viscoelastic region for CP gum solutions presented nature as that of macromolecular solutions. At all shear rates and frequencies, ?(ap) and ?* had almost similar magnitudes, which shows its reasonable agreement with the Cox-Merz rule. The present investigation shows the suitability of CP gum as a pharmaceutical aid application like viscosity modifier, release retardants, binders. PMID:23544573

Thombre, Nilima A; Gide, Paraag S

2013-04-15

335

Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.  

PubMed

In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs. PMID:19904502

Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

2010-04-01

336

Blackberry seed extracts and isolated polyphenolic compounds showing protective effect on human lymphocytes DNA.  

PubMed

The tentative identification of seed extracts from 3 cultivars of blackberry (blackberry seed extracts [BSEs]) constituents was performed by LC/UV/MS technique. The identified compounds belonged to ellagitannins, galic acid derivatives, and ellagic acid derivatives. Two ellagitannins, Lambertianin C and Sanguiniin H-6, and an ellagic acid derivative, 4-?-L-arabinofuranosylellagic acid, were isolated using semipreparative High-performance liquid chromatography. The structure elucidations were based on high resolution-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. The BSEs and 3 isolated pure compounds were tested for in vitro protective effect on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using cytochalasin-B blocked micronucleus (MN) assay. The frequency of MN was scored in binucleated cells, and nuclear proliferation index was calculated. Among the tested extracts, the seeds of cv. Thornfree at concentration of 1 ?g/mL exhibit the most prominent effect decreasing the frequency of MN by 62.4%, when compared with the controls cell cultures. Antioxidant potential of pure ellagitannins cannot explain the strong effect of BSEs. The assumption was that better antioxidant effect of BSEs result from synergistic effects of individual compounds contained in the extracts and/or some minor components possessed strong activity. PraCTICAL APPLICATION: Our results provide evidence of protective effects of BSEs and isolated pure compounds on cytogenetic damages in human lymphocytes. Thus, BSEs could exert beneficial effects in quite a few diseases, because many of the biological actions have been attributed to their antioxidant properties. PMID:21824137

Go?evac, Dejan; Teševi?, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Milosavljevi?, Slobodan; Stankovi?, Miroslava

2011-09-01

337

Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400??g/mL concentration) produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement.

Onoja, Samuel Okwudili; Omeh, Yusuf Ndukaku; Ezeja, Maxwell Ikechukwu; Chukwu, Martins Ndubuisi

2014-01-01

338

A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract.  

PubMed

Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation. We report a case of intoxication following intentional ingestion of P. harmala seed infusion; P. harmala seeds were bought over the Internet. The harmala alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the seed extract and the patient's urine. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of P. harmala intoxication corroborated by toxicological findings. PMID:18603389

Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Zancanaro, Flavio; Fazzin, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

2008-08-01

339

Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage.  

PubMed

Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 °C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods. PMID:24679777

Vergara, Cristina; Saavedra, Jorge; Sáenz, Carmen; García, Paula; Robert, Paz

2014-08-15

340

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of colchicine and related alkaloids from seeds of Colchicum autumnale L.  

PubMed

A method for the extraction of the alkaloids colchicine, 3-demethylcolchicine and colchicoside from seeds of Colchicum autumnale by supercritical carbon dioxide has been established. Several parameters such as pressure, temperature, percentage of modifier and extraction time have been examined. Two extraction steps with constant carbon dioxide density (0.90 g/mL) and flux (1.5 mL/min) were required to extract the alkaloids in 110 min using 3% methanol as modifier. The quantitative determination of the alkaloids was performed by HPLC; the percentages of recovery were higher than 98% for the three alkaloids. This extraction procedure was compared with a conventional method involving maceration and sonication, and the same levels of alkaloids were obtained in each case. The supercritical carbon dioxide method is, however, very efficient, more rapid and more environmentally friendly than conventional methods. PMID:12793464

Ellington, Ernesto; Bastida, Jaume; Viladomat, Francesc; Codina, Caries

2003-01-01

341

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 ?m/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 ?m/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 ?m/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

2013-01-01

342

Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.  

PubMed

In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130°C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20g/mL after 30min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ?100°C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation. PMID:25053062

Ravber, Matej; Knez, Zeljko; Skerget, Mojca

2015-01-01

343

Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa seeds on milk production in rats.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa L. is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine. Hence, the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N. sativa seeds on milk production in rats were evaluated. The measurement of milk production was by measuring pup weight during suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N. sativa were 4.23 and 4.9 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (0.5 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased milk production significantly (p < 0.001), producing about 31.3% and 37.6% more milk than control, respectively. During the study period, the pups gained weight with the aqueous (0.5 g/kg, p < 0.01) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg, p < 0.05). It is concluded that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N. sativa can stimulate milk production in rats. PMID:23433051

Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Mosavi, Mojdeh Jalal; Taghiabadi, Elahe

2013-02-01

344

Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.  

PubMed

The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. PMID:19448924

Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

2009-01-01

345

The impact of seed extraction on the population dynamics of Pinus maximartinezii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 × 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (?) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, ? decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on ?. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.

López-Mata, Lauro

2013-05-01

346

Anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative effects of a methanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract are mediated via modulation of the nuclear factor-?B pathway.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica (neem tree) is used in traditional Indian medicine for its pharmacological properties including cancer prevention and treatment. Here, we studied a neem extract's anti-inflammatory potential via the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway, linked to cancer, inflammation, and apoptosis. Cultured human leukemia cells were treated with a methanolic neem leaf extract with or without tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? stimulation. Inhibition of NF-?B activity was demonstrated by luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Inhibition of viability by neem extracts was assessed by luminescent assays. Western blot analysis allowed assessing the inhibitory effect of the neem extract on TNF-?-induced degradation of inhibitor of ?B (I?B) and nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p50/p65 heterodimer. Inhibition of I?B kinase (IKK) activity was shown as well as the effect of neem extract on the induction of apoptotic cell death mechanisms by nuclear fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry analysis. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for a strong effect of the neem extract on pro-inflammatory cell signaling and apoptotic cell death mechanisms, contributing to a better understanding of the mechanisms triggered by Azadirachta indica. PMID:21484152

Schumacher, Marc; Cerella, Claudia; Reuter, Simone; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

2011-05-01

347

Antioxidant extraction from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal using high-intensity ultrasound.  

PubMed

Brassicaceae oilseeds provide feedstocks for the biofuels industry, but value-added coproducts are necessary to supply financial incentives for increased production. Our objective was to use high-intensity ultrasound to optimize extraction of antioxidants from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables included temperature, solvent-to-material ratio, sonication duration, and EtOH concentration. Extracts were analyzed for total phenolics content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and sinapine content. Conventional extraction using water and 70% EtOH (v/v) at 80 °C for 3×30 min yielded 7.83 ± 0.07 and 8.81 ± 0.17 mg sinapic acid equivalents (SAE)/g meal, respectively. UAE extraction at 40 °C for 30 min yielded similar phenolics content (8.85 ± 0.33 mg SAE/g meal) as conventional hot ethanolic extraction, but required less time and lower temperature. The highest TPC (13.79 ± 0.38 mg SAE/g meal) was in the 7-d aqueous extracts. Sonicated solutions of pure sinapine and sinapic acid showed 1st-order reaction kinetics with greater degradation of isolated compounds than those present in extracts. Sinapine contained in extracts showed insignificant (P < 0.05) degradation after 30 min of sonication. Our research indicates that ultrasound treatment can assist the extraction of antioxidants from B. juncea meal by reducing both the temperature and time requirement without significant degradation of the primary antioxidants present. PMID:23488824

Dubie, Jeremiah; Stancik, Aaron; Morra, Matthew; Nindo, Caleb

2013-04-01

348

Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

2011-01-01

349

Cytotoxicity of Nigella sativa seed oil and extract against human lung cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa (N sativa), commonly known as black seed, has been used in traditional medicine to treat many diseases. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities of N sativa extracts are well known. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the anticancer activity of seed extract (NSE) and seed oil (NSO) of N sativa against a human lung cancer cell line. Cells were exposed to 0.01 to 1 mg/ml of NSE and NSO for 24 h, then percent cell viability was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed NSE and NSO significantly reduce the cell viability and alter the cellular morphology of A-549 cells in a concentration dependent manner. The percent cell viability was recorded as 75%, 50%, and 26% at 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml of NSE by MTT assay and 73%, 48%, and 23% at 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml of NSE by NRU assay. Exposure to NSO concentrations of 0.1 mg/ml and above for 24 h was also found to be cytotoxic. The decrease in cell viability at 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml of NSO was recorded to be 89%, 52%, 41%, and 13% by MTT assay and 85%, 52%, 38%, and 11% by NRU assay, respectively. A-549 cells exposed to 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/ml of NSE and NSO lost their typical morphology and appeared smaller in size. The data revealed that the treatment of seed extract (NSE) and seed oil (NSO) of Nigella sativa significantly reduce viability of human lung cancer cells. PMID:24568529

Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

2014-01-01

350

Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (papaya) seed preparations are used in traditional medicine to expel intestinal worms in human and ruminants. In the present study, an ethanol extract of papaya seeds (EEPS; 0.1-6.4 mg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of jejunal contractions in contrast to corresponding concentrations of DMSO (solvent control). The inhibitory effect of EEPS on jejunal contractions was significantly irreversible. Previous studies have indicated that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is the main bioactive compound responsible for the anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds. In the present study, standard BITC (0.01-0.64 mmol/L) also caused significant irreversible inhibition of jejunal contractions. Recovery of jejunal contractions after BITC-induced inhibition was weaker than recovery after EEPS-induced inhibition (BITC versus EEPS: 19 +/- 7% vs 38 +/- 13%). Cryosections of the jejunum showed marked morphological damage of the segments treated with BITC in contrast to DMSO-treated segments. EEPS-induced jejunal damage was, however, less marked. These results indicate that papaya seed extract and BITC, its principal bioactive constituent are capable of weakening the contractile capability of rabbit isolated jejunum. It is thus envisaged that at the toxic level that will be needed to kill and expel intestinal worms in vivo, BITC may also cause impairment of intestinal functions. PMID:16161026

Adebiyi, Adebowale; Adaikan, P Ganesan

2005-07-01

351

Safety assessment of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract: Acute and subchronic toxicity studies.  

PubMed

Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) is widely cultivated in Southeast Asia. Its fruit and seeds are common ingredients in Indonesian foods. The seeds are very rich in resveratrol dimers such as gnetin C and its glucosides, gnemonoside A and gnemonoside D, and also contain trans-resveratrol and its glucoside, trans-piceid. The safety of melinjo seeds is assured, since people in Southeast Asia have consumed them for a long time; however, their safety has not been scientifically verified. In this study, the safety of melinjo seed extract (MSE) powder was assessed in an acute oral toxicity study, a 4-week repeated dose toxicity study, and in a micronucleus test in rats. In the acute and subchronic toxicity studies, the group administered the powder did not show any toxicologically significant MSE-related changes, compared with the control group. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined as 1000 mg/kg/day. A genotoxicity test (rat bone marrow micronucleus test) was negative for MSE powder at levels up to 4000 mg/kg/day. These results might provide supportive evidence of safety of melinjo seeds, which has been used as food ingredients for a long time. PMID:24602829

Tatefuji, Tomoki; Yanagihara, Miyako; Fukushima, Shinobu; Hashimoto, Ken

2014-05-01

352

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

353

Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions. PMID:23743034

Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

2013-10-01

354

Antisnake venom activity of ethanolic seed extract of Strychnos nux vomica Linn.  

PubMed

The whole seed extract of S. nux vomica (in low doses) effectively neutralized Daboia russelii venom induced lethal, haemorrhage, defibrinogenating, PLA2 enzyme activity and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, PLA2 enzyme activity. The seed extract potentiated polyvalent snake venom antiserum action in experimental animals. An active compound (SNVNF) was isolated and purified by thin layer chromatography and silica gel column chromatography, which effectively antagonised D. russelii venom induced lethal, haemorrhagic, defibrinogenating, oedema, PLA2 enzyme activity and N. kaouthia induced lethal, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, PLA, enzyme activity. Polyvalent snake venom antiserum action was significantly potentiated by the active compound. Spectral studies revealed it to be a small, straight chain compound containing methyl and amide radicals. Detailed structure elucidation of the compound (SNVNF) is warranted before its clinical trials as a snake venom antagonist. PMID:15233470

Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K; Gomes, A

2004-05-01

355

Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation.  

PubMed

Many protein misfolding diseases, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in an amyloid fibrillar form. Natural products which inhibit fibril formation are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In this study we have shown, using in vitro thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy, that grape seed extract inhibits fibril formation of kappa-casein (?-CN), a milk protein which forms amyloid fibrils spontaneously under physiological conditions. Among the components of grape seed extract, gallic acid was the most active component at inhibiting ?-CN fibril formation, by stabilizing ?-CN to prevent its aggregation. Concomitantly, gallic acid significantly reduced the toxicity of ?-CN to pheochromocytoma12 cells. Furthermore, gallic acid effectively inhibited fibril formation by the amyloid-beta peptide, the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease. It is concluded that the gallate moiety has the fibril-inhibitory activity. PMID:24157371

Liu, Yanqin; Pukala, Tara L; Musgrave, Ian F; Williams, Danielle M; Dehle, Francis C; Carver, John A

2013-12-01

356

Acute effects of Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract on postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion on healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyFraxinus excelsior L. (Family: Oleaceae) seeds are consumed as a food, condiment, and folk medicine. The seeds are traditionally used as a potent hypoglycemic agent, but no clinical evidence exists in as to this regard. We assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of the seed extract (FraxiPure™, Naturex), containing 6.8% of nuzhenide and 5.8% of GI3 (w\\/w),

Pradeep Visen; Binduja Saraswat; Aastha Visen; Marc Roller; Antoine Bily; Claire Mermet; Kan He; Naisheng Bai; Benoit Lemaire; Sophie Lafay; Alvin Ibarra

2009-01-01

357

Extraction of Microula sikkimensis seed oil and simultaneous analysis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids by fluorescence detection with reversed-phase HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seed oil of Microula sikkimensis Hemsl. was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, microwave-assisted reflux extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction and solvent reflux extraction. The experimental parameters of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction which is classic in these extraction techniques including pressure, temperature, particle size and extraction time were optimized. A simple and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 39 kinds

Yue Cao; Yourui Suo

2010-01-01

358

Effects of processing on oxidative stability of sesame oil extracted from intact and dehulled seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stability of oils extracted from intact and dehulled sesame seeds was determined by monitoring changes in fatty\\u000a acid composition, iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene (CD), para-anisidine value (p-AV), and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy after storage under Schaal oven\\u000a conditions at 65C for up to 35 d. The oils from coated

H. A. Abou-Gharbia; F. Shahidi; A. Adel; Y. Shehata; M. M. Youssef

1997-01-01

359

Phytosterol content of sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil: Extraction and identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytosterols in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil extracted by cold pressing, hexane, and supercritical carbon dioxide were identified by GC–MS and FID. Compounds identified were campesterol, clerosterol, lanosterol, sitosterol, ?-amyrin, sitostanol, ?5-avenasterol, ?24(28)-stigmasta-en-ol, ?-amyrin, ?5,24(25)-stigmastadienol, lupeol, gramisterol, ?7-sitosterol, cycloartenol, cycloeucalenol, ?7-avenasterol, 28-methylobtusifoliol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, erythrodiol, citrostadienol, uvaol, and oleanol aldehyde. Sitosterol and ?5-avenasterol were, quantitatively, the most important phytosterols.

Thomas S. C. Li; Thomas H. J. Beveridge; John C. G. Drover

2007-01-01

360

Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate by coagulation\\/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among other natural flocculant\\/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation\\/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin–Fowler–Guggenheim (FFG) and

J. Beltrán-Heredia; J. Sánchez-Martín

2009-01-01

361

Coagulation Mechanism of Salt Solution-Extracted Active Component in Moringa oleifera Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC–pc) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-pc tap water formed insoluble matters. This formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-pc was added into distilled water. The

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

362

A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (?max=343±2nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in

H. M. Kwaambwa; R. Maikokera

2007-01-01

363

Mechanism of the endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by a grape seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

GSEs (grape seed extracts) which contain polyphenolic compounds cause an endothelium- dependent relaxation of blood vessels. The aim of the present study was to examine the mech- anisms involved in this response. A well-characterized GSE was applied to rabbit aortic rings sus- pended in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit buffer maintained at 37 ?C. In aortic rings pre-contacted with noradrenaline (norepinephrine),

Indika Edirisinghe; Britt Burton-Freeman

2008-01-01

364

Toxicological effects of Carica papaya seed extract on spermatozoa of mice.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out on epididymal spermatozoa of male mice to study the effects of high dosages (100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1) bwt) of aqueous Carica papaya seed extract. The results revealed a significant dosedependent suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility coinciding with a decrease in sperm count and viability. When tested 45 days after the withdrawal of treatment, complete normalcy was restored, proving that the induced effects were transient. PMID:17080407

Verma, R J; Nambiar, Deepa; Chinoy, N J

2006-01-01

365

Effect of Grape Seed Extracts on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Corn Chips during Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of grape seed extracts (GSE) on lipid oxidation of corn chips stored for 90 days in\\u000a comparison to tert-butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate chemical analysis results showed that corn chips contained low moisture contents (less\\u000a than 2%) and also that no significant differences were found in the dry matter values in ash, fat, protein, and fiber. Antioxidant\\u000a activity

Taha M. Rababah; Sevil Yücel; Khalil I. Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Wade Yang; Khalid Ismaeal

2011-01-01

366

Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of grape seed and bearberry extracts in raw and cooked pork  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of grape seed extract (GSE) and bearberry (BB), on lipid oxidation (TBARS, mg malondialdehyde (MDA)\\/kg muscle), colour (CIE ‘a’ redness value), pH, microbial status (log10CFU colony forming units\\/g pork) and sensorial properties of cooked pork patties was investigated. GSE (0–1000?g\\/g muscle) and BB (0–1000?g\\/g muscle) were added to raw pork (M. longissimus dorsi) patties which were stored in

R. Carpenter; M. N. O’Grady; Y. C. O’Callaghan; N. M. O’Brien; J. P. Kerry

2007-01-01

367

The phosphatides of safflower seeds involved in color formation occurring in extracted and heated crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on crude safflower oils have established that three phosphatides extracted with the oil from the kernel of the seed\\u000a are responsible for color formation. The phosphatides have been isolated and identified as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE),\\u000a phosphatidylmyoinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Phosphatidylethanolamine was the most potent contributor to color\\u000a formation, followed by phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. The color-forming compounds were separated from

H. J. Burkhardt

1970-01-01

368

Physical and antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract, nisin, and EDTA incorporated soy protein edible films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and antimicrobial properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) films containing grape seed extract (GSE 1% w\\/w), nisin (10,000IU\\/g), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA 0.16% w\\/w), and their combinations were evaluated. The incorporation of GSE significantly increased the thickness, puncture, and tensile strengths compared to the control film. The SPI film containing combinations of GSE, nisin, and EDTA had a thickness

T. Sivarooban; N. S. Hettiarachchy; M. G. Johnson

2008-01-01

369

In vitro remineralization effects of grape seed extract on artificial root caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seed extract (GSE) contains proanthocyanidins (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96h at

Qian Xie; Ana Karina Bedran-Russo; Christine D. Wu

2008-01-01

370

Nigella sativa (Black Cumin) Seed Extract Alleviates Symptoms of Allergic Diarrhea in Mice, Involving Opioid Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized BALB\\/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa- (U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently

Swantje C. Duncker; David Philippe; Christine Martin-Paschoud; Mireille Moser; Annick Mercenier; Sophie Nutten

2012-01-01

371

Extraction of flavan-3-ols from grape seed and skin into wine using simulated maceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulated maceration assays were carried out in wine model systems using increasing ethanol percentages from 0 to 12.5%, in order to study the extraction of flavan-3-ol monomers and oligomers from grape skins and seeds. The amount of flavan-3-ols transferred to the solutions improves with the increase in the alcohol percentage, although flavanols were much more readily released from grape skins

Susana González-Manzano; Julián C Rivas-Gonzalo; Celestino Santos-Buelga

2004-01-01

372

Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae) using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and ?-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC50 value 157.4 ?g/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC50 value 61.9 ?g/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC50 value 64.32 ?g/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC50 value 58.87 ?g/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract). Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants.

Jana, Kishalay; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

2011-01-01

373

Preclinical evaluation of the supercritical extract of azadirachta indica (neem) leaves in vitro and in vivo on inhibition of prostate cancer tumor growth.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin ?1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2',3'-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonimbolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonimbolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer. PMID:24674886

Wu, Qiang; Kohli, Manish; Bergen, H Robert; Cheville, John C; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Cao, Hong; Young, Charles Y F; Tindall, Donald J; McNiven, Mark A; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

2014-05-01

374

Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (?) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32?mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15?mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73??g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51??g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9?µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martonio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vania Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

2013-01-01

375

Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 ? g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 ? g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

2013-01-01

376

Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.  

PubMed

Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains ?cta1, ?gsh1 and ?oye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in ?sod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. PMID:23993573

Ignea, Codru?a; Doroban?u, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

2013-12-15

377

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) differentially regulates Foxp3 + regulatory and IL17 + pathogenic T cell in autoimmune arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), which is the antioxidant derived from grape seeds, has been reported to possess a variety of potent properties. We have previously shown that GSPE attenuates collagen-induced arthritis. However the mechanism by which GSPE regulates the immune response remains unclear, although it may involve effects on the regulation of pathogenic T cells in autoimmune arthritis. To

Mi-Kyung Park; Jin-Sil Park; Mi-La Cho; Hye-Jwa Oh; Yu-Jung Heo; Yun-Ju Woo; Yang-Mi Heo; Min-Jung Park; Hyun-Sil Park; Sung-Hwan Park; Ho-Youn Kim; Jun-Ki Min

2011-01-01

378

Antifertility effect of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula in female rats.  

PubMed

Oral administration of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula to mated female rats from day 1-5 of pregnancy at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in 57.14% and 71.43% prevention of pregnancy, respectively, whereas 100% pregnancy inhibition was noted at 500 mg/kg bw. In the uterine bioassay test carried out in immature bilaterally ovariectomized female rats, aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula (100 mg/kg bw) increased the uterine wet weight (p<0.05) and luminal epithelial cell height (p<0.001) but did not induce premature opening of the vagina. This suggests a mild estrogenic activity of the extract. However, when the extract was administered conjointly with estradiol valerate (EDV, 0.1 mg/kg bw), it significantly (p<0.001) prevented the estrogen-induced uterotrophic effect, thus showing an antiestrogenic nature of the extract in the presence of a strong estrogen. PMID:11145371

Yadav, R; Jain, G C

1999-01-01

379

Effects of Anethum graveolens L. seed extracts on experimental gastric irritation models in mice  

PubMed Central

Background As a folk remedy, Anethum graveolens seed (dill) is used for some gastrointestinal ailments. We aimed to evaluate aqueous and ethanolic extracts of anti-ulcer and acute toxicity effects of the Anethum graveolens in mice. Results Gastric mucosal lesions were induced by oral administration of HCl (1 N) and absolute ethanol in mice. The acidity and total acid content of gastric juice were measured in pylorus-ligated mice. LD50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 3.04 g/kg, i.p., (1.5, 6.16) and 6.98 g/kg, i.p., (5.69, 8.56), respectively. The efficacy of high dose of extracts (p.o.) was similar to sucralfate. The acidity and total acid content were reduced by the orally or intraperitoneally administration of the extracts. Conclusions The results suggest that A. graveolens seed extracts have significant mucosal protective and antisecretory effects of the gastric mucosa in mice.

Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Karimi, Gholam_Reza; Ameri, Maryam

2002-01-01

380

Determination of the genotoxic effects of Convolvulus arvensis extracts on corn (Zea mays L.) seeds.  

PubMed

In this research, the methanolic extracts of Convolvulus arvensis were tested for genotoxic and inhibitor activity on the total soluble protein content and the genomic template stability against corn Zea mays L. seed. The methanol extracts of leaf, stem and root of C. arvensis were diluted to 50, 75 and 100 ?l concentrations and applied to corn seed. The total soluble protein and genomic template stability results were compared with the control. The results showed that especially 100 ?l extracts of diluted leaf, stem and root had a strong inhibitory activity on the genomic template stability. The changes occurred in random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of C. arvensis extract treatment included variation in band intensity, loss of bands and appearance of new bands compared with control. Also, the results obtained from this study revealed that the increase in the concentrations of C. arvensis extract increased the total soluble protein content in maize. The results suggested that RAPD analysis and total protein analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals. PMID:22362015

Sunar, Serap; Yildirim, Nalan; Aksakal, Ozkan; Agar, Guleray

2013-06-01

381

Comparison of fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential of extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds.  

PubMed

The extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds have been compared regarding fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) was found to contain the highest oil amount (34%), while the Poncirus trifoliata cultivars contained the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (84-87%). In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts from defatted seeds have been evaluated by measuring their radical scavenging activity against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The highest antioxidant activities were observed in the case of the acetone extract of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle (76% and 75%, respectively), at a concentration of 0.17?mg?mL(-1). Moreover, the total phenolic content of the extracts, determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, was found to be correlated with the radical scavenging activity results. The acetone extracts of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle exhibited the highest phenolic content [112.3 and 103.4?mg gallic acid equivalent?g(-1) dry sample weight, respectively]. PMID:22236049

Plastina, Pierluigi; Fazio, Alessia; Gabriele, Bartolo

2012-01-01

382

Biosynthesis of controllable size and shape gold nanoparticles by black seed (Nigella sativa) extract.  

PubMed

We report on the use of black seed (Nigella sativa) extract, previously not exploited, in synthesis of gold nanoparticles. On treating aqueous chloroauric acid solution with black seed extract, the antioxidant activities critical roles of the various phytochemicals is observed leading to the formation of crystalline and poly shaped gold nanoparticles. In this research work, we developed a rapid and non-toxic method for the preparation of biocompatible gold nanoparticles by two different synthetic routes: microwave irradiation and thermo-induced procedures. The nanoparticles were characterized and investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The size and shape of the nanoparticles were found to be very sensitive to the quantity of the extract. As the amount of extract is increased, the stronger the interaction between the extract biomolecules and nascent nanoparticles, thus the yield of nanoparticles increased as shown by surface plasmon resonance bands in the UV-vis-NIR spectra. The reaction temperature has a significant role in production of gold nanoparticles with different shapes. The XRD studies reflect an interesting feature indicates that gold nanocrystals are highly anisotropic in nature, mainly triangular and hexagonal shapes, and that the particles are (111) oriented. The observed characteristics suggest the application of the biocompatible gold nanoparticles to future in vivo imaging and therapy. PMID:22755056

Fragoon, Ahmed; Li, Jianjun; Zhu, Jian; Zhao, Junwu

2012-03-01

383

In vitro azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in nutrient mist bioreactor.  

PubMed

Azadirachtin, a well-known biopesticide is a secondary metabolite conventionally extracted from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. The present study involved in vitro azadirachtin production by developing hairy roots of A. indica via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of A. indica explants. Liquid culture of hairy roots was established in shake flask to study the kinetics of growth and azadirachtin production. A biomass production of 13.3 g/L dry weight (specific growth rate of 0.7 day(-1)) was obtained after 25 days of cultivation period with an azadirachtin yield of 3.3 mg/g root biomass. To overcome the mass transfer limitation in conventionally used liquid-phase reactors, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in gas-phase reactors (nutrient spray and nutrient mist bioreactor) to investigate the possible scale-up of A. indica hairy root culture. The nano-size nutrient mist particles generated from the nozzle of the nutrient mist bioreactor could penetrate till the inner core of the inoculated root matrix, facilitating uniform growth during high-density cultivation of hairy roots. A biomass production of 9.8 g/L dry weight with azadirachtin accumulation of 2.8 mg/g biomass (27.4 mg/L) could be achieved in 25 days of batch cultivation period, which was equivalent to a volumetric productivity of 1.09 mg/L per day of azadirachtin. PMID:22083394

Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

2012-01-01

384

Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.

Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

2011-01-01

385

Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of ?-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit ?-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

2012-09-12

386

Antifeedant and antimicrobial activity of Tylophora indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude and pure extracts of Tylophora indica were investigated in view of antifeedant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. Leaf crude extract showed more antifeedant activity than stem and root against Spodoptera litura, a polyphagous pest on wide ranging crops. Among the pure compounds isolated, Tylophorine showed the highest antifeedant activity followed by Septicine, O-Methyl Tylophorinidine and simple aliphatic acid. Similarly the

B. Krishna Reddy; M. Balaji; P. Uma Reddy; G. Sailaja; K. Vaidyanath; G. Narasimha

2009-01-01

387

The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare-BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as ?Eq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co ?-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with ?-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Fori?, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

2009-05-01

388

Comparative studies on the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of olive oils and seed oils using chemiluminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and simple procedure is described for measuring the antioxidant activity (AA) of olive oil and seed oil aqueous extracts using the chemiluminescence of N,N?-dimethyl-9,9?-biacridinium dinitrate (lucigenin). It was found that olive oil aqueous extracts showed 2–10 times higher AA than seed oils. This impressive difference is attributed to the higher content of phenolic compounds present in olive oils.

K. Papadopoulos; T. Triantis; E. Yannakopoulou; A. Nikokavoura; D. Dimotikali

2003-01-01

389

Some physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil extracted using solvent and aqueous enzymatic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical properties of oil from Moringa oleifera seed were determined following extraction either with petroleum ether or 2% Neutrase 0.8L (a neutral bacterial protease from Bacillus amyloiquefaciens, Novozyme Bagsvaerd Denmark). The enzyme was chosen following a preliminary study conducted on the enzymatic extraction of M. oleifera seed oil using four commercial enzymes that showed Neutrase to be the best

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2005-01-01

390

Evaluation of chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of lemon seed extracts on human breast cancer (MCF7) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from lemon seed were investigated for the radical scavenging activity and apoptotic effects in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells and non-malignant breast (MCF-12F) cells for the first time. Defatted seed powder was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol (MeOH), and MeOH:water (80:20) and the chemical constituents were identified and quantified by LC-MS and HPLC analysis. The highest

Jinhee Kim; Guddadarangavvanahally; K. Jayaprakasha; Ram M. Uckoo; Bhimanagouda S. Patil

391

Grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) partially reverses high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplement in C57BL\\/6J mice. Thirty mice were divided into three groups; normal diet control group (ND), high fat diet control group (HD) and high fat diet plus grape seed extract supplemented group (HD+GSE). Results were as follows: 1. GSE supplement reduced the weight

Su-Hui Park; Tae-Sun Park; Youn-Soo Cha

2008-01-01

392

Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extract under drought.  

PubMed

This research evaluated the effect of drought on total and individual polyphenol contents as well as the antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds of 2 geographic origins, Tunisia (TCS) and India (ICS). Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control. Our results indicated that, in both varieties, moderate water deficit (MWD) improved the number of umbels per plant as well as the number of umbellets per umbel and the seed yield, in comparison to the control, but it decreased under severe water deficit (SWD). Besides, total phenolic contents were higher in the treated seeds and drought increased the level of total and individual polyphenols. This increase was appreciably more important in TCS than in ICS. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by 4 different test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ?-carotene/linoleic acid chelating, and reducing power assays, and showed that treated seeds exhibited the highest activity, for both TCS and ICS. PMID:22671525

Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Zakhama, Nesrine; Karoui, Iness Jabri; Marzouk, Brahim

2012-06-01

393

Antithrombin effect of polyphenol-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Thrombin is a serine protease that cleaves the peptide bonds in proteins located on the carboxyl side of arginine. Thrombin plays a central role in thromboembolic diseases, which are the major cause of mortality. The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of plant extracts on proteolytic properties of thrombin. Thrombin was incubated with polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5, 5, 50 µg/mL) and with polyphenols ((+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, cyanidin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, quercetin). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts in all used concentrations inhibited proteolytic activity of thrombin observed as inhibition of thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization, stabilized fibrin formation, and platelet aggregation. Moreover, thrombin amidolytic activity was inhibited by polyphenols belonging to the flavonoid class. Results presented in this study indicate that polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of A.?melanocarpa and seeds of V.?vinifera may become promising dietary supplements in the prevention of thrombotic states. PMID:22473647

Bijak, Micha?; Saluk, Joanna; Ponczek, Micha? B?a?ej; Nowak, Pawe?

2013-01-01

394

Black cabbage seed extract affects rat Cyp-mediated biotransformation: organ and sex related differences.  

PubMed

Brassicaceae are widely consumed in many parts of the world and their dietary intake has been associated with cancer risk reduction. Extracts and metabolites derived from cruciferous vegetables have thus gained popularity as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. We have previously found, unexpectly, that glucoraphanin, the most extensively present glucosinolate in these vegetables, is a potent mutagen bioactivating Phase-I enzyme inducer. In the present study, the influence of black cabbage seed extract, rich in glucoraphanin, was investigated on Phase-I enzymes in different organs of male or female rats. Oral seed extract injection at 120 or 240 mg/kg b.w. for one or four consecutive days, significantly affected various cytochrome P450 (CYP) -linked monooxygenases in a complex way being the lung the most responsive organ (in males, up to ?2600% increase for CYP2B1/2 isoform and ?96% loss for CYP1A1, CYP3A1/2). These findings indicate that the extract may strongly enhance and/or suppress rat xenobiotic biotransformation pathways and that caution should be paid to the possible influence on human metabolism. These data suggest an overall evaluation of the balance between beneficial vs. possible adverse effects for each agent, even if of natural origin, prior to routinely, preventive mass use. PMID:22634264

Canistro, Donatella; Barillari, Jessica; Melega, Simone; Sapone, Andrea; Iori, Renato; Speroni, Ester; Paolini, Moreno

2012-08-01

395

In vitro antilisterial properties of crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.  

PubMed

Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

2012-01-01

396

The Effect of Black Seed (Nigella sativa) Extract on FOXO3 Expression in HepG2 Cells.  

PubMed

Black seed extracts are known to alter cellular metabolism through multiple signaling pathways. Since Forkhead box transcription factor 3 (FOXO3) has a significant role in regulating cellular metabolism, the effect of lipid extracts of black seed (Sativa nigella) on FOXO3 levels and AKT and 5-AMP activated protein kinase ? (AMPK?) signaling was measured in HepG2 hepatoma cells. FOXO3 levels, phosphorylation, and nuclear exclusion were measured by Western blot, as were AKT and AMPK expression and activity using phosphorylation-specific antibodies. Apolipoprotein A-I expression, a black seed-responsive gene, was measured by Western blot. Treatment with black seed extract increased FOXO3 phosphorylation and decreased its expression. In contrast to control cells where FOXO3 was located primarily in the nucleus, in black seed-treated HepG2 cells, FOXO3 was localized primarily to the cytoplasm. These changes in FOXO3 phosphorylation, expression, and localization were accompanied by increased AKT activity. Black seed also decreased AMPK? activity but increased AMPK? expression. Lipid extracts from black seeds inhibit FOXO3 activity and thereby modulate the expression of FOXO3-dependent genes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24123556

Haas, Michael J; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Naem, Emad; Arnold, Alexis; Rohrbaugh, Nathcelly; Flowers, Megan; Mooradian, Arshag D

2014-06-01

397

Insulinotropic action of Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts in rat pancreatic islets.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the direct in vitro effects of several distinct Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts on glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets isolated from rats. Six extracts were tested, a crude aqueous, defatted aqueous, ethyl acetate, H2O-methanol and n-butanol extract and an extract containing a major component (fraction A) identified by gel chromatography in the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H2O-methanol extracts. Under selected experimental conditions, the majority of extracts exhibited a positive insulinotropic action, at least when tested in the presence of 8.3 mM D-glucose. The concentration-response correlation observed with distinct extracts revealed the participation of distinct chemical compounds, including compounds with an inhibitory insulinotropic potential, in the modulation of the insulin secretory response to D-glucose. The results of the present study are relevant for further investigations which aim to identify compounds exhibiting positive insulinotropic actions. These agents may be suitable for the treatment of human diabetic subjects. PMID:23128986

Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Hupkens, Emeline; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

2013-01-01

398

Compositional and Antioxidant Activity Analysis of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Seed Oil Obtained by Supercritical CO 2 Fluid Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE-CO2) of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Z. bungeanum) seed oil was investigated. To optimize the SFE process, three-level Box-Behnken factorial design and response surface methodology\\u000a (RSM) were applied to optimize the extraction conditions, including pressure, temperature and amount of modifier. The optimum\\u000a conditions were as follows: extraction pressure, 29.28 MPa; extraction temperature, 41.19 °C; and the added amount of modifier,

Lian Xia; Jinmao You; Guoliang Li; Zhiwei Sun; Yourui Suo

2011-01-01

399

Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid ?-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons  

PubMed Central

AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid ? (A?) peptide. A? is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds’ aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on A? (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against A?-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on A?-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in A?-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from A? treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the A?-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against A?-mediated cell death.

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

2013-01-01

400

Induction of functional sterility in male rats by low dose Carica papaya seed extract treatment.  

PubMed

The result revealed that a short term administration of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed manifested an androgen deprived effect on the target organs and thereby caused antifertility effect in adult male albino rats. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in sperm motility and alteration in their morphology as well as to reduced contractile response of the vas deferens. The androgen deprived effect of the extract led to slight alteration in the histoarchitecture and weight of the reproductive organs, mainly cauda and distal vas deferens which has been related to their greater androgen sensitivity in comparison to the other target organs and or their greatly diminished target organ response to testosterone or its metabolites. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by papaya extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive. PMID:6675389

Chinoy, N J; George, S M

1983-01-01

401

In vitro, in situ and in vivo studies on the anticandidal activity of Cassia fistula seed extract.  

PubMed

Cassia fistula seeds have many therapeutic uses in traditional medicine practice. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the anticandidal activity of the C. fistula seed extract at ultra-structural level through transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The effect of seed extract on the growth profile of the Candida albicans was examined via time-kill assays and in vivo efficacy of the extract was tested in an animal model. In addition, the anticandidal effect of seed extract was further evaluated by microscopic observations using SEM and TEM to determine any major alterations in the ultrastructure of C. albicans. The complete inhibition of C. albicans growth was shown by C. fistula seed extract at 6.25 mg/mL concentration. The time-kill assay suggested that C. fistula seed extract had completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans and also exhibited prolonged anti-yeast activity. The SEM and TEM observations carried out to distinguish the metamorphosis in the morphology of control and C. fistula seed extract-treated C. albicans cells revealed the notable effect on the outer cell wall and cytoplasmic content of the C. albicans and complete collapse of yeast cell exposed to seed extract at concentration 6.25 mg/mL at 36 h. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 6-fold decrease in C. albicans in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g/kg body weight). The results suggested that the C. fistula seed extract possessed good anticandidal activity and is a potential candidate for the development of anticandidal agents. PMID:22678414

Jothy, Subramanion L; Zakariah, Zuraini; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

2012-01-01

402

Influence of chemical extraction conditions on the physicochemical and functional properties of polysaccharide gum from durian (Durio zibethinus) seed.  

PubMed

Durian seed is an agricultural biomass waste of durian fruit. It can be a natural plant source of non-starch polysaccharide gum with potential functional properties. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of chemical extraction variables (i.e., the decolouring time, soaking temperature and soaking time) on the physicochemical properties of durian seed gum. The physicochemical and functional properties of chemically-extracted durian seed gum were assessed by determining the particle size and distribution, solubility and the water- and oil-holding capacity (WHC and OHC). The present work revealed that the soaking time should be considered as the most critical extraction variable affecting the physicochemical properties of crude durian seed gum. PMID:22643356

Mirhosseini, Hamed; Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee

2012-01-01

403

Antitumor activity of methanolic extract of Cassia fistula L. seed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.  

PubMed

Effects of methanolic extract (ME) of Cassia fistula seed on the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and on the life span of tumor bearing mice were studied. ME treatment showed an increase of life span, and a decrease in the tumor volume and viable tumor cell count in the EAC tumor hosts. Cytological studies have revealed a reduction in the mitotic activity, and the appearance of membrane blebbing and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in the treated tumor cells. Improvement in the hematological parameters following ME treatment, like hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and bone marrow cell count of the tumor bearing mice have also been observed. The results of the present study suggest that ME of C. fistula seed has an antitumor activity. PMID:10967466

Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Rath, N; Mukhopadhyay, D K

2000-09-01

404

[Survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].  

PubMed

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products. PMID:18344660

Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi

2008-02-01

405

Phytochemical and biological investigation of the extracts of Nigella sativa L. seed waste.  

PubMed

Different extracts of Nigella sativa L. seed waste; aqueous (AE) 200 mg/kg, ethanol 70% (EE) 250 mg/kg and hexane (HE) 10 mg/kg, were evaluated for their hepatoprotective activities. They were administered orally, once daily, for 5 consecutive days. On day 5, liver injury was induced in animals by a single i.p. injection of carbon tetrachloride (10 mg/kg b. w. of 0.25% (v/v). Hepatoxicity produced, was evaluated by both biochemical and histopathological investigations. The aqueous extract attenuated the CCl(4) -induced liver damage likely due to the decrease of proinflammatory cytokines and T-cell proliferation. This was noticed by a significant decrease in both serum and tissue cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interferon-gamma (INF-?) and interlukin-beta (IL-1?), in the markers of liver functions; bilirubin and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and in the oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione content (GSH). Fractionation of this extract was performed and its component, protein, saponin, and polyphenol fractions were evaluated by appropriate analytical procedures. The crude protein of the seed waste reached 36.85% while protein fingerprint showed four bands ranging from 91.97 KD and 29.00 KD. The saponin content was evaluated through the determination of the haemolytic index and reached 15.56 mg/g dry powder. Finally, Folin Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of the total polyphenols. The same biochemical and histopathological studies were again performed on the different fractions of the aqueous extract; protein fraction (PF) 10 mg/kg, saponin fraction (SF) 5 mg/kg and polyphenol fraction (FF) 10 mg/kg. The biochemical changes were improved only by the protein fraction (PF) of the seed waste of Nigella sativa. This was manifested by a significant reduction in both serum and tissue cytokines in the liver markers and in the oxidative stress markers. Moreover, liver histopathology showed that (PF) reduced the incidence of liver lesions including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, lymphocytes infiltration, hepatic necrosis and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by CCl(4) in mice. From this study, it is concluded that the protein fraction of the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seed waste exhibited a promising hepatoprotective effect in the management of different liver disorders. PMID:21309000

Michel, Camilia G; El-Sayed, Nesrine S; Moustafa, Sherifa F; Ezzat, Shahira M; Nesseem, Demiana I; El-Alfy, Taha S

2011-04-01

406

Modulatory effects of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on cutaneous and hepatic biochemical status during promotion phase of DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The modulation in biochemical status of skin and hepatic tissue at the time point of commencement of promotion stage of skin carcinogenesis in mice and its intervention with aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) were investigated. 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA, 500 nmol/100 ul of acetone) was applied topically for 2 weeks (twice weekly), followed by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA, 1.7 nmol/100 ul) twice weekly for 6 weeks on the depilated skin of mice and AAILE was administered orally at a dose level of 300 mg/kg body wt thrice a week for 10 weeks. DMBA/TPA treatment upregulated the phase I enzymes in skin and hepatic tissue, as revealed by the increased cytochrome P450 (CYP) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) levels and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity when compared to the control group and differentially modulated the activities of phase II enzymes like glutathione-s-transferase (GST), DT-diaphorase (DTD) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT). AAILE treatment decreased the DMBA/TPA-induced increase in cutaneous CYP level and enhanced the DTD and UDP-GT activities when compared with DMBA/TPA group. In the hepatic tissue of AAILE + DMBA/TPA group, an increase in UDP-GT activity was observed when compared to DMBA/TPA group. DMBA/TPA treatment did not alter the skin lipid peroxidation (LPO) level when compared to control group, however, in the animals that received AAILE treatment along with DMBA/TPA, a significant increase in LPO was observed when compared to control group. This was associated with a decrease, in cutaneous reduced glutathione (GSH) level of AAILE + DMBA/TPA group. Enhanced LPO level was observed in the hepatic tissue of DMBA/TPA and AAILE + DMBA/TPA groups when compared to control group. However, no alteration was observed in their hepatic GSH levels. The micronuclei score in hepatic tissue did not exhibit significant inter-group differences. The results of the present study suggest that apart from skin, liver may be affected during DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis. AAILE treatment has the ability to modulate these changes potentially influencing the process of tumor formation. These findings seem to be important to carcinogenesis and its intervention with anti-cancer agents. PMID:23720884

Arora, N; Bansal, M P; Koul, A

2013-04-01

407

Antifertility effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in male rats.  

PubMed

The influence of the crude aqueous extract of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds has been studied on semen profile, fertility, body and organ weight response, and toxicology in male albino rats. The extract was administered at the dose regimens of 10 and 50 mg/animal/day orally for 30, 60, and 90 days and 0.1 and 1.0 mg/animal/day intramuscularly for 15 and 30 days. Cauda epididymal sperm motility and count was reduced significantly at low and high dose regimens both in the oral as well as the intramuscular groups. The reduced sperm motility was associated with morphological defects. Testicular sperm counts were also reduced in all the treatment groups except the low dose intramuscular group. Fertility tests showed dose- and duration-dependent reduction and zero fertility was observed at high dose regimens of the oral and intramuscular groups following 60 and 30 days of treatment, respectively. Testicular weight was reduced in all the treatment groups, whereas accessory sex organs showed a variable response. Body weight and toxicological observations did not show any untoward response. Fertility and all other associated changes returned to normal within 45 and 30 days of treatment cessation in the oral and intramuscular groups, respectively. The data revealed that reversible sterility could be induced in male rats by papaya seeds aqueous extract treatment without adverse effects on libido and toxicological profile. PMID:7997464

Lohiya, N K; Goyal, R B; Jayaprakash, D; Ansari, A S; Sharma, S

1994-10-01

408

Extracts of Phenolic Compounds from Seeds of Three Wild Grapevines--Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activities and the Content of Phenolic Compounds  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from three wild grapevine species: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH• anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds— while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent.

Weidner, Stanislaw; Powalka, Anna; Karamac, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

409

In vitro remineralization effects of grape seed extract on artificial root caries.  

PubMed

Grape seed extract (GSE) contains proanthocyanidins (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 h at 37 degrees C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester, polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE-treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy. PMID:18819742

Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D

2008-11-01

410

Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male rabbits.  

PubMed

The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I--control, Group II--administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg/animal/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III--administered the seed extract at 50 mg/animal/d for 150 d. Body weight and organ weight, semen analysis, sperm morphology by scanning electron microscopy, semen biochemistry, histology of the testis, haematology, serum clinical biochemistry, and the fertility status of the control and the treated animals were evaluated. Body weight and the weight of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate did not show appreciable changes. Sperm concentration showed a gradual decline, reached severe oligospermia (fewer than 20 million/mL) after 75 d treatment, and attained uniform azoospermia after 120 d treatment. Sperm motility and viability were severely affected after 45 d treatment and reached less than 1% after 75 d treatment. The morphology of the spermatozoa by scanning electron microscopy revealed membrane damage in the acrosome, bent midpiece, coiled tail, and detached head and tail. The levels of fructose, glycerylphosphorylcholine, acid phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the seminal plasma were unaltered. Histology of the testis revealed arrest of spermatogenesis beyond the level of spermatocytes. No toxicity was evident from the haematology and serum biochemistry parameters. The libido of the treated animals was unaffected and the fertility rate was zero. The effects were comparable in both the dose regimens (Groups II and III) and were restored to normal 45 d after withdrawal of the treatment. PMID:10080301

Lohiya, N K; Pathak, N; Mishra, P K; Manivannan, B

1999-01-01

411

Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

412

Antiradical Efficiency of Essential Oils From Plant Seeds Obtained by Supercritical CO2, Soxhlet Extraction and Hydrodistillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of supercritical CO2(SCCO2) extraction conditions (pressure and temperature) on the system performance as well as the antiradical efficiencies of the essential oils from Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds were investigated. Control study with the conventional Soxhlet extraction and hydrodistillation was also conducted to compare the performance of those processes. Antiradical

Mumin Enis Leblebici; Siti Machmudah; Mitsuru Sasaki; Motonobu Goto

2012-01-01

413

Toxic and antifeedant activities of Sterculia Foetida (L.) seed crude extract against Spodoptera litura (F.) and Achaea Janata (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic and antifeedant effects of the Wild Indian almond, Sterculia foetida L. seed crude extract on the two important lepidopteran pests- castor semilooper, Achaea janata L. (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) and the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) on castor ( Ricinus communis L.) plants were studied by leaf disc bioassay method. The acetone extract applied to the leaf disc showed

Pathipati Usha Rani; Pala Rajasekharreddy

2009-01-01

414

Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme by grape seed and skin proanthocyanidins extracted from Vitis vinífera L. cv. País  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of two extracts of grape skin and seeds from Vitis vinífera L. cv. País (Chilean black grapes), rich in proanthocyanidins (PAs), was evaluated on the inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), and the inhibition was related to the type and number of subunits of the polymeric PAs chain. Size exclusion chromatography was used to purify the extract

Gonzalo Eriz; Verónica Sanhueza; Marlene Roeckel; Katherina Fernández

2011-01-01

415

Antioxidant effects of solvent extracts from the dried jujube ( Zizyphus jujube ) sarcocarp, seed, and leaf via sonication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant effects of extracts from sarcocarp, seed, and leaf of dried jujube (Zizyphus jujube) were investigated. The highest amount of flavonoids and polyphenol was found in 80% methanol leaf extract at value of 43.04±0.34\\u000a and 324.75±6.01 mg\\/g, respectively. For 2,2?-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity\\u000a analysis at a concentration of 1,000 ?g\\/mL, 70% ethanol seed extract (94.76±0.23%), and 80% methanol

Ye-Jin Kim; Dae-Yeul Son

2011-01-01

416