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1

Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces

R Maiti; D Jana; U. K Das; D Ghosh

2004-01-01

2

Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal activity in seed extracts of Mangifera indica.  

PubMed

Mangifera indica is commonly grown in many parts of the world. Its seeds have been used for anti-diarrhoeal activity in Indian traditional medicine. This study evaluates the potential anti-diarrhoeal activity of methanolic (MMI) and aqueous (AMI) extracts of seeds of M. indica in experimental diarrhoea, induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice. Both MMI and AMI were given orally in the dose of 250 mg/kg, showed significant anti-diarrhoeal activity comparable with that of the standard drug loperamide. However, only MMI significantly reduced intestinal transit in charcoal meal test as compared with atropine sulphate (5 mg/kg; im). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of MMI and AMI showed variable results. While, AMI significantly inhibited growth of Streptococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris, both MMI and AMI did not show any significant effect on growth of E. coli and Klebsiella. The results illustrate that the extracts of M. indica have significant anti-diarrhoeal activity and part of the activity of MMI may be attributed to its effect on intestinal transit. PMID:12499070

Sairam, K; Hemalatha, S; Kumar, Ashok; Srinivasan, T; Ganesh, Jai; Shankar, M; Venkataraman, S

2003-01-01

3

Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).  

PubMed

A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h. PMID:22270115

González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

2012-03-01

4

Antibiotic Effect of Polyphenolic Compound Extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Seed Coat on Productive Performance of Broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of tamarind seed coat extract on the average daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate of broilers. Broilers were divided into 6 groups and received polyphenols from tamarind seed extract at 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg\\/kg in their diets for 21 days. The results

W. Aengwanich

2009-01-01

5

Characterization of Opuntia ficus indica seed oil from Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid fraction of Opuntia ficus indica seeds was extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage\\u000a (% FFA), iodine index, peroxide value, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. The yield of seed\\u000a oil was calculated as 11.75%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that

I. El Mannoubi; S. Barrek; T. Skanji; H. Casabianca; H. Zarrouk

2009-01-01

6

Supercritical SC-CO(2) and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis.  

PubMed

The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO(2) extract (T?=?40°C, P = 180 bar, time?=?135?mn, CO(2) flow rate?=?15?mL·s(-1)). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO(2):?57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO(2):?22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO(2):?14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO(2) profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C(20:1), C(20:2), and C(22).The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US?=?4.44-5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US?=?4.44 (T?=?40°C) and 4.13 (T?=?70°C). PMID:22754699

Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

2012-01-01

7

GERMINATION OF SEEDS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA ENHANCED BY ENDOCARP REMOVAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. were collected from trees in Haiti and the effect of pre-germination treatments were investigated in the laboratory at the Instituto Superior de Agricultura, Santiago, Dominican Republic. Soaking seeds in water for up to 3 days had no effect on germination. Removal of the endocarp improved germination significantly even when seeds were air-dried. Possible physiological

WILLIAM R. CHANEY; DOUGLAS M. KNUDSON

1988-01-01

8

Biosorption of aqueous chromium(VI) by Tamarindus indica seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of low cost agro-based materials namely, Tamarindus indica seed (TS), crushed coconut shell (CS), almond shell (AS), ground nut shell (GS) and walnut shell (WS) were evaluated for Cr(VI) removal. Batch test indicated that hexavalent chromium sorption capacity (qe) followed the sequence qe(TS)>qe(WS)>qe(AS)>qe(GS)>qe(CS). Due to high sorptive capacity, tamarind seed was selected for detailed sorption studies. Sorption kinetic

G. S. Agarwal; Hitendra Kumar Bhuptawat; Sanjeev Chaudhari

2006-01-01

9

Hair waving natural product: Dillenia indica seed sap.  

PubMed

Knowing keratin is the main component and mechanical strength of hair a study was performed to evaluate whether Dillenia indica seed sap can affect molecular strength of hair or not. In the present study the human hair collected from barber shop waste were subjected to purified sap for 12 h and then analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for documenting evidence for keratin degradation. Further the deterioration was confirmed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:23124020

Saikia, Jyoti Prasad

2013-02-01

10

d-Xylans from seed endosperm of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemicellulosic polysaccharides were isolated from depectinated cell walls material of seed endosperm of Opuntia ficus-indica fruit by alkaline extraction. Two xylans were isolated, fractionated and characterized. The structural investigations were achieved by sugar and methylation analysis, and were confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR. An unusual fucosylglucuronoxylan was characterized and consisted of a linear (1 ? 4)-?-d-xylopyranosyl backbone decorated with

Youssef Habibi; Mostafa Mahrouz; Michel R. Vignon

2005-01-01

11

Pollen-limited seed set in pods of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.)  

E-print Network

Introduction A negatively skewed distribution of seeds per pod, where the frequency of many- seeded pods (Lee and Bazaaz, 1982), However, disturban- ces of this negatively skewed distribution have been) of seeds per pod in T. indica: 1) resource limitation, 2) post-fertilization abortion of seeds, and 3

Boyer, Edmond

12

Biosorption of aqueous chromium(VI) by Tamarindus indica seeds.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of low cost agro-based materials namely, Tamarindus indica seed (TS), crushed coconut shell (CS), almond shell (AS), ground nut shell (GS) and walnut shell (WS) were evaluated for Cr(VI) removal. Batch test indicated that hexavalent chromium sorption capacity (q(e)) followed the sequence q(e)(TS) > q(e)(WS) > q(e)(AS) > q(e)(GS) > q(e)(CS). Due to high sorptive capacity, tamarind seed was selected for detailed sorption studies. Sorption kinetic data followed first order reversible kinetic fit model for all the sorbents. The equilibrium conditions were achieved within 150 min under the mixing conditions employed. Sorption equilibria exhibited better fit to Freundlich isotherms (R>0.92) than Langmuir isotherm (R approximately = 0.87). Hexavalent chromium sorption by TS decreased with increase in pH, and slightly reduced with increase in ionic strength. Cr(VI) removal by TS seems to be mainly by chemisorption. Desorption of Cr(VI) from Cr(VI) laden TS was quite less by distilled water and HCl. Whereas with NaOH, maximum desorption achieved was about 15.3%. When TS was used in downflow column mode, Cr(VI) removal was quite good but head loss increased as the run progressed and was stopped after 200 h. PMID:15964190

Agarwal, G S; Bhuptawat, Hitendra Kumar; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

2006-05-01

13

Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD?? values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD?? determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ? 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay. PMID:21881543

Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

2011-01-01

14

Morphological and structural study of seed pericarp of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological study of pericarp of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) seeds showed that the cells were mainly made up of spindle-shaped sclerenchyma fibers. The chemical composition of the pericarp revealed a significant amount of polysaccharides, with cellulose (35%) and xylan (27%). The structure of xylan and cellulose, both in isolated form and as a component of seed pericarp of OFI were

Youssef Habibi; Laurent Heux; Mostafa Mahrouz; Michel R. Vignon

2008-01-01

15

Molluscicidal effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts on edible tropical land snails.  

PubMed

The effects of 350, 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) of crude extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica A Juss, on edible tropical land snails Archachatina marginata and Limicolaria aurora (Jay) were determined and compared with control using pawpaw, Carica papaya L as bait. Responses were measured through normal feeding, cessation of food intake, cessation of crawling, mucus secretion, lack of response to mechanical stimuli (mortality) and decomposition. Results showed no effects on the controls or snails exposed to neem seed oil extract. Crude extracts of bark, root and leaf of neem at 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) produced mortality after exposure for 48 h for L aurora and 72 h for A marginata. PMID:14971686

Ebenso, Ime E

2004-02-01

16

Stimulation and Promotion of Germination in Opuntia ficus-indica Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opuntia ficus-indica seeds, as many other Opuntia species, show low germination capacity due mainly to their hard lignified integuments, the most inward of these is the funiculus that envelops the embryo, obstructing radicle protrusion. The purpose of this study was to accelerate the initiation of the germination process and to shorten their completion time by the action of physical and

Mariela Altare; Sinibaldo Trione; Juan C. Guevara; Mariano Cony

17

Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangifera indica Linn, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India, has been reported to possess antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the alcoholic extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica Linn (Extract I containing mangiferin 2.6%), has been investigated for its effect on cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system in

Neelam Makare; Subhash Bodhankar; Vinod Rangari

2001-01-01

18

Possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract: Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats has already been reported. In the present investigation effects of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on blood and liver glutathione, Na+K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats have been studied with a view to elucidate possible mechanism behind its hepatoprotective

R. R. Chattopadhyay

2003-01-01

19

Arabinan-rich polysaccharides isolated and characterized from the endosperm of the seed of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

After removal of starch, the reserve storage polysaccharide of the endosperm seed of Opuntia ficus-indica fruit was studied. Cell Wall Material (CWM) was extracted successively by boiling water (WSF), hot calcium chelating agent solution (CSF) and cold mild alkaline solution (CASF). All polysaccharides extracted were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography into five fractions. The resulting major fractions were purified by size-exclusion

Youssef Habibi; Mostafa Mahrouz; Michel R. Vignon

2005-01-01

20

Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

2011-01-01

21

Determination of Anthelmintic Activity of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Tamarindus Indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S. S.; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A. K.

2011-01-01

22

Habitat effects on yield, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents of prickly pear ( Opuntia ficus- indica L.) seed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, oil yields, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents of prickly pear seeds were determined. The oil contents of the seeds of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) varied from 5.0% (Ortaören) to 14.4% (Eskioba). Palmitic acid contents of seed oils ranged between 10.6% (Mut) and 12.8% (Kepez). While seed oils contained 13.0% (Hatay-2) to 23.5% (Kepez) oleic acid, its

Bertrand Matthäus; Mehmet Musa Özcan

2011-01-01

23

Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice.  

PubMed

Mangifera indica Linn, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India, has been reported to possess antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the alcoholic extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica Linn (Extract I containing mangiferin 2.6%), has been investigated for its effect on cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system in mice. Administration of test extract I produced increase in humoral antibody (HA) titre and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice. It is concluded that test extract I is a promising drug with immunostimulant properties. PMID:11694357

Makare, N; Bodhankar, S; Rangari, V

2001-12-01

24

Antioxidative Characteristics of Anisomeles indica Extract and Inhibitory Effect of Ovatodiolide on Melanogenesis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to investigate the antioxidant characteristics of Anisomeles indica methanol extract and the inhibitory effect of ovatodiolide on melanogenesis. In the study, the antioxidant capacities of A. indica methanol extract such as DPPH assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay, reducing capacity and metal ion chelating capacity as well as total phenolic content of the extract were investigated. In addition, the inhibitory effects of ovatodiolide on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results revealed that the antioxidant capacities of A. indica methanol extract increased in a dose-dependent pattern. The purified ovatodiolide inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.253 mM), the compound also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.469 mM) and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 0.435 mM) in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Our results concluded that A. indica methanol extract displays antioxidant capacities and ovatodiolide purified from the extract inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. Hence, A. indica methanol extract and ovatodiolide could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products. PMID:22754360

Huang, Huey-Chun; Lien, Hsiu-Man; Ke, Hui-Ju; Chang, Li-Ling; Chen, Chia-Chang; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-01-01

25

Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 1. Influence of a seed oil supplemented diet on rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) is native to Tunisia and the fruit is consumed exclusively as fresh fruit. The seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids but the nutritive value of the oil is unknown. The objective of our research was to determine the fatty acid content of cactus pear seed oil and to evaluate the effect of an

Monia Ennouri; Hamadi Fetoui; Evelyne Bourret; Najiba Zeghal; Hamadi Attia

2006-01-01

26

A novel 'green' synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Dillenia indica fruit extract.  

PubMed

In the present research we have defined a novel green method of silver nanoparticles synthesis using Dillenia indica fruit extract. D. indica is an edible fruit widely distributed in the foothills of Himalayas and known for its antioxidant and further predicted for cancer preventive potency. The maximum absorbance of the colloidal silver nanoparticle solution was observed at 421 nm when examined with UV-vis spectrophotometer. PMID:23010109

Singh, Susmita; Saikia, Jyoti P; Buragohain, Alak K

2013-02-01

27

Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of chitinase from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds  

PubMed Central

A protein with chitinase activity has been isolated and purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis of this protein confirmed it to be an ?34?kDa endochitinase which belongs to the acidic class III chitinase family. The protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P41, with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.6?Å. PMID:19342775

Patil, Dipak N.; Datta, Manali; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar Sharma, Ashwani; Kumar, Pravindra

2009-01-01

28

Modulation of rat macrophage function by the Mangifera indica L. extracts Vimang and mangiferin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangiferia indica L., traditionally used in Cuba as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Vimang and of mangiferin (a C-glucosylxanthone present in the extract) on rat macrophage functions including phagocytic activity and the respiratory burst. Both Vimang and mangiferin showed inhibitory effects on macrophage activity: (a)

D. Garc??a; R. Delgado; F. M. Ubeira; J. Leiro

2002-01-01

29

Effect of meliaceous seed extracts on growth and survival of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds from 10 plant species (including neem—Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) of the family Meliaceae were incorporated into artificial diet at various doses and fed to fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] larvae in nochoice tests. All produced significant mortality, reduced larval growth rate, increased time to pupation, or all three, at some

K. L. Mikolajczak; B. W. Zilkowski; R. J. Bartelt

1989-01-01

30

Supercritical fluid extraction of celery seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of oil from milled celery seeds, using CO2 as a solvent, is presented in this study. The effect of the process parameters — pressure and temperature of extraction, particle size of celery seeds and flow rate of CO2 — on the extraction rate was examined in a series of experiments. The results indicated a significant increase

I. Papamichail; V. Louli; K. Magoulas

2000-01-01

31

The Effects of Kinetin and Gibberellin on the Germination of Dehusked Seeds of Indica and Japonica Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of kinetin and gibberellin were examined under anaerobic conditions (0% oxygen) and aerobic conditions (20% oxygen) on the germination of dehusked seeds of indica and japonica rice cultivars that had been harvested at different times during the formation of seeds. Surjamkhi was used as a representative of deep dormant indica cultivars and Assam IV as a less dormant

KAZUMITSU MIYOSHI; TADASHI SATO

1997-01-01

32

Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 2. Influence of seed supplemented diet on rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research was undertaken to evaluate some biological parameters in rats fed with a supplemented diet with Opuntia ficus indica powder seeds. Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noticed between the different diets.

Monia Ennouri; Hamadi Fetoui; Evelyne Bourret; Najiba Zeghal; Fadhel Guermazi; Hamadi Attia

2006-01-01

33

Antioxidant, Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Schott.)  

PubMed Central

Extracts obtained from the leaves of various Alocasia species have been used in India as folk remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments including rheumatism and bruise. The ethanolic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica Schott. was evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical. The antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response, hot plate method, and tail flick method in albino rats. The anti-inflammatory potential of gels of ethanolic extract has been determined by using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, formalin-induced paw edema assay, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema assay, and xylene-induced ear edema assay. The extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity in all models, comparable to the standard reference drug ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extract of Alocasia indica and its gels produced dose-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. This finding suggests that ethanolic extract of A. indica possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity possibly due to its free radical scavenging properties. PMID:21264115

Mulla, WA; Kuchekar, SB; Thorat, VS; Chopade, AR; Kuchekar, BS

2010-01-01

34

Aqueous Extract of Garcinia Indica Choisy Restores Glutathione in Type 2 Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Significant depletion of glutathione (GSH-reduced form) was observed in type 2 diabetes due to oxidative stress. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate a drug which restores GSH along with its anti-diabetic activity. Aqueous extract of Garcinia indica at a dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg was given orally to streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats for a period of 4 weeks. At the end, parameters such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and GSH in blood were analyzed. Aqueous extract of G. indica significantly decreased both the fasting and postprandial blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. The extract also restored the erythrocyte GSH in type 2 diabetic rats. Drug at higher dose, i.e. 200 mg/kg, had a more pronounced effect. Restoring the erythrocyte GSH, an intracellular anti-oxidant in diabetes, will be beneficial specially by preventing the risk of developing complications. PMID:21042483

Kirana, H; Srinivasan, BP

2010-01-01

35

In vivo efficacy of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica) fruit extract on experimental fluoride exposure in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of hydro-methanolic (1:1) extract of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) fruit pulp in removing body fluoride burden. Thirty rats were divided into five groups. Keeping no fluoride group as the control, rats of no treatment, low dose, middle dose and high dose groups received sodium fluoride orally at the rate of 200mg per

S. Dey; D. Swarup; Anju Saxena; Ananya Dan

2011-01-01

36

Response of laying hens and growing broilers to the dietary inclusion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed kernel meal.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out to assess the nutritive value and utilization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed kernel (MSK) in the diets of layer and broiler chickens. The physical component of mango seeds was found to consist of 678 g/kg kernel, 292 g/kg shell and 30 g/kg testa. Meal from the seed kernel contained 61.6 g crude protein, 136.2 g ether extract, 22.3 g ash, 46.4 g crude fibre, 673.5 g nitrogen-free extract and appreciable mineral content. In the layers trial, MSK replaced maize weight for weight at 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 g/kg. Results indicated a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in feed intake, rate of lay, egg mass and feed efficiency with increase in MSK. Layers on 150, 200 and 250 g/kg MSK exhibited the highest body weight losses. Except for lower shell thickness (p < 0.05) in hens fed MSK at 200 and 250 g/kg, the internal egg quality characteristics were comparable. In the broiler experiment, MSK was incorporated at levels of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg at the expense of maize but with slight adjustments to the soybean meal so as to achieve isonitrogenous diets. Body weight and body weight gains increased significantly (p <0.05) up to 100 g/kg and then decreased. MSK at 150 or 200 g/kg had no significant effects (p >0.05) on feed intake and feed efficiency when compared with control diet. Organ weights with the exception of liver and lung were unaffected by dietary MSK. Haematological indices were not influenced (p > 0.05) by dietary MSK except haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin, which were higher (p<0.05) in broilers fed 100 g/kg MSK. Neutrophils, lymphocytes and albumin/ globulin ratio were similar on all diets. The results indicated that at higher weight for weight levels, MSK cannot readily substitute maize in layer diets, whereas a marginal improvement was recorded in the broiler diet, albeit with nutrient supplementation. PMID:15742869

Odunsi, A A

2005-02-01

37

Effect of lectins from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes and Moringa oleifera seeds on survival of Nasutitermes corniger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation by termites is a serious problem for wood and crop industries worldwide, and new environmentally friendly alternatives for termite control have been developed. This work investigated the effects of crude and purified preparations containing lectins from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes (OfiL) and Moringa oleifera seeds (WSMoL and cMoL) on Nasutitermes corniger workers and soldiers. Purified OfiL was more active

Patrícia M. G. Paiva; Giselly M. S. Santana; Igor F. A. C. Souza; Lidiane P. Albuquerque; Afonso C. Agra-Neto; Auristela C. Albuquerque; Luciana A. Luz; Thiago H. Napoleão; Luana C. B. B. Coelho

2011-01-01

38

Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary. PMID:23569852

Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

2012-01-01

39

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

40

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.  

PubMed

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

41

Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamarindus indica\\u000a L. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant\\u000a activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in\\u000a human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts.

Nurhanani Razali; Azlina A. Aziz; Sarni M. Junit

2010-01-01

42

Enhanced Nematicidal Activity of Organic and Inorganic Ammonia-Releasing Amendments by Azadirachta indica Extracts  

PubMed Central

The nematicidal activities of ammonium sulfate, chicken litter and chitin, alone or in combination with neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts were tested against Meloidogyne javanica. Soil application of these amendments or the neem extracts alone did not reduce the root galling index of tomato plants or did so only slightly, but application of the amendments in combination with the neem extracts reduced root galling significantly. Soil analysis indicated that the neem extract inhibited the nitrification of the ammonium released from the amendments and extended the persistence of the ammonium concentrations in the soil. In microplot experiments, tomato plants were grown in pots filled with soils from the treated microplots. The galling indices of tomato plants grown in soil treated with ammonium sulfate or chicken litter in combination with the neem extract or a chemical nitrification inhibitor were far lower than those of plants grown in the control soil or in soil treated with chicken litter, neem extract or nitrification inhibitor alone. However, plants grown in the microplots showed only slight reductions in galling, probably because the soil amendments were inadequately mixed compared to their application in the pot experiments. The extended exposure of nematodes to ammonia as a result of nitrification inhibition by the neem extracts appeared to be the cause of the enhanced nematicidal activity of the ammonia-releasing amendments. PMID:19259469

Oka, Yuji; Tkachi, Nadia; Shuker, Shimshon; Yerumiyahu, Uri

2007-01-01

43

Corrosion inhibition and adsorption properties of Azadirachta indica mature leaves extract as green inhibitor for mild steel in HNO3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion inhibition and adsorption properties of Neem (Azadirachta indica – AZI) mature leaves extract as a green inhibitor of mild steel (MS) corrosion in nitric acid (HNO3) solutions have been studied using a gravimetric technique for experiments conducted at 30 and 60°C. The results disclose that the different concentrations of the AZI extract inhibit MS corrosion and that inhibition

Sanjay K. Sharma; Ackmez Mudhoo; Gargi Jain; Jyoti Sharma

2010-01-01

44

Seed Characterization and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Morphology of the Testa of Three Groups of Argentine Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external morphology of the seeds and the SEM structure of the epicuticular waxes of seeds of three groups of O. ficus-indica naturalized to Argentina, i.e., a spiny red-fruited variety, a spiny orange fruited variety and a spineless yellow-fruited variety, were studied. The seeds of the three groups are not differentiated easily with the naked eye. However, hairs can be

C. Degano; M. E. Alonso; J. Ochoa; A. Catan

45

In Vivo Biochemical and Gene Expression Analyses of the Antioxidant Activities and Hypocholesterolaemic Properties of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract  

PubMed Central

Background Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9±10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9±2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. Conclusion/Significance It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:23894592

Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

2013-01-01

46

Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 ?g/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC50 value of rutin was found to be 161.7 ?g/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC50 values of 38.1 and 5.84 ?g/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH- radical generated from Fe2+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 ?g equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220

Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A.

2012-01-01

47

Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.  

PubMed

The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction. PMID:24103364

Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

2014-03-01

48

Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Samadera indica for skin diseases  

PubMed Central

Samadera indica Gaetrn (Simaroubaceae) is claimed to possess various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, antiviral, and so on, but its taste is bitter. The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity of the methanolic extract and to develop suitable herbal formulations of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica, having efficient antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract prepared from the dried leaves of Samadera indica by continuous hot percolation, were used to examine the toxicity, according to the OECD 423 guidelines, in Swiss Albino mice. Topical formulations were prepared by incorporating Samadera indica (5% w / w) in an emulsifying ointment and a carbopol gel base and evaluated for physical parameters and in-vitro antimicrobial activity (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans). The study reveals that no animals under the study showed any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality when administered a dose of 5 – 2000 mg / kg body weight. Therefore, the maximum tolerated dose of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica was above 2000 mg / kg body weight. The formulated ointment and gel had acceptable physical parameters that showed that they were compatible with the skin, and in addition to this, these formulations passed the short-term stability studies. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity studies showed that the formulated ointment showed significantly strong (p < 0.05) activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans than the formulated gel. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated ointment and gel are safe and efficient antimicrobial formulations for the topical delivery of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica. PMID:22837958

Viswanad, Vidya; Aleykutty, N. A.; Jayakar, B.; Zacharia, Subin Mary; Thomas, Litha

2012-01-01

49

Hepatoprotective potential of Fumaria indica Pugsley whole plant extracts, fractions and an isolated alkaloid protopine.  

PubMed

The present investigation demonstrates the hepatoprotective potential of 50% ethanolic water extract of whole plant of Fumaria indica and its three fractions viz., hexane, chloroform and butanol against d-galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP) and metabolites bilirubin, reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (MDA content). Among fractions more than 90% protection was found with butanol fraction in which alkaloid protopine was quantified as highest i.e. about 0.2mg/g by HPTLC. The isolated protopine in doses of 10-20mg p.o. also proved equally effective hepatoprotectants as standard drug silymarine (single dose 25mg p.o.). In general all treatments excluding hexane fraction proved hepatoprotective at par with silymarine (p

Rathi, Anshu; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Shirwaikar, Annie; Singh Rawat, Ajay Kumar; Mehrotra, Shanta

2008-06-01

50

Anti-venom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica L. against Daboia russellii (Russell's viper) venom.  

PubMed

Several plant extracts rich in pharmacologically active compounds have shown to antagonize venom of several species. Mangifera indica has been used against snakebite by the traditional healers. However, there is paucity of scientific data in support. In this study, we evaluated the antivenom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of M. indica against D. russellii venom-induced pharmacological effects such as life myotoxicity, edema, LD50 etc. The extract inhibited the phospholipase, protease, hyaluronidase, 5'nucleotidase, ATPase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities with varying IC50 values. It significantly inhibited both metalloproteases and serine proteases activities. Further, the extract significantly reduced the myotoxicity of the venom, as evident by the reduction of serum creatin kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Though the extract completely inhibited in vitro PLA2 activity, it was unable to completely inhibit in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema-inducing activities, usually brought about by PLA2s. In lethality studies, co-injection of the venom preincubated with the extract showed higher protection than the independent injection of venom, followed by the extract in the mice. However, in both the cases the extract -a cocktail of inhibitors significantly increased the survival time, when compared to that of mice injected (i.p) with the venom alone. These results encourage further studies on the potential use of cocktail of inhibitors in improving the treatment of snake envenomation. Further, this study substantiates the use of M. indica as an antidote against snakebite by the traditional healers. PMID:21793309

Dhananjaya, B L; Zameer, F; Girish, K S; D'Souza, Cletus J M

2011-06-01

51

Near-critical extraction of sage, celery, and coriander seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-critical extraction of coriander seed, Dalmatian sage, and celery was performed on a pilot-scale extraction apparatus. Sage and celery were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide to obtain oleoresins. Coriander seed was extracted at 250 bar and 40°C. Coriander extract was fractionated into triglycerides and essential oils by using two separation stages at different pressures. Extractions were carried out using a

Bruce M. Smallfield; J GREY

1996-01-01

52

Antihyperglycaemic activity of the stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. In 2002, WHO Expert Committee on diabetes mellitus recommended an urgent and further evaluation of the folkloric methods of managing the disease. In response to this recommendation, several medicinal plants are currently being investigated for their hypoglycaemic activity and one of such plants is Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica is a slow growing tree that is resistant to strong winds and perennial. The stem-bark extract of the plant is used locally for the management of diabetes. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg(-1) IP). The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg kg(-1). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract lowered the blood glucose level significantly (p < 0.05) at the 4th, 8th and 16th h. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the BGL significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study. In the oral glucose load method the 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract significantly (p < 0.05) lowered elevated blood glucose at the 3rd and 5th. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the blood glucose from the 1st to the 5th, while the 250 mg kg(-1) also lowered the blood glucose level but only significantly at the 5th h. The extract is practically non toxic when administered orally. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica Linn significantly lowered elevated Blood Glucose concentration (BGL) in the experimental animal models, while the crude extract was able to prevent an elevation in BGL when used in the oral glucose load model. PMID:24897797

Yerima, M; Anuka, J A; Salawu, O A; Abdu-Aguye, I

2014-02-01

53

Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds  

PubMed Central

A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS–PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21?kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1?Å. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7?Å. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%. PMID:19574654

Patil, Dipak N.; Preeti; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K.; Tomar, -Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

2009-01-01

54

Anti-leukemic activity of Dillenia indica L. fruit extract and quantification of betulinic acid by HPLC.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of Dillenia indica L. fruits showed significant anti-leukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines U937, HL60 and K562. This finding led to fractionation of the methanolic extract, on the basis of polarity, in which the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-leukemic activity. A major compound, betulinic acid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography and was identified and characterized. Betulinic acid could explain the anti-leukemic activity of the methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction. Hence the quantitative estimation of betulinic acid was approached in methanolic extract and fractions using HPLC. PMID:19679456

Kumar, Deepak; Mallick, Sumana; Vedasiromoni, Joseph R; Pal, Bikas C

2010-05-01

55

Antihyperalgesic Effects of an Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Mangifera indica L.: Role of Mangiferin Isolated from the Extract.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the effects of a Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) and mangiferin (MG) on pain-related acute behaviors in the formalin 5% test. Rats received repeated oral MSBE (125-500?mg/kg) once daily for 7?days before formalin injection. Other four groups with the same treatments were performed in order to study the effect of MSBE on the formalin-induced long-term secondary mechano-hyperalgesia at 7?days after the injury by means of the pin-prick method. Additional groups received a single oral MSBE dose (250?mg/kg) plus ascorbic acid (1?mg/kg, i.p.). Also, repeated oral MG doses (12.5-50?mg/kg) during 7?days were administered. MSBE decreased licking/biting and flinching behaviors only in phase II and reduced the long-term formalin injury-induced secondary chronic mechano-hyperalgesia. The combination of MSBE plus ascorbic acid produced a reinforcement of this effect for flinching behavior, advising that antioxidant mechanisms are involved, at least in part, in these actions. Chronic administration of MG reproduced the effects of MSBE. For the first time, the antihyperalgesic effects of MSBE and MG in formalin 5% test, a recommended concentration for studying the antinociceptive activity of nitric oxide-related and N-methyl-d-aspartate-related compounds, were reported. These results could represent an important contribution to explain the analgesic ethnobotanical effects recognized to M.?indica and other species containing MG. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24849742

Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B; Garrido, Gabino; García, Mary Elena; Delgado-Hernández, René

2014-11-01

56

Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.  

PubMed

Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

2010-02-01

57

Vimang ( Mangifera indica L. extract) induces permeability transition in isolated mitochondria, closely reproducing the effect of mangiferin, Vimang's main component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a Ca2+-dependent, cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive, non-selective inner membrane permeabilization process. It is often associated with apoptotic cell death, and is induced by a wide range of agents or conditions, usually involving reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we demonstrated that Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang), in the presence of 20?M Ca2+, induces MPT in

Gilberto L. Pardo-Andreu; Daniel Junqueira Dorta; René Delgado; Renata A. Cavalheiro; Antonio C. Santos; Anibal E. Vercesi; Carlos Curti

2006-01-01

58

The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in advanced diabetic foot: an unexpected outcome.  

PubMed

This is the first case reporting the results of using an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and neem oil (Azadirachta indica) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers. The effective use of this cheap treatment in patients with diabetic lesions on the feet, if confirmed in a wide controlled study, might allow the caregivers to take care of patients at home. PMID:23413284

Iabichella, Maria Letizia

2013-01-01

59

Antifungal activity in seed coat extracts of woodland plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts from seeds of four woodland ground flora species (Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Allium ursinum, Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum) were tested for antifungal activity using a petriplate technique. Four species of fungi were investigated. The growth of three of these (Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) was not affected by any of the seed coat extracts. The growth of

Susan J. Warr; Ken Thompson; Martin Kent

1992-01-01

60

The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial efficiency of Moringa oleifera seeds extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of different Moringa oleifera seeds extracts were tested against Scenedesmus obliquus (green algae), Escherichia coli ATCC 13706, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC10145, Staphylococcus aureus NAMRU 3 25923, Bacillus sterothermophilus (bacterial strains) and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) and Polio virus type 1 (sabin vaccine). Fixed oil extracted from the seeds was found to activate the

GAMILA H. ALI; M. A. ALI

2004-01-01

61

A high-throughput DNA extraction method for barley seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-destructive, quick DNA extraction method for barley seed is described. The method is simple and consists of drilling\\u000a out a sample from the seed, adding sodium hydroxide, heating in a microwave oven and neutralizing with Tris-HCl. The seed\\u000a DNA extract can be used directly for PCR with extra cycles added to the PCR programme compared to PCR programmes used

Rebecka von Post; Lars von Post; Christophe Dayteg; Marie Nilsson; Brian P. Forster; Stine Tuvesson

2003-01-01

62

Influence of fruit ripeness at the time of seed extraction on pepper ( Capsicum annuum) seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fruit ripeness (half ripe, fully ripe, overripe) at the time of seed extraction on seed germination behaviour, at 25 °C and 13 °C, was studied in two Spanish pepper cultivars for canning. Seeds from half ripe fruits had a poorer behaviour than those taken from fully ripe fruits, especially at 13 °C. Room ripening and overripening of

Jose Cavero; Ramiro Gil Ortega; Carlos Zaragoza

1995-01-01

63

Chemical Composition and Functional Properties of Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica) Seeds Flour and Protein Concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximate composition and functional properties of prickly pear seed flour (PPS); protein concentrate and the effect of pH on these properties were investigated. The protein content, crude fat and crude fiberof PPS flour and protein concentrate averaged 13.62 and 62.41, 10.43 and 3.57 and 9.23 and 5.31%, respectively. The minimum protein solubility was observed at pH 4.5, as 16. and

A. G. Nassar

64

Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct-seeded indica rice.  

PubMed

Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Assam rice (indica) using 98 SSR markers for dormancy-related traits and cooking quality. Analysis of population structure revealed 10 subgroups in the population. The mean r(2) and D' value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.24 and 0.51, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations (P < 0.01), with the R(2) values ranging from 12.0 to 18.0%. The significant marker associations were for grain dormancy (RM27 on chromosome 2), ?-amylase activity (RM27 and RM234 on chromosomes 2 and 7, respectively), germination (RM27 and RM106 on chromosome 2), amylose (RM282 on chromosome 3) and grain length elongation ratio (RM142 on chromosome 4). The present study revealed the association of marker RM27 with traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity and germination. Simple correlation analysis of these traits revealed that these traits were positively correlated with each other and this marker may be useful for simultaneous improvement of these traits. The study indicates the presence of novel QTLs for a few traits under consideration. The study reveals association of traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity, germination, amylose content, grain length elongation ratio with SSR markers indicating the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization. PMID:24840818

Rathi, Sunayana; Pathak, K; Yadav, R N S; Kumar, B; Sarma, R N

2014-04-01

65

Antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of pumpkin seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pumpkin seeds have been implicated in providing health benefits. However their antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activity of their extracts has never been studied. Therefore, four commercially available pumpkin seeds were treated with two different extraction methodologies in order to obtain fractions with different content. The extracts were screened for their antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and for

Marianna N. Xanthopoulou; Tzortzis Nomikos; Elizabeth Fragopoulou; Smaragdi Antonopoulou

2009-01-01

66

[Extraction of rape seed proanthocyanidin with ultrasonic wave].  

PubMed

Rape seed proanthocyanidin was extracted by ultrasonic technology, and the conditions of extraction were studied. The results showed that the order of the factors which influenced the extraction effects were as follows: ethanol concentration, extracting temperature, ultrasonic extracting time and the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extraction agent (w/v). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature: 60 degrees C, extracting agent: 60% ethanol aqueous, the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extracting agent: 1 : 20 (w/v), extracting number: 3 times, extracting time: 20 min, respectively. The yield of proanthocyanidins extracted by ultrasonic technology was 84.5% higher than traditional method. Rape Seed was rich in proanthocyanidin. PMID:20518317

Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jian-Ming; Xia, Chun-Tang; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Zheng-Rong

2010-01-01

67

Biosorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isosteric heat of sorption of Cu(II) onto Tamarindus indica seed powder.  

PubMed

Biosorption of Cu(II) by Tamarindus indica seed powder (TSP) was investigated as a function of temperature in a batch system. The Cu(II) biosorption potential of TSP increased with increasing temperature. The rate of the biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics while the sorption equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum monolayer Cu(II) biosorption capacity increased from 82.97 mg g(-1) at 303 K to 133.24 mg g(-1) at 333 K. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. Isosteric heat of sorption, determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation increased with increase in surface loading showing its strong dependence on surface coverage. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area and porosity analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of FTIR analysis of unloaded and Cu(II)-loaded TSP revealed that -NH(2), -OH, -C=O and C-O functional groups on the biosorbent surface were involved in the biosorption process. The present study suggests that TSP can be used as a potential, alternative, low-cost biosorbent for removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous media. PMID:21872453

Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

2011-12-01

68

Crude aqueous extracts of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. inhibit proliferation and migration of cancer cells through induction of p53-dependent cell death  

PubMed Central

Background Pluchea indica (L.) Less. (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub plant with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant medicinal properties. However, the anti-cancer properties of its aqueous extracts have not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and pro-apoptotic properties of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root on human malignant glioma cancer cells and human cervical cancer cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods GBM8401 human glioma cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root and cancer cell proliferation and viability were measured by cell growth curves, trypan blue exclusions, and the tetrazolium reduction assay. Effects of the crude aqueous extracts on focus formation, migration, and apoptosis of cancer cells were studied as well. The molecular mechanism that contributed to the anti-cancer activities of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root was also examined using Western blotting analysis. Results Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root suppressed proliferation, viability, and migration of GBM8401 and HeLa cells. Treatment with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root for 48 hours resulted in a significant 75% and 70% inhibition on proliferation and viability of GBM8401 and HeLa cancer cells, respectively. Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root inhibited focus formation and promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. It was found that phosphorylated-p53 and p21 were induced in GBM8401 and HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Expression of phosphorylated-AKT was decreased in HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Conclusion The in vitro anti-cancer effects of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root indicate that it has sufficient potential to warrant further examination and development as a new anti-cancer agent. PMID:23268709

2012-01-01

69

Mangifera indica fruit extract improves memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg · kg(-1) BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg · kg(-1) BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism. PMID:24672632

Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

2014-01-01

70

Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200?g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200?mg·kg?1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200?mg·kg?1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism. PMID:24672632

Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

2014-01-01

71

Protective effect of cactus ( Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily,

Najla Hfaiedh; Mohamed Salah Allagui; Mbarka Hfaiedh; Abdelfattah El Feki; Lazhar Zourgui; Françoise Croute

2008-01-01

72

Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp  

PubMed Central

Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT–PCR and real-time RT–PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp. PMID:21189869

Razali, Nurhanani; Aziz, Azlina A.

2010-01-01

73

Antitumor potential of Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A. DC. leaf extract against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell.  

PubMed

Methanol extract of C. indica (MECI) leaves showed direct cytotoxicity on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell in a dose dependant manner and there was significant decrease in the tumor volume, viable cell count, tumor weight and elevated the life span of EAC tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile and biochemical estimations were significantly restored to normal levels in MECI treated as compared to EAC control mice. MECI treatment significantly modulated the tissue antioxidant assay parameters as compared to the EAC control mice. The results revealed that MECI possesses significant dose dependent antitumor potential which may be due to its cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. PMID:22803326

Dolai, Narayan; Karmakar, Indrajit; Kumar, R B Suresh; Bala, Asis; Mazumder, U K; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

2012-05-01

74

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

75

Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (H?bner)  

PubMed Central

An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8?kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5?µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75?µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1 × 10?10?M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%?w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5%?w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0%?w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K.

2014-01-01

76

Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8?kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner).  

PubMed

An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8?kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5?µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75?µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a K i value of 4.1 × 10(-10)?M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%?w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5%?w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0%?w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K

2014-01-01

77

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus

D. W. Schafner; R. L. Beuchat

1986-01-01

78

Protective effect of the methanolic extract from Duchesnea indica against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Duchesnea indica (Rosaceae family) is herb used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study we investigated its protective activity against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced cytotoxicity in human skin fibroblast (CCD-986Sk) cells and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced H(2)O(2) in the skin of hairless mice. Pretreatment of CCD-986Sk cells with methanolic extract of D. indica (DIM) improved the cell viability, enhanced activity of catalase, and decreased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H(2)O(2) injured cells. Furthermore, DIM inhibited cell apoptosis and Bax expression induced by H(2)O(2). In addition, the level of H(2)O(2) stimulated by TPA was decreased by DIM in the skin of hairless mice. These results suggest that DIM offers protection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo, and this ability suggests potential use for protection against oxidation-induced skin damage. PMID:21787668

Hu, Weicheng; Han, Woong; Huang, Chaoqing; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

2011-01-01

79

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 44% ethanol, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 38:1, and extraction for 19.2 min at 60 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 58.46 ± 1.27 mg/g. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of mango leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of mangiferin from plant materials. PMID:24473205

Zou, Tang-Bin; Xia, En-Qin; He, Tai-Ping; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen

2014-01-01

80

Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

Mangiferin is the main bioactive component in mango leaves, which possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antitumor activities. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 45% ethanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 30:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 123 s under microwave irradiation of 474 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 36.10 ± 0.72 mg/g, significantly higher than that of conventional extraction. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials. PMID:23929791

Zou, Tangbin; Wu, Hongfu; Li, Huawen; Jia, Qing; Song, Gang

2013-10-01

81

Saraca indica bark extract mediated green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bark extract of the traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant Saraca indica containing redox active polyphenolic compounds has been utilized for the one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The polyphenolic compounds acted as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent without any additional capping agent. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles of 15-23 nm size was complete in several minutes and no photo irradiation or heat treatment was necessary. Surface plasmon resonance, HRTEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR studies have been carried out to characterize the nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles synthesized were of triangular, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal, and spherical shapes. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature and the kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Majumdar, Rakhi; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Bag, Braja Gopal; Patra, Biplab Kumar

2013-04-01

82

The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in a neuropathic patient with advanced diabetic foot.  

PubMed

The successful use of an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and nimh oil (Azadirachta indica; Hyperoil) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers, has been reported previously. It was hypothesised that this amelioration was linked with the improved glycaemic control and peripheral microvascular circulation. In this case report, the surprisingly successful outcome of another patient using Hyperoil for infection damaged diabetic foot, without prior use of surgical procedure, is described. The patient had no macrovascular pattern impairment. Diabetic foot healing paralleled with controlled local infection and enhanced glycaemic control. The outcome of this patient suggests that the effectiveness of this inexpensive therapy using Hyperoil for diabetic foot is not only linked with the presence of severe microvascular disorder, but also with the appropriate local treatment for ulcer being a must for its recovery. PMID:25378221

Iabichella, Maria Letizia; Caruso, Claudio; Lugli, Marzia

2014-01-01

83

Saraca indica bark extract mediated green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bark extract of the traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant Saraca indica containing redox active polyphenolic compounds has been utilized for the one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The polyphenolic compounds acted as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent without any additional capping agent. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles of 15-23 nm size was complete in several minutes and no photo irradiation or heat treatment was necessary. Surface plasmon resonance, HRTEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR studies have been carried out to characterize the nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles synthesized were of triangular, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal, and spherical shapes. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature and the kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Majumdar, Rakhi; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Bag, Braja Gopal; Patra, Biplab Kumar

2014-04-01

84

Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous extraction process: Feasibility  

E-print Network

Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous the feasibility of an aqueous process to extract sunflower seed oil using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Aqueous extraction was carried out using whole seeds and the influence of the operating conditions on oil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Clinical studies on the effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract on gastric secretion and gastroduodenal ulcer.  

PubMed

We have shown earlier that Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark aqueous extract has potent antisecretory and antiulcer effects in animal models and has no significant adverse effect (Bandyopadhyay et al., Life Sciences, 71, 2845-2865, 2002). The objective of the present study was to investigate whether Neem bark extract had similar antisecretory and antiulcer effects in human subjects. For this purpose, a group of patients suffering from acid-related problems and gastroduodenal ulcers were orally treated with the aqueous extract of Neem bark. The lyophilised powder of the extract when administered for 10 days at the dose of 30 mg twice daily caused a significant (p < 0.002) decrease (77%) in gastric acid secretion. The volume of gastric secretion and its pepsin activity were also inhibited by 63% and 50%, respectively. Some important blood parameters for organ toxicity such as sugar, urea, creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, albumin, globulin, hemoglobin levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate remained close to the control values. The bark extract when taken at the dose of 30-60 mg twice daily for 10 weeks almost completely healed the duodenal ulcers monitored by barium meal X-ray or by endoscopy. One case of esophageal ulcer (gastroesophageal reflux disease) and one case of gastric ulcer also healed completely when treated at the dose of 30 mg twice daily for 6 weeks. The levels of various blood parameters for organ toxicity after Neem treatment at the doses mentioned above remained more or less close to the normal values suggesting no significant adverse effects. Neem bark extract thus has therapeutic potential for controlling gastric hypersecretion and gastroesophageal and gastroduodenal ulcers. PMID:15454339

Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Biswas, Kaushik; Sengupta, Arnab; Moitra, Puspa; Dutta, Prodip; Sarkar, Dipankar; Debnath, Pratip; Ganguly, Chayan K; Banerjee, Ranajit K

2004-10-29

86

Effects of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L, and its active compound, mangiferin, on energy state and lipid peroxidation of red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following oxidative stress, modifications of several biologically important macromolecules have been demonstrated. In this study we investigated the effect of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L (Vimang), its main ingredient mangiferin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on energy metabolism, energy state and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in a red blood cell system. Analysis of MDA, high energy phosphates and ascorbate was

Janet Rodríguez; Donato Di Pierro; Magda Gioia; Susanna Monaco; René Delgado; Massimiliano Coletta; Stefano Marini

2006-01-01

87

Antioxidative effect of cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) extract on lipid peroxidation inhibition in oils and emulsion model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects of cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts (CPFE) on fish oil, fish oil-in-water emulsion and linoleic acid were studied using conjugated diene hydroperoxides (CDH), weight gaining, peroxide value (PV), and thiobabituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. A modified DPPH assay was used in the characterization of CPFE antioxidants for their thermal stability. CPFE successfully

Nalin Siriwardhana; You-Jin Jeon

2004-01-01

88

Safety evaluation of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins, extracted from grape seeds, are widely used mainly as nutritional supplements. However, there has not been a systematic report to investigate toxicological studies on proanthocyanidins, especially in oral administration. In our studies, proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to document its safety for use in various foods. The grape seed extract (GSE) was examined for acute and subchronic oral toxicity using Fischer 344 rats and for mutagenic potential by the reverse mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium, the chromosomal aberration test using CHL cells, and the micronucleus test using ddY mice. No evidence of acute oral toxicity at dosages of 2 and 4 g/kg, and no evidence of mutagenicity in the above tests was found. Administration of GSE as a dietary admixture at levels of 0.02, 0.2 and 2% (w/w) to the rats for 90 days did not induce noticeable signs of toxicity. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of GSE in the subchronic toxicity study was 2% in the diet (equal to 1410 mg/kg body weight/day in males and 1501 mg/kg body weight/day in females). The results of our studies indicate a lack of toxicity and support the use of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds for various foods. PMID:11955665

Yamakoshi, J; Saito, M; Kataoka, S; Kikuchi, M

2002-05-01

89

Anti-juvenile activity of Azadirachta indica extract on the development and morphometry of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Say.  

PubMed

Efficacy of extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Argemone mexicana, and Azadirachta indica were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Petroleum ether extracts of A. conyzoides and A. mexicana with LC(50) values 425.60 and 267.90 ppm and 140.15 and 137.70 ppm after a period of 24 and 48 h, respectively, were found effective. However, the methanol extract of A. indica with LC(50) values 21.95 and 11.30 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively, was the most competent larvicide. The methanol extract of A. indica, being the most potent extract was therefore studied for its impact on the developmental scenario of the mosquito. It had a significant effect on the life cycle of the vector, C. quinquefasciatus. Hatching was delayed and its rate was reduced compared to control. Larval and pupal development was arrested resulting in decreased pupal transformation and adult emergence. Larval and pupal periods were prolonged with appearance of larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates, with an overall increase in the developmental period. Disrupted egg shells, dechitinized body walls, and distorted intestines were observed, indicating clearly the anti-juvenile potential of the extract. The growth index was considerably reduced. PMID:19562375

Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Srivastava, Chand N

2009-10-01

90

Role of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multiple cognitive deficits, is often accompanied by behavioral disorders and mood changes. Because of the non-availability of proper curative/preventive therapy for AD, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of Azadirachta indica in experimental AD in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental AD in rats was produced by nucleus basalis magnacellularis lesion with ibotenic acid (IB) and intacerebroventricular administration of colchicine (Col). Different behavioral tests and biochemical analysis were performed to explore the role to A. indica in AD. Results: A. indica exhibited anxiolytic activity in the open field test in Col lesion animals, which was comparable to that of diazepam. In the Elevated plus maze test, A. indica significantly alleviated IB and Col-induced anxiety. IB and Col-induced depression was mitigated by A. indica, and the results were comparable to that of imipramine. In Morris’ water maze test, A. indica pre-treatment improved reference memory, working memory and spatial learning, which are at par with the effects of donepezil. Both IB and Col-induced deficits in active avoidance learning and retention of learned behavior were significantly reversed by A. indica. IB and Col-induced increased lipid peroxidase activity was significantly reversed by A. indica (reductions in malondialdehyde level). A. indica stabilized rise in superoxide dismutase and a decreasing trend in acetylcholine-esterase (AChE) activity was seen with IB and Col lesions. A. indica had no effect over the AChE activity. Conclusion: A. indica might be effective in clinical AD by virtue of its cognition enhancement, antidepressant and antianxiety properties. PMID:23776838

Raghavendra, M; Maiti, Rituparna; Kumar, Shafalika; Acharya, SB

2013-01-01

91

A Comparative Study of the Constituents of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus indica.  

PubMed

This work compared the phytochemical composition of two species, of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut) and Aesculus indica grown under comparable conditions. Thin-layer chromatography zone profiles of the constituents in methanol extracts from leaves, seeds, and husks indicated differences within and between the two species. Similar profiles were observed for seeds and leaves from the two species but not for the husks. Aesculin and its aglycone, aesculetin, were not detected in leaves, husks, or seeds of the two species. The content of aescin found in A. indica seeds (13.4% weight/weight) was higher than in A. hippocastanum (9.5%). Laurie acid, palmitic acid, myristic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, and oleic acid were detected, by capillary gas chromatography, in the saponified extracts of the seeds, leaves, and husks of the two species. PMID:19281348

Srijayanta, S; Raman, A; Goodwin, B L

1999-01-01

92

Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots  

PubMed Central

The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

Hofmann, J.

2013-01-01

93

Effect of feeding tamarind ( Tamarindus indica) seed husk as a source of tannin on dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients and production performance of crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed husk (TSH) as a source of tannin on dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility, N balance, milk yield and milk composition was studied in crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation. The study included lactation and metabolism trials. The lactation trial was conducted using nine multiparous cows in mid-lactation in a switchback design. The cows

R Bhatta; U Krishnamoorthy; F Mohammed

2000-01-01

94

Extraction of DNA suitable for PCR applications from mature leaves of Mangifera indica L.  

PubMed

Good quality deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the pre-requisite for its downstream applications. The presence of high concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, proteins, and other secondary metabolites in mango leaves poses problem in getting good quality DNA fit for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications. The problem is exacerbated when DNA is extracted from mature mango leaves. A reliable and modified protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for DNA extraction from mature mango leaves is described here. High concentrations of inert salt were used to remove polysaccharides; Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ?-mercaptoethanol were employed to manage phenolic compounds. Extended chloroform-isoamyl alcohol treatment followed by RNase treatment yielded 950-1050 µg of good quality DNA, free of protein and RNA. The problems of DNA degradation, contamination, and low yield due to irreversible binding of phenolic compounds and coprecipitation of polysaccharides with DNA were avoided by this method. The DNA isolated by the modified method showed good PCR amplification using simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. This modified protocol can also be used to extract DNA from other woody plants having similar problems. PMID:22467363

Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Cheema, Hafiza Masooma Naseer; Rajwana, Ishtiaq Ahmad; Khan, Ahmad Sattar; Khan, Asif Ali

2012-04-01

95

Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam.  

PubMed

Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines. PMID:25189525

Rathi Sre, P R; Reka, M; Poovazhagi, R; Arul Kumar, M; Murugesan, K

2015-01-25

96

An increase of granulosa cell apoptosis mediates aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract-induced oocyte apoptosis in rat  

PubMed Central

Objective: Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) has been extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for female fertility regulation for a long time, but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine whether an increase of granulosa cell apoptosis is associated with aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE)-induced oocyte apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Sexually immature female rats of 20 days old were fed NLE (50 mg/day) for 10 days and then subjected to superovulation induction protocol. The morphological changes in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), rate of oocyte apoptosis, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total nitrite, and cytochrome c concentrations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytochrome c, p53, Bcl2 and Bax expressions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation, and estradiol 17? level in granulosa cells collected from preovulatory COCs were analyzed. Results: Aqueous NLE increased H2O2 concentration and decreased catalase activity, increased iNOS expression and total nitrite concentration, increased p53, Bax, and p53 expressions but decreased Bcl2 expression, increased cytochrome c concentration and induced DNA fragmentation in granulosa cells. An increased granulosa cell apoptosis resulted in reduced estradiol 17? concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that aqueous NLE-induced granulosa cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway, reduced estradiol 17? concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Thus, granulosa cell apoptosis mediates NLE-induced oocyte apoptosis during female fertility regulation in rat. PMID:23776837

Tripathi, Anima; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

2013-01-01

97

Characterization of Isopropanol Extracted Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of crushed seeds and grains of fourteen vegetables-Zea mays, Penisettum americanum, Sorghum bicolor, Citrullus lanatus, Citrullus coloncythis, Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis, Sesame indica, Theobroma cacao, Arachis hypogea, Butyrospermum paradoxum, Telefaria occidentalis, Mangifera indica and Irvingia gabonensis were extracted for their oils using isopropanol as solvent. The oils obtained were characterized by determining their physicochemical properties. The results obtained were:

F. O. Oyedeji; R. A. Oderinde

2006-01-01

98

Stability of polyphenolic extracts from grape seeds after thermal treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five commercial grape seed extracts (GSEs) were put under pasteurisation (HTST and LTLT), cooking, baking and sterilisation\\u000a conditions. After each treatment, the tannin content, antioxidant activity, browning and characteristics of eight phenolic\\u000a compounds were determined. For nearly all quantified parameters, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between at least two treatments. The gallic acid, gallocatechin and browning parameters showed a greater

Gabriel Davidov-Pardo; Iñigo Arozarena; María R. Marín-Arroyo

2011-01-01

99

Grape seed extract prevents azathioprine toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Azathioprine (Aza) is an important drug commonly used in the therapy of autoimmune system disorders. It induces hepatotoxicity and hazard effects that restrict its use. The effects of administration of grape seed extract and folic acid on Aza toxicity by gavage (simultaneously) daily for 4 weeks were studied by determining the changes in some hematological parameters and liver histology. The glutathione level (GSH) and lipid peroxidation content as malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver tissue were measured. The repeated intake of Aza (25 mg/kg body weight) induced anemia characterized by decreased erythrocyte and leukocyte counts and reticulocyte and hematocrit percentages, while the prothrombin time was significantly increased. Moreover, Aza caused a significant decrease in phagocytic activity and lymphocyte percentage. Aza induced hepatic damage as indicated by pronounced changes in the histological structure, a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and MDA content in the liver tissue. Meanwhile, the GSH activity was significantly decreased. Co-treatment with grape seed extract and Aza minimized the previously mentioned hazard effects of Aza and significantly protected the hepatic tissue by ameliorating the antioxidant activity. Folic acid administration, simultaneously, with Aza only improved the anemia. It may be concluded that grape seed extract is a useful herbal remedy, especially for controlling oxidative damages and is considered as a potent protective agent against Aza hepatotoxicity. PMID:20564510

El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Gad, Shereen B; Salama, Osama M

2010-11-01

100

Protective effects of Mangifera indica L. extract, mangiferin and selected antioxidants against TPA-induced biomolecules oxidation and peritoneal macrophage activation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the protective abilities of Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract (Vimang® ) 50–250 mgkg?1, mangiferin 50 mgkg?1, vitamin C 100mgkg?1 , vitamin E 100 mgkg?1and ? -carotene 50mgkg?1 against the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced oxidative damage in serum, liver, brain as well as in the hyper-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by peritoneal macrophages. The treatment of mice with Vimang

G. M. Sánchez; L. Re; A. Giuliani; A. J. Núñez-Sellés; G. P. Davison; O. S. León-Fernández

2000-01-01

101

Protective effects of Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang), and its major component mangiferin, on iron-induced oxidative damage to rat serum and liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo preventive effects of a Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang) or its major component mangiferin on iron overload injury have been studied in rats given respectively, 50, 100, 250mgkg?1 body weight of Vimang, or 40mgkg?1 body weight of mangiferin, for 7days prior to, and for 7days following the administration of toxic amounts of iron-dextran. Both Vimang or mangiferin treatment

Gilberto L. Pardo-Andreu; Mariela Forrellat Barrios; Carlos Curti; Ivones Hernández; Nelson Merino; Yeny Lemus; Ioanna Martínez; Annia Riaño; René Delgado

2008-01-01

102

Amelioration of tamoxifen-induced liver injury in rats by grape seed extract, black seed extract and curcumin.  

PubMed

Liver injury was induced in female rats using tamoxifen (TAM). Grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) extract (GSE), black seed (Nigella sativa) extract (NSE), curcumin (CUR) or silymarin (SYL) were orally administered to TAM-intoxicated rats. Liver histopathology of TAM-intoxicated:rats showed pathological changes. TAM-intoxication elicited declines in liver antioxidant enzymes levels (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase), reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG ratio plus the hepatic elevations in lipid peroxides, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and serum liver enzymes; alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Oral intake of NSE, GSE, CUR or SYL to TAM-intoxicated rats, attenuated histopathological changes and corrected all parameters mentioned above. Improvements were prominent in case of NSE (similarly SYL) > CUR > GSE. Data indicated that NSE, GSE or CUR act as free radicals scavengers and protect TAM-induced liver injury in rats. PMID:21046982

El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Nagy, Ayman A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

2010-03-01

103

Optimisation and characterisation of various extraction conditions of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in olive seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to optimise the extraction conditions of phenolic compounds to evaluate antioxidant extraction parameters and to identify the major free and bound phenolic compounds in olive seeds. The results obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent for olive seeds indicated that the optimised total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were obtained at an extraction time of 12?h,

Muhammad H. Alu’datt; Inteaz Alli; Khalil Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Ahmad Alsaad; Taha Rababeh

2011-01-01

104

Carbon dioxide extraction of canola seed: Oil solubility and effect of seed treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from fixed beds of canola seed (Brassica napus) was studied using carbon dioxide at temperatures and pressures ranging from 25 to 90C and 10 to 36 MPa, respectively. The\\u000a oil solubility in CO2 was found to be strongly dependent on CO2 pressure and weakly dependent on the system temperature. The highest observed oil solubility was 11

M. Fattoria; N. R. Bulley; A. Meisen

1988-01-01

105

A supercritical tuneable process for the selective extraction of fats and essential oil from coriander seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective supercritical CO2 extraction process has been developed in order to extract selectively the vegetal oil and the essential oil from coriander seeds in a consecutive way by tuning experimental conditions. A 4-step process has been set up: (i) seeds preparation by grinding and sieving, (ii) extraction by supercritical CO2 and (iii; iv) selective separation in two separators with

Houcine Mhemdi; Elisabeth Rodier; Nabil Kechaou; Jacques Fages

2011-01-01

106

Antioxidative activity of persimmon and grape seed extract: in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined in vitro radical scavenging activity of persimmon seed extract (PSE) and grape seed extract (GSE), and quantified total tannin concentrations of each extract. It has been found that both PSE and GSE have radical scavenging activities, and total tannin concentration of PSE was significantly higher than GSE (p < 0.05). In order to investigate the protective effect on

Hong Seok Ahn; Tae Il Jeon; Joo Yong Lee; Seong Gu Hwang; Yoongho Lim; Dong Ki Park

2002-01-01

107

Antitumor and immunopotentiating activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica: an in vivo study in mice.  

PubMed

Antitumor activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica was evaluated using different cancer cell lines. Human cancer cell lines A549, KB, and MCF-7 and murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC were treated with PST001 and cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out for toxicity, tumor reduction and immunomodulation. The respective IC(50) of PST001 in A549, KB, and DLA was at 80.72, 190.99, and 91.14 ?g/mL. Significant tumor reduction was obtained in both DLA and EAC tumors on treatment with PST001 which was more prominent when PST001 was administered with CTX/5-fluorouracil. Increase in total WBC, CD4(+) T-cell population, and bone marrow cellularity suggested strong immunomodulatory activity for this compound. No significant abnormality was observed in toxicity studies. Thus the results of the present study suggest that PST001 has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent and immunomodulator either as a sole agent or as an adjuvant to other chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:22593679

Aravind, S R; Joseph, Manu M; Varghese, Sheeja; Balaram, Prabha; Sreelekha, T T

2012-01-01

108

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure ?? T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of ?? T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on ?? T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-? production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. ?? T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

2014-01-01

109

DNA extraction from rice endosperm (including a protocol for extraction of DNA from ancient seed samples).  

PubMed

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from endosperm can be effectively used for rapid genotyping using seed tissue, to evaluate seed quality from packaged grains and to determine the purity of milled grains. Methods outlined here are optimal procedures to isolate DNA from endosperm tissue of modern rice grains and of aged rice remains preserved between 50 and 100 years. The extracted DNA can be used to amplify regions of chloroplast genomic DNA (ctDNA), mitochondrial genomic DNA (mtDNA), and nuclear genomic DNA using standard PCR protocols. In addition, we describe an optimal procedure to process archaeological grain specimens, aged for a couple of thousand years, to isolate DNA from these ancient samples, referred to here as ancient DNA (aDNA). The aDNA can be successfully amplified by PCR using appropriate primer pairs designed specifically for aDNA amplification. PMID:24243191

Mutou, Chiaki; Tanaka, Katsunori; Ishikawa, Ryuji

2014-01-01

110

A Rapid DNA Extraction Method for RFLP and PCR Analysis from a Single Dry Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-seed DNA extraction method was developed for rapid identification of plant genotype. The method was applied to 12 plant species, including the oil seeds sesame and soybean. The results were comparable to those obtained for oil-less seeds such as rice. This method will be useful for genotypic selection which requires rapid screening of large populations. It can also be

Hee Wan Kang; Yong Gu Cho; Ung Han Yoon; Moo Young Eun

1998-01-01

111

Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.  

PubMed

Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development. PMID:25204070

Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

2014-09-01

112

Differential neuroprotective activity of two different grape seed extracts.  

PubMed

Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major events that takes place during various neurotoxic injuries such as brain ischemia. We prepared grape seed extracts, from two different varieties, containing high amounts of polyphenols but little resveratrol. Their neuroprotective effects were investigated using primary culture of neonatal mouse hippocampal neurons treated with an excitotoxic concentration of glutamate. Koshu, a white, local variety of V. vinifera, alleviated the acute inactivation of Erk1/2 and dendrite retraction in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to a toxic concentration of glutamate (1.0 ng/ml). By contrast, Muscat Bailey A, a red, hybrid variety (Muscat Humburg × Bailey), failed to show any neuroprotective effect. Unlike brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other neuroprotective cytokines, Koshu extract did not induce Akt phosphorylation. Koshu extract also augmented neuron survival rate 24 hours after glutamate toxicity. The comparison of polyphenols between the two samples by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that Koshu had higher amounts of low molecular weight polyphenols along with several Koshu-specific procyanidin oligomers. These data suggest the presence of high affinity molecular targets for polyphenols in hippocampal neurons, which induce neuroprotective effects in a manner different from BDNF, and the importance of low molecular weight polyphenols and/or procyanidin oligomers for neuroprotection. PMID:21283677

Narita, Keishi; Hisamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Tohru; Takeda, Sen

2011-01-01

113

Subcritical water extraction of biologically active substances from milk thistle seed ( Silybum murianum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of biologically active substances from milk thistle seed (Silybum marianum L.) that makes it possible to obtain aqueous extracts without using organic solvents is suggested. The contents of hepatoprotective\\u000a biologically active substances (taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, and silybin) in milk thistle seed extracts obtained by\\u000a SCWE and by standardized liquid extraction procedures are compared.

I. A. Platonov; N. V. Nikitchenko; L. A. Onuchak; Yu. I. Arutyunov; V. A. Kurkin; P. V. Smirnov

2010-01-01

114

[Anti-lipoperoxidation of grape seed extracts in vitro].  

PubMed

The anti-lipoperoxidation of grape seed extracts (GSE) was observed by malondialdehyde (MDA) generated in liver and brain homogeneates spontaneously or induced by CCl4, H2O2, Fe(2+)-ascorbic acid. The exhaustion of glutathione (GSH) in liver homogenate initiated by Fe(2+)-ascorbic acid was also tested. Results showed that GSE significantly inhibited the generation of MDA in rat liver and brain homogenates both spontaneously formed or induced by CCl4, H2O2 and Fe(2+)-ascorbic acid with dose-effect relationships. GSE could also reduce the exhaustion of GSH levels in mice liver. The study indicated that GSE is effective on the inhibition of lipid peroxide and on the protection of liver from injury caused by lipid peroxidation. PMID:12561567

Guo, Ying; Cai, Xiucheng; Chen, Qiuli; Li, Wei

2002-02-01

115

Separation of bioactives from seabuckthorn seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction methodology through solubility parameter approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoids L.) seed oil having high nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and therapeutic activity has been extracted from dried seabuckthorn (SBT) seed powder using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The solubility parameter of SBT actives (tocopherols, lycopene and ?-carotene), CO2, and entrainer solvents was calculated and validated with experimental results. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated in terms

Lalit D. Kagliwal; Sushant C. Patil; Anuradha S. Pol; Rekha S. Singhal; Vandana B. Patravale

2011-01-01

116

Extraction of coriander seed oil by CO 2 and propane at super- and subcritical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil extraction from coriander seed was studied with carbon dioxide and propane as solvents, under sub- and supercritical conditions. The ratio of solvent to seed (g\\/g) required to achieve a complete oil extraction was between 20 and 40 using CO2 at pressures of 200 and 300 bar and temperature of 35°C. A complete oil recovery could be attained with propane

V. Illés; H. G. Daood; S. Perneczki; L. Szokonya; M. Then

2000-01-01

117

Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from moringa oleifera seed by salt solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

118

A Novel Extraction Method and Some Physicochemical Properties of Extractives of Irvingia Gabonensis seeds.  

PubMed

The plant Irvingia gabonensis contains lipids and polymer extractives that can be a good source of excipients for oral pharmaceutical formulations. These constituents are usually extracted from the seeds with the aid of either organic solvents or enzymes. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel, simpler, cheaper, and safer method for the simultaneous extraction of lipids and gum from I. gabonensis. A 100.0 g of seeds of I. gabonensis in 200 mL deionized water was heated at 78°C in the presence of 2.0 g sodium chloride for 1 h, and the mixture was allowed to stand for the lipids to be separated and removed by filtration. The samples were air dried at 25-30°C. The liquid fraction was centrifuged at 3445 rpm for 30 min, and the supernatant portion containing the gum was freeze dried. The samples were investigated for their true, bulk, and tapped densities as well as particle size and particle size distributions. The rheological, and near infrared absorption spectra as well as thermal behavior of the samples were also studied. The lipid and the polymeric components of I. gabonensis seeds were successfully extracted simultaneously. The true densities of the fatty and gum components were, respectively, 1.000 and 1.544 g/cm(3). The melting point of the fat was 40°C and T(g) of the gum was 232°C. These values were similar to those described in the literature for the components using the traditional method, demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of this simple novel method. PMID:22754256

Ogaji, Ikoni J; Nan, Anjan; Hoag, Stephen W

2012-04-01

119

A Novel Extraction Method and Some Physicochemical Properties of Extractives of Irvingia Gabonensis seeds  

PubMed Central

The plant Irvingia gabonensis contains lipids and polymer extractives that can be a good source of excipients for oral pharmaceutical formulations. These constituents are usually extracted from the seeds with the aid of either organic solvents or enzymes. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel, simpler, cheaper, and safer method for the simultaneous extraction of lipids and gum from I. gabonensis. A 100.0 g of seeds of I. gabonensis in 200 mL deionized water was heated at 78°C in the presence of 2.0 g sodium chloride for 1 h, and the mixture was allowed to stand for the lipids to be separated and removed by filtration. The samples were air dried at 25–30°C. The liquid fraction was centrifuged at 3445 rpm for 30 min, and the supernatant portion containing the gum was freeze dried. The samples were investigated for their true, bulk, and tapped densities as well as particle size and particle size distributions. The rheological, and near infrared absorption spectra as well as thermal behavior of the samples were also studied. The lipid and the polymeric components of I. gabonensis seeds were successfully extracted simultaneously. The true densities of the fatty and gum components were, respectively, 1.000 and 1.544 g/cm3. The melting point of the fat was 40°C and Tg of the gum was 232°C. These values were similar to those described in the literature for the components using the traditional method, demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of this simple novel method. PMID:22754256

Ogaji, Ikoni J; Nan, Anjan; Hoag, Stephen W

2012-01-01

120

In vitro retardation of glucose diffusion with gum extracted from malva nut seeds produced in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucilage of malva nut fruit has been used as traditional medicine in Thailand. Our laboratory has succeeded in extracting malva nut gum (MNG) from malva nut seeds by using alkaline-extraction method. The extract had higher gelling properties compared to water-extracted MNG. This research was aimed to investigate the effect of MNG on the retardation of glucose diffusion in in vitro

Anchalee Srichamroen; Visith Chavasit

2011-01-01

121

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Analysis of Cichoriumintybus Seeds Extract and Various Organic Fractions  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant effectiveness of methanolic extract and different fractions (n-butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of C.intybus seeds. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a panel of microorganisms (four bacterial strains, i.e. P. multocida, E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureus and three fungal strains, i.e A. flavus, A. niger and R. solani). The results indicated that seeds extract and fractions of C. intybus showed moderate activity as antibacterial agent. While Antifungal activity of C. intybus seeds extract/fractions was very low against A. flavus and A. niger while mild against R. solani. The C.intybus seeds extract/fractions contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (50.8-285 GAE mg/100g of Dry plant matter) and total flavonoid contents (43.3-150 CE mg/100g of Dry plant matter). The C. intybus seed extract/fractions also exhibited good DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 ranging from 21.28-72.14 ?g/mL. Of the C .intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions tested, 100% methanolic extract and ethylacetate fraction exhibited the maximum antioxidant activity. The results of the present investigation demonstrated significant (p < 0.01) variations in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of C. intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions. PMID:24250548

Mehmood, Nasir; Zuba?r, Muhammad; R?zwan, Komal; Rasool, Nas?r; Shahid, Muhammad; Uddin Ahmad, Viqar

2012-01-01

122

Response surface methodology for optimization of extraction yield, viscosity, hue and emulsion stability of mucilage extracted from Lepidium perfoliatum seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that give maximum extraction yield, viscosity, hue and emulsion stability, as well as, minimum protein content for the gum extracted from Lepidium perfoliatum seed. Temperature (45–75°C), processing time (1.5–3.5h), pH (5–8) and water to seed ratio (30:1–60:1) were the factors investigated. Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Rotatable

Arash Koocheki; Ali Reza Taherian; Seyed M. A. Razavi; Aram Bostan

2009-01-01

123

Oil extraction from lesquerella seeds by dry extrusion and expelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole lesquerella seeds with 6% (as is) and 12% moisture content (MC) were extruded at different residence times by varying screw speeds and feed rates. The temperature of the extrudate was recorded and its MC was determined. The extent of seed cooking was evaluated by measuring the protein solubility and thioglucosidase (TGSase) activity in the extrudate. Uncooked whole seeds (UWS),

Roque L. Evangelista

2009-01-01

124

Evaluation of Wound Closure Activity of Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum Extracts on Scratched Monolayer of Human Gingival Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum are common Asian traditional medicines to treat minor wounds. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of aqueous extracts of these plants using human gingival fibroblast (HGF) monolayer as study model. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated and effect on HGF proliferation was determined. Their effect on HGF's function to synthesize collagen was indicated by the level of hydroxyproline produced and effect on wound healing activity was assessed using an in vitro scratch assay. The influence of the extracts on expression of bFGF and TGF-? was also determined. Results revealed all four extracts to exhibit low free radical scavenging activity. The extract from N. sativa (NSSE) compared to the others showed favourable enhancement of HGF proliferation with EC50 of 22.67 ± 3.06?µg/mL (P < 0.05) with accelerated wound closure activity despite its nonsignificant effect on collagen synthesis. In addition to the elevated level of bFGF by up to 15% at 100?µg/mL of NSSE, a slightly better effect was observed on the expression of TGF-?. NSSE thus showed that promising wound healing properties and data obtained may contribute towards validation of its traditional use for the healing of oral wounds. PMID:25371695

Ab Rahman, Mas Rizal; Mohd Bakri, Marina

2014-01-01

125

Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants.  

PubMed

This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various weeds extracts on seed germination of 11 crop species. Most of the weed extracts tested had inhibitory effects on seed germination of common bean, tomato, pepper, squash, onion, barley, wheat, and corn at different application rates as compared with the 10% acetone control. Chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L., and Matricaria chamomilla L. (10%, 20% and 22.5%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. However, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Reseda lutea L. extracts stimulated chickpea seed germination at the rates of 95%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, compared to control. It was concluded that some of the weed extracts tested in this study could be used as inhibitor while others could be used as stimulator for the crops. PMID:16161968

Kadioglu, Izzet; Yanar, Yusuf; Asav, Unal

2005-04-01

126

Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3  

PubMed Central

Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml?1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations.

Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gael Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

2014-01-01

127

Physicochemical Characteristics of Nigella Seed ( Nigella sativa L . ) Oil as Affected by Different Extraction Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties of crude Nigella seed (Nigella sativa L.) oil which was extracted using Soxhlet, Modified Bligh–Dyer and Hexane extraction methods were determined. The effect of\\u000a different extraction methods which includes different parameters, such as temperature, time and solvent on the extraction\\u000a yield and the physicochemical properties were investigated. The experimental results showed that temperature, different solvents\\u000a and extraction

Ali Khoddami; Hasanah M. Ghazali; Ali Yassoralipour; Yogeshini Ramakrishnan; Ali Ganjloo

2011-01-01

128

Pumpkin ( Cucurbita maxima) seed oil extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide and physicochemical properties of the oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oil was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide and the physicochemical properties of the oil were determined. A central composite rotatable design was used to analyse the impact of extraction parameters (temperature, time and pressure) and a response surface methodology was used to obtain optimal extraction conditions for the maximum oil yield. All three variables studied were

Pranabendu Mitra; Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy; Kyu Seob Chang

2009-01-01

129

Development of a new method to prepare nano-/microparticles loaded with extracts of Azadirachta indica, their characterization and use in controlling Plutella xylostella.  

PubMed

Biodegradable nanoparticles have been widely explored as carriers for controlled delivery of therapeutic molecules; however, studies describing the development of nanoparticles as carriers for biopesticide products are few. In this work, a new method to prepare nanoparticles loaded with neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts is presented. In this study, nanoparticles were formulated as colloidal suspension and (spray-dried) powder and characterized by evaluating pH, particle size, zeta potential, morphology, absolute recovery, and entrapment efficiency. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was used for nanoparticle characterization. The best formulations presented absolute recovery and entrapment efficiencies of approximately 100% and a release profile based on swelling and relaxation of the polymer or polymer erosion. The biological data of the formulated products against Plutella xylostella showed 100% larval mortality. The nanoparticle information improved the stability of neem products against ultraviolet radiation and increased their dispersion in the aqueous phase. PMID:23991702

Forim, Moacir Rossi; Costa, Eveline Soares; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Mondego, Janaina Marques; Boiça Junior, Arlindo Leal

2013-09-25

130

A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) have long been used as a herbal medicine for treating metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions. They have been shown to modulate\\u000a feeding behaviour in animals. We have recently observed a selective decrease in fat consumption in healthy normal weight volunteers\\u000a treated with a hydro-alcoholic seed extract. However, strong clinical data on the effects of fenugreek seeds

Hugues Chevassus; Jean-Baptiste Gaillard; Anne Farret; Françoise Costa; Isabelle Gabillaud; Emilie Mas; Anne-Marie Dupuy; Françoise Michel; Caroline Cantié; Eric Renard; Florence Galtier; Pierre Petit

2010-01-01

131

Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds  

PubMed Central

Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

2013-01-01

132

Crude extract of Astragalus mongholicus root inhibits crop seed germination and soil nitrifying activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astragalus mongholicus has been of medicinal use within the traditional Chinese system for centuries. However, little information is available on its allelopathic effects on other crop plants and soil biochemical properties. Field experiment showed that the extracted residues of A. mongholicus root inhibited seed germination of wheat. Inhibition of seed germination was further confirmed in laboratory using the same crude

Jian Mao; Linzhang Yang; Yuming Shi; Jian Hu; Zhe Piao; Lijuan Mei; Shixue Yin

2006-01-01

133

Regulation of inducible adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered expression of cell adhesion molecule expression has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions. Regulation of adhesion molecule expression by specific redox sensitive mechanisms has been reported. Grape seed proanthocyanidins have been reported to have potent antioxidant properties. We evaluated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the expression of TNFa-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression

Chandan K. Sen; Debasis Bagchi

2001-01-01

134

In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and

C. Marie-Magdeleine; H. Hoste; M. Mahieu; H. Varo; H. Archimede

2009-01-01

135

UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

2012-01-01

136

Design of a press for oil extraction from moringa seeds for Haiti  

E-print Network

The project here presented focuses on the development of a harvesting tool for Haiti, a developing country, for the extraction of oil from the seeds of the moringa trees. Moringas have an extraordinarily nutritional potential ...

Sabelli, Alessandra Maria, 1976-

2004-01-01

137

Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), twice weekly and for 8weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g\\/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well

Alaaeldin A. Hamza

2010-01-01

138

Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.  

PubMed

Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as indicators of the presence or high levels of anti-oxidants in the oils. PMID:22530436

Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

2012-01-01

139

90-day oral toxicity study of a grape seed extract (IH636) in rats.  

PubMed

To assess the safety of grape seed extract with less than 5.5% catechin monomers (IH636), 4 groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided grape seed extract in the diet at levels of 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% for a period of 90 days. All animals survived the duration of the study, and no significant changes in clinical signs, hematological parameters, organ weights, ophthalmology evaluations, or histopathological findings were observed. A significant increase in food consumption was observed in male and female rats provided the grape seed extract diets compared to that of the control rats, especially in male rats consuming 2.0% grape seed extract. This effect was not accompanied by increases in body weight gains. Grape seed extract appeared to increase the insoluble fraction of the diet. Male rats in the high-dose group exhibited decreased serum iron levels and decreased serum iron/total iron binding capacity ratio compared to those of the controls, although all values were within historical ranges for Sprague-Dawley rats. In conclusion, administration of the grape seed extract IH636 to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats in the feed at levels of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% for 90 days did not induce any significant toxicological effects. PMID:11902976

Wren, Allison F; Cleary, Michael; Frantz, Christopher; Melton, Shawn; Norris, Leslie

2002-03-27

140

Inhibitory effect of celery seeds extract on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis: modulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and altered hepatic foci development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemopreventive activity of methanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds (celery seeds) has been investigated against Solt Farber protocol of hepatocarcinogenesis, oxidative stress and induction of positive foci of ?-GT in the liver of Wistar rats. The prophylactic treatment of celery seeds extract protected dose dependently against diethylnitrosoamine (DEN)+2-acetylaminofluorine (AAF)+partial hepatectomy (PH) induced hepatocarcinogenesis and other related events such as

Sarwat Sultana; Salahuddin Ahmed; Tamanna Jahangir; Sonia Sharma

2005-01-01

141

Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds ( Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175°C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components were carried out by

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

2007-01-01

142

Research note Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 ? C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4 ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

143

Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds (Mangifera oraphila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds (Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine\\/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the crude extracts was measured by monitoring the amount of starch hydrolyzed by the crude extract

C. O. Edeogu

2009-01-01

144

A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics.  

PubMed

Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco. This PHA (Gibco) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures. PMID:25004904

Badari Nath, A R S; Sivaramakrishna, A; Marimuthu, K M; Saraswathy, Radha

2015-01-01

145

Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ? -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

146

Legume seed exudates and Physcomitrella patens extracts influence swarming behavior in Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

PubMed

Plants are known to secrete chemical compounds that can change the behavior of rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria. We investigated the effects of extracts from legume host plants on the swarming behavior of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. We also investigated the effects on swarming when Rhizobium is exposed to extracts from an ancestor to vascular plants, the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Lentil and faba bean seed exudates enhanced and inhibited swarming motility, respectively, whereas pea seed exudates had no observable effect on swarming. Swarming was also enhanced by the moss extracts. Exposure to lentil seed exudates and the moss extract increased flaA expression 2-fold, while faba bean seed exudates exposure decreased expression 3-fold, suggesting that the swarming effect could, in part, be due to regulation of flagellin gene expression. However, the exudates and extracts did not significantly affect flaA gene expression in planktonic motile cells, indicating that the response to flagellar regulation is specific to a physiology unique to the swarming cell. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that addition of the lentil seed exudate and the moss extract results in earlier differentiation into swarmer cells, which could contribute to the development of a larger swarming surface area. To gain further mechanistic insight into the effect of the moss extract on swarming, a moss strigolactone-deficient mutant (Ppccd8?) was tested. A reduction in the promotive effect was observed, suggesting that the plant hormone strigolactone may be a signalling molecule activating swarming motility in R. leguminosarum. PMID:24392922

Tambalo, Dinah D; Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Shawn; Halmillawewa, Anupama; Hynes, Michael F; Yost, Christopher K

2014-01-01

147

Effect of pest controlling neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton ( Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as ‘mata-raton’, are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated

Joaquín Méndez-Bautista; Fabián Fernández-Luqueño; Fernando López-Valdez; Reyna Mendoza-Cristino; Joaquín A. Montes-Molina; F. A. Gutierrez-Miceli; L. Dendooven

2009-01-01

148

Shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the green synthesis of Ag-nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract.  

PubMed

The shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB, is reported to the green synthesis of Ag-nanoparticles for the first time using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract. UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns were used to monitor the growth kinetics, morphology and crystalline nature of Ag-nanoparticles, respectively. It was observed that the growths of Ag-nanoparticles are stopped within 40 min of reaction time. The Ag-nanoparticles are polydispersed spherical and exhibiting an interesting triangle, flat, plate-like hexagonal and some irregular morphology in presence of different [CTAB]. Hexagonal particles aggregated in a systematic manor, leads to produce a fine tiles-like arrangement of Ag-nanoparticles with dimensions between 10 and 37 nm. The nature of reaction-time curves to the reduction of Ag(+) ions by Neem leaf extract are much different than those observed by us in our earlier studies using different bio-reductants. PMID:22463846

Khan, Zaheer; Hussain, Javed Ijaz; Hashmi, Athar Adil

2012-06-15

149

Grape Seed Extract for Control of Human Enteric Viruses ?  

PubMed Central

Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ?7 log10 PFU/ml or ?5 log10 PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (?7 log10 PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log10 PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log10 PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. GSE treatment of low titers (?5 log10 PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety. PMID:21498749

Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H.

2011-01-01

150

Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.  

PubMed

To investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery. BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE. This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact. The effects of both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing. Exposure of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl and then washing. Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to addition of the papaya seed extract. We conclude that these extracts, when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief bio-active ingredient. PMID:12052434

Wilson, Ruth K; Kwan, Tony K; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Sorger, George J

2002-06-21

151

Characterization of chia seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil yield, fatty acid composition and the physicochemical and quality characteristics of chia crude seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction were determined. The extraction methods assayed influenced significantly the oil yield, obtaining about 30% more oil by solvent than by pressing. The main fatty acids ranked in the following order of abundance: ?-linolenic acid (? Ln)>linoleic acid

Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Marcela L. Martínez; Viviana Spotorno; Carmen M. Mateo; Damián M. Maestri; Bernd W. K. Diehl; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás

2011-01-01

152

Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.  

PubMed

Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients. PMID:23869935

Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

2013-08-14

153

Renoprotective effect of grape seeds extract in ethylene glycol induced nephrotoxic mice.  

PubMed

Grape seed extract treatment in ethylene glycol (EG) induced nephrotoxic mice improved antioxidant status and significantly decreased urinary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lipid peroxidation. The extract rendered antioxidant protection against oxidative stress induced by EG and may help in protecting renal tissue against EG toxicity. PMID:15875721

Mohanasundari, M; Sabesan, M; Sethupathy, S

2005-04-01

154

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds aqueous extract was screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activities (reducing power, DPPH and liposome model system) showed a good antioxidant activity. The extract was also found to posses antibacterial activity with a MIC values with respect to Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica found to be 750 and 1000 ppm, respectively. The antioxidant and antimicrobial

Attar Singh Chauhan; Pradeep Singh Negi; Ramesh Shyam Ramteke

2007-01-01

155

Coagulation–flocculation process for POME treatment using Moringa oleifera seeds extract: Optimization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent, POME is an important issue for the minimization of water pollution. The coagulation–flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seeds after oil extraction as natural coagulant is reported for POME treatment in the present study. The important process parameters pH, settling time, M. oleifera (after oil extraction) dosage and flocculant (NALCO 7751) dosage were optimized

Subhash Bhatia; Zalina Othman; Abdul Latif Ahmad

2007-01-01

156

Extraction of grape seed oil using compressed carbon dioxide and propane: extraction yields and characterization of free glycerol compounds.  

PubMed

The main objective of this work was to compare the extraction of grape seed oil with compressed carbon dioxide and propane on the extraction yields and chemical characteristics of free glycerol compounds. The experiments were performed in a laboratory scale unit in the temperature range of 30 to 60 degrees C and pressures from 60 to 254 bar. The results showed that propane is a more suitable solvent for grape seed oil extraction than carbon dioxide, as higher extractions yields and a very fast kinetic of extraction were achieved with this solvent. In relation to compressed carbon dioxide extractions, both temperature and density presented a very pronounced and positive effect on the extraction yield. The oils extracted were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively with regard to the free glycerol compounds, mainly fatty acids, ethyl, and methyl esters. The results showed that these compounds are present in low concentration in vegetable oil (<3%) and that, in general, samples extracted with propane present a smaller amount of peaks of free glycerol compounds in the oil than samples extracted with carbon dioxide. PMID:18345635

Dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Dariva, Cláudio; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Caramão, Elina Bastos

2008-04-23

157

Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

158

In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P<0.001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition>90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts. PMID:19135803

Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

2009-04-01

159

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

?uk, M.; Dymi?ska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; M?czka, M.; Zaj?c, A.; Szo?tysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

2011-03-01

160

Efficacy of certain plant extracts against seed-borne infection of Collectotrichum destructivum on cowpea (Vigna uniguculata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam, Vernonia amygdalina and Annona muricata were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea (Vigna uniguculata). The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w\\/v) of the leaves for 6, 12 and 18 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on

161

Dormancy break of celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds by plant derived smoke extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy of a highly-dormant cultivar of celery (Apium graveolens L.) was broken by combinations of plant-derived smoke extract or N6-benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellins A4\\/7 (GA4\\/7) in the dark at temperatures between 18 and 26°C. A less dormant cultivar which responded to GA4\\/7 alone showed no additional response to smoke extract or BA. Neither smoke extract nor BA affected either

T. H. Thomas; J. Staden

1995-01-01

162

A toxicological investigation of a celery seed extract having anti-inflammatory activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  An extract of the seed from celery (Apium graviolens) (CSE), and fractions thereof, have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity, gastro-protective activity, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. In view of the potential for employing these extracts for therapeutic use, toxicological investigations were undertaken\\u000a with an alcoholic extract (A-CSE) which has previously been shown to have the above pharmacological activities.

M. C. Powanda; K. D. Rainsford

2011-01-01

163

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Characterization of Argentinean Chia Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of chia seed oil was performed with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). To investigate the effects of pressure and temperature on the oil solubility and yield, two isobaric (250 and 450 bar)\\u000a and two isothermal (40 and 60 °C) extraction conditions were selected. The global extraction yield of chia oil increased with\\u000a pressure enhancement, but temperature had a little influence on it.

Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Facundo Mattea; Damián A. Cardarelli; Miguel A. Mattea; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás

2011-01-01

164

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of various seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were successively extracted with chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol (MeOH) using a Soxhlet extractor for 8 h each. The crude extracts were screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The reducing power and antioxidant activities evaluated in various in vitro models (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and liposome model system) showed the highest activity for MeOH extract. The MeOH

P. S. Negi; A. S. Chauhan; G. A. Sadia; Y. S. Rohinishree; R. S. Ramteke

2005-01-01

165

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds.  

PubMed

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds aqueous extract was screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activities (reducing power, DPPH and liposome model system) showed a good antioxidant activity. The extract was also found to possess antibacterial activity with a MIC values with respect to Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica found to be 750 and 1000 ppm, respectively. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the extract implicate its potential for natural preservation. PMID:17651916

Chauhan, Attar Singh; Negi, Pradeep Singh; Ramteke, Ramesh Shyam

2007-12-01

166

Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0moll?1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500ml of low turbid water (50

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

1999-01-01

167

Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. PMID:19854235

Hamza, Alaaeldin A

2010-01-01

168

Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.  

PubMed

The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (?), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug. PMID:24158737

Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

2014-02-01

169

Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells  

PubMed Central

We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment. PMID:23956872

Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

2013-01-01

170

In vitro Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of the Seed Extract of Embelia Ribes.  

PubMed

Antifungal activity of Embelia ribes was evaluated on eight different fungal species by employing various concentrations of seed extract (0.5-2.0 mg). All the concentrations of seed extract inhibited the fungal growth, whereas maximum activity was observed at 2.0 mg concentration of seed extract. Among different doses, the diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 9 to 18 mm in various fungal species and increased with the increase in the concentration of test solution. Among all the fungi, high inhibition zones were observed in Colletotricum crassipes (18 mm). This was followed by Cladosporium (17.5 mm), Armillaria mellea (17 mm), Colletotricum capsici (17 mm), Aspergillus niger (16.5 mm), Rhizopus oryzae (16.5 mm), respectively. Aspergillus terreus and Candida albicans showed less inhibition zones (15.5 and 16.0 mm) compared to other organisms. The present study clearly demonstrated the antifungal properties of Embelia ribes. PMID:22303075

Rani, A Sabitha; Saritha, K; Nagamani, V; Sulakshana, G

2011-03-01

171

In vitro Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of the Seed Extract of Embelia Ribes  

PubMed Central

Antifungal activity of Embelia ribes was evaluated on eight different fungal species by employing various concentrations of seed extract (0.5-2.0 mg). All the concentrations of seed extract inhibited the fungal growth, whereas maximum activity was observed at 2.0 mg concentration of seed extract. Among different doses, the diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 9 to 18 mm in various fungal species and increased with the increase in the concentration of test solution. Among all the fungi, high inhibition zones were observed in Colletotricum crassipes (18 mm). This was followed by Cladosporium (17.5 mm), Armillaria mellea (17 mm), Colletotricum capsici (17 mm), Aspergillus niger (16.5 mm), Rhizopus oryzae (16.5 mm), respectively. Aspergillus terreus and Candida albicans showed less inhibition zones (15.5 and 16.0 mm) compared to other organisms. The present study clearly demonstrated the antifungal properties of Embelia ribes. PMID:22303075

Rani, A Sabitha; Saritha, K; Nagamani, V; Sulakshana, G

2011-01-01

172

Extraction of oil from chia seeds with supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chia (Salvia Hispanic, L.) is a crop that was used as food, medicine and paints by the Aztec Indians in Mexico before 1492, and now has a promissory future in several countries. Chia seeds oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly omega-3 linolenic acid (54–67%) and omega-6 linoleic acid (12–21%) which pose great benefits for human and animal health.The

Jose Antonio Rocha Uribe; Jorge Ivan Novelo Perez; Henry Castillo Kauil; Gabriel Rosado Rubio; Carlos Guillermo Alcocer

2011-01-01

173

Antibacterial effect of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) leaf extract against antibiotic sensitive and multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Alternative herbal medicine has been used to treat various infections from centuries. Natural plants contain phytoconstituents having similar chemical properties as of synthetic antibiotics. Typhoid fever is a serious infection and failure of its treatment emerged multi-drug resistant (MDR) bugs of Salmonella typhi. Due to multiple and repeated issues with antibiotics efficacy, it became essential to evaluate biological properties of plants from different geographical origins. Mango leaves have been Reported for various medicinal effects like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihelminthic, antidiabetic and antiallergic etc. Objective of present study was to investigate anti-typhoid properties of acetone mango leaf extract (AMLE) against antibiotic sensitive and MDR S. typhi isolates. A total of 50 isolates of S. typhi including MDR (n=30) and antibiotic sensitive (n=20) were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC14028) were used as quality control strains. AMLE was prepared and its antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion screening method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), by agar dilution technique. Zone of inhibition (mm) of AMLE against MDR and antibiotic sensitive isolates was 18±1.5mm (Mean±S.D). Zone of S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and S. typhimurium (ATCC14028) was 20±1.5mm (Mean±S.D). MIC of AMLE was Reported in range from 10-50 mg/ml. The present study described the inhibitory effects of mango leaves against S. typhi. PMID:23811447

Hannan, Abdul; Asghar, Samra; Naeem, Tahir; Ikram Ullah, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Aneela, Syeda; Hussain, Shabbir

2013-07-01

174

Phytochemical screening and evaluation of Monechma ciliatum (black mahlab) seed extracts as antimicrobial agents  

PubMed Central

Objective: Tribes in Nubia Mountains regions of Sudan used Monechma ciliatum seeds for common cold and other chest allergic conditions as a traditional medicine. The aim of this paper is to validate this traditional practice scientifically. Materials and Methods: Monechma ciliatum seeds were screened for major phytochemical groups using standard methods. Different extracts were bioassayed in- vitro for their bioactivity to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Results: Phytochemical screening results showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpens, and anthraquinones. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be sensitive to both water extract with zones of inhibition 22 – 26 mm at concentrations of 50 and 100mg/ml and ethanol extract 17 mm at concentration of 100 mg/ml. The growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited by ethanol extract with zones of inhibition equal to 16, 26, and 33 mm at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/ml, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to all extracts used. Similarly, all used fungi were found to be insensitive to extracts used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts against microorganisms were ranged from 12.5 to 25 mg/ml. Conclusion: The findings of the current study support the traditional uses of the plant's seed in the therapy of respiratory tract infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:25050266

Ahmed Oshi, Murtada; Mohmmed Abdelkarim, Abdelkarim

2013-01-01

175

Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

2014-09-01

176

Response surface optimization of mucilage aqueous extraction from flixweed (Descurainia sophia) seeds.  

PubMed

The effects of four factors of pH (4-8), temperature (50-95°C), weed-seed ratio (W/S, 15-45), and time (1-4 h) on the yield of mucilage extraction of Descurainia sophia seeds were investigated using response surface methodology-Box-Behnken design (RSM-BBD). Results showed that a second-order model for the studied response was adequately fitted with a coefficient of determination of 98.7% (p<0.0001). The optimum conditions to achieve the highest yield (10.45%) were extraction time of 2.9 h, extraction temperature of 94.32°C, pH of 7.55 and the W/S ratio of 44.2. The extracted mucilage at the optimal point effectively scavenged DPPH free radical, and more concentrations of this polysaccharide indicated potent antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25036599

Golalikhani, Mahshid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Khosravi, Azin

2014-09-01

177

Potential antifilarial activity of the leaves and seeds extracts of Psoralea corylifolia on cattle filarial parasite Setaria cervi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of aqueous and alcohol extracts of the leaves and seeds of Psoralea corylifolia, on the spontaneous movements of both the whole worm and the nerve muscle preparation of Setaria cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro was studied. Alcohol extracts of both leaves and seeds caused the inhibition of spontaneous movements of the whole worm and

A Qamaruddin; Nazneen Parveen; N. U Khan; K. C Singhal

2002-01-01

178

Standardisation and physicochemical characterisation of the extracts of seeds of Glinus lotoides.  

PubMed

Extraction methods were standardised for saponin-containing extracts from the seeds of Glinus lotoides and the effects of some extraction process variables, such as the extracting solvent (various concentrations of methanol in water) and method of extract drying (freeze-drying and vacuum oven-drying), on the physical properties of the extracts were investigated. Physicochemical properties, namely particle size and size distribution, morphology, water uptake profiles and sorption isotherms, densities, flow properties and compaction profiles, of the crude dry extracts of 60% methanol (extract A), 70% methanol (extract B) and 80% methanol (extract C) were investigated. The average particle sizes (X50) of extracts A, B and C were found to be 68.4, 92.1 and 68.5 microm, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs of freeze-dried and vacuum oven-dried extract A showed that the particles are irregular in shape and are compact masses with sharp edges. The percent water uptake by the crude extracts was found to increase with an increase in relative humidities, while the hygroscopicity increased with decreasing methanol ratio of the extracting solvent. The bulk and the true densities of the three extracts (A, B and C) ranged from 0.66 to 0.67 and 1.49 to 1.50 g/ml, respectively. The tapped density (0.94 g/ml) and hence the porosity (56.0%), Carr's index (29.8%) and Hausner ratio (1.42) of extract A were greater than those of extracts B and C. Measurements of angle of repose indicated that all of the extracts exhibit poor flow properties. Compaction studies revealed that extract C has higher compactibility than extracts A and B. PMID:14964419

Endale, A; Schmidt, P C; Gebre-Mariam, T

2004-01-01

179

SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF THE SEED OF COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the oil and fat in a mixture of the hull and the testa of the seed of Coix Lachryma-Jobi L. is extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. The investigated temperature and pressure ranges from 35 to 50 o C and from 20.7 to 48.3 MPa. It is found that the weight fraction of extractable oil and fat in

Ming-Tsai Liang; Chia-Chen Liang; Wen-Hao Wu; Ling-Yea Wang; Chia-Yen Ho; Chun-Hao Chena; Jer-Yi Liaoa

180

Solvent extraction of the oils of rubber, melon, pumpkin and oilbean seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvents of differing dielectric constant were used to extract oils from the seeds of: rubber [Hevea brasiliensis (Kunth) Muell. Arg.], melon [Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad], fluted pumpkin [Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.] and oilbean [Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth]. The aim was to examine the effect of solvent polarity on oil yield and oil properties.\\u000a \\u000a The oils were extracted under Soxhlet conditions with the

J. C. Attah; J. A. Ibemesi

1990-01-01

181

Effect of the extracts of pumpkin seeds on the urodynamics of rabbits: An experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Pumpkin seeds were prepared into oil n-butyle alcohol and ether extracts. The effects of the three extracts on the urodynamics\\u000a of rabbits were observed. It was concluded that the oil preparation could remarkably reduce the bladder pressure, increase\\u000a the bladder compliance, reduce the urethral pressure. Other two kinds of preparations had no effect in this experimental.\\u000a The mechanisms of the

Zhang Xu; Ouyang Jin-zhi; Zhang Yong-shang; TaYalla Balla; Zhou Xi-cai; Zhou Si-wei

1994-01-01

182

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>?-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

2013-01-01

183

NSAID gastropathy: prevention by celery seed extracts in disease-stressed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies showed that some anti-inflammatory celery seed extracts (CSEs) were not gastrotoxic, in contrast to many OTC NSAIDs, when dosed to arthritic rats. The present investigation was designed to quantify the potential activity of CSEs against NSAID injury in rats with severe acute or chronic inflammation and to define the possible relationship of this to effects on mucosal prostaglandin

M. W. Whitehouse; D. E. Butters; M. L. Clarke; K. D. Rainsford

2001-01-01

184

Optimization of extraction conditions of areca seed polyphenols and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

Polyphenols are functional compounds in plants, which possess many bioactivities beneficial for humans. The aim of this study was to establish a highly efficient method for extracting polyphenol compounds from areca seeds and further to identify polyphenols and antioxidant properties of the seeds. A quadratic general rotary unitized design was used to determine the optimal extraction process. The polyphenols were identified using LC-TOF-MS. By comparison with ascorbic acid (Vc), the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extracts were evaluated using three complementary in vitro assays: inhibition of the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, and reducing ability. The two major polyphenols obtained were epicatechin and syringic acid. The ethanol extracts of areca seeds showed significantly greater antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) than Vc using the DPPH and reducing power assay, but lower ability (p < 0.05) using the hydroxyl radical assay. The results indicate that the areca seed is an excellent food material with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:25314603

Zhang, Wei-Min; Huang, Wu-Yang; Chen, Wen-Xue; Han, Lin; Zhang, Hai-De

2014-01-01

185

Optimization of extraction, antioxidant activity and functional properties of quince seed mucilage by RSM.  

PubMed

The effect of extraction temperature (25-65°C), extraction time (5-25 min) and water to seed ratio (10:1-50:1) on yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability of quince seed mucilage was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Face Center Design with these seven factors, including central and axial points. Numerical optimization determined the optimum extraction conditions based on the highest yield, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability and the lowest protein content and turbidity as being time 5 min, temperature 65°C and water to seed ratio 25.1:1. At this optimum point, extraction yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability were found to be 11.58 (%), 2.71 (%), 068 (Å), 1473.96 (mPas), 29.88 (%), 94.89 (%) and 21.36 (%), respectively. The results demonstrated that quince seed mucilage had desirable antioxidant activity, viscosity, emulsifying and foaming properties. PMID:24556115

Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

2014-05-01

186

Lectins in Extracts of Certain Polygonaceae Seed Precipitate Animal and Human Serums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of four species of Polygonaceae were tested for lectins that precipitate human and animal serums. Rumex crispus, Polygonum convolvulus, and Polygonum pennsylvanicum developed specific precipitate bands on double diffusion on agar gel plates. These bands were enhanced and increased in number when extracts were tested against serums from patients with certain diseases. When tested against lyophilized serum, no precipitate

Ernest B. Hanan; James W. Spindler

1968-01-01

187

Antihyperglycemic effect of the alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla on streptozotocin-diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Streptozotocin (STZ) selectively destroys the pancreatic insulin secreting cells, leaving less active cells and resulting in a diabetic state. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the ethanolic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla (SME) in normal and STZ-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight [BW]). Rats with glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into 5 groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered, daily with seed extract at a dosage of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and the other group was orally administered 600 ?g/kg BW glibenclamide daily. Results: Graded doses of seed extract and glibenclamide showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and improvement in serum insulin levels. The extract also improved body weight and promoted liver glycogen content. After treatment, hemoglobin (Hb) level increased and glycosylated Hb level significantly decreased in diabetic rats. The activities of the carbohydrate metabolic enzymes showed significant changes in the rats. Of the 3 doses, 100 mg dose showed maximum activity. Histological investigations of pancreas also supported the biochemical findings. Conclusions: Thus, our findings indicate the folklore use of the seed for diabetes and the mechanism seems to be insulin secretion. PMID:21731399

Kalaivanan, Kalpana; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Vishwanthan

2011-01-01

188

A New Seeded Region Growing Technique for Retinal Blood Vessels Extraction  

PubMed Central

Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation.

Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

2014-01-01

189

Evaluation of hot-water extracted arabinoxylans from ispaghula seeds as drug carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work evaluates the potential of a hot water extracted arabinoxylan from ispaghula (Plantago ovata) seeds as a safe, effective and economical drug carrier. In thermal analysis integral procedural decomposition temperature and comprehensive index of thermal stability were found to be 308°C and 0.47 respectively. Gel permeation chromatography showed the existence of two components in the fraction. Atomic force microscopy

Mohammad S. Iqbal; Jamshed Akbar; Muhammad A. Hussain; Shazia Saghir; Muhammad Sher

2011-01-01

190

Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic antitumor drugs. Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin-induced toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the antioxidant potential of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against the toxicity of cisplatin in male rats. Cisplatin treated animals revealed a significant elevation in plasma, heart, kidney and liver thiobarbituric

M. I. Yousef; A. A. Saad; L. K. El-Shennawy

2009-01-01

191

Antioxidant and antilisterial effect of seed essential oil and organic extracts from Zizyphus jujuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodistilled volatile oil from the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba was analyzed by GC–MS. Twenty three compounds representing 91.59% of the total oil was identified. The oil and organic extracts revealed a great potential of antilisterial effect against all five strains of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, 19116, 19118, 19166 and 15313. Also the oil had strong detrimental effect on the viable

Sharif M. Al-Reza; Vivek K. Bajpai; Sun Chul Kang

2009-01-01

192

Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases including congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. We have demonstrated that IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) provides superior antioxidant efficacy as compared to Vitamins C, E and ?-carotene. A series of studies were

Debasis Bagchi; Chandan K Sen; Sidhartha D Ray; Dipak K Das; Manashi Bagchi; Harry G Preuss; Joe A Vinson

2003-01-01

193

Grape seed extract prevents gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice.  

PubMed

The protection conferred by grape seed extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and bone marrow chromosomal aberrations have been evaluated in adult Swiss albino mice. The activity of reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase), the levels of glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidneys homogenates, serum urea and creatinine were measured, and in addition the changes in kidney histology and bone marrow chromosomes were investigated. Gentamicin (80 mg/kg b.wt. intraperitoneally for 2 weeks) induced kidney damage as indicated from a pronounced changes in kidney histology, a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine and MDA content in the kidney homogenate. While the activity of the antioxidant enzyme GSH peroxidase and the level of GSH were significantly decreased. Gentamicin induced genotoxicity indicated by increased the number of aberrant cells and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations (fragment, deletion and ring chromosome) and showed no effect on mitotic activity of the cell. Pretreatment with grape seed extract (7 days) and simultaneously (14 days) with gentamicin significantly protected the kidney tissue by ameliorating its antioxidant activity. Moreover, grape seed extract significantly protected bone marrow chromosomes from gentamicin induced genotoxicity by reducing the total number of aberrant cells, and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations. It could be concluded that grape seed extract acts as a potent antioxidant prevented kidney damage and genotoxicity of bone marrow cells. PMID:16930296

El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Salama, Osama M

2006-09-01

194

Nigella sativa (Black Cumin) Seed Extract Alleviates Symptoms of Allergic Diarrhea in Mice, Involving Opioid Receptors  

PubMed Central

The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa- (U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy. PMID:22768141

Duncker, Swantje C.; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

2012-01-01

195

EFFECTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED EXTRACT ON RUMEN FERMENTATION IN VITRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot

EM HOFFMANN; S. Muetzel; K. Becker

2003-01-01

196

Effect of enzymes on extraction of volatiles from celery seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celery (Apium graveolens L.), belonging to the family Apiaceae, is widely used as a spice, in perfumery and pharmaceutical applications. It is reported to possess several nutraceutical attributes, such as anticoagulation activity of blood plasma and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Effects of various enzymes on the extraction of volatile oil of celery are reported in the present study. The oil

H. B. Sowbhagya; P. Srinivas; N. Krishnamurthy

2010-01-01

197

Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on methanolic seeds' extract of Dolichos biflorus.  

PubMed

The Dolichos biflorus is a well known medicinal plant in folklore for its medicinal properties. In herbal medicine the seeds of it are mainly used as tonic, astringent, diuretic, and are also recommended in asthma, bronchitis, urinary discharges, hiccoughs, ozoena, heart trouble and other diseases of brain. The main purpose of this study is to explore and to provide experimental data on the traditional use of plant Dolichos biflorus. For this purpose we investigated the plant seed extract phytochemically and pharmacologically. Phytochemical analysis was performed on extract and powder form of the drug. Procedure use for evaluation were Identification of chemical constituent by color reaction, Fluorescence analysis of powder drug, pH (in powder and extract forms), loss on drying, Thin layer chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy, acid and saponification values. In pharmacological studies (diuretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities) were tested on the extract of plant seed. The tests were carried out over albino mice taking different concentration of seed extract. Seeds extract of Dolichos biflorus has exhibited mild analgesic activity, the results were (84.6±6.68) at dose 300mg/kg and (92.2±6.81) at dose 500mg/kg which were not much significant as compared to reference drug Aspirin (300mg/kg) having result (36.4±2.27). While seed extract of Dolichos biflorus exhibited remarkable diuretic activity, the values at 300 mg/kg was (1.33±0.13) and at 500 mg/kg were (2.66±0.31) which are highly significant as compared to drug Lasix (20mg /kg) having result (2.38±0.23). Anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract of Dolichos biflorus obtained at 0.06mg/kg and 01mg/kg were (26.6±2.96) and (36±1.67) respectively. While the value for aspirin as standard drug (300mg/kg) were (17.44±1.59).This study provides a platform for further investigation for the isolation of active principles responsible for biological activity. PMID:24577923

Ahmad, Mansoor; Sharif, Sadaf; Mehjabeen; Sharif, Hina; Jahan, Noor; Naqvi, Ghazala Raza

2014-03-01

198

Mangifera indica L. extract and mangiferin modulate cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. (MSBE) has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. In previous studies, we showed that MSBE and mangiferin, its main component, lower the activity of some cytochrome P-450 (P450) enzymes in rat hepatocytes and human liver microsomes. In the present study, the effects of MSBE and mangiferin on several P450 enzymes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in human-cultured hepatocytes have been examined. After hepatocytes underwent a 48-h treatment with sub-cytotoxic concentrations of the products (50-250 µg/mL), a concentration-dependent decrease of the activity of the five P450 enzymes measured (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4) was observed. For all the activities, a reduction of at least 50% at the highest concentration (250 µg/mL) was observed. In addition, UGT activities diminished. MSBE considerably reduced UGT1A9 activity (about 60% at 250 µg/mL) and lesser effects on the other UGTs. In contrast, 250 µg/mL mangiferin had greater effects on UGT1A1 and 2B7 than on UGT1A9 (about 55% vs. 35% reduction, respectively). Quantification of specific mRNAs revealed reduced CYP3A4 and 3A5 mRNAs content, and an increase in CYP1A1, CYP1A2, UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 mRNAs. No remarkable effects on the CYP2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 2E1 levels were observed. Our results suggest that the activity and/or expression of major P450 and UGT enzymes is modulated by MSBE and that potential herb-drugs interactions could arise after a combined intake of this extract with conventional medicines. Therefore, the potential safety risks of this natural product derived by altering the ADMET properties of co-administered drugs should be examined. PMID:22815239

Rodeiro, Idania; José Gómez-Lechón, M; Perez, Gabriela; Hernandez, Ivones; Herrera, José Alfredo; Delgado, Rene; Castell, José V; Teresa Donato, M

2013-05-01

199

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars  

PubMed Central

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

Gozlekci, Sadiye; Saracoglu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

2011-01-01

200

Anticoagulant effect of polyphenols-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Blood coagulation consists of a series of zymogens that can be converted by limited proteolysis to active enzymes leading to the generation of thrombin. Fresh plasma and human thrombin was incubated with extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5; 5; 50 ?g/ml). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts prolonged clotting time and decreased the maximal velocity of fibrin polymerization in human plasma. Moreover thrombin incubation with both extracts results in the inhibition of amidolytic activity of this enzyme. It gives hopes for development of diet supplements, which may be preventing thrombosis in pathological states. PMID:21596108

Bijak, Micha?; Bobrowski, Mateusz; Borowiecka, Marta; Pods?dek, Anna; Gola?ski, Jacek; Nowak, Pawe?

2011-09-01

201

Effect of heat treatment of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the antioxidant potential of their extracts.  

PubMed

The effect of different heat treatments of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of their hydrolyzed extracts was investigated. The results showed that total phenol contents increased in thermally treated seeds. Heat treatment affected also the quantities of individual phenolic compounds in extracts. Phenolics in unheated camelina seeds existed in bound rather than in free form. A temperature of 160 °C was required for release of insoluble bound phenolics, whereas lower temperatures were found to be optimal to liberate those present as soluble conjugates. The best reducing power and alkyl peroxyl radical scavenging activity in the emulsion was expressed by phenolics which were bound to the cell wall, whereas the best iron chelators and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavengers were found to be those present in free form. The heat treatment of seeds up to 120 °C increased the reducing power and DPPH• radical scavenging ability of extracts, but negatively affected iron chelating ability and their activity in an emulsion against alkyl peroxyl radicals. PMID:21744787

Terpinc, Petra; Polak, Tomaz; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abramovic, Helena

2011-08-24

202

Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.  

PubMed

In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 °C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ?100 °C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation. PMID:25053062

Ravber, Matej; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

2015-01-01

203

Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

2012-01-01

204

Effects of marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract on ethanol toxicity in male rats.  

PubMed

Natural dietary antioxidants are extensively studied for their ability to protect cells from miscellaneous damages. Marjoram volatile oil (Origanum majorana L., Lamiaceae) and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae) are potent antioxidants. Effects of administration of marjoram volatile oil or grape seed extract on oral administration of ethanol, simultaneously, daily for 10 weeks were studied through determining epididymal spermatozoal analysis, serum testosterone level, weight and histopathological examination of testis, liver and brain. Glutathione level and lipid peroxidation content as malondialdehyde in the testis, liver and brain were measured. The repeated intake of a great amount of ethanol (10 ml/kg body weight, 25% v/v) was followed by fertility disturbances with low sperm count, impaired sperm motility and decrease in serum testosterone level. Moreover, ethanol toxicity induced significant alterations in the histological structures of the testis, liver and brain. The results revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the level of glutathione in the testis, liver and brain in the ethanol-treated group. However, co-administration of the extracts of protective plants resulted in minimizing the hazard effects of ethanol toxicity on male fertility, liver and brain tissues. It may be concluded that marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract are useful herbal remedies, especially for controlling oxidative damages. PMID:17910615

El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Saleh, Amal; Salama, Osama M

2007-11-01

205

Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.  

PubMed

Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp. PMID:25212152

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-09-15

206

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria] [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

1999-08-01

207

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

2011-01-01

208

Antioxidant extraction from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal using high-intensity ultrasound.  

PubMed

Brassicaceae oilseeds provide feedstocks for the biofuels industry, but value-added coproducts are necessary to supply financial incentives for increased production. Our objective was to use high-intensity ultrasound to optimize extraction of antioxidants from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables included temperature, solvent-to-material ratio, sonication duration, and EtOH concentration. Extracts were analyzed for total phenolics content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and sinapine content. Conventional extraction using water and 70% EtOH (v/v) at 80 °C for 3×30 min yielded 7.83 ± 0.07 and 8.81 ± 0.17 mg sinapic acid equivalents (SAE)/g meal, respectively. UAE extraction at 40 °C for 30 min yielded similar phenolics content (8.85 ± 0.33 mg SAE/g meal) as conventional hot ethanolic extraction, but required less time and lower temperature. The highest TPC (13.79 ± 0.38 mg SAE/g meal) was in the 7-d aqueous extracts. Sonicated solutions of pure sinapine and sinapic acid showed 1st-order reaction kinetics with greater degradation of isolated compounds than those present in extracts. Sinapine contained in extracts showed insignificant (P < 0.05) degradation after 30 min of sonication. Our research indicates that ultrasound treatment can assist the extraction of antioxidants from B. juncea meal by reducing both the temperature and time requirement without significant degradation of the primary antioxidants present. PMID:23488824

Dubie, Jeremiah; Stancik, Aaron; Morra, Matthew; Nindo, Caleb

2013-04-01

209

The impact of seed extraction on the population dynamics of Pinus maximartinezii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 × 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (?) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, ? decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on ?. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.

López-Mata, Lauro

2013-05-01

210

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

211

Phytotoxic Effects and Chemical Analysis Of Leaf Extracts from Three Phytolaccaceae Species in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed phenolic compounds and other elements in leaf extracts and compared morphology of three species of the Phytolaccaceae family found in South Korea. To test allelochemical effects of the three Phytolacca species, we also examined seed germination and dry weight of seedlings of Lactuca indica and Sonchus oleraceus treated with leaf extracts. The concentrations of total phenolic compounds were

Yong Ok Kim; Jon D. Johnson; Eun Ju Lee

2005-01-01

212

Antisnake venom activity of ethanolic seed extract of Strychnos nux vomica Linn.  

PubMed

The whole seed extract of S. nux vomica (in low doses) effectively neutralized Daboia russelii venom induced lethal, haemorrhage, defibrinogenating, PLA2 enzyme activity and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, PLA2 enzyme activity. The seed extract potentiated polyvalent snake venom antiserum action in experimental animals. An active compound (SNVNF) was isolated and purified by thin layer chromatography and silica gel column chromatography, which effectively antagonised D. russelii venom induced lethal, haemorrhagic, defibrinogenating, oedema, PLA2 enzyme activity and N. kaouthia induced lethal, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, PLA, enzyme activity. Polyvalent snake venom antiserum action was significantly potentiated by the active compound. Spectral studies revealed it to be a small, straight chain compound containing methyl and amide radicals. Detailed structure elucidation of the compound (SNVNF) is warranted before its clinical trials as a snake venom antagonist. PMID:15233470

Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K; Gomes, A

2004-05-01

213

Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation.  

PubMed

Many protein misfolding diseases, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in an amyloid fibrillar form. Natural products which inhibit fibril formation are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In this study we have shown, using in vitro thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy, that grape seed extract inhibits fibril formation of kappa-casein (?-CN), a milk protein which forms amyloid fibrils spontaneously under physiological conditions. Among the components of grape seed extract, gallic acid was the most active component at inhibiting ?-CN fibril formation, by stabilizing ?-CN to prevent its aggregation. Concomitantly, gallic acid significantly reduced the toxicity of ?-CN to pheochromocytoma12 cells. Furthermore, gallic acid effectively inhibited fibril formation by the amyloid-beta peptide, the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease. It is concluded that the gallate moiety has the fibril-inhibitory activity. PMID:24157371

Liu, Yanqin; Pukala, Tara L; Musgrave, Ian F; Williams, Danielle M; Dehle, Francis C; Carver, John A

2013-12-01

214

Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma by Litchi Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

The Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit products possess rich amounts of flavanoids and proanthocyanidins. Its pericarp has been shown to inhibit breast and liver cancer cell growth. However, the anticolorectal cancer effect of Litchi seed extract has not yet been reported. In this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract (LCSP) on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines Colo320DM and SW480 were examined. The results demonstrated that LCSP significantly induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. LCSP also suppressed cyclins and elevated the Bax?:?Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. This study provides in vitro evidence that LCSP serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer. PMID:23093841

Hsu, Chih-Ping; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Chiu-Chen; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chou, Jyh-Ching; Tsia, Yu-Ting; Su, Jhih-Rou; Chung, Yuan-Chiang

2012-01-01

215

Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae) using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and ?-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC50 value 157.4 ?g/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC50 value 61.9 ?g/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC50 value 64.32 ?g/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC50 value 58.87 ?g/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract). Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22247894

Jana, Kishalay; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

2011-01-01

216

Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 ? g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 ? g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

2013-01-01

217

Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract  

PubMed Central

Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification). Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and Methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification without affecting its therapeutic potential. PMID:25336846

Dhoble, Sagar B.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

2014-01-01

218

Effect of Grape Seed Extracts on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Corn Chips during Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of grape seed extracts (GSE) on lipid oxidation of corn chips stored for 90 days in\\u000a comparison to tert-butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate chemical analysis results showed that corn chips contained low moisture contents (less\\u000a than 2%) and also that no significant differences were found in the dry matter values in ash, fat, protein, and fiber. Antioxidant\\u000a activity

Taha M. Rababah; Sevil Yücel; Khalil I. Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Wade Yang; Khalid Ismaeal

2011-01-01

219

Studies on the antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator and hepatoprotective activities of the Carum copticum seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator and hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous-methanolic extract of Carum copticum Benth. seeds (CSE) to rationalize some of its traditional uses. CSE (3–100mg\\/kg) caused a dose-dependent fall in arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta and jejunum preparations, CSE (0.1–3.0mg\\/ml) caused an inhibitory effect on the K+-induced contractions. The calcium channel

A. H. Gilani; Q. Jabeen; M. N. Ghayur; K. H. Janbaz; M. S. Akhtar

2005-01-01

220

Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate by coagulation\\/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among other natural flocculant\\/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation\\/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin–Fowler–Guggenheim (FFG) and

J. Beltrán-Heredia; J. Sánchez-Martín

2009-01-01

221

A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (?max=343±2nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in

H. M. Kwaambwa; R. Maikokera

2007-01-01

222

Coagulation Mechanism of Salt Solution-Extracted Active Component in Moringa oleifera Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC–pc) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-pc tap water formed insoluble matters. This formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-pc was added into distilled water. The

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

223

Lectins in extracts of certain Polygonaceae seed precipitate animal and human serums.  

PubMed

Seeds of four species of Polygonaceae were tested for lectins that precipitate human and animal serums. Rumex crispus, Polygonum convolvulus, and Polygonum pennsylvanicum developed specific precipitate bands on double diffusion on agar gel plates. These bands were enhanced and increased in number when extracts were tested against serums from patients with certain diseases. When tested against lyophilized serum, no precipitate bands developed. The active substance cannot be dialyzed through cellulose membrane against running tap water for 16 hours, and it is heat stable. Extracts from Fagopyrum esculentum developed no precipitate bands. PMID:4968255

Hanan, E B; Spindler, J W

1968-06-28

224

Particle size effects on supercritical CO 2 extraction of oil-containing seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosehip seeds were milled, sieved, and extracted with 26.3 g\\/g substrate\\/h of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) at 40C and 300 bar. The extraction kinetics were characterized by an initial solubility-controlled period (8.78 g oil\\/kg\\u000a CO2 at 40C and 300 bar), followed by a transition period to a final mass transfer-controlled process. The integral yield of\\u000a oil approached an asymptotic value

José M. del Valle; Edgar L. Uquiche

2002-01-01

225

Anti-microbial effect of Nigella sativa seed extract against staphylococcal skin Infection  

PubMed Central

Background: The development of microbial resistance to the existing anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious problem facing patients suffering from skin infections. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine for the treatment of skin infections. Production of new potent agents is urgently needed, especially for hospitals and health care centers. This study is designed to explore anti-microbial effect of extract from the Nigella sativa seeds against skin pustules infection. Methods: The in vivo anti-microbial effect of the Nigella sativa seeds extract at a concentration of 33% on pustules staphylococcal Skin Infections was assessed and compared with standard drug mupirocin on 40 neonates .All neonates were divided and examined into two experimental and control groups randomly. Recovery times were compared between two groups. Results: The mean of recovery time in experimental group was 75/1 with SD= ± 12, and the mean of recovery time in control group was 69/4 with SD = ± 8/7.There was no significant difference in recovery time between two groups (p value = 0/131). Conclusion: In clinical practice, the agent of Nigella Sativa recovered as pustular from tissues of all patients. While the extract was as nearly effective as the standard drug, mupirocin, no side effect was observed.

Rafati, Shiva; Niakan, Mohammad; Naseri, Mohsen

2014-01-01

226

Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.  

PubMed

Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains ?cta1, ?gsh1 and ?oye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in ?sod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. PMID:23993573

Ignea, Codru?a; Doroban?u, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

2013-12-15

227

Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats. PMID:22082829

Sakr, Saber A; Abo-El-Yazid, Samah M

2012-11-01

228

Determination of the genotoxic effects of Convolvulus arvensis extracts on corn (Zea mays L.) seeds.  

PubMed

In this research, the methanolic extracts of Convolvulus arvensis were tested for genotoxic and inhibitor activity on the total soluble protein content and the genomic template stability against corn Zea mays L. seed. The methanol extracts of leaf, stem and root of C. arvensis were diluted to 50, 75 and 100 ?l concentrations and applied to corn seed. The total soluble protein and genomic template stability results were compared with the control. The results showed that especially 100 ?l extracts of diluted leaf, stem and root had a strong inhibitory activity on the genomic template stability. The changes occurred in random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of C. arvensis extract treatment included variation in band intensity, loss of bands and appearance of new bands compared with control. Also, the results obtained from this study revealed that the increase in the concentrations of C. arvensis extract increased the total soluble protein content in maize. The results suggested that RAPD analysis and total protein analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals. PMID:22362015

Sunar, Serap; Yildirim, Nalan; Aksakal, Ozkan; Agar, Guleray

2013-06-01

229

EFFECT OF WASTE RESIDUES FROM BLACK SEED AND JOJOBA SEED OIL EXTRACTION AS ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA, GROWTH AND OIL OF CHAMOMILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under greenhouse conditions, three rates viz., 1.25, 2.5 and 3.75 % of waste residues from black seed (Nigella sativa L.) and jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis ( Link) Schneider ) seed oil extraction produced either by cold press or screw press were evaluated as soil amendments for controlling Meloidogyne incognita root-knot nematode, and their affects on chamomile growth parameters, oil percentages and

A. E. ISMAIL; M. M. MOHAMED; S. A. MAHFOUZ

230

Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of ?-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit ?-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

2012-09-12

231

LiDAR Segmentation using Suitable Seed Points for 3D Building Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective building detection and roof reconstruction has an influential demand over the remote sensing research community. In this paper, we present a new automatic LiDAR point cloud segmentation method using suitable seed points for building detection and roof plane extraction. Firstly, the LiDAR point cloud is separated into "ground" and "non-ground" points based on the analysis of DEM with a height threshold. Each of the non-ground point is marked as coplanar or non-coplanar based on a coplanarity analysis. Commencing from the maximum LiDAR point height towards the minimum, all the LiDAR points on each height level are extracted and separated into several groups based on 2D distance. From each group, lines are extracted and a coplanar point which is the nearest to the midpoint of each line is considered as a seed point. This seed point and its neighbouring points are utilised to generate the plane equation. The plane is grown in a region growing fashion until no new points can be added. A robust rule-based tree removal method is applied subsequently to remove planar segments on trees. Four different rules are applied in this method. Finally, the boundary of each object is extracted from the segmented LiDAR point cloud. The method is evaluated with six different data sets consisting hilly and densely vegetated areas. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method offers a high building detection and roof plane extraction rates while compared to a recently proposed method.

Abdullah, S. M.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

2014-08-01

232

Evaluation of chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of lemon seed extracts on human breast cancer (MCF7) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from lemon seed were investigated for the radical scavenging activity and apoptotic effects in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells and non-malignant breast (MCF-12F) cells for the first time. Defatted seed powder was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol (MeOH), and MeOH:water (80:20) and the chemical constituents were identified and quantified by LC-MS and HPLC analysis. The highest

Jinhee Kim; Guddadarangavvanahally; K. Jayaprakasha; Ram M. Uckoo; Bhimanagouda S. Patil

233

Some physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil extracted using solvent and aqueous enzymatic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical properties of oil from Moringa oleifera seed were determined following extraction either with petroleum ether or 2% Neutrase 0.8L (a neutral bacterial protease from Bacillus amyloiquefaciens, Novozyme Bagsvaerd Denmark). The enzyme was chosen following a preliminary study conducted on the enzymatic extraction of M. oleifera seed oil using four commercial enzymes that showed Neutrase to be the best

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2005-01-01

234

Breaking of seed dormancy by catalase inhibition.  

PubMed Central

Germination of some dormant seeds is promoted by solutions of thiourea, sodium nitrite, and hydroxylamine salts. The promotions are accompanied by irreversible inhibition of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) in extracts from the seeds. The seeds are also promoted in germination by catechol and pyrogallol solutions. These effects are recorded for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) and pigweed (Amaranthus albus L.) seeds. The results indicae that metabolically derived hydrogen peroxide, spared from decomposition by catalase inhibition, oxidizes reduced NADPH required as the oxidant in the pentose pathway of glucose use. The metabolic system for such use of H2O2 involves the enzymes, peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) and pyridine nucleotide quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.2), which are present in the dormant seed prior to imbibition of water. PMID:235126

Hendricks, S B; Taylorson, R B

1975-01-01

235

Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2?000 µg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 µg/mL as compared to 1.1 µg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant. PMID:23570014

Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Belkacem, Nacera; Kadiata, Marcel; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

2013-01-01

236

In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds  

PubMed Central

Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

2012-01-01

237

Antithrombin effect of polyphenol-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Thrombin is a serine protease that cleaves the peptide bonds in proteins located on the carboxyl side of arginine. Thrombin plays a central role in thromboembolic diseases, which are the major cause of mortality. The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of plant extracts on proteolytic properties of thrombin. Thrombin was incubated with polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5, 5, 50 µg/mL) and with polyphenols ((+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, cyanidin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, quercetin). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts in all used concentrations inhibited proteolytic activity of thrombin observed as inhibition of thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization, stabilized fibrin formation, and platelet aggregation. Moreover, thrombin amidolytic activity was inhibited by polyphenols belonging to the flavonoid class. Results presented in this study indicate that polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of A.?melanocarpa and seeds of V.?vinifera may become promising dietary supplements in the prevention of thrombotic states. PMID:22473647

Bijak, Micha?; Saluk, Joanna; Ponczek, Micha? B?a?ej; Nowak, Pawe?

2013-01-01

238

Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural pigment from annatto seeds by response surface methodology (RSM).  

PubMed

The present study reports on the extraction of natural pigment from annatto seeds. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Four independent variables including temperature (20-80°C), sonication time (2-10 min), duty cycle (0.2-0.8s) and the ratio of seeds to the solvent (5-20%) were studied. According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with a temperature of 72.7°C, extraction time of 7.25 min, the ratio of seed to solvent of 14% and duty cycle of 0.8s. At these conditions, extraction yield determined as 6.35% and the absorbance value as 0.865%. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values, which suggested UAE is more efficient process as compared to conventional extraction. PMID:24594191

Yolmeh, Mahmoud; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Farhoosh, Reza

2014-07-15

239

Study of antiobesity effects of ethanolic and water extracts of grapes seeds.  

PubMed

Grapes seeds are rich source of polyphenolic compounds with potent antioxidant and have been reported beneficial for several health ailments. In the present study, the anti-obesity effect of grape seed extract in an animal model of high fat diet-induced obesity was investigated. Analysis of physiological parameters of high fat diet fed rats when treated with ethanol and water grape seeds extracts revealed significant (P<0.01) decrease in weight gain and food intake when compared with high fat diet rats. The results showed that the organ weight of the liver and adipose tissue weights of mesenteric, perirenal and uterine tissues in the HFD + GSAE and HFD + GSWE groups were significantly decreased as compared with the HFD group. Serum TG, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, glucose levels in the HFD + GSAE and HFD + GSWE groups were significantly decreased as compared with the HFD group. Histological study showed that the lipid droplets of heart and liver of rats with HFD + GSAE and HFD + GSWE diets were significantly smaller than those with HFD diets. These results demonstrate that intake of GSE can be beneficial for the suppression of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:22754935

Arora, Poonam; Ansari, Shahid; Nazish, Iram

2011-01-01

240

Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.  

PubMed

In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (?3) and omega-6 (?6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ?3 (linolenic acid) and ?6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. PMID:24909999

Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

2014-09-01

241

Contact toxicity of some fixed plant oils and stabilized natural pyrethrum extracts against adult maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contact toxicity of some selected fixed plant oils and stabilized natural pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) blends against adult maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) were investigated. Natural pyrethrum extract was stabilized against ultraviolet (UV) light by blending with fixed oils extracted from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem tree), Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) seeds. Cottonseed oil had the

H. N. Wanyika; P. G. Kareru; J. M. Keriko; A. N. Gachanja; G. M. Kenji; N. J Mukiira

242

High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 ?g/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 ?g/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance. PMID:23067263

Körpe, Didem Aksoy; ??er?, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

2013-05-01

243

Influence of chemical extraction conditions on the physicochemical and functional properties of polysaccharide gum from durian (Durio zibethinus) seed.  

PubMed

Durian seed is an agricultural biomass waste of durian fruit. It can be a natural plant source of non-starch polysaccharide gum with potential functional properties. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of chemical extraction variables (i.e., the decolouring time, soaking temperature and soaking time) on the physicochemical properties of durian seed gum. The physicochemical and functional properties of chemically-extracted durian seed gum were assessed by determining the particle size and distribution, solubility and the water- and oil-holding capacity (WHC and OHC). The present work revealed that the soaking time should be considered as the most critical extraction variable affecting the physicochemical properties of crude durian seed gum. PMID:22643356

Mirhosseini, Hamed; Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee

2012-01-01

244

Extraction and chemical investigation of Kulthi (Macrotylona uniflorus, Lam.) seed protein.  

PubMed

Studies have been carried out on the protein solubility profile of Kulthi (Macrotylona uniflorus, Lam.) seed in aqueous solution over various pHs and at different concentrations of NaCl, Na2SO3, CaCl2, and MgCl2 at pH 8.0. Amino acid analysis of isolated protein identified 17 amino acids, 9 of which are essential. Gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-200 revealed the presence of seven components in the protein fraction. Their molecular weights were determined by two comparable standard methods. Extractable Kulthi seed proteins in salt solutions were separated electrophoretically into eight fractions whose molecular weights were found to be 186,200, 131,800, 108,400, 91,200, 53,700, 44,700, 38,000, and 27,500. PMID:7847899

Basak, B; Bhattacharyya, U K; Sinhababu, A; Laskar, S

1994-12-01

245

Extraction and purification of human interleukin-10 from transgenic rice seeds.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein production system using transgenic rice grain offers many advantages in higher accumulation, preservation, lower production cost, ease of scale up and low risk of contamination by toxic materials. We developed a transgenic rice strain whose seeds accumulate human interleukin (IL)-10, a cytokine that suppresses inflammation-related immune responses. We also developed a method of extracting and purifying IL-10 from rice seeds. A biochemical crosslinking method was used to detect the biologically active noncovalent dimer of IL-10. This method was useful for developing efficient methods of refolding and purification. The purified IL-10 comprised only noncovalent dimers and showed higher activity than the commercial IL-10. The purified IL-10 had very low endotoxin contamination and is expected to have broad clinical application. PMID:20159041

Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Yang, Lijun; Takaiwa, Fumio; Kosaka, Akemi; Tsuji, Noriko M; Shiraki, Kentaro; Sekikawa, Kenji

2010-07-01

246

Oil cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds and pulp of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins and ?-carotene. Total lipids (TL) in lyophilised seeds and pulp were 98.8 (dry weight) and 8.70 g\\/kg, respectively. High amounts of neutral lipids were found (87.0% of TL) in seed oil, while glycolipids and phospholipids occurred at high levels

Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Jörg-Thomas Mörsel

2003-01-01

247

Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from seeds in fresh Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste.  

PubMed

The antioxidant potential of ethanol extracts from defatted Bokbunja seed wastes generated during wine processing were estimated by radical scavenging abilities (DPPH(*), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(*-)), retardation of lipid oxidation, and iron ion-chelating characteristics. For comparison, ethanol extracts from seeds of fresh ripe Bokbunja fruits were also used. The ethanol extracts from the wine seed waste always showed higher scavenging activities against DPPH(*), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(*-) than those from the fresh seeds. The oxidation of linoleic acid in dimethylsulfoxide at 105 degrees C revealed that the kinetic behavior clearly obeyed pseudo-zero-order regardless of the linoleic acid concentration. The Fe(II)-chelating capacity was determined by the Freundlich isotherm. The results showed high potential and favorability of the two extracts for Fe(II) chelation. The Freundlich chelation capacities (mg(1-1/n)L(1/n)/g) of both ethanol extracts from seeds of fresh Bokbunja and wine processing wastes, tannic acid, and proanthocyanidin from Pinus radiata bark were 100, 224, 260, and 307, respectively. The Fe(III)-chelating properties of the ethanol extracts were considered to be deeply associated with its 3',4',5'-trihydroxyl (galloyl) group as with tannic acid. PMID:17931856

Ku, Chang Sub; Mun, Sung Phil

2008-07-01

248

Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae) has been widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diabetes. In the present investigation, the chloroform extract of T. chebula seed powder was investigated for its antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using short term and long term study protocols. The efficacy of the extract was also evaluated for protection of renal functions in diabetic

Nalamolu Koteswara Rao; Srinivas Nammi

2006-01-01

249

In Vitro Remineralization Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Artificial Root Caries  

PubMed Central

Grape seed extract (GSE) contains Proanthocyanidin (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 hr at 37°C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester; polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher’s tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of Fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy. PMID:18819742

Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D.

2008-01-01

250

Adverse effects by artificial grapefruit seed extract products in patients on warfarin therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The aim of this\\u000a study was to investigate the composition of some commercially available GSE products and evaluate their effect in vitro on\\u000a two cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A couple on lifelong treatment with warfarin and continuous regular follow-ups took some drops of

Helena Brandin; Olle Myrberg; Torgny Rundlöf; Ann-Kristin Arvidsson; Gunilla Brenning

2007-01-01

251

Bioremediation of turbid surface water using seed extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) tree.  

PubMed

An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for simplified, point-of-use, low-risk water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. PMID:20131221

Lea, Michael

2010-02-01

252

Antimicrobial activities of various fractions of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Fen Ke) seed extract.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activities of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Fen ke) seed extracts were investigated using a disc diffusion method and also determining the minimal inhibitory concentration. The DL-P01-SI01 fraction showed that the strongest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus at MIC 64??g/mL, which was found to be due to the phenolic compounds. The HPLC analysis showed that the major phenolic compounds are gallic acid, corilagin, ethyl gallate and ellagic acid. PMID:24533783

Tseng, Huang-Chung; Wu, Wan-Ting; Huang, Ho-Shin; Wu, Ming-Chang

2014-08-01

253

The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume.  

PubMed

We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24425949

Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Tze, Liong Min; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

2013-06-01

254

The effect of water-level fluctuations on seedling recruitment in an aquatic macrophyte Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze (Menyanthaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined seed bank characteristics and seed germination and the survival of seedlings to understand the significance of water-level fluctuations on sexual regeneration in Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze. The seed bank existed throughout the pond. The longevity of the seed bank was more than 3 years. Seed germination started on the exposed mudflat as soon as water drawdown occurred. At

Yuki Shibayama; Yasuro Kadono

2007-01-01

255

Hypoglycaemic and Tissue-Protective Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Seeds on Alloxan-Induced Albino Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The tissue-protective potential of Persea americana necessitated a look into the histopathological effects of the plant extract on the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The hypoglycaemic and tissue-protective effects of hot aqueous Persea americana (avocado pear) seed extracts on alloxan-induced albino rats were investigated. Methods: Persea americana seeds were extracted using hot water, and different concentrations of the extract were prepared. The effects of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 g/L) of the hot aqueous P. americana seed extract on alloxan-induced Wistar albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, glibenclamide. The glucose level of the rats was measured daily, and the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, and the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of P. americana seed extracts indicated the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Results: The results showed that the extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) effect and reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effects glibenclamide. The seeds of P. americana also had anti-diabetic and protective effects on some rat tissues such as the pancreas, kidneys, and liver. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of the hot-water extract of P. americana seeds in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24643349

EZEJIOFOR, Anthonet Ndidi; OKORIE, Abednego; ORISAKWE, Orish Ebere

2013-01-01

256

Ascorbate, green tea and grape seed extracts increase the shelf life of low sulphite beef patties.  

PubMed

Green tea (GTE) and grape seed (GSE) extracts are proposed as preservatives for increasing the shelf life of low sulphite raw beef patties. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both extracts were compared with ascorbate. Five groups were established for the patties: Control (with no additives), S (100 SO(2)), SA (100 SO(2)+400 sodium ascorbate), ST (100 SO(2)+300 GTE) and SG (100 SO(2)+300 GSE) (mg per kg of meat). Patties were stored at 4°C in aerobic packaging for 0, 3, 6 or 9 days under retail display conditions. Meat spoilage (total viable and coliform counts, pH, lightness, chroma, hue angle, metmyoglobin and TBARS) was determined. The sensory contribution of the extracts to cooked patties was evaluated (colour, odour, flavour and texture). The results pointed to the possibility of using low SO(2)-vegetable extract combinations to preserve raw meat products. ST, SG and SA delayed microbial spoilage, redness loss and lipid oxidation, thus increasing the shelf life of the raw sulphite beef patties by 3 days. ST, SG and SA also delayed the onset of rancid flavours in cooked patties. No anomalous sensory traits were caused by either extract. Ascorbate, GTE and GSE improved the preservative effects of SO(2) on beef patties, especially against meat oxidation. This suggested that the quantity of SO(2) added can be reduced to obtain healthier raw meat products. PMID:22061951

Bañón, Sancho; Díaz, Pedro; Rodríguez, Mariano; Garrido, María Dolores; Price, Alejandra

2007-12-01

257

Toxicology evaluation of a procyanidin-rich extract from grape skins and seeds.  

PubMed

The procyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds and skins (GSSE) has antioxidant properties which may have cardioprotective effects. Since it might be interesting to incorporate this extract into a functional food, toxicological tests need to be made to determine how safe it is. In this study we carried out a limit test to determine the acute oral toxicity and the lethal dose 50 (LD50) and some genotoxicity tests of the extract in rats. The LD50 was higher than 5000 mg/kg. Doses of up to 2000 mg/kg showed no increase in micronucleated erythrocytes 72 h after treatment. The bacterial reverse mutation test showed that the extract was weakly mutagenic to the dose of 5 mg/plate and 19.5 and 9.7 ?g/ml of GSSE did not show significant differences in the frequency of aberrant metaphases in relation to negative controls. Our results indicated slight mutagenicity under the study conditions, so further studies should be conducted at lower doses to demonstrate that this extract is not toxic. PMID:21443917

Lluís, Laura; Muñoz, Mònica; Nogués, M Rosa; Sánchez-Martos, Vanessa; Romeu, Marta; Giralt, Montse; Valls, Josep; Solà, Rosa

2011-06-01

258

Antioxidant properties of raspberry seed extracts on micronucleus distribution in peripheral blood lymphocytes.  

PubMed

This study addresses in vitro effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) seed extracts (RSE) on the frequency of micronuclei. We evaluated the effects of three different extracts (50%, 80%, and 100% methanol) in doses of 1.4, 4.2, and 8.4 microg/mL, per 5 mL culture using cytochalasin-B micronucleus (CBMN) assay in peripheral human lymphocytes. The frequency of MN was scored in binucleated (BN) cells. The nuclear proliferation index was also calculated. The distribution of polyphenolic compounds in RSEs was determined using LC/UV/ESI-TOF MS. The identified 37 compounds comprised flavanol monomers and oligomers, as well as varieties of ellagitannin components. Treatment of lymphocytes with RSEs induced a significant decrease in the frequency of micronuclei by 80%. These results demonstrate that the constituents of RSEs may be important in the prevention of oxidative lymphocyte damage by reactive oxygen species and may also reduce the level of DNA damage. These findings support the potential benefits of polyphenolic compounds from raspberry seeds as efficient antioxidants. PMID:19748543

Godevac, Dejan; Tesevi?, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Milosavljevi?, Slobodan; Stankovi?, Miroslava

2009-11-01

259

Anticonvulsant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Seed Extract of Croton Tiglium in Rats and Mice  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of hydro-alcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium in rats and mice. Materials and Methods: Forty -eight each of rats and mice of either sex were randomised into four groups and subjected to seizures induced by electroconvulsiometer and pentylenetetrazole. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium (250 and 500mg/kg) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect using sodium valproate (200mg/kg) as standard and distilled water as control. The parameters observed were time for onset of HLE (Hind Limb Extension) and duration of HLE in electrically induced seizures, and time for onset of convulsions and duration of convulsions in chemically induced seizures. Mortality of the animals over 24 hours was observed in both the models. For testing statistical significance between various groups unpaired student t-test was used. Observations and Results: In electrically induced seizures croton tiglium produced dose dependant prolongation of time for onset of HLE and a reduction in duration of HLE and in chemically induced convulsions, it prolonged time for onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of convulsions indicating its anticonvulsant effect in both models. However, anticonvulsant effect was less compared to sodium valproate. There was a higher percentage of mortality in croton tiglium group in chemically induced convulsions when compared to sodium valproate. Conclusion: Croton tiglium has dose dependant anticonvulsant effect in electrically induced seizures, while in pentylenetetrazole induced-seizures the protection is very minimal. PMID:24783071

Mudium, Raghunandan; Kolasani, Bhanuprakash

2014-01-01

260

Allelopathy effects of C. Cathayensis exocarp extracting solution on seed germinating of four different kinds of crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author researches on the allelopathy effects of different viscosity (0?? 2.5g.mL -1 ) C. Cathayensis exocarp extracting solution, on green bean, wheat, soy bean and corn seeds. By calculation of the pot plants morphological and physiological indexes, the result shows: the viscosity (0.1?? 0.5g.mL -1 ) solution could greatly promote the seed germination. The effects of the viscosity (0.1g.mL

Xiangming Chen

2011-01-01

261

Composition and antioxidative activities of supercritical CO 2-extracted oils from seeds and soft parts of northern berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the composition and the antioxidative activities of oils from the seeds and the soft parts of a range of northern berries extracted by supercritical CO2. The seed oils of the species of Rubus, Vaccinium, Empetrum, Fragaria and Hippophaë were rich in linoleic (18:2n-6, 34–55% of total fatty acids) and ?-linolenic (18:3n-3, 29–45% of total) acids with

Baoru Yang; Markku Ahotupa; Petri Määttä; Heikki Kallio

2011-01-01

262

Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts against lipid oxidation in model systems.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal was studied in comparison with mimosine. Both extracts showed similar hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, singlet oxygen inhibition and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity (p?>?0.05). Nevertheless, the extract without prior chlorophyll removal had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity than that with prior chlorophyll removal (p?seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal possessed a lower antioxidant activity, compared with mimosine. When lead seed extract without prior chlorophyll removal (100 and 200?ppm) was used in different lipid oxidation model systems, including ?-carotene-linoleic acid and lecithin liposome systems, the preventive effect toward lipid oxidation was dose-dependent. At the same level of use, mimosine exhibited a higher efficacy in prevention of lipid oxidation in both systems as indicated by the lower increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. A similar result was obtained in minced mackerel. Therefore, lead seed extract containing mimosine could act as a natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. PMID:23729420

Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Maqsood, Sajid

2013-08-01

263

Grape seed extract neutralizes the effects of Cerastes cerastes cerastes post-synaptic neurotoxin in mouse diaphragm.  

PubMed

This work was undertaken to investigate the toxic activity of the post-synaptic neurotoxic fraction isolated from the venom of the Egyptian sand viper (Cerastes cerastes cerastes), and the ability of grape seed extract to antagonize this effect produced in sublethally intoxicated mice, with an emphasis on ultrastructural features. Light and transmission electron microscopy of diaphragms of intoxicated mice showed myonecrosis, myofiber hypercontraction, sarcomere disorganization, and mitochondrial damage. Alterations in motor neurons and axon terminals were also observed. The toxic activities of C. cerastes cerastes neurotoxin were inhibited by administrating grape seed extract, either before or after intoxication, showing that grape seed extract has protective and therapeutic potential to be used as antivenom. PMID:22917896

Mahmoud, Yomna Ibrahim

2013-01-01

264

Inhibitory effect of celery seeds extract on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis: modulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and altered hepatic foci development.  

PubMed

The chemopreventive activity of methanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds (celery seeds) has been investigated against Solt Farber protocol of hepatocarcinogenesis, oxidative stress and induction of positive foci of gamma-GT in the liver of Wistar rats. The prophylactic treatment of celery seeds extract protected dose dependently against diethylnitrosoamine (DEN)+2-acetylaminofluorine (AAF)+partial hepatectomy (PH) induced hepatocarcinogenesis and other related events such as induction of gamma-GT positive foci (P<0.001). 2-AAF administration in diet with PH in rats resulted in increased hepatic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and a consequent increase in the rate of DNA synthesis when compared to saline treated control group while pretreatment of rats with celery seeds extract resulted in inhibition of aforementioned parameters dose dependently. The augmentation of quinone reductase (QR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities; and depletion of the tissue GSH content after 2-AAF (i.p. injection) for five consecutive days was prevented with the administration of celery seed extract. On the basis of the above results it can be said that A. graveolens is a potent plant against experimentally induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats. PMID:15797622

Sultana, Sarwat; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Jahangir, Tamanna; Sharma, Sonia

2005-04-18

265

Toxicity of Moringa oleifera seed extract on some hematological and biochemical profiles in a freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to investigate the acute and sublethal toxicity of Moringa oleifera seed extract on hematological and biochemical variables of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio under laboratory conditions. The 96 h LC50 value of M. oleifera seed extract to the fish C. carpio was estimated by probit analysis method and was found to be 124.0 mg/L (with 95% confidence limits). For sublethal studies a non lethal dose of 1/10th of 96 h LC50 value (12.40 mg/L) was taken. During acute treatment (96 h), hematological variables like red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in fish exposed to seed extract. However a significant (P<0.05) increase in white blood cell count (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) value was observed in the exposed fish during above treatment period when compared to that of the control groups. Biochemical parameters such as plasma protein and glucose levels significantly declined in fish exposed to seed extract while a significant (P<0.05) increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was observed. During sublethal treatment (12.40 mg/L), WBC count, MCV, MCH, plasma glucose, AST, ALT and ALP activities were gradually elevated (P<0.05) at the end of 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35th days in seed extract exposed fish, whereas plasma protein level declined. However, a biphasic trend was noticed in Hb, Hct, RBC and MCHC levels. This study may provide baseline information about the toxicity of M. oleifera seed extract to C. carpio and to establish safer limit in water purification. PMID:21282048

Kavitha, Chokkalingam; Ramesh, Mathan; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthil; Lakshmi, Srinivasan Audhi

2012-11-01

266

Antioxidant Activity, Delayed Aging, and Reduced Amyloid-? Toxicity of Methanol Extracts of Tea Seed Pomace from Camellia tenuifolia.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the exploitation of the residues generated by plants. This study explored the potential beneficial health effects from the main biowaste, tea seed pomace, produced when tea seed is processed. DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as in vivo model to evaluate the beneficial health effects, including antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity. Among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia, the methanol (MeOH)-soluble fraction has the best in vivo antioxidant activities. The MeOH-soluble extraction was further divided into six fractions by chromatography with a Diaion HP-20 column eluted with water/MeOH, and fraction 3 showed the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Further analysis in C. elegans showed that the MeOH extract (fraction 3) of tea seed pomace significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, prolonged C. elegans lifespan, and reduced amyloid-? (A?) toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Moreover, bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded two potent constituents from fraction 3 of the MeOH extract, namely, kaempferol 3-O-(2?-glucopyranosyl)-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2?-xylopyranosyl)-rutinoside, and both compounds exhibited excellent in vivo antioxidant activity. Taken together, MeOH extracts of tea seed pomace from C. tenuifolia have multiple beneficial health effects, suggesting that biowaste might be valuable to be explored for further development as nutraceutical products. Furthermore, the reuse of agricultural byproduct tea seed pomace also fulfills the environmental perspective. PMID:25295856

Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chan-Wei; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

2014-11-01

267

Flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract and evaluation of its neuroprotective effect.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract (PE) and to evaluate its effect as a phytoestrogen on the morphometric parameters of CA3 hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rats (OVX). L. mexicanus seeds, germinated for 48 h, were homogenized and macerated using an 80% ethanol solution. The extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. Thirty young Wistar strain female rats (200±10 g) were randomly distributed into four groups: sham operated (S) treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); ovariectomized and treated with 1250 ?g of PE extract (OVX-PE); ovariectomized and treated with 5 ?g estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB); and ovariectomized and vehicle treated (OVX). All substances were injected subcutaneously daily for 28 days. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed, perfused, and fixed to obtain the brains for histological processing. Each brain was cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The thickness of the stratum oriens (SO), the nuclear diameter, and the neuronal density were measured in the hippocampus CA3 area. Nine different flavonoids and one non-identified compound were detected. The histological analysis demonstrated that the thickness of the SO was higher in the OVX-EB and S groups than in the OVX-PE and OVX groups (p?0.05); in addition, the nuclear diameters of the neurons in the OVX-EB and S groups were higher compared with the other groups (p?0.05). The OVX group had the highest cellular density among groups (p?0.05). Based on our results, the PE obtained did not have beneficial effects on CA3 hippocampal neurons. PMID:24723146

Uribe-Gómez, José Jesús; Zamora-Natera, Juan Francisco; Bañuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej; García-López, Pedro Macedonio

2014-11-01

268

Inhibitory Action of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. On Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis.  

PubMed

The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of 1 g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders. PMID:18958739

Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

2007-10-01

269

Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of extract from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100 mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40 min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the polyphenol extraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50 mL of solvent volume, 20 min of extraction time and 70 °C of ultrasonic temperature. PMID:23993457

Teh, Sue-Siang; Birch, Edward John

2014-01-01

270

H- beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source.  

PubMed

H(-) beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 10(19) m(-3) was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H(-) ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents. PMID:22380279

Ando, A; Matsuno, T; Funaoi, T; Tanaka, N; Tsumori, K; Takeiri, Y

2012-02-01

271

Acute and long-term safety evaluation of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.  

PubMed

Grape seed proanthocyanidins are known to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological, medicinal and therapeutic properties. Previous studies in our laboratories have demonstrated the various protective abilities of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against various pathologic conditions. However no extensive safety studies have been conducted on grape seed proanthocyanidins to date. This study demonstrates the acute and chronic safety studies on GSPE. Acute oral toxicity, dermal toxicity, dermal irritation and eye irritation studies have been conducted. The LD50 of GSPE was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg when administered once orally via gastric intubation to fasted male and female albino rats. The LD50 of GSPE was found to be greater than 2000 mg/kg when administered once for 24 hr to the clipped, intact skin of male and female albino rats. In addition, 2000 mg/kg was found to be the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for systemic toxicity under the conditions of the study. In a dermal irritation study, GSPE received a descriptive rating classification of moderately irritating. Extensive chronic studies were also conducted. We have assessed the effects of chronic administration of 100 mg GSPE/kg/day for twelve months and its effect on seven vital target organs, namely, brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung and spleen, and on serum chemistry changes in male B6C3F1 mice. Furthermore, the dose-dependent chronic effects of GSPE in female B6C3F1 mice were evaluated. Mice were fed 0, 100, 250 or 500 mg GSPE/kg/day for six months and the effects of GSPE exposure were examined on brain, duodenum, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas and spleen, and on serum chemistry changes in female mice. These acute studies demonstrated that GSPE is safe and did not cause any detrimental effects in vivo under the conditions investigated in this study. PMID:11758648

Ray, S; Bagchi, D; Lim, P M; Bagchi, M; Gross, S M; Kothari, S C; Preuss, H G; Stohs, S J

2001-01-01

272

Grape seed and skin extract prevents high-fat diet-induced brain lipotoxicity in rat.  

PubMed

Obesity is related to an elevated risk of dementia and the physiologic mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the brain are poorly understood. The present investigation analyzed the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on brain steatosis and oxidative stress and the intracellular mediators involved in signal transduction, as well as the protection offered by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced ectopic deposition of cholesterol and phospholipid but not triglyceride. Moreover brain lipotoxicity is linked to an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, depletion of manganese and a concomitant increase in ionizable calcium and acetylcholinesterase activity. Importantly GSSE alleviated all the deleterious effects of HFD treatment. Altogether our data indicated that HFD could find some potential application in the treatment of manganism and that GSSE should be used as a safe anti-lipotoxic agent in the prevention and treatment of fat-induced brain injury. PMID:22684284

Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hassine, Fethy Ben; Aouani, Ezzedine

2012-09-01

273

Effect of different fractions of petroleum ether (60-80 degrees) extract of the seeds of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Linn. ex Murray) Pers. on some microorganisms.  

PubMed

In a model experiment, seed extracts were applied to different bacterial test organisms. Different fractions of seed extracts in petroleum ether (60-80 degrees C) of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Linn. ex. Murray) Pers. when applied to both Gram positive and Gram negative test bacteria, some fractions showed high antagonistic activity. PMID:7737896

Sinhababu, A; Basak, B; Laskar, S; Chakrabarty, D; Sen, S K

1994-01-01

274

Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activities of different extracts of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) pomace without seeds.  

PubMed

In this study, 100% methanolic extract (ME), 70% aqua-methanolic extract (AME) and 100% aqueous extract of seabuckthorn byproduct were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The total phenolic contents were high in AME (84.28 ± 1.58 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/gm of extract) compared to other extracts. All the extracts scavenged different in vitro radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC(50) values were lowest in AME for 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals, while ME had lowest values for hydroxyl radicals. The reducing power of the extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner and was highest in AME. The findings of this study revealed that seabuckthorn pomace without seed is one of the important resources as an antioxidant for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic or nutraceutical industries. PMID:21875373

Varshneya, Chandresh; Kant, Vinay; Mehta, Madhuri

2012-03-01

275

Tocolytic and toxic activity of papaya seed extract on isolated rat uterus.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. seeds extracted with 80% ethanol (EEPS) caused concentration-dependent tocolysis of uterine strips isolated from gravid and non-gravid rats. Prostaglandin F2alpha and oxytocin-induced contractions of the isolated rat uterus were also inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion by EEPS. Recoveries of the uterine activity after EEPS-induced uterine quiescence were very weak. Higher concentration of EEPS caused prompt uterine quiescence, which was also significantly irreversible. Pre-incubation of the rat uterus in Ringer Locke solution containing 10 mg/ml of EEPS for 1 hour prior to suspension in tissue baths led to significant depression of the spontaneous and KCl (60 mM)-induced uterine contractions relative to the solvent control (P<0.05). Cross sections of EEPS-pretreated non-gravid rat uterus (stained with hematoxyline and eosin) examined under light microscope revealed degeneration of the endometrium and myometrium with obvious cytoplasmic vacuolation indicating that EEPS could have direct toxic effect on the uterine tissues. Previous workers have reported benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) as the main bioactive and anthelmintic compound in different extracts of papaya seeds. Using electron impact ionization methods, the presence of BITC in EEPS was also shown in this study. Mass spectra of both EEPS and standard BITC showed a base peak of benzyl/tropylium ion at m/z 91 (indicative of an aromatic compound) and the molecular ion peak of BITC (m/z 149). Our earlier studies have demonstrated BITC-induced functional and morphological derangement of isolated uterus. We thus conclude that at high concentration, EEPS is capable of causing irreversible uterine tocolysis probably due to the damaging effect of BITC (its chief phytochemical) on the myometrium. PMID:14623029

Adebiyi, Adebowale; Ganesan Adaikan, P; Prasad, R N V

2003-12-19

276

Solution structure and lipid binding of a nonspecific lipid transfer protein extracted from maize seeds.  

PubMed Central

The three-dimensional solution structure of a nonspecific lipid transfer protein extracted from maize seeds determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy is described. This cationic protein consists of 93 amino acid residues. Its structure was determined from 1,091 NOE-derived distance restraints, including 929 interresidue connectivities and 197 dihedral restraints (phi, psi, chi 1) derived from NOEs and 3J coupling constants. The global fold involving four helical fragments connected by three loops and a C-terminal tail without regular secondary structures is stabilized by four disulfide bridges. The most striking feature of this structure is the existence of an internal hydrophobic cavity running through the whole molecule. The global fold of this protein, very similar to that of a previously described lipid transfer protein extracted from wheat seeds (Gincel E et al., 1994, Eur J Biochem 226:413-422) constitutes a new architecture for alpha-class proteins. 1H NMR and fluorescence studies show that this protein forms well-defined complexes in aqueous solution with lysophosphatidylcholine. Dissociation constants, Kd, of 1.9 +/- 0.6 x 10(-6) M and > 10(-3) M were obtained with lyso-C16 and -C12, respectively. A structure model for a lipid-protein complex is proposed in which the aliphatic chain of the phospholipid is inserted in the internal cavity and the polar head interacts with the charged side chains located at one end of this cavity. Our model for the lipid-protein complex is qualitatively very similar to the recently published crystal structure (Shin DH et al., 1995, Structure 3:189-199). PMID:8845747

Gomar, J.; Petit, M. C.; Sodano, P.; Sy, D.; Marion, D.; Kader, J. C.; Vovelle, F.; Ptak, M.

1996-01-01

277

Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of swietenia macrophylla king (meliaceae) seed extracts in normoglycaemic rats undergoing glucose tolerance tests  

PubMed Central

Background Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) is used to treat diabetes mellitus in Malaysia. This study aims to evaluate the anti-hyperglycaemic potential of petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE) and methanol (ME) extracts of S. macrophylla seeds, in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Following treatment of normoglycaemic rats with S. macrophylla seed extracts, hypoglycaemic and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured. Similarly, glucose concentrations were measured after 1 and 14 days of extract treatment of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Glucose absorption by isolated everted intestine and glucose uptake by isolated abdominal muscle were tested after treatment with seed extracts. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed on PE of S. macrophylla seeds to identify the compounds responsible for its activity. Results None of the extracts had a significant effect on the blood glucose levels of 60 randomly selected normoglycaemic (normal) and diabetic rats undergoing hypoglycaemic tests. PE, however, significantly reduced blood glucose levels in 30 randomly selected normoglycaemic rats undergoing IPGTT tests 30–120 minutes after glucose administration. Repeated doses of 1000 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg PE to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 14 days did not reduce blood glucose levels significantly. PE did not significantly reduced the intestinal absorption of glucose, but significantly increased glucose uptake by abdominal muscle in the absence or presence of insulin. GC-MS analysis indicated that diterpenes, triterpenoids, fatty acid methyl esters, aldehydes and phytosterols may be responsible for the glucose lowering effects of PE. Conclusion PE extracts of S. macrophylla seeds showed anti-hyperglycaemic activity on IPGTTs . GC-MS analysis on the PE revealed that several compounds, including fucosterol and ?-sitosterol, may be responsible for these anti-hyperglycaemic properties. PMID:23684219

2013-01-01

278

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oil from Mexican chia seed ( Salvia hispanica L.): Characterization and process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was employed to extract oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) from chia seeds, and the physicochemical properties of the oil were determined. A central composite rotatable design was used to analyze the impact of temperature (40°C, 60°C and 80°C), pressure (250bar, 350bar and 450bar) and time (60min, 150min and 240min) on oil extraction yield, and

Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Andrea Vega; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás; Miquel Gimeno; Eduardo Bárzana; Alberto Tecante

2010-01-01

279

A comparative study of extraction methods reveals preferred solvents for cystine knot peptide isolation from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds.  

PubMed

MCoTI-I and MCoTI-II (short for Momordica cochinchinensis Trypsin Inhibitor-I and -II, respectively) are attractive candidates for developing novel intracellular-targeting drugs because both are exceptionally stable and can internalize into cells. These seed-derived cystine knot peptides are examples of how natural product discovery efforts can lead to biomedical applications. However, discovery efforts are sometimes hampered by the limited availability of seed materials, highlighting the need for efficient extraction methods. In this study, we assessed five extraction methods using M. cochinchinensis seeds, a source of well-characterized cystine knot peptides. The most efficient extraction of nine known cystine knot peptides was achieved by a method based on acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1), followed by methods based on sodium acetate (20 mM, pH 5.0), ammonium bicarbonate (5 mM, pH 8.0), and boiling water. On average, the yields obtained by these four methods were more than 250-fold higher than that obtained using dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extraction, a previously applied standard method. Extraction using acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1) yielded the highest number of reconstructed masses within the majority of plant-derived cystine knot peptide mass range but only accounted for around 50% of the total number of masses, indicating that any single method may result in under-sampling. Applying acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1), boiling water, and ammonium bicarbonate (5 mM, pH 8.0) extractions either successively or discretely significantly increased the sampling number. Overall, acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1) can facilitate efficient extraction of cystine-knot peptides from M. cochinchinensis seeds but for discovery purposes the use of a combination of extraction methods is recommended where practical. PMID:24613804

Mahatmanto, Tunjung; Poth, Aaron G; Mylne, Joshua S; Craik, David J

2014-06-01

280

Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic effect of proanthocyanidin-rich extracts from grape seeds in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Proanthocyanidin-rich extracts (0.1% and 1% in diets [w\\/w]) did not appreciably affect the changes in serum lipid profile of cholesterol-fed rabbits. The level of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (ChE-OOH) induced by 2,2?-azobis(2-amidinopropane-dihydrochloride (AAPH) were lower in the plasma of rabbits fed

Jun Yamakoshi; Shigehiro Kataoka; Takuro Koga; Toshiaki Ariga

1999-01-01

281

Anti-herpes simplex virus effect of a seed extract from the tropical plant Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch (Chrysobalanaceae).  

PubMed

Incubation of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVr-HSV1), during infection of the HEp-2 cell culture, with an extract prepared from the seeds of Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch (Chrysobalanaceae) species impaired the productive replication of this virus in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract was able to inhibit extracellular virus (virucidal effect) and also interfered with a very early event of cell infection, at a non-cytotoxic concentration. PMID:12487329

Miranda, M M F S; Gonçalves, J L S; Romanos, M T V; Silva, F P; Pinto, L; Silva, M H; Ejzemberg, R; Granja, L F Z; Wigg, M D

2002-10-01

282

Allelopathic effect of Nepeta meyeri Benth. extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of some crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Nepeta meyeri Benth., the effects of aqueous extracts (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5%) prepared from roots and leaves of N. meyeri were studied on the seed germination and seedling growth of several economically important crops (barley, wheat, canola,\\u000a safflower, and sunflower). Both the root and leaf extracts of N. meyeri

Salih Mutlu; Ökke? Atici

2009-01-01

283

Extraction and identification of natural antioxidant from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree variety of Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil from the dried seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (variety of Malawi) was extracted with a mixture of chloroform\\/methanol (50?50). The induction period measurements demonstrated\\u000a a great resistance to oxidative rancidity. After degumming, there was a reduction of 74% in induction periods. The gums produced\\u000a were extracted with diethylether, n-butanol, and water, yielding four fractions: Fraction 1 (81.8%

Stavros Lalas; John Tsaknis

2002-01-01

284

Optimization of DNA extraction from seeds and leaf tissues of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum) for polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Chrysanthemums constitute approximately 30 species of perennial flowering plants, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to Asia and Northeastern Europe. Chrysanthemum is a natural cosmetic additive extracted from Chinese herb by modern biochemical technology. It has the properties of anti-bacterial, anti-viral, reducing (detoxification) and anti-inflammation. It possesses antioxidant characteristics, which could assist in minimizing free-radical induced damage. Therefore, it is widely used in skin and hair care products. Chemical composition of this herbal remedy includes kikkanols, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, various essential oils containing camphor, cineole, sabinol, borneole and other elements that interfere with DNA, causing erroneous or no PCR products. In the present study, testing and modification of various standard protocols for isolation of high-quality DNA from leaf tissues and seeds of C. indicum was done. It was observed that the DNA obtained from seeds and leaf tissues with a modified cetyltrimethylammonium bromide buffer protocol was of good quality, with no colored pigments and contaminants. Also, DNA could be extracted from leaf tissues without using liquid nitrogen. Quality of DNA extracted from seeds was much better as compared to that extracted from leaf tissues. The extracted DNA was successfully amplified by PCR using arbitrary RAPD primers. The same protocol will probably be useful for extraction of high-molecular weight DNA from other plant materials containing large amounts of secondary metabolites and essential oils. PMID:22493524

Hasan, Saba; Prakash, Jyoti; Vashishtha, Abhinav; Sharma, Agnivesh; Srivastava, Kuldeep; Sagar, Faizuddin; Khan, Nausheen; Dwivedi, Keshav; Jain, Payal; Shukla, Saransh; Gupta, Swati Prakash; Mishra, Saumya

2012-01-01

285

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2013-01-01

286

Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Anethum Graveolens Seed on Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizure in Adult Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Regarding chronic nature of epilepsy and its side effects and to access the effective treatment procedures, herbal medicine has received remarkable interest. The aim of this study was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) -induced seizure in male mice. Methods Fifty-six albino male mice were divided randomly into seven groups including the negative control (saline), positive control (Phenobarbital) and treatment groups using different doses of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (50, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg/ kg). To provoke convulsion, PTZ was injected to all groups and initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures as well as surveillance after 24 h were measured. Results The results indicated that hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (AGS) delayed the initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures in comparison with saline group. The latency was considerable for myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures at all above mentioned doses of AGS extract except for the lowest one. Moreover, the protective effect of AGS extract against mortality was statistically significant at all doses except for 50 mg/kg. Discussion As the hydro-alcoholic extract of AGS showed an appropriate response in experimental model of convulsion, it might be considered as an adjuvant therapy with other traditional antiepileptic medications. PMID:25337380

Rostampour, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Arghavan; Salehi, Peyman; Saadat, Farshid

2014-01-01

287

Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.  

PubMed

Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. PMID:22885021

Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

2012-12-01

288

Cisplatin induced damage in kidney genomic DNA and nephrotoxicity in male rats: The protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical use of cisplatin is highly limited, because of its renal toxicity. In this study, the protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is investigated in rats. Results showed that DNA qualitative analysis indicated an increase in the instability of the DNA purified from the cisplatin exposed kidney cells. Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed DNA damage

Abir A. Saad; Mokhtar I. Youssef; Lamiaa K. El-Shennawy

2009-01-01

289

Extraction, isolation and characterisation of oil bodies from pumpkin seeds for therapeutic use.  

PubMed

Pumpkin, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family has been used frequently as functional medicines for therapeutic use. Several phytochemicals such as polysaccharides, phenolic glycosides, 13-hydroxy-9Z, 11E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of pumpkin, proteins from germinated seeds, have been isolated. Here the influence of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on the properties and stability of oil bodies from pumpkin (Cucurbita) were determined with a view to patterning oil body size and structure for future therapeutic intervention. Oil bodies from pumpkin seeds were extracted, isolated, characterised using optical microscopy, zeta potential and particle size distribution obtained. During microscopic analysis, the oil bodies were more intact and in an integrated form at the time of extraction but were ruptured with time. Water extracted oil bodies were spherical for all four layers where cream had larger oil bodies then upper curd. Lower curd and supernatant had considerably smaller size with lower curd densely packed and seemed to be rich in oil bodies than any of the four layers. At pH 3, in the absence of salt, the zeta potential is approximately +30 mV, but as the salt concentration increases, the ? potential rises at 10 mM but then decreases over the salt range. This trend continues for the upper curd, lower curd and the supernatant and the degree of the reduction (mV) in zeta potential is of the order creamseed oil bodies at an increasing pH (3, 7.4 and 9) and salt concentration (0, 10, 50 and 100 mM) across all four layers. The lowest average size distributions are seen at pH 7.4 across all four layers especially within the cream and upper curd layers. At pH 3 and 9, the highest average size distributions are seen in the lower curd and cream layers. Oil bodies can be extracted, isolated and from pumpkins using an aqueous extraction method and may prove to be a useful new source of lipids for application in patterning therapeutics for clinical use. PMID:23442639

Adams, Gary G; Imran, Shahwar; Wang, Sheng; Mohammad, Abubaker; Kok, M Samil; Gray, David A; Channell, Guy A; Harding, Stephen E

2012-10-15

290

Ameliorative Potential of Tamarindus indica on High Fat Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180?mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:24688399

Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Ariyattu Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair; Agarwal, Amit

2014-01-01

291

Cardioprotective mechanisms of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed extract against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in isolated rat hearts.  

PubMed

The effects of kernel extract obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed on the postischemic cardiac recovery were studied in isolated working rat hearts. Rats were treated with various daily doses of the extract for 14 days, and hearts were then isolated and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and tachycardia (VT) fell from their control values of 92% and 100% to 50% (not significant) and 58% (not significant), 17% (P<0.05), and 25% (P<0.05) with the doses of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Lower concentrations of the extract (1 and 5 mg/kg) failed to significantly reduce the incidence of VF and VT during reperfusion. Sour cherry seed kernel extract (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly improved the postischemic recovery of cardiac function (coronary flow, aortic flow, and left ventricular developed pressure) during reperfusion. We have also demonstrated that the extract-induced protection in cardiac function significantly reflected in a reduction of infarct size. Immunohistochemistry indicates that a reduction in caspase-3 activity and apoptotic cells by the extract, beside other potential action mechanisms of proanthocyanidin, trans-resveratrol, and flavonoid components of the extract, could be responsible for the cardioprotection in ischemic-reperfused myocardium. PMID:16617126

Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Nagy, Norbert; Varga, Edit; Varadi, Judit; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szabo, Gergo; Szendrei, Levente; Bacskay, Ildiko; Vecsernyes, Miklos; Antal, Miklos; Fesus, Laszlo; Boucher, Francois; de Leiris, Joel; Tosaki, Arpad

2006-09-01

292

Milk thistle seed extract protects rat C6 astroglial cells from acute cocaine toxicity  

PubMed Central

Cocaine is a powerful addictive drug, widely abused in most Western countries. It easily reaches various domains within and outside of the central nervous system (CNS), and triggers varying levels of cellular toxicity. No pharmacological treatment is available to alleviate cocaine-induced toxicity in the cells without side-effects. Here, we discerned the role of milk thistle (MT) seed extract against cocaine toxicity. First, we investigated acute cytotoxicity induced by treatment with 2, 3 and 4 mM cocaine for 1 h in astroglial, liver and kidney cells in vitro, and then in living shrimp larvae in vivo. We showed that astroglial cells are more sensitive to cocaine than liver, kidney cells or larvae. Cocaine exposure disrupted the general architecture of astroglial cells, induced vacuolation, decreased cell viability, and depleted the glutathione (GSH) level. These changes may represent the underlying pathology of cocaine in the astrocytes. By contrast, MT pretreatment (200 ?g/ml) for 30 min sustained the cell morphological features and increased both cell viability and the GSH level. Besides its protective effects, the MT extract was revealed to be non-toxic to astroglial cells, and displayed high free-radical scavenging activity. The results from this study suggest that enhanced GSH level underlies cell protection, and indicate that compounds that promote GSH synthesis in the cells may be beneficial against cocaine toxicity. PMID:25174449

BADISA, RAMESH B.; FITCH-PYE, CHERYL A.; AGHARAHIMI, MARYAM; PALM, DONALD E.; LATINWO, LEKAN M.; GOODMAN, CARL B.

2014-01-01

293

Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764

Poiana, Mariana-Atena

2012-01-01

294

Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600-800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764

Poiana, Mariana-Atena

2012-01-01

295

Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative attribute of hydroethanolic extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) seeds and its active constituents.  

PubMed

Treatment of diabetic mice with glibenclamide and crude extract (BE) significantly declined the FBG content. However, amongst the 6 isolated compounds, 3 compounds (C1, C4 and C6) appreciably subsided the exaggerated level of FBG. Simultaneously, glibenclamide, BE, C4 and C6 treatment markedly enhanced the hepatic glycogen content as compared to diabetic control group. Administration of crude extract, C4, C5 and C6 also exerted a protective effect on the declined activity of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in the three tissues. However, all the herbal treatments produced a pronounced escalation in GSH content. Contrarily the elevated level of hepatic, pancreatic and renal TBARS monitored in diabetic animals was significantly diminished in treated groups of animals. Alloxan administration severely deteriorated the structure of liver and pancreas of diabetic mice, which was found to be restored to a certain extent in glibenclamide, BE and C6 treated animals. Identification of the most potent antihyperglycemic compound C6 by HPLC confirmed its triterpene nature. C6 was then further characterized via various spectroscopic methods (IR, NMR and Mass) that revealed its similarity with laccijalaric ester-I, a triterpene present in soft resin of B. monosperma seeds. PMID:22013742

Sharma, Nidhi; Garg, Veena

2011-10-01

296

Grape seed and skin extract mitigates garlic-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.  

PubMed

Garlic is a commonly used spice in folk medicine that can exert adverse health effects when given at a high dose. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibits a variety of beneficial effects even at a high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxicity of high-dose garlic treatment on liver and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally administered either with garlic extract (5 g·(kg body weight)(-1)) or GSSE (500 mg·(kg body weight)(-1)) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily for 1 month. Plasma and hepatic levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and transaminases and liver antioxidant status were evaluated. Data showed that a high garlic dose induced liver toxicity and a pro-oxidative status characterized by increased malondialdehyde and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Garlic increased intracellular H(2)O(2) but decreased free iron and Ca(2+). GSSE alone or in co-treatment with garlic had the reverse effect and counteracted almost all garlic-induced deleterious impacts to near control levels. In conclusion, a high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state characterized by the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, inducing Ca(2+) depletion, while GSSE exerted antioxidant properties and Ca(2+) repletion. PMID:22512600

Hamlaoui-Gasmi, Sonia; Mokni, Meherzia; Limam, Nadia; N'guessan, Prudence; Carrier, Alice; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Aouani, Ezzedine; Marzouki, Lamjed

2012-05-01

297

Long-Term Effect of an Aqueous Fraxinus excelsior L. Seed Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

The effect of long-term intake of different doses (20, 40, and 60?mg/kg/day) of a Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract (FESE) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was evaluated. Water was used as control and captopril (50?mg/kg/day) was used as positive control. Systolic blood pressure, body weight, and food and liquid intake were registered weekly in SHR. The antioxidant and vascular relaxing properties of FESE were also studied in these animals. The development of hypertension was attenuated in the groups treated with captopril or FESE. The antihypertensive effect was more accentuated in the captopril group than in the FESE groups, and it was paradoxically more accentuated in the groups treated with 20?mg/kg/day or 40?mg/kg/day of FESE than in the group treated with the highest dose of this extract. Body weight gain and food intake increased in the FESE groups. After removing the corresponding antihypertensive treatment, the arterial blood pressure and the body weight of the FESE treated animals returned to control values. In addition, FESE increased plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma and liver malondialdehyde levels. Moreover, acetylcholine relaxation improved in the aorta rings from the FESE treated rats. PMID:24696778

Lopez-Carreras, Noemi; Fernandez-Vallinas, Sandra; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

2014-01-01

298

Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract.  

PubMed

Plant extracts are extensively used against snakebites in Indian folk medicine. In this study, one such traditionally used plant, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) seed methanol extract has been studied for its ability to neutralize Indian Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) venom. The extract effectively inhibited toxic effects, such as oedema, haemorrhage, myonecrosis and coagulation of citrated human plasma. Further, the extract inhibited the caseinolytic, hyaluronolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of the venom. The extract caused dose dependent inhibition of the toxic activities studied, suggesting venom inhibition. Thus, the anti-snake venom property of the extract appears to be highly promising for further investigation in order to achieve better neutralization of Indian E. carinatus venom poisoning. PMID:18567054

Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

2008-07-01

299

Acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether extract of neem oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography was diluted at different concentrations with liquid paraffin. The acaricidal bioassay was conducted using a dipping method. The results indicated that the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (at the concentration of 500.0ml/l) was 70.9ml/l, 24h after treatment. At concentrations of 500.0, 250.0, 125.0, 62.5 and 31.2ml/l, the median lethal times (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract were 8.7, 8.8, 10.8, 11.5 and 13.1h, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) showed that the petroleum ether extract of neem oil separated into four fractions (F1-F4). Acaricidal activity of 68.3% and 100.0% in the F2 and F4 was confirmed. These results suggest that petroleum ether extracts of neem oil and its four fractions possess useful acaricidal activity in vitro. PMID:22349080

Deng, Yunxia; Shi, Dongxia; Yin, Zhongqiong; Guo, Jianhong; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Lv, Cheng; Fan, Qiaojia; Liang, Xiaoxia; Shi, Fei; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Wei

2012-04-01

300

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.  

PubMed

Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation. PMID:23295454

Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

2013-02-26

301

Optimization of DNA extraction from seeds and fresh leaf tissues of wild marigold (Tagetes minuta) for polymerase chain reaction analysis.  

PubMed

Tagetes, a genus of flowering marigolds in the family Asteraceae (Compositeae), is reported to be a medicinal plant with hypotensive, spasmolytic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties. Tagetes minuta characteristically contains high concentrations of essential oils, flavonoids, polyphenols, and polysaccharides that interfere with DNA, causing erroneous or no PCR products. We tested and modified various standard protocols in an effort to isolate high-quality DNA from different plant tissues of T. minuta. We used sun-dried, shade-dried and fresh-leaf tissues, as well as seeds for DNA analysis. The DNA obtained from seeds and fresh-leaf tissues with a modified cetyltrimethylammonium bromide buffer protocol was of good quality, with no colored pigments and contaminants. We were able to obtain good quality DNA from fresh leaf tissues without using liquid nitrogen. A relatively large amount of DNA was also extracted from the sun- and shade-dried tissues, but its quality was not as good as that from seeds. The DNA extracted from seeds and fresh leaves was successfully amplified by PCR using arbitrary RAPD primers. The same protocol will probably be useful for extracting high-molecular weight DNA from other plant materials containing large amounts of secondary metabolites and essential oils. PMID:20309824

Shahzadi, I; Ahmed, R; Hassan, A; Shah, M M

2010-01-01

302

The Effect of Date Seed (Phoenix dactylifera) Extract on Paraoxonase and Arylesterase Activities in Hypercholesterolemic Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high- density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme, displaying esterase and lactonase activity. The PON1 is involved in a variety of inflammatory diseases, metabolizing toxic oxidized lipids and detoxifying of organophosphorus insecticide compounds and nerve agents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanolic date seed extract (DSE) on paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted in two groups of normal and hypercholesterolemic rats and continued for four weeks. Two weeks after receiving the normal and hypercholesterolemic diet, different dosages of DSE were administered during the last two weeks of the treatment. Blood samples were taken from animals before administration of DSE (at day 14) and at the end of the experimental period (at day 28). Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities of PON1 enzyme were assayed by kit using paraoxone and phenylacetate as the substrates. Relative changes in serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) were compared between the two groups during this interval. Results: Administration of DSE significantly increased serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in treated hypercholesterolemic groups compared to untreated ones. There was a significant difference in the TAOC of serum between the normal diet and hypercholesterolemic groups. However, DSE did not change the TAOC in hypercholesterolemic groups significantly. Conclusions: DSE increases serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities. These beneficial effects may be subjected to the presence of natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds in the date seed. Despite this, DSE did not increase TAOC in treated hypercholesterolemic groups compared to the untreated ones based on ABTS (2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) radical reduction assay. This indicates that the hypercholesterolemic diet, apart from DSE and atorvastatin effects, may be responsible for the serum TAOC reduction. However, it is concluded that DSE may be useful in decreasing the symptoms of diseases resulting from the low activity of paraoxonase. PMID:24644436

Takaeidi, Mohammad Reza; Jahangiri, Alireza; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Siahpoosh, Amir; Yaghooti, Hamid; Rezaei, Saeid; Salecheh, Maryam; Mansourzadeh, Zahra

2014-01-01

303

A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects  

E-print Network

Purpose - Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) have long been used as herbal medicine in Mediterranean countries and India. Its seeds have been known for a long time as herbal medicine for various

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

Isolation of volatiles from Nigella sativa seeds using microwave-assisted extraction: effect of whole extracts on canine and murine CYP1A.  

PubMed

The volatile components of Nigella sativa seeds were isolated using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and identified using gas chromatography. Further investigations were carried out to demonstrate the effects of whole extracts on canine (dog) and murine (rat) cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). The optimal extraction conditions of MAE were as follows: 25 mL of water, medium level of microwave oven power and 10 min of extraction time. A total of 32 compounds were identified under the conditions using GC-FID and GC-MS. Thymoquinone (38.23%), p-cymene (28.61%), 4-isopropyl-9-methoxy-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene (5.74%), longifolene (5.33%), ?-thujene (3.88) and carvacol (2.31%) were the main compounds emitted from N. sativa seeds. Various extracts including pure compounds, essential oil, nonpolar partition, relatively high-polar/nonpolar partition, and polar partition extracts effectively inhibited the reaction of ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylation, which is specified for CYP1A activity both in dog and rat. This in vitro data should be heeded as a signal of possible in vivo interactions. The use of human liver preparations would considerably strengthen the practical impact of the data generated from this study. PMID:23629843

Liu, Xue; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Abd El-Aty, A M; Assayed, M E; Shimoda, Minoru; Shim, Jae-Han

2013-07-01

305

Phenolic composition, DNA damage protective activity and hepatoprotective effect of free phenolic extract from Sphallerocarpus gracilis seeds.  

PubMed

The phenolic composition of the free phenolic extract from Sphallerocarpus gracilis seeds was analyzed by HPLC-MS and predominant compounds were chlorogenic acid, di-caffeoylquinic acid glucoside and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. The free phenolic extract was evaluated for DNA damage protective activity induced by ROO and OH radicals and hepatoprotective effect in vivo and in vitro. Results revealed that the free phenolic extract exhibited significant protective activity against both ROO and OH radical-induced DNA damage and the phenolic extract exerted more potent inhibitory activity against OH radical-induced damage than against that induced by ROO radicals. In vivo experimental results showed that the phenolic extract significantly prevented the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and hepatic malondialdehyde level caused by CCl4 in rats, and markedly increased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels. Histopathological examinations further confirmed that the phenolic extract could protect the liver from CCl4-induced damage. In vitro experimental results showed that the phenolic extract could reduce BRL hepatocyte apoptosis and damage induced by CCl4. These findings indicate that the S. gracilis seed could be developed as a medicinal herb for the therapy and prevention of hepatic injury. PMID:24657314

Gao, Chun-yan; Tian, Cheng-rui; Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Run-guang; Lu, Yue-hong

2014-05-01

306

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16–10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11–12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11–6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K.; Gupta, V.C.

2013-01-01

307

Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).  

PubMed

Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:24128509

Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

2014-02-15

308

Use of Moringa oleifera seed extracts to reduce helminth egg numbers and turbidity in irrigation water.  

PubMed

Water from wastewater-polluted streams and dug-outs is the most commonly used water source for irrigation in urban farming in Ghana, but helminth parasite eggs in the water represent health risks when used for crop production. Conventional water treatment is expensive, requires advanced technology and often breaks down in less developed countries so low cost interventions are needed. Field and laboratory based trials were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extracts in reducing helminh eggs and turbidity in irrigation water, turbid water, wastewater and tap water. In medium to high turbid water MO extracts were effective in reducing the number of helminth eggs by 94-99.5% to 1-2 eggs per litre and the turbidity to 7-11 NTU which is an 85-96% reduction. MO is readily available in many tropical countries and can be used by farmers to treat high turbid water for irrigation, however, additional improvements of water quality, e.g. by sand filtration, is suggested to meet the guideline value of ? 1 helminth egg per litre and a turbidity of ? 2 NTU as recommended by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water intended for irrigation. A positive correlation was established between reduction in turbidity and helminth eggs in irrigation water, turbid water and wastewater treated with MO. This indicates that helminth eggs attach to suspended particles and/or flocs facilitated by MO in the water, and that turbidity and helminth eggs are reduced with the settling flocs. However, more experiments with water samples containing naturally occurring helminth eggs are needed to establish whether turbidity can be used as a proxy for helminth eggs. PMID:22546609

Sengupta, Mita E; Keraita, Bernard; Olsen, Annette; Boateng, Osei K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Pálsdóttir, Guðný R; Dalsgaard, Anders

2012-07-01

309

Black soyabean seed coat extract regulates iron metabolism by inhibiting the expression of hepcidin.  

PubMed

Hepcidin, a key regulator of Fe homeostasis, is an ideal drug target for treating patients with Fe disorders such as haemochromatosis, anaemia of chronic inflammation and Fe-deficiency anaemia. However, whether (and how) traditional Chinese black foods (e.g., black soyabeans) target hepcidin and improve Fe-deficiency anaemia remains unclear. Herein, we report that black soyabean seed coat extract (BSSCE) can potently inhibit the in vitro and in vivo expression of hepcidin. In the present study, in cells treated with 200 ?g/ml BSSCE, hepcidin expression was found to be reduced to only 6% of the control levels (P<0.01). An AIN-76A diet containing 2% BSSCE was fed to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice for 0, 1, 7, 15 or 30 d; importantly, compared with the day 0 group, the day 7 group exhibited nearly a 50% decrease in hepatic hepcidin expression (P<0.01), a 35% decrease in splenic Fe concentrations (P<0.05) and a 135% increase in serum Fe concentrations (P<0.05). Mechanistically, the effect of BSSCE on hepcidin expression was mediated via a reduction in the phosphorylation levels of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog proteins (Smad)1/5/8. Consequently, the mice in the day 30 group exhibited large increases in erythrocyte counts (111% v. day 0, P<0.01), Hb concentrations (109%, P<0.01) and haematocrit values (108%, P<0.01). In conclusion, these results indicate that black soyabean extract regulates Fe metabolism by inhibiting the expression of hepcidin. This finding can be used to optimise the intervention of patients with hepcidin-related diseases, including Fe-deficiency anaemia. PMID:24387766

Mu, Mingdao; Wu, Aimin; An, Peng; Du, Xiaoli; Wu, Qian; Shen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Fudi

2014-04-14

310

Mechanistic pathways of antioxidant cytoprotection by a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.  

PubMed

To understand the bioavailability and mechanistic pathways of cytoprotection by IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE, commercially known as ActiVin) a series of in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted. Comparative protective abilities of GSPE, and vitamins C and E, singly and in combination, were assessed against smokeless tobacco extract (STE)-induced oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell death in a primary culture of normal human oral keratinocytes. GSPE protected against STE-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic cell death, and provided better protection as compared to vitamins C and E, singly and in combination. The bioavailability and protective ability of GSPE were examined against acetaminophen (AP)-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity, amiodarone (AM)-induced lung toxicity, doxorubicin (DX)-induced cardiotoxicity and dimethylnitrosamine (DM)-induced spleenotoxicity in mice. GSPE-fed animals were compared with GSPE-untreated mice to evaluate the protective ability of GSPE against these structurally diverse drugs/chemicals. Serum chemistry changes, histopathology and DNA damage were evaluated. Results indicate that GSPE preexposure prior to the drugs/chemicals such as AP, AM, DX or DM treatment, provided near complete protection in terms of serum chemistry changes and inhibition of both forms of cell death, e.g., apoptosis and necrosis. DNA damage in various tissues triggered by these agents was significantly reduced in GSPE-fed animals. Histopathological examination of multiple target organs provided similar data. The results suggest that GSPE exposure is bioavailable and provides significant multiorgan protection against structurally diverse drug- and chemical-induced toxic assaults. Further, these studies exhibited a series of mechanistic information including free radical scavenging ability, anti-endonucleolytic activity, cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibitory activity, anti-necrotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-carcinogenic activities, modulatory effects on antioxidative and apoptotic regulatory genes such as Bcl2, c-myc and p53, which may be responsible for the novel chemoprotective properties exhibited by GSPE. PMID:12587719

Bagchi, Debasis; Ray, Sidhartha D; Bagchi, Manashi; Preuss, Harry G; Stohs, Sidney J

2002-06-01

311

Evaluation of Physiological Activities of the Citron (Citrus junos Sieb. ex TANAKA) Seed Extracts  

PubMed Central

Citron seed extracts (CSEs) were made using distilled water (CSEW), ethanol (CSEE), and n-hexane (CSEH), to measure the total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The total polyphenol content was observed the highest in CSEE (188.71 ?g/mL), and occurred in the following order: CSEE>CSEW (141.11 ?g/mL)>CSEH (26.19 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL. CSEE (63.56%) and CSEW (56.61%) showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activities when compared with CSEH (28.57%). ABTS radical scavenging activities of CSEE (45.53%) and CSEW (40.02%) were also observed to be higher, whereas CSEH did not show ABTS radical scavenging activity. Anti-complementary activity of CSEE (26.85%) showed a greater activity than that of CSEW (7.84%) at 1,000 ?g/mL. Limonin and nomilin contents had the highest values (1.882% and 2.089%) in CSEE, and with 0.327% and 0.139% in CSEW; however, CSEH showed relatively very low values at 0.061% and 0.026%, respectively. Among the CSEs tested, CSEE as a by-product from citron may provide an important source of dietary antioxidant compounds with rich polyphenol and limonoid contents, and immunopotentiating activity, including the complement activation factor. PMID:24471132

Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

2013-01-01

312

Antioxidative and hypolipidemic efficacy of alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine the antioxidative potential and antihyperlipidemic activity of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg body weight, BW). Rats with glucose levels >200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into five groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered daily with seed extract (SME) at a dosage of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and another group orally administered 600 ?g/kg BW glibenclamide daily. Repeated daily oral administration of S. macrophylla significantly reduced blood glucose levels after 45 days of treatment. The lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides of SME treated rats decreased in the plasma, liver and kidney. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were significantly increased in SME treated rats. Antioxidants such as reduced glutathione level in the plasma, liver and kidney and vitamins C and E levels in the plasma increased in SME treated rats. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids and lipoproteins levels increased. Altered lipid profile of treated rats lead to normality with treatment of S. macrophylla. Thus, our results indicate that the administration of 100 mg/kg BW SME restores near normal blood glucose, redox status and lipid profile in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:22865358

Kalpana, Kalaivanan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

2011-01-01

313

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract alleviates ouabain-induced vascular remodeling through regulation of endothelial function  

PubMed Central

Recent studies indicate that chronic ouabain treatment leads to hypertension and hypertensive vascular remodeling. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to be effective in treating arteriosclerosis, while little is known about its effect on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling. In this study, the effects of GSPE on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling were analyzed by treating ouabain-induced hypertensive rats with GSPE (250 mg/kg·d). The expression of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in thoracic aorta was examined by ELISA; the mRNA and protein levels of TGF-?1 were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased following treatment with GSPE, with blocked vascular remodeling. The ET-1 content was reduced while NO production was increased in the GSPE group, which showed improved vascular endothelial function. Moreover, GSPE also reduced TGF-?1 expression in the thoracic aorta, which is a determinant in vascular remodeling. In conclusion, GSPE antagonized ouabain-induced hypertension and vascular remodeling and is recommended as a potential anti-hypertensive agent for patients with hypertensive vascular diseases. PMID:22895622

LIU, XIANGJU; QIU, JIE; ZHAO, SHAOHUA; YOU, BEIAN; JI, XIANG; WANG, YAN; CUI, XIAOPEI; WANG, QIAN; GAO, HAIQING

2012-01-01

314

Proanthocyanidin from Grape Seed Extracts Protects Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Mucosal Injury  

PubMed Central

Proanthocyanidin (grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts, GSPEs) is an antioxidant and scavenges free radicals. Excessive oxidative stress and free radical production are major components in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. We investigated the effect of GSPEs on indomethacin-induced intestinal mucosal injury in the rat. Rats were allocated into four groups: the null control group, the indomethacin control group, the low-dose GSPEs group, and the high-dose GSPEs group. GSPEs were administered for 4 days. Then indomethacin and GSPEs were coadministered for the following 2 days by oral route. The dose of indomethacin was 200?mg/Kg. The doses of GSPEs were 100?mg/Kg for low-dose group and 300?mg/Kg for high-dose group. Luminal bleeding was solely observed in one of 5 rats from indomethacin control group. The number of ulcer count was reduced to 0.1 ± 0.3 per rat in GSPEs treated group compared to 1.4 ± 0.5 per rat in indomethacin control group. Submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration was also reduced to 50% in GSPEs treated group. The tissue level of prostaglandin E2 was not affected by GSPEs treatment. GSPEs attenuated the indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury irrespective of the tissue PGE2 depletion and glutathione consumption. PMID:24868202

Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jae Kwang

2014-01-01

315

Ovicidal effects of a neem seed extract preparation on eggs of body and head lice.  

PubMed

The eggs (nits) of head and body lice (Pediculus humanus capitis, Pediculus humanus corporis) were incubated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 or 45 min into a neem seed extract contained in a fine shampoo formulation (e.g. Wash Away® Louse), which is known for its significant killing effects of larvae and adults of head lice. The aim of the study was to test whether the developmental stages inside the eggs are also killed after the incubation into the shampoo. It was found that an incubation time of only 5 min was sufficient to prohibit any hatching of larvae, whilst 93 ± 4% of the larvae in the untreated controls of body lice hatched respectively about 76% of the controls in the case of head lice. Apparently, the neem-based shampoo blocked the aeropyles of the eggs, thus preventing the embryos of both races of lice from accessing oxygen and from releasing carbon dioxide. Thus, this product offers a complete cure from head lice upon a single treatment, if the lice (motile stages, eggs) are fully covered for about 10 min. PMID:21484346

Mehlhorn, Heinz; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Schmidt, Jürgen; Semmler, Margit

2011-11-01

316

Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in rats.  

PubMed

Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic antitumor drugs. Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin-induced toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the antioxidant potential of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against the toxicity of cisplatin in male rats. Cisplatin treated animals revealed a significant elevation in plasma, heart, kidney and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), while the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GST, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px, and the levels of glutathione (GSH) were decreased. Aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST and ALT), creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly increased in plasma, while liver AST and ALT were significantly decreased. Cisplatin significantly increased the levels of plasma total lipid, cholesterol, urea and creatinine, and the relative weight of kidney. On the other hand, plasma total protein and albumin, and body weight were significantly decreased. GSPE reduced cisplatin-induced the levels of TBARS in plasma, heart, kidney and liver, TL, cholesterol, urea and creatinine, and liver AST and ALT. Moreover, it ameliorated cisplatin-induced decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and GSH, total protein and albumin. Therefore, the present results revealed that GSPE exerts a protective effect by antagonizing cisplatin toxicity. PMID:19425235

Yousef, M I; Saad, A A; El-Shennawy, L K

2009-06-01

317

Amelioration of the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.  

PubMed

Anticancer chemotherapeutic agents are effective in inhibiting growth of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, however, toxicity to normal cells is a major problem. In this study, we assessed the effect of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) to ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxic effects in cultured Chang epithelial cells, established from nonmalignant human tissue. These cells were treated in vitro with idarubicin (Ida) (30 nM) or 4-hydroxyperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC) (1 microg/ml) with or without GSPE (25 microg/ml). The cells were grown in vitro and the growth rate of the cells was determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; thiazolyl blue] assay. Our results showed that GSPE decreased the growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of Ida as well as 4HC on Chang epithelial cells in vitro. Because these chemotherapeutic agents are known to induce apoptosis in the target cells, we analyzed the Chang epithelial cells for apoptotic cell population by flow cytometry. There was a significant decrease in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis following treatment with GSPE. We also found increased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in GSPE-treated cells using western blot techniques. Thus, these results indicate that GSPE can be a potential candidate to ameliorate the toxic effects associated with chemotherapeutic agents and one of the mechanisms of action of GSPE includes upregulation of Bcl-2 expression. PMID:11233153

Joshi, S S; Kuszynski, C A; Benner, E J; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

1999-01-01

318

Grape seed and skin extract protects against acute chemotherapy toxicity induced by doxorubicin in rat heart.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin (Dox), an antitumor anthracycline antibiotic, plays a key role in the treatment of many neoplastic diseases. However, its chronic administration induces cardiomyopathy. Increased oxidative stress is a major factor implicated in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. We hypothesized that a pre-treatment with grape seed and skin extract (GSE), commonly used as an antioxidant agent, may alleviate this cardiotoxicity. Rats were treated with GSE (500 mg/kg bw) by intraperitoneal injection during 8 days. On the 4th day, rats were administered a single dose of Dox (20 mg/kg). At the end of the treatment, their hearts were Langendorff-perfused, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and left ventricular functions as heart rate and developed pressure measured. Hearts were also used to determine free iron, H2O2, Ca2+, lipoperoxidation, carbonylation and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidase. Doxorubicin drastically affected heart activity as evidenced after I/R experiments. This effect was associated with an increase in heart free iron and a decrease in Ca2+ concentrations. This effect may have contributed to oxidative stress as assessed by high lipoperoxidation and carbonylation level. GSE counteracted Dox-induced disturbances of hemodynamic parameters, alleviated oxidative stress as assessed by normalized iron and Ca2+ levels and increased SOD activity especially the Mn isoform. PMID:22290400

Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui-Guesmi, Sonia; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

2012-06-01

319

Effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

As a highly toxic environmental pollutant, methylmercury (MeHg) can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans. Considering the antioxidant property of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE), this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of GSPE on MeHg-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Rats were exposed to MeHg by intraperitoneal injection (4, 12 ?mol/kg, respectively) and GSPE was administered by gavage (250 mg/kg) 2 h later. After a 4-week treatment, phosphate-activated glutaminase, glutamine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, glutamate, glutamine, malondialdehyde and glutathione contents in cerebral cortex were measured. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were also estimated in cells. The results showed that the MeHg-induced neurotoxicity was significantly attenuated. GSPE significantly decreased the production of ROS, counteracted oxidative damage and increased the antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes activities in rats prior to MeHg exposure. Moreover, the effects on the rate of apoptotic cells and the disturbance of glutamate homeostasis were correspondingly modulated. These observations highlighted the potential of GSPE in offering protection against MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:22116679

Yang, Haibo; Xu, Zhaofa; Liu, Wei; Wei, Yangang; Deng, Yu; Xu, Bin

2012-06-01

320

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract prevents DDP-induced testicular toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin (DDP)-induced toxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible protective role of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in DDP-induced spermiotoxicity. GSPE at 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) and 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1) was orally administered for 15 consecutive days, starting 10 days before a single intraperitoneal dose of DDP (7 mg kg(-1)). Results revealed that testicular and epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count, motility and morphology, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD, and GSH levels were significantly decreased whereas the level of MDA was significantly increased in the DDP group rats. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated the harmful effects of DDP-induced lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, loss of genital organ weight, as well as function of reproductive organs. These changes were restored to near normal levels by GSPE at 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1). In conclusion, GSPE has dose dependent protective effects against DDP-induced rat testicular toxicity. PMID:24504493

Zhao, Yan-meng; Gao, Li-ping; Zhang, Hai-lian; Guo, Jun-xia; Guo, Pei-pei

2014-03-01

321

Punica granatum cv. Dente di Cavallo seed ethanolic extract: Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.  

PubMed

This paper aims to provide a solid base for the utilisation of pomegranate whole seed ethanolic extract (PSEE) as a nutraceutical/functional food ingredient. PSEE was tested for its antioxidant and antiproliferative activities against different human cancer cell lines. Bioactive lipid compounds were identified by studying the PSEE lipid portion. PSEE exhibited a protection of lipid peroxidation threefold higher than a positive control. PSEE showed a promising antiproliferative activity against hormone dependent prostate carcinoma LNCaP, with an IC50 value 3 times lower than the positive control vinblastine, and against human breast cancer cell lines (IC50=9.6?g/ml). PSEE contained lipid bioactive compounds, such as neutral lipids, consisting of 72.8% punicic acid, glycolipids and phospholipids rich in essential fatty acids (?-linoleic and ?-linolenic acids). Due the presence of bioactive compounds and the remarkable antiproliferative activity, the use of PSEE as a value-added ingredient in formulations of products aimed to prevent diseases, especially cancer, could be promoted. PMID:25149014

Lucci, Paolo; Pacetti, Deborah; Loizzo, Monica R; Frega, Natale G

2015-01-15

322

Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini seed extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and bio-inspired Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) were synthesized using Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) seed extract, which is a non-toxic ecofriendly fruit waste material. S. cumini seed extract acts as a green solvent, reducing and capping agent in which sodium acetate acts as electrostatic stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis techniques. The XRD study divulged that the synthesized SMNPs have inverse spinel cubic structure. The hysteresis loop of Fe3O4 nanoparticles shows an excellent ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization value of 13.6 emu/g.

Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prasad, C. H.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

2014-09-01

323

Subcritical water extraction of phenolic compounds from pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) seed residues and investigation into their antioxidant activities with HPLC–ABTS + assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SWE) of phenolic compounds from pomegranate seed residues (PSR) was performed. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacities of the extracts obtained at different temperatures were determined, and the individual antioxidant capacities were evaluated by coupling high performance liquid chromatography with ABTS radical reaction system (HPLC–ABTS+). The results showed that the optimum extraction time was 30min, solid

Li He; Xiaofei Zhang; Honggao Xu; Chao Xu; Fang Yuan; Želiko Knez; Zoran Novak; Yanxiang Gao

324

Effect of legume seed extracts on the inhibition of proteolytic activity and muscle degradation of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii).  

PubMed

Trypsin inhibitors in the extracts from soybean (Glycine max), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and red kidney bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris) varied in amount and molecular weight. The soybean extract had the highest level of trypsin inhibitor with molecular weight (MW) of 21kDa, followed by bambara groundnut extract possessing trypsin inhibitor with MW of 15kDa. Both extracts showed a more effective inhibition towards crude protease extract (CE) from the hepatopancreas of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) than the extracts from adzuki and red kidney beans. Activity staining also reconfirmed the higher inhibitory activity on CE from hepatopancreas by the extracts from both soybean and bambara groundnut. The extracts from all seeds were able to inhibit the degradation of fresh water prawn meat containing CE in a concentration dependent manner. Based on inhibitor study, the extracts from soybean and bambara groundnut can be a potential aid to suppress the muscle softening of fresh water prawn, mediated by trypsin-like proteases released from hepatopancreas, during extended iced storage. PMID:25212342

Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji

2011-12-01

325

Effects of Moringa oleifera seed extract on rumen fermentation in vitro.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot blot assay able to directly detect true protein in rumen fluid samples was used to quantify protein degradation. For complex substrates the interpretation of protein degradation profiles was amended by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of the samples. When incubated with pure carbohydrates at a concentration of 1 mg ml(-1), the extract reduced microbial degradation of the model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), such that its concentration was at least 40% above the control after 12 h of incubation. Total protein degradation was thus delayed by approximately 9 h. When fermented along with wheat straw, leaf protein (Rubisco) was almost entirely protected during 12 h of fermentation. The degradation of soy proteins was retarded by at least 4-6 h, depending on the protein band. There were strong side effects on the fermentation of pure cellulose (SCFA yield-60% after 12 h), whereas cellobiose and starch fermentation were less affected (-18 and -8%, respectively). When the complex substrates were fermented, SCFA yield was reduced by approximately 30% after 12 h. In our work we clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the new substance, which is neither a tannin nor a saponin, in an in vitro system, using pure as well as complex substrates. The properties shown in vitro for the crude extract suggest that it could have a positive effect on the protein metabolism of ruminants under intensive management and that negative side effects can be overcome by an optimized dosage. If the chemical nature of the active substance and its mechanism of action can be clarified, it may provide an alternative to replace critical synthetic feed additives (such as antibiotics) for high yielding dairy cows. PMID:12801080

Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Becker, K

2003-02-01

326

Modulation of di- (2- ethylhexyl) phthalate induced hepatic toxicity by Apium graveolens L. seeds extract in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Apium graveolens L. (celery) seeds was tested against Di-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Oral administration of DEHP (1000 mg\\/kg b.wt\\/day) for 6 weeks in rats caused a significant increase in the levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase

G. C. Jain; Hemant Pareek; Kusum Jain; S. Jhalani; S. Agarwal

327

Clinical analysis of urea in human blood by coupling a surface acoustic wave sensor with urease extracted from pumpkin seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface acoustic wave (SAW) urease sensor system was developed in which a SAW resonator oscillating at 61 MHz and a pair of parallel electrodes were utilized by coupling with urease extracted from pumpkin seeds. The Michaelis constant and the maximum reaction rate of urease were estimated as 2.08 × 10 ?3 mol\\/1 and 8.85 kHz\\/min, respectively, at pH 7.5

Dezhong Liu; Kai Ge; Kang Chen; Lihua Nie; Shouzhuo Yao

1995-01-01

328

Chemistry and Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oil and Oleoresins Extracted From the Seeds of Tomer (Zanthoxylum Armatum DC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of Zanthoxylum armatum DC, on hydrodistillation, yielded 1.2% of the essential oil. The oleoresins were extracted by Soxhlet extractor using ethanol, ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 38 components of which linalool (62%) and limonene (18.1%) were the major components. The major components of oleoresins were linoleic acid,

G Singh; I. P. S. Kapoor; Pratibha Singh; Carola S. de Heluani; Marina P. de Lampasona; Cesar A. N. Catalan

2011-01-01

329

The efficacy of neem seed extracts (Tre-san®, MiteStop®) on a broad spectrum of pests and parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the acaricidal and insecticidal effects of a patented neem seed extract when diluted 1:10 with shampoo\\u000a or 1:20, 1:30, 1:33, 1:40, respectively, 1:66 with tap water. It was shown that a broad range of pests and parasites, such\\u000a as house dust mites, poultry mites, harvest mites, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus ticks, cat fleas (adults, larvae), bed bugs (all

Günter Schmahl; Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid; Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Sven Klimpel; Heinz Mehlhorn

2010-01-01

330

Preventive effect of grape seed extract against high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the preventive effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet. After 8weeks of the experiment, the fasting plasma glucose, insulin concentrations, and the homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of rats fed a high-fructose diet supplemented with 1% GSE

Wannaporn Suwannaphet; Aramsri Meeprom; Sirintorn Yibchok-Anun; Sirichai Adisakwattana

2010-01-01

331

Catechin-Rich Grape Seed Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL\\/6J Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Grape seed extracts (GSE) are known to present health benefits such as antioxidative and anti-obesity effects in animal models. The purpose of this research is to determine whether the specially manufactured GSE, catechin-rich GSE (CGSE), can protect against obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and to address the mechanism underlying this effect. Methods: The componential analysis of CGSE

Kana Ohyama; Chie Furuta; Yoshihito Nogusa; Kenzo Nomura; Tetsuya Miwa; Katsuya Suzuki

2011-01-01

332

Mangifera Indica (Mango)  

PubMed Central

Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

2010-01-01

333

[Inhibiting effect of the aqueous extract of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi on myrosinase activity from Brassica napus seeds].  

PubMed

The search of inhibitors of the myrosinase enzyme and also enzymes able to transform the glucosinolates into non-toxic combinations has been carried out among the water extracts of the plants row. The inhibitor activity of the water extract of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and its foresee acting outset-hydroquinone have been discovered. The direct dependence of the glucosinolates decompose degree from concentration of hydroquinone and quinone has been determined. The cultivation of Brassica napus cut seeds by quinone in correlation 1:100 (m:m) stopped the glucosinolates decomposition by endogenous myrosinase for 50%. PMID:9848213

Mykytyn, M S; Dem'ianchuk

1998-01-01

334

Evaluation of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.), Effects Seeds Extract on Insulin Resistance in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome  

PubMed Central

PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) is associated with insulin resistance, obesity and disorders of lipid metabolism as well as infertility. Fenugreek seeds extract is successfully used in lowering blood glucose. Metformin has also the same effect but in a different way. The aim of this study was the assessment of fenugreek effects on insulin resistance in women with PCOS. This was a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The study was conducted at the Montaserieh Hospital in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The patient population included 58 oligo-anovulatory PCOS women with typical ovaries. Women were randomly allocated to receive hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds in capsules with metformin (n = 30) or placebo capsules with metformin (n = 28) and were assessed before and every 4 weeks within a treatment period of 8 weeks. Menstrual disturbance and metabolic parameters (markers of insulin resistance and hormonal parameters) were measured. Insulin resistance based on HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance) model was not significantly different between two groups. Ultrasound scans were performed before and at the end of 8 weeks treatment with significant decrease in PAO (polycystic appearing ovaries) in group 1 (p = 0/01). Adjuvant therapy to the fenugreek seeds extract (with metformin) in PCOS women improved the sonographic results and menstrual cyclicity. PMID:24250624

Hassanzadeh Bashtian, Maryam; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Mousavifar, Nezhat; Esmaily, Habib Allah; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Mohammad Poor, Amir Hooshang

2013-01-01

335

The enhancing effects of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on fertility potential, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone in male rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The task force on plants for fertility regulation in men continued with its program to identify novel prototypes in plants alleged to have fertility regulating properties. Nigella Sativa seeds are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and treatment of many ailments. Objective: To evaluated the role of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on fertility potential, Pituitary-testicular axis hormones and Testosterone in male rats. Materials and Methods: 24 male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; control, group A and group B, each group comprising of 8 rats. Animals in control group received 1 ml of normal saline and treatment groups (A and B) received (gavage) graded doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on a daily basis for 60 days. At the end of treatment period, fertility parameters such as body and reproductive organs weight, sperm motility, viability and count, epididymal sperm reserve (ESR), daily sperm production (DSP), blood testosterone concentration, Gonadotropins levels and fertility index were measured. Results: There was a significant difference in testes and epididymidis weight, sperm count, ESR, DSP, blood testosterone concentration, LH and fertility index in both the lower dose group and the higher group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed especially in higher doses could increase fertility potential, LH and testosterone concentration in male rats. PMID:25246898

Parandin, Rahmatollah; Yousofvand, Namdar; Ghorbani, Rostam

2012-01-01

336

Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, extract, and related dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African mango, AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the U.S. market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of AM-based dietary supplements (AMDSs) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of AM seeds, AM seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available AMDSs have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry method. Ellagic acid, mono-, di-, and tri-O-methyl-ellagic acids, and their glycosides were found as major components in AM seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of AM extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

2012-09-01

337

Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE) alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1). ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2) in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers. PMID:24624140

Sharma, Chhavi; Vas, Andrea J.; Goala, Payal; Gheewala, Taher M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-01-01

338

The effect of grape seed extract or Cistus ladanifer L. on muscle volatile compounds of lambs fed dehydrated lucerne supplemented with oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; control diet with 6% of oil blend (CO); control with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); control with 2.5% of grape seed extract and 6% of oil blend (GSO); control with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (an aromatic bush

Valentina Vasta; Eliana Jerónimo; Daniela M. R. Brogna; Maria T. P. Dentinho; Luisa Biondi; José Santos-Silva; Alessandro Priolo; Rui J. B. Bessa

2010-01-01

339

Effect of seed extracts of Withania somnifera, Croton tiglium and Hygrophila auriculata on behavior and physiology of Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera, Termitidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to antibiotic properties, medicinal plants are important sources of chemicals with potential application as pesticides.\\u000a The present study deals with antitermitic potential of seed extracts of Withania somnifera (Indian ginseng), Croton tiglium (jamalgoota) and Hygrophila auriculata (talimkhana). The seed extracts caused changes in tunneling behaviour, number of bacterial colonies in hindgut and activities\\u000a of enzymes in midgut of

Sohail Ahmed; Mohammad Asam Riaz; Amjad Hameed Malik; Mohammad Shahid

2007-01-01

340

EPR study of the toxicological effects of gas-phase cigarette smoke and the protective effects of grape seed extract on the mitochondrial membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping and spin labeling techniques were used to study the effects of grape seed extract\\u000a on the biophysical propertiers of the mitochondrial membrane exposed to gas-phase cigarette smoke. The spin trapping results\\u000a indicated that grape seed extract can effectively scavenge free radicals in cigarette smoke and the lipid free radicals generated\\u000a from the lipid peroxidation of

J. Gao; H. Tang; Y. Li; H. Liu; B. Zhao I

2002-01-01

341

Rapid in vitro multiplication and conservation of Garcinia indica: A tropical medicinal tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and efficient method has been developed for rapid regeneration of plantlets via adventitious bud differentiation on mature seeds of Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy, a medicinally important facultative apomictic tropical tree species. High frequency direct shoot proliferation was induced in seed segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with cytokinins (BAP, kinetin and TDZ) alone and in combination

S. K. Malik; R. Chaudhury; Rajwant K. Kalia

2005-01-01

342

Grape seed extract prevents skeletal muscle wasting in interleukin 10 knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle wasting is frequently a result of cancers, AIDS, chronic diseases and aging, which often links to muscle inflammation. Although grape seed extract (GSE) has been widely used as a human dietary supplement for health promotion and disease prevention primarily due to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammative effects, it is unknown whether GSE affects muscle wasting. The objective is to test the effects of GSE supplementation on inflammation and muscle wasting in interleukin (IL)-10 knockout mice, a recently developed model for human frailty. Methods Male IL-10 knockout (IL10KO) C57BL/6 mice at 6 weeks of age were assigned to either 0% or 0.1% GSE (in drinking water) groups (n?=?10) for 12 weeks, when skeletal muscle was sampled for analyses. Wild-type C57BL/6 male mice were used as controls. Results Tibialis anterior muscle weight and fiber size of IL10KO mice were much lower than wild-type mice. IL10KO enhanced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) signaling and inflammasome formation when compared to wild-type mice. Phosphorylation of anabolic signaling was inhibited, whereas muscle specific ubiquitin ligase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and apoptotic signaling were up-regulated in IL10KO mice. GSE supplementation effectively rectified these adverse changes in IL10KO muscle, which provide an explanation for the enhanced muscle mass, reduced protein degradation and apoptosis in GSE supplemented mice compared to IL10KO mice without supplementation. Conclusion GSE supplementation effectively prevents muscle wasting in IL10KO mice, showing that GSE can be used as an auxiliary treatment for muscle loss associated with chronic inflammation and frailty. PMID:24884473

2014-01-01

343

Acute administration of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract modulates energetic metabolism in skeletal muscle and BAT mitochondria.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidin consumption might reduce the risk of developing several pathologies, such as inflammation, oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. The beneficial effects of proanthocyanidins are attributed to their antioxidant properties, although they also can modulate gene expression at the transcriptional level. Little is known about the effect of proanthocyanidins on mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of an acute administration of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. To examine this effect, male Wistar rats fasted for fourteen hours, and then they were orally administered lard oil containing GSPE or were administered lard oil only. Liver, muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT) were used to study enzymatic activity and gene expression of proteins related to energetic metabolism. Moreover, the gastrocnemius muscle and BAT mitochondria were used to perform high-resolution respirometry. The results showed that, after 5 h, the GSPE administration significantly lowers plasma triglycerides, free fatty acids, glycerol and urea concentrations. In skeletal muscle, GSPE lowers FATP1 mRNA levels and increases mitochondrial oxygen consumption, using pyruvate as the substrate, suggesting a promotion of glycosidic metabolism. Furthermore, GSPE increased the genetic expression of key genes in energy metabolism such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1?), and modulated the enzyme activity of proteins, which are involved in the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain (ETC) in BAT. In conclusion, GSPE affects mainly the skeletal muscle and BAT mitochondria, increasing their oxidative capacity rapidly after acute supplementation. PMID:21401106

Pajuelo, D; Díaz, S; Quesada, H; Fernández-Iglesias, A; Mulero, M; Arola-Arnal, A; Salvadó, M J; Bladé, C; Arola, L

2011-04-27

344

Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

To determine the therapeutic potential of herbal medicine Moringa oleifera Lam. family: Moringaceae in the control of allergic diseases, the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of the plant (MOEE) against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs was examined. During the experimental period, the test drugs (MOEE or dexamethasone) were administered by oral route prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% OVA. Bronchoconstriction tests were performed and respiratory parameters (i.e., tidal volume and respiratory rate) were measured. At the end of experiment, blood was collected from each animal to perform total and differential counts and serum was used for assay of IL-4, IL-6, and TNFalpha. Lung lavage fluid (BAL) was collected for estimation of cellular content and cytokine levels. Lung tissue histamine assays were performed using the homogenate of one lobe from each animal; a separate lobe and the trachea were subjected to histopathology to measure the degree of any airway inflammation. The results suggest that in OVA-sensitized control animals that did not receive either drug, tidal volume (V(t)) was decreased, respiration rate (f) was increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and BAL fluid were increased significantly. MOEE-treatment of sensitized hosts resulted in improvement in all parameters except BAL TNFalpha and IL-4. Moreover, MOEE-treatment also showed protection against acetylcholine-induced broncho-constriction and airway inflammation which was confirmed by histological observations. The results of these studies confirm the traditional claim for the usefulness of this herb in the treatment of allergic disorders like asthma. PMID:18686107

Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

2008-08-01

345

Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is known to be an effective natural polyphenol capable of removing free radicals in vivo. It has been reported that GSPE has biological functions including antioxidant, anti?cancer, anti?hyperglycemic, anti?radiation, and prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the effects of GSPE on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats induced with low?dose streptozotocin and a high?carbohydrate/high?fat diet. Rats (n=12 per group) were administered GSPE at either a low (125 mg/kg·bw), medium (250 mg/kg·bw) or high (500 mg/kg·bw) dose, while control rats and diabetes mellitus group rats received no specific treatment. After 16 weeks, GSPE slightly increased body weight and decreased food consumption, water intake and urine volume in rats. Diabetic rats treated with GSPE demonstrated decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). GSPE significantly improved renal function parameters, reduced the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase?1 and also increased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase?9. Moreover, GSPE (particularly at a dose of 500 mg/kg·bw) increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the levels of c?reactive proteins (P<0.01) in serum and the expression of tumor necrosis factor??, monocyte chemoattractant protein?1 and intercellular adhesion molecule?1 (P<0.05) in the kidney. These findings suggest that GSPE ameliorates renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats through its antioxidative activity and anti?inflammatory effects. PMID:25351255

Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Dai, Xiaoqian; Ding, Ye; Jiang, Yanfei; Li, Yujie; Li, Yong

2015-01-01

346

Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.  

PubMed

Free radicals and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases including congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. We have demonstrated that IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) provides superior antioxidant efficacy as compared to Vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. A series of studies were conducted using GSPE to demonstrate its cardioprotective ability in animals and humans. GSPE supplementation improved cardiac functional assessment including post-ischemic left ventricular function, reduced myocardial infarct size, reduced ventricular fibrillation (VF) and tachycardia, decreased the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as detected by ESR spectroscopy and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the heart perfusate. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. In concert, the proapoptotic signals mediated by JNK-l and c-fos proteins were also reduced suggesting that the novel cardioprotective properties of GSPE may be at least partially attributed to its ability to block anti-death signaling mediated through the proapoptotic transcription factors and genes such as JNK-1 and c-JUN. In a separate study, GSPE pretreatment significantly inhibited doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity as demonstrated by reduced serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, DNA damage and histopathological changes in the cardiac tissue of mice. Concentration-dependent efficacy of GSPE was also assessed in a hamster atherosclerosis model. Approximately 49 and 63% reduction in foam cells, a biomarker of early stage atherosclerosis, were observed following supplementation of 50 and 100 mg GSPE/kg body weight, respectively. A human clinical trial was conducted on hypercholesterolemic subjects. GSPE supplementation significantly reduced oxidized LDL, a biomarker of cardiovascular diseases. Finally, a cDNA microarray study demonstrated significant inhibition of inducible endothelial CD36 expression, a novel cardioregulatory gene, by GSPE. These results demonstrate that GSPE may serve as a potential therapeutic tool in promoting cardiovascular health via a number of novel mechanisms. PMID:12628506

Bagchi, Debasis; Sen, Chandan K; Ray, Sidhartha D; Das, Dipak K; Bagchi, Manashi; Preuss, Harry G; Vinson, Joe A

2003-01-01

347

Effect of grape seed extract on lead induced hypertension and heart rate in rat.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of red Grape Seed Extract (GSE) on lead induced hypertension (HTN) and Heart Rate (HR) in male Wistar rats. The rats were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: Each group received lead acetate (100 ppm in drinking water), GSE (100 mg kg(-1), orally) or Lead + GSE for 45 days. Another group assigned as control group provided with tap water and regular pellet food. The Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and heart rate were determined by tail plethysmography coupled to a computer system. There was a sustained elevation of SBP in lead exposed rats that significantly increased at day 18 (lead treated, 112.7 +/- 2.7 mmHg, vs. control, 105.6 +/- 2.6 mmHg, n = 10, p < 0.05) and reached a maximum level at day 36 (lead treated, 124.9 +/- 2.3 mmHg, vs. control, 103.6 +/- 3.1 mmHg, n = 10, p < 0.001). However, the other three groups; showed no significant changes in SBP. Furthermore, the heart rate was increased sustainly in lead exposed animals that was statistically significant at days 36 and 45 (lead treated group, 404.5 +/- 9.4 vs. control group, 381.7 +/- 6.7, n = 10, p < 0.05). The blood lead level in both lead and lead + GSE treated groups was increased significantly compared with control and GSE treated groups (p < 0.001). However, GSE administration had no effect on the blood lead level in lead treated group. According to the result of this study, it may be concluded that GSE could have beneficial effect in protecting the cardiovascular system through its antioxidant activity against oxidative stress. PMID:18814650

Badavi, Mohammad; Mehrgerdi, Fatemeh Zarea; Sarkaki, Alireza; Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Dianat, Mahin

2008-03-15

348

Grape seed procyanidin extract reduces the endotoxic effects induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats.  

PubMed

Acute inflammation is a response to injury, infection, tissue damage, or shock. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin implicated in triggering sepsis and septic shock, and LPS promotes the inflammatory response, resulting in the secretion of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as the interleukins (IL-6, IL-1?, and IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-? by the immune cells. Furthermore, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species levels increase rapidly, which is partially due to the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in several tissues in response to inflammatory stimuli. Previous studies have shown that procyanidins, polyphenols present in foods such as apples, grapes, cocoa, and berries, have several beneficial properties against inflammation and oxidative stress using several in vitro and in vivo models. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of two physiological doses and two pharmaceutical doses of grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) were analyzed using a rat model of septic shock by the intraperitoneal injection of LPS derived from Escherichia coli. The high nutritional (75mg/kg/day) and the high pharmacological doses (200mg/kg/day) of GSPE showed anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the proinflammatory marker NOx in the plasma, red blood cells, spleen, and liver. Moreover, the high pharmacological dose also downregulated the genes Il-6 and iNos; and the high nutritional dose decreased the glutathione ratio (GSSG/total glutathione), further illustrating the antioxidant capability of GSPE. In conclusion, several doses of GSPE can alleviate acute inflammation triggered by LPS in rats at the systemic and local levels when administered for as few as 15 days before the injection of endotoxin. PMID:23439188

Pallarès, Victor; Fernández-Iglesias, Anabel; Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Blay, Mayte

2013-07-01

349

Chemopreventive effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on Chang liver cells.  

PubMed

In an attempt to ameliorate the chemotherapy associated normal cell toxicity, in this study a known antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) using Chang liver cells has been used. Chang liver cells were treated in vitro with idarubicin (Ida) (30 nM) and 4-hydroxyperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC) (1 microg/ml) with or without proanthocyanidin (25 microg/ml). The cells were grown in vitro and the growth rate of the cells were determined using MTT assay. The results showed that the GSPE decreased growth inhibitory effects of Ida and 4-HC on Chang liver cells in vitro. Since these chemotherapeutic agents are known to induce apoptosis in the target cells, these cells were also analyzed for presence of apoptotic cells using flow cytometry. The GSPE decreased the number of apoptotic cell population induced by either chemotherapy. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms of ameliorating effects of proanthocyanidin, the expression of apoptosis/cell cycle/growth related genes, Bcl-2, p53 and c-myc was determined in the treated and control cells using Western blotting or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. There was an increased expression of Bcl-2 in the cells treated with GSPE. However, there was a significant decrease in the expression of other cell cycle related genes such as p53 and c-myc in these cells following treatment with GSPE. Thus, these results indicate that proanthocyanidin can be a potential candidate to ameliorate the toxic effects associated with chemotherapeutic agents used in treatment of cancer. PMID:11154800

Joshi, S S; Kuszynski, C A; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

2000-11-30

350

Protection of primary glial cells by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against nitrosative/oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Previous studies showed that proanthocyanidins provide potent protection against oxidative stress. Here we investigate the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) as a novel natural antioxidant on the generation and fate of nitric oxide (NO) in rat primary glial cell cultures. GSPE treatment (50 mg/L) increased NO production (measured by NO(2-) assay) by stimulation of the inducible isoform of NOS. However, GSPE failed to affect the LPS/IFN-gamma-induced NO production or iNOS expression. Similar responses were found in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. GSPE did not show any effect on dihydrodichlorofluorescein fluorescence (ROS marker with high sensitivity toward peroxynitrite) either in control or in LPS/IFN-gamma-induced glial cultures even in the presence of a superoxide generator (PMA). GSPE treatment alone had no effect on the basal glutathione (GSH) status in glial cultures. Whereas the microglial GSH level declined sharply after LPS/IFN-gamma treatment, the endogenous GSH pool was protected when such cultures were treated additionally with GSPE, although NO levels did not change. Glial cultures pretreated with GSPE showed higher tolerance toward application of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and tert-butylhydroperoxide. Furthermore, GSPE-pretreated glial cultures showed improved viability after H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress demonstrated by reduction in lactate dehydrogenase release or propidium iodide staining. We showed that, in addition to its antioxidative property, GSPE enhances low-level production of intracellular NO in primary rat astroglial cultures. Furthermore, GSPE pretreatment protects the microglial GSH pool during high output NO production and results in an elevation of the H(2)O(2) tolerance in astroglial cells. PMID:11292363

Roychowdhury, S; Wolf, G; Keilhoff, G; Bagchi, D; Horn, T

2001-04-01

351

Grape seed extract (GSE) inhibits angiogenesis via suppressing VEGFR signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Blockade of angiogenesis is an important approach for cancer treatment and prevention. VEGF is one of the most critical factors that induce angiogenesis and has thus become an attractive target for anti-angiogenesis treatment. However, most of current anti-VEGF agents often cause some side effects when given chronically. Identification of naturally occurring VEGF inhibitors derived from diet would be one alternative approach with an advantage of known safety. Grape seed extract (GSE), a widely used dietary supplement, is known to have anti-tumor activity. In this study, we have explored the activity of GSE on VEGF receptor and angiogenesis. We found that GSE could directly inhibit kinase activity of purified VEGFR2, a novel activity of GSE that has not been characterized. GSE could also inhibit VEGFR/MAPK mediated signaling pathway in endothelial cells. As a result, GSE could inhibit VEGF induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration as well as sprouts formation from aorta ring. In vivo assay further showed that GSE could inhibit tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in mice. Consistent with the in vitro data, GSE treatment of tumor bearing mice led to concomitant reduction of blood vessel density and phosphorylation of MAP kinase. Depletion of polyphenol with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP) abolished the anti-angiogenesis activity of GSE, suggesting a water soluble fraction of polyphenol in GSE is responsible for the anti-angiogenesis activity. Taken together, this study indicates that GSE is a well tolerated and inexpensive natural VEGF inhibitor and could potentially be useful in cancer prevention or treatment. PMID:19139005

Wen, Wei; Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Chen, Shiuan

2009-01-01

352

Simulated digestion of proanthocyanidins in grape skin and seed extracts and the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and composition of flavan-3-ols from red grape skin and seed extracts (raw and purified, which are high in proanthocyanidins (PAs)). In addition, the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of these extracts were evaluated. The extracts were digested with a mixture of pepsin-HCl for 2 h, followed by a 2 h incubation with pancreatin and bile salts including a cellulose dialysis tubing (molecular weight cut-off 12 kDa) at 37°C with shaking in the dark and under N2. Under gastric conditions, the mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) of seed extracts, raw (mDP?6, p<0.05), and purified (mDP?10, p<0.05) was stable. The mDP of the raw skin extracts increased from 19 to 25 towards the end of the digestion. The PAs were significantly degraded (up to 80%) during the pancreatic digestion, yielding low-molecular-weight compounds that diffused into the serum-available fraction (mDP?2). The overall mass transfer coefficient (K) of the seed extracts was 10(-7) m(2)/s. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, over 80% of ACE inhibition by raw seed and skin extracts was preserved. However, the purified seed and skin extracts lost their ability to inhibit ACE after intestinal digestion. PMID:23561096

Fernández, Katherina; Labra, Javiera

2013-08-15

353

Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.  

PubMed

Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. PMID:23353547

Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

2013-03-01

354

Subchronic 3-month oral toxicity study of grape seed and grape skin extracts.  

PubMed

Meganatural brand grape seed extract (GSE) and grape skin extract (GSKE), containing proanthocyanidin (PAC) polyphenolic compounds, are intended for use in food as functional ingredients exhibiting antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidins, as well as the minor constituent phenolic compounds in GSE and GSKE, are present naturally in many foods such as fruits, vegetables, chocolate, tea, etc., and on average people consume 460-1000 mg/day of these combined substances. Although humans have ingested PACs for centuries without reported adverse effects, the current toxicology literature contains relatively little formal evidence regarding their safety. Accordingly, as part of a program to investigate the safety of GSE and GSKE, these products were incorporated into chow and fed to rats for at least 3 months in a GLP-compliant subchronic toxicity study. Groups of CD (Sprague-Dawley) Crl:CD IGS BR rats (20 males and 20 females per group) were fed diets containing GSE at concentrations of 0, 0.63, 1.25 or 2.5% (w/w); GSKE was fed at 2.5% (w/w) only. Clinical observations were recorded and body weight and feed consumption measured throughout the study. After 1 month, blood was obtained from 10 rats/sex/group by retrobulbar puncture for interim measurement of clinical pathology. At the end of the study the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, aortic blood samples were collected for clinical pathology, selected organs were weighed and a complete list of tissues was preserved from all animals. Histologic examination was performed on all tissues from control and high-dose GSE and GSKE groups. There were no treatment-related changes that were considered to be of toxicologic significance. Therefore, a dietary concentration of 2.5% GSE or 2.5% GSKE was considered to be a no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL). This was equivalent to a time-weighted average dose over the course of the study of approximately 1.78 g/kg body weight/day GSE or GSKE in male rats and 2.15 g/kg body weight/day in female rats. PMID:12419686

Bentivegna, S S; Whitney, K M

2002-12-01

355

Extracting tissue and cell outlines of Arabidopsis seeds using refraction contrast X-ray CT at the SPring-8 facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How biological form is determined is one of the important questions in developmental biology. Physical forces are thought to be the primary determinants of the biological forms, and several theories for this were proposed nearly a century ago. To evaluate how physical forces can influence biological forms, precise determination of cell and tissue shapes and their geometries is necessary. Computed tomography (CT) is useful for visualizing three-dimensional structures without destroying a sample. Because recent progress in micro-CT has enabled visualizing cells and tissues at the sub-micron level, we investigated if we could extract cell and tissue outlines of seeds using refraction contrast X-ray CT available at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. We used Arabidopsis seeds because Arabidopsis is a well-known model plant and its seed size is small enough to obtain whole images using the X-ray CT experimental system. We could trace the outlines of tissues in dry seeds using beamline BL20B2 (10 keV, 2.4µm.pixel-1). Although we could also detect the outlines of some cell types, the image resolution was not adequate to extract whole cell edges. To detect the edges of cells in the epidermis and cortex, we obtained CT images using beamline BL20XU (8 keV, 0.5 µm.pixel-1). With these CT images, we could extract the facets and edges of each cell and determine cell vertices. This method enabled us to compare the numbers of cell facets among various cell types. We could also describe cell geometry as a set of points that showed these cell vertices.

Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Hayami, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Karahara, Ichirou; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

2012-07-01

356

Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of the jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) seed extracts in oral carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

It is becoming increasingly evident that certain phytochemicals possess cancer chemopreventive properties. In this study, the antiproliferative activity of extracts from different parts of the jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) plant was evaluated for its effect on human oral carcinoma cell lines. The cytotoxicities of various plant extract concentrations were examined and the 50% maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined. Water extracts of jaboticaba seeds showed concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects. Annexin V/propidium iodide positivity with active caspase-3 induction indicated that the treated cells underwent apoptosis. Several important regulatory proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bid, and survivin) involved in apoptosis were also evaluated. The antioxidant activity of jaboticaba was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays, and the drug concentration eliciting 50% maximum stimulation (SC50) was determined. The present findings suggest that water extracts of jaboticaba seeds exhibit an antiproliferative effect against oral cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through downregulating survivin expression and thereby activating caspase-mediated Bid cleavage. PMID:25197631

Wang, Wen-Hung; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Chen, Zong-Shiow; Lin, Ching-Gong; Yang, Ming-Hui; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Tsai, Wan-Chi

2014-01-01

357

Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.  

PubMed

The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus. PMID:20645772

Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

2010-07-01

358

Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed oil: A potential solvent-free and high antioxidative edible oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) trends and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus cannabinus seed oils were studied. SFE results indicate that extraction pressure is the major factor determining the oil yield. In comparison, classic Soxhlet extraction (SOX\\/L) yielded higher oil content than SFE (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in oil content were observed in SFE at 600 bars\\/80°C, rapid Soxhlet extraction

Kim Wei Chan; Maznah Ismail

2009-01-01

359

Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.  

PubMed

Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water. PMID:19786292

Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2009-11-01

360

Preventing Ralstonia solanacearum adhesion with glycans from cashew, cocoa, coffee, pumpkin, and tomato seed extract.  

PubMed

Ralstonia solanacearum wilts many plants, causing heavy agricultural losses. Its pathogenic strain ATCC 11696 produces 2 hemagglutinating lectins: RSL and RS-IIL. These lectins may bind to terminal l-fucose-, d-arabinose-, and d-mannose-bearing seedling xylem cell wall glycans, thus enabling pathogen adhesion to them, with devastating infection establishment. Blocking the active sites of these lectins with seed embryo-surrounding oligo- and poly-saccharides hampers binding of the lectins to the embryos. The current study shows that seeds of cashew, cocoa, coffee, pumpkin, and tomato contain low and high molecular mass glycans that block RSL and RS-IIL (like its homologous Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA-IIL lectin). The blocking of the pathogen lectins, which is attributable to the documented composition of the oligo- and poly-saccharides of these seeds, is similar to that observed with animal glycoproteins of avian egg whites (protecting their embryos from infections) and of milk and royal jelly, which likewise protect mammal and bee neonates, respectively. RSL was most strongly inhibited by cashew seed glycans, and RS-IIL by coffee seed glycans. Western blot analyses with these lectins instead of antibodies revealed the hitherto undescribed presence of lectin-binding glycoproteins in the coffee, pumpkin, tomato, and cashew (but not cocoa) seeds. The use of these lectins for unveiling potent embryo-protecting seed glycans might be helpful for seedling-bioprotection projects similar to those planned for animal protection against antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID:22712584

Rachmaninov, Ofra; Zinger-Yosovich, Keren D; Gilboa-Garber, Nechama

2012-07-01

361

A rapid TRIzol-based two-step method for DNA-free RNA extraction from Arabidopsis siliques and dry seeds.  

PubMed

Extraction of high-quality RNA from Arabidopsis seeds has been a challenge. Here we report a two-step TRIzol-based procedure for RNA extraction from Arabidopsis siliques and dry seeds. This procedure employs a modified, high pH (pH 9.5) extraction buffer. High pH plus the addition of either DTT or beta-mercaptoethanol in the extraction buffer effectively inhibits RNase activity during the extraction, and removes most polysaccharides, polyphenols and other insoluble material. TRIzol reagent was subsequently used to purify the RNA. Using this procedure we isolated high-quality DNA-free RNA samples without DNase I treatment from Arabidopsis seeds or siliques in less than 3 h. PMID:20108272

Meng, Ling; Feldman, Lewis

2010-02-01

362

Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15?mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11?kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s) which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects. PMID:23320026

Choudhary, Shailesh Kumar; Chhabra, Gagan; Sharma, Dipali; Vashishta, Aruna; Ohri, Sujata; Dixit, Aparna

2012-01-01

363

Protective effect of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with Cyclophosphamide.  

PubMed

Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:24124763

Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A

2014-10-01

364

Immunosuppressive activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. in experimental immune inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceTraditionally, the plant Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is used for the treatment of ascites and rheumatism, while the dried seeds of the plant are used as an ‘anti-allergic’ agent.

Shailaja G. Mahajan; Anita A. Mehta

2010-01-01

365

Safety evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data

Sara J. Boeke; Marelle G. Boersma; Gerrit M. Alink; Joop J. A. van Loon; Arnold van Huis; Marcel Dicke; Ivonne M. C. M. Rietjens

2004-01-01

366

Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very low in the pulp (019%) than in the skin

Nebbache Salim; Chibani Abdelwaheb; Chadli Rabah; Bouznad Ahcene

367

Application of heated date seeds as a novel extractant for diuron from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diuron has a high leachability with GUS value of 4.1 and a very long residence time in the soil. A novel use of date seeds for diuron adsorption and preconcentration from water is reported. Upon heating at 400°C, the date seeds exhibited a good adsorption and preconcentration of diuron from water, the adsorption capacity is 2.0mg\\/g at 25°C and pH

Yahya S. Al-Degs; Amjad H. El-Sheikh; Saed T. Jaber

368

Chemical composition and molecular structure of polysaccharide-protein biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed: extraction and purification process  

PubMed Central

Background The biological functions of natural biopolymers from plant sources depend on their chemical composition and molecular structure. In addition, the extraction and further processing conditions significantly influence the chemical and molecular structure of the plant biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the chemical and molecular structure of a natural biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed. A size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multi angle laser light-scattering (SEC-MALS) was applied to analyze the molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn). Results The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%), glucose (37.1-45.1%), arabinose (0.58-3.41%), and xylose (0.3-3.21%). The predominant fatty acid of the lipid fraction from the durian seed gum were palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:2). The most abundant amino acids of durian seed gum were: leucine (30.9-37.3%), lysine (6.04-8.36%), aspartic acid (6.10-7.19%), glycine (6.07-7.42%), alanine (5.24-6.14%), glutamic acid (5.57-7.09%), valine (4.5-5.50%), proline (3.87-4.81%), serine (4.39-5.18%), threonine (3.44-6.50%), isoleucine (3.30-4.07%), and phenylalanine (3.11-9.04%). Conclusion The presence of essential amino acids in the chemical structure of durian seed gum reinforces its nutritional value. PMID:23062269

2012-01-01

369

Cardioprotective roles of aged garlic extract, grape seed proanthocyanidin, and hazelnut on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin (DXR) is a chemotherapeutic agent used effectively in the treatment of several childhood malignancies. During treatment, cardiotoxicity caused by cell damage due to the free oxygen radicals that are generated is a major limiting factor. This study was undertaken to determine whether DXR-induced cardiotoxicity could be prevented by natural foods with antioxidant properties such as aged garlic extract (AGEX), grape seed proanthocyanidin (PA), and hazelnut. Wistar albino male rats were assigned randomly to 9 groups each consisting of 15 rats. AGEX, PA, and hazelnut groups received these antioxidants in addition to their standard rat diet. They were also treated with cumulative intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections according to 2 different regimens: either a high-dose of 15 mg/kg DXR (3.75 mg/kg per week for 4 weeks) or a low-dose of 7.5 mg/kg DXR (1.875 mg/kg per week for 4 weeks). The control group received i.p. 0.9% saline. AGEX, PA, or hazelnut supplements were given orally to the groups for a 6-week period starting 1 week before the DXR treatment and ending 1 week after the treatment. One week after the last DXR injection, heart tissue samples were analyzed to determine malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels, and serum samples were taken for creatine kinase (CK). There were no significant changes in MDA levels among the control, DXR-treated groups, or supplemented groups that received additional natural antioxidant foods. SOD enzyme levels were decreased in rats treated with DXR. PA prevented the decrease at low doses of DXR. DXR treatment decreased CAT enzyme levels, but additional PA and hazelnut consumption increased these levels at low cumulative doses. XO enzyme levels were decreased in AGEX and hazelnut groups, but PA prevented the decrease. CK levels were elevated after DXR administration, indicating myocardial injury, but PA significantly reversed this. Although there were no differences histopathologically between AGEX, PA, and hazelnut groups, the protective effects of AGEX and PA were evident in electron microscopy. In conclusion, the positive effects of natural antioxidant foods on the prevention of DXR-induced cardiac injury could not be clearly shown on the basis of antioxidant enzymes. However, the electron microscopic changes clearly demonstrated the protective effects of AGEX and PA. The supplementation of these antioxidant foods over longer periods may show more definitive results. Human studies with different doses are needed to evaluate the effects of these foods on the human heart. PMID:19767888

Demirkaya, Erkan; Avci, Aslihan; Kesik, Vural; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Oztas, Emin; Kismet, Erol; Gokcay, Erdal; Durak, Ilker; Koseoglu, Vedat

2009-08-01

370

Ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of schisandrin B from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill seeds: optimization by response surface methodology.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to develop a process consisting of ultrasonic-assisted extraction, silica-gel column chromatography and crystallization to optimize pilot scale recovery of schisandrin B (SAB) from Schisandra chinensis seeds. The effects of five independent variables including liquid-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, ultrasonic power, extraction time, and temperature on the SAB yield were evaluated with fractional factorial design (FFD). The FFD results showed that the ethanol concentration was the only significant factor for the yield of SAB. Then, with the liquid-solid ratio 5 (mL/g) and ultrasonic power 600 W, the other three parameters were further optimized by means of response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM results revealed that the optimal conditions consisted of 95% ethanol, 60 °C and 70 min. The average experimental SAB yield under the optimum conditions was found to be 5.80 mg/g, which was consistent with the predicted value of 5.83 mg/g. Subsequently, a silica gel chromatographic process was used to prepare the SAB-enriched extract with petroleum ether/acetone (95:5, v/v) as eluents. After final crystallization, 1.46 g of SAB with the purity of 99.4% and the overall recovery of 57.1% was obtained from 400 g seeds powder. This method provides an efficient and low-cost way for SAB purification for pharmaceutical industrial applications. PMID:24084334

Zhang, Y B; Wang, L H; Zhang, D Y; Zhou, L L; Guo, Y X

2014-03-01

371

Allelopathic Effect of Different Concentration of Water Extract of Prosopsis Juliflora Leaf on Seed Germination and Radicle Length of Wheat (Triticum aestivum Var-Lok-1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesquite (Prosposis juliflora) aqueous leaf extract, prepared by 25 gm and 50 gm powder of dry leaf dissolved in 500 ml of double distilled water, were tested for their allelopathic effects on seed germination and radicle length of Triticum aestivum var-Lok. Allelopathic effect of leaf extract of different concentrations (25 gm\\/500 ml (C ) and 50 grm\\/500ml (C ) of

Sazada Siddiqui; Shilpa Bhardwaj; Shoukat Saeed Khan; Mukesh Kumar Meghvanshi

372

Grape seed extract induces apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells via caspases activation accompanied by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seed extract (GSE), rich in the bioflavonoids com- monly known as procyanidins, is one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements in the United States because of its several health benefits. Epidemiological studies show that many prostate cancer (PCA) patients use herbal extracts as dietary supplements in addition to their pre- scription drugs. Accordingly, in recent years, we have

Chapla Agarwal; Rana P. Singh; Rajesh Agarwal

373

In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds  

PubMed Central

We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. PMID:22072929

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

2011-01-01

374

Grape seed extract ameliorates tumor necrosis factor-?-induced inflammatory status of human umbilical vein endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Inflammation has played a key role in the causation of atherosclerosis. However, the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on\\u000a the pro-inflammatory intracellular signaling, enzyme activity, and inflammatory mediators of endothelial cells have not been\\u000a sufficiently studied, and less information exists on the comparison between GSE and vitamin C, a well-known antioxidant compound,\\u000a on their anti-inflammatory properties.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  We investigated the

Chia-Lun Chao; Nen-Chung Chang; Ching-Sung Weng; Kueir-Rarn Lee; Shung-Te Kao; Jiin-Chyr Hsu; Feng-Ming Ho

375

Larvicidal and chemosterilant activity of the acetone fraction of petroleum ether extract from Argemone mexicana L seed.  

PubMed

The acetone fraction of the petroleum ether extract of seeds from Argemone mexicana L. exhibited larvicidal and growth inhibiting activity against the second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn). This activity occurred at higher concentrations (200, 100, 50 and 25 ppm). Chemosterilant activity, including reduction in blood meal utilization (27.70%), reduction in fecundity (19.00%), formation of larval-pupal intermediates, formation of pupal-adult intermediates, adult mortality and sterility of first generation eggs (100%), occurred at low concentration (10 ppm). PMID:12699943

Sakthivadivel, M; Thilagavathy, D

2003-09-01

376

Influence of Chemical Extraction on Rheological Behavior, Viscoelastic Properties and Functional Characteristics of Natural Heteropolysaccharide/Protein Polymer from Durio zibethinus Seed  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the demand for a natural plant-based polymer with potential functions from plant sources has increased considerably. The main objective of the current study was to study the effect of chemical extraction conditions on the rheological and functional properties of the heteropolysaccharide/protein biopolymer from durian (Durio zibethinus) seed. The efficiency of different extraction conditions was determined by assessing the extraction yield, protein content, solubility, rheological properties and viscoelastic behavior of the natural polymer from durian seed. The present study revealed that the soaking process had a more significant (p < 0.05) effect than the decolorizing process on the rheological and functional properties of the natural polymer. The considerable changes in the rheological and functional properties of the natural polymer could be due to the significant (p < 0.05) effect of the chemical extraction variables on the protein fraction present in the molecular structure of the natural polymer from durian seed. The natural polymer from durian seed had a more elastic (or gel like) behavior compared to the viscous (liquid like) behavior at low frequency. The present study revealed that the natural heteropolysaccharide/protein polymer from durian seed had a relatively low solubility ranging from 9.1% to 36.0%. This might be due to the presence of impurities, insoluble matter and large particles present in the chemical structure of the natural polymer from durian seed. PMID:23203099

Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed

2012-01-01

377

Influence of chemical extraction on rheological behavior, viscoelastic properties and functional characteristics of natural heteropolysaccharide/protein polymer from Durio zibethinus seed.  

PubMed

In recent years, the demand for a natural plant-based polymer with potential functions from plant sources has increased considerably. The main objective of the current study was to study the effect of chemical extraction conditions on the rheological and functional properties of the heteropolysaccharide/protein biopolymer from durian (Durio zibethinus) seed. The efficiency of different extraction conditions was determined by assessing the extraction yield, protein content, solubility, rheological properties and viscoelastic behavior of the natural polymer from durian seed. The present study revealed that the soaking process had a more significant (p < 0.05) effect than the decolorizing process on the rheological and functional properties of the natural polymer. The considerable changes in the rheological and functional properties of the natural polymer could be due to the significant (p < 0.05) effect of the chemical extraction variables on the protein fraction present in the molecular structure of the natural polymer from durian seed. The natural polymer from durian seed had a more elastic (or gel like) behavior compared to the viscous (liquid like) behavior at low frequency. The present study revealed that the natural heteropolysaccharide/protein polymer from durian seed had a relatively low solubility ranging from 9.1% to 36.0%. This might be due to the presence of impurities, insoluble matter and large particles present in the chemical structure of the natural polymer from durian seed. PMID:23203099

Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed

2012-01-01

378

Effect of flavonoids and saponins extracted from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed coats as cholesterol micelle disruptors.  

PubMed

Strategies for reducing plasma cholesterol have been focused on reducing the absorption or synthesis of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to correlate the content of flavonoids and saponins in black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed coats extracts with a potential effect in lowering cholesterol absorption by the inhibition of cholesterol micellar solubility. Extracts with different flavonoids and saponins concentration were obtained from a Box-Behnken design used to optimize extraction temperature, stirring time and solvent composition. Major flavonoids and saponins were quantified by HPLC-PDA-ELSD and confirmed through mass spectrometry. Contrary to the flavonoid content, saponins were correlated to the inhibitory effect of cholesterol micelle solubility as an approach to a potential reduction of cholesterol absorption. Extracts with the highest saponin content strongly inhibited cholesterol micellization with values of 55.4?±?1.9 %, while stigmasterol used as control, only reached 12?±?2.3 % at the same concentration (5 mg/ml). The optimal extracting conditions for saponins were 25 °C, during 3 h in 85 % aqueous-methanol. Correlations of inhibitory effect of cholesterol micellar solubility with the content of each identified saponin suggested that the reduction of cholesterol micellization depends on the C-22 substitution of saponins. PMID:24062217

Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

2013-12-01

379

Retardation of post-mortem changes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stored in ice by legume seed extracts.  

PubMed

Meat quality of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts at different concentrations was monitored during 10 days of iced storage. During storage, the control sample (without treatment) had a higher pH, TCA-soluble peptide content, heat soluble collagen content, proteolytic activities and psychrophilic bacterial count than did samples treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts. Conversely, shear force value and likeness scores of the control sample decreased (p<0.05), more likely associated with softening of muscle. The decrease in myosin heavy chain in the control sample was found after 6 days of storage. However, no changes in protein patterns of samples treated with soybean extracts at 2.5 mg/mL were found after 10 days of storage. Therefore, the injections of legume seed extracts, especially soybean extract, at a sufficient concentration, could be a means to retard muscle softening and maintain the qualities of freshwater prawn during iced storage. PMID:22868130

Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji; Yoshida, Asami

2012-11-15

380

St. John's Wort seed and feverfew flower extracts relieve painful diabetic neuropathy in a rat model of diabetes.  

PubMed

Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes and the few approved therapies for the management of pain have limited efficacy and side effects. With the aim to explore and develop new pharmacological treatments, we investigated the antihyperalgesic properties of St. John's Wort (SJW) and feverfew in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Acute administration of a SJW seed extract reversed mechanical hyperalgesia with a prolonged effect. A SJW extract obtained from the aerial portion of the plant and a feverfew flower extract partially relieved neuropathic pain whereas a feverfew leaf extract was ineffective. The antihyperalgesic efficacy of these herbal drugs was comparable to that of clinically used antihyperalgesic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, l-acetyl-levocarnitine). Further examinations of SJW and feverfew composition revealed that hyperforin and hypericin might be responsible for the antihyperalgesic properties of SJW whereas the efficacy of feverfew seems to be related to the presence of parthenolide. Rats undergoing treatment with SJW and feverfew did not show any behavioral side effect or sign of altered locomotor activity. Our results suggest that SJW and feverfew extracts may become new therapeutic perspectives for painful DPN. PMID:24125916

Galeotti, Nicoletta; Maidecchi, Anna; Mattoli, Luisa; Burico, Michela; Ghelardini, Carla

2014-01-01

381

SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM CORIANDER (Coriandrum sativum L.) SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SWE) is a technique based on the use of water as an extractant, at temperatures between 100 and 374 ºC and at a pressure high enough to maintain the liquid state. As the temperature of liquid water is raised under pressure, the polarity decreases and it can be used as an extraction solvent for a wide range

Norashikin Saim; Rozita Osman

382

Nephroprotective activities of the aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn. in carbon tetrachloride induced renal injured Wistar rats: a dose- and time-dependent study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the dose related effect of the aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn. extract (CPE) was evaluated by pre-treating three groups of rats (made up of six male rats per group) with 100 - 400 mg\\/kg body weight per oral of the extract for 7 days before challenging with 1.5 ml\\/kg body weight of 20% carbon

JA Olagunju; AA Adeneye; AG Adeleke

383

Protective role of grape seed extract against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and genotoxicity in albino mice.  

PubMed

In this study, the protective role of grape seed extract (GSE) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity and genotoxicity has been evaluated in male Mus musculus var. albino mice. The micronucleus (MN) test in erythrocytes and the chromosome aberration (CA) test in bone marrow cells were used. Also, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde (MDA) in heart homogenates were measured, and in addition the changes in heart histology were investigated. The mice were randomly divided into six groups. Group I (negative control) received intraperitoneal injections of isotonic saline (0.02 mL/g) for 6 consecutive days, Group II received intraperitoneal injections of DOX (2.5 mg/kg of body weight, six doses every other day; cumulative dosage, 15 mg/kg of body weight) for 6 consecutive days, Group III received GSE (50 mg/kg of body weight, 21 doses every other day; cumulative dosage, 1,050 mg/kg of body weight) for 21 consecutive days, Group IV received GSE (150 mg/kg of body weight, 21 doses every other day; cumulative dosage, 3,150 mg/kg of body weight) for 21 consecutive days, Group V received GSE (50 mg/kg of body weight, 28 doses every other day; cumulative dosage, 1,400 mg/kg of body weight) for 28 consecutive days plus DOX (2.5 mg/kg of body weight, six doses every other day; cumulative dosage, 15 mg/kg of body weight) for 6 consecutive days, and Group VI received GSE (150 mg/kg of body weight, 28 doses every other day; cumulative dosage, 4,200 mg/kg of body weight) for 28 consecutive days plus DOX (2.5 mg/kg of body weight, six doses every other day; cumulative dosage, 15 mg/kg of body weight) for 6 consecutive days. DOX induced heart damage as indicated from a pronounced change in heart histology. In the DOX-treated group, there was a significant increase in MDA content in the heart homogenate, and the level of GSH was significantly decreased. DOX induced genotoxicity by increasing the number of aberrant metaphases (AMNs), MNs, and structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) such as chromatid breaks, dicentrics, acentric fragments, and gaps and showed a detractive effect on the mitotic index (MI) of cells. Pretreatment with GSE before treatment with DOX significantly protected the heart tissue by ameliorating its antioxidant activity. In Groups V and VI, the MDA level of heart tissue was significantly decreased, and the GSH level was increased compared to the DOX-treated group. Moreover, GSE significantly protected bone marrow chromosomes from DOX-induced genotoxicity by reducing the total AMNs and the frequency of structural CAs. GSE treatment also decreased the frequency of MNs and increased the MI values. It could be concluded that GSE acts as a potent antioxidant to prevent heart damage and genotoxicity of bone marrow cells. PMID:20553142

Yalçin, Emine; Oruç, Ertan; Cavu?o?lu, Külti?in; Yapar, Kür?ad

2010-08-01

384

Extract of Adenanthera pavonina L. seed reduces development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal protective effect of Adenanthera pavonina (A. pavonina) seed aqueous extract (APSAE), in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The renal protective effect of A. pavonina seed aqueous extract (APSAE) was studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats. APSAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day) was given daily to diabetic rats for 13 weeks. Blood glucose, serum parameters such as albumin, creatinine, total protein, urea, lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and urine parameters such as urine protein and albumin were examined. Kidney histopathology was also done. Results: After 13 weeks of treatment, in STZ-induced diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia was developed, with marked increase in proteinuria and albuminuria. However, APSAE treatment significantly reduced proteinuria, albuminuria, lipid levels, and HbA1c deposition in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These results suggested that APSAE has reduced development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25050253

Pandhare, Ramdas; Sangameswaran, Balakrishnan

2012-01-01

385

Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed residues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

An extract of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed residues has been shown to possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties in normal mice. The present study investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of seabuckthorn seed residues (ASSR) on serum glucose, lipid profiles and antioxidant parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: a normal control group; diabetic control group; diabetic groups supplemented with 5 mg/kg body weight glibenclamide (reference drug) and 400 mg/kg body weight ASSR. Diabetes in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight). Vehicle (distilled water), glibenclamide and ASSR were administered orally to normal and diabetic rats once a day lasting for 4 weeks. The data showed that administration of ASSR significantly lowered the serum glucose, triglyceride and nitric oxide levels in diabetic rats. Moreover, ASSR treatment also increased serum superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione level markedly. These results show that ASSR has hypoglycemic, hypotriglyceridemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, suggesting that ASSR supplementation can be useful in preventing diabetic complications associated with hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress. PMID:19585473

Zhang, Wen; Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Jiesi; Pang, Xiufeng; Zhuang, Xiuyuan; Zhu, Xinglei; Qu, Weijing

2010-02-01

386

Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

2014-07-01

387

Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS), and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE), were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS) or in extract (LE) to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli?B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3?h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects. PMID:25313359

Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Chirila, Flore; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Pelmus, Rodica Stefania; Calin, Loredana Georgeta; Socaciu, Carmen

2014-01-01

388

Effect of kenaf seed oil from different ways of extraction towards ovarian cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) from the family of Malvaceae is a valuable fibre plant native to India and Africa. Kenaf is composed of various active components including tannins, saponins, polyphenolics, alkaloids, essential oils and steroids. It has been used to treat bruises, bilious conditions, fever and puerperium. Nevertheless, the anti-cancer properties of kenaf seed oil have not yet been investigated. In

Latifah Saiful Yazan; Jhi Biau Foo; Siti Aisyah Abd Ghafar; Kim Wei Chan; Maznah Ismail

2011-01-01

389

Microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica leaf  

PubMed Central

Objective To study detail microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica (D. indica) leaf. Methods Fresh leaf sample and dried power of the leaf were studied macroscopically and microscopically. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of plant material was done. Other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were also performed. Results The detail microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, unicellular trichome, xylem fibres, calcium oxalate crystals, vascular bundles, etc. Leaf constants such as stomatal number, stomatal index, vein-islet number and veinlet termination numbers were also measured. Physiochemical parameters such as ash values, loss on drying, extractive values, percentage of foreign matters, swelling index, etc. were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. Conclusions The microscopic and physiochemical analysis of the D. indica leaf is useful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification. PMID:23569789

Kumar, S; Kumar, V; Prakash, Om

2011-01-01

390

Screening of Dried Plant Seed Extracts for Adiponectin Production Activity and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Inhibitory Activity on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity\\u000a on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan.\\u000a komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

Yoshinori Okada; Mizue Okada; Yumi Sagesaka

2010-01-01

391

Comparison of high-speed counter-current chromatography instruments for the separation of the extracts of the seeds of Oroxylum indicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical Milli high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for the selection and optimization of the two-phase solvent system to separate flavonoids from the extracts of the seeds of Oroxylum indicum. The optimum solvent system obtained from Milli-CCC was also the best solvent system for preparative HSCCC and led to the successful separation of two crude flavonoids from the seeds of

L. J. Chen; H. Song; X. Q. Lan; D. E. Games; I. A. Sutherland

2005-01-01

392

Modulation of doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress by a grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed extract in normal and tumor cells.  

PubMed

The major limitation of Doxorubicin (Dox) clinical use is the development of chronic and acute toxic side effects induced through the generation of reactive oxygen species. The present work was designated to investigate in vitro effects of a red grape-seed hydroethanolic extract Burgund Mare (BM), in associated administration with Dox (30 min before drug administration) in normal (Hfl-1) and tumor cell lines (HepG2 and Mls). The BM concentrations administered were below the level of the extract cytotoxiciy threshold (40 ?g gallic acid [GA] Eq/mL; 37.5, 25.0, and 12.5 ?g GA Eq/mL). The antioxidant capacity of the BM extract was assessed by measuring the acute toxicity at 24 h, lipid peroxides (LP), and protein oxidation. In normal cells, the product statistically decreased cytotoxicity and markedly inhibited LP and protein carbonyl (PC) formation, in a dose-dependent relationship. On contrary, in tumor cells, such treatment resulted in a reversed effect, cell death, malondialdehyde, and PC contents increasing with BM dose enhancement. BM extract treatment prior to subsequent administration of Dox afforded a differential protection against Dox-negative toxic side effects in normal cells without weakening (even enhancing) Dox's antitumor activity. PMID:22519870

Postescu, Ion Dan; Chereches, Gabriela; Tatomir, Corina; Daicoviciu, Doina; Filip, Gabriela Adriana

2012-07-01

393

Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) and grape seeds (seeds of Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) are two of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, and they have been shown to have various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the action of phenolic extracts (at concentrations 5-100?µg/mL) of two different plants, berries of A. melanocarpa (chokebbery) and grape seeds, on the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status) in control the platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (the strong physiological oxidant) in vitro. The properties of these two tested extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa, like the extract from grape seeds, reduced the changes in activities of different antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The action of the two tested plant extracts and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced glutathione in platelets compared with platelets treated with H(2)O(2) only. Comparative studies indicate that the two tested plant extracts had similar antioxidative properties, and were found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of resveratrol. PMID:21299394

Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wies?aw; Erler, Joachim

2011-01-01

394

Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer properties of the seed extracts of Syzygium fruticosum Roxb. growing in Rajshahi, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background The use of plants and their derived substances increases day by day for the discovery of therapeutic agents owing to their versatile applications. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants having anticancer properties from plant origin since oxidants play a crucial role in developing various human diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer properties of Sygygium fruticosum (Roxb.) (abbreviated as SF). Methods The dried coarse powder of seeds of SF was exhaustively extracted with methanol and the resulting crude methanolic extract (CME) was successively fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate to get petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and lastly aqueous (AQF) fraction. The antioxidant activities were determined by several assays: total antioxidant capacity assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The in vivo anticancer activity of SF was determined on Ehrlich’s Ascite cell (EAC) induced Swiss albino mice. Results All the extractives showed strong antioxidant activities related to the standard. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the fractions was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>PEF>CHF. The TAC of EAF at 320 ?g/mL was 2.60±0.005 which was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of standard catechin (1.37 ± 0.005). The ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity of the extracts was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>AA>CHF>PEF. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the IC50 value of EAF was 4.85 ?g/mL, whereas that of BHT was 9.85 ?g/mL. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, the EAF showed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 of 43.3 and 68.11 ?g/mL, respectively. The lipid peroxidation inhibition assay was positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with both DPPH free radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic contents of SF were also positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. Based on antioxidant activity, EAF was selected for cytotoxic assay and it was found that EAF inhibited 67.36% (p < 0.01) cell growth at a dose of 50 mg/kg (ip) on day six of EAC cell incubation. Conclusions Our results suggest that EAF of seeds of SF possess significant antioxidant and moderate anticancer properties. Seeds of SF may therefore be a good source for natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement. PMID:23800021

2013-01-01

395

Non-toxic and efficient DNA extractions for soybean leaf and seed chips for high-throughput and large-scale genotyping.  

PubMed

In applied soybean (Glycine max L.) breeding programs, marker-assisted selection has become a necessity to select value-added quantitative trait loci. The goal of this work was to improve marker-assisted selection workflow by developing a reliable, inexpensive, high-throughput DNA extraction protocol for soybean seed and leaf samples that does not generate hazardous waste. The DNA extraction protocol developed allows for the leverage of robust SNP genotyping platforms such as the Simple Probe Assay and KASPar v4.0 SNP Genotyping System to genotype thousands of seeds or leaves non-destructively in a single day with a 95 % success rate. This methodology makes it possible to run up to 150 SNP markers on the DNA extracted from a single seed chip or leaf sample. PMID:24863292

King, Zachary; Serrano, Jonathan; Roger Boerma, H; Li, Zenglu

2014-09-01

396

Antidiabetic Properties of Azardiracta indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In Vivo Studies in Murine Diabetes Model  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome characterized by an increase in the blood glucose level. Treatment of diabetes is complicated due to multifactorial nature of the disease. Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss and Bougainvillea spectabilis are reported to have medicinal values including antidiabetic properties. In the present study using invivo diabetic murine model, A. indica and B. spectabilis chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated for the biochemical parameters important for controlling diabetes. It was found that A. indica chloroform extract and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts showed a good oral glucose tolerance and significantly reduced the intestinal glucosidase activity. Interestingly, A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts showed significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and hepatic, skeletal muscle glycogen content after 21 days of treatment. In immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a regeneration of insulin-producing cells and corresponding increase in the plasma insulin and c-peptide levels with the treatment of A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts. Analyzing the results, it is clear that A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts are good candidates for developing new neutraceuticals treatment for diabetes. PMID:19389871

Bhat, Menakshi; Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar K.; Tirmale, Amruta R.; Bhargava, Shobha Y.; Joshi, Bimba N.

2011-01-01

397

Application of response surface methodology for extraction optimization of germinant pumpkin seeds protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology was employed to study the effect of liquid:solid ratio, NaCl concentration and reaction time on the production of protein from germinant pumpkin seeds. Regression analysis was performed on the data obtained. The most relevant variable was liquid:solid ratio. The coefficient determination (R2) was good for the second-order model. A liquid:solid ratio of 30.2: 1 (v\\/w), a NaCl

Li Quanhong; Fu Caili

2005-01-01

398

In-vitro cytotoxicity (LC 50 ) of extracts obtained from the seeds of Zea mays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zea mays was tested for cytotoxicity (LC50) efficacy against brine shrimp via extracts obtained from soxhlation using methanol, ethyl aectate, n-hexane, n-butanol solvent and one pure fraction. The in-vitro cytotoxicity (LC50) activity was performed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among these extracts, ethyl acetate, hexane and pure compounds have been found to be effective.

M. Amzad Hossain; Taslim Ferdous; S. M. Salehuddin; A. K. Das

2009-01-01

399

Amaranth seed proteins: Effect of defatting on extraction yield and on electrophoretic patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetone and hexane were used to know the effect of defatting amaranth flour on the extraction yield of protein fractions and on the electrophoretic patterns. It was found that albumins (33%) and globulins (20%) did not present yield changes when using these two solvents, but it was noted that with hexane compared to acetone, prolamins extraction was reduced by half

N. E. Leyva-Lopez; N. Vasco; A. P. Barba de la Rosa; O. Paredes-Lopez

1995-01-01

400

Acaricidal effect of herbal extracts against cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using in vitro studies.  

PubMed

The crude methanolic extract of Datura stramonium, Azadirachta indica, and Calotropis procera leaves, Allium sativum (AS) cloves, and Carica papaya (CP) seeds collected from Banaskanta, Gujarat (India) was tested for its acaricidal properties against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The percent adult mortality within 15 days, reproductive index, percentage inhibition of oviposition, hatching of laid ova, and percentage larval mortality were studied at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml. At the highest concentration (100 mg/ml), the adult tick mortality was 66.67, 73.33, 80.00, and 93.33% for C. procera, D. stramonium, A. sativum, and C. papaya extracts, respectively, and it was statistically significant (P?indica, mortality was low and estimated to be 33.33%. Inhibition of oviposition at the highest concentration of A. indica, C. procera, D. stramonium, A. sativum, and C. papaya extract-treated ticks was 20.73, 71.34, 77.17, 85.83, and 100.00%, respectively. Inhibition of fecundity of treated groups differed significantly from the control and was concentration dependent. Larvae treated with all the tested concentrations of A. indica, C. procera, D. stramonium, A. sativum, and C. papaya extracts by larval packet test showed significant mortality (P?seed extract produced complete failure of eclosion of eggs from the treated ticks even at lower concentrations; however, neem, calotropis, and datura was capable of reducing hatchability by 20, 50, and 70%, respectively. The results pointed that the crude extracts of A. sativum cloves and C. papaya seeds have very good acaricidal properties and could be a potential component of alternative R. (B.) microplus tick control strategy. PMID:24633906

Shyma, K P; Gupta, J P; Ghosh, S; Patel, K K; Singh, Veer

2014-05-01

401

Cavity Optical Pulse Extraction: ultra-short pulse generation as seeded Hawking radiation  

PubMed Central

We show that light trapped in an optical cavity can be extracted from that cavity in an ultrashort burst by means of a trigger pulse. We find a simple analytic description of this process and show that while the extracted pulse inherits its pulse length from that of the trigger pulse, its wavelength can be completely different. Cavity Optical Pulse Extraction is thus well suited for the development of ultrashort laser sources in new wavelength ranges. We discuss similarities between this process and the generation of Hawking radiation at the optical analogue of an event horizon with extremely high Hawking temperature. Our analytic predictions are confirmed by thorough numerical simulations. PMID:24060831

Eilenberger, Falk; Kabakova, Irina V.; de Sterke, C. Martijn; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Pertsch, Thomas

2013-01-01

402

Antihyperglycemic activity with DPP-IV inhibition of alkaloids from seed extract of Castanospermum australe: Investigation by experimental validation and molecular docking.  

PubMed

The antidiabetic actions of Castanospermum australe Cunn., seed (CAS) extract were evaluated in Poloxamer-407 (PX-407) induced T2DM rats. The CAS extract (100 and 150 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally once a day for 5 weeks after the animals were confirmed diabetic. A significant increase in blood glucose, HbA?c and serum insulin levels were observed in T2DM rats in comparison to citrate control rats. Treatment with CAS extract in T2DM rats reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, HbA?c and insulin with significant (p?0.001) improvement in OGT. The CAS extract treatment also increased (p?0.001) the K(ITT) and prevented increase in HOMA-R level in T2DM rats. The DPP-IV inhibitory potential of CAS extract showed IC?? value of 13.96 ?g/ml whilst the standard Diprotin A displayed the IC?? value of 1.543 ?g/ml. Molecular docking of the three reported alkaloids from the seeds of C. australe showed comparable DPP-IV inhibition with berberine. Our data suggest that CAS extract (150 mg/kg body weight) normalizes hyperglycemia in T2DM rats with strong DPP-IV inhibitory potential. The molecular docking showed that among the three alkaloids of seed extract 7-Deoxy-6-epi-castanospermine is a potent DPP-IV inhibitor similar to berberine. PMID:23063145

Bharti, Sudhanshu Kumar; Krishnan, Supriya; Kumar, Amit; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Murari, Krishna; Bharti, Binod Kumar; Gupta, Ashok Kumar

2012-12-15

403

Antiparkinsonian effects of aqueous methanolic extract of Hyoscyamus niger seeds result from its monoamine oxidase inhibitory and hydroxyl radical scavenging potency.  

PubMed

Hyoscyamus species is one of the four plants used in Ayurveda for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Since Hyoscyamus niger was found to contain negligible levels of L-DOPA, we evaluated neuroprotective potential, if any, of characterized petroleum ether and aqueous methanol extracts of its seeds in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD in mice. Air dried authenticated H. niger seeds were sequentially extracted using petroleum ether and aqueous methanol and were characterized employing HPLC-electrochemistry and LCMS. Parkinsonian mice were treated daily twice with the extracts (125-500 mg/kg, p.o.) for two days and motor functions and striatal dopamine levels were assayed. Administration of the aqueous methanol extract (containing 0.03% w/w of L-DOPA), but not petroleum ether extract, significantly attenuated motor disabilities (akinesia, catalepsy and reduced swim score) and striatal dopamine loss in MPTP treated mice. Since the extract caused significant inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity and attenuated 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP+)-induced hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation in isolated mitochondria, it is possible that the methanolic extract of Hyoscyamus niger seeds protects against parkinsonism in mice by means of its ability to inhibit increased ·OH generated in the mitochondria. PMID:20972705

Sengupta, T; Vinayagam, J; Nagashayana, N; Gowda, B; Jaisankar, P; Mohanakumar, K P

2011-01-01

404

The efficacy of neem seed extracts (Tre-san, MiteStop on a broad spectrum of pests and parasites.  

PubMed

The paper summarizes the acaricidal and insecticidal effects of a patented neem seed extract when diluted 1:10 with shampoo or 1:20, 1:30, 1:33, 1:40, respectively, 1:66 with tap water. It was shown that a broad range of pests and parasites, such as house dust mites, poultry mites, harvest mites, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus ticks, cat fleas (adults, larvae), bed bugs (all stages), head lice and mallophaga, cockroaches (genera Blatta, Blattella, Gomphadorhina), raptor bugs (Triatoma), and even food-attacking beetle (Tenebrio molitor) might be controlled with this extract, which is available as Tre-san (against house dust mites) and MiteStop (against mites, ticks, insects of any kind) to become water diluted or as Wash Away Louse or Picksan LouseStop being diluted in a shampoo. Tests on skin compatibility proved that there are no skin irritations during or after use. However, some target species are less sensible (beetles, Triatoma stages, fly maggots), while the specimens of the other species cited above were successfully killed even at low concentrations of the extract. PMID:20461406

Schmahl, Günter; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2010-07-01

405

Development of a chemically extracted acellular muscle scaffold seeded with amniotic epithelial cells to promote spinal cord repair.  

PubMed

Bridging strategies are essential for spinal cord repair in order to provide a physical substrate allowing axons to grow across the site of spinal cord lesions. In this study, we have evaluated the therapeutic effects of adding amniotic epithelial cells to a unidirectionally oriented acellular muscle scaffold and have compared this with the effect of a scaffold alone. Chemically extracted acellular muscles, with or without amniotic epithelial cells, were implanted into the lateral hemisected adult rat thoracic spinal cord. Control rats were similarly injured. After 4 weeks, the acellular muscle scaffolds were found to be well integrated with the host tissue. The chemically extracted acellular muscle scaffold seeded with amniotic epithelial cells promoted axonal growth in a distinctly organized and linear fashion, induced sprouting of calcitonin gene-related peptide positive axons, and was not associated with an astrocyte response. Compared with acellular muscle scaffolds alone, the addition of amniotic epithelial cells further promoted the remyelination of nerve fibers, sprouting of 5-hydroxytryptamine nerve fibers, relays of cortical motor-evoked potential and cortical somatosensory-evoked potential, and functional recovery. All these data together suggest that co-implantation of chemically extracted acellular muscle with amniotic epithelial cells may constitute a valuable approach to study and/or develop therapies for spinal cord injury. PMID:22829497

Xue, Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Ying; Liu, Jia-Mei; Song, Yu; Li, Yi-Fan; Chen, Dong

2013-01-01

406

Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera increase growth performance at the expense of herbivore resistance in Nicotiana attenuata  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Sebacinales species was recovered from a clone library made from a pooled rhizosphere sample of Nicotiana attenuata plants from 14 native populations. Axenic cultures of the related species, Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera, were used to examine their effects on plant performance. Inoculation of N. attenuata seeds with either fungus species stimulated seed germination and increased gro