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Sample records for indica seed extract

  1. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 μg/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal. PMID:21031260

  2. [Effects of tomato genotypes and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].

    PubMed

    Brunherotto, Rogério; Vendramim, José D; de G Oriani, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    Insecticide plants are an important tool among the new alternatives for pest control in IPM systems because they reduce the use of synthetic insecticides, preserving human health and the environment. We investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds and three tomato genotypes, 'Santa Clara', 'IPA-5'--Solanum lycopersicum (=Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), and LA444-1--S. peruvianum (=L. peruvianum), on the development, reproduction and longevity of the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), under laboratory conditions. The trials were set up in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments [three genotypes x two extracts (M. azedarach and A. indica) and control]. The replication consisted on five tubes, each with three newly hatched larvae, totalizing 90 individuals per treatment. The larvae were fed with tomato leaves treated with aqueous extracts at 0.1% concentration or distilled water (control) and daily observed until adults' emergence. Larval and pupal development and mortality, pupal weight, longevity and fecundity were evaluated. The accession LA444-1 negatively affected the development and reproduction of T. absoluta; the tomato pinworm had similar development and reproduction on 'IPA-5' and 'Santa Clara' (the susceptible control). The association of resistant tomato genotypes and extracts of M. azedarach leaves and neem seeds did not result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on T. absoluta. PMID:21120389

  3. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C). PMID:22754699

  4. In vitro acaricidal effect of plant extract of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica) on egg, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafy, S; Zayed, A A

    2002-05-30

    Effects of the plant extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) on eggs, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum was studied at concentrations of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8%. The extract was found to have a significant effect on the hatching rate of eggs. It significantly increased the hatching rate during the first 7 days post-treatment (DPT) giving incompletely developed and dead larvae; however, it cause hatching failure at DPT 15. Neem Azal F induced a significant increased in mortality rates of newly hatched larvae, unfed larvae, and unfed adults reaching 100% on 15th, 3rd, and 15th DPT, respectively. The mortality rates increased with the extract concentrations. Although, it had no significant effect on the moulting rates of fed nymphs, it caused malformation or deformities in 4% of adults moulted. It was concluded that the concentration of Neem Azal F which may be used for commercial control of this tick species were 1.6 and 3.2%. PMID:11992715

  5. The melanogenesis-inhibitory, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive effects of limonoids in n-hexane extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem) seeds.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Akitomo; Kikuchi, Takashi; Takagi, Mio; Watanabe, Kensuke; Fukatsu, Makoto; Fujita, Yukiko; Banno, Norihiro; Tokuda, Harukuni; Yasukawa, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen limonoids (tetranortriterpenoids 1-17) were isolated from the n-hexane extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) seeds. The previously unidentified compound 16 was established by spectroscopy to be 17-defurano-17-oxosalannin. The effects of six compounds, 6 and 11-15, on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells was evaluated; 2 compounds, salannin (13) and 3-deacetylsalannin (15), exhibited marked inhibitory effects (70-74% reduction of melanin content at 25 µg/mL) with only minor cytotoxicity (79-85% of cell viability). Eleven compounds, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 9-15, were evaluated for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1.7 nmol/ear) in mice; all exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity (ID(50) values 0.22-0.57 µmol/ear). In addition, compounds 6 and 11-16 exerted moderate inhibition (IC(50) values of 410-471 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA) of TPA-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation in Raji cells. The triacylglycerol fraction of the n-hexane extract contained oleic acid (50.2%) as the most predominant fatty acid constituent. PMID:21263200

  6. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  7. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Foster Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera Introduction This fact sheet provides basic information about ... naturaldatabase.com on June 25, 2009. Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed ...

  8. Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Santhosh, Martin S.; Paul, Manoj; Sunitha, Kabburahalli; Thushara, Ram M.; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K.; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention. PMID:26059174

  9. Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Santhosh, Martin S; Paul, Manoj; Sunitha, Kabburahalli; Thushara, Ram M; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention. PMID:26059174

  10. Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 2 C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 2 C (cyclic temperature: 26 2 C; -38 2 C; and -26 2 C, and broilers were maintained at 38 2 C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher ( P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers.

  11. Allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz on Eleusine indica (L.) gaertn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimshah, Syamimi; Ismail B., S.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata on the growth of E. indica through aqueous extract and debris (incorporated into the soil) experiment. Three concentrations of leaf and seed aqueous extract (16.7, 33.3 and 66.7 g/L) and debris (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/500 g soil) of M. bracteata were used in the experiment. Complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications was applied in this experiment which was conducted twice. Results demonstrated that the leaf and seed extracts of M. bracteata exhibited higher suppression effect on the growth and germination of E. indica as the concentration increased. The leaf and seed extracts significantly reduced all measured parameters at all concentrations except for the shoot length and germination of E. indica by seed extract at 16.7 g/L which recorded insignificant reduction by 40.5% and 4% respectively. The leaf and seed debris significantly reduced the root length of E. indica at all treatments. Seed debris also showed significant reduction on the germination at all treatments and other seedling growth parameters (shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) at 2.5 and 10.0 g/500 g soil. Meanwhile, the leaf debris demonstrated stimulation effect on the seedling growth parameters. As a whole, the leaf showed higher suppression effect in aqueous extract experiment while the seed recorded higher suppression effect in the debris experiment. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the type of inhibition mechanism involved in both experiments.

  12. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica) Almond Seed Fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

    In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica) almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF) was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8°C and 10.9 min at 12°C). The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8°C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12°C, respectively) and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

  13. How much Dillenia indica seed predation occurs from Asian elephant dung?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekar, Nitin; Giam, Xingli; Sharma, Netra Prasad; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Elephants are thought to be effective seed dispersers, but research on whether elephant dung effectively protects seeds from seed predation is lacking. Quantifying rates of seed predation from elephant dung will facilitate comparisons between elephants and alternative dispersers, helping us understand the functional role of megaherbivores in ecosystems. We conducted an experiment to quantify the predation of Dillenia indica seeds from elephant dung in Buxa Reserve, India from December 2012 to April 2013. Using dung boluses from the same dung pile, we compared the number of seeds in boluses that are a) opened immediately upon detection (control boluses), b) made available only to small seed predators (<3 mm wide) for 1-4 months, and c) made available to all seed predators and secondary dispersers for 1-4 months. Using a model built on this experiment, we estimated that seed predation by small seed predators (most likely ants and termites) destroys between 82.9% and 96.4% of seeds in elephant dung between the time of defecation and the median germination date for D. indica. Exposure to larger seed predators and secondary dispersers did not lead to a significant additional reduction in the number of seeds per dung bolus. Our findings suggest that post-dispersal seed predation by small insects (<3 mm) substantially reduces but does not eliminate the success of elephants as dispersers of D. indica in a tropical moist forest habitat.

  14. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    PubMed

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. PMID:26658229

  15. Antiprotozoal Effect of Artemisia indica Extracts and Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Tierney, Michelle; Sen, Rupashree; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Demirci, Betül; Bilia, Anna Rita; Baser, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Brun, Reto; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2015-08-01

    Diverse solvent extracts of Artemisia indica leaves originating from the West Bengal region (India) were assessed for the content of artemisinin and characteristic Artemisia polymethoxyflavonoids, namely eupatin (1), casticin (2), chrysoplenetin (3), cirsilineol (4), chrysophenol-D (5), and artemetin (6). HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS were used to investigate the extracts macerated by solvents of increasing polarity, i.e., petroleum ether, n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, MeOH, or EtOH (either 96, 80, or 60 % v/v), and hot water. Artemisinin was absent in all extracts. The acetone and EtOH extracts comprised the highest levels of polymethoxyflavonoids, whereas no flavonoid could be detected in the infusion. None of the remaining extracts contained chryosphenol-D (5) or artemetin (6), while chrysoplenetin (3) was found in all extracts. The essential oil of the plant was also obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry simultaneously. Of the 92 compounds detected in the oil, camphor (13.0 %) and caryophyllene oxide (10.87 %) were the major components. All solvent extracts and the volatile oil showed in vitro antimalarial activity, plus a potential malaria prophylactic effect by inhibiting at least two recombinant plasmodial fatty acid biosynthesis (PfFAS-II) enzymes. Except for the infusion, all extracts were also active against other parasitic protozoa and displayed low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. This is the first detailed study investigating both artemisinin and polymethoxyflavonoid content as well as in vitro malaria prophylactic and detailed antiprotozoal potential of A. indica extracts against a panel of protozoan parasites. This is also the first report of antiparasitic activity of the essential oil of the plant. PMID:26085047

  16. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  17. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent. PMID:21391790

  18. Cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activities of limonoids from the seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem).

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ishii, Koichi; Noto, Taisuke; Takahashi, Akitomo; Tabata, Keiichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2011-04-25

    Thirty-five limonoids, including 15 of the azadiradione type (1-15), five of the gedunin type (16-20), four of the azadirachtin type (21-24), nine of the nimbin type (25-33), and two degraded limonoids (34, 35), isolated from Azadirachta indica seed extracts, were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. Seven compounds (3, 6, 7, 16, 18, 28, and 29) exhibited cytotoxic activity against one or more cell lines. Among these compounds, 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylepoxyazadiradione (7), 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylgeduin (18), and 28-deoxonimbolide (28) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HL60 leukemia cells with IC(50) values in the range 2.7-3.1 μM. Compounds 7, 18, and 28 induced early apoptosis in HL60 cells, observed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that compounds 7, 18, and 28 activated caspases-3, -8, and -9 in HL60 cells. This suggested that compounds 7, 18, and 28 induced apoptotic cell death in HL60 cells via both the mitochondrial- and the death receptor-mediated pathways. Futhermore, compound 7 was shown to possess high selective cytotoxicity for leukemia cells since it exhibited only weak cytotoxicity against a normal lymphocyte cell line (RPMI 1788). PMID:21381696

  19. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    PubMed

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition. PMID:22886626

  20. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract.

    PubMed

    Awad El-Gied, Amgad A; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M; Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L.) The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:25878974

  1. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    PubMed Central

    Awad El-Gied, Amgad A.; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M.; Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L.) The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:25878974

  2. Antioxidative Characteristics of Anisomeles indica Extract and Inhibitory Effect of Ovatodiolide on Melanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Lien, Hsiu-Man; Ke, Hui-Ju; Chang, Li-Ling; Chen, Chia-Chang; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the antioxidant characteristics of Anisomeles indica methanol extract and the inhibitory effect of ovatodiolide on melanogenesis. In the study, the antioxidant capacities of A. indica methanol extract such as DPPH assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay, reducing capacity and metal ion chelating capacity as well as total phenolic content of the extract were investigated. In addition, the inhibitory effects of ovatodiolide on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results revealed that the antioxidant capacities of A. indica methanol extract increased in a dose-dependent pattern. The purified ovatodiolide inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.253 mM), the compound also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.469 mM) and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 0.435 mM) in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Our results concluded that A. indica methanol extract displays antioxidant capacities and ovatodiolide purified from the extract inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. Hence, A. indica methanol extract and ovatodiolide could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products. PMID:22754360

  3. Antinociceptive and anthelmintic activity of Canna indica.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, S A; Shelke, S M; Gagare, P B; Jadhav, P R; Dethe, P M

    2007-10-01

    Dried, coarsely powdered leaves, flowers, rhizomes and seeds of Canna indica were successively extracted with benzene and methanol in Soxhlet apparatus. The effect of benzene and methanol extracts of various parts of C. indica on nociceptive response using writhing test and hot plate method in mice was examined. All the extracts of C. indica showed significant central and peripheral analgesic activity in hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test, respectively, at the dose of 50 mg kg(-1) intraperitoneally. Methanolic extract of leaves of C. indica showed highest increase in reaction time in hot plate method while benzene extract of leaves of C. indica showed more inhibitory effect on writhing induced by acetic acid. Anthelmintic activity of these extracts was evaluated on Pheritima posthuma. Results showed that the methanolic extract of rhizomes of the plant took less time to cause paralysis of the earthworms. PMID:17852737

  4. Extraction and Analysis of Tomato Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato seeds represent a very large waste by-product from the processing of tomatoes into products such as tomato juice, sauce and paste. One potential use for these seeds is as a source of vegetable oil. This research investigated the oil content of tomato seeds using several extraction technique...

  5. Adsorption Studies of Chromium(VI) on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangifera indica (Mango) Seed Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mise, Shashikant; Patil, Trupti Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from Mangifera indica (mango) seed shell have been carried out at room temperature 32 ± 1 °C. The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on two types of activated carbon, physical activation and chemical activation (Calcium chloride and Sodium chloride), Impregnation Ratio's (IR) 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 for optimum time, optimum dosages and variation of pH were studied. It is observed that contact time differs for different carbons i.e. for physically and chemically activated carbons. The contact time decreases for chemically activated carbon compared to the physically activated carbon. It was observed that as dosage increases the adsorption increased along with the increase in impregnation ratio. It was also noted that as I.R. increases the surface area of Mangifera indica shell carbon increased. These dosage data were considered in the construction of isotherms and it was found that adsorption obeys Freundlich Isotherm and does not obey Langmuir Isotherm. The maximum removal of chromium (VI) was obtained in highly acidic medium at a pH of 1.50.

  6. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, S. N.; Naranjo, A. M.; Herrera, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.

  7. The incorporation effects of methanolic extracts of some plant seeds on the stability of phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Atrooz, Omar M

    2007-05-15

    The antioxidant activity and the polyphenols and flavonoids contents of methanolic extracts of plant seeds of Canna indica, Hordium sativum and Capsicum annuum were investigated. These extracts were found to exhibit strong scavenging effects on 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryle-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and have significant amounts of flavonoids and polyphenols. The effects of these extracts on Phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes also were studied. It was found that the extractable materials have varying inhibitory effects on oxidation of PC liposomes and their aggregation. These effects were significant and illustrated that addition of these extractable materials to liposomes can enhance their stability by preventing liposome oxidation and aggregation. PMID:19086511

  8. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Schott.)

    PubMed Central

    Mulla, WA; Kuchekar, SB; Thorat, VS; Chopade, AR; Kuchekar, BS

    2010-01-01

    Extracts obtained from the leaves of various Alocasia species have been used in India as folk remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments including rheumatism and bruise. The ethanolic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica Schott. was evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical. The antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response, hot plate method, and tail flick method in albino rats. The anti-inflammatory potential of gels of ethanolic extract has been determined by using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, formalin-induced paw edema assay, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema assay, and xylene-induced ear edema assay. The extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity in all models, comparable to the standard reference drug ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extract of Alocasia indica and its gels produced dose-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. This finding suggests that ethanolic extract of A. indica possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity possibly due to its free radical scavenging properties. PMID:21264115

  9. The antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of different plant seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Atrooz, Omar M

    2009-08-01

    Different plant seeds extracts of Citrus sinensis, Hordeum sativum, Triticum sativum, Canna indica, Citrullus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycril-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, RBCs hemolysis and linoleic acid oxidation, a long with the determination of total phenolic and flavonoids contents. All the methanolic extracts showed high antioxidant activity and have high contents of phenolic and flavonoid. The Canna indica extract exhibited strong antioxidant as a reducing power and as DPPH radical-scavenging (3.61 absorbance, 87.12%, respectively), while the Hordeum sativum extract exhibited highest inhibitory effect on RBCs hemolysis (59.55%) and the Capsicum annuum extract has highest inhibitory effect on linoleic acid peroxidation (65.06%). PMID:19943462

  10. Aqueous extract of garcinia indica choisy restores glutathione in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kirana, H; Srinivasan, Bp

    2010-07-01

    Significant depletion of glutathione (GSH-reduced form) was observed in type 2 diabetes due to oxidative stress. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate a drug which restores GSH along with its anti-diabetic activity. Aqueous extract of Garcinia indica at a dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg was given orally to streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats for a period of 4 weeks. At the end, parameters such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and GSH in blood were analyzed. Aqueous extract of G. indica significantly decreased both the fasting and postprandial blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. The extract also restored the erythrocyte GSH in type 2 diabetic rats. Drug at higher dose, i.e. 200 mg/kg, had a more pronounced effect. Restoring the erythrocyte GSH, an intracellular anti-oxidant in diabetes, will be beneficial specially by preventing the risk of developing complications. PMID:21042483

  11. Isolation and structure of D-xylans from pericarp seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Youssef; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Vignon, Michel R

    2002-09-27

    Xylans were isolated from the pericarp of prickly pear seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) by alkaline extraction, fractionated by precipitation and purified. Six fractions were obtained and characterized by sugar analysis and NMR spectroscopy. They were assumed to be (4-O-methyl-D-glucurono)-D-xylans, with 4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid groups linked at C-2 of a (1-->4)-beta-D-xylan. The sugar composition and the 1H and 13C NMR spectra showed that their chemical structures were very similar, but with different proportions of D-Xyl and 4-O-Me-D-GlcA. Our results showed that, on average, the water soluble xylans have one nonreducing terminal residue of 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid for every 11 to 14 xylose units, whereas in the water non-soluble xylans, xylose units can varied from 18 to 65 residues for one nonreducing terminal residue of 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid. PMID:12350330

  12. Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

    1980-01-01

    Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

  13. Ameliorating effects of Tamarindus indica fruit extract on anti-tubercular drugs induced liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Amir, Mohd; Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Ahmad, Sayeed; Akhtar, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica fruit against combination of two antitubercular drugs viz. Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of T. indica by DPPH-HPLC method was found to be 81.48%. Treatment with aqueous extract of T. indica significantly reduced the elevated levels of biochemical markers such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin, TBARS and increased the albumin level as well antioxidant activities of SOD, CAT and GSH in intoxicated rats. The biochemical changes were supported by histological observations. Results of this study clearly demonstrate that aqueous extract of T. indica fruit protects against anti tuberculosis induced oxidative liver damage in rats and thus possess significant hepatoprotective activity. Further, it could be suggested that supplementation with this food extract might prove beneficial in the individuals on anti-TB drugs. PMID:25978515

  14. Carbohydrate content and antioxidative potential of the seed of three edible indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Basu, Supratim; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Sanyal, Saptadwipa; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains or seeds are known to lose much of their nutrient and antioxidant contents, following polishing. The current study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the carbohydrate content and antioxidant parameters in the unpolished and polished seeds of three edible indica rice cultivars, namely Swarna (SW), the most popular indica rice cultivar in India and aromatic or scented cultivars Gobindobhog (GB) and Pusa Basmati (PB). While both the sucrose and starch content was the maximum in PB seeds (both unpolished and polished), the amylose content was the highest in SW polished seeds. SW polished seeds were superior as compared to GB and PB cultivars in terms of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging and Fe(II) chelation potential, as well as the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition or H2O2 scavenging potential, probably due to the maximum accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids, the two important antioxidants. The reducing power ability was, however, identical in both SW and GB polished seeds. The PB polished seeds were more potent in superoxide and hydroxyl scavenging, whereas GB in nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. The common observation noted after polishing of seeds was the reduction in the level of carbohydrates and antioxidant potential, though the extent of reduction varied in the three cultivars. The only exception was GB, where there was no alteration in NO scavenging potential even after polishing. Our study showed the better performance of SW polished seeds with respect to higher amylose content and majority of the tested parameters governing antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging potential, thus highlighting the greater dietary significance of SW over the other two cultivars. PMID:22650009

  15. Assessment of Anti-Influenza Activity and Hemagglutination Inhibition of Plumbago indica and Allium sativum Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Rahul Dilip; Shinde, Pramod; Girkar, Kaustubh; Madage, Rajendra; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu ayurvedic/herbal medicines have played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. Plumbagin and allicin are commonly used ingredients in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that these extracts are associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. Objective: To evaluate anti-influenza activity from Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extract against Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Materials and Methods: Different extraction procedures were used to isolate the active ingredient in the solvent system, and quantitative HPLTC confirms the presence of plumbagin and allicin. The cytotoxicity was carried out on Madin-Darby Canine kidney cells, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were below 20 mg/mL for both plant extracts. To assess the anti-influenza activity, two assays were employed, simultaneous and posttreatment assay. Results: A. sativum methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed only 14% reduction in hemagglutination in contrast to P. indica which exhibited 100% reduction in both simultaneous and posttreatment assay at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL. Conclusions: Our results suggest that P. indica extracts are good candidates for anti-influenza therapy and should be used in medical treatment after further research. SUMMARY The search for natural antiviral compounds from plants is a promising approach in the development of new therapeutic agents. In the past century, several scientific efforts have been directed toward identifying phytochemicals capable of inhibiting virus. Knowledge of ethnopharmacology can lead to new bioactive plant compounds suitable for drug discovery and development. Macromolecular docking studies provides most detailed possible view of drug-receptor interaction where the structure of drug is designed based on its fit to three dimensional structures of receptor site rather than by analogy to other active structures or random leads. Our previous studies indicate that Allicin sand Plumbagin could be used as the potent multi drug targets against the Neuraminidase, Hemagglutinin and M2 protein channel of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09. This in-vittro study has shown that P. indica L. and A. sativum extracts can inhibit influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus by inhibiting viral nucleoprotein synthesis and polymerase activity. PMID:27034600

  16. Comparative Study of Erythrina indica Lam. (Febaceae) Leaves Extracts for Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sakat, SS; Juvekar, AR

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam leaves by in vitro methods viz. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method on isolated rat liver tissues. Quantitative analysis of antioxidative components like total amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols were estimated using the spectrophotometric method. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate the IC50 value. Results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited significant DPPH radicals scavenging activity with an IC50 value 342.59 ± 19.59, 283.24 ± 12.28 µg/mL respectively. Nitric oxide radicals were significantly scavenged by the aqueous and methanol extracts (IC50 = 250.12 ± 10.66; 328.29 ± 3.74 µg/mL). Lipid peroxidation induced by the Fe2+ was inhibited by the aqueous extract with low IC50 value (97.29 ± 2.05 µg/mL) as compared to methanol extract (IC50 = 283.74 ± 5.70 µg/mL). Both the extracts were exhibited similar quantities of total phenolics. Total flavonoids were found to be in higher quantities than total flavonols in aqueous extract as compared to methanol extract. From the results, it is concluded that the aqueous and methanol extracts of E. indica leaves possesses significant antioxidant activity that may be due to the presence of flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds. PMID:21331194

  17. Antitumor and apoptotic activities of the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia indica.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ying-Tong; Jiang, Jian-Min; Lao, Hai-Yan; Guo, Jie-Wen; Lun, Yu-Ning; Yang, Min

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is one of the most eminent diseases of modern times and numerous natural products derived from medicinal plants have been identified as potential sources of antitumor drugs. A successful anticancer drug must target or inhibit tumor cells whilst causing minimal damage to healthy cells. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor efficacy of ethyl acetate extract, and other isolated compounds from Artemisia indica, on MCF?7, BHY, Miapaca?2, Colo?205 and A?549 cell lines. The apoptotic activity of the compounds was studied using flow cytometry. The different cancer cell lines were treated with the ethyl acetate extract and varying concentrations of compounds (denoted a?g) isolated from the A. indica. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and the apoptotic properties of the compounds and the extract were assessed using flow cytometry. In MCF?7 cells, the effect on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m) induced by compounds b and d was also studied. Bioassay?guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract from the shoot and root parts of A. indica led to the identification of the compounds a?g as: 5?hydroxy?3,7,4'?trimethoxyflavone; ludartin; maackiain; lupeol; cis?matricaria ester; trans?matricaria ester; and 6?methoxy?7,8?methylenedioxy coumarin, respectively. All the compounds exhibited mild to potent inhibition of cell proliferation in all the cell lines, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25.18?88.12 M. Ludartin and lupeol were observed to have the most potent inhibitory effects. Based on the initially identified antiproliferative effects, these two compounds were evaluated for their effects on cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and their effects on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m). The two compounds induced DNA damage and mitochondrial membrane potential loss in MCF?7 cells. The results of the current study suggest that lupeol and ludartin, isolated from A. indica, produce anticancer effects by inducing DNA damage and a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and may be used as potent anticancer agents, subsequent to further study. PMID:25434991

  18. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.

    PubMed

    Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  19. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  20. High frequency plant regeneration from mature seed of elite, recalcitrant Malaysian indica rice ( Oryza sativa L.) CV. MR 219.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, P; Law, Y S; Ho, C-L; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2010-09-01

    An efficient in vitro plant regeneration system was established for elite, recalcitrant Malaysian indica rice, Oryza sativa L. CV. MR 219 using mature seeds as explant on Murashige and Skoog and Chu N6 media containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and kinetin either alone or in different combinations. L-proline, casein hydrolysate and L-glutamine were added to callus induction media for enhancement of embryogenic callus induction. The highest frequency of friable callus induction (84%) was observed in N6 medium containing 2.5 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, 0.2 mg l(-1) kinetin, 2.5 mg l(-1) L-proline, 300 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate, 20 mg l(-1) L-glutamine and 30 g l(-1) sucrose under culture in continuous lighting conditions. The maximum regeneration frequency (71%) was observed, when 30-day-old N6 friable calli were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg l(-1) 6-benzyl aminopurine, 1 mg l(-1) naphthalene acetic acid, 2.5 mg l(-1) L-proline, 300 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate and 3% maltose. Developed shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose and were successfully transplanted to soil with 95% survival. This protocol may be used for other recalcitrant indica rice genotypes and to transfer desirable genes in to Malaysian indica rice cultivar MR219 for crop improvement. PMID:20724277

  1. Dentinal Tubule Disinfection with Propolis & Two Extracts of Azadirachta indica Against Candida albicans Biofilm Formed on Tooth Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Joy Sinha, Dakshita; Garg, Paridhi; Verma, Anurag; Malik, Vibha; Maccune, Edgar Richard; Vasudeva, Agrima

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluates the disinfection of dentinal tubules using Propolis, Azadirachta indica (alcoholic and aqueous extracts), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide against Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate. Materials & Method: One hundred and five human teeth were infected with Candida albicans for 2 days. Samples were divided into 7 groups. Group I- Propolis, Group II- Alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica, Group III- Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica, Group IV- 2% Chlorhexidine, Group V- Calcium hydroxide, Group VI- Ethanol and Group VII- Saline (negative control). At the end of 1,3 and 5 days, the antimicrobial efficacy of medicaments against Candida albicans was assessed at the depths of 200 µm and 400 µm. Results: The overall percentage inhibition of fungal growth (at 200 µm and 400 µm depth) was 99.2% with 2% chlorhexidine gel. There was no statistical difference between propolis, alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) and 2% chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Propolis and alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica performed equally well as that of 2% Chlorhexidine. PMID:26962368

  2. In Vivo Biochemical and Gene Expression Analyses of the Antioxidant Activities and Hypocholesterolaemic Properties of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2013-01-01

    Background Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9±10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9±2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. Conclusion/Significance It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:23894592

  3. Enhanced Nematicidal Activity of Organic and Inorganic Ammonia-Releasing Amendments by Azadirachta indica Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Yuji; Tkachi, Nadia; Shuker, Shimshon; Yerumiyahu, Uri

    2007-01-01

    The nematicidal activities of ammonium sulfate, chicken litter and chitin, alone or in combination with neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts were tested against Meloidogyne javanica. Soil application of these amendments or the neem extracts alone did not reduce the root galling index of tomato plants or did so only slightly, but application of the amendments in combination with the neem extracts reduced root galling significantly. Soil analysis indicated that the neem extract inhibited the nitrification of the ammonium released from the amendments and extended the persistence of the ammonium concentrations in the soil. In microplot experiments, tomato plants were grown in pots filled with soils from the treated microplots. The galling indices of tomato plants grown in soil treated with ammonium sulfate or chicken litter in combination with the neem extract or a chemical nitrification inhibitor were far lower than those of plants grown in the control soil or in soil treated with chicken litter, neem extract or nitrification inhibitor alone. However, plants grown in the microplots showed only slight reductions in galling, probably because the soil amendments were inadequately mixed compared to their application in the pot experiments. The extended exposure of nematodes to ammonia as a result of nitrification inhibition by the neem extracts appeared to be the cause of the enhanced nematicidal activity of the ammonia-releasing amendments. PMID:19259469

  4. Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Samadera indica for skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    Viswanad, Vidya; Aleykutty, N. A.; Jayakar, B.; Zacharia, Subin Mary; Thomas, Litha

    2012-01-01

    Samadera indica Gaetrn (Simaroubaceae) is claimed to possess various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, antiviral, and so on, but its taste is bitter. The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity of the methanolic extract and to develop suitable herbal formulations of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica, having efficient antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract prepared from the dried leaves of Samadera indica by continuous hot percolation, were used to examine the toxicity, according to the OECD 423 guidelines, in Swiss Albino mice. Topical formulations were prepared by incorporating Samadera indica (5% w / w) in an emulsifying ointment and a carbopol gel base and evaluated for physical parameters and in-vitro antimicrobial activity (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans). The study reveals that no animals under the study showed any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality when administered a dose of 5 – 2000 mg / kg body weight. Therefore, the maximum tolerated dose of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica was above 2000 mg / kg body weight. The formulated ointment and gel had acceptable physical parameters that showed that they were compatible with the skin, and in addition to this, these formulations passed the short-term stability studies. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity studies showed that the formulated ointment showed significantly strong (p < 0.05) activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans than the formulated gel. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated ointment and gel are safe and efficient antimicrobial formulations for the topical delivery of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica. PMID:22837958

  5. Ethanolic Extracts of Pluchea indica Induce Apoptosis and Antiproliferation Effects in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chiu-Li; Cho, Joshua; Lee, Ya-Zhe; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Chien, Chih-Yen; Hwang, Chung-Feng; Hong, Yi-Ren; Tseng, Chao-Neng; Cho, Chung-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Pluchea indica is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of lumbago, ulcer, tuberculosis and inflammation. The anti-cancer activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms of the ethanolic extracts of P. indica root (PIRE) were characterized in the present study. PIRE strongly inhibited the viability of the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC-TW 01 and NPC-TW 04) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Migration of cancer cells was also suppressed by PIRE. In addition, PIRE significantly increased the occurrence of the cells in sub-G1 phase and the extent of DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner, which indicates that PIRE significantly increased apoptosis in NPC cells. The apoptotic process triggered by PIRE involved up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, consequently increasing the ratios of Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels. Moreover, the p53 protein was up-regulated by PIRE in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, PIRE could induce the apoptosis-signaling pathway in NPC cells by activation of p53 and by regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. PMID:26111179

  6. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction. PMID:24103364

  7. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC(50) value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC(50) values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH(-) radical generated from Fe(2+)-ascorbate-EDTA-H(2)O(2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220

  8. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. PMID:25466036

  9. Anti-venom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica L. against Daboia russellii (Russell's viper) venom.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, B L; Zameer, F; Girish, K S; D'Souza, Cletus J M

    2011-06-01

    Several plant extracts rich in pharmacologically active compounds have shown to antagonize venom of several species. Mangifera indica has been used against snakebite by the traditional healers. However, there is paucity of scientific data in support. In this study, we evaluated the antivenom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of M. indica against D. russellii venom-induced pharmacological effects such as life myotoxicity, edema, LD50 etc. The extract inhibited the phospholipase, protease, hyaluronidase, 5'nucleotidase, ATPase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities with varying IC50 values. It significantly inhibited both metalloproteases and serine proteases activities. Further, the extract significantly reduced the myotoxicity of the venom, as evident by the reduction of serum creatin kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Though the extract completely inhibited in vitro PLA2 activity, it was unable to completely inhibit in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema-inducing activities, usually brought about by PLA2s. In lethality studies, co-injection of the venom preincubated with the extract showed higher protection than the independent injection of venom, followed by the extract in the mice. However, in both the cases the extract -a cocktail of inhibitors significantly increased the survival time, when compared to that of mice injected (i.p) with the venom alone. These results encourage further studies on the potential use of cocktail of inhibitors in improving the treatment of snake envenomation. Further, this study substantiates the use of M. indica as an antidote against snakebite by the traditional healers. PMID:21793309

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of medicinally potent plant Saraca indica: a novel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugu, Shyam; Nagati, Veerababu; Bhanoori, Manjula

    2015-08-01

    Eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have various applications in modern biotechnology for better outcomes and benefits to the society. In the present study, we report an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Saraca indica leaf extract. Characterization of S. indica silver nanoparticles (SAgNPs) was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, Zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy. SAgNPs showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds. PMID:26078966

  12. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos; Allen, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500?mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24?h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000??g/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5??g/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds. PMID:26078966

  13. Opuntia ficus-indica seed attenuates hepatic steatosis and promotes M2 macrophage polarization in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jun-Kyu; Koh, Eun-Ji; Ryu, Hyojeong; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) is a popular edible plant that possesses considerable nutritional value and exhibits diverse biological actions including anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that DWJ504, an extract of O ficus-indica seed, would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and inflammation by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and macrophage polarization against experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. DWJ504 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) were orally administered for the last 4 weeks of the 10-week HFD feeding period. DWJ504 treatment remarkably attenuated HFD-induced increases in hepatic lipid content and hepatocellular damage. DWJ504 attenuated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein expression and a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. Although DWJ504 augmented peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protein expression, it attenuated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Moreover, DWJ504 promoted hepatic M2 macrophage polarization as indicated by attenuation of the M1 marker genes and enhancement of M2 marker genes. Finally, DWJ504 attenuated expression of toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β, and interferon β levels. Our results demonstrate that DWJ504 prevented intrahepatic lipid accumulation, induced M2 macrophage polarization, and suppressed the toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, DWJ504 has therapeutic potential in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27001282

  14. Antihyperglycaemic activity of the stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yerima, M; Anuka, J A; Salawu, O A; Abdu-Aguye, I

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. In 2002, WHO Expert Committee on diabetes mellitus recommended an urgent and further evaluation of the folkloric methods of managing the disease. In response to this recommendation, several medicinal plants are currently being investigated for their hypoglycaemic activity and one of such plants is Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica is a slow growing tree that is resistant to strong winds and perennial. The stem-bark extract of the plant is used locally for the management of diabetes. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg(-1) IP). The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg kg(-1). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract lowered the blood glucose level significantly (p < 0.05) at the 4th, 8th and 16th h. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the BGL significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study. In the oral glucose load method the 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract significantly (p < 0.05) lowered elevated blood glucose at the 3rd and 5th. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the blood glucose from the 1st to the 5th, while the 250 mg kg(-1) also lowered the blood glucose level but only significantly at the 5th h. The extract is practically non toxic when administered orally. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica Linn significantly lowered elevated Blood Glucose concentration (BGL) in the experimental animal models, while the crude extract was able to prevent an elevation in BGL when used in the oral glucose load model. PMID:24897797

  15. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Mishra, Vijay; Raut, Sushil; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Jain, Sunil K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves (HTI) along with its possible mode of action. The anti-inflammatory activity of HTI was estimated by carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in male Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, HTI was assessed to determine its effects on membrane stabilization. The antinociceptive action was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick, and the hot plate model. Oral administration of HTI at the dose of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body weight produced significant (P< 0.01) anti-inflammatory as well as antinociceptive actions in a dose-dependent manner. Among all tested doses, 1000 mg/kg, p. o. reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. Moreover, the 1000 mg/kg dose exhibited maximum percentage inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing (48.9%), whereas standard drug diclofenac (25 mg/kg, p. o.) showed maximum inhibition (50.9%) of writhing. In the hot plate model, HTI (1000 mg/kg, orally) increased mean basal reaction time after 120 min (7.12±0.05 sec). In the tail flick model, HTI increased the maximum percentage of latency (36.06%), whereas the standard drug pethidine (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) showed maximum percentage of latency (43.85%) after 60 min. The findings of the present study supported anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive claims of T. indica as were mentioned in Indian traditional and folklore practices. PMID:23008815

  16. Combination of Mangifera indica L. extract supplementation plus methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    López Mantecón, Ana M; Garrido, Gabino; Delgado-Hernández, René; Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects and the safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty patients with active RA underwent a year of treatment with MTX (12.5 mg/week) associated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or prednisone (5-10 mg/day) were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n=10), that received the extract supplementation (900 mg/day) or preceding usual treatment (n=10) during 180 days. RA activity was evaluated using the tender and swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, disease activity score-28 (DAS 28), visual analogue scale (VAS) and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). Treatment's efficacy was demonstrated with ACR criteria. Only the patients of MTX-Vimang group revealed statistically significant improvement in DAS 28 parameters with respect baseline data but no differences were observed between groups. ACR improvements amounted 80% only in MTX-Vimang group at the 90 days (p<0.001). In MTX-Vimang group, 100% of patients decreased NSAIDs administration (p<0.01) and 70% of those eradicated gastrointestinal side effects (p<0.01) ensuing of the preceding treatment. Other adverse effects were not reported. PMID:24344049

  17. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro, Joycellane Alline; Serquiz, Alexandre Coellho; dos Santos Silva, Priscila Fabíola; Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; Sampaio, Tarcísio Bruno Montenegro; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; Machado, Richele Janaina Araújo; Maciel, Bruna Leal Lima; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; dos Santos, Elizeu Antunes; de Araújo Morais, Ana Heloneida

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30–60%) following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated. PMID:25789523

  18. Chemopreventive effect of methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica on experimental Trypanosoma brucei induced oxidative stress in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Omobowale, Temidayo O.; Oyagbemi, Ademola A.; Oyewunmi, Oyefunbi A.; Adejumobi, Olumuyiwa A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The medicinal properties of Azadirachta indica have been harnessed for many years in the treatment of many diseases in both humans and animals. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five apparently healthy dogs weighing between 3 and 8 kg were randomly divided into five groups with five dogs in each group. Ameliorative effect of A. indica on erythrocyte antioxidant status and markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Liver and kidney function tests were also performed. Results: Pre-treatment with methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (MEAI) at different doses did not significantly alter the values of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in Trypanosoma brucei infection. Although, serum creatinine significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with pre-treatment with 50 mg/kg A. indica, after 2 weeks of T. brucei infection. However, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content of the erythrocyte increased significantly in animals pre-treated with 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica respectively. Markers of oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generated were higher in animals infected with T. brucei with no significant (P >0.05) difference compared to the values obtained in pre-treated animals. Pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica significantly (P < 0.05) decreased serum myeloperoxidase activity at 2 weeks post-infection with T. brucei. Conclusion: From this study, MEAI showed significant ability to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation during experimental T. brucei infection. PMID:26130936

  19. Role of fumaric acid in anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a Fumaria indica extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Anshul; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to test whether the ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica (FI) possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, and fumaric acid (FA) could be one of its bioactive constituent involved in such activities of the extract. Materials and Methods: For anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests in rats and for analgesic activity rat tail flick test and hot plate and acetic acid writhing tests in mice were used. All tests were performed after seven daily oral doses of the FI extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) and pure FA (1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 mg/kg/day). Results: Anti-inflammatory activities of FI and FA were observed in carrageenan-induced edema and cotton pallet granuloma even after their lowest tested doses. No analgesic activity of lowest tested dose of FA was observed in the acetic acid writhing test, but likewise, all tested dose levels of FI, higher tested dose levels of FA were also possess significant analgesic activity in this test. Further, significant analgesic activities of both FI and FA in hot plate and tale flick tests were observed after all their tested doses. Conclusions: These observations are in agreement with our working hypothesis on the connection of FA in mode(s) of action(s) of FI, and reaffirm the conviction that FI could be an herbal alternative against fibromyalgia and other pathologies often associate with, or caused by, inflammatory processes. PMID:26401369

  20. Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 1. Influence of a seed oil supplemented diet on rats.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Fetoui, Hamadi; Bourret, Evelyne; Zeghal, Najiba; Attia, Hamadi

    2006-08-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) is native to Tunisia and the fruit is consumed exclusively as fresh fruit. The seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids but the nutritive value of the oil is unknown. The objective of our research was to determine the fatty acid content of cactus pear seed oil and to evaluate the effect of an oil supplemented diet on rats. The main fatty acids of prickly pear seed oil were C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 with an exceptional level of linoleic acid, up to 700 g kg(-1), and a total content of unsaturated fatty acids of 884.8 g kg(-1). Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during the nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noted for the oil enriched diet. The results indicated a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (22%) over the control group. However, an increase in the concentration of glycogen was noted in liver and muscle. Blood cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased in the treated group. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration remained unaltered during the treatment. These findings support the nutritional value of cactus pear as a natural source of edible oil containing essential fatty acids and reinforce the possibility of cactus pear as a new crop for Tunisia especially in semi-arid regions, where conventional crops are difficult to establish. PMID:16129601

  1. Cytotoxic effects of Mangifera indica L. kernel extract on human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and bioactive constituents in the crude extract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Waterlily Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is thought to be antioxidant-rich, conferred by its functional phytochemicals. Methods The potential anticancer effects of the ethanolic kernel extract on breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) using MTT, anti-proliferation, neutral red (NR) uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays were evaluated. Cytological studies on the breast cancer cells were also conducted, and phytochemical analyses of the extract were carried out to determine the likely bioactive compounds responsible for such effects. Results Results showed the extract induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 30 and 15 μg/mL, respectively. The extract showed significant toxicity towards both cell lines, with low toxicity to normal breast cells (MCF-10A). The cytotoxic effects on the cells were further confirmed by the NR uptake, antiproliferative and LDH release assays. Bioactive analyses revealed that many bioactives were present in the extract although butylated hydroxytoluene, a potent antioxidant, was the most abundant with 44.65%. Conclusions M. indica extract appears to be more cytoxic to both estrogen positive and negative breast cancer cell lines than to normal breast cells. Synergistic effects of its antioxidant bioactives could have contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract. The extract of M. indica, therefore, has potential anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. This potential is worth studying further, and could have implications on future studies and eventually management of human breast cancers. PMID:24962691

  2. Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the phenolics of Leea indica leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Atiar; Imran, Talha Bin; Islam, Shahidul

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the phytochemical, antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Leea indica leaf ethanol extract. Phytochemical values namely total phenolic and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing power, DMSO superoxide scavenging effect and Iron chelating effects were studied by established methods. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects were screened by disk diffusion technique, food poison technique and brine shrimp bioassay, respectively. Results showed the total phenolic content 24.00 ± 0.81 g GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content 194.68 ± 2.43 g quercetin/100 g and total antioxidant capacity 106.61 ± 1.84 g AA/100 g dry extract. Significant (P < 0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (139.83 ± 1.40 μg/ml), FeCl3 reduction (16.48 ± 0.64 μg/ml), DMSO superoxide scavenging (676.08 ± 5.80 μg/ml) and Iron chelating (519.33 ± 16.96 μg/ml) methods. In antibacterial screening, the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) zone of inhibitions compared to positive controls Ampicillin and Tetracycline against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli. Significant minimum inhibitory concentrations compared to tetracycline were obtained against the above organisms. In antifungal assay, the extract inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Fusarium equisetii by 38.09 ± 0.59, 22.58 ± 2.22, and 22.58 ± 2.22%, respectively. The extract showed a significant LC50 value compared to vincristine sulfate in cytotoxic assay. The results evidenced the potential antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic capacities of Leea inidica leaf extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use. PMID:23961238

  3. Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of the phenolics of Leea indica leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Atiar; Imran, Talha bin; Islam, Shahidul

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the phytochemical, antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Leea indica leaf ethanol extract. Phytochemical values namely total phenolic and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing power, DMSO superoxide scavenging effect and Iron chelating effects were studied by established methods. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects were screened by disk diffusion technique, food poison technique and brine shrimp bioassay, respectively. Results showed the total phenolic content 24.00 ± 0.81 g GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content 194.68 ± 2.43 g quercetin/100 g and total antioxidant capacity 106.61 ± 1.84 g AA/100 g dry extract. Significant (P < 0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (139.83 ± 1.40 μg/ml), FeCl3 reduction (16.48 ± 0.64 μg/ml), DMSO superoxide scavenging (676.08 ± 5.80 μg/ml) and Iron chelating (519.33 ± 16.96 μg/ml) methods. In antibacterial screening, the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) zone of inhibitions compared to positive controls Ampicillin and Tetracycline against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli. Significant minimum inhibitory concentrations compared to tetracycline were obtained against the above organisms. In antifungal assay, the extract inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Fusarium equisetii by 38.09 ± 0.59, 22.58 ± 2.22, and 22.58 ± 2.22%, respectively. The extract showed a significant LC50 value compared to vincristine sulfate in cytotoxic assay. The results evidenced the potential antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic capacities of Leea inidica leaf extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use. PMID:23961238

  4. Protective effect of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Najla; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Zourgui, Lazhar; Croute, Françoise

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily, for 10 days, with either NiCl(2) solution (4mg (30micromol)/kg body weight) or with the same volume of saline solution (300mM NaCl). Significant increases of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase activities and of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were observed in blood of nickel-treated rats. In the liver, nickel chloride was found to induce an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidant enzymes activities. Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity was found to be increased whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased. These changes did not occur in animals previously given cactus juice, demonstrating a protective effect of this vegetal extract. PMID:18950672

  5. Extraction, characterization and gelling behavior enhancement of pectins from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Lefsih, Khalef; Delattre, Cédric; Pierre, Guillaume; Michaud, Philippe; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Dahmoune, Farid; Madani, Khodir

    2016-01-01

    Total Pectins Fraction (TPF) was extracted at room temperature from dried cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica. TPF is constituted of three pectic fractions WSP, CSP and ASP, which are made up of 66.6%, 44.3% and 81.1% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, respectively. The antioxidant ability of TPF increased with the concentration increasing. It scavenged hydroxyl radical by 90% and chelated 90% of ferrous ions at 5 g/L. FTIR study was carried out. Strong characteristic absorption peaks at 1,618 cm(-1) assigned to the vibration of COO(-) group of galacturonic acid. In the fingerprint region, we noticed three well-defined peaks at 1054, 1085, and 1,154 cm(-1) characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. TPF are non-gelling pectins. The co-crosslinking of TPF with carrageenan was carried out and the gelling behavior was successfully improved. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel was obtained with 82% of TPF and 18% of carrageenan (w/w). PMID:26492855

  6. Antioxidant and toxicological evaluation of a Tamarindus indica L. leaf fluid extract.

    PubMed

    Escalona-Arranz, J C; Perez-Rosés, R; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J; Mwasi, L B; Cabrera-Sotomayor, O; Machado-García, R; Fong-Lórez, O; Alfonso-Castillo, A; Puente-Zapata, E

    2016-02-01

    In the scientific community, there is a growing interest in Tamarindus indica L. leaves, both as a valuable nutrient and as a functional food. This paper focuses on exploring its safety and antioxidant properties. A tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) wholly characterised was evaluated for its anti-DPPH activity (IC50 = 44.36 μg/mL) and its reducing power activity (IC50 = 60.87 μg/mL). TFE also exhibited a high ferrous ion-chelating capacity, with an estimated binding constant of 1.085 mol L(- 1) while its influence over nitric oxide production in human leucocytes was irregular. At low concentrations, TFE stimulated NO output, but it significantly inhibited it when there was an increase in concentration. TFE was also classified as a non-toxic substance in two toxicity tests: the acute oral toxicity test and the oral mucous irritability test. Further toxicological assays are needed, although results so far suggest that TFE might become a functional dietary supplement. PMID:25752793

  7. Imbalance of the antioxidative system by plumbagin and Plumbago indica L. extract induces hepatotoxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sukkasem, Nadta; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Tatiya-aphiradee, Nitima; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Plumbago indica (PI) L. and its active constituent, plumbagin, has been traditionally claimed for several pharmacological activities; however, there is little information regarding their toxicity. The present study aims to examine the effects of plumbagin and PI extract (PI) on hepatic histomorphology and antioxidative system in mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male intelligent character recognition mice were intragastrically administered plumbagin (1, 5, and 15 mg/kg/day) or PI (20, 200, and 1,000 mg/kg/day) consecutively for 14 days. Hepatic histomorphology was examined. Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were determined. Results: Plumbagin and PI concentration-dependently induced hepatic injury based on histopathological changes via imbalance of antioxidative system. Plumbagin and PI significantly increased plasma ALT and AST levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and GPx activity but significantly decreased hepatic SOD and CAT activities. The GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly reduced by plumbagin. Conclusion: Plumbagin and PI caused hepatotoxic effects in the mice by unbalancing of the redox defense system. Therefore, plumbagin and PI-containing supplements should be used cautiously, especially when consumed in high quantities or for long periods. PMID:27104034

  8. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  9. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Aristolochia indica and Toddalia asiatica Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Venkatadri, B; Arunagirinathan, N; Rameshkumar, M R; Ramesh, Latha; Dhanasezhian, A; Agastian, P

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria have developed multidrug resistance against available antimicrobial agents. Infectious diseases caused by these multidrug-resistant bacteria are major causes of morbidity and mortality in human beings. Synthetic drugs are expensive and inadequate for the treatment of diseases, causing side effects and ineffective against multidrug-resistant bacteria. The medicinal plants are promising to have effective antimicrobial property due to presence of phytochemical compounds like alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. The present study aimed to find the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were identified by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Production of β-lactamases (extended spectrum β-lactamases, metallo β-lactamase and AmpC β-lactamase) were identified by combination disc method. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extract of Aristolochia indica and Toddalia asiatica were detected by agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration. All bacteria used in this study showed antibiotic resistance to ≥3 antibiotics. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Vibrio cholerae were found to be positive for β-lactamase production. Ethanol extract of Aristolochia indica showed more significant antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria than Toddalia asiatica. Ethanol extracts of Aristolochia indica and Toddalia asiatica showed minimum inhibitory concentration values of 50-100 μg/ml and 100-200 μg/ml, respectively against multidrug-resistant bacteria. From this study, it was concluded that Aristolochia indica has more potential to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria than Toddalia asiatica. PMID:26997710

  10. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 μg/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 μg/ml) and α-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 μg/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 μM) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 μg/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic. PMID:24602819

  11. [Extraction of rape seed proanthocyanidin with ultrasonic wave].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jian-Ming; Xia, Chun-Tang; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Zheng-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Rape seed proanthocyanidin was extracted by ultrasonic technology, and the conditions of extraction were studied. The results showed that the order of the factors which influenced the extraction effects were as follows: ethanol concentration, extracting temperature, ultrasonic extracting time and the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extraction agent (w/v). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature: 60 degrees C, extracting agent: 60% ethanol aqueous, the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extracting agent: 1 : 20 (w/v), extracting number: 3 times, extracting time: 20 min, respectively. The yield of proanthocyanidins extracted by ultrasonic technology was 84.5% higher than traditional method. Rape Seed was rich in proanthocyanidin. PMID:20518317

  12. Inhibition of secretary PLA₂--VRV-PL-VIIIa of Russell's viper venom by standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, B L; Sudarshan, S

    2015-03-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25801252

  13. Attenuation of nonenzymatic glycation, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by chloroform leaf extract of Azadirachta indica

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Pérez; Gómez, Yolanda Gómez Y.; Guzman, Mónica Damián

    2011-01-01

    Background: The hypoglycemic effects of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica (AI) were evaluated by oral administration in streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic rats (SD). Materials and Methods: The effect of chronic oral administration of the extract for 28 days was evaluated in streptozotozin diabetic rats. Lipid peroxidation, glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscles, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were determined. In addition, advanced glycation end product formation (AGEs) was evaluated. Results: The most active extracts were obtained with chloroform. Chloroform extract from AI shows increased levels of SOD, GSH, GSSG and CAT, hepatic glycogen content, glucose-6-phosphatase and insulin plasma levels, which also decreased the glucokinase (GK), lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. The chloroform extract exhibited significant inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end product formation with an IC50 average range of 79.1 mg/ml. Conclusion: Azadirachta indica can improve hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinema in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and, therefore, AI can be potentially considered to be an antidiabetic-safe agent. PMID:21969798

  14. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea seed oil is being investigated as a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids for several industrial uses. Although the oil from cuphea seeds has been obtained using both solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from several disadvantages. Petroleum ether extra...

  15. Full-press oil extraction of Cuphea (PSR23) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid Cuphea hybrid, is being developed as a potential commercial alternative source of medium chain fatty acids. Recent seed increases in Cuphea had provided sufficient amounts of seeds to pursue an oil extraction study and, at the same time, produce m...

  16. Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Montaez, G; Ragazzo-Snchez, J A; Caldern-Santoyo, M; Velzquez-de la Cruz, G; de Len, J A Ramrez; Navarro-Ocaa, A

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. PMID:24767054

  17. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  18. Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K.

    2014-01-01

    An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1 × 10−10 M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5% w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0% w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

  19. Molecular docking studies and anti-snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.

    PubMed

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2009-01-01

    Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the binding pockets of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The phenolic principles could form hydrogen bonds with the three histidine residues in the conserved zinc-binding motif and could chelate the Zn(2+) atom of the SVMPs, which could potentially result in inhibition of the venom enzymatic activities and thereby inhibit tissue necrosis. PMID:19783918

  20. Antitumor potential of Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A. DC. leaf extract against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Dolai, Narayan; Karmakar, Indrajit; Kumar, R B Suresh; Bala, Asis; Mazumder, U K; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2012-05-01

    Methanol extract of C. indica (MECI) leaves showed direct cytotoxicity on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell in a dose dependant manner and there was significant decrease in the tumor volume, viable cell count, tumor weight and elevated the life span of EAC tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile and biochemical estimations were significantly restored to normal levels in MECI treated as compared to EAC control mice. MECI treatment significantly modulated the tissue antioxidant assay parameters as compared to the EAC control mice. The results revealed that MECI possesses significant dose dependent antitumor potential which may be due to its cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. PMID:22803326

  1. Morphological alterations in the synganglion and integument of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks exposed to aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS).

    PubMed

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2014-12-01

    Currently, the necessity of controlling infestation by ticks, especially by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has led researchers and public health managers around the world to search for new and more efficient control methods. This way, we can highlight neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf, bark, and seed extracts, which have been very effective on tick control, and moreover causing less damage to the environment and to the host. This study showed the potential of neem as a control method for R. sanguineus through morphological and morphometric evaluation of the integument and synganglion of females, in semiengorged stage. To attain this, routine techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of the cuticle and subcuticle of the integument were applied. Expressive morphological alterations were observed in both organs, presenting a dose-dependent effect. Integument epithelial cells and nerve cells of the synganglion showed signs of cell vacuolation, dilated intercellular boundaries, and cellular disorganization, alterations not previously reported in studies with neem. In addition, variations in subcuticle thickness were also observed. In general, the effects of neem are multiple, and affect the morphology and physiology of target animals in various ways. The results presented in this work are the first evidence of its effects in the coating and nervous system of ticks, thus allowing an indication of neem aqueous extracts as a potential control method of the brown dog tick and opening new perspectives on acaricide use. PMID:25130979

  2. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of Albizia gummifera, Aspilia mossambicensis, Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Ofulla, Ayub V.O.; Chege, Geoffrey M.M.; Rukunga, Geoffrey M.; Kiarie, Frederick K.; Githure, John I.; Kofi-Tsekpo, Mawuli W.

    1995-05-01

    Since chemotherapy is presently the primary strategy of malaria control in the world, and some malaria parasites are developing resistance to the commonly used antimalarial drugs, new antimalarial compounds are required. Therefore, it is important to test antimalarial activities of medicinal plant extracts which most herbalists claim to cure malaria. We evaluated the antimalarial activities of extracts of Albizia gummiffera, Aspilia mossambicensis, Melia azedar and Azadirahchta indica against laboratory adapted isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using an in vitro radioisotopic uptake technique. Chloroquine was used as a reference antimalarial drug. Al. gummifera had the highest antimalarial activity (mean fifty percent inhibitory concentration {IC(50)S} in ug/ml of test culture =3.5 +1.6SD, n=3) followed by As. mossambicensis (mean IC(50)=29.3+11.8SD, n=4) and Me. Azedarach (mean IC(50) =299.7+202.0SD, n=4). And lastly Az. Indica (mean IC(50)=349.9+213.1 SD, n=4). The antimalarial activities of the reference drug, chloroquine, was far much higher (mean IC(50)=0.065+0.057SD, n=)4). These findings show that Al. gummifera and As. mossambicensis plant extracts have potent antimalarial compounds. Phytochemical analyses should be done on these two plants to isolate the compound(s) containing he active principles(s). PMID:12160442

  3. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Hyun-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  4. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  5. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM BLACK SEED HULLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New methodology has been developed for the preparative scale extraction and purification of anthocyanins from "black" seed coats and hulls. A combination of physical fractionation, extraction, flash chromatography and preparative chromatography has resulted in the isolation of gram quantities of pu...

  6. Enhancement of immune responses to neem leaf extract (Azadirachta indica) correlates with antineoplastic activity in BALB/c-mice.

    PubMed

    Beuth, J; Schneider, H; Ko, H L

    2006-01-01

    An aqueous plant extract from Azadirachta indica and its chromatographic fraction F1 (neem extract) exerted immunomodulating and antimetastatic activities in BALB/ c-mice. Regular subcutaneous administration of neem extract yielded significantly increased spleen weight and significant enhancement of peritoneal macrophage activity in the chemiluminescence assay, and activation marker CD-44 expression. The thymus weight and thymocyte counts did not show significant differences in the control and neem extract-treated groups, however, determination of peripheral blood cells revealed significant up-regulations of leukocyte subsets, the lymphocytes and monocytes. Flow cytometric analaysis of lymphocyte supopulations documented increased counts of CD-4 and CD-8 cells and an inreased activation marker expression on lymphocytes (CD-25) and monocytes (MAC-3) in neem-treated mice compared to the control animals. To evaluate the antimetastatic activity of neem extract, sarcoma L-1 cells and lymphosarcoma RAW cells were intravenously inoculated into BALB/c-mice. In these model systems the number of experimental lung and liver metastases decreased relevantly, however, biometrically non-significantly in neem extract-treated animals, as compared to the control mice which received injections of saline solutions. Neem extract can be regarded as an immunomodulating and antimetastatic substance which holds promise for further experimental and clinical investigation. PMID:16634526

  7. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria. PMID:26379714

  8. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Shivalingaiah, Sudharshan

    2016-03-01

    The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml), it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:26959323

  9. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of soybean seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Malencić, Djordje; Maksimović, Zoran; Popović, Milan; Miladinović, Jegor

    2008-09-01

    The antioxidant activity and contents of various polyphenol classes in the seeds of 20 soybean hybrids were evaluated. Total polyphenols, tannins and proanthocyanidins were determined after extraction of plant material with 70% aqueous acetone. In addition, flavonoid content was determined. Antioxidant activity of seed extracts was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity and contents of total phenols, tannins and proanthocyanidins was established. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the extracts of hybrids which have higher levels of all polyphenol classes examined. The most of the single-cross hybrids were poor in tannins which recommend them as good source for ensiled livestock feed. Results suggested that polyphenol content should be considered as an important feature of the soybean seed. PMID:18155904

  10. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H2O2 concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration.

  11. Gastro-protective and Anti-stress Efficacies of Monomethyl Fumarate and a Fumaria indica Extract in Chronically Stressed Rats.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Anshul; Soni, Upendra Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Results of the very first experiments conducted to evaluate therapeutic potentials of a fumarate containing Fumaria indica extract and of fairly low daily oral doses of monomethyl fumarate for prevention of chronic unavoidable foot-shock stress-induced gastric ulcers, and possible involvement of diverse neuro-hormonal and oxidative process in their stress response desensitizing effects are reported and discussed in this article. Preventive effects of 21 daily oral 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg doses of a standardized 50 % methanolic F. indica extract (MFI) and 1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 mg/kg/day of pure monomethyl fumarate (MMF) were compared in rats subjected to one hour daily unavoidable foot-shocks. A pharmaceutically well-standardized Withania somnifera (WS) root extract was used as a reference herbal anti-stress agent in all experiments. Effects of the treatments on stress-induced alterations in body weight, adrenal and spleen weights, gastric ulcer and ulcer index, weight of glandular stomach, protective mucosal glycoprotein content, cellular proliferation, oxidative stress on stomach fundus, and brain tissues of male rats were quantified. Other parameters quantified were plasma corticosterone levels, brain monoamine levels, and expressions of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-1β in blood and brain of stressed and treated rats. Most but not every observed stress-induced anomalies were suppressed or completely prevented by both MFI and pure MMF treatments in dose-dependent manner. Qualitatively, the observed activity profiles of both of them were similar to those of WS dose tested. These results reveal that both MFI and MMF are potent gastro-protective agents against chronic unavoidable stress-induced ulcers and strongly suggest that they act as regulators or modulators of monoamine, corticosterone, and cytokine homeostasis. PMID:26215054

  12. Saraca indica bark extract mediated green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Majumdar, Rakhi; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Bag, Braja Gopal; Patra, Biplab Kumar

    2014-04-01

    The bark extract of the traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant Saraca indica containing redox active polyphenolic compounds has been utilized for the one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The polyphenolic compounds acted as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent without any additional capping agent. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles of 15-23 nm size was complete in several minutes and no photo irradiation or heat treatment was necessary. Surface plasmon resonance, HRTEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR studies have been carried out to characterize the nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles synthesized were of triangular, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal, and spherical shapes. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature and the kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  13. Saraca indica bark extract mediated green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Majumdar, Rakhi; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Bag, Braja Gopal; Patra, Biplab Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The bark extract of the traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant Saraca indica containing redox active polyphenolic compounds has been utilized for the one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The polyphenolic compounds acted as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent without any additional capping agent. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles of 15-23 nm size was complete in several minutes and no photo irradiation or heat treatment was necessary. Surface plasmon resonance, HRTEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR studies have been carried out to characterize the nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles synthesized were of triangular, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal, and spherical shapes. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature and the kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  14. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, C; Jagan, E G; Rajasekar, S; Selvakumar, P; Kalaichelvan, P T; Mohan, N

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its activity on water borne bacterial pathogens were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were rapidly synthesized using leaf extract of Acalypha indica and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 30min. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. From high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis, the size of the silver nanoparticles was measured 20-30nm. Further, the antibacterial activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles showed effective inhibitory activity against water borne pathogens Viz., Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Silver nanoparticles 10microg/ml were recorded as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against E. coli and V. cholerae. Alteration in membrane permeability and respiration of the silver nanoparticle treated bacterial cells were evident from the activity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:19896347

  15. Physicochemical and functional performance of pectin extracted by QbD approach from Tamarindus indica L. pulp.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Radhika; Kamboj, Sunil; Khurana, Rajneet; Singh, Gursharan; Rana, Vikas

    2015-12-10

    The aim of present investigation was to utilize quality by design (QbD) approach for extraction of tamarind pectin (TP) from Tamarindus indica L. pulp employing purity descriptors as indicator. The software generated quadratic equations showed significant effect of polarity index as compared to pulp concentration and boiling temperature on percentage yield and purity characteristics of TP. An insignificant effect on purity descriptors and percentage yield of TP upon replacement of acetone with methanol during predicted vs observed correlation studies (being similar polarity index of 5.1) pointed towards overwhelming influence of solvent polarity. Further, the FTIR-ATR, (1)H NMR, DSC and mass spectroscopy suggested TP was rhamnogalacturonan pectin with no tartaric acid content. TP was found to have significantly higher antioxidant activity as compare to apple pomace pectin, citrus peel pectin and commercial pectin. Overall, the physicochemical properties and antioxidant potential of TP could be utilized as an excipient for food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26428136

  16. The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in a neuropathic patient with advanced diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Iabichella, Maria Letizia; Caruso, Claudio; Lugli, Marzia

    2014-01-01

    The successful use of an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and nimh oil (Azadirachta indica; Hyperoil) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers, has been reported previously. It was hypothesised that this amelioration was linked with the improved glycaemic control and peripheral microvascular circulation. In this case report, the surprisingly successful outcome of another patient using Hyperoil for infection damaged diabetic foot, without prior use of surgical procedure, is described. The patient had no macrovascular pattern impairment. Diabetic foot healing paralleled with controlled local infection and enhanced glycaemic control. The outcome of this patient suggests that the effectiveness of this inexpensive therapy using Hyperoil for diabetic foot is not only linked with the presence of severe microvascular disorder, but also with the appropriate local treatment for ulcer being a must for its recovery. PMID:25378221

  17. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  18. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  19. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F; Klotz, J; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichlo coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 52 61 cm (W L D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  20. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) AND NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.)EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILAGE BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against a number of common food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Screening for antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay against 21...

  1. Extraction of proteins from pennycress seeds and press cake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...

  2. Hypoglycemic Effect of Combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Ethanolic Extracts Standardized by Rutin and Quercetin in Alloxan-induced Hyperglycemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sunarwidhi, Anggit Listyacahyani; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Exploration of plant combinations could be an alternative approach for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of combination of A. indica and G. procumbens ethanolic extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Powder of A. indica and G. procumbens leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. Determination of rutin in A. indica and quercetin in G. procumbens were performed by TLC-densitometry. Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 150 mg/kgBW. The rats were treated with 3 dosage variation of combinations for 15 days. Hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats pancreas histological study. Results: A. indica contained 2.90±0.15% of rutin and G. procumbens contained 18.86±0.86% of quercetin. Combination at the ratio of 50mg/kgBW A. indica:112.5mg/kgBW G. procumbens showed the highest hypoglycemic effect: 68.74±4.83% (preprandial) and 73.91±3.18% (postprandial). Histological studies indicated that this combination improved the morphology of the islets of Langerhans and β cells. It also increased insulin expression and decreased the elevated-glucose concentrations. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of both extracts has better hypoglycemic effect than the single treatment of A. indica or G. procumbens. Combination of both extracts was potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients. PMID:25671197

  3. Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots

    PubMed Central

    Daneshkhah, R.; Cabello, S.; Rozanska, E.; Sobczak, M.; Grundler, F. M. W.; Wieczorek, K.; Hofmann, J.

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

  4. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Simone N.M.; Salazar, Marcela M.; Pereira, Gonçalo A.G.; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2–6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4–8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol. PMID:26150956

  5. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Simone N M; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2-6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4-8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol. PMID:26150956

  6. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Panchasara, Ashwin K.; Barvaliya, Manish J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  7. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kaksha J; Panchasara, Ashwin K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Vadgama, Vishal K; Tripathi, C B

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  8. Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts.

    PubMed

    Gotep, J G; Tanko, J T; Forcados, G E; Muraina, I A; Ozele, N; Dogonyaro, B B; Oladipo, O O; Makoshi, M S; Akanbi, O B; Kinjir, H; Samuel, A L; Onyiche, T E; Ochigbo, G O; Aladelokun, O B; Ozoani, H A; Viyoff, V Z; Dapuliga, C C; Atiku, A A; Okewole, P A; Shamaki, D; Ahmed, M S; Nduaka, C I

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis. PMID:26989496

  9. Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts

    PubMed Central

    Gotep, J. G.; Tanko, J. T.; Forcados, G. E.; Muraina, I. A.; Ozele, N.; Dogonyaro, B. B.; Oladipo, O. O.; Makoshi, M. S.; Akanbi, O. B.; Kinjir, H.; Samuel, A. L.; Onyiche, T. E.; Ochigbo, G. O.; Aladelokun, O. B.; Ozoani, H. A.; Viyoff, V. Z.; Dapuliga, C. C.; Atiku, A. A.; Okewole, P. A.; Shamaki, D.; Ahmed, M. S.; Nduaka, C. I.

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis. PMID:26989496

  10. Detection of DNA polymerase λ activity during seed germination and enhancement after salinity stress and dehydration in the plumules of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed

    Sihi, Sayantani; Bakshi, Sankar; Sengupta, Dibyendu Narayan

    2015-02-01

    DNA polymerase λ (DNA pol λ) is the only reported X-family DNA polymerases in plants and has been shown to play a significant role in dry quiescent seeds, growth, development and nuclear DNA repair. cDNA for DNA pol λ has been reported in Arabidopsis and japonica rice cultivar and has been characterized from E. coli expressed protein, but very little is known about its activity at protein level in plants. The enzymatic activity of DNA pol λ was studied in dry, imbibed and during different germination stages of indica rice IR-8 (salt sensitive) by in-gel activity assay to determine its physiological role in important stages of growth and development. The upstream sequence was also analyzed using plantCARE database and was found to contain several cis-acting elements, including light responsive elements, dehydration responsive elements, Myb binding sites, etc. Hence, 4-day-old germinating seedlings of IR29, a salt-sensitive, but high yielding indica rice cultivar and Nonabokra, a salt-tolerant, but low yielding cultivar were treated with water (control) or 250 mM NaCl or 20% polyethyleneglycol-6000 for 4 and 8 h. The protein was analyzed by in vitro DNA pol λ activity assay, in-gel activity assay and Western blot analysis. DNA pol λ was not detected in dry seeds, but enhanced after imbibition and detectable from low level to high level during subsequent germination steps. Both salinity and dehydration stress led to the enhancement of the activity and protein level of DNA pol λ, as compared to control tissues. This is the first evidence of the salinity or dehydration stress induced enhancement of DNA pol λ activity in the plumules of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. PMID:26040115

  11. Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Cvetnić, Zdenka; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda

    2004-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. The presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract was confirmed by TLC analysis. Ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V). PMID:15610620

  12. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  13. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40°C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry. PMID:26964955

  14. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  15. Amelioration of tamoxifen-induced liver injury in rats by grape seed extract, black seed extract and curcumin.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Nagy, Ayman A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2010-03-01

    Liver injury was induced in female rats using tamoxifen (TAM). Grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) extract (GSE), black seed (Nigella sativa) extract (NSE), curcumin (CUR) or silymarin (SYL) were orally administered to TAM-intoxicated rats. Liver histopathology of TAM-intoxicated:rats showed pathological changes. TAM-intoxication elicited declines in liver antioxidant enzymes levels (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase), reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG ratio plus the hepatic elevations in lipid peroxides, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and serum liver enzymes; alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Oral intake of NSE, GSE, CUR or SYL to TAM-intoxicated rats, attenuated histopathological changes and corrected all parameters mentioned above. Improvements were prominent in case of NSE (similarly SYL) > CUR > GSE. Data indicated that NSE, GSE or CUR act as free radicals scavengers and protect TAM-induced liver injury in rats. PMID:21046982

  16. Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi Sre, P. R.; Reka, M.; Poovazhagi, R.; Arul Kumar, M.; Murugesan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines.

  17. An increase of granulosa cell apoptosis mediates aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract-induced oocyte apoptosis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Anima; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) has been extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for female fertility regulation for a long time, but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine whether an increase of granulosa cell apoptosis is associated with aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE)-induced oocyte apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Sexually immature female rats of 20 days old were fed NLE (50 mg/day) for 10 days and then subjected to superovulation induction protocol. The morphological changes in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), rate of oocyte apoptosis, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total nitrite, and cytochrome c concentrations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytochrome c, p53, Bcl2 and Bax expressions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation, and estradiol 17? level in granulosa cells collected from preovulatory COCs were analyzed. Results: Aqueous NLE increased H2O2 concentration and decreased catalase activity, increased iNOS expression and total nitrite concentration, increased p53, Bax, and p53 expressions but decreased Bcl2 expression, increased cytochrome c concentration and induced DNA fragmentation in granulosa cells. An increased granulosa cell apoptosis resulted in reduced estradiol 17? concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that aqueous NLE-induced granulosa cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway, reduced estradiol 17? concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Thus, granulosa cell apoptosis mediates NLE-induced oocyte apoptosis during female fertility regulation in rat. PMID:23776837

  18. Enhancing the efficiency of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing natural dye extracted from Azadirachta indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahare, Sanjay; Veldurthi, Naresh; Singh, Ranbir; Swarnkar, A. K.; Salunkhe, Manauti; Bhave, Tejashree

    2015-10-01

    The natural dye extracted from Azadirechta indica (neem) was used as a sensitizer in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The fabricated DSSC exhibited open circuit voltage of 0.538 V with 2.81% power conversion efficiency (η) in back-illuminated mode which is higher than that reported in the literature. In order to understand the characteristics of DSSC, systematic study of solar cell component materials was carried out. Anatase TiO2 (30-40 nm) nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc plasma method and deposited electrophoretically on a flexible titanium (Ti) substrate. A platinum-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was used as a counter electrode to construct flexible DSSC. The structural and optical behavior of neem-dye sensitized TiO2 thin film has been studied using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. We have observed that the neem dye gives a very good sensitization effect. In addition, the dye has good prospects as a low-cost and environmental friendly alternative to ruthenium-based sensitizers which are normally used in DSSCs.

  19. The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Aguirre Joya; Heliodoro, De La Garza Toledo; Alejandro, Zugasti Cruz; Ruth, Belmares Cerda; Noé, Aguilar Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. Methods The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. Results It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. Conclusions It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries. PMID:23730555

  20. Modulatory potentials of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Awodele, Olufunsho; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-01-01

    Among Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria), hot water infusion of Mangifera indica L. (芒果 Máng Guǒ) stem bark is reputedly used for the treatment of fever, jaundice and liver disorders. The present study, therefore, investigates the protective effects and mechanism(s) of chemopreventive and curative effects of 125–500 mg/kg/day of Mangifera indica aqueous stem bark extract (MIASE) in acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 20% CCl4, i.p.). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were estimated. In addition, hepatic tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in the rat liver sections were determined. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds in MIASE was also conducted. Results showed that oral treatment with 125–500 mg/kg/day of MIASE significantly attenuated the increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, FBG, TB, CB and LDL-c levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl4 treatment. Findings also revealed significant elevations in the serum TC, TG, HDL-c, TP and ALB levels. There was marked architectural remodeling in the hepatic lesions of hepatocyte vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis induced by CCl4 treatment, coupled with significant weight loss. MIASE also markedly enhanced SOD and CAT activities while reducing MAD formation; and increased GSH concentration in the hepatic homogenate compared with untreated CCl4-intoxicated group, with more protection offered in the curative than the chemopreventive models of CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Thus, these results indicate that MIASE has a profound protective effect against acute CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, which may be due to its free radicals scavenging effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and its ability to increase antioxidant activity. PMID:26151020

  1. Molecular docking studies and anti-enzymatic activities of Thai mango seed kernel extract against snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2009-01-01

    The ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (MSKE) (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloyl glucopyranose) exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on enzymatic activities of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), hyaluronidase and L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) of Calloselasma rhodostoma (CR) and Naja naja kaouthia (NK)venoms by in vitro tests. The anti-hemorrhagic and anti-dermonecrotic activities of MSKE against both venoms were clearly supported by in vivo tests. Molecular docking studies indicated that the phenolic molecules of the MSKE could selectively bind to the active sites or their proximity, or modify conserved residues that are critical for the catalysis of PLA(2), and selectively bind to the LAAO binding pocket of both CR and NK venoms and thereby inhibit their enzymatic activities. The results imply a potential use of MSKE against snake venoms. PMID:19384272

  2. THE USE OF ACIDIC ELECTROLYZED WATER TO ELIMINATE MICROORGANISMS FROM WHEAT SEED OR SOIL TO DETECT TILLETIA INDICA TELIOSPORES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is a germicidal product of electrolysis of a dilute solution of sodium chloride, which can be used to disinfect wheat seed or soil samples being tested for Karnal bunt teliospores without risk of damaging the spores. The AEW we produced for our study had a pH of 2.5 ...

  3. Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65℃ was the highest, at 17.48%. Color was not different based on the extraction method, but the b-value increased as the roasting time for compression extraction was increased. The b-values of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction were 3.54 to 15.6 and those following compression extraction after roasting treatment at 200℃ for 30 min, were 20.49, which was the highest value. The result of the phenolic compounds composition showed the presence of gentisic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid in the ginseng seed oil. No differences were detected in phenolic acid levels in ginseng seed oil extracted by compression extraction or solvent extraction, but vanillic acid tended to decrease as extraction pressure and temperature were increased for seed oil extracted by a supercritical fluid extraction method. The fatty acid composition of ginseng seed oil was not different based on the extraction method, and unsaturated fatty acids were >90% of all fatty acids, among which, oleic acid was the highest at 80%. Phytosterol analysis showed that β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were detected. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction was 100.4 to 135.5 mg/100 g, and the phytosterol content following compression extraction and solvent extraction was 71.8 to 80.9 mg/100 g. PMID:24235861

  4. Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

    2013-02-01

    The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage. PMID:23010205

  5. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  6. Antitumor and Immunopotentiating Activity of Polysaccharide PST001 Isolated from the Seed Kernel of Tamarindus indica: An In Vivo Study in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, S. R.; Joseph, Manu M.; Varghese, Sheeja; Balaram, Prabha; Sreelekha, T. T.

    2012-01-01

    Antitumor activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica was evaluated using different cancer cell lines. Human cancer cell lines A549, KB, and MCF-7 and murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC were treated with PST001 and cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out for toxicity, tumor reduction and immunomodulation. The respective IC50 of PST001 in A549, KB, and DLA was at 80.72, 190.99, and 91.14 μg/mL. Significant tumor reduction was obtained in both DLA and EAC tumors on treatment with PST001 which was more prominent when PST001 was administered with CTX/5-fluorouracil. Increase in total WBC, CD4+ T-cell population, and bone marrow cellularity suggested strong immunomodulatory activity for this compound. No significant abnormality was observed in toxicity studies. Thus the results of the present study suggest that PST001 has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent and immunomodulator either as a sole agent or as an adjuvant to other chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:22593679

  7. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

  8. In vivo and in vitro effectiveness of Azadirachta indica-synthesized silver nanocrystals against Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum, and their potential against malaria mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Samidoss, Christina Mary; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Paulpandi, Manickam; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    Malaria transmission is a serious emergence in urban and semiurban areas worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. Malaria is transmitted through the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. The extensive employ of synthetic pesticides leads to negative effects on human health and the environment. Recently, plant-synthesized nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective mosquitocides. In this research, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the Azadirachta indica seed kernel extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The A. indica seed kernel extract was toxic against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae, LC50 were 232.8ppm (larva I), 260.6ppm (II), 290.3ppm (III), 323.4ppm (IV), and 348.4ppm (pupa). AgNP LC50 were 3.9ppm (I), 4.9ppm (II), 5.6ppm (III), 6.5ppm (IV), and 8.2ppm (pupa). The antiplasmodial activity of A. indica seed kernel extract and AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. IC50 of A. indica seed kernel extract were 63.18μg/ml (CQ-s) and 69.24μg/ml (CQ-r). A. indica seed kernel-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50, of 82.41μg/ml (CQ-s) and 86.12μg/ml (CQ-r). However, in vivo anti-plasmodial experiments conducted on Plasmodium berghei infecting albino mice showed moderate activity of the A. indica extract and AgNP. Overall, this study showed that the A. indica-mediated fabrication of AgNP is of interest for a wide array of purposes, ranging from IPM of mosquito vectors to the development of novel and cheap antimalarial drugs. PMID:27234530

  9. An efficient extraction method to enhance analysis of low abundant proteins from soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of the major seed storage proteins, such as ß-conglycinin and glycinin, in soybean (Glycine max) seeds hinder the isolation and characterization of less abundant seed proteins. We investigated whether isopropanol extraction could facilitate resolution of the less abundant proteins fro...

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  11. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2θ value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30 ± 5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel, simple, and eco-friendly approach has been suggested to control blood-feeding parasites. PMID:25403378

  12. Improved method for extraction of castor seed for toxin determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effort to identify castor seeds with low ricin content is considered to be a key to increasing cultivation of the castor plant for industrial applications. The procedure used to obtain soluble protein from the seed is a limiting factor for screening large numbers of seeds. Usually, the seed is...

  13. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

  14. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii by Water-soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot and cold water-soluble muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) seed extracts and their polar and polyphenol fractions from two Muscadine cultivars (‘Ison’, purple and ‘Carlos’, bronze) were investigated for their inhibition of Enterobacter sakazakii. The heat treatment on each seed extract not only incre...

  15. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development. PMID:25204070

  16. Total polyphenols, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of different extracts in mungbean seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kwan; Jeong, Seok Cheol; Gorinstein, Shela; Chon, Sang-Uk

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the biological, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and antiproliferative activities of different extracts of mungbean seeds and sprouts. All extracts from the sprouts showed higher contents of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than from seeds. The highest DPPH and tyrosinase inhibition activities were registered in ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract. ADH activity of methanol (MeOH), n-hexane (n-hexane) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts from sprouts was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than from seeds. However, the highest ADH activity was found in water extract of seeds. According to 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol -2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay, extracts from sprouts were more effective against Calu-6 (human pulmonary carcinoma) and SNU-601 (human gastric carcinoma) cells than from seeds. EtOAc extract showed the highest antiproliferative activity in both sprouts and seeds, followed by n-hexane extraction. During sprouting of mungbean, all the studied components significantly increased. In conclusion, the extracts of sprouts are more effective than from seeds and could be a potential source of antioxidants linked with health benefits. PMID:22350499

  17. A Novel Extraction Method and Some Physicochemical Properties of Extractives of Irvingia Gabonensis seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ogaji, Ikoni J; Nan, Anjan; Hoag, Stephen W

    2012-01-01

    The plant Irvingia gabonensis contains lipids and polymer extractives that can be a good source of excipients for oral pharmaceutical formulations. These constituents are usually extracted from the seeds with the aid of either organic solvents or enzymes. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel, simpler, cheaper, and safer method for the simultaneous extraction of lipids and gum from I. gabonensis. A 100.0 g of seeds of I. gabonensis in 200 mL deionized water was heated at 78°C in the presence of 2.0 g sodium chloride for 1 h, and the mixture was allowed to stand for the lipids to be separated and removed by filtration. The samples were air dried at 25–30°C. The liquid fraction was centrifuged at 3445 rpm for 30 min, and the supernatant portion containing the gum was freeze dried. The samples were investigated for their true, bulk, and tapped densities as well as particle size and particle size distributions. The rheological, and near infrared absorption spectra as well as thermal behavior of the samples were also studied. The lipid and the polymeric components of I. gabonensis seeds were successfully extracted simultaneously. The true densities of the fatty and gum components were, respectively, 1.000 and 1.544 g/cm3. The melting point of the fat was 40°C and Tg of the gum was 232°C. These values were similar to those described in the literature for the components using the traditional method, demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of this simple novel method. PMID:22754256

  18. [Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in laboratory].

    PubMed

    Broglio-Micheletti, Sônia Maria Forti; Valente, Ellen Carine Neves; de Souza, Leilianne Alves; Dias, Nivia da Silva; de Araújo, Alice Maria Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume) were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) (soursop); flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L.) (Myrtaceae) (iamb), leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) (holy grass), leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) (neem) and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume) of A. indica (seeds). The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed) had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24%) and A. indica (65 and 38.49%). The seed extract of A. muricata reduced 100% larvae hatch. PMID:20040208

  19. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Analysis of Cichoriumintybus Seeds Extract and Various Organic Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Nasir; Zuba?r, Muhammad; R?zwan, Komal; Rasool, Nas?r; Shahid, Muhammad; Uddin Ahmad, Viqar

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant effectiveness of methanolic extract and different fractions (n-butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of C.intybus seeds. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a panel of microorganisms (four bacterial strains, i.e. P. multocida, E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureus and three fungal strains, i.e A. flavus, A. niger and R. solani). The results indicated that seeds extract and fractions of C. intybus showed moderate activity as antibacterial agent. While Antifungal activity of C. intybus seeds extract/fractions was very low against A. flavus and A. niger while mild against R. solani. The C.intybus seeds extract/fractions contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (50.8-285 GAE mg/100g of Dry plant matter) and total flavonoid contents (43.3-150 CE mg/100g of Dry plant matter). The C. intybus seed extract/fractions also exhibited good DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 ranging from 21.28-72.14 ?g/mL. Of the C .intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions tested, 100% methanolic extract and ethylacetate fraction exhibited the maximum antioxidant activity. The results of the present investigation demonstrated significant (p < 0.01) variations in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of C. intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions. PMID:24250548

  20. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the immunosuppressive potential of the extract. PMID:24349164

  1. Immunomodulation by Dok Din Daeng (Aeginetia indica Roxb.) extracts in female B6C3F1 mice: (I): stimulation of T cells.

    PubMed

    Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Chitsomboon, Benjamart; Peachee, Vanessa L; Guo, Tai L; White, Kimber L

    2004-10-01

    Aeginetia indica Roxbert (Dok Din Daeng, DDD), a parasitic plant that grows on bamboo, is extensively used in Thai traditional medicine to treat various diseases. There have been no published studies on the pharmacological, toxicological or immunological effects of DDD, indigenous to Thailand. The study reported here was focused on the immunological effects (T cells) of the whole plant extract using water (WDDD) or ethanol (EDDD) as a solvent. The extracts were administered to female B6C3F1 mice by gavage for WDDD (10-100%) and intraperitoneally (i.p.) for EDDD (0.25-250 mg/kg) for 28 days. Only mice administrated the highest dose of EDDD exhibited an increase in absolute spleen and liver weights. Three T cell functional assays, including anti-CD3 antibody-mediated T cell proliferation, the mixed leukocyte response (MLR) and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, were employed to determine the effects of DDD extracts on splenic T cell activities. Exposure to WDDD enhanced the responses in all three assays with significant changes observed in the anti-CD3 and MLR assays. Exposure to EDDD also enhanced the responses in all three assays with significant changes observed in the MLR and CTL assays. Additionally, significant increases in the MLR and anti-CD3 responses were also observed when EDDD was used to treat cells in vitro. Finally, exposure to WDDD decreased both the percentage and absolute number of regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in the spleen, which was consistent with a significant increase in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production from Con A-stimulated splenocytes. Overall, this study demonstrated that the extracts from A. indica Roxbert had a T cell stimulatory activity. PMID:15313434

  2. Simultaneous ultrasound-assisted water extraction and β-cyclodextrin encapsulation of polyphenols from Mangifera indica stem bark in counteracting TNFα-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mura, Marzia; Palmieri, Daniela; Garella, Davide; Di Stilo, Antonella; Perego, Patrizia; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Palombo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an alternative technique to prevent heat degradation induced by classic procedures of bioactive compound extraction, comparing classical maceration/decoction in hot water of polyphenols from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) (MI) with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in a water solution of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at room temperature and testing their biological activity on TNFα-induced endothelial dysfunction. Both extracts counteracted TNFα effects on EAhy926 cells, down-modulating interleukin-6, interleukin-8, cyclooxygenase-2 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1, while increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels. β-CD extract showed higher efficacy in improving endothelial function. These effects were abolished after pre-treatment with the oestrogen receptor inhibitor ICI1182,780. Moreover, the β-CD extract induced Akt activation and completely abolished the TNFα-induced p38MAPK phosphorylation. UAE and β-CD encapsulation provide an efficient extraction protocol that increases polyphenol bioavailability. Polyphenols from MI play a protective role on endothelial cells and may be further considered as oestrogen-like molecules with vascular protective properties. PMID:25589236

  3. Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

    2014-01-01

    Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml−1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590

  4. The bioefficacy of crude extracts of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) on the survival and development of myiasis-causing larvae of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Jasneet

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is a type of parasitosis originating from the invasion of tissues of live humans and other vertebrates by dipteran larvae. The Old World screwworm fly—Chrysomya bezziana—is known worldwide in the tropical regions for causing myiasis among man and domestic animals, thereby leading to health hazards and severe economic losses to the dairy farmers. Management techniques for controlling populations of the fly are needed to minimize these losses. Plant-derived materials have been increasingly evaluated these days in controlling the insects of medical and veterinary importance. This study evaluated the efficacy of crude extracts of the plant neem, Azadirachta indica, against C. bezziana. The dried leaves of the plant were extracted successively with four different solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and were evaluated against the third instar larvae of C. bezziana using dipping method and thin film application technique. In the dipping method, larvae were dipped in four different concentrations of plant extracts for 30 s, whereas in the thin film application, they were exposed to a thin film of plant extracts. The results showed that all the extracts had toxic effect on the larvae in both the techniques. In the dipping method, the highest mortalities were recorded in methanol extract followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 values 1.07 g/100 ml, 1.7 g/100 ml, 3.39 g/100 ml and 4.9 g/100 ml, respectively. In the thin film application method, methanol extract showed the highest mortalities followed by chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether with LC50 values 0.4 mg/cm2, 0.6 mg/cm2, 2.1 mg/cm2 and 2.5 mg/cm2. It is concluded that the crude extracts of A. indica can be used in controlling the larvae of C. bezziana by using the dipping as well as thin film application technique. PMID:26494546

  5. Broccoli seed extract: Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Yang, Hui; Li, Yongning; Lynch, B; Jia, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    Potential health benefits have been attributed to broccoli consumption. Hence, there is potential for use of broccoli seed extract (BSE) in food or for use as a dietary supplement. To assess the potential safety of a BSE product, three genotoxicity experiments, including an Ames, in vivo mouse micronucleus, and in vivo mouse sperm abnormality assay, were carried out. BSE was subject to an acute oral toxicity test and was evaluated in a 30-day feeding study in rats. BSE showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames assay and no evidence of genotoxic potential in the in vivo assays at doses up to 10 g/kg body weight (bw). The LD50 of BSE in rats was >10 g/kg bw/d. In the 30-day feeding study, in which BSE was administered in the diet to provide doses of 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg bw/d, no toxicological significant effects were noted on body weight, body weight gain, organ weights, or on the results of hematological, clinical chemistry and histopathological evaluations. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 3.0 g/kg bw/d, the highest dose tested. Collectively, these results support the safe use of BSE as a food ingredient or product. PMID:26271574

  6. Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 μg/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 μg/mL) and TH (165.44 μg/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 μg/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 μg/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation. PMID:24471075

  7. Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Izzet; Yanar, Yusuf; Asav, Unal

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various weeds extracts on seed germination of 11 crop species. Most of the weed extracts tested had inhibitory effects on seed germination of common bean, tomato, pepper, squash, onion, barley, wheat, and corn at different application rates as compared with the 10% acetone control. Chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L., and Matricaria chamomilla L. (10%, 20% and 22.5%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. However, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Reseda lutea L. extracts stimulated chickpea seed germination at the rates of 95%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, compared to control. It was concluded that some of the weed extracts tested in this study could be used as inhibitor while others could be used as stimulator for the crops. PMID:16161968

  8. Toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Milletia ferruginea (Hochst) seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Birbira [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Milletia ferruginea] seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates, Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant; Milletia ferruginea pulverized seeds have been used for fish poisoning since time immemorial. Macroinvertebrates are important biological indicators of alteration in the natural water sources. Milletia ferruginea seed extract was applied at concentrations of 125, 250, 500 1000 and 2000 ppm on Hydropsychididae whereas Baetidae were exposed at various concentrations viz., 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 & 500 ppm. Milletia ferruginea seeds crude extract of lethal doses (LCso and LC90) required for Baetidae 49.29 mg/l and 172.52 mg/l were respectively and the respective doses (LC50 and LC90) against Hydropsychidae were 679.64 mg/l and 2383.93 mg/l. The present investigation end result demonstrated that Milletia ferruginea seed extracts were extremely toxic to Baetidae than Hydropsychididae. As a result, application of Milletia ferruginea seed extracts into the rivers/streams for fish poisoning possibly leads to contamination and disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, the concerned authorities should launch appropriate awareness campaign among the local inhabitants and fisherman about adverse effect of Birbira seed extracts. Furthermore, providing alternative ecofriendly techniques for fish harvesting may possibly bring constructive out come in the near future. PMID:19673168

  9. Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

  10. Extraction optimization and nanoencapsulation of jujube pulp and seed for enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye Jung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Sun-Ah; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize extraction conditions for jujube pulp and seed in order to obtain maximum active ingredient yield and antioxidant activity, as well as to prepare chitosan nanoparticles loaded with jujube pulp and seed extracts for enhancing stability. The extraction conditions, i.e. temperature, time, and ethanol concentration, were optimized at the following respective values: 61.2 °C, 38 h, and 60.4% for pulp, and 58 °C, 34 h, and 59.2% for seed. The jujube nanoparticle size significantly increased with a higher chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate ratio and extract concentration. Entrapment efficiency was greater than 80% regardless of preparation conditions. The stabilities of jujube pulp and seed extract in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were effectively enhanced by nanoencapsulation. In conclusion, jujube pulp and seed extracts prepared using optimal conditions could be useful as a natural functional food ingredient with antioxidant activity, and nanoencapsulation can be used to improve the stability of jujube extract. Therefore, these results could be used to promote the utilization of not only jujube pulp but also seed, by product. PMID:25911157

  11. Extraction of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed oil by full pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress is currently being developed as an oilseed crop for biofuel production. Pennycress seeds harvested from a field near Peoria, IL, provided our first opportunity to conduct an oil extraction study on a pilot scale. The goals of this study were to determine the effects of seed moisture and c...

  12. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  13. Oil extraction from lesquerella seeds by dry extrusion and expelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole Lesquerella seeds with 6% (as is) and 12% moisture were extruded at different residence times by varying screw speeds and feed rates. The temperature of the extrudate was recorded and its moisture content was determined. The extent of seed cooking was evaluated by measuring the protein solub...

  14. Extraction of Field Pennycress Seed Oil by Full Pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in the temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (db) with the major fatty acid as erucic acid (38%). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a major source of...

  15. Full-Press Oil Extraction of Extruded Lesquerella Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is a winter annual oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family that is native to the desert Southwestern United States. The seed has 30% oil, which contains 55-64% lesquerolic and auricolic acids (hydroxy FA). The seeds contain glucosinolates that, upon hydrolysis by thi...

  16. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as indicators of the presence or high levels of anti-oxidants in the oils. PMID:22530436

  17. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  18. Effects of safflower seed extract on arterial stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Katsuya; Tsubaki, Shigekazu; Fujita, Masami; Koyama, Naoto; Takahashi, Michio; Takazawa, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Safflower seed extract (SSE) contains characteristic polyphenols and serotonin derivatives (N-( p-coumaroyl) serotonin and N-feruloylserotonin), which are reported to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), formation of atherosclerotic plaques, and improve arterial stiffness as assessed by pulse wave analysis in animal models. The effects of long-term supplementation with SSE on arterial stiffness in human subjects were evaluated. This doubleblind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 77 males (35–65 years) and 15 postmenopausal females (55–65 years) with high-normal blood pressure or mild hypertension who were not undergoing treatment. Subjects received SSE (70 mg/day as serotonin derivatives) or placebo for 12 weeks, and pulse wave measurements, ie, second derivative of photoplethysmogram (SDPTG), augmentation index, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were conducted at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Vascular age estimated by SDPTG aging index improved in the SSE-supplemented group when compared with the placebo group at four (P = 0.0368) and 12 weeks (P = 0.0927). The trend of augmentation index reduction (P = 0.072 versus baseline) was observed in the SSE-supplemented group, but reduction of baPWV by SSE supplementation was not observed. The SSE-supplemented group also showed a trend towards a lower malondialdehyde-modified-LDL autoantibody titer at 12 weeks from baseline. These results suggest long-term ingestion of SSE in humans could help to improve arterial stiffness. PMID:21127697

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Madhaven, N

    2001-01-01

    These ingredients are all derived from hazelnut trees. The two seed oils are expressed from the nuts of the hazelnut tree of the particular species identified. Most current reported cosmetic uses are of the seed oils. The seed extracts are the extract of the nuts of the identified species tree. There is one current report of use of seed extract in cosmetics. The leaf extracts are the extract from the leaves of the particular species tree. There are no current reports of use of these extracts in cosmetics. Analysis of seed oil from one species identified Oleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Eicosaenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Eicosanoic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Stearic Acid, and Tetraeicosanoic Acid. Little information is available to characterize the extracts, however. The functions of most of these ingredients in cosmetics are not reported. In studies of hazelnuts from Spain and Egypt, aflatoxin was reported as a possible contaminant. Aflatoxins are considered carcinogenic in humans. Virtually no safety test data are available on these ingredients. Negative results in one comedogenicity study using a seed oil are reported. Cross-sensitivity to proteins in peanuts and those in hazelnuts are reported, but the presence or absence of protein in nut extract and plant extract from hazelnut trees is not known. Additional data were provided regarding concentration of use, method of extraction and contaminants, comedogenicity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption, but these data related to nut oil from only one species, and were not overall sufficient to resolve questions about irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization. Because of the absence of data, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic products. Because of the limited information that characterizes any of these oils or extracts, data are needed on each (except that items 1, 2, and 3 below are not needed for Hazel [Corylus Avellana] Nut Oil). The additonal data needs include: (1) current concentration of use; (2) method of extraction/manufacture and quality control (i.e., chemical analyses); (3) contaminants and methods of extraction (especially pesticides and heavy metals); (4) dermal irritation and sensitization; (5) UV absorption; if there is significant absorption, then a photosensitization study will be needed; (6) 28-day dermal toxicity; (7) reproductive and developmental toxicity; and (8) two genotoxicity assays, one in a mammalian system; if positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenesis study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed. PMID:11358108

  20. Effect of dietary ethanol extracts of mango (Mangifera indica L.) on lipid oxidation and the color of chicken meat during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; da Silva Borges, Ângela; Pereira, Ana Lúcia Fernandes; Abreu, Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of mango extracts on lipid stability and the coloring of broiler chicken breast meat during frozen storage. The treatments consisted of broiler chicken diet without antioxidants (control) and diets containing antioxidants: 200 ppm of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 200 ppm of mango peel extract (MPE), 400 ppm of MPE, 200 ppm of mango seed extract (MSE), and 400 ppm of MSE. The broiler breasts were stored for 90 days and analysis of lipid oxidation and color was performed every 30 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased during storage and at 90 days, but the 400 ppm MSE treatment yielded lower values, indicating greater antioxidant activity. During storage, the lightness values decreased and the redness increased. Additions of 200 ppm BHT and 400 ppm MPE increased yellowness at 60 days of storage. Thus, mango peel and seed extracts added to broiler chicken diets reduce lipid oxidation and maintain color in breast meat during frozen storage, with mango seed extract at 400 ppm being the most effective. PMID:26475070

  1. Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B; Shah, Pankit P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria. Materials and Methods: The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract. Results: The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36μg/ml and 182.19μg/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50) value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein. Conclusion: Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria. PMID:25628685

  2. Characterization and Benzo[a]pyrene Content Analysis of Camellia Seed Oil Extracted by a Novel Subcritical Fluid Extraction.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianyin; Che, Ke; Xi, Ruchun; He, Liping; Chen, Xuexiang; Guan, Xiaosheng; Zhuang, Xueying; Wen, Xiujun; Cao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    A novel continuous subcritical n-butane extraction technique for Camellia seed oil was explored. The fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, and benzo[a]pyrene content of Camellia seed oil extracted using this subcritical technique were analyzed. Orthogonal experiment design (L9(3(4))) was adopted to optimize extraction conditions. At a temperature of 45C, a pressure of 0.5MPa, a time of 50min and a bulk density of 0.7kg/L, an extraction yield of 99.120.20% was obtained. The major components of Camellia seed oil are oleic acid (73.120.40%), palmitic acid (10.380.05%), and linoleic acid (9.150.03%). Unsaturated fatty acids represent 83.780.03% of the total fatty acids present. Eight physicochemical indexes were assayed, namely, iodine value (83.000.21gI/100g), saponification value (154.812.00mgKOH/g), freezing-point (-8.000.10C), unsaponifiable matter (5.000.40g/kg), smoke point (215.001.00C), acid value (1.240.03mgKOH/g), refrigeration test (transparent, at 0C for 5.5h), and refractive index (1.460.06, at 25C). Benzo[a]pyrene was not detected in Camellia seed oil extracted by continuous subcritical n-butane extraction. In comparison, the benzo[a]pyrene levels of crude Camellia seed oil extracted by hot press extraction and refined Camellia seed oil were measured at26.550.70 and 5.690.04?g/kg respectively. PMID:24098057

  3. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

  4. Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds

    PubMed Central

    Dwarampudi, Lalitha Priyanka; Palaniswamy, Dhanabal; Nithyanantham, Muruganantham; Raghu, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae) is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screening of antipsoriatic activity of 95% of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds by using mouse tail model for psoriasis and in vitro antipsoriatic activity was carried out by SRB Assay using HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds extract produced a significant epidermal differentiation, from its degree of orthokeratosis (71.36±2.64) when compared to the negative control (17.30±4.09%). This was equivalent to the effect of the standard positive control, tazarotene (0.1%) gel, which showed a (90.03±2.00%) degree of orthokeratosis. The 95% ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa shown IC50 239 μg/ml, with good antiproliferant activity compared to Asiaticoside as positive control which showed potent activity with IC50 value of 20.13 μg/ml. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds also showed increase in relative epidermal thickness when compared to control group by confirming its traditional use in psoriasis treatment. PMID:24082629

  5. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan. PMID:24300515

  6. Gastroprotective effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract: possible involvement of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibition and scavenging of hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Biswas, Kausik; Chatterjee, Ratna; Bandyopadhyay, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Ishita; Ganguly, Chayan Kumar; Chakraborty, Tapan; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Banerjee, Ranajit K

    2002-11-01

    The antisecretory and antiulcer effects of aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark have been studied along with its mechanism of action, standardisation and safety evaluation. The extract can dose dependently inhibit pylorus-ligation and drug (mercaptomethylimidazole)-induced acid secretion with ED(50) value of 2.7 and 2 mg Kg(-1) b.w. respectively. It is highly potent in dose-dependently blocking gastric ulcer induced by restraint-cold stress and indomethacin with ED(50) value of 1.5 and 1.25 mg Kg(-1) b.w. respectively. When compared, bark extract is equipotent to ranitidine but more potent than omeprazole in inhibiting pylorus-ligation induced acid secretion. In a stress ulcer model, it is more effective than ranitidine but almost equipotent to omeprazole. Bark extract inhibits H(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro in a concentration dependent manner similar to omeprazole. It offers gastroprotection against stress ulcer by significantly preventing adhered mucus and endogenous glutathione depletion. It prevents oxidative damage of the gastric mucosa by significantly blocking lipid peroxidation and by scavenging the endogenous hydroxyl radical ((z.rad;)OH)-the major causative factor for ulcer. The (z.rad;)OH-mediated oxidative damage of human gastric mucosal DNA is also protected by the extract in vitro. Bark extract is more effective than melatonin, vitamin E, desferrioxamine and alpha-phenyl N-tert butylnitrone, the known antioxidants having antiulcer effect. Standardisation of the bioactive extract by high pressure liquid chromatography indicates that peak 1 of the chromatogram coincides with the major bioactive compound, a phenolic glycoside, isolated from the extract. The pharmacological effects of the bark extract are attributed to a phenolic glycoside which is apparently homogeneous by HPLC and which represents 10% of the raw bark extract. A single dose of 1g of raw extract per kg b.w. (mice) given in one day and application of 0.6g raw extract per kg b.w. per day by oral route over 15 days to a cumulative dose of 9g per kg was well tolerated and was below the LD(50). It is also well tolerated by rats with no significant adverse effect. It is concluded that Neem bark extract has therapeutic potential for the control of gastric hyperacidity and ulcer. PMID:12377267

  7. Modeling of polysaccharide extraction from Gossypium arboreum L. seed using central composite rotatable design.

    PubMed

    Maran, J Prakash; Nivetha, C Vigna; Priya, B; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ponmurugan, Karuppiah; Manoj, J Jony Blessing

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigates the effect of independent variables such as extraction temperature (35-55°C), time (1-5h) and solid-liquid ratio (1:5-1:25g/ml) over the extraction yield of polysaccharide from Gossypium arboreum L. seeds was investigated and optimized. Aqueous extraction method was opted for the extraction of polysaccharide. Central composite response surface design was utilized for developing the experimental design. A second order polynomial mathematical model was developed from the obtained results. From the results, Significance of process variables over the extraction process can be clearly depicted. At the extraction temperature of 45°C, extraction time of 3h and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15g/ml maximum yield of polysaccharide (8.67%) from Gossypium arboreum L. seed was obtained. Characteristics of the extracted polysaccharide are analyzed through physico-chemical property analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). PMID:26827756

  8. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  9. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Extraction Methods for the Recovery of Anguina sp. from Grass Seed Samples.

    PubMed

    Griesbach, J A; Chitambar, J J; Hamerlynck, M J; Duarte, E O

    1999-12-01

    Four procedures were compared in their efficacy to extract juveniles of Anguina agrostis from commercial grass seed. The procedures included those currently used by the state regulatory laboratories of Oregon and California, as well as new tests developed to determine juvenile viability for the phytosanitary certification of fumigated grass seed. Eleven seed lots of Agrostis tenuis (bentgrass) and Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass) naturally infested with varying levels of juveniles of Anguina were individually analyzed. Only one procedure, a new live recovery test, yielded nematodes in all 11 samples and is recommended as the best method for use by regulatory agencies. In comparison, although the other three extraction procedures resulted in greater numbers of Anguina agrostis juveniles per gram of seed, they failed to yield any nematodes in as many as four seed lots with low infection levels. PMID:19270928

  11. [Study on the extraction method and constituents of papaw seed oil].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Zhu, Ling; Ye, Man-hong

    2007-07-01

    The extraction method and the condition of supersonic extraction to papaw seed were studied. The result showed that supersonic extraction was a good method with less time and high extraction rate. And the orthogonal experiment proved that the best condition was that the papaw seed was extracted 3 time; the proportion of dissolvent and the seed was 1: 10, and the time for once was 20 min. The methyl esterification method and the condition of GC for the fatty acid of oil and its content: C15H31COOH (17.3%), C17 H35COOH (5.22%), C19H39COOH (1.12%), C17H33COOH (69.25%), C17H31COOH (4.31%), C18H35COOH (1.68%), C19H37 COOH (0.75%), C20H39COOH (0.33%). The content of unsatisfied fatty acid was 75.92%. PMID:17944201

  12. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  13. Transmission blocking activity of Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis extracts on the sporogonic development of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Targeting the stages of the malaria parasites responsible for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector is a key pharmacological strategy for malaria control. Research efforts to identify compounds that are active against these stages have significantly increased in recent years. However, at present, only two drugs are available, namely primaquine and artesunate, which reportedly act on late stage gametocytes. Methods In this study, we assessed the antiplasmodial effects of 5 extracts obtained from the neem tree Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis against the early vector stages of Plasmodium falciparum, using field isolates. In an ex vivo assay gametocytaemic blood was supplemented with the plant extracts and offered to Anopheles coluzzii females by membrane feeding. Transmission blocking activity was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence and density on the mosquito midguts. Results Initial screening of the 5 plant extracts at 250 ppm revealed transmission blocking activity in two neem preparations. Up to a concentration of 70 ppm the commercial extract NeemAzal® completely blocked transmission and at 60 ppm mosquitoes of 4 out of 5 replicate groups remained uninfected. Mosquitoes fed on the ethyl acetate phase of neem leaves at 250 ppm showed a reduction in oocyst prevalence of 59.0% (CI95 12.0 - 79.0; p < 10-4) and in oocyst density of 90.5% (CI95 86.0 - 93.5; p < 10-4 ), while the ethanol extract from the same plant part did not exhibit any activity. No evidence of transmission blocking activity was found using G. senegalensis ethyl acetate extract from stem galls. Conclusions The results of this study highlight the potential of antimalarial plants for the discovery of novel transmission blocking molecules, and open up the potential of developing standardized transmission blocking herbal formulations as malaria control tools to complement currently used antimalarial drugs and combination treatments. PMID:24735564

  14. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  15. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  16. Identification of COX inhibitors in the hexane extract of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

    2007-07-01

    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified. In the present study, COX inhibitors were isolated from the hexane extract of this seed by means of 4 steps of liquid chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The COX inhibitors in the extract of Japanese horse chestnut seeds were identified as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic acid. Their efficacies were in the following order: linolenic acid = linoleic acid > oleic acid. These active constituents are C18 unsaturated fatty acids; stearic acid, a C18 saturated fatty acid, had no activity. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid had high selectivity toward COX-2 (selectivity index = 10), whereas oleic acid had no selectivity. Considering the efficacy and yield of each fatty acid, linoleic acid may be the principal COX inhibitor in this seed. PMID:17675801

  17. Grape Seed Extract for Control of Human Enteric Viruses ?

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ?7 log10 PFU/ml or ?5 log10 PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (?7 log10 PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log10 PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log10 PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 37C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. GSE treatment of low titers (?5 log10 PFU/ml) at 37C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety. PMID:21498749

  18. Grape seed extract for foodborne virus reduction on produce.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-05-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have antibacterial properties with few current studies on antiviral activity. Recently, we reported the effects of GSE against foodborne viral surrogates in vitro. This study evaluated the application of GSE (commercial Gravinol-S) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1), on model produce. Washed and air-dried lettuce (3 × 3 cm(2)) and jalapeno peppers (25-30 g) were inoculated with FCV-F9, MNV-1, or HAV at high (∼7 log10 PFU/ml) or low (∼5 log10 PFU/ml) titers, and treated with 0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/ml GSE or water for 30 s to 5 min. Treatments were stopped/diluted with cell-culture media containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and evaluated using plaque assays. At high titers, FCV-F9 was reduced by 2.33, 2.58, and 2.71 log10 PFU on lettuce; and 2.20, 2.74, and 3.05 log10 PFU on peppers after 1 min using 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively. Low FCV-F9 titers could not be detected after 1 min at all three GSE concentrations. Low titer MNV-1 was reduced by 0.2-0.3 log10 PFU on lettuce and 0.8 log10 PFU on peppers, without reduction of high titer. GSE at 0.25-1 mg/ml after 1 min caused 0.7-1.1 and 1-1.3 log10 PFU reduction for high and low HAV titers, respectively on both commodities. Instrumental color analysis showed no significant differences between treated and untreated produce. GSE shows potential for foodborne viral reduction on produce as part of hurdle technologies. PMID:23498171

  19. Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-15

    Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 μmol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. PMID:25577085

  20. Inhibition of the mechanical activity of mouse ileum by cactus pear (Opuntia Ficus Indica, L, Mill.) fruit extract and its pigment indicaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Baldassano, S; Tesoriere, L; Rotondo, A; Serio, R; Livrea, M A; Mulè, F

    2010-07-14

    We investigated, using an organ bath technique, the effects of a hydrophilic extract from Opuntia ficus indica fruit pulp (cactus fruit extract, CFE) on the motility of mouse ileum, and researched the extract component(s) responsible for the observed responses. CFE (10-320 mg of fresh fruit pulp equivalents/mL of organ bath) reduced dose-dependently the spontaneous contractions. This effect was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, a neuronal blocker, N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase blocker, tetraethylammonium, a potassium channel blocker, or atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. CFE also reduced the contractions evoked by carbachol, without affecting the contractions evoked by high extracellular potassium. Indicaxanthin, but not ascorbic acid, assayed at concentrations comparable with their content in CFE, mimicked the CFE effects. The data show that CFE is able to exert direct antispasmodic effects on the intestinal motility. The CFE inhibitory effects do not involve potassium channels or voltage-dependent calcium channels but rather pathways of calcium intracellular release. The fruit pigment indicaxanthin appears to be the main component responsible for the CFE-induced effects. PMID:20518499

  1. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  2. Microwave assisted extraction of biodiesel feedstock from the seeds of invasive chinese tallow tree.

    PubMed

    Boldor, Dorin; Kanitkar, Akanksha; Terigar, Beatrice G; Leonardi, Claudia; Lima, Marybeth; Breitenbeck, Gary A

    2010-05-15

    Chinese tallow tree (TT) seeds are a rich source of lipids and have the potential to be a biodiesel feedstock, but currently, its invasive nature does not favor large scale cultivation. Being a nonfood material, they have many advantages over conventional crops that are used for biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal oil extraction parameters in a batch-type and laboratory scale continuous-flow microwave system to obtain maximum oil recovery from whole TT seeds using ethanol as the extracting solvent. For the batch system, extractions were carried out for different time-temperature combinations ranging from 60 to 120 degrees C for up to 20 min. The batch system was modified for continuous extractions, which were carried out at 50, 60, and 73 degrees C and maintained for various residence times of up to 20 min. Control runs were performed under similar extraction conditions and the results compared well, especially when accounting for extremely short extraction times (minutes vs hours). Maximum yields of 35.32% and 32.51% (by weight of dry mass) were obtained for the continuous and batch process, respectively. The major advantage of microwave assisted solvent extraction is the reduced time of extraction required to obtain total recoverable lipids, with corresponding reduction in energy consumption costs per unit of lipid extracted. This study indicates that microwave extraction using ethanol as a solvent can be used as a viable alternative to conventional lipid extraction techniques for TT seeds. PMID:20429594

  3. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    PubMed Central

    Kannur, Dayanand M.; Paranjpe, Mukta P.; Sonavane, Lalit V.; Dongre, Prerana P.; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students’ ‘t’ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

  4. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Kannur, Dayanand M; Paranjpe, Mukta P; Sonavane, Lalit V; Dongre, Prerana P; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students' 't' test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

  5. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, Kourt; Phippen, Spencer; McCabe, Jonathan; Teeters, Christopher A.; O'Malley, Susan; Kingsley, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression. PMID:18955355

  6. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM PIGMENTED FLOWERS AND BLACK SEED HULLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New methodology has been developed for the preparative scale extraction and purification of anthocyanins from "black" seed coats and hulls. A combination of physical fractionation, extraction, flash chromatography and preparative chromatography has resulted in the isolation of gram quantities of pu...

  7. An Extract of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue Seed Induces Vasoconstriction of Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ethanol extract of tall fescue seed was produced to further understand the interactions of toxic compounds that cause fescue toxicosis. We hypothesized that the combination of alkaloids present in the extract would have a greater vasoconstrictive response than individual alkaloids. The objective ...

  8. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

  9. In vivo immunomodulatory activities of the aqueous extract of bonduc nut Caesalpinia bonducella seeds.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; Mehta, Pradeep; Vyas, Suresh Prasad; Shivaprasad, Hebbani Nagarajappa

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo immunomodulatory activities of the aqueous extract of Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming (Caesalpiniaceae) seeds. C. bonducella is a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India. In the present investigation, the aqueous extract of C. bonducella seeds was tested for its effect on cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system in rats. Administration of C. bonducella seed extract produced an increase of 93.03 +/- 4 mean hemagglutinating antibody (HA) titer and a change of 0.56 +/- 0.058 mm in delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) as compared to control at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight. Thus, the results of this study indicate that C. bonducella extract could be a promising immunostimulatory agent. PMID:20645846

  10. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  11. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds.

    PubMed

    Zuk, M; Dymi?ska, L; Kulma, A; Boba, A; Prescha, A; Szopa, J; M?czka, M; Zaj?c, A; Szo?tysek, K; Hanuza, J

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis. PMID:21237701

  12. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory. PMID:21762099

  13. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  14. Comparative study on hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts of fenugreek seeds.

    PubMed

    Belguith-Hadriche, Olfa; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Jamoussi, Kamel; Simmonds, Monique S J; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Makni-Ayedi, Fatma

    2013-06-01

    The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloro-methane) of fenugreek seeds were investigated in cholesterol-fed rats. Only the ethyl acetate extract reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet (HCD). Furthermore, the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver, heart and kidney decreased significantly after oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The phenolic and flavonod contents were highest in the methanol and the ethyl acetate extracts. These results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of the fenugreek seeds had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect and antioxidant activity in cholesterol-fed rats, whether this is partly due to the presence of flavonods in the extract needs further study. PMID:23411266

  15. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. PMID:19854235

  16. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of azadirachtin from dried entire fruits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) and its determination by a validated HPLC-PDA method.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Joelma Abadia Marciano; Brito, Lucas Ferreira; Caetano, Karen Lorena Ferreira Neves; de Morais Rodrigues, Mariana Cristina; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2016-03-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss., also known as neem, is a Meliaceae family tree from India. It is globally known for the insecticidal properties of its limonoid tetranortriterpenoid derivatives, such as azadirachtin. This work aimed to optimize the azadirachtin ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and validate the HPLC-PDA analytical method for the measurement of this marker in neem dried fruit extracts. Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the UAE. Three independent variables, including ethanol concentration (%, w/w), temperature (°C), and material-to-solvent ratio (gmL(-1)), were studied. The azadirachtin content (µgmL(-1)), i.e., dependent variable, was quantified by the HPLC-PDA analytical method. Isocratic reversed-phase chromatography was performed using acetonitrile/water (40:60), a flow of 1.0mLmin(-1), detection at 214nm, and C18 column (250×4.6mm(2), 5µm). The primary validation parameters were determined according to ICH guidelines and Brazilian legislation. The results demonstrated that the optimal UAE condition was obtained with ethanol concentration range of 75-80% (w/w), temperature of 30°C, and material-to-solvent ratio of 0.55gmL(-1). The HPLC-PDA analytical method proved to be simple, selective, linear, precise, accurate and robust. The experimental values of azadirachtin content under optimal UAE conditions were in good agreement with the RSM predicted values and were superior to the azadirachtin content of percolated extract. Such findings suggest that UAE is a more efficient extractive process in addition to being simple, fast, and inexpensive. PMID:26717816

  17. Study of Caffein - Catechin Association in Lyophilized Fresh Seeds and in Stabilized Extract of Cola nitida.

    PubMed

    Maillard, C; Babadjamian, A; Balansard, G; Ollivier, B; Bamba, D

    1985-12-01

    Caffein-catechin association has been demonstrated in lyophilized fresh seeds and in stabilized extract of COLA NITIDA (Vent.) A. Chev. by using various analytical techniques which have made it possible to determine specifically the concentrations of free caffein versus associated caffein. Associated caffein varies from 0% in dried seeds to 91% in lyophilized fresh seeds and in stabilized extract of COLA. It was possible to simulate these quantitative variations of associated caffein by using an experimental model with a saturated aqueous solution of caffein and various amounts of catechin. Infrared spectrophotometric studies have shown the hydrogen bond type of the association. The differences of pharmacological effects of fresh and dried seeds may be due to the varying concentrations of associated and free caffein. PMID:17345274

  18. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Attar Singh; Negi, Pradeep Singh; Ramteke, Ramesh Shyam

    2007-12-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds aqueous extract was screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activities (reducing power, DPPH and liposome model system) showed a good antioxidant activity. The extract was also found to possess antibacterial activity with a MIC values with respect to Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica found to be 750 and 1000 ppm, respectively. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the extract implicate its potential for natural preservation. PMID:17651916

  19. Cytotoxic Effects of Alcoholic Extract of Dorema Glabrum Seed on Cancerous Cells Viability

    PubMed Central

    Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemieh, Hosein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study cytotoxic effects of the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed on viability of WEHI-164 cells, mouse Fibrosarcoma cell line and L929 normal cells were compared with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol (anticancer and apoptosis inducer drug).Methods: To find out the plant extract cytotoxic effects, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay, the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis were performed on cultured and treated cells.Results: According to the findings the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed can alter cells morphology and because of chromatin condensation and other changes they shrink and take a spherical shape, and lose their attachment too. So the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time and dose dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA.Conclusion: Our data well established the anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro, but the mechanism of its activities remained unknown. These results demonstrated that Dorema Glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment in clinical practices. PMID:24312867

  20. Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells.

    PubMed

    Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment. PMID:23956872

  1. Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment. PMID:23956872

  2. In vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Chist, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Gomes, Ana; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, Jos Lus Fontes da Costa; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2011-07-15

    Bixa orellana L. (annatto), from Bixaceae family, is a native plant of tropical America, which accumulates several carotenoids (including bixin and norbixin), terpenoids, tocotrienols and flavonoids with potential antioxidant activity. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated and compared to the bixin standard. Annatto extracts were obtained using solvents with different polarities and their phenolic compounds and bixin levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. All annatto extracts were able to scavenge all the reactive species tested at the low ?g/mL range, with the exception of superoxide radical. The ethanol:ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate extracts of annatto seeds, which presented the highest levels of hypolaetin and bixin, respectively, were the extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity, although bixin standard presented the lowest IC(50) values. PMID:23140681

  3. Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bicchi, Carlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Binello, Arianna; Tomao, Valerie; Chemat, Farid

    2011-06-01

    Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using classic Soxhlet as well as under power ultrasound (US), microwaves (MWs; closed vessel) and MW-integrated Soxhlet. Supercritical CO₂ was also employed and compared to the other techniques in term of yield, extraction time, fatty acid profiles and organoleptic properties. All these non-conventional techniques are fast, effective and safe. A sensory evaluation test showed the presence of off-flavours in oil samples extracted by Soxhlet and US, an indicator of partial degradation. PMID:21644177

  4. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H.; Asghari, G.; Farahnaki, F.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 μg/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 μg/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 μg/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  5. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Farahnaki, F

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 μg/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 μg/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 μg/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  6. Laboratory evaluation of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) wood chippings on Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Howard, Annabel F V; Adongo, Elizabeth A; Hassanali, Ahmed; Omlin, Francois X; Wanjoya, Anthony; Zhou, Guofa; Vulule, John

    2009-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss (the neem tree), a source of limonoid insect growth regulatory (IGRs), grows well in many places in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the potential of neem wood and bark chippings in malaria vector control by evaluating their aqueous extracts as a larvicide and growth disruptor of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Immature stages of the mosquito were tested using WHO guidelines. Fifty percent inhibition of adult emergence (IE50) of all larval instars was obtained with <0.4 g of neem chippings in 1 liter of distilled water. For pupae, significant mortality occurred at 5 g/liter. Inhibition of pupation was seen with some larvae staying as LIVs for 9 d before dying. In addition to growth retardation, reduced reaction by larvae to visual and mechanical stimuli observed at higher neem concentrations may make them more susceptible to natural predators. There were no significant differences in the sex ratio of emerged adults or wing length of females compared with the controls. High-performance liquid chromatography of aqueous extracts showed a series of constituents of varying polarity, including the limonoids nimbin and salannin, which were quantified. Azadirachtin was not detected and the observed activities are attributed to other constituents of the chippings. Such larvicides can be particularly effective where larval habitats are relatively large and readily identifiable. Aqueous extracts of neem wood chippings can be produced locally and their use has the potential to be a low-tech component of integrated malaria vector control schemes in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19198524

  7. Characterisation of Mediterranean grape pomace seed and skin extracts: polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:25642834

  8. Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.

    PubMed

    Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

    2007-01-01

    American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed. PMID:20411504

  9. Sunflower seed protein concentrates and isolates obtention from ethanol oil extraction meals--(technical note).

    PubMed

    Regitano-d'Arce, M A; Gutierrez, E M; Lima, U de A

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study and identify the necessary processing steps for obtaining good quality sunflower seed protein concentrate and isolate when the oil is extracted with ethanol. This work is part of a research project on using ethanol as renewable solvent for sunflower seed oil recovery and possible further processing of the meal. Both 99 degrees GL and 90 degrees GL ethanol were employed in the extractions to produce the concentrate. Isolates were obtained by treating the concentrate with NaOH and HCl solutions and final rinsing with acidified water. Both products were light in color and almost free from chlorogenic acid. PMID:7717804

  10. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Razali, Nurhanani; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Lim, Chor Yin

    2015-01-01

    The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p < 0.05) in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, “Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease” was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P < 2.80 × 10−6) followed by the superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 2.17 × 10−4), intrinsic prothrombin pathway (P < 2.92 × 10−4), Immune Protection/Antimicrobial Response (P < 2.28 × 10−3) and xenobiotic metabolism signaling (P < 2.41 × 10−3). The antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid peroxidation and ROS production, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly regulated the expression of genes and proteins involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response. PMID:26557426

  11. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. PMID:25525107

  12. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic petals extract of Rosa indica and characterization of its antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, Ramar; Manikandan, Beulaja; Raman, Thiagarajan; Arunagirinathan, Koodalingam; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu; Jothi Basu, Muthuramalingam; Perumal, Muthulakshmi; Palanisamy, Subramanian; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-03-01

    The present study was aimed at biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using ethanolic extract of rose (Rosa indica) petals and testing their potential antibacterial activity using selective human pathogenic microbes, anticancer activity using human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cell line HCT 15 as well as anti-inflammatory activity using rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The biologically synthesized AgNPs were also characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterized AgNPs showed an effective antibacterial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) than Gram positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria. MTT assay, analysis of nuclear morphology, mRNA expression of Bcl-2, Bax and protein expression of caspase 3 as well as 9, indicated potential anticancer activity. In addition, green synthesized AgNPs also attenuated cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and free radical generation (O2- and NO) by rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The results of our study show the potential green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in mitigating their toxicity while retaining their antibacterial activities.

  13. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic petals extract of Rosa indica and characterization of its antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Ramar; Manikandan, Beulaja; Raman, Thiagarajan; Arunagirinathan, Koodalingam; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu; Jothi Basu, Muthuramalingam; Perumal, Muthulakshmi; Palanisamy, Subramanian; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-03-01

    The present study was aimed at biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using ethanolic extract of rose (Rosa indica) petals and testing their potential antibacterial activity using selective human pathogenic microbes, anticancer activity using human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cell line HCT 15 as well as anti-inflammatory activity using rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The biologically synthesized AgNPs were also characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterized AgNPs showed an effective antibacterial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) than Gram positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria. MTT assay, analysis of nuclear morphology, mRNA expression of Bcl-2, Bax and protein expression of caspase 3 as well as 9, indicated potential anticancer activity. In addition, green synthesized AgNPs also attenuated cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and free radical generation (O2(-) and NO) by rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The results of our study show the potential green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in mitigating their toxicity while retaining their antibacterial activities. PMID:25481491

  14. Protective effects of grape seed extract against oxidative and nitrative damage of plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Michał; Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal Blazej; Saluk, Joanna; Nowak, Paweł

    2012-10-01

    Oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our in vitro study was to examine the antioxidative properties of grape seed extract, and its potential protective effect on the haemostatic function of human fibrinogen under oxidative stress conditions, induced by peroxynitrite (100 μM). The preincubation of plasma with the tested extract (0.5-50 μg/ml or 0.5-300 μg/ml) reduced the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and diminished oxidation of thiol groups in plasma proteins. The low concentrations (0.5-50 μg/ml) of grape seed extract also decreased the level of carbonyl groups, however at higher concentrations (100-300 μg/ml) this effect was not observed. Furthermore, grape seed extract counteracted the inhibitory effect of peroxynitrite on human plasma clotting. The results obtained in this study indicate that components of the grape seed extract posses antioxidative properties and may be promising substances for the creation of new dietary supplements. PMID:22584076

  15. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Oyeleye, Idowu S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v) and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and quinolinic acid (QA)) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 μg/mL) and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 μg/mL) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat's brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P < 0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications. PMID:25506036

  16. REGISTRATION OF FOUR INDICA RICE GENETIC STOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture released four indica rice genetic stocks (Oryza sativa L.), apoptosis, chives, extreme dwarf, and gold leaf, Reg. No. GS ___ to _____,and PI _______ to _______, respectively, in May, 2006. These specialized seed stocks are expected to...

  17. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

  18. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  19. Aqueous fenugreek seed extract ameliorates adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity and testicular alterations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; El-Shenawy, Salama M; Al-Shabka, Ahmed M

    2012-01-01

    The present work studied the effect of fenugreek seed extracts on cytotoxicity and testicular damage induced by adriamycin (ADR) in albino rats. Administrating animals with ADR caused significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index, and induced DNA damage in bone marrow. Testes of ADR-treated rats showed many histopathological alterations and the number of sperm head abnormalities increased. Moreover, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased and the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased in the testis. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous seed extracts of fenugreek led to an improvement in the cytogenetic effect and testicular alterations induced by ADR. Lipid peroxidation was reduced and the activities of CAT and SOD were increased. In conclusion, the results indicated that fenugreek seeds ameliorated the cytotoxicity and testicular alterations induced by ADR in albino rats and this may be mediated by its potent antioxidant effects. PMID:22051850

  20. Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Cristina; Saavedra, Jorge; Sáenz, Carmen; García, Paula; Robert, Paz

    2014-08-15

    Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 °C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods. PMID:24679777

  1. Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

  2. Nigella sativa (Black Cumin) Seed Extract Alleviates Symptoms of Allergic Diarrhea in Mice, Involving Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, Swantje C.; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa- (U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFNγ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy. PMID:22768141

  3. Grape Seed Extract to Improve Liver Function in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Change

    PubMed Central

    Khoshbaten, Manouchehr; Aliasgarzadeh, Akbar; Masnadi, Koorosh; Farhang, Sara; Tarzamani, Mohammad K.; Babaei, Hosain; Kiani, Javad; Zaare, Maryam; Najafipoor, Farzad

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Therapeutic interventions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are limited, while antioxidative materials have shown benefi ts in animal models. This study aimed to evaluate grape seed extract as an anti-oxidative material in this process. Therapeutic effects of grape seed extract were evaluated in comparison to vitamin C in a double-blind setting. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients were enrolled in each group. Liver function tests were done; also, grade of steatosis and pattern of echogenicity of the liver were determined. Patients were followed up by the same evaluation repeated in first, second and third months. Results: Mean age ± standard deviation was 43.2 ± 10.3 years. Grape seed extract (GSE) significantly improved the grade of fatty liver change; and resulted in significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase in patients receiving the concentrate compared to those receiving vitamin C independently, from the initial grade of steatosis. Conclusions: This study describes the beneficial effect of using grape seed extract for three months in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. These results may improve with a longer period of follow-up. PMID:20616415

  4. Dehulling of Cuphea PSR23 Seeds to Reduce Color of the Extracted Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil extracted from the seeds Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid hybrid from C. viscosissima x C. lanceolata, by screw-pressing contained 200-360 ppm of chlorophyll. A high amount of bleaching clay was needed during refining to remove the chlorophyll in the oil. In this paper, dehu...

  5. Grape seed extract prevents gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Salama, Osama M

    2006-09-01

    The protection conferred by grape seed extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and bone marrow chromosomal aberrations have been evaluated in adult Swiss albino mice. The activity of reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase), the levels of glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidneys homogenates, serum urea and creatinine were measured, and in addition the changes in kidney histology and bone marrow chromosomes were investigated. Gentamicin (80 mg/kg b.wt. intraperitoneally for 2 weeks) induced kidney damage as indicated from a pronounced changes in kidney histology, a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine and MDA content in the kidney homogenate. While the activity of the antioxidant enzyme GSH peroxidase and the level of GSH were significantly decreased. Gentamicin induced genotoxicity indicated by increased the number of aberrant cells and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations (fragment, deletion and ring chromosome) and showed no effect on mitotic activity of the cell. Pretreatment with grape seed extract (7 days) and simultaneously (14 days) with gentamicin significantly protected the kidney tissue by ameliorating its antioxidant activity. Moreover, grape seed extract significantly protected bone marrow chromosomes from gentamicin induced genotoxicity by reducing the total number of aberrant cells, and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations. It could be concluded that grape seed extract acts as a potent antioxidant prevented kidney damage and genotoxicity of bone marrow cells. PMID:16930296

  6. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>α-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

  7. Cytotoxic evaluation of Melia azedarach in comparison with, Azadirachta indica and its phytochemical investigation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages. Methods In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study. Results Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1). In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively) than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1). The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine. Conclusions The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows that flavonols are abundant in the leaves of M. azedarach and these compounds seem to be responsible for many of medicinal effects exploited in the traditional uses. PMID:23679992

  8. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on methanolic seeds' extract of Dolichos biflorus.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Sharif, Sadaf; Mehjabeen; Sharif, Hina; Jahan, Noor; Naqvi, Ghazala Raza

    2014-03-01

    The Dolichos biflorus is a well known medicinal plant in folklore for its medicinal properties. In herbal medicine the seeds of it are mainly used as tonic, astringent, diuretic, and are also recommended in asthma, bronchitis, urinary discharges, hiccoughs, ozoena, heart trouble and other diseases of brain. The main purpose of this study is to explore and to provide experimental data on the traditional use of plant Dolichos biflorus. For this purpose we investigated the plant seed extract phytochemically and pharmacologically. Phytochemical analysis was performed on extract and powder form of the drug. Procedure use for evaluation were Identification of chemical constituent by color reaction, Fluorescence analysis of powder drug, pH (in powder and extract forms), loss on drying, Thin layer chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy, acid and saponification values. In pharmacological studies (diuretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities) were tested on the extract of plant seed. The tests were carried out over albino mice taking different concentration of seed extract. Seeds extract of Dolichos biflorus has exhibited mild analgesic activity, the results were (84.6±6.68) at dose 300mg/kg and (92.2±6.81) at dose 500mg/kg which were not much significant as compared to reference drug Aspirin (300mg/kg) having result (36.4±2.27). While seed extract of Dolichos biflorus exhibited remarkable diuretic activity, the values at 300 mg/kg was (1.33±0.13) and at 500 mg/kg were (2.66±0.31) which are highly significant as compared to drug Lasix (20mg /kg) having result (2.38±0.23). Anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract of Dolichos biflorus obtained at 0.06mg/kg and 01mg/kg were (26.6±2.96) and (36±1.67) respectively. While the value for aspirin as standard drug (300mg/kg) were (17.44±1.59).This study provides a platform for further investigation for the isolation of active principles responsible for biological activity. PMID:24577923

  9. Antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Diospyros lotus seeds.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bigdellou, Rata; Mohammadzadeh, Sakineh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective effects of Diospyros lotus seeds extract in experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant potential of Diospvyos lotus seeds extract was examined by employing seven in vito models i.e., DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activity, iron ion chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation through linoleic acid. Antihemolytic activity of extract was examined against hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocytes hemolysis. Also, nephroprotective effect of extract against gentamicin (GM)-induced renal injury was evaluated. Renal injury was achieved by injecting 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) of GM in normal saline. Extracts were administrated i.p. in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood samples were examined for serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after 10 consecutive days of treatment. Results show that extract showed different level of antioxidant and antihemolytic activity in the studied models. Also, results show that GM-induced nephrotoxic animal model was successfully constructed. Extract attenuated the gentamicin-induced increase in level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The present study shows that the extract offered significant biological action compared with standard compound. PMID:22876611

  10. Influence of solvents on the composition of condensed tannins in grape pomace seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Antonella; Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio

    2016-09-15

    The extracting effectiveness of some solvents (water, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate), used as pure or in binary and ternary mixtures, was studied for the extraction of seeds from the fermented pomace of Nebbiolo cv. The aqueous mixtures of acetone provided the highest extraction yields in total polyphenols and total flavonoids. Polyphenolic extracts were also obtained with aqueous mixtures of ethanol or acetone at variable concentrations, and the condensed tannins were quantified with the phloroglucinolysis method. The aqueous mixtures of acetone were more effective than the corresponding aqueous mixtures of ethanol. The solvent influenced the extraction yield and the composition of the extracts: with the increase of the yield, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the condensed tannins increased. A significant correlation was noticed between mDP and the molar percentages of (+)-catechin as terminal unit (negative correlation), and of (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-3O-gallate as extension units (positive correlation). PMID:27080893

  11. Facile, eco-friendly and template free photosynthesis of cauliflower like ZnO nanoparticles using leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) and its biological evolution of antibacterial and antifungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2015-02-01

    In the present investigation, we chose the very simple and eco-friendly chemical method for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) (T. indica) and developed the new green route for synthesis of nanoparticles. Formed product has been studied by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and with corresponding energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Mainly, the present results depicted that the synthesized nanoproducts are moderately stable, hexagonal phase, roughly spherical with maximum particles in size range within 19-37 nm in diameter. The antibacterial and fungal activities of aqueous extracts of T. indica were ended with corresponding disk diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The highest mean zones of inhibition were observed in the ZnO NPs (200 μg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus (13.1 ± 0.28). Finally, it can be concluded that microbial activity of ZnO NPs has more susceptible S. aureus than the other micro organisms. Further, the present investigation suggests that ZnO NPs has the potential applications for various medical and industrial fields.

  12. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  13. Assessment of Pb and Cd in seed oils and meals and methodology of their extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hongliang; Peng, Liang; Chen, Zhipeng; Zeng, Qingru

    2016-04-15

    Oil seed, which is a secondary product in phytoremediation, contaminated with heavy metals should be disposed of in an appropriate fashion. In this study, heavy metal concentrations found in oilseed rape and peanut oils were below 0.1 mg kg(-1) after extractions, being found most of the heavy metals in meals rather in oils. Extraction experiments were carried out to determine the optimum methodology for the removal of Pb and Cd from seed meals using K3C6H5O7, K2C4H4O6 and (NH4)2EDTA. The highest extraction of the Pb and Cd in the seed meals was achieved using 30 mM extractant solutions at 30°C for 24 h and a three-step extraction procedure. K3C6H5O7 and K2C4H4O6 had less impact on the removal of nutrients than (NH4)2EDTA. PMID:26616978

  14. An enzymatic extraction of proanthocyanidins from Pas grape seeds and skins.

    PubMed

    Fernndez, Katherina; Vega, Marco; Asp, Estrella

    2015-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) from the skins and seeds of Pas grapes were obtained by enzymatic extraction by using three enzymes (pectinase, cellulase and tannase) and an enzymatic blend to increase the phenol concentrations and reduce the PA molecular size. The total phenol concentrations (as indicated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), galloylation percentage (%G) and structural proportion (phloroglucinolysis) were analysed, in addition to the extract's capacity to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On grape skins, pectinase had the greatest effective on the release of total phenols, to 0.01g/ml solid/liquid (S/L) and 1% enzyme/substrate (E/S). On grape seed, the three enzymes were effective in increasing the phenolic extraction (p<0.05). The effects of enzymes on the mDP and %G of the extracts were related to their enzymatic activity. All the extracts inhibited ACE, but ACE inhibition was thought to be improved by the increased number of terminal units in the seed samples. PMID:25172676

  15. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gözlekçi, Sadiye; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

    2011-04-01

    The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

  16. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cydonia oblong seed extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Faria; Ghafoor, Nida; Iqbal, Mudassir; Mehboob, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    The green synthesis of nanoparticles has emerged as a cost-effective and environmentally benign technique. The present study describes the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a seed extract of Cydonia oblonga. The conditions were optimized by adjusting pH, temperature, time and amount of seed extract. The nanoparticles produced were characterized by different techniques, namely UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of Ag-NPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic analysis. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the biomolecules, which played a key role in the reduction of Ag+ ions. XRD confirmed that the silver nanoparticles possessed face-centered cubic structure. The green chemistry approach has proven that Ag-NPs can be synthesized by using plant extract in which biomolecules effectively act as capping and reducing agent.

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  18. Anticoagulant effect of polyphenols-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Michał; Bobrowski, Mateusz; Borowiecka, Marta; Podsędek, Anna; Golański, Jacek; Nowak, Paweł

    2011-09-01

    Blood coagulation consists of a series of zymogens that can be converted by limited proteolysis to active enzymes leading to the generation of thrombin. Fresh plasma and human thrombin was incubated with extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5; 5; 50 μg/ml). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts prolonged clotting time and decreased the maximal velocity of fibrin polymerization in human plasma. Moreover thrombin incubation with both extracts results in the inhibition of amidolytic activity of this enzyme. It gives hopes for development of diet supplements, which may be preventing thrombosis in pathological states. PMID:21596108

  19. Antimicrobial, free radical scavenging activities and catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by nano-silver synthesized from the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L.: a promenade towards sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, C.; Sivasubramanian, G.; Parthasarathi, Bera; Baskaran, K.; Balachander, R.; Parameswaran, V. R.

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple route using the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L. (LAIL) which acted as a reducing as well as capping agent. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the synthesized silver particles have a face centred cubic structure. EDS predicted the presence of elemental silver. The SEM images showed the synthesis of spherically mono-dispersed particles, with nano dimensions accounted by the TEM images. Infra-red spectrum adopted to the different organic functionalities present at the surface of the particles. TGA indicated an overall 11 % weight loss up to 1000 °C, suggesting desorption of biomolecules from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of metallic silver nanoparticles. The prepared material was utilized as catalyst in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen as the oxidant in methanol, under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Also Ag-NPs showed good to moderate anti-microbial activity employing the Agar disc diffusion method against various strains using Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole as standard. Free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS in vitro assays. The work presented here demonstrates the adaptability of the synthesized Ag-NPs in participating as a disinfectant agent, free radical scavenger and an effective oxidation catalyst. The basic premise of attaining sustainability through the green synthesis of smart multifaceted materials has been consciously addressed.

  20. Preclinical Evaluation of the Supercritical Extract of Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Leaves In Vitro and In Vivo on Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiang; Kohli, Manish; Bergen, H. Robert; Cheville, John C.; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Cao, Hong; Young, Charles Y.F.; Tindall, Donald J.; McNiven, Mark A.; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin β1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2′,3′-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonim-bolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonim-bolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer. PMID:24674886

  1. Bioinspired reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using Terminalia chebula seeds extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Pamanji, Sreedhara Reddy

    2015-06-01

    A green one step facile synthesis of graphene nanosheets by Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) extract mediated reduction of graphite oxide (GO) is reported in this work. This method avoids the use of harmful toxic reducing agents. The comparative results of various characterizations of GO and T. chebula reduced graphene oxide (TCG) provide a strong indication of the exclusion of oxygen containing groups from graphene oxide and successive stabilization of the formed reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with the oxidized polyphenols causes their stability by preventing the aggregation. We also have proposed how the oxidized polyphenols are accountable for the stabilization of the formed graphene sheets.

  2. Acutely administered grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract acts as a satiating agent.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Gil-Cardoso, Katherine; Blay, M Teresa; Terra, Ximena; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna

    2016-01-20

    Grape-seed proanthocyanidins' role as stimulators of active GLP-1 in rats suggests that they could be effective as satiating agents. Wistar rats were used to study the effects of proanthocyanidins on food intake with different doses, administration times and proanthocyanidin extract compositions. A dose of 423 mg of phenolics per kg body weight (BW) of grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) was necessary to decrease the 12-hour cumulative food intake by 18.7 ± 3.4%. Proanthocyanidins were effective when delivered directly into the gastrointestinal tract one hour before, or simultaneously at the start of the feeding period. Proanthocyanidins without galloyl forms, such as those from cocoa extract, were not as effective as grape-seed derived forms. GSPE increased the portal levels of active GLP-1 and total ghrelin and decreased the CCK levels, simultaneously with a decrease in gastric emptying. In conclusion, grape-seed proanthocyanidins could be useful as a satiating agent under the conditions defined in this study. PMID:26514231

  3. New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate. PMID:24372268

  4. Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2010-04-01

    In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs. PMID:19904502

  5. In vitro antifungal activities of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) seed extract.

    PubMed

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Tongchusak, Songsak; Boonhok, Rachasak; Chaiyaroj, Sansanee C; Junyaprasert, Varaporn B; Buajeeb, Waranun; Akanimanee, Jaratluck; Raksasuk, Thida; Suddhasthira, Theeralaksna; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2012-04-01

    Longan, Dimocarpus longan Lour., contains polyphenolic compounds which exhibit several pharmacological properties. This study aims to evaluate antifungal activities of longan fruit extract in comparison to its active compounds. The results showed that longan seed exhibited antifungal activity against the opportunistic yeasts (Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans). In contrast, longan pulp and whole fruit did not demonstrate any inhibitory effects. Ellagic acid showed the most potent antifungal activity followed by corilagin and gallic acid, respectively. Ellagic acid inhibited Candida parapsilosis and C. neoformans more effectively than Candida krusei and also some Candida albicans clinical strains. Baidam cultivar possessed higher antifungal activity (MIC=500-4000 μg/ml) as it contained higher contents of ellagic acid and gallic acid than Edor (MIC=1000-8000 μg/ml). For antibacterial activity, only corilagin and gallic acid possessed weak to moderate inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans, respectively. Longan seed was then applied in the oral care products. Longan effervescent granule (5% extract) significantly reduced adhesion of C. albicans to acrylic strips. Mouthwash containing 0.5% extract exhibited good antifungal activity compared to a commercial product. These findings indicated that longan seed extract and its polyphenolic compounds can be used as an antifungal agent in oral care products for the treatment of opportunistic yeast infection. PMID:22245574

  6. Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-09-15

    Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp. PMID:25212152

  7. Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

  8. Protective effect of the n-butanol Toona sinensis seed extract on diabetic nephropathy rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Li, W Z; Wang, X H; Zhang, H X; Mao, S M; Zhao, C Z

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the protective effect of the n-butyl alcohol phase of Toona sinensis seed extract on the kidneys of diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats and its preliminary mechanism. Male wistar rats were administered a normal or high-fat diet for 1 month. DN rats were divided into a model group and a petroleum ether phase of T. sinensis seed extract intervention group. The intervention group was administered 5 mg·100 g-1·day-1 extract. After treatment for 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples and the renal cortex were collected. Biochemical indicators in the serum and renal indices were assessed. Pathological changes of the renal tissues were also determined. Changes in the renal structure and protein levels were detected. Compared with the normal group, the blood glucose, urinary albumin, renal index, and oxidative stress index were sharply increased in the model group. The protein levels of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were increased. Compared with the model group, the n-butyl alcohol phase of T. sinensis seed extract significantly reduced the blood glucose, urinary albumin, renal index, oxidative stress index, serum creatinine, and urea nitrogen levels. The renal pathology abnormality was improved in DN rats. The protein levels of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and CTGF were increased. The expression of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and CTGF decreased. In conclusion, the n-butyl alcohol phase of T. sinensis seed extract has protective effects on DN rats via the inhibition of oxidative stress and protein expression of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and CTGF. PMID:27050993

  9. A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract.

    PubMed

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Zancanaro, Flavio; Fazzin, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2008-08-01

    Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation. We report a case of intoxication following intentional ingestion of P. harmala seed infusion; P. harmala seeds were bought over the Internet. The harmala alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the seed extract and the patient's urine. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of P. harmala intoxication corroborated by toxicological findings. PMID:18603389

  10. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

  11. Hepatoprotective potential of extracts from seeds of Areca catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria.

    PubMed

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl(4). It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress-induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts. PMID:20032872

  12. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2009-01-01

    The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. PMID:19448924

  13. Reproductive toxicity of Momordica charantia ethanol seed extracts in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Ploypattarapinyo, Ravicha; Pongchairerk, Urai; Thong-asa, Wachiryah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Momordica charantia (M. charantia) seed has been supposed to have an antifertility property but mechanisms underlying the infertility effect have not been investigated. Objective: We investigated the antifertility effect of M. charantia ethanol seed extracts on reproductive toxicology and seminal and plasma testosterone in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The control group (I) was provided daily 1 ml dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the experimental groups II and III were given daily 400 and 800 mg dry matter/kg body weight of the extracts dissolved in 1 ml DMSO via the esophageal route. All groups were administered for 42 days (day 42). Changes in body weight, fertility, reproductive characteristics, testicular histopathology and levels of seminal and plasma testosterone among three groups were compared. Results: On day 42, the extracts caused antifertility (p=0.001). The extracts demonstrated significant reductions in diameters of seminiferous tubules and epididymides, spermatid density, daily sperm production and caudal epididymal spermatozoa, sperm motility and viability (p=0.046). Pathological changes in seminiferous tubules revealed atrophy, desquamation, pyknosis nucleus and multinucleated giant cell. Plasma cells were evident in three parts of epididymides of rats treated with high dose of the extract. Furthermore, the high dose of the extract suppressed seminal testosterone level (p=0.001) and plasma testosterone level (p=0.002). Conclusion: Our data showed that high dose of M. Charantia seed extracts caused infertility in male rats. The interruption in their fertility was probably attributed to the direct toxic to seminiferous tubules, epididymis and the lowered testosterone level which might impact on sperm parameters. PMID:25469128

  14. Antiurolithiatic activity of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extracts against zinc disc implantation-induced urolithiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Anil T.; Vyawahare, Niraj S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The commonly used techniques for removing renal calculi are associated with the risk of acute renal injury and increase in stone recurrence which indicates an urgent need for alternate therapy. Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the antiurolithiatic activity of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extracts in rats. Materials and Methods: Urolithiasis was induced by surgical implantations of zinc disc in the urinary bladders of rats. Upon postsurgical recovery, different doses of chloroform (CAM) and methanolic (MAM) extracts of A. moschatus seeds (viz., 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) were administered to disc implanted rats for the period of 7 days by the oral route. Antiurolithiatic activity was evaluated by measuring various dimensions of stones and estimating levels of various biomarkers in serum and urine samples. Results: A significant decrease in urinary output was observed in disc implanted animals, which was prevented by the treatment with extracts. Supplementation with extracts caused significant improvement in glomerular filtration rate and urinary total protein excretion. The elevated levels of serum creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen were also prevented by the extracts. The extracts significantly reduced deposition of calculi deposition around the implanted disc. This antiurolithiatic potential is observed at all doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of MAM, whereas only higher dose (400 mg/kg) of CAM showed significant antiurolithiatic potential. Conclusion: The extracts of A. moschatus seeds possessed significant antiurolithiatic activity. The possible mechanism underlying this effect is mediated collectively through diuretic, antioxidant, and free-radical scavenging effects of the plant. PMID:27057124

  15. The impact of seed extraction on the population dynamics of Pinus maximartinezii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Mata, Lauro

    2013-05-01

    Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 × 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (λ) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, λ decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on λ. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.

  16. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M.; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M.

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  17. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

  18. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.

    PubMed Central

    Parimala, Mabel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.

  19. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate. PMID:26976217

  20. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (2090 min), temperature (3545 C) and pressure (5090 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  1. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects Triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE) versus Epigallocatechin and Procyanidins on Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dinicola, Simona; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; DAnselmi, Fabrizio; Proietti, Sara; Lisi, Elisabetta; Pasqua, Gabriella; Antonacci, Donato; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects. PMID:22312277

  2. Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W.; Bost, G.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

  3. Quantification of the Polyisoprenylated Benzophenones Garcinol and Isogarcinol Using Multiple Reaction Monitoring LC/Electrospray Ionization-MS/MS Analysis of Ultrasound-Assisted Extracts of Garcinia indica Fruits.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Jaideep Bibishan; Vishwakarma, Ram Ashrey; Bharate, Sandip Bibishan; Kushwaha, Manoj; Gupta, Ajai Prakash

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a method that includes an optimized extraction process and identification and quantification of two anticancer compounds (garcinol and isogarcinol) by LC/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The study aimed to develop a fast, accurate, and sensitive method for the quantification of garcinol and isogarcinol in different extracts of Garcinia indica fruits. The compounds were detected using LC/ESI-MS/MS in the positive-ion mode and quantified in the MRM mode using a transition mass of m/z 603.3/411 taken as the quantifier and 603.3/343.2 as the qualifier for garcinol and isogarcinol. Five point calibration curves were linear in the range of 2 to 10 ng/mL for garcinol and 0.5 to 6 ng/mL for isogarcinol, with a correlation coefficient of ≥0.990 for both. LOQ for garcinol and isogarcinol was 0.06 and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively, while LOD was 0.021 and 0.017 ng/mL respectively. Our work demonstrated optimization of extraction procedure, fast and highly sensitive quantification (pg level LOQ), and validation of the developed method for the investigated compounds in fruit extracts of G. indica. PMID:25902981

  4. Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions. PMID:23743034

  5. Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kishalay; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-10-01

    It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae) using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC(50) value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC(50) value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC(50) value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC(50) value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract). Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22247894

  6. Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Kishalay; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae) using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC50 value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC50 value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC50 value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC50 value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract). Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22247894

  7. Inhibitory effects of guarana seed extract on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Jippo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yuko; Sato, Harumi; Hattori, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Shigekawa, Munekazu

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of guarana seed extract (GSE) on an anti-allergic mechanism. GSE orally administered inhibited the anti-dinitrophenol IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. Furthermore, it inhibited the degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. It had no cytotoxicity on RBL-2H3 cells. These results show that GSE is a candidate for effective therapeutic material for allergic diseases. PMID:19734657

  8. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martnio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Ngila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vnia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 ? g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 ? g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 g/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  9. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  10. Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Ignea, Codruţa; Dorobanţu, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

    2013-12-15

    Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains Δcta1, Δgsh1 and Δoye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in Δsod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. PMID:23993573

  11. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Harshal A.; Lalitha, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. PMID:26640490

  12. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Harshal A; Lalitha, K G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. PMID:26640490

  13. Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

  14. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Foriş, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as μEq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co γ-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 μEq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with γ-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 μEq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 μEq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  15. Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections. PMID:23569812

  16. Chemical analysis and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant property of a glucan isolated from an alkaline extract of a somatic hybrid mushroom of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica variety APK2.

    PubMed

    Maity, Kousik; Kar Mandal, Eshita; Maity, Saikat; Gantait, Sanjoy K; Das, Debsankar; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2011-11-01

    A water-soluble glucan isolated from an alkaline extract of fruit bodies of a somatic hybrid mushroom PCH9FB of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica var. APK2 strains showed antioxidant properties with immune activation of macrophage, splenocyte, and thymocyte. On the basis of acid hydrolysis, methylation, periodate oxidation and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC) the structure of the repeating unit of the glucan was established as: [structure: see text]. PMID:21703299

  17. Structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant property of a novel polysaccharide isolated from the aqueous extract of a somatic hybrid mushroom of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica variety APK2.

    PubMed

    Maity, Kousik; Kar Mandal, Eshita; Maity, Saikat; Gantait, Sanjoy K; Das, Debsankar; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2011-03-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from the aqueous extract of the fruit bodies of somatic hybrid PCH9FB, obtained through intergeneric protoplast fusion between the strains Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica var. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, the polysaccharide was found to contain galactose, fucose, and glucose in a molar ratio of nearly 2:1:2. Methylation analysis and NMR experiments ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC) showed that the structure of the repeating unit present in the polysaccharide was This molecule showed macrophage, splenocyte, thymocyte activation as well as antioxidant property. PMID:21145916

  18. LiDAR Segmentation using Suitable Seed Points for 3D Building Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, S. M.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

    2014-08-01

    Effective building detection and roof reconstruction has an influential demand over the remote sensing research community. In this paper, we present a new automatic LiDAR point cloud segmentation method using suitable seed points for building detection and roof plane extraction. Firstly, the LiDAR point cloud is separated into "ground" and "non-ground" points based on the analysis of DEM with a height threshold. Each of the non-ground point is marked as coplanar or non-coplanar based on a coplanarity analysis. Commencing from the maximum LiDAR point height towards the minimum, all the LiDAR points on each height level are extracted and separated into several groups based on 2D distance. From each group, lines are extracted and a coplanar point which is the nearest to the midpoint of each line is considered as a seed point. This seed point and its neighbouring points are utilised to generate the plane equation. The plane is grown in a region growing fashion until no new points can be added. A robust rule-based tree removal method is applied subsequently to remove planar segments on trees. Four different rules are applied in this method. Finally, the boundary of each object is extracted from the segmented LiDAR point cloud. The method is evaluated with six different data sets consisting hilly and densely vegetated areas. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method offers a high building detection and roof plane extraction rates while compared to a recently proposed method.

  19. Evaluation of antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dushyant Kumar; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Surendra; Joshi, Vivek; Mandal, Ravi Shankar Kumar; Prakash, A. G. Bhanu; Singh, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Family - Apocynaceae) seeds against induced diarrhea in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The extract was evaluated for castor oil and Escherichia coli induced diarrhea. Extract was given at 100, 200, 400 mg/kg body wt. orally in both protocols. Standard antidiarrheal Loperamide was used at 5 mg/kg body wt. orally in castor oil induced protocol, while standard antibiotic Gentamicin at 8 mg/kg body wt. intraperitoneally was used in E. coli induced diarrhea. In castor oil induced protocol, the percentage inhibition of defecation was calculated for each group, whereas in E. coli induced protocol, change in fecal consistency, and body weight was recorded for each individual rat for 3 days. Results: The severity of castor oil induced diarrhea was reduced significantly (p<0.05) with H. antidysenterica seeds extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. which showed equivalent effectiveness like that of Loperamide treated groups. Similarly in E. coli induced diarrhea protocol, the mean change in body weight was significantly (p<0.05) higher in positive control, whereas no significant variation was observed in negative control, Gentamicin treated and H. antidysenterica treated group at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body wt., respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that ethanolic extract of H. antidysenterica seeds effectively controlled diarrhea and decreased the severity of clinical signs of castor oil and E. coli induced diarrhea in Wistar rats. PMID:27047049

  20. The Topical Effect of Grape Seed Extract 2% Cream on Surgery Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati, Ali Asghar; foroozan, Maryam; Houshmand, Gholamreza; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Maram, Nader Shakiba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reducing the wound healing time is crucial in wound as it lowers the chance of infection and decreases complications and cost. Grape seed extract has the ability to release endothelial growth factor and its topical application results in contraction and closure of the skin wound. Furthermore, it possesses antioxidant and antibacterial properties. In several studies it has been proved effective in animals. Therefore, due to low side effects and recognition of herbal medicine, we decided to evaluate the effect of grape seed extract 2% herbal cream on human skin lesions. Materials: This study is a double blind clinical trial conducted on two groups of treatment and placebo. Surgery was performed on skin lesions such as skin tags and moles which were found on the neck, trunk and limbs (except for face). After enrollment and obtaining informed consent from participants, they were randomized into two groups of treatment and placebo. Excision of the lesions was done by surgical scissors. The lesions got restored by secondary intention method. After the first day of treatment, the patients were visited on the 3rd, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 21st day. Grape seed extract cream 2% was produced and coded by the Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences. In order to compare the two groups, T-test was used. For time assessing, analysis of variance with repeated measures was employed. Results: The results showed complete repair of wounds averagely on day 8 for the treatment group and on day 14 for the placebo group, which was clearly significant in terms of statistical difference (p=0.00). Conclusion: Proanthocyanidins in grape seed extract trigger the release of vascular endothelial growth factor and its topical application causes wound contraction and closure. Curing skin lesions with grape seed extract caused proliferation areas with protected boundaries in epithelium, increased cell density and increased deposition of connective tissue at the wound site which in general improves cellular structure in wound. In addition, its anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties are effective in wound healing. PMID:25948437

  1. The safety and efficacy of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream for reduction of human cheek skin sebum and erythema content.

    PubMed

    Ali, Atif; Akhtar, Naveed

    2015-07-01

    Escalated sebum fabrication is seen with an unattractive look and adds to the growth of acne. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream on human cheek skin sebum and erythema content. For this purpose, base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract and base (control) were prepared for single blinded and comparative study. Healthy males were instructed to apply the base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract and base twice a day to their cheeks for 12 weeks. Adverse events were observed to determine skin irritation. Measurements for sebum and erythema content were recorded at baseline, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th week in a control room with Sebumeter and Mexameter. Base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract was found to be safe in volunteers. Measurements demonstrated that skin sebum and erythema content of base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract treated side showed significant decrease (p<0.05) compared with base treated side. Base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract showed safety. It was well tolerated for the reduction of skin sebum and erythema content. Its improved efficacy could be suggested for treatment of acne vulgaris, seborrhea, papules and pustules to get attractive facial appearance. PMID:26142529

  2. Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment. PMID:14994812

  3. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  4. In vitro antilisterial properties of crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.

    PubMed

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  5. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    PubMed Central

    Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Belkacem, Nacera; Kadiata, Marcel; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2 000 µg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 µg/mL as compared to 1.1 µg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant. PMID:23570014

  6. Antifungal potential of Spilanthes calva after inoculation of Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Rai, M K; Varma, A; Pandey, A K

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the influence of Piriformospora indica on the antifungal principle of Spilanthes calva, a plant of high commercial value. An antifungal efficacy was shown by aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of S. calva against Fusarium oxysporum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The petroleum ether extract of S. calva was more effective than the aqueous extract in inoculated as well as uninoculated plants. The antifungal activity of the plant was enhanced due to the increase in spilanthol content after inoculation of P. indica. PMID:15601453

  7. Proteomic identification of Syzygium cumini seed extracts by MALDI-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Binita, Kumari; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Veena; Yadav, Savita

    2014-02-01

    Syzygium cumini is traditionally used medicinal plant. The different part of the plant such as bark, leaves, seed and fruits are widely used as an alternative medicine in various diseases. Although the scientific community has a strong interest on S. cumini seed biochemistry focusing on metabolite composition, proteins have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we have applied a proteomic approach to study the proteome of the S. cumini seed using phenol extraction method for protein isolation, which were never analysed before. Fifteen brightly silver stained protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry after resolving on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These proteins have been found to involve in various functions such as antifungal, sulphur metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, fruit ripening and softening, dormancy breaking and seed germination, hormone signalling, secondary metabolite transport, defence and stress response, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis and stabilization. Amongst the identified protein, lactoferrin was a mammalian origin protein with high nutritious and pharmaceutical value, which was purified by different types of chromatographic techniques and confirmed by western blotting. The antibacterial activity of lactoferrin was assessed by disc diffusion assay. We suggest that the protein constituents of S. cumini may have role in various functions required for plant physiology and its dietary values. PMID:24338207

  8. Protective effects of Urtica dioica seed extract in aflatoxicosis: histopathological and biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Uyar, A; Yener, Z; Dogan, A

    2016-04-01

    The ameliorative potential and antioxidant capacity of an extract of Urtica dioica seeds (UDS) was investigated using histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) content in various tissues of broilers exposed to aflatoxin (AF). A total of 32 broilers were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, UDS extract-treated, AF-treated and AF+UDS extract-treated. Broilers in control and UDS extract-treated groups were fed on a diet without AF. The AF-treated group and AF+UDS extract-treated groups were treated with an estimated 1 mg total AF/kg feed. The AF+UDS extract groups received in addition 30 ml UDS extract/kg diet for 21 d. The AF-treated group had significantly decreased body weight gain when compared to the other groups. Biochemical analysis showed a small increase in the concentrations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the AF-treated group compared to that of the control group, whereas concentrations of these enzymes were decreased in the AF+UDS group compared to that of the AF-treated group. Administration of supplementary UDS extract helped restore the AF-induced increase in MDA and reduced the antioxidant system towards normality, particularly in the liver, brain, kidney and heart. Hepatorenal protection by UDS extracts was further supported by the almost normal histology in AF+UDS extract-treated group as compared to the degenerative changes in the AF-treated broilers. It was concluded that UDS extract has a protective hepatorenal effect in broilers affected by aflatoxicosis, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defence systems. PMID:26947348

  9. Fast microwave-assisted extraction of rotenone for its quantification in seeds of yam bean (Pachyrhizus sp.).

    PubMed

    Lautié, Emmanuelle; Rasse, Catherine; Rozet, Eric; Mourgues, Claire; Vanhelleputte, Jean-Paul; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find if fast microwave-assisted extraction could be an alternative to the conventional Soxhlet extraction for the quantification of rotenone in yam bean seeds by SPE and HPLC-UV. For this purpose, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal conditions of the microwave extraction. Then the values of the quantification on three accessions from two different species of yam bean seeds were compared using the two different kinds of extraction. A microwave extraction of 11 min at 55°C using methanol/dichloromethane (50:50) allowed rotenone extraction either equivalently or more efficiently than the 8-h-Soxhlet extraction method and was less sensitive to moisture content. The selectivity, precision, trueness, accuracy, and limit of quantification of the method with microwave extraction were also demonstrated. PMID:23341347

  10. Insulinotropic action of Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts in rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Hupkens, Emeline; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the direct in vitro effects of several distinct Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts on glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets isolated from rats. Six extracts were tested, a crude aqueous, defatted aqueous, ethyl acetate, H2O-methanol and n-butanol extract and an extract containing a major component (fraction A) identified by gel chromatography in the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H2O-methanol extracts. Under selected experimental conditions, the majority of extracts exhibited a positive insulinotropic action, at least when tested in the presence of 8.3 mM D-glucose. The concentration-response correlation observed with distinct extracts revealed the participation of distinct chemical compounds, including compounds with an inhibitory insulinotropic potential, in the modulation of the insulin secretory response to D-glucose. The results of the present study are relevant for further investigations which aim to identify compounds exhibiting positive insulinotropic actions. These agents may be suitable for the treatment of human diabetic subjects. PMID:23128986

  11. The effect of black seed (Nigella sativa) extract on FOXO3 expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Naem, Emad; Arnold, Alexis; Rohrbaugh, Nathcelly; Flowers, Megan; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2014-06-01

    Black seed extracts are known to alter cellular metabolism through multiple signaling pathways. Since Forkhead box transcription factor 3 (FOXO3) has a significant role in regulating cellular metabolism, the effect of lipid extracts of black seed (Sativa nigella) on FOXO3 levels and AKT and 5-AMP activated protein kinase ? (AMPK?) signaling was measured in HepG2 hepatoma cells. FOXO3 levels, phosphorylation, and nuclear exclusion were measured by Western blot, as were AKT and AMPK expression and activity using phosphorylation-specific antibodies. Apolipoprotein A-I expression, a black seed-responsive gene, was measured by Western blot. Treatment with black seed extract increased FOXO3 phosphorylation and decreased its expression. In contrast to control cells where FOXO3 was located primarily in the nucleus, in black seed-treated HepG2 cells, FOXO3 was localized primarily to the cytoplasm. These changes in FOXO3 phosphorylation, expression, and localization were accompanied by increased AKT activity. Black seed also decreased AMPK? activity but increased AMPK? expression. Lipid extracts from black seeds inhibit FOXO3 activity and thereby modulate the expression of FOXO3-dependent genes. PMID:24123556

  12. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. PMID:27120053

  13. Antioxidant extraction from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal using high-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dubie, Jeremiah; Stancik, Aaron; Morra, Matthew; Nindo, Caleb

    2013-04-01

    Brassicaceae oilseeds provide feedstocks for the biofuels industry, but value-added coproducts are necessary to supply financial incentives for increased production. Our objective was to use high-intensity ultrasound to optimize extraction of antioxidants from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables included temperature, solvent-to-material ratio, sonication duration, and EtOH concentration. Extracts were analyzed for total phenolics content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and sinapine content. Conventional extraction using water and 70% EtOH (v/v) at 80 °C for 3×30 min yielded 7.83 ± 0.07 and 8.81 ± 0.17 mg sinapic acid equivalents (SAE)/g meal, respectively. UAE extraction at 40 °C for 30 min yielded similar phenolics content (8.85 ± 0.33 mg SAE/g meal) as conventional hot ethanolic extraction, but required less time and lower temperature. The highest TPC (13.79 ± 0.38 mg SAE/g meal) was in the 7-d aqueous extracts. Sonicated solutions of pure sinapine and sinapic acid showed 1st-order reaction kinetics with greater degradation of isolated compounds than those present in extracts. Sinapine contained in extracts showed insignificant (P < 0.05) degradation after 30 min of sonication. Our research indicates that ultrasound treatment can assist the extraction of antioxidants from B. juncea meal by reducing both the temperature and time requirement without significant degradation of the primary antioxidants present. PMID:23488824

  14. Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (ω3) and omega-6 (ω6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ω3 (linolenic acid) and ω6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and α-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. PMID:24909999

  15. [Survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-02-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products. PMID:18344660

  16. Extraction and purification of human interleukin-10 from transgenic rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Yang, Lijun; Takaiwa, Fumio; Kosaka, Akemi; Tsuji, Noriko M; Shiraki, Kentaro; Sekikawa, Kenji

    2010-07-01

    Recombinant protein production system using transgenic rice grain offers many advantages in higher accumulation, preservation, lower production cost, ease of scale up and low risk of contamination by toxic materials. We developed a transgenic rice strain whose seeds accumulate human interleukin (IL)-10, a cytokine that suppresses inflammation-related immune responses. We also developed a method of extracting and purifying IL-10 from rice seeds. A biochemical crosslinking method was used to detect the biologically active noncovalent dimer of IL-10. This method was useful for developing efficient methods of refolding and purification. The purified IL-10 comprised only noncovalent dimers and showed higher activity than the commercial IL-10. The purified IL-10 had very low endotoxin contamination and is expected to have broad clinical application. PMID:20159041

  17. Antioxidant effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract on deep fried oil quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Solati, Zeinab; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2015-06-01

    Effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NE) on frying performance of sunflower oil and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein was investigated at concentrations of 1.2 % and 1.0 % respectively. Two frying systems containing 0 % N. sativa L. extract (Control) and 0.02 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used for comparison. Physicochemical properties such as fatty acid composition (FAC), Peroxide Value (PV), Anisidine Value (AV), Totox Value (TV), Total Polar Content (TPC), C18:2/C16:0 ratio and viscosity of frying oils were determined during five consecutive days of frying. Results have shown that N. sativa L. extract was able to improve the oxidative stability of both frying oils during the frying process compared to control. The stabilizing effect of antioxidants were in the order of BHT > NE. RBD palm olein was found to be more stable than sunflower oil based on the ratio of linoleic acid (C18:2) to palmitic acid (C16:0) and fatty acid composition. PMID:26028729

  18. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  19. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  20. In vitro, in situ and in vivo studies on the anticandidal activity of Cassia fistula seed extract.

    PubMed

    Jothy, Subramanion L; Zakariah, Zuraini; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Cassia fistula seeds have many therapeutic uses in traditional medicine practice. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the anticandidal activity of the C. fistula seed extract at ultra-structural level through transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The effect of seed extract on the growth profile of the Candida albicans was examined via time-kill assays and in vivo efficacy of the extract was tested in an animal model. In addition, the anticandidal effect of seed extract was further evaluated by microscopic observations using SEM and TEM to determine any major alterations in the ultrastructure of C. albicans. The complete inhibition of C. albicans growth was shown by C. fistula seed extract at 6.25 mg/mL concentration. The time-kill assay suggested that C. fistula seed extract had completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans and also exhibited prolonged anti-yeast activity. The SEM and TEM observations carried out to distinguish the metamorphosis in the morphology of control and C. fistula seed extract-treated C. albicans cells revealed the notable effect on the outer cell wall and cytoplasmic content of the C. albicans and complete collapse of yeast cell exposed to seed extract at concentration 6.25 mg/mL at 36 h. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 6-fold decrease in C. albicans in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g/kg body weight). The results suggested that the C. fistula seed extract possessed good anticandidal activity and is a potential candidate for the development of anticandidal agents. PMID:22678414

  1. Optimized H - extraction in an argon-magnesium seeded magnetized sheet plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguera, Virginia R.; Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2008-06-01

    The enhancement and optimization of H- extraction through argon and magnesium seeding of hydrogen discharges in a magnetized sheet plasma source are reported. The paper first presents the modification of the production chamber into a hexapole multicusp configuration resulting in decreased power requirements, improved plasma confinement and longer filament lifetime. By this, a wider choice of discharge currents for sustained quiescent plasmas is made possible. Second, the method of adding argon to the hydrogen plasma similar to the scheme in Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689] was performed to find the optimum conditions for H- formation and extraction. Using an E × B probe, H- yields were investigated at varied argon-hydrogen admixtures, different discharge currents and spatial points relative to the core plasma. The optimum H- current density extracted at 3.0 cm from the plasma core using 3.0 A plasma current with 10% argon seeding increased by a factor of 2.42 (0.63 A/m2) compared to the measurement of Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689]. Third, the argon-hydrogen plasma at the extraction chamber is seeded with magnesium. Mg disk with an effective area of 22 cm2 is placed at the extraction region's anode biased 175 V with respect to the cathode. With Mg seeding, the optimum H- current density at the same site and discharge conditions increased by 4.9 times (3.09 A/m2). The enhancement effects were analyzed vis-à-vis information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe (electron temperature and density), electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and the ensuing dissociative attachment (DA) reaction rates at different spatial points for various plasma discharges and gas ratios. Investigations on the changes in the effective electron temperature and electron density indicate that the enhancement is due to increased density of low-energy electrons in the volume, conducive for DA reactions. With Mg, the density of electrons with electron temperature of about 3 eV increased 3 orders of magnitude from 2.76 × 1012 m-3 to 2.90 × 1015m-3.

  2. Influence of chemical extraction conditions on the physicochemical and functional properties of polysaccharide gum from durian (Durio zibethinus) seed.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Hamed; Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee

    2012-01-01

    Durian seed is an agricultural biomass waste of durian fruit. It can be a natural plant source of non-starch polysaccharide gum with potential functional properties. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of chemical extraction variables (i.e., the decolouring time, soaking temperature and soaking time) on the physicochemical properties of durian seed gum. The physicochemical and functional properties of chemically-extracted durian seed gum were assessed by determining the particle size and distribution, solubility and the water- and oil-holding capacity (WHC and OHC). The present work revealed that the soaking time should be considered as the most critical extraction variable affecting the physicochemical properties of crude durian seed gum. PMID:22643356

  3. Longan seed extract reduces hyperuricemia via modulating urate transporters and suppressing xanthine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chien-Wei; Lee, Ying-Chung; Hung, Hsiao-Fang; Fu, Hua-Wen; Jeng, Kee-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Hyperuricemia causes gouty arthritis, kidney disease, heart disease, and other diseases. Xanthine oxidase (XOD) and urate transporters play important roles in urate homeostasis. Numerous plants have been identified as XOD inhibitors. Longan seeds are known to contain high levels of polyphenols such as corilagin, gallic acid and ellagic acid. We examined the effect of longan seed extract on XOD inhibition and urate transporters GLUT1 and GLUT9 using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The results showed that dried longan seed extract (LSE) and its active components inhibited XOD dose-dependently in vitro. LSE inhibited uric acid production and XOD activity in normal liver cells (clone-9 cells) and was not cytotoxic under the concentration of 200 μg/ml. For the in vivo study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given intraperitoneally for thirty minutes with or without allopurinol (a XOD inhibitor, 3.5 mg/kg) or LSE (80 mg/kg) and then injected intraperitioneally with 250 mg/kg of oxonic acid and 300 mg/kg of hypoxanthine intragastrically. LSE was able to reduce serum uric acid level and XOD activity in hyperuricemic rats. However, LSE or allopurinol did not inhibit the liver XOD activities. On the other hand, GLUT1 protein was suppressed in kidney and GLUT9 was induced in liver from experimental rats and LSE or allopurinol decreased GLUT9 but increased GLUT1 protein level in the liver and kidney, respectively. These results confirmed the claimed effect of longan seeds on gout and other complications and suggested that its urate reducing effect might be due to modulation of urate transporters and inhibition of circulating xanthine oxidase. PMID:22928829

  4. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95% at 50C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ?H and ?S were positive and ?G was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ?H, ?S and ?G values were 0.26-7.87kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2J/molK and 1.62-4.42kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:26243945

  5. Mathematical modeling of sunflower seed extraction by supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Perrut, M.; Clavier, J.Y.; Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E.

    1997-02-01

    Extraction of oil from crushed sunflower seeds with supercritical CO{sub 2} was performed at 280 bar and 40 C on a laboratory apparatus of 0.15 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} volume and on a pilot plant of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} volume. CO{sub 2} flow rate ranged between 5 and 45 kg/h. To study the influence of the vegetable matrix on the extraction rate, a re-extraction experiment on the extraction product was also performed on the pilot scale apparatus. A mathematical model of the supercritical extraction process was developed on the basis of the experimental evidence. The equilibrium between the solids and the fluid phase appeared to be the controlling step during the extraction process. A simplified form of a sigmoidal-shaped equilibrium curve was adopted to fit the experimental data in the whole range of CO{sub 2} flow rates explored. The meaning of this nonlinear equilibrium relationship was also discussed.

  6. Safety evaluation of longan seed extract: acute and repeated oral administration.

    PubMed

    Worasuttayangkurn, Luksamee; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suntararuks, Sumitra; Khamkong, Pattaya; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2012-11-01

    Longan seed extract (LSE) contains high levels of beneficial polyphenolic compounds. The present study evaluated acute and repeated dose (4 and 13 weeks) toxicological effects of aqueous extract of longan seed to ensure the safety of utilization of this extract. Our study revealed that all treated animals survived through the whole experimental periods without adverse effects observed in either sex of animals after acute and repeated dose (4 and 13 weeks) oral administration of LSE. Likewise, growth pattern (body weights, food consumption, and relative organ weights), hematology analysis, and clinical biochemistry analysis in all LSE-treated animals were in normal physiological ranges. Moreover, histopathological finding of LSE-treated animals in repeated dose studies demonstrated no obvious alterations. Although the significant increment in food consumption of female rats (100 mg/kg, Week 4) and % eosinophil of male rats (400 mg/kg), and decrement in food consumption of male rats (250 mg/kg, Week 3 and 9) were observed, these alterations were not dose- and time-response relationships. Therefore, we concluded that acute and repeated dose (4 and 13 weeks) oral administration of LSE has no significant toxicological effects;hence it may be safe to use with caution pending its chronic toxicity study and/or clinical trial. PMID:22902805

  7. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    PubMed

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) breed effect on body weight and gain, shank length, thigh length, body width and body length. The growth traits of Anak breed were found to be superior to NHLE chickens. Within treatments, chicks on T1, T2 and T3, grew heavier than those on T4 and T5. However, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and haematological indices (RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC count) were not significant (P > 0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens. PMID:25939914

  8. In Vitro Remineralization Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Artificial Root Caries

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D.

    2008-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) contains Proanthocyanidin (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 hr at 37°C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester; polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher’s tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of Fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy. PMID:18819742

  9. In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Daucus carota seeds in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Singh, Nisha; Chandy, Anish; Manigauha, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the In vivo antioxidFant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Daucus carota (D. carota) seeds in experimental animals. Methods Methanolic extracts of D. carota seeds is used for hepatoprotection assessment. Oxidative stress were induced in rats by thioacetamide 100 mg/kg s.c, in four groups of rats (two test, standard and toxic control). Two test groups received D. carota seeds extract (DCSE) at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Standard group received silymarin (25 mg/kg) and toxic control received only thioacetamide. Control group received only vehicle. On the 8th day animals were sacrificed and liver enzyme like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in blood serum and antioxidant enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated in liver homogenate. Results A significant decrease in SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels was observed in all drug treated groups as compared to thioacetamide group (P < 0.001) and in case of antioxidant enzyme a significant (P < 0.001) increase in SOD, CAT, GRD, GPX and GST was observed in all drug treated groups as compared with thioacetamide group. But in case of LPO a significant (P < 0.001) reduction was observed as compared to toxic control group. Conclusions DCSE has contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and the protection of liver in experimental rats. PMID:23569935

  10. Antimicrobial activities of various fractions of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Fen Ke) seed extract.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Huang-Chung; Wu, Wan-Ting; Huang, Ho-Shin; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2014-08-01

    The antimicrobial activities of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Fen ke) seed extracts were investigated using a disc diffusion method and also determining the minimal inhibitory concentration. The DL-P01-SI01 fraction showed that the strongest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus at MIC 64 μg/mL, which was found to be due to the phenolic compounds. The HPLC analysis showed that the major phenolic compounds are gallic acid, corilagin, ethyl gallate and ellagic acid. PMID:24533783

  11. Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael

    2014-01-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. PMID:24789599

  12. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides.

    PubMed

    Boeke, Sara J; Boersma, Marelle G; Alink, Gerrit M; van Loon, Joop J A; van Huis, Arnold; Dicke, Marcel; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2004-09-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data from human and animal studies with oral administration of different neem-based preparations. The non-aqueous extracts appear to be the most toxic neem-based products, with an estimated safe dose (ESD) of 0.002 and 12.5 microg/kg bw/day. Less toxic are the unprocessed materials seed oil and the aqueous extracts (ESD 0.26 and 0.3 mg/kg bw/day, 2 microl/kg bw/day respectively). Most of the pure compounds show a relatively low toxicity (ESD azadirachtin 15 mg/kg bw/day). For all preparations, reversible effect on reproduction of both male and female mammals seem to be the most important toxic effects upon sub-acute or chronic exposure. From the available data, safety assessments for the various neem-derived preparations were made and the outcomes are compared to the ingestion of residues on food treated with neem preparations as insecticides. This leads to the conclusion that, if applied with care, use of neem derived pesticides as an insecticide should not be discouraged. PMID:15261960

  13. Contents of constituents and antioxidant activity of seed and pulp extracts of Annona coriacea and Annona sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Benites, R S R; Formagio, A S N; Argandoña, E J S; Volobuff, C R F; Trevizan, L N F; Vieira, M C; Silva, M S

    2015-08-01

    The antioxidant potential of fruit pulp and seeds of extracts of the Annona coriacea, and A. sylvatica(Annonaceae) were investigated, as well contents total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and ascorbic acid. Was used to determine the antioxidant activity the 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching and ABTS radical cation method. The total phenol, total flavonoid, condensed tannin, and ascorbic acid contents were measured spectrophotometrically. In this study, the pulp and seeds of the fruits were extracted using methanol/water (8:2) for maceration. The seed extracts of A. coriacea demonstrated a moderate antioxidant effect with free radical scavenging activity of 31.53%, by the DPPH test, 51.59% by the β-carotene bleaching test and 159.50 µM trolx/g of extract in the ABTS assay. We found that the hydromethanolic seed extract of A. coriacea had high total phenol (147.08 ± 4.20 mg of GAE/g of extract) and flavonoid (131.18 ± 2.31 mg of QE/g of extract) content. This indicated that the antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to the contents of these constituents. PMID:26421762

  14. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume.

    PubMed

    Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Tze, Liong Min; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24425949

  15. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26139905

  16. Enhancement of gastric ulcer healing and angiogenesis by cochinchina Momordica seed extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Mook; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Bongcheol; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Bong-Yong; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

    2010-06-01

    Cochinchina momordica seed is the dried ripe seed of Momordica cochinchinensis, a perennial vine. The antiulcer effect of an extract from cochinchina momordica seeds (SK-MS10) was evaluated in a rat model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Gastric ulcers were produced by subserosal injection of acetic acid. SK-MS10 (200 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally once per day for 14 days after the acetic acid injection. The stomach was removed and the ulcer size measured at day 7 and 14 of the treatment. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, the microvasculature density (MVD) adjacent to the ulcer margin was examined by immunohistochemistry. The treatment with SK-MS10 for 7 and 14 days significantly accelerated ulcer healing and increased the expression of mRNA (at day 7) as well as VEGF protein (at day 14) compared to the vehicle-treated rats. The MVD for factor VIII was also higher in the SK-MS10 treatment group compared to the vehicle-treated rats; however, these differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that SK-MS10 treatment accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via upregulation of VEGF and angiogenesis in an acetic acid rat model. PMID:20514308

  17. Stepwise extraction of Lepidium sativum seed gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Koocheki, Arash; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2016-07-01

    Cress seed gum (CSG) was fractionated using stepwise extraction with water, yielding three fractions (F1, F2, F3) whose average molecular weights ranged from 863 to 1080kDa. The chemical composition (monosaccharide, ash, moisture, CHN and uronic acid contents) and molecular weight of the fractions varied significantly. Generally, the major identical peaks of FT-IR spectra for three fractions and whole cress seed gum were similar. The results of DSC and TGA indicated that F3 had the highest thermal stability and considering the initial decomposition temperature, the decreasing order of thermal stability was F3>F2>F1. Cress seed gum and its fractions exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior which the Herschel-Bulkley model was successfully described the steady shear flow behavior of samples, and apparent viscosity followed the order of F3>F2>F1. F3 exhibited the best surface tension reducing ability compared to other fractions and CSG. All the samples had good emulsifying capability (>97%) and stability (>96%). The emulsion capacity increased slightly along the series of F1, F2 and F3, whereas, emulsion stability decreased along the same series. CSG and F3 showed the highest and the lowest foaming capacity and stability, respectively. PMID:27083846

  18. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 μm/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 μm/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 μm/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

  19. In vitro lethal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seed on hydatid cyst protoscoleces

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Asadi, Arash; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Sharififar, Fariba; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Dezaki, Ebrahimm Saedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): There are several scolicidal agents for inactivation of hydatid cyst protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects such as sclerosing cholangitis and liver necrosis. The present study was aimed to evaluate scolicidal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seeds against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst in an in vitro model. Materials and Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of the different extracts of N. sativa (5 to 50 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results: The findings exhibited that methanolic extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 10 min of incubation, and aqueous extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation can kill 100% of protoscoleces. In addition, all of experiments revealed dose-dependent and also time-dependent scolicidal effect of various extracts of N. sativa on the protoscoleces of hydatid cyst. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that N. sativa may be a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be required to evaluate scolicidal effects of N. sativa in the in vivo model. PMID:25859304

  20. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Francisco Segovia; Sánchez, Sara Peiró; Iradi, Maria Gabriela Gallego; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM), the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC) and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC). In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), were analyzed. The RSM model has an R² of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%. PMID:26784880

  1. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Francisco Segovia; Sánchez, Sara Peiró; Gallego Iradi, Maria Gabriela; Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM), the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC) and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC). In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), were analyzed. The RSM model has an R2 of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%. PMID:26784880

  2. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds’ aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death. PMID:23833520

  3. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.M.; Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y.; Lee, M.W.; Thian, E.S.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous and tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology.

  4. Retardation of lipid oxidation using gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract compared with BHT.

    PubMed

    Sai-Ut, Samart; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to apply the gelatin films with different levels of longan seed extract (LS) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retardation of lipid oxidation in soybean oil. The films incorporated with various concentrations of aqueous LS (0, 50, 100, 300, and 500 ppm) or BHT (50, and 100 ppm) were developed. The films had transmittance percentages of 60-80 % at 570 nm and showed good light barrier properties when the concentration of LS or BHT increased. About 97 % protein solubility and 41 to 54 % water solubility were obtained for the developed films. Antioxidative activity of gelatin films incorporated with LS increased markedly with increasing storage time as indicated by the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity (41-50 %) (P < 0.05). Films incorporated with LS or BHT showed the preventive effect on lipid oxidation of soybean oil during 30 days of storage. At the level of 500 ppm, LS provided the highest efficacy for lipid oxidation retardation as evidenced by lower conjugated diene (CD) values (P > 0.05). According to these findings, gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract or BHT could be used as a tool to prolong the shelf-life of oily foods. PMID:26344999

  5. Optimised amylases extraction from oat seeds and its impact on bread properties.

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, Nihed; Borchani, Maha; Fendri, Imen; Khemakhem, Bassem; Gosset, David; Baril, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Ayadi, Mohamed-Ali; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Statistical approaches were employed for the optimisation of the extraction of amylolytic activity from oat (Avena sativa) seeds. The application of the response surface methodology allows us to determine a set of optimal conditions (ratio seed weight/buffer volume 0.1, germination days 10 days, temperature 20 °C and pH 5.6). Experiments carried out under these conditions led to amylase production yield of 91 U/g. Its maximal activity was in the pH 5.6 and at 55 °C. Study of the incorporation of the optimised oat extract into the bread formulation revealed an improvement of the sensory quality and the textural properties of fresh and stored bread. Three-dimensional elaborations of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) images were performed on crumb of the different breads to evaluate the influence of amylase activity on microstructure. The result showed improved baking characteristics as well as overall microscopic and macroscopic appearance. PMID:25453287

  6. Antioxidant properties of raspberry seed extracts on micronucleus distribution in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Godevac, Dejan; Tesevi?, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Milosavljevi?, Slobodan; Stankovi?, Miroslava

    2009-11-01

    This study addresses in vitro effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) seed extracts (RSE) on the frequency of micronuclei. We evaluated the effects of three different extracts (50%, 80%, and 100% methanol) in doses of 1.4, 4.2, and 8.4 microg/mL, per 5 mL culture using cytochalasin-B micronucleus (CBMN) assay in peripheral human lymphocytes. The frequency of MN was scored in binucleated (BN) cells. The nuclear proliferation index was also calculated. The distribution of polyphenolic compounds in RSEs was determined using LC/UV/ESI-TOF MS. The identified 37 compounds comprised flavanol monomers and oligomers, as well as varieties of ellagitannin components. Treatment of lymphocytes with RSEs induced a significant decrease in the frequency of micronuclei by 80%. These results demonstrate that the constituents of RSEs may be important in the prevention of oxidative lymphocyte damage by reactive oxygen species and may also reduce the level of DNA damage. These findings support the potential benefits of polyphenolic compounds from raspberry seeds as efficient antioxidants. PMID:19748543

  7. In vitro screening on amyloid beta modulation of aqueous extracts from plant seeds

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Glycation process might contribute to both extensive protein cross-linking and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amyloid-like aggregation of glycated bovine serum albumin induces apoptosis in the neuronal cell. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants, vitamins, and polyphenols are beneficial to AD, and consumption of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of AD. We conducted a screening of 14 aqueous extracts from plant seeds (PSAE) for inhibitory activity on amyloid beta (Aβ). Materials and Methods: To examine the effects of PSAE on the Aβ (1–42) concentration, PSAE were analyzed by Aβ (1–42) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we carried out an antiglycation experiment of PSAE and an antiaggregation experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. PSAE were added to buffer containing D-ribose and albumins. The solutions were incubated at 37°C for 10 days. After incubation, the products were assayed on a fluorophotometer. Results: PSAE associated differential reduction in the levels of Aβ (1–42) (lettuce; 98.7% ± 2.4%, bitter melon; 95.9% ± 2.6%, and corn; 93.9% ± 2.1%), demonstrating that treatment with lettuce seeds extracts (LSE) effectively decreases Aβ (1–42) concentration. Among the 14 PSAE, LSE exhibited the second greatest potential for antiglycation. Inhibition of aggregates was not recognized in LSE. Conclusion: These results suggest that LSE reduces the toxicity of Aβ by modifying Aβ. PMID:27134467

  8. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  9. The therapeutic applications of celery oil seed extract on the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of two doses, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and studied the possible therapeutic dose of celery oil seed extract for 6 weeks on some atheroscelerogenic, obesogenic, antioxidant and liver functions in rats. Both doses of DEHP caused over-expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) messenger RNA with significant increase in liver weights, relative liver weights, serum cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein Chol, liver total lipids, along with an increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum endothelin 1 and liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Additionally, DEHP administration to rats resulted in significant decrease in final body weights, serum total protein, albumin, liver total protein and serum total nitric oxide. Our study confirmed the role of oral combination of Apium graveolens (celery) oil seed extract at small cumulative doses (50 µl/kg for 6 weeks) with DEHP in ameliorating the toxicological effects of DEHP, which was revealed in reducing the expression of PPARα, lipid profile, with restoring liver functions, vascular oxidative stress and inhibition of TBARS activity. PMID:23377116

  10. An optimized extraction technique for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from the Camellia japonica seed cake by using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Cho Rong; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Nam, Sang Hae; Joo, Ok Soo; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction conditions for the acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity and extraction yield from Camellia japonica seed cake. Predicted values for AchE inhibition and extraction yield were 19.41 and 13.35%, respectively, which are in good agreement with the experimental values from validation, suggesting that RSM may provide a useful tool to optimization processes. PMID:25229864

  11. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract. PMID:26396295

  12. Ripening stage and extraction method effects on physical properties, polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Kefi, Sarra; Bourgou, Soumaya; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Ksouri, Riadh; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2014-12-01

    The effects of two extraction methods, used at three ripening stages on the total polyphenol contents and the antioxidant activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were studied. The ripening stage effect on some physical properties of cumin seed was significant. The increase of dry matter (from 10.3 to 87.5%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that of moisture content (from 89.7 to 12.5%). Besides results showed that the full ripe seeds were richer on polyphenols and condensed tannin than unripe ones, and consequently exhibited higher antioxidant activities. However, the unripe seeds had a higher total flavonoid content compared to those of half ripe and full ripe ones. The comparison of two extraction methods showed that soxhlet extracts contained the greatest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, while maceration samples exhibited higher antiradical and bleaching power assay. Total phenolic contents and IC50 (concentration required to cause a 50% DPPH inhibition) values in cumin seed during their maturation allowed to conclude that antioxidant activity does not depend only on the high content of total phenolics but also on the phenolic composition. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were successfully identified by HPLC analysis during the ripening of cumin seeds. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic acid for the unripe seeds. Furthermore, half ripe and full ripe seeds were dominated by p-coumaric acid. These compounds might be considered as interesting bioactive natural substances that may be used in several fields, such as nutraceuticals, cosmetics and agro-food industry. PMID:25277369

  13. Extracts of Phenolic Compounds from Seeds of Three Wild Grapevines—Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activities and the Content of Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Stanisław; Powałka, Anna; Karamać, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from three wild grapevine species: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH• anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds— while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent. PMID:22489161

  14. Water extractable forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron in fruits and seeds of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Konieczyński, Paweł; Wesołowski, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Water extractable nitrate nitrogen, phosphate phosphorus and iron(II) in relation to the total amount of these essential elements were analyzed in fruits and seeds of medicinal plants. Water extraction was chosen to simulate in the analytical procedure the way plant samples are prepared and used by people. The total amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and phosphate phosphorus were determined in the range of concentration of mg/g of dry plant weight, however, the total and extractable iron and nitrate nitrogen in mg/kg of dry weight. The nitrate nitrogen appeared to be crucial factor in the differentiation of plant samples and its level is characterized by very wide range of concentrations, from 10.15 mg/kg to 1377.03 mg/kg of dry plant weight; however, it didn't exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Statistically significant correlation between N and P, N and Fe, P-PO4 and P, P-PO4 and N was found, probably caused by their co-participation in metabolism of medicinal plant's fruits. Thanks to results of PCA, the fruits of medicinal plants can be differentiated by the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus and their water extractable fractions. PCA grouped analyzed samples into three clusters with similar concentration of elements, which depended on the plant species, and in some cases also on the place of cultivation in distant regions of the country. PMID:18536166

  15. Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts against lipid oxidation in model systems.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Maqsood, Sajid

    2013-08-01

    Antioxidant activity of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal was studied in comparison with mimosine. Both extracts showed similar hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, singlet oxygen inhibition and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the extract without prior chlorophyll removal had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity than that with prior chlorophyll removal (p < 0.05). Generally, lead seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal possessed a lower antioxidant activity, compared with mimosine. When lead seed extract without prior chlorophyll removal (100 and 200 ppm) was used in different lipid oxidation model systems, including β-carotene-linoleic acid and lecithin liposome systems, the preventive effect toward lipid oxidation was dose-dependent. At the same level of use, mimosine exhibited a higher efficacy in prevention of lipid oxidation in both systems as indicated by the lower increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. A similar result was obtained in minced mackerel. Therefore, lead seed extract containing mimosine could act as a natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. PMID:23729420

  16. Inhibitory Action of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. On Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-10-01

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of 1 g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders. PMID:18958739

  17. Celery Seed and Related Extracts with Antiarthritic, Antiulcer, and Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Powanda, Michael C; Whitehouse, Michael W; Rainsford, K D

    2015-01-01

    Celery preparations have been used extensively for several millennia as natural therapies for acute and chronic painful or inflammatory conditions. This chapter reviews some of the biological and chemical properties of various celery preparations that have been used as natural remedies. Many of these have varying activities and product qualities. A fully standardized celery preparation has been prepared known as an alcoholic extract of the seeds of a plant source derived from northern India. This is termed, Celery Seed Extract (CSE) and has been found to be at least as effective as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen in suppressing arthritis in a model of polyarthritis. CSE can also reduce existing inflammation in rats. CSE has also been shown to provide analgesia in two model systems. CSE, in addition to acting as an analgesic and inflammatory agent, has been shown to protect against and/or reduce gastric irritation caused by NSAIDs, as well as act synergistically with them to reduce inflammation. The CSE was fractionated by organic solvent extractions, then subjected to column chromatography followed by HPLC and was characterized by mass spectrometry. This yielded a purified component that had specific inhibitory effects on Helicobacter pylori but was not active against Campylobacter jejuni or Escherichia coli. Additionally, toxicology studies did not reveal any clear signs of toxicity at doses relevant to human use. Also, unlike many dietary supplements, the available data suggest that CSE does not significantly affect the p450 enzyme systems and thus is less likely to alter the metabolism of drugs the individual may be taking. CSE may be a prototype of a natural product that can be used therapeutically to treat arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:26462366

  18. Optimized extraction and molecular characterization of polysaccharides from Sophora alopecuroides L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Cao, Nannan; Wu, Yan; Wu, Jinhong

    2016-01-01

    Optimized extraction of crude polysaccharides from Sophora alopecuroides L. seeds (CSAP) was firstly investigated, and the results were extraction time 4.15 h, extraction temperature 70.68°C and water/seed ratio 50.99:1 ml/g. At this proximal point, highest yield (10.88%) and relative viscosity (1.2952) were obtained for CSAP, which contained 78.40% sugar, 6.08% protein, 9.71% ash, 7.16% moisture and 1.88% uronic acid. Neutral fractions of F15, F25, F35 and F60 were further obtained via stepwise alcohol precipitation. Results of monosaccharide composition indicated that CSAP and its neutral fractions mainly consisted of mannose and galactose (79.45-97.52%) with M/G ratios of 0.94-1.48, typical for galactomannans, which were demonstrated by FT-IR. Weight-average molecular weight, radius of gyration and hydrodynamic radius were in the same order (F15>F25>F35>F60), whereas the highest intrinsic viscosity was observed for F25. Multiple analyses, including Mark-Houwink-Sakurada exponent (0.48-0.80), persistence length (1.45-3.93 nm), conformation zoning (random coil) and power-law exponent (b>1), showed flexible coils for all neutral fractions. Concerning viscometry, there were no aggregates (K″ 0.60) or coil overlaps ("master curve") of F25 in dilute solutions. Relatively weak surface activity of F25 was probably related to its particular chemical structure and proteinaceous moieties closely conjoined. PMID:26449532

  19. Separation and purification of both tea seed polysaccharide and saponin from camellia cake extract using macroporous resin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. PMID:25491912

  20. Growth-disrupting, larvicidal and neurobehavioral toxicity effects of seed extract of Seseli diffusum against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kabir, Khondkar Ehteshamul; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmed, Shakil; Tariq, Rajput Muhammed

    2013-04-01

    Plant extracts that kill, deform the post-embryonic molting stages of mosquitoes could be a valuable approach in integrated vector management programmes to replace synthetic chemical pesticides, containing persistent toxic substances. Crude ethanolic seed extract was obtained by maceration of seeds of Indian celery, Seseli diffusum (Apiaceae). The ethanolic seed extract induced strong neurobehavioral toxicity against the 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti which resulted in a high level of larval knock-down with EC(50) of 238.15 ppm, after 4h of treatment. The extract at concentration of 200 ppm exhibited a potent larvicidal effect against 4th instar A. aegypti, produced 88% and 96% mortality, after 24 and 48 h of treatment with LC(50) of 126.13 ppm and LC(50) of 112.53 ppm, respectively. The ethanolic seed extract at higher concentration (>400 ppm) produced 100% mortality, after 24 h and 48 h of treatment. At lower concentration of 100 ppm, extract induced a high level of morphological deformities in larvae, after 48 h of treatment. A high level of growth and/or molting disrupting effect of extract against larvae was also observed which resulting in the formation of larval-pupal intermediates, after 48 h of treatment. At concentrations of 200-300 ppm, ethanolic seed extract induced morphological deformities in dead pupae, after 72 h of treatment. The results showed that S. diffusum is a promising candidate for the development of new botanical biopesticide having multiple potentials for controlling insect pest of medical and agricultural importance. PMID:23357563

  1. Inhibitory effect of celery seeds extract on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis: modulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and altered hepatic foci development.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Sarwat; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Jahangir, Tamanna; Sharma, Sonia

    2005-04-18

    The chemopreventive activity of methanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds (celery seeds) has been investigated against Solt Farber protocol of hepatocarcinogenesis, oxidative stress and induction of positive foci of gamma-GT in the liver of Wistar rats. The prophylactic treatment of celery seeds extract protected dose dependently against diethylnitrosoamine (DEN)+2-acetylaminofluorine (AAF)+partial hepatectomy (PH) induced hepatocarcinogenesis and other related events such as induction of gamma-GT positive foci (P<0.001). 2-AAF administration in diet with PH in rats resulted in increased hepatic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and a consequent increase in the rate of DNA synthesis when compared to saline treated control group while pretreatment of rats with celery seeds extract resulted in inhibition of aforementioned parameters dose dependently. The augmentation of quinone reductase (QR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities; and depletion of the tissue GSH content after 2-AAF (i.p. injection) for five consecutive days was prevented with the administration of celery seed extract. On the basis of the above results it can be said that A. graveolens is a potent plant against experimentally induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats. PMID:15797622

  2. In Vivo Evaluation of Anti Diabetic, Hypolipidemic, Antioxidative Activities of Saudi Date Seed Extract on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohieldein, Abdelmarouf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) is major fruit of gulf region. In folk medicine; dates have been traditionally use. The date seed is used as hypoglycaemic, expectorant, tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiarrheic and mouth hygiene. Aim This study intended to evaluate the anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities of date seed extract in diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods Total of seven groups of rats, consisting of control rats and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100g/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat. To evaluate the anti-diabetic property, glucose and weight was analysed weekly and at the end of eight week all rats were sacrificed. To evaluate the hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine were estimated. Liver enzymes and kidney function tests were performed. Moreover to verify the glycaemic effect; glycated haemoglobin and serum insulin was performed. Results Aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100 gm/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat brings a significant reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in comparison of control rats. There were significant differences in the investigated clinical chemistry and oxidative stress parameters between control and diabetic rats with both seed extract of Ajwa and Sukkari dates. Conclusion Present study verifies the antidiabetic property, of aqueous seed extracts of two different varieties of dates namely Ajwa and Sukkari of Kingdom of Saudi on streptozotocin induced Diabetic rats. Prolong treatments with the extract restores the function of liver and kidney and balance the oxidative stress condition in diabetic treated rats. PMID:27134893

  3. Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Chidambara Murthy, K N; Jayaprakasha, G K

    2002-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and seeds using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were screened for their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) model systems. The methanol extract of peels showed 83 and 81% antioxidant activity at 50 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. Similarly, the methanol extract of seeds showed 22.6 and 23.2% antioxidant activity at 100 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. As the methanol extract of pomegranate peel showed the highest antioxidant activity among all of the extracts, it was selected for testing of its effect on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The methanol extract showed 56, 58, and 93.7% inhibition using the thiobarbituric acid method, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and LDL oxidation, respectively, at 100 ppm. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from pomegranate peel and seeds. Owing to this property, the studies can be further extended to exploit them for their possible application for the preservation of food products as well as their use as health supplements and neutraceuticals. PMID:11754547

  4. Ionic liquids as a key medium for efficient extraction of copper complexes from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Popowski, Dominik; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-05-15

    Due to insufficient information, the aim of study was to concern on the optimization of extraction procedure of selected metal complexes with flavonoids from chia seeds. Evaluation of the amount of elements in compound, not only their total concentration content, is highly important due to the fact, that only a part from total content of metal is absorbed by human body. At the beginning the total amount of elements in chia seeds was established as 14.51±0.42µgg(-1) for copper, 57.44±1.23µgg(-1) for manganese, 81.12±1.89µgg(-1) for zinc and 0.35±0.13µgg(-1) for cobalt. After the most suitable solvent was established, effects of several parameters on the efficiency of metal extraction were studied. Solvent concentration, solid-solvent ratio, extraction method, extraction time and temperature have been investigated as independent variables. The optimal extraction conditions included vortexing during 20min in 50°C, using an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) as an extractant, with solid-solvent ratio of 1:20. The determination of total and extractable amount of metals in chia seeds was carried out by standalone ICP MS. In addition, a complementary analysis of extracted metal complexes was performed using SEC-ICP MS method. It was confirmed that the ionic liquid is able to extract different copper complexes in comparison with commonly used solvents. The study indicated that extraction by using an ionic liquid has been successfully applied for determination of metals and metal complexes in chia seeds. PMID:26992545

  5. Chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nitharwal, Ramesh K; Patel, Hasit; Karchuli, Manvendra Singh; Ugale, Rajesh Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent, is used in the treatment of cancer owing to its broad-spectrum efficacy, its metabolites exhibit severe undesired toxicities in normal cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Rodents were orally pre-treated with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) for five consecutive days. On 5th day, these animals were injected with CP (50 mg/kg i.p) and sacrificed after 24 hrs. for the evaluation of oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, micronucleus formation, and chromosomal aberrations. Results: We found that the CP significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased catalase and glutathione (GSH) levels in brain, and it was significantly reversed by Coccinia indica extract (400 and 600 mg/kg). Further, pre-treatment with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced micronuclei formation and incidence of aberrant cells. We also found that the CP-induced increase in the serum biomarker enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced by Coccinia indica extract. Conclusion: Thus, the present results indicate the protective effect of Coccinia indica extract against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, as well as hepatotoxicity. PMID:24130387

  6. Docynia indica, Docynia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Docynia (Docynia indica [Well.] Decne, Rosaceae) is native to southeast Asia, from Vietnam through India and north into central China. While generally referred to as Docynia i...

  7. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-20

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health. PMID:26980065

  8. The effect of methanolic extract of Buchanania lanzan Spreng seeds on hematological indices

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mandeep Kumar; Das, Bhrigu Kumar; Patidar, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the current study was carried out to investigate the effects of methanolic extract of Buchanania lanzan Spreng seeds on hematological indices. Materials and Methods: Eighteen male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups, six in each. Group I animals received distilled water, Group II and III were treated with an oral dose of 1000 mg oil/kg and 2000 mg oil/kg of extract, respectively, for 7 days. At the end of the study, blood was collected and evaluated for packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts. Results: There was a significant dose-dependent increase in the hematological indices such as PCV, Hb, RBC, and WBC count in the treatment group. Conclusions: The improvement of PCV, Hb, and RBC values is an indication of the anti-anemic effect which may be due to the stimulation of RBC production in bone marrow. Further, stimulated production of WBC could be as a result of possible stimulus of the immune system. Hence, this study confirms that the extract of B. lanzan could be useful for the treatment of anemia. PMID:27127326

  9. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Shibani; Maji, Priyankar; Ganguly, Jhuma

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores that the aqueous extract of the seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (aka night jasmine) is very efficient for the synthesis of stable AgNPs from aqueous solution of AgNO3. The extract acts as both reducing (from Ag+ to Ag0) and capping agent in the aqueous phase. The constituents in extract are mainly biomolecules like carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the preparation of stable AgNPs within 20 min of reaction time at 25 °C using without any severe conditions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis showed peak at 420 nm, which corresponds to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. XRD results showed peaks at (111), (200), (220), which confirmed the presence of AgNPs with face-centered cubic structure. The uniform spherical nature of the AgNPs and size (between 50 and 80 nm) were further confirmed by SEM analysis.

  10. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected. PMID:19427016

  11. Studies on the antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator and hepatoprotective activities of the Carum copticum seed extract.

    PubMed

    Gilani, A H; Jabeen, Q; Ghayur, M N; Janbaz, K H; Akhtar, M S

    2005-04-01

    This study describes the antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator and hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous-methanolic extract of Carum copticum Benth. seeds (CSE) to rationalize some of its traditional uses. CSE (3-100 mg/kg) caused a dose-dependent fall in arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta and jejunum preparations, CSE (0.1-3.0 mg/ml) caused an inhibitory effect on the K+-induced contractions. The calcium channel blocking (CCB) effect was confirmed when CSE shifted the Ca2+ dose-response curves (DRCs) to right similar to verapamil. In isolated guinea-pig tracheal preparations, it caused inhibition of carbachol and K+-induced bronchoconstriction at 0.1-1.0 mg/ml as well as shifted the dose-response curves (DRCs) of carbachol and histamine to the right with suppression of maximum response suggestive of non-specific bronchodilator effect mediated possibly through CCB. Pretreatment of rats with CSE (500 mg/kg orally for 2 days at 12 h intervals) prevented paracetamol (640 mg/kg) and CCl4 (150 ml/kg)-induced rise in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminotransferases (AST and ALT). The same dose of CSE was able to prevent the CCl4-induced prolongation in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice confirming its hepatoprotectivity. These results indicate the presence of calcium antagonist(s) in Carum copticum seeds and thus provides sound mechanistic basis for some of their folkloric uses. PMID:15763373

  12. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) seed extract and its polyphenolic compounds on norovirus surrogates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively. PMID:26983677

  13. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H2O2 and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. PMID:27166540

  14. Dietary grape seed extract ameliorates symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease in interleukin-10 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Xue, Yansong; Zhang, Hanying; Huang, Yan; Yang, Guan; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is a by-product of the wine industry, with abundant polyphenolic compounds known for their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Using IL10-deficient mice (IL10KO), here we showed that GSE (1% of dry feed weight) ameliorated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) indices, increased colonic goblet cell numbers and decreased myeloperoxidase levels in the large intestine. Concomitantly, GSE supplementation attenuated inflammation, decreased the expression of pore forming tight junction protein claudin2, and increased levels of Lactobacilli and Bacteroides in the gut microbiota of IL10KO mice. In summary, our study shows that GSE has protective roles on IBD through altering gut inflammation, tight junction protein expression, and gut microbiota composition. PMID:23963706

  15. Effect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sivaprakasapillai, Brahmesh; Edirisinghe, Indika; Randolph, Jody; Steinberg, Francene; Kappagoda, Tissa

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether grape seed extracts (GSE) that contain powerful vasodilator phenolic compounds lower blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups-(a) placebo, (b) 150 mg GSE per day, and (c) 300 mg GSE per day-and treated for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end. Blood pressure was recorded using an ambulatory monitoring device at the start of the treatment period and at the end. Both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were lowered after treatment with GSE as compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in serum lipids or blood glucose values. These findings suggest that GSE could be used as a nutraceutical in a lifestyle modification program for patients with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19608210

  16. H- beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Matsuno, T; Funaoi, T; Tanaka, N; Tsumori, K; Takeiri, Y

    2012-02-01

    H(-) beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 10(19) m(-3) was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H(-) ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents. PMID:22380279

  17. Extraction, purification, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of urease from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Urease, one of the highly efficient known enzymes, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The present study aimed to extract urease from pea seeds (Pisum Sativum L). The enzyme was then purified in three consequence steps: acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-200 column). Results The purification fold was 12.85 with a yield of 40%. The molecular weight of the isolated urease was estimated by chromatography to be 269,000 Daltons. Maximum urease activity (190 U/g) was achieved at the optimum conditions of 40°C and pH of 7.5 after 5 min of incubation. The kinetic parameters, K m and V max , were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk fits and found to be 500 mM and 333.3 U/g, respectively. The thermodynamic constants of activation, ΔH, E a , and ΔS, were determined using Arrhenius plot and found to be 21.20 kJ/mol, 23.7 kJ/mol, and 1.18 kJ/mol/K, respectively. Conclusions Urease was purified from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds. The purification fold, yield, and molecular weight were determined. The effects of pH, concentration of enzyme, temperature, concentration of substrate, and storage period on urease activity were examined. This may provide an insight on the various aspects of the property of the enzyme. The significance of extracting urease from different sources could play a good role in understanding the metabolism of urea in plants. PMID:25065975

  18. Development of phytovesicles containing triterpenoids from Samadera indica

    PubMed Central

    Viswanad, Vidya; Zachariah, Subin Mary; Sathi, Aiswarya; Aleykutty, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Samadera indica belonging to Simaroubaceae family is being used traditionally for many diseases including arthritis, edema, itching, skin diseases, constipation, and general debility. Objective: The effectiveness of any drug delivery system depends upon its ability to deliver the active components at therapeutic level. In this study, a novel phyto vesicular formulation for the enhanced topical delivery of methanol extract of S. indica in order to treat skin infections was developed. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract fraction of leaves of S. indica which showed more antifungal activity was purified to separate an antifungal compound. Phytovesicles were formulated using the more antifungal fraction in order to treat topical and deep seated fungal infections. Pytovesicles were prepared using 1:2 molar ratio of antifungal triterpenoid from S. indica (AFTSI)-phosphatidylcholine by film hydration method. Results and Discussion: Chloroform 100% fraction of methanol extract of S. indica showed more activity against the fungus Candida albicans. Further purification gave a fraction with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 15.6 mg/ml against C. albicans and showed positive test for triterpenoids. The fraction was named as AFTSI. A compound (20 mg) was isolated from this fraction at an RF value. The phytovesicle gel formulated using AFTSI showed enhanced skin permeability and antifungal activity. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the phytovesicular gel developed using methanol extract of S. indica would be beneficial for treating deep seated fungal infections. PMID:25829791

  19. Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of swietenia macrophylla king (meliaceae) seed extracts in normoglycaemic rats undergoing glucose tolerance tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) is used to treat diabetes mellitus in Malaysia. This study aims to evaluate the anti-hyperglycaemic potential of petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE) and methanol (ME) extracts of S. macrophylla seeds, in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Following treatment of normoglycaemic rats with S. macrophylla seed extracts, hypoglycaemic and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured. Similarly, glucose concentrations were measured after 1 and 14 days of extract treatment of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Glucose absorption by isolated everted intestine and glucose uptake by isolated abdominal muscle were tested after treatment with seed extracts. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed on PE of S. macrophylla seeds to identify the compounds responsible for its activity. Results None of the extracts had a significant effect on the blood glucose levels of 60 randomly selected normoglycaemic (normal) and diabetic rats undergoing hypoglycaemic tests. PE, however, significantly reduced blood glucose levels in 30 randomly selected normoglycaemic rats undergoing IPGTT tests 30–120 minutes after glucose administration. Repeated doses of 1000 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg PE to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 14 days did not reduce blood glucose levels significantly. PE did not significantly reduced the intestinal absorption of glucose, but significantly increased glucose uptake by abdominal muscle in the absence or presence of insulin. GC-MS analysis indicated that diterpenes, triterpenoids, fatty acid methyl esters, aldehydes and phytosterols may be responsible for the glucose lowering effects of PE. Conclusion PE extracts of S. macrophylla seeds showed anti-hyperglycaemic activity on IPGTTs . GC-MS analysis on the PE revealed that several compounds, including fucosterol and β-sitosterol, may be responsible for these anti-hyperglycaemic properties. PMID:23684219

  20. A comparative study of extraction methods reveals preferred solvents for cystine knot peptide isolation from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds.

    PubMed

    Mahatmanto, Tunjung; Poth, Aaron G; Mylne, Joshua S; Craik, David J

    2014-06-01

    MCoTI-I and MCoTI-II (short for Momordica cochinchinensis Trypsin Inhibitor-I and -II, respectively) are attractive candidates for developing novel intracellular-targeting drugs because both are exceptionally stable and can internalize into cells. These seed-derived cystine knot peptides are examples of how natural product discovery efforts can lead to biomedical applications. However, discovery efforts are sometimes hampered by the limited availability of seed materials, highlighting the need for efficient extraction methods. In this study, we assessed five extraction methods using M. cochinchinensis seeds, a source of well-characterized cystine knot peptides. The most efficient extraction of nine known cystine knot peptides was achieved by a method based on acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1), followed by methods based on sodium acetate (20 mM, pH 5.0), ammonium bicarbonate (5 mM, pH 8.0), and boiling water. On average, the yields obtained by these four methods were more than 250-fold higher than that obtained using dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extraction, a previously applied standard method. Extraction using acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1) yielded the highest number of reconstructed masses within the majority of plant-derived cystine knot peptide mass range but only accounted for around 50% of the total number of masses, indicating that any single method may result in under-sampling. Applying acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1), boiling water, and ammonium bicarbonate (5 mM, pH 8.0) extractions either successively or discretely significantly increased the sampling number. Overall, acetonitrile/water/formic acid (25:24:1) can facilitate efficient extraction of cystine-knot peptides from M. cochinchinensis seeds but for discovery purposes the use of a combination of extraction methods is recommended where practical. PMID:24613804

  1. Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activities of different extracts of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) pomace without seeds.

    PubMed

    Varshneya, Chandresh; Kant, Vinay; Mehta, Madhuri

    2012-03-01

    In this study, 100% methanolic extract (ME), 70% aqua-methanolic extract (AME) and 100% aqueous extract of seabuckthorn byproduct were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The total phenolic contents were high in AME (84.28 ± 1.58 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/gm of extract) compared to other extracts. All the extracts scavenged different in vitro radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC(50) values were lowest in AME for 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals, while ME had lowest values for hydroxyl radicals. The reducing power of the extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner and was highest in AME. The findings of this study revealed that seabuckthorn pomace without seed is one of the important resources as an antioxidant for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic or nutraceutical industries. PMID:21875373

  2. Ball milling improves extractability and affects molecular properties of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk arabinoxylan.

    PubMed

    Van Craeyveld, Valerie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2008-12-10

    Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk (PSH) is very rich in arabinoxylan (AX). However, its high gelling capacity and the complex nature of the AX make it difficult to process. In this study, ball milling was investigated as a tool for enhancing PSH AX water extractability and molecular mass (MM). A 48 h laboratory-scale ball mill treatment under standardized optimal conditions reduced the PSH average particle size from 161 microm for the untreated sample to 6 microm. Concurrently, it increased the water-extractable AX (WE-AX) level from 13 (untreated PSH) to 90% of the total PSH AX. While the WE-AX of the untreated PSH had a peak MM of 216 kDa and an arabinose to xylose (A/X) ratio of 0.20, WE-AX fragments from ball mill-pretreated PSH had a peak MM of 22 kDa and an A/X ratio of 0.31. Ball milling further drastically reduced the intrinsic viscosity of PSH extracts and their water-holding capacity. Prolonged treatment brought almost all AX (98%) in solution and yielded WE-AX fragments with an even higher A/X ratio (0.42) and a lower peak MM (11 kDa). While impact and jet milling of PSH equally led to significant reductions in particle size, these technologies only marginally affected the water extractability of PSH AX. This implies that ball milling affects PSH particles and their constituent molecules differently than impact and jet milling. PMID:19007123

  3. Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of ergot alkaloids does not increase the contractile response of peripheral bovine vasculature, but may increase the contractile response of foregut vasculature. Preliminary data indicated that an extract of tall fescue seed induced a greater contractile response in ruminal artery and vein...

  4. Optimization of DNA extraction from seeds and leaf tissues of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum) for polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Saba; Prakash, Jyoti; Vashishtha, Abhinav; Sharma, Agnivesh; Srivastava, Kuldeep; Sagar, Faizuddin; Khan, Nausheen; Dwivedi, Keshav; Jain, Payal; Shukla, Saransh; Gupta, Swati Prakash; Mishra, Saumya

    2012-01-01

    Chrysanthemums constitute approximately 30 species of perennial flowering plants, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to Asia and Northeastern Europe. Chrysanthemum is a natural cosmetic additive extracted from Chinese herb by modern biochemical technology. It has the properties of anti-bacterial, anti-viral, reducing (detoxification) and anti-inflammation. It possesses antioxidant characteristics, which could assist in minimizing free-radical induced damage. Therefore, it is widely used in skin and hair care products. Chemical composition of this herbal remedy includes kikkanols, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, various essential oils containing camphor, cineole, sabinol, borneole and other elements that interfere with DNA, causing erroneous or no PCR products. In the present study, testing and modification of various standard protocols for isolation of high-quality DNA from leaf tissues and seeds of C. indicum was done. It was observed that the DNA obtained from seeds and leaf tissues with a modified cetyltrimethylammonium bromide buffer protocol was of good quality, with no colored pigments and contaminants. Also, DNA could be extracted from leaf tissues without using liquid nitrogen. Quality of DNA extracted from seeds was much better as compared to that extracted from leaf tissues. The extracted DNA was successfully amplified by PCR using arbitrary RAPD primers. The same protocol will probably be useful for extraction of high-molecular weight DNA from other plant materials containing large amounts of secondary metabolites and essential oils. PMID:22493524

  5. Enhancing oxidative stability of sunflower oil during convective and microwave heating using grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600-800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764

  6. Milk thistle seed extract protects rat C6 astroglial cells from acute cocaine toxicity

    PubMed Central

    BADISA, RAMESH B.; FITCH-PYE, CHERYL A.; AGHARAHIMI, MARYAM; PALM, DONALD E.; LATINWO, LEKAN M.; GOODMAN, CARL B.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine is a powerful addictive drug, widely abused in most Western countries. It easily reaches various domains within and outside of the central nervous system (CNS), and triggers varying levels of cellular toxicity. No pharmacological treatment is available to alleviate cocaine-induced toxicity in the cells without side-effects. Here, we discerned the role of milk thistle (MT) seed extract against cocaine toxicity. First, we investigated acute cytotoxicity induced by treatment with 2, 3 and 4 mM cocaine for 1 h in astroglial, liver and kidney cells in vitro, and then in living shrimp larvae in vivo. We showed that astroglial cells are more sensitive to cocaine than liver, kidney cells or larvae. Cocaine exposure disrupted the general architecture of astroglial cells, induced vacuolation, decreased cell viability, and depleted the glutathione (GSH) level. These changes may represent the underlying pathology of cocaine in the astrocytes. By contrast, MT pretreatment (200 μg/ml) for 30 min sustained the cell morphological features and increased both cell viability and the GSH level. Besides its protective effects, the MT extract was revealed to be non-toxic to astroglial cells, and displayed high free-radical scavenging activity. The results from this study suggest that enhanced GSH level underlies cell protection, and indicate that compounds that promote GSH synthesis in the cells may be beneficial against cocaine toxicity. PMID:25174449

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coffea arabica seed extract and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Vivek; Soumya, L; Bharadwaj, S; Chakra, Shilpa; Bhatt, Deepika; Sreedhar, B

    2016-01-01

    A novel green source was opted to synthesize silver nanoparticles using dried roasted Coffea arabica seed extract. Bio-reduction of silver was complete when the mixture (AgNO3+extract) changed its color from light to dark brown. UV-vis spectroscopy result showed maximum adsorption at 459 nm, which represents the characteristic surface plasmon resonance of nanosilver. X-ray crystal analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are highly crystalline and exhibit a cubic, face centered lattice with characteristic (111), (200), (220) and (311) orientations. Particles exhibit spherical and ellipsoidal shaped structures as observed from TEM. Composition analysis obtained from SEM-EDXA confirmed the presence of elemental signature of silver. FTIR results recorded a downward shift of absorption bands between 800-1500 cm(-1) indicting the formation of silver nanoparticles. The mean particle size investigated using DLS was found to be in between 20-30 nm respectively. Anti-bacterial activity of silver nanoparticles on E. coli and S. aureus demonstrated diminished bacterial growth with the development of well-defined inhibition zones. PMID:26478284

  8. Long-Term Effect of an Aqueous Fraxinus excelsior L. Seed Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    López-Carreras, Noemi; Fernández-Vallinas, Sandra; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

    2014-01-01

    The effect of long-term intake of different doses (20, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day) of a Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract (FESE) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was evaluated. Water was used as control and captopril (50 mg/kg/day) was used as positive control. Systolic blood pressure, body weight, and food and liquid intake were registered weekly in SHR. The antioxidant and vascular relaxing properties of FESE were also studied in these animals. The development of hypertension was attenuated in the groups treated with captopril or FESE. The antihypertensive effect was more accentuated in the captopril group than in the FESE groups, and it was paradoxically more accentuated in the groups treated with 20 mg/kg/day or 40 mg/kg/day of FESE than in the group treated with the highest dose of this extract. Body weight gain and food intake increased in the FESE groups. After removing the corresponding antihypertensive treatment, the arterial blood pressure and the body weight of the FESE treated animals returned to control values. In addition, FESE increased plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma and liver malondialdehyde levels. Moreover, acetylcholine relaxation improved in the aorta rings from the FESE treated rats. PMID:24696778

  9. Orally delivered sour cherry seed extract (SCSE) affects cardiovascular and hematological parameters in humans.

    PubMed

    Csiki, Zoltan; Papp-Bata, Agnes; Czompa, Attila; Nagy, Aniko; Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Javor, Andras; Haines, David D; Balla, Gyorgy; Tosaki, Arpad

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of sour cherry seed extract (SCSE) on a variety of systemic processes that contribute to general health and viability of human subjects. The experiments were conducted according to a double-blind protocol in which six healthy individuals were administered 250-mg/day SCSE for 14 days, while four were treated with placebo. Peripheral blood was collected before and after the treatment period. Samples were analyzed for levels of selected cells, enzymes, or metabolites. Subjects that received SCSE showed increases in the values of mean cell volume, serum transferrin, mean peroxidase index, and representation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. On the other hand, decreases were observed in circulating neutrophils and ferritin levels. Changes observed in the present study do not fit into a clear pattern that might yield additional in-depth understanding of SCSE-mediated alterations in physiologic responses. The most encouraging result of the present study is the absence of any indication of toxicity by subjects consuming the extract. PMID:25640007

  10. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications. PMID:22942764

  11. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Ammi visnaga Linn. (Apiaceae) seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pavela, Roman; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Efficacies of the Ammi visnaga seeds extract and a majority of substances on larval Culex quinquefasciatus mortality in various development stages including pupae were studied. The effect of exposure time on larval mortality was also studied. The effect of sublethal concentrations or short exposure times on further larval development and subsequent fecundity in adults were studied as well. Lethal doses of the extract were estimated for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar of C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 for 18, 23 and 180 mg L(-1), respectively). The majority of furanochromenes, khellin and visnagin, were identified by analysing the extract. Khellin was significantly more effective compared to visnagin, whose LC50 was estimated at 8, 10 and 41 mg L(-1) for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae. Khellin showed very fast efficacy on mortality for the 3rd instar larvae in a concentration of 100 mg L(-1). Fifty percent mortality was determined 30 min after application, a time which was considerably shorter compared to the extract (113 min) or visnagin (169 min). The effect of the application of lethal concentrations on C. quinquefasciatus larval mortality was studied. The least number of adults were hatched after application of the extract and khellin (41.8% and 37.9%, respectively), less than after visnagin application (46.7%) or in the control (94.2%). LC50 application caused lower fecundity in the hatched adults, lower hatchability of the eggs, and also very low natality, more than 77% lower for khellin compared to the control. A short exposure, corresponding to our estimated LT30, caused no significant acute toxicity in the larvae (until 24 h) for the extract or visnagin (4.3% and 11.5%, respectively); however, 18 min of action from khellin caused a 54.3% mortality rate of the larvae within 24 h. PMID:26995534

  12. Proanthocyanidin-Rich Date Seed Extract Protects Against Chemically Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qahtani, Jawaher H.; Al-Yousef, Hanan M.; Al-Said, Mansour S.; Ashour, AbdelKader E.; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A hydroacetone extract was prepared from seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. var. Khalas, which is an industrial by-product of date processing. The proanthocyanidin nature of the extract (coded as DTX) was characterized by phytochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The total phenol/proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity of DTX were estimated by Folin–Ciocalteu, vanillin-sulfuric acid, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. The hepatorenal protective activity of DTX was evaluated using CCl4-induced toxicity model in rats, in comparison with silymarin (SYL). Results of the histopathological examination and measurements of various hepatorenal serum indices and tissue biochemical markers demonstrated that DTX displayed marked protective potential against CCl4-induced liver and kidney injury at 100 mg/kg/rat. Relative to the control CCl4-intoxicated group, pretreatment with DTX significantly (P<.001) suppressed the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), bilirubin, creatinine, and calcium, whereas it significantly (P<.001) increased the diminished serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP). Moreover, DTX significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and increased TP synthesis in hepatorenal tissues compared with the intoxicated control. The improvement in biochemical parameters by DTX was observed in a dose-dependent manner and confirmed by restoration of normal histological features. The acute toxicity test of DTX in rats revealed safety of the extract. This study reveals that DTX enhances the recovery from xenobiotics-induced toxicity initiated by free radicals. PMID:25569813

  13. Proanthocyanidin-rich date seed extract protects against chemically induced hepatorenal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Atallah F; Al-Qahtani, Jawaher H; Al-Yousef, Hanan M; Al-Said, Mansour S; Ashour, AbdelKader E; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-03-01

    A hydroacetone extract was prepared from seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. var. Khalas, which is an industrial by-product of date processing. The proanthocyanidin nature of the extract (coded as DTX) was characterized by phytochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The total phenol/proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity of DTX were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu, vanillin-sulfuric acid, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. The hepatorenal protective activity of DTX was evaluated using CCl4-induced toxicity model in rats, in comparison with silymarin (SYL). Results of the histopathological examination and measurements of various hepatorenal serum indices and tissue biochemical markers demonstrated that DTX displayed marked protective potential against CCl4-induced liver and kidney injury at 100 mg/kg/rat. Relative to the control CCl4-intoxicated group, pretreatment with DTX significantly (P<.001) suppressed the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), bilirubin, creatinine, and calcium, whereas it significantly (P<.001) increased the diminished serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP). Moreover, DTX significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and increased TP synthesis in hepatorenal tissues compared with the intoxicated control. The improvement in biochemical parameters by DTX was observed in a dose-dependent manner and confirmed by restoration of normal histological features. The acute toxicity test of DTX in rats revealed safety of the extract. This study reveals that DTX enhances the recovery from xenobiotics-induced toxicity initiated by free radicals. PMID:25569813

  14. Radish seed extract mediates its cardiovascular inhibitory effects via muscarinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we describe the hypotensive, cardio-modulatory and endothelium-dependent vasodilator actions of Raphanus sativus (radish) seed crude extract in an attempt to provide scientific basis for its traditional use in hypertension. The plant extract (Rs.Cr) was prepared in distilled water and was subjected to phytochemical screening using standard analytical procedures. In vivo blood pressure was monitored in anaesthetized normotensive rats. Isolated tissue preparations were suspended in tissue baths containing Kreb's solution while acute toxicity study was performed in mice for 24 h. Rs.Cr tested positive for the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and alkaloids and caused a dose-dependent (0.1-3 mg/kg) fall in blood pressure and heart rate of rats that was mediated via an atropine-sensitive pathway. In isolated guinea-pig atria, Rs.Cr showed dose-dependent (0.03-3.0 mg/mL) inhibition of force and rate of contractions. In the atropine-treated tissues, the inhibitory effect was abolished and a cardiac stimulant effect was unmasked which was resistant to adrenergic and serotonergic receptor blockade. In the endothelium-intact rat aorta, Rs.Cr inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions, which was blocked by atropine and Nomega-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride while was also absent in the endothelium-denuded preparations. The extract was safe in mice up to the dose of 10 g/kg. The study shows that the cardiovascular inhibitory effects of the plant are mediated through activation of muscarinic receptors thus possibly justifying its use in hypertension. PMID:16448395

  15. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-01-01

    Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this article: Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP, Patil AK, Kakde DD. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):61-6 . PMID:24453446

  16. Optimization of subcritical water extraction parameters of antioxidant polyphenols from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) seed residue.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ying; Zhang, Xiaofei; He, Li; Yan, Qiuli; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-03-01

    Polyphenols was extracted with subcritical water from the sea buckthorn seed residue (after oil recovery), and the extraction parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent processing variables were extraction temperature, extraction time and the ratio of water to solid. The optimal extraction parameters for the extracts with highest ABTS radical scavenging activity were 120 °C, 36 min and the water to solid ratio of 20, and the maximize antioxidant capacity value was 32.42 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolics, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins was 36.62 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, 19.98 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 10.76 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g, respectively. PMID:25745222

  17. Genetic analysis of Karnal bunt (Neovossia indica) resistance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Luthra, O P; Chawla, V; Yadav, N R; Kumar, R; Khar, A

    2003-03-01

    Embryos excised from seeds of six generations (P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2) of a cross WH 283 WH 533 were cultured on modified MS medium already inoculated with secondary sporidia of Neovossia indica. Significant variations for callusing response (CR) (54 55-75 55%) were observed among generations but the presence or absence of N. indicia did not affect callusing response. A clear inhibition zone (IZ) was formed around each embryo showing callusing. The diameter of IZ varied significantly among generations and was maximum in the resistant genotype, WH 283 (3 60 cm). Fresh weight and dry weight of calli, initiated from embryo cultured and inoculated with N. indica, varied significantly among generations. Coefficient of infection as well as percentage of infection reflected the overdominance of susceptibility. Generation mean analysis showed that the three parameter model was adequate for diameter of IZ only. Six-parameter model showed that additive (in presence of N. indica), additive and additive dominance (in absence of N. indica) effects were also significant. Complementary type of epistasis for fresh weight of calli and dominance, and dominance dominance effects for dry weight of calli were observed in the presence of N. indica. Magnitude of additive effects was higher for diameter of IZ in three parameter model. Therefore, selection might assist in improving this trait and thus indirectly help in attaining the resistance towards N. indica. PMID:12711812

  18. The Effect of Date Seed (Phoenix dactylifera) Extract on Paraoxonase and Arylesterase Activities in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takaeidi, Mohammad Reza; Jahangiri, Alireza; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Siahpoosh, Amir; Yaghooti, Hamid; Rezaei, Saeid; Salecheh, Maryam; Mansourzadeh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high- density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme, displaying esterase and lactonase activity. The PON1 is involved in a variety of inflammatory diseases, metabolizing toxic oxidized lipids and detoxifying of organophosphorus insecticide compounds and nerve agents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanolic date seed extract (DSE) on paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted in two groups of normal and hypercholesterolemic rats and continued for four weeks. Two weeks after receiving the normal and hypercholesterolemic diet, different dosages of DSE were administered during the last two weeks of the treatment. Blood samples were taken from animals before administration of DSE (at day 14) and at the end of the experimental period (at day 28). Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities of PON1 enzyme were assayed by kit using paraoxone and phenylacetate as the substrates. Relative changes in serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) were compared between the two groups during this interval. Results: Administration of DSE significantly increased serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in treated hypercholesterolemic groups compared to untreated ones. There was a significant difference in the TAOC of serum between the normal diet and hypercholesterolemic groups. However, DSE did not change the TAOC in hypercholesterolemic groups significantly. Conclusions: DSE increases serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities. These beneficial effects may be subjected to the presence of natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds in the date seed. Despite this, DSE did not increase TAOC in treated hypercholesterolemic groups compared to the untreated ones based on ABTS (2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) radical reduction assay. This indicates that the hypercholesterolemic diet, apart from DSE and atorvastatin effects, may be responsible for the serum TAOC reduction. However, it is concluded that DSE may be useful in decreasing the symptoms of diseases resulting from the low activity of paraoxonase. PMID:24644436

  19. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  20. Impact of postharvest dehydration process of winegrapes on mechanical and acoustic properties of the seeds and their relationship with flavanol extraction during simulated maceration.

    PubMed

    Río Segade, Susana; Torchio, Fabrizio; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Giacosa, Simone; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Rolle, Luca

    2016-05-15

    This study represents the first time that the extraction of phenolic compounds from the seeds is assessed from instrumental texture properties for dehydrated grapes. Nebbiolo winegrapes were postharvest dehydrated at 20°C and 41% relative humidity. During the dehydration process, sampling was performed at 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% weight loss. The extractable fraction and extractability of phenolic compounds from the seeds were determined after simulated maceration. The evolution of mechanical and acoustic attributes of intact seeds was also determined during grape dehydration to evaluate how these changes affected the extraction of phenolic compounds. The extractable content and extractability of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins, as well as the galloylation percentage of flavanols, might be predicted easily and quickly from the mechanical and acoustic properties of intact seeds. This would help in decision-making on the optimal dehydration level of winegrapes and the best management of winemaking of dehydrated grapes. PMID:26776049

  1. Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2014-05-21

    The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ?2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ?128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars. PMID:24766361

  2. Effect of lipid extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds on the liver ATP reduction and alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sobhi, Widad; Stevigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Calderon, Bedro Buc; Atmani, Djebbar; Benboubetra, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Various extracts from the seeds of Nigella sativa have been used in traditional folk medicine to treat inflammation, liver disorders and arthritis. These seeds have been experimentally shown to possess antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Beside the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects, this study was carried out to evaluate, in vitro, toxicological effect of lipid extracts from the Nigella sativa seeds. The tested fractions were: (i) defatted methanolic extract, (ii) total lipid extract obtained by hexane extraction from methanolic extract and (iii) neutral and polar lipid fractions. The fractions were assessed, in vitro, for their inhibitory activity potential on the enzyme alpha-glucosidase as suppressing the enzyme activity is one among the therapeutic approaches to attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia. High inhibition of alpha-glucosidase by the two polar lipid fractions (F6 and F7) was reflected by their IC50 (0.51±0.04mg/ml and 0.55±0.09mg/ml, respectively), compared to acarbose (0.53±0.06mg/ml) and thymoquinone (0.65±0.05mg/ml). The hypoglycaemic effect of the polar lipid fraction of Nigella sativa could be explained by the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase, which is one of early steps of carbohydrate metabolism. Toxicological evaluation was investigated on precision-cut rat liver slices (PCLS). On PCLS, lipid extracts reduced ATP levels by 27 to 35%. Results indicate suggest that Nigella sativa extracts don't show a hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen, but don't exhibit a major hepatotoxicity when tested alone. PMID:26826824

  3. A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes

    PubMed Central

    Ramavandi, Bahman; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Kafaei, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1], [2], [3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na+ and K+), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: • According to the Hardy–Schulze rule, we applied the Fe3+ ions instead of Na+ and K+ for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds. • The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction). • Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes. PMID:26150999

  4. A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes.

    PubMed

    Ramavandi, Bahman; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Kafaei, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1-3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na(+) and K(+)), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: •According to the Hardy-Schulze rule, we applied the Fe(3+) ions instead of Na(+) and K(+) for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds.•The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction).•Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes. PMID:26150999

  5. Phenolic composition, DNA damage protective activity and hepatoprotective effect of free phenolic extract from Sphallerocarpus gracilis seeds.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chun-yan; Tian, Cheng-rui; Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Run-guang; Lu, Yue-hong

    2014-05-01

    The phenolic composition of the free phenolic extract from Sphallerocarpus gracilis seeds was analyzed by HPLC-MS and predominant compounds were chlorogenic acid, di-caffeoylquinic acid glucoside and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. The free phenolic extract was evaluated for DNA damage protective activity induced by ROO and OH radicals and hepatoprotective effect in vivo and in vitro. Results revealed that the free phenolic extract exhibited significant protective activity against both ROO and OH radical-induced DNA damage and the phenolic extract exerted more potent inhibitory activity against OH radical-induced damage than against that induced by ROO radicals. In vivo experimental results showed that the phenolic extract significantly prevented the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and hepatic malondialdehyde level caused by CCl4 in rats, and markedly increased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels. Histopathological examinations further confirmed that the phenolic extract could protect the liver from CCl4-induced damage. In vitro experimental results showed that the phenolic extract could reduce BRL hepatocyte apoptosis and damage induced by CCl4. These findings indicate that the S. gracilis seed could be developed as a medicinal herb for the therapy and prevention of hepatic injury. PMID:24657314

  6. Isolation of volatiles from Nigella sativa seeds using microwave-assisted extraction: effect of whole extracts on canine and murine CYP1A.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Abd El-Aty, A M; Assayed, M E; Shimoda, Minoru; Shim, Jae-Han

    2013-07-01

    The volatile components of Nigella sativa seeds were isolated using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and identified using gas chromatography. Further investigations were carried out to demonstrate the effects of whole extracts on canine (dog) and murine (rat) cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). The optimal extraction conditions of MAE were as follows: 25 mL of water, medium level of microwave oven power and 10 min of extraction time. A total of 32 compounds were identified under the conditions using GC-FID and GC-MS. Thymoquinone (38.23%), p-cymene (28.61%), 4-isopropyl-9-methoxy-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene (5.74%), longifolene (5.33%), α-thujene (3.88) and carvacol (2.31%) were the main compounds emitted from N. sativa seeds. Various extracts including pure compounds, essential oil, nonpolar partition, relatively high-polar/nonpolar partition, and polar partition extracts effectively inhibited the reaction of ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylation, which is specified for CYP1A activity both in dog and rat. This in vitro data should be heeded as a signal of possible in vivo interactions. The use of human liver preparations would considerably strengthen the practical impact of the data generated from this study. PMID:23629843

  7. Influence of Grape Seed Extract and Zinc Containing Multivitamin-Mineral Nutritional Food Supplement on Lipid Profile in Normal and Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zincovit tablet is combination of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement. Aims: To investigate the influence of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement tablets (Zincovit) on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets doses ranged from 40 to 160 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Results: Hypercholesterolemic animals treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (nutritional food supplement) at 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg exhibited drastic decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and rise of HDL-C in comparison to hypercholesterolemic control group animals. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet was comparable with the standard drug atorvastatin treated animals and the variations were statistically non-significant. There was no significant impact of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets on lipid profile among normal animals in comparison with normal control group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet is the potential functional nutritional food supplements that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats. PMID:25653967

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of Nigella sativa Linn. seed extract against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jaswal, Amita; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intake damages liver. We evaluated therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. The hepatic damage induced by CCl4 @ 1.5 mL/kg, ip was evidenced by a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, protein and urea lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as reduction in hepatic antioxidant system e.g. reduced glutathione. Hepatic total protein and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were found decreased. Histological studies substantiated the above biochemical findings. However, after 48 h of administration of aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, po) it not only detoxified the toxicity but also reversed LPO, GSH, AST, ALT and serum protein changes at all the three doses. Both higher doses of extract were found effective in monitoring urea, albumin, total protein and G-6-Pase activity. However, on the basis of percent protection highest dose i.e., 750 mg/kg proved better. The result suggests that the aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds can be used as a hepatoprotective agent. PMID:25675711

  9. Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Attenuates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Eunhui; Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), along with obesity, is increasing world-wide and is one of the major causes of chronic hepatic disease. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS) on high fat diet-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6 mice after daily administration at 300 or 500 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Treatment with PCS extract significantly reduced body weight and blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, PCS extract treatment significantly attenuated lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissue and reduced serum lipid and hepatic triglyceride levels. Furthermore, the expression of lipogenic genes and inflammatory genes were reduced, and the expression of fat oxidation-related genes was increased in the liver of PCS extract-treated mice compared with control mice. Our study suggests the therapeutic potential of PCS extract for NAFLD by inhibiting lipid accumulation and inflammation in liver. PMID:26861390

  10. Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Attenuates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunhui; Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), along with obesity, is increasing world-wide and is one of the major causes of chronic hepatic disease. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS) on high fat diet-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6 mice after daily administration at 300 or 500 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Treatment with PCS extract significantly reduced body weight and blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, PCS extract treatment significantly attenuated lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissue and reduced serum lipid and hepatic triglyceride levels. Furthermore, the expression of lipogenic genes and inflammatory genes were reduced, and the expression of fat oxidation-related genes was increased in the liver of PCS extract-treated mice compared with control mice. Our study suggests the therapeutic potential of PCS extract for NAFLD by inhibiting lipid accumulation and inflammation in liver. PMID:26861390

  11. Grape Seed Extract Dose-Responsively Decreases Disease Severity in a Rat Model of Mucositis; Concomitantly Enhancing Chemotherapeutic Effectiveness in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Ker Yeaw; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Bastian, Susan Elaine Putnam

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mucositis is a serious disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that results from cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of increasing grape seed extract doses on the severity of chemotherapy in a rat model and its coincident impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells. Design Female Dark Agouti rats were gavaged with grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) or water (day 3–11) and were injected intraperitoneally with 5-Fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) on day 9 to induce mucositis. Daily metabolic data were collected and rats were sacrificed on day 12. Intestinal tissues were collected for histological and myeloperoxidase analyses. Caco-2 cell viability was examined in response to grape seed extract in combination with 5-Fluorouracil by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results Compared with 5-Fluorouracil controls, grape seed extract (400–1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the histological damage score (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Grape seed extract (1000 mg/kg) increased jejunal crypt depth by 25% (P<0.05) in 5-Fluorouracil treated rats compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls, and attenuated the 5-Fluorouracil -induced reduction of mucosal thickness (25%, P<0.05). Grape seed extract (600 mg/kg) decreased myeloperoxidase activity by 55% (P<0.01) compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls. Grape seed extract was more effective at ameliorating 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal injury, with effects most pronounced in the proximal jejunum. Grape seed extract (10–25 ug/mL) significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-Fluorouracil by 26% (P<0.05) in Caco-2 cells and was more potent than 5-Fluorouracil at 50–100 µg/mL. Conclusion Grape seed extract may represent a new therapeutic option to decrease the symptoms of intestinal mucositis while concurrently impacting on the viability of colon cancer cells. PMID:24465501

  12. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S M; Singh, D K

    2000-11-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC(50) of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC(50): 22.42 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC(50): 55.65 mg/l) in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata. PMID:11050667

  13. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract alleviates ouabain-induced vascular remodeling through regulation of endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangju; Qiu, Jie; Zhao, Shaohua; You, Beian; Ji, Xiang; Wang, Yan; Cui, Xiaopei; Wang, Qian; Gao, Haiqing

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that chronic ouabain treatment leads to hypertension and hypertensive vascular remodeling. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to be effective in treating arteriosclerosis, while little is known about its effect on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling. In this study, the effects of GSPE on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling were analyzed by treating ouabain-induced hypertensive rats with GSPE (250 mg/kg·d). The expression of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in thoracic aorta was examined by ELISA; the mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1 were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased following treatment with GSPE, with blocked vascular remodeling. The ET-1 content was reduced while NO production was increased in the GSPE group, which showed improved vascular endothelial function. Moreover, GSPE also reduced TGF-β1 expression in the thoracic aorta, which is a determinant in vascular remodeling. In conclusion, GSPE antagonized ouabain-induced hypertension and vascular remodeling and is recommended as a potential anti-hypertensive agent for patients with hypertensive vascular diseases. PMID:22895622

  14. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications. PMID:24832986

  15. Ovicidal effects of a neem seed extract preparation on eggs of body and head lice.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Schmidt, Jürgen; Semmler, Margit

    2011-11-01

    The eggs (nits) of head and body lice (Pediculus humanus capitis, Pediculus humanus corporis) were incubated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 or 45 min into a neem seed extract contained in a fine shampoo formulation (e.g. Wash Away® Louse), which is known for its significant killing effects of larvae and adults of head lice. The aim of the study was to test whether the developmental stages inside the eggs are also killed after the incubation into the shampoo. It was found that an incubation time of only 5 min was sufficient to prohibit any hatching of larvae, whilst 93 ± 4% of the larvae in the untreated controls of body lice hatched respectively about 76% of the controls in the case of head lice. Apparently, the neem-based shampoo blocked the aeropyles of the eggs, thus preventing the embryos of both races of lice from accessing oxygen and from releasing carbon dioxide. Thus, this product offers a complete cure from head lice upon a single treatment, if the lice (motile stages, eggs) are fully covered for about 10 min. PMID:21484346

  16. Fenugreek seed extract attenuates cisplatin-induced testicular damage in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hamza, A A; Elwy, H M; Badawi, A M

    2016-03-01

    Cisplatin (CIS) provides oxidative stress and inflammations in testicular tissues. Fenugreek seed extract (FSE) is a widely used herbal medicine with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of FSE against CIS-induced testicular damage in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were given vehicle, single dose of CIS alone (10 mg kg(-1) ), single dose of FSE alone or single dose of CIS followed by FSE (50, 100 or 200 mg kg(-1) ) every day for 5 days. On day 6, oxidative stress and apoptotic testicular toxicity were evaluated. FSE attenuated both germ cell degenerations and apoptosis in seminiferous tubules in CIS-treated rats. Furthermore, FSE counteracted CIS-induced oxidative stress in rats as assessed by the restoration of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduction in the myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde levels in testes. CIS increased expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor-kappa B in testicular tissues. Importantly, treatment with FSE at all doses effectively alleviated all of these inflammatory parameters in testes. Based on these results, we concluded that FSE reduces CIS-induced reproductive toxicity in rats by the suppression of testicular oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammations. PMID:25996647

  17. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed. PMID:24063406

  18. Protective effects of Syzygium cumini seed extract against methylmercury-induced sistemic toxicity in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, F H; Bell, L P; Bitencourt, P E R; De Bona, K S; Zanette, R A; Boligon, A A; Athayde, M L; Pigatto, A S; Moretto, M B

    2011-04-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Sc) belongs to the medicinal plants with an important source of phenolic compounds. Sc has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Methylmercury (MeHg), a highly toxic environmental pollutant, induces oxidative stress and dysfunction in many cell types. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of Sc (ASc) on MeHg-induced toxicity in rats. Two-day-old rats (P2) received a single dose of MeHg (10mg/kg) and two doses of ASc (0.9mg/kg) per os. After two days, the effects of the treatment were investigated in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, kidney, liver and urine samples. Our results demonstrated that N-acetyl-?-D: -glucosaminidase (NAG) activity in the kidney and urine, the lipid peroxidation levels in the liver and kidney samples, as well as the adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the hippocampus, kidney and liver were higher in MeHg-group when compared to the control group. The administration of ASc reverted the toxic effects of MeHg. It is noteworthy to observe that the main compounds present in the ASc, as gallic acid (the major component), chlorogenic acid and rutin, might be the responsible for such benefit, since they were found to display antioxidant properties. PMID:21207116

  19. Efficacy of grape seed and skin extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safouen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2015-11-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline used in chemotherapy, although it causes toxicity and oxidative stress. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a mixture of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. To evaluate the hepato-toxicity of Dox on healthy rats as well as the protective effect of GSSE, rats were treated with GSSE (500mg/kg bw) during 8 days. At the 4th day of treatment, they received a single dose of Dox (20 mg/kg bw). After the treatment (9th day), livers were collected and processed for oxidative stress status. Dox increased MDA (+ 900%), decreased catalase (-60%) and increased peroxidase (+90%) and superoxide dismutase (+100%) activities. In this latter case Dox mainly increased the iron isoform. Furthermore Dox altered intracellular mediators as catalytic free iron (-75%), H₂O₂(-75%) and calcium (+30%). Dox also affected liver function by elevating plasma triacylglycerol and transaminases and liver morphology by altering its typical architecture. Importantly all Dox-induced liver disturbances were alleviated upon GSSE treatment. Dox induced liver toxicity and an oxidative stress mainly characterized by increased lipoperoxidation but not protein carbonylation. GSSE efficiently protected the liver from Dox-induced toxicity and appeared as a safe adjuvant that could be incorporated into chemotherapy protocols. PMID:26639474

  20. Resveratrol Derivative-Rich Melinjo Seed Extract Attenuates Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Izuo, Naotaka; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative damages induced by a redox imbalance cause age-related changes in cells and tissues. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes play a pivotal role in the antioxidant system and they also catalyze superoxide radicals. Since the loss of cytoplasmic SOD (SOD1) resulted in aging-like phenotypes in several types of murine tissue, SOD1 is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon Linn) seed extract (MSE) contains trans-resveratrol (RSV) and resveratrol derivatives, including gnetin C, gnemonoside A, and gnemonoside D. MSE intake also exerts no adverse events in human study. In the present studies, we investigated protective effects of MSE on age-related skin pathologies in mice. Orally MSE and RSV treatment reversed the skin thinning associated with increased oxidative damage in the Sod1−/− mice. Furthermore, MSE and RSV normalized gene expression of Col1a1 and p53 and upregulated gene expression of Sirt1 in skin tissues. In vitro experiments revealed that RSV significantly promoted the viability of Sod1−/− fibroblasts. These finding demonstrated that RSV in MSE stably suppressed an intrinsic superoxide generation in vivo and in vitro leading to protecting skin damages. RSV derivative-rich MSE may be a powerful food of treatment for age-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damages. PMID:26180586

  1. Cytoprotective effects of grape seed extract on human gingival fibroblasts in relation to its antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Yusuke; Niwano, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Takuji; Mokudai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Keisuke; Oizumi, Satomi; Kanno, Taro; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cytoprotective effects of short-term treatment with grape seed extract (GSE) upon human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) were evaluated in relation to its antioxidant properties and compared with those of a water-soluble analog of vitamin E: trolox (Tx). GSE and Tx showed comparable antioxidant potential in vitro against di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH; a stable radical), hydroxyl radical (•OH), singlet oxygen (1O2), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pretreatment or concomitant treatment with GSE for 1 min protected hGFs from oxidative stressors, including H2O2, acid-electrolyzed water (AEW), and 1O2, and attenuated the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species induced by H2O2 and AEW. Tx also reduced the H2O2- and AEW-induced intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species, but showed no cytoprotective effects on hGFs exposed to H2O2, AEW, or 1O2. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effects of GSE are likely exerted independently of its antioxidant potential. PMID:26258747

  2. Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications.

    PubMed

    Yaragalla, Srinivasarao; Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya; AlMaadeed, Mariam A; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2016-08-01

    The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4μgml(-1) & 5μgml(-1) of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines. PMID:27157761

  3. Cytoprotective Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Human Gingival Fibroblasts in Relation to Its Antioxidant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Katsuda, Yusuke; Niwano, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Takuji; Mokudai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Keisuke; Oizumi, Satomi; Kanno, Taro; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cytoprotective effects of short-term treatment with grape seed extract (GSE) upon human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) were evaluated in relation to its antioxidant properties and compared with those of a water-soluble analog of vitamin E: trolox (Tx). GSE and Tx showed comparable antioxidant potential in vitro against di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH; a stable radical), hydroxyl radical (•OH), singlet oxygen (1O2), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pretreatment or concomitant treatment with GSE for 1 min protected hGFs from oxidative stressors, including H2O2, acid-electrolyzed water (AEW), and 1O2, and attenuated the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species induced by H2O2 and AEW. Tx also reduced the H2O2- and AEW-induced intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species, but showed no cytoprotective effects on hGFs exposed to H2O2, AEW, or 1O2. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effects of GSE are likely exerted independently of its antioxidant potential. PMID:26258747

  4. Factors Influencing Oral Bioavailability of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract and Its Key Phenolic Principles.

    PubMed

    Jiamboonsri, Pimsumon; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Yin, Taijun; Gao, Song; Hu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Mango seed kernel extract (MSKE) and its key components (gallic acid, GA; methyl gallate, MG; and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, PGG) have generated interest because of their pharmacological activities. To develop the potential use of the key components in MSKE as natural therapeutic agents, their pharmacokinetic data are necessary. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the factors affecting their oral bioavailability as pure compounds and as components in MSKE. The in vitro chemical stability, biological stability, and absorption were evaluated in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution, Caco-2 cell and rat fecal lysates, and the Caco-2 cell model, respectively. The in vivo oral pharmacokinetic behavior was elucidated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The key components were unstable under alkaline conditions and in Caco-2 cell lysates or rat fecal lysates. The absorptive permeability coefficient followed the order MG > GA > PGG. The in vivo results exhibited similar pharmacokinetic trends to the in vitro studies. Additionally, the co-components in MSKE may affect the pharmacokinetic behaviors of the key components in MSKE. In conclusion, chemical degradation under alkaline conditions, biological degradation by intestinal cell and colonic microflora enzymes, and low absorptive permeability could be important factors underlying the oral bioavailability of these polyphenols. PMID:26633325

  5. Hepatoprotection through regulation of voltage dependent anion channel expression by Amomum subulatum Roxb seeds extract

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Mihir Y.; Shah, Purvi A.; Gao, Jing; Gandhi, Tejal R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) plays an important role in triggering the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) that leads to mitochondrial damage and induce apoptic or necrotic cell death. In the present study, the methanolic extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb. seeds (MEAS) was used to examine its effect on VDAC. Aminotransferase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium-induced liver MPT, and VDAC expression were used to evaluate the hepato protective effect of MEAS. Results: Pretreatment of mice with MEAS (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly blocked the CCl4-induced increase in AST and ALT activities. Pretreatment with MEAS showed significant preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to CCl4 control demonstrating the mitochondrial protection. In addition, pretreatment with MEAS at various concentrations exerted a dose-dependent effect against sensitivity to mitochondrial swelling induced by calcium. In addition, MEAS (300 mg/kg) significantly increased the transcription and translation of VDAC. Conclusion: Our data suggest that MEAS significantly prevents the damage to liver mitochondria through regulation of VDAC expression. PMID:22144772

  6. Celery Seed Extract Blocks Peroxide Injury in Macrophages via Notch1/NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Si, Yanhong; Guo, Shoudong; Fang, Yongqi; Qin, Shucun; Li, Furong; Zhang, Ying; Jiao, Peng; Zhang, Chunduo; Gao, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced macrophage foam cell formation and injury is one of the major atherogenic factors. This study is aimed to investigate the protective effect of celery seed extract (CSE) on ox-LDL-induced injury of macrophages and the underlying signaling pathway. RAW264.7 macrophages were pre-incubated with CSE for 24 h, followed by stimulation with ox-LDL. Oil red O staining and enzymatic colorimetry indicated CSE significantly lessened lipid droplets and total cholesterol (TC) content in ox-LDL-injured macrophages. ELISA revealed that CSE decreased the secretion of inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-6 by 12-27% and 5-15% respectively. MTT assay showed CSE promoted cell viability by 16-40%. Cell apoptosis was also analyzed by flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscope and the data indicated CSE inhibited ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of macrophages. Meanwhile, western blot analysis showed CSE suppressed NF-κBp65 and notch1 protein expressions stimulated by ox-LDL in macrophages. These results suggest that CSE inhibits ox-LDL-induced macrophages injury via notch1/NF-κB pathway. PMID:25916469

  7. Addition of Grape Seed Extract Renders Phosphoric Acid a Collagen-stabilizing Etchant

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.; Dusevich, V.; Wang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies found that grape seed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, could protect demineralized dentin collagen from collagenolytic activities following clinically relevant treatment. Because of proanthocyanidins adverse interference to resin polymerization, it was believed that GSE should be applied and then rinsed off in a separate step, which in effect increases the complexity of the bonding procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining GSE treatment with phosphoric acid etching to address the issue. It is also the first attempt to formulate collagen-cross-linking dental etchants. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and digestion assay, it was established that in the presence of 20% to 5% phosphoric acid, 30 sec of GSE treatment rendered demineralized dentin collagen inert to bacterial collagenase digestion. Based on this positive result, the simultaneous dentin etching and collagen protecting of GSE-containing phosphoric acid was evaluated on the premise of a 30-second etching time. According to micro-Raman spectroscopy, the formulation containing 20% phosphoric acid was found to lead to overetching. Based on scanning and transmission electronic microscopy, this same formulation exhibited unsynchronized phosphoric acid and GSE penetration. Therefore, addition of GSE did render phosphoric acid a collagen-stabilizing etchant, but the preferable phosphoric acid concentration should be <20%. PMID:24935065

  8. Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-02-15

    The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 μg/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. PMID:24507339

  9. Cochrane summary of findings: horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Underland, Vigdis; Sæterdal, Ingvil; Nilsen, Elin Strømme

    2012-03-01

    As part of its efforts to disseminate the results of Cochrane reviews to a wider audience, the Cochrane Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Field develops Summary of Findings (SoF) tables and then uses these tables as a basis for its Plain Language Summaries. In each SoF table, the most important outcomes of the review, the effect of the intervention on each outcome, and the quality of the evidence for each outcome are presented. The process of developing the SoF table involves deciding which outcomes to present for which time points and evaluating the strength and quality of the evidence for the outcomes. The Cochrane CAM Field contacted the authors of this review to request clarification on any points that are not understood in the Cochrane review and also to request their review of the SoF. In this article, review authors in the Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the effects of horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. PMID:24278808

  10. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, α-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given. PMID:25745251

  11. Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

    2014-02-15

    Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:24128509

  12. Valorization of an agro-industrial waste, mango seed, by the extraction and characterization of its cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Henrique, Mariana Alves; Silvério, Hudson Alves; Flauzino Neto, Wilson Pires; Pasquini, Daniel

    2013-05-30

    Mango seeds are lignocellulosic agro-industrial residues available in large quantities in tropical countries and are simply discarded or used as animal feed. They are a natural and renewable resource, and were used to generate new polymeric materials in this work. This new materials can be used as alternatives to fossil resources such as petroleum. This work aimed to extract and characterize cellulose nanocrystals (CN) from mango seed by acid hydrolysis to obtain a material suitable as a reinforcing agent in the manufacturing of nanocomposites. The fibers of mango seeds were ground in mills and purified mainly to remove lignin. The raw mango seed (MS) and the purified mango seed (PMS) were analyzed for chemical composition and characterized by infrared and X-rays. Cellulose nanocrystals from the mango seed (CNM) were isolated by acid hydrolysis at 40 °C for 10 min, with 20 ml of H2SO4 (11.21 M) used for every gram of cellulose. The yield at this step was 22.8%. CNM were needle-shaped, with high crystallinity (90.6%), good thermal stability (around 248 °C), a medium length (L) of 123.4 ± 22.1 nm and a diameter (D) of 4.59 ± 2.22 nm, giving an aspect ratio (L/D) of about 34.1 ± 18.6. The diameter measurements of CNM were also confirmed by Scherrer's equation. This work also aimed to reuse mango seed produced as industrial waste, giving it a useful application and preventing its role as an environmental pollutant. PMID:23542530

  13. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini seed extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prasad, C. H.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

    2014-09-01

    A novel and bio-inspired Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) were synthesized using Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) seed extract, which is a non-toxic ecofriendly fruit waste material. S. cumini seed extract acts as a green solvent, reducing and capping agent in which sodium acetate acts as electrostatic stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis techniques. The XRD study divulged that the synthesized SMNPs have inverse spinel cubic structure. The hysteresis loop of Fe3O4 nanoparticles shows an excellent ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization value of 13.6 emu/g.

  14. Oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol retention in soybean oil with lemon seed extract (Citrus limon) under thermoxidation.

    PubMed

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2009-11-01

    The synergistic effect of lemon seed extract with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in soybean oil subjected to thermoxidation by Rancimat was investigated, and the influence of these antioxidants on a-tocopherol degradation in thermoxidized soybean oil. Control, LSE (2400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract), TBHQ (50 mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180 degrees C for 20 h. Samples were taken at time 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analysed for oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol content. LSE and Mixtures 1 and 2 showed the capacity of retarding lipid oxidation when added to soya oil and also contributed to alpha-tocopherol retention in oil heated at high temperatures. However, Mixtures 1 and 2 added to the oil presented a greater antioxidant power, consequently proving the antioxidants synergistic effect. PMID:19967989

  15. Treatment of patients with venous insufficiency with fresh plant horse chestnut seed extract: a review of 5 clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Suter, Andy; Bommer, Silvia; Rechner, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    Extracts from the seed of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) have traditionally been used to treat patients with chronic venous insufficiency and to alleviate its associated symptoms, including lower leg swelling. The efficacy of preparations that contain horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE) is believed to be due largely to an inhibitory effect on the catalytic breakdown of capillary wall proteoglycans. Aesculaforce is a fresh plant HCSE that is available as an oral tincture, as tablets (20 mg or 50 mg), and as topical gel. Four clinical trials in patients with chronic venous insufficiency and 1 study in patients with varicose veins demonstrated the effectiveness of these preparations through the objective measure of reduction in lower leg edema and the subjective alleviation of leg pain, heaviness, and itching. Safe, well tolerated, and acceptable to patients, the fresh plant HCSE preparation Aesculaforce offers a real alternative in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate venous insufficiency. PMID:16644618

  16. Effects of Moringa oleifera seed extract on rumen fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Becker, K

    2003-02-01

    Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot blot assay able to directly detect true protein in rumen fluid samples was used to quantify protein degradation. For complex substrates the interpretation of protein degradation profiles was amended by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of the samples. When incubated with pure carbohydrates at a concentration of 1 mg ml(-1), the extract reduced microbial degradation of the model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), such that its concentration was at least 40% above the control after 12 h of incubation. Total protein degradation was thus delayed by approximately 9 h. When fermented along with wheat straw, leaf protein (Rubisco) was almost entirely protected during 12 h of fermentation. The degradation of soy proteins was retarded by at least 4-6 h, depending on the protein band. There were strong side effects on the fermentation of pure cellulose (SCFA yield-60% after 12 h), whereas cellobiose and starch fermentation were less affected (-18 and -8%, respectively). When the complex substrates were fermented, SCFA yield was reduced by approximately 30% after 12 h. In our work we clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the new substance, which is neither a tannin nor a saponin, in an in vitro system, using pure as well as complex substrates. The properties shown in vitro for the crude extract suggest that it could have a positive effect on the protein metabolism of ruminants under intensive management and that negative side effects can be overcome by an optimized dosage. If the chemical nature of the active substance and its mechanism of action can be clarified, it may provide an alternative to replace critical synthetic feed additives (such as antibiotics) for high yielding dairy cows. PMID:12801080

  17. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and its antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150-300 bar), temperature (40-50 °C) and dynamic extraction time (60-120 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The SC-CO(2) extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9%) as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO(2) extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO(2) extraction conditions. PMID:23322066

  18. Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos. PMID:25056942

  19. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of grape fruits and seeds in stress induced disorders. PMID:15656916

  20. Effect of legume seed extracts on the inhibition of proteolytic activity and muscle degradation of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii).

    PubMed

    Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    Trypsin inhibitors in the extracts from soybean (Glycine max), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and red kidney bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris) varied in amount and molecular weight. The soybean extract had the highest level of trypsin inhibitor with molecular weight (MW) of 21kDa, followed by bambara groundnut extract possessing trypsin inhibitor with MW of 15kDa. Both extracts showed a more effective inhibition towards crude protease extract (CE) from the hepatopancreas of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) than the extracts from adzuki and red kidney beans. Activity staining also reconfirmed the higher inhibitory activity on CE from hepatopancreas by the extracts from both soybean and bambara groundnut. The extracts from all seeds were able to inhibit the degradation of fresh water prawn meat containing CE in a concentration dependent manner. Based on inhibitor study, the extracts from soybean and bambara groundnut can be a potential aid to suppress the muscle softening of fresh water prawn, mediated by trypsin-like proteases released from hepatopancreas, during extended iced storage. PMID:25212342

  1. Antioxidant levels and activities of selected seeds of malaysian tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Norshazila, S; Syed Zahir, I; Mustapha Suleiman, K; Aisyah, M R; Kamarul Rahim, K

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study are to determine and compare the antioxidant levels and activities (i.e. primary and secondary) between selected seeds of Malaysian tropical fruits - guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.). Seeds are among byproducts from the processing of fruitsbased products. Instead of discarding seeds as waste, seeds with high potential as antioxidants could be utilised for commercial purposes. Accordingly, the selected seeds of Malaysian tropical fruits were tested in this study for total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging activity by 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and metal ion chelating effect by ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Extraction of antioxidant compounds from sample was done with 70% ethanol. TPCs of the seeds were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in mg per 100 g fresh seed weight. TPC assay showed that mango seeds had the highest TPC (i.e. 32 ± 0.001 mg GAE) followed by guava seeds (i.e. 20 ± 0.001 mg GAE) and papaya seeds (8 ± 0.003 mg GAE). For DPPH assay, IC50 data showed that mango seed extract scavenged 50% DPPH radicals at the lowest concentration (0.11 ± 0.01 mg/mL) followed by the positive control BHA (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL), guava seed extract (0.26 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and papaya seed extract (0.34 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Interestingly, all seed extracts showed higher free radical scavenging activities than BHA after sample concentration of 0.60 mg/mL. However, FIC assay indicated that metal ion chelating effects of all seed extracts were weaker than BHA suggesting that the fruit seeds are not sources of good metal ion chelators. Overall, present results suggest that TPC of the seeds show strong negative correlation with their primary antioxidant activity (r= -0.985, R2= 0.970), and not all compounds in extracts which could scavenge DPPH radicals are good metal ion chelators. Mango seeds relatively showed the highest antioxidant level and primary antioxidant activity followed by guava seeds and papaya seeds. PMID:22691862

  2. Evaluation of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.), Effects Seeds Extract on Insulin Resistance in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh Bashtian, Maryam; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Mousavifar, Nezhat; Esmaily, Habib Allah; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Mohammad Poor, Amir Hooshang

    2013-01-01

    PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) is associated with insulin resistance, obesity and disorders of lipid metabolism as well as infertility. Fenugreek seeds extract is successfully used in lowering blood glucose. Metformin has also the same effect but in a different way. The aim of this study was the assessment of fenugreek effects on insulin resistance in women with PCOS. This was a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The study was conducted at the Montaserieh Hospital in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The patient population included 58 oligo-anovulatory PCOS women with typical ovaries. Women were randomly allocated to receive hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds in capsules with metformin (n = 30) or placebo capsules with metformin (n = 28) and were assessed before and every 4 weeks within a treatment period of 8 weeks. Menstrual disturbance and metabolic parameters (markers of insulin resistance and hormonal parameters) were measured. Insulin resistance based on HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance) model was not significantly different between two groups. Ultrasound scans were performed before and at the end of 8 weeks treatment with significant decrease in PAO (polycystic appearing ovaries) in group 1 (p = 0/01). Adjuvant therapy to the fenugreek seeds extract (with metformin) in PCOS women improved the sonographic results and menstrual cyclicity. PMID:24250624

  3. The enhancing effects of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on fertility potential, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Parandin, Rahmatollah; Yousofvand, Namdar; Ghorbani, Rostam

    2012-01-01

    Background: The task force on plants for fertility regulation in men continued with its program to identify novel prototypes in plants alleged to have fertility regulating properties. Nigella Sativa seeds are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and treatment of many ailments. Objective: To evaluated the role of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on fertility potential, Pituitary-testicular axis hormones and Testosterone in male rats. Materials and Methods: 24 male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; control, group A and group B, each group comprising of 8 rats. Animals in control group received 1 ml of normal saline and treatment groups (A and B) received (gavage) graded doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on a daily basis for 60 days. At the end of treatment period, fertility parameters such as body and reproductive organs weight, sperm motility, viability and count, epididymal sperm reserve (ESR), daily sperm production (DSP), blood testosterone concentration, Gonadotropins levels and fertility index were measured. Results: There was a significant difference in testes and epididymidis weight, sperm count, ESR, DSP, blood testosterone concentration, LH and fertility index in both the lower dose group and the higher group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed especially in higher doses could increase fertility potential, LH and testosterone concentration in male rats. PMID:25246898

  4. Antioxidant and genoprotective activity of selected cucurbitaceae seed extracts and LC-ESIMS/MS identification of phenolic components.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Owusu-Apenten, Richard

    2016-05-15

    Cucurbitaceae are one of most widely used plant species for human food but lesser known members have not been examined for bioactive components. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and genoprotective activities from three cucurbitaceae seeds extracts and to identify phenolic components by LC-ESIMS/MS analysis. From the results, the yield of seeds extract was 20-41% (w/w) and samples had 16-40% total phenols as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Compared with methanol solvent, using acidified methanol led to increased extraction yield by 1.4 to 10-fold, higher phenolic content (149.5 ± 1.2 to 396.4 ± 1.9 mg GAE/g), higher DPPH radical quenching and enhanced genoprotective activity using the pBR322 plasmid assay. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis led to identification of 14-17 components, based on authentic standards and comparison with literature reports, as mainly phenolic acids and esters, flavonol glycosides. This may be the first mass spectrometric profiling of polyphenol components from cucurbitaceae seeds. PMID:26775976

  5. Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction and Quantification of Alpinetin in Amomum Seed using Validated HPLC and HPTLC Methods

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M.; Kamal, Y. T.; Khan, M. A.; Parveen, Rabea; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, S.

    2015-01-01

    Alpinetin is a flavonoidal constituent of seeds of Amomum subulatum Roxb., recently reported to possess vasorelaxant and antiHIV activities. Simple, accurate and precise HPLC and HPTLC methods were developed for the analysis of alpinetin in A. subulatum seed extracts and extraction technique was optimized to get maximum yield using conventional, ultrasonic and matrix solid phase dispersion extraction. HPLC was performed on a C18 column with methanol and water (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min whereas HPTLC on silica aluminum sheet (60F254) using toluene, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as solvent system. A sharp peak was obtained for alpinetin at a retention time (Rt) of 5.7 min by HPLC and retardation factor (Rf) of 0.48 by HPTLC. Both methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines and the content of alpinetin was estimated in different extracts. Matrix solid phase dispersion technique was found most suitable for extracting alpinetin as compared to other techniques. Validation data are indicative of good precision and accuracy and proved the reliability of the methods. PMID:25767318

  6. UVA-induced ROS generation inhibition by Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract and subsequent cell death in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jaszewska, Edyta; Soin, Magdalena; Filipek, Agnieszka; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2013-09-01

    UVA radiation stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which react with lipids, proteins and other intracellular molecules leading to oxidative stress, cellular damage and ultimately cell death. There is, therefore, a growing need for substances exhibiting antioxidant activity, which may support repair mechanisms of the skin. This study evaluates the protective effect of the aqueous Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok defatted seeds extract, rich in polyphenolic compounds, against UVA (25 and 50J/cm(2))-induced changes in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The tested extract (0.1-10μg/ml) has decreased, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the UVA-induced release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium, the ROS production (with the use of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) and lipid peroxidation (utilizing redox reactions with ferrous ions) as compared to the control cells (incubated without the extract). Moreover, the extract increased the number of viable (calcein positive) cells decreasing the number of cells in late apoptosis (annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide positive). Thus our results show that O. paradoxa defatted seeds extract may be beneficial for the prevention of UVA skin damage. PMID:23892189

  7. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed extract of Persea americana mill (Lauraceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozolua, Raymond I; Anaka, Ogochukwu N; Okpo, Stephen O; Idogun, Sylvester E

    2009-01-01

    The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD(50)) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. In the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) per day of the extract for 28 consecutive days. Animal weight and fluid intake were recorded during the 28 days period. Terminally, kidneys, hearts, blood/sera were obtained for weight, haematological and biochemical markers of toxicity. Results show that the LD(50) could not be determined after a maximum dose of 10 g/kg. Sub-acute treatment with the extract neither affected whole body weight nor organ-to-body weight ratios but significantly increased the fluid intake (P < 0.0001). Haematological parameters and the levels of ALT, AST, albumin and creatinine were not significantly altered. However, the concentration of total proteins was significantly increased in the treated group. In conclusion, the aqueous seed extract of P. americana is safe on sub-acute basis but extremely high doses may not be advisable. PMID:20606779

  8. Syzygium cumini seed extract protects the liver against lipid peroxidation with concurrent amelioration of hepatic enzymes and lipid profile of alcoholic rats.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Shahdat; Chowdhury, Imrul Hasan; Basunia, Mafroz Ahmed; Nahar, Taslima; Rahaman, Asiqur; Choudhury, Bazlur Karim; Choudhuri, Shahabuddin Kabir; Mahmud, Ishtiaq; Uddin, Borhan

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro oxidative stress induced by ethanol/Fenton's reaction in rat liver homogenates decreased significantly in the presence of Syzygium cumini seed extract, suggesting the protective effect of the seed extract against the oxidative stress in liver. To corroborate the in vitro effects by an in vivo experiment, 24 rats were divided into four groups: control, S. cumini seed-extract-administered (SE), 15% ethanol-fed (Alc) and Alc+SE rats. The oral administration of the extract (400 mg/kg BW.day) for 7 weeks significantly decreased the levels of liver LPO in the Alc+SE rats, suggesting that S. cumini seed not only obstructed the in vitro free radical production and subsequent oxidative stress, but also inhibited their in vivo formation. The oral administration of extract also reduced the enzyme activities of serum gammaglutamyl transferase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase and the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, serum/liver triglycerides and total cholesterol of the alcoholic rats. The levels of fecal cholesterol were increased by the extract. Fatty degenerations in liver and kidney were absent with S. cumini seed extract treatment. The results suggest that S. cumini seed may be a potential therapy for alcoholics and related dysfunctions by restraining oxidative stress. PMID:22754945

  9. The seed of the Amazonian fruit Couepia bracteosa exhibits higher scavenging capacity against ROS and RNS than its shell and pulp extracts.

    PubMed

    Berto, Alessandra; Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Sentandreu, Enrique; de Souza, Nilson Evelázio; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Chisté, Renan Campos; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2015-09-01

    Among the large number of scientifically unstudied fruits from the Amazonia biome, Couepia bracteosa acts as an interesting source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which may be used for protecting human health against oxidative damage. For the first time, the phenolic compounds and carotenoids in extracts obtained from the pulp, shell and seeds of C. bracteosa fruits are reported, as well as their in vitro scavenging capacities against some reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The shell extract presented the highest phenolic compound and carotenoid contents (5540 and 328 μg per g extract, dry basis, respectively), followed by the pulp and seed extracts. The major phenolic compound was acacetin sulphate (one methoxy and two OH groups) (62%) in the shells; however, only seeds presented apigenin sulphate (three OH groups), in which it was the major compound (44%). The high content of apigenin sulphate may explain why the seed extract had the highest scavenging efficiency against all tested ROS/RNS among the studied extracts. Regarding carotenoids, all-trans-neochrome (17%) and all-trans-β-carotene (16%) were the major carotenoids in the pulp extracts, while all-trans-lutein (44%) was the most prevalent in the shell extracts and all-trans-α-carotene (32%) and all-trans-β-carotene (29%) were the major ones in the seed extracts. PMID:26211429

  10. Effects of Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacteria and of Cell Extracts on Germination of Euonymus americanus L. Seeds.

    PubMed

    Howard, Gary T; Elliott, Larry P

    1988-01-01

    In past attempts, the experimental germination of the seeds of Euonymus americanus L. in vitro has had little success. However, treatment of seeds with ruminal fluid containing viable microflora has been successful in stimulating germination. In the presence of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium, Clostridium cellobioparum ATCC 15832, seeds of E. americanus were stimulated to germinate. Subsequent studies were designed to determine whether the bacterium synthesized a cellulolytic enzyme responsible for initiating germination. The cell-free endocellulase from C. cellobioparum induced germination of the seeds. To support the hypothesis that the endocellulase from C. cellobioparum was responsible for triggering germination, a 1,4-beta-d-glucan glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4) from Penicillum funiculosum was used to treat the seeds. In addition, no germination was obtained from seeds treated with a commercial exocellulase enzyme. Also, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 was found to initiate germination of E. americanus seeds. Thus, cellulase activity is indicated in the degradation of the testa of the seed, allowing imbibition and germination. PMID:16347528

  11. PILOT-SCALE FULL PRESS OIL EXTRACTION OF CUPHEA PSR23 SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid Cuphea hybrid, is being developed as a potential commercial alternative source of medium chain fatty acids. This study evaluated the effects of initial seed moisture and final moisture of cooked flaked seeds (CFS) on press performance and oil quality. S...

  12. [Analysis of the seed Bixa orellana, L. (annatto) and the waste generated in the extraction of its pigments].

    PubMed

    Wurts, M L; Torreblanca, R A

    1983-09-01

    Annatto seed (Bixa orellana, L.) contains colored pigments (bixin and orelline) on its outer surface which at present are currently used as coloring agents in the food industry. This seed was analyzed, with and without the pigment--which was extracted by the vegetable oil method--so as to establish the possible use of the extracted seed which nowadays is considered as waste. Different dehulling and defatting treatments were applied to the annatto seed in order to obtain a flour with a greater protein content, and to diminish its crude fiber level. The different flours were then subjected to proximate analysis; protein quality was determined by amino acid analysis, and toxicological factors, mineral and vitamin contents, fatty acid profile, breakdown potential by measurement of feed digestion in the rumen of fistulated goats, fiber fractions, and bacteriological determinations were also performed. A protein content of 13.7% was determined in the seed without pigment, which increased to 14.8% with the dehulling and defatting procedures, thus reducing the crude fiber level from 14.4% to 6.5%. The results showed that the limiting amino acid is tryptophan. The toxicity level was found to be of no importance, and the vitamin and mineral content as well as the fiber fractions were very similar to those determined in cereals, but with a higher level of carotenoids. A satisfactory dry matter degradation index was obtained in the digestibility test done in ruminants. According to the above-mentioned results, it is possible to use this resource as a feed and, when mixed with other materials, as a food in human nutrition. PMID:6675551

  13. Pomegranate seed hydroalcoholic extract improves memory deficits in ovariectomized rats with permanent cerebral hypoperfusion /ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Farbood, Yaghoub; Hashemi, Shieda; Rafiei Rad, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Estrogen deficit following menopause results in cognitive behaviors impairment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pomegranate seed extract (PGSE) on avoidance memories after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups with 8 rats in each group: 1) Sham-operated for ovaries and 2CCAO (ShO); 2) OVX and sham operated for ischemia (OShI); 3-7) OVX with 2CCAO (OI) received PGSE (100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/2ml/kg or normal saline, orally) for 14 days (OI+E100, 200, 400, 800 or OI+Veh); 8) OShI received most effective dose of PGSE (200 and 400 mg/kg for passive and active avoidance memories respectively). Active and passive avoidance tasks were measured in Y-maze and two-way shuttle box respectively. Data were analyzed with one-way and RM-ANOVA followed by HSD post-hoc test. Results: Sensorimotor impaired in OShI+Veh and OI+Veh (P<0.001 vs. ShO). PGSE improved it significantly in dose dependently manner (P<0.001 vs. OI+Veh). Both types of memories were significantly impaired in OVX rats before and after 2CCAO (P<0.001). PGSE treatment significantly improved memories in OI groups (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.001) compared with OI+Veh. No toxicity was observed with PGSE consumption (800 mg/kg, 2 weeks, orally). Conclusion: PGSE exhibits therapeutic potential for avoidance memories, which is most likely related at least in part to its phytoestrogenic and also antioxidative actions. PMID:25767756

  14. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Ameliorates Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction via the Activation of the Nrf2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shouzhen; Zhu, Yaofeng; Liu, Zhifeng; Gao, Zhaoyun; Li, Baoying; Zhang, Dongqing; Zhang, Zhaocun; Jiang, Xuewen; Liu, Zhengfang; Meng, Lingquan; Yang, Yue; Shi, Benkang

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM)-induced bladder dysfunction is predominantly due to the long-term oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic properties against oxidative stress. However, its protective effects against diabetic bladder dysfunction have not been clarified. This study focuses on the effects of GSPE on bladder dysfunction in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. After 8 weeks of GSPE administration, the bladder function of the diabetic rats was improved significantly, as indicated by both urodynamics analysis and histopathological manifestation. Moreover, the disordered activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GSH-Px) and abnormal oxidative stress levels were partly reversed by treatment with GSPE. Furthermore, the level of apoptosis in the bladder caused by DM was decreased following the administration of GSPE according to the Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay. Additionally, GSPE affected the expression of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3. Furthermore, GSPE showed neuroprotective effects on the bladder of diabetic rats, as shown by the increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and decreased expression of the precursor of nerve growth factor (proNGF). GSPE also activated nuclear erythroid2-related factor2 (Nrf2), which is a key antioxidative transcription factor, with the concomitant elevation of downstream hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). These findings suggested that GSPE could ameliorate diabetic bladder dysfunction and decrease the apoptosis of the bladder in diabetic rats, a finding that may be associated with its antioxidant activity and ability to activate the Nrf2 defense pathway. PMID:25974036

  15. Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seed extract suppresses breast cancer growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Yanping; Yang, Xiaoyan Ou; Zhan, Yingzhuan

    2015-10-01

    The herb Momordica cochinchinensis has been used for a variety of purposes, and been shown to have anti‑cancer properties. The present study assessed the potency and the underlying mechanisms of action of the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (ESMC2) on breast cancer cells. Therefore, the effects of ESMC2 on the cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of MDA‑MB‑231 cells were investigated. The results showed that ESMC2 exerted a marked growth inhibitory effect on the cells. Cell cycle arrest in G2 phase following treatment with ESMC2 was associated with a marked increase in the protein levels of cyclin B1, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and a decrease in cyclin D1 expression. In addition, ESMC2 dose‑dependently induced cell apoptosis, which was mediated via upregulation of the apoptosis-associated proteins p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer and Bcl-2-associated death promoter expression, as well as downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B, Bcl‑2 and myeloid cell leukemia‑1. Furthermore, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt phosphorylation were decreased by ESMC2 in a dose‑dependent manner, indicating that ESMC2 exerted its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/JNK pathway. Furthermore, nude mouse xenotransplant models were used to evaluate the tumor growth inhibitory effects of ESMC2. The possible chemical components of ESMC2 were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 12 compounds were detected from the major peaks based on the similarity index with entries of a compound database. The results of the present study may aid in the development of novel therapies for breast cancer. PMID:26252798

  16. Grape seed procyanidin extract reduces the endotoxic effects induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats.

    PubMed

    Pallarès, Victor; Fernández-Iglesias, Anabel; Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Blay, Mayte

    2013-07-01

    Acute inflammation is a response to injury, infection, tissue damage, or shock. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin implicated in triggering sepsis and septic shock, and LPS promotes the inflammatory response, resulting in the secretion of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as the interleukins (IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α by the immune cells. Furthermore, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species levels increase rapidly, which is partially due to the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in several tissues in response to inflammatory stimuli. Previous studies have shown that procyanidins, polyphenols present in foods such as apples, grapes, cocoa, and berries, have several beneficial properties against inflammation and oxidative stress using several in vitro and in vivo models. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of two physiological doses and two pharmaceutical doses of grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) were analyzed using a rat model of septic shock by the intraperitoneal injection of LPS derived from Escherichia coli. The high nutritional (75mg/kg/day) and the high pharmacological doses (200mg/kg/day) of GSPE showed anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the proinflammatory marker NOx in the plasma, red blood cells, spleen, and liver. Moreover, the high pharmacological dose also downregulated the genes Il-6 and iNos; and the high nutritional dose decreased the glutathione ratio (GSSG/total glutathione), further illustrating the antioxidant capability of GSPE. In conclusion, several doses of GSPE can alleviate acute inflammation triggered by LPS in rats at the systemic and local levels when administered for as few as 15 days before the injection of endotoxin. PMID:23439188

  17. Grape seed extract (GSE) inhibits angiogenesis via suppressing VEGFR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wei; Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Chen, Shiuan

    2009-01-01

    Blockade of angiogenesis is an important approach for cancer treatment and prevention. VEGF is one of the most critical factors that induce angiogenesis and has thus become an attractive target for anti-angiogenesis treatment. However, most of current anti-VEGF agents often cause some side effects when given chronically. Identification of naturally occurring VEGF inhibitors derived from diet would be one alternative approach with an advantage of known safety. Grape seed extract (GSE), a widely used dietary supplement, is known to have anti-tumor activity. In this study, we have explored the activity of GSE on VEGF receptor and angiogenesis. We found that GSE could directly inhibit kinase activity of purified VEGFR2, a novel activity of GSE that has not been characterized. GSE could also inhibit VEGFR/MAPK mediated signaling pathway in endothelial cells. As a result, GSE could inhibit VEGF induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration as well as sprouts formation from aorta ring. In vivo assay further showed that GSE could inhibit tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in mice. Consistent with the in vitro data, GSE treatment of tumor bearing mice led to concomitant reduction of blood vessel density and phosphorylation of MAP kinase. Depletion of polyphenol with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP) abolished the anti-angiogenesis activity of GSE, suggesting a water soluble fraction of polyphenol in GSE is responsible for the anti-angiogenesis activity. Taken together, this study indicates that GSE is a well tolerated and inexpensive natural VEGF inhibitor and could potentially be useful in cancer prevention or treatment. PMID:19139005

  18. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Dai, Xiaoqian; Ding, Ye; Jiang, Yanfei; Li, Yujie; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is known to be an effective natural polyphenol capable of removing free radicals in vivo. It has been reported that GSPE has biological functions including antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-radiation, and prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the effects of GSPE on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats induced with low-dose streptozotocin and a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. Rats (n=12 per group) were administered GSPE at either a low (125 mg/kg · bw), medium (250 mg/kg · bw) or high (500 mg/kg · bw) dose, while control rats and diabetes mellitus group rats received no specific treatment. After 16 weeks, GSPE slightly increased body weight and decreased food consumption, water intake and urine volume in rats. Diabetic rats treated with GSPE demonstrated decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). GSPE significantly improved renal function parameters, reduced the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and also increased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, GSPE (particularly at a dose of 500 mg/kg · bw) increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the levels of c-reactive proteins (P<0.01) in serum and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P<0.05) in the kidney. These findings suggest that GSPE ameliorates renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats through its antioxidative activity and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25351255

  19. Inhibitory effect of mammea E/BB from Mammea siamensis seed extract on Wilms' tumour 1 protein expression in a K562 leukaemic cell line.

    PubMed

    Rungrojsakul, Methee; Saiai, Aroonchai; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2016-02-01

    Mammea siamensis is used in traditional Thai medicine. This study was designed to extract and isolate an active compound from the M. siamensis seeds and to investigate its activity on Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) protein expression in K562 cells. WT1 is a transcription factor that stimulates cell proliferation. The ethanol saraphi seed (ESS) extract was fractionated using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water to obtain n-hexane saraphi seed (HSS), ethyl acetate saraphi seed (EASS), n-butanol saraphi seed (BSS), and water saraphi seed (WSS) extracts, respectively. The ESS, HSS and EASS extracts had strong cytotoxic effects on K562 cells in the MTT assay. All three fractions decreased WT1 protein levels and decreased total cell numbers. The HSS extract decreased the WT1 protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. HPLC and NMR analyses indicated that the active compound of HSS was mammea E/BB. M. siamensis seeds are thus identified as a promising source of bioactive compounds for potential inhibition of WT1 protein expression. PMID:25738951

  20. Evaluation of the mosquitocidal effect of Birbira (Mellitia ferruginea) seed extract against Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Andemo, Abiy; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Alemayehu, Bizuayehu; Ambelu, Argaw

    2014-08-01

    Mosquito control using insecticides has been the most successful intervention known to reduce malaria prevalence and/or incidence. However, over time success has been hampered due to the development of resistance by mosquitoes against chemical insecticides recommended for public health use. Development of effective botanical mosquitocidal compounds however can be potential alternatives tool in malaria vector control. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating the mosquitocidal effect of "Birbira" (Mellitia ferruginea) seed extract against the primary malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis from Ethiopia. The mosquitocidal activity of M. ferruginea was assessed following WHO susceptibility test procedure. Methanol extract of M. ferruginea seeds was evaluated against third & fourth instar larvae, pupae and, non-blood fed 3-5 days old laboratory strains and field populations of A. arabiensis under laboratory condition. Mortality was then recorded after 24h exposure. The seed extract of M. ferruginea showed high mosquitocidal activity against larvae, pupae and adult stages of both the laboratory strain and field population of A. arabiensis. The LC50 values for larvae and pupae population from a laboratory strains was, respectively, 14.7 and 41.33mg/L. While the LC50 values for the larvae and a pupa of the field population were, respectively, 30.88 and 74.54mg/L. In addition, the LC99 and LD99 values were also identified. The findings of this study indicated that, the extract could be applied on mosquito breeding sites. The plant extract could be also used for indoor residual sprays after conducting the persistency test. PMID:24751416

  1. Insecticidal activities of bark, leaf and seed extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Hans J; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl E; Wangensteen, Helle; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Paulsen, Berit S; Massamba, Daniel; Duchon, Stephane; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii) is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis]), a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis), and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis). The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female), but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides. PMID:25525826

  2. Co-administration of Grape Seed Extract and Exercise Training Improves Endothelial Dysfunction of Coronary Vascular Bed of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badavi, Mohammad; Abedi, Hassan Ali; Sarkaki, Ali Reza; Dianat, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the known complications of diabetes mellitus is vascular dysfunction. Inability of the coronary vascular response to cardiac hyperactivity might cause a higher incidence of ischemic heart disease in diabetic subjects. It has been indicated that regular exercise training and antioxidants could prevent diabetic cardiovascular problems enhanced by vascular damage. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effects of grape seed extract (as antioxidant), with and without exercise training on coronary vascular function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Fifty male Wistar rats weighing 200 232 grams were randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, grape seed extract (200 mg/kg) treated sedentary diabetic and, grape seed extract treated trained diabetic. Diabetes was induced by one intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After eight weeks, coronary vascular responses to vasoactive agents were determined. Results The endothelium dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was reduced significantly in diabetic animals; exercise training or grape seed extract administration partially improves this response. However, exercise training in combination with grape seed extract restores endothelial function completely. The endothelium independent vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside was improved by combination of exercise training and grape seed extract. On the other hand, the basal perfusion pressure and vasoconstrictive response to phenylephrine did not change significantly. Conclusions The data indicated that co-administration of grape seed extract and exercise training had more significant effects than exercise training or grape seed extract alone; this may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic vascular complications. PMID:24693368

  3. Extracting tissue and cell outlines of Arabidopsis seeds using refraction contrast X-ray CT at the SPring-8 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Hayami, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Karahara, Ichirou; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2012-07-01

    How biological form is determined is one of the important questions in developmental biology. Physical forces are thought to be the primary determinants of the biological forms, and several theories for this were proposed nearly a century ago. To evaluate how physical forces can influence biological forms, precise determination of cell and tissue shapes and their geometries is necessary. Computed tomography (CT) is useful for visualizing three-dimensional structures without destroying a sample. Because recent progress in micro-CT has enabled visualizing cells and tissues at the sub-micron level, we investigated if we could extract cell and tissue outlines of seeds using refraction contrast X-ray CT available at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. We used Arabidopsis seeds because Arabidopsis is a well-known model plant and its seed size is small enough to obtain whole images using the X-ray CT experimental system. We could trace the outlines of tissues in dry seeds using beamline BL20B2 (10 keV, 2.4µm.pixel-1). Although we could also detect the outlines of some cell types, the image resolution was not adequate to extract whole cell edges. To detect the edges of cells in the epidermis and cortex, we obtained CT images using beamline BL20XU (8 keV, 0.5 µm.pixel-1). With these CT images, we could extract the facets and edges of each cell and determine cell vertices. This method enabled us to compare the numbers of cell facets among various cell types. We could also describe cell geometry as a set of points that showed these cell vertices.

  4. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

  5. Simulated digestion of proanthocyanidins in grape skin and seed extracts and the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Katherina; Labra, Javiera

    2013-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and composition of flavan-3-ols from red grape skin and seed extracts (raw and purified, which are high in proanthocyanidins (PAs)). In addition, the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of these extracts were evaluated. The extracts were digested with a mixture of pepsin-HCl for 2 h, followed by a 2 h incubation with pancreatin and bile salts including a cellulose dialysis tubing (molecular weight cut-off 12 kDa) at 37°C with shaking in the dark and under N2. Under gastric conditions, the mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) of seed extracts, raw (mDP≈6, p<0.05), and purified (mDP≈10, p<0.05) was stable. The mDP of the raw skin extracts increased from 19 to 25 towards the end of the digestion. The PAs were significantly degraded (up to 80%) during the pancreatic digestion, yielding low-molecular-weight compounds that diffused into the serum-available fraction (mDP≈2). The overall mass transfer coefficient (K) of the seed extracts was 10(-7) m(2)/s. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, over 80% of ACE inhibition by raw seed and skin extracts was preserved. However, the purified seed and skin extracts lost their ability to inhibit ACE after intestinal digestion. PMID:23561096

  6. Extractions of High Quality RNA from the Seeds of Jerusalem Artichoke and Other Plant Species with High Levels of Starch and Lipid

    PubMed Central

    Mornkham, Tanupat; Puangsomlee Wangsomnuk, Preeya; Fu, Yong-Bi; Wangsomnuk, Pinich; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran

    2013-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011) yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides. PMID:27137377

  7. Efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract in Reducing Metabolic and Inflammatory Alterations Associated With Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Abedinzade, Mahmood; Nasri, Sima; Jamal Omodi, Masome; Ghasemi, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several experimental and clinical studies support beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) in the management of metabolic diseases and inflammatory disorders. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of T. foenum-graecum seed extract in reducing the metabolic and inflammatory alternations associated with menopause. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 49 rats were divided into seven groups: (I) sham-control, (II) ovariectomized-control, (III and IV) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum seed ethanolic extract, (V and VI) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum hexanic extract, (VII) ovariectomized-positive control treated with 10 µg/kg of estradiol. The extracts were injected intraperitoneally one day after ovariectomy and the treatments were lasted for 42 days. Results: Fasting blood glucose and body weight gain increased significantly in the ovariectomized-control group compared with that in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Administration of estradiol and T. foenum-graecum (50 and 150 mg/dL of hexanic extract and 150 mg/kg of ethanolic extract) significantly diminished the increase in glucose and body weight (P < 0.05). The serum level of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the ovariectomized control group was significantly higher than those in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Both hexanic and ethanolic extracts as well as estradiol were able to decrease level of these cytokines in the serum of ovariectomized rats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study show that administration of T. foenum-graecum corrects metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with ovariectomy and has a potential for the management of menopause. PMID:26732240

  8. Short- and long-term effects of various Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Zerriouh, Bouchra Hanane; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Hupkens, Emeline; Boucherit, Zahia; Malaisse, Willy J

    2012-12-01

    In the light of previous findings, the major aim of the present study was to investigate the potential beneficial effects of various Citrullus colocynthis L. seed extracts on such variables as glucose tolerance, body weight gain, pancreas, liver, kidney, testis, epididymal fat and diaphragm muscle weight, as well as serum cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, creatinine, transaminases and alkaline phosphatase concentrations in an animal model of type-1 diabetes mellitus, i.e. streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. For purpose of comparison, a comparable study was conducted in normal rats. Both the immediate and long-term effects of the plant extracts were assessed in rats injected daily, up to 3 weeks after the start of the experiments. The results of this study reinforce the view that both a crude aqueous extract and a n-butanol extract from the Citrullus colocynthis L. seeds may represent the best candidates in order to eventually identify a component suitable for the treatment of both type-1 and type-2 diabetic subjects. PMID:22992982

  9. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Antiproliferative Effect of the Jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) Seed Extracts in Oral Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Hung; Chen, Zong-Shiow; Lin, Ching-Gong; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that certain phytochemicals possess cancer chemopreventive properties. In this study, the antiproliferative activity of extracts from different parts of the jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) plant was evaluated for its effect on human oral carcinoma cell lines. The cytotoxicities of various plant extract concentrations were examined and the 50% maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined. Water extracts of jaboticaba seeds showed concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects. Annexin V/propidium iodide positivity with active caspase-3 induction indicated that the treated cells underwent apoptosis. Several important regulatory proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bid, and survivin) involved in apoptosis were also evaluated. The antioxidant activity of jaboticaba was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays, and the drug concentration eliciting 50% maximum stimulation (SC50) was determined. The present findings suggest that water extracts of jaboticaba seeds exhibit an antiproliferative effect against oral cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through downregulating survivin expression and thereby activating caspase-mediated Bid cleavage. PMID:25197631

  10. Inhibitory effects of dried longan (Euphoria longana Lam.) seed extract on invasion and matrix metalloproteinases of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Panyathep, Atita; Chewonarin, Teera; Taneyhill, Khanittha; Vinitketkumnuen, Usanee; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-04-17

    The critical step in colorectal cancer progression and associated mortality is cancer invasion, which depends on two key gelatinase enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Dried longan ( Euphoria longana Lam.) seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant polyphenols.This study evaluated the effect of dried longan seeds on colon cancer cell invasion via gelatinase function and expression. Three dried longan seed fractions were collected by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. They showed a potent inhibitor on colorectal cancer cell invasion and gelatinase activity. The antigelatinase activities of fractions 1 and 2 were a direct effect via Zn²⁺ chelation, whereas fraction 3 modulated indirectly through suppression of zymogen activators. Among the fractions, only fraction 3 reduced the gelatinase expression, which was correlated with the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and may as well involve the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways. This primary research has manifested and encouraged the anticancer properties of dried longan seed extracts with potential inhibitory effects on cancer cell invasion as well as antigelatinase activity and expression in colon cancer cells. PMID:23527961

  11. Back to Osborne. Sequential protein extraction and LC-MS analysis for the characterization of the Holm oak seed proteome.

    PubMed

    Romero-Rodríguez, M Cristina; Maldonado-Alconada, Ana M; Valledor, Luis; Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V

    2014-01-01

    It is impossible to capture in just one experiment all or most of the total set of protein species that constitute the cell's proteome. Thus, according to our results, and even considering that they depend on the experimental system carried out (plant, yeast, fungi, or bacteria), the best protein extraction protocol yielded less than 20 % of the total amount of proteins, as determined by the Kjeldahl method. For this reason, protein cataloguing and the whole proteome characterization require the use of firstly, fractionation techniques at the cellular, subcellular, protein, or peptide level, and secondly, the use of complementary approaches.Within our current research on Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota), we aim to characterize its seed proteome. For that we have optimized an experimental workflow in which the Osborne sequential protein extraction (Osborne, Science 28:417-427, 1908) is combined with downstream electrophoretic protein separation or shotgun MS analysis. In general, it can be used to study any plant seed, as well as to investigate on seed maturation and germination, genotype characterization, allergens identification, food traceability, and substantial equivalence, among others. PMID:24136536

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shailesh Kumar; Chhabra, Gagan; Sharma, Dipali; Vashishta, Aruna; Ohri, Sujata; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s) which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects. PMID:23320026

  13. Effect of lyophilized extracts from guaraná seeds [Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke] on behavioral profiles in rats.

    PubMed

    Otobone, F J; Sanches, A C C; Nagae, R; Martins, J V C; Sela, V R; de Mello, J C P; Audi, E A

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacological properties of the crude lyophilized extract (EBPC) of Paullinia cupana seeds (guaraná) and the semi-purified extracts (EPA and EPB) after acute or chronic administration by the oral route in rats. Anxiolytic-like, antidepressant-like and motor stimulant effects were evaluated using the plus maze (PMT), forced swimming (FST) and open field (OFT) tests, respectively. Acute or chronic administration of EBPC (3.0, 30.0 or 60.0 mg/kg) did not alter the percentage of entries or the time spent in the open arm in the PMT. In the FST, chronic treatment with 30.0 mg EBPC/kg and 4.0 mg EPA/kg extract decreased the immobility time similarly to the antidepressant reference drug, imipramine (20.0 mg/kg). Locomotor activity in the OFT was not increased by these extracts. Caffeine (10.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST, but increased locomotor activity in the OFT, indicating psychostimulant activity. The EPB extract did not induce any effect after acute or chronic treatment in the different models used. The present results suggest that the crude EBPC extract and EPA extract produced an antidepressant-like effect after long-term administration. PMID:17397119

  14. Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.

    PubMed

    Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus. PMID:20645772

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K; Gupta, V C

    2014-04-01

    A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16-10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11-12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11-6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

  16. Antibacterial activity of polyphenols of garcinia indica.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C; Kumar, K Akshaya; Dennis, T J; Kumar, T S S P N S Sanath

    2011-07-01

    The aim of present work is to study the antibacterial activity of polyphenols isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble of methanol extract of stem bark of Garcinia indica against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli by paper disc method. The results showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus at higher concentrations, moderate at lower concentrations, against S. typhi moderate at higher concentrations but no activity against E. coli even at higher concentration for flavononylflavone. With proauthocyanin S. Aureus, S. Typhi and E. coli showed good antibacterial activity at higher concentration only. PMID:22707838

  17. Inhibitory effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on selenite-induced cataract formation and possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Yizhen

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on selenite-induced cataract formation in rats and the possible mechanism. Eighty 8-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 5 groups: control group, model group, three GSPE groups (low dose, medium dose and high dose). Control group received subcutaneous injection of physiological saline. Model group was given subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (20 μmol/kg body weight) on the postpartum day 10, and once every other day for consecutive three times thereafter. GSPE treated groups were respectively administered GSPE at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight intragastrically 2 days prior to the selenite injection (that was, on the postpartum day 8), and once daily for fourteen consecutive days thereafter. The opacity of lenses was observed, graded and photographed under the slit lamp microscopy and the maximal diameter of the nuclear cataract plaques was measured. The lenses were analyzed for superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium (Ca(2+)), nitric oxide (NO) and anti-hydroxyl radical ability (anti-OH(-)). The histomorphology of lenses was observed with HE staining under a light microscope. The levels of calpainII, and iNOS protein and mRNA expression in lenses were detected by using immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite led to severe nuclear cataract in model group, and the achievement ratio of model group was 100%. As compared with model group, the degree of lenses opacity and the maximal diameter of nuclear cataract plaques were significantly reduced in GSPE-treated groups. Moreover, we observed selenite treatment caused a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-PX) and anti-OH(-) ability, accompanied by a significant increase in the levels of MDA, NO, Ca(2+) as well as iNOS, and calpainII protein and mRNA expression. Administration of GSPE could dose-dependently preserve the activities of these antioxidative enzymes and anti-OH(-) ability, accompanied by a significant reduction in the levels of MDA, NO, Ca(2+) as well as iNOS, and calpainII protein and mRNA expression. These results suggested that GSPE markedly prevented selenite-induced cataract formation probably by suppressing the generation of lipid peroxidation and free radicals as well as the activation of iNOS, and calpainII in the lenses. PMID:22886980

  18. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Ragaa Hosny; El-Bastawesy, Amal Mohamad; Abdel-Monem, Mohamad Gamil; Noor, Assmaa Mahmoud; Al-Mehdar, Hussain Abdel Rahman; Sharawy, Sabry Mohamad; El-Merzabani, Mahmuod Mohamad

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of fennel seed methanolic extract (FSME) for its antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antitumor activities and for its capacity to serve as a nontoxic radioprotector in Swiss albino mice. We also assessed the natural antioxidant compounds of FSME for use in industrial application. Cytotoxic activity of FSME was evaluated in a mouse model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and on different types of human cell lines in vitro. The safety and optimum dose of FSME were determined. FSME, 100 mg/kg, was injected intraperitoneally into mice bearing EAC before the mice were exposed to three 2-Gy doses of gamma irradiation. After 30 days, mice were fasted for 18 hours and then sacrificed to observe the lifespan of EAC-bearing hosts. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, glutathione content, and total protein in serum, liver tissue, and ascitic fluid were determined. Iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin, and ferritin were also evaluated in serum. The data showed the presence of different types of compounds in FSME, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, and sterols; estragole (71.099%) was the predominant alcohol, gallic acid was the phenolic compound (18.895%), and L-limonene was the most prevalent monoterpene hydrocarbon (11.967%). The mean±standard deviation 50% inhibitory concentrations were 50±0.03 μg/mL for the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and 48±022 μg/mL for the Hepg-2 liver cancer cell line. The significant increase in MDA levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing EAC were ameliorated after FSME administration. In contrast, total protein content was increased in ascitic fluid. Serum iron was inversely proportional to the levels of ferritin and transferrin and total iron-binding capacity. Administration of FSME before irradiation exerted a cytoprotective effect against gamma irradiation, as manifested by a restoration of the MDA level, catalase activity, and GSH content to near-normal levels. In conclusion, FSME may have remarkable anticancer potential against a breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and liver cancer cell line (Hepg-2). It also showed strong free radical-scavenging activity (100%). Thus, FSME may reduce oxidative stress and protect mouse cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In addition, it could be used as a safe, effective, and easily accessible source of natural antioxidants to improve the oxidative stability of fatty foods during storage. FSME also exhibited an antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting the antioxidant defense system in EAC-bearing mice with or without exposure to radiation. PMID:21812646

  19. Protective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Alshehri, Zafer Saad; Sabry, Ayman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Tulip; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Attia, Hossam

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is the most prevalent toxic metal present in livestock feed; therefore, the present study aimed to examine the ameliorative effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)‑induced testicular dysfunction of Wistar rats. Male adult Wistar rats (40 rats; n=10/group) were divided into four equal groups. Group one was used as a control, and was given ad libitum access to food and water. Groups 2‑4 were treated with CdCl2 [5 mg/kg body weight (BW)], GSE (400 mg/kg BW, orally), and GSE plus CdCl2, respectively. Blood and testicular tissues were collected and assayed for biochemical and histopathological changes, respectively. Testicular genes were expressed using semi‑quantitative RT‑PCR analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a decrease in serum testosterone levels following CdCl2 toxicity, which were normalized after GSE co-administration. Furthermore, CdCl2 significantly increased the serum levels of malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of antioxidants. At the histopathological level, the testes of the CdCl2 group exhibited congestion, edema in the interstitial blood vessels, irregular arrangement of the epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and sloughing of the spermatogenic cells, which accumulated in the center of the seminiferous tubules. Such pathological alterations were ameliorated following treatment with GSE in the CdCl2 plus GSE group. The immunohistochemical expression of B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein was high in the CdCl2 group, and low in the control and GSE groups. Co‑treatment with GSE and CdCl2 exhibited ameliorative effects on the immunoreactivity of B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein. CdCl2 toxicity induced a significant downregulation in the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side‑chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1, 3β‑hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β‑HSD), 17β‑HSD, androgen receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and follicle‑stimulating hormone receptor. GSE administration exhibited a stimulatory effect on steroidogenesis‑associated enzymes, and co‑treatment with GSE and CdCl2 normalized and upregulated the mRNA expression levels of these examined genes. This study concluded that GSE has beneficial protective effects against the deleterious effects of CdCl2 on the testis. PMID:26935153

  20. Protective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; ALSHEHRI, ZAFER SAAD; SABRY, AYMAN; ABDEL-GHAFFAR, TULIP; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; ATTIA, HOSSAM

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is the most prevalent toxic metal present in livestock feed; therefore, the present study aimed to examine the ameliorative effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced testicular dysfunction of Wistar rats. Male adult Wistar rats (40 rats; n=10/group) were divided into four equal groups. Group one was used as a control, and was given ad libitum access to food and water. Groups 2–4 were treated with CdCl2 [5 mg/kg body weight (BW)], GSE (400 mg/kg BW, orally), and GSE plus CdCl2, respectively. Blood and testicular tissues were collected and assayed for biochemical and histopathological changes, respectively. Testicular genes were expressed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a decrease in serum testosterone levels following CdCl2 toxicity, which were normalized after GSE co-administration. Furthermore, CdCl2 significantly increased the serum levels of malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of antioxidants. At the histopathological level, the testes of the CdCl2 group exhibited congestion, edema in the interstitial blood vessels, irregular arrangement of the epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and sloughing of the spermatogenic cells, which accumulated in the center of the seminiferous tubules. Such pathological alterations were ameliorated following treatment with GSE in the CdCl2 plus GSE group. The immunohistochemical expression of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein was high in the CdCl2 group, and low in the control and GSE groups. Co-treatment with GSE and CdCl2 exhibited ameliorative effects on the immunoreactivity of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein. CdCl2 toxicity induced a significant downregulation in the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-HSD, androgen receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor. GSE administration exhibited a stimulatory effect on steroidogenesis-associated enzymes, and co-treatment with GSE and CdCl2 normalized and upregulated the mRNA expression levels of these examined genes. This study concluded that GSE has beneficial protective effects against the deleterious effects of CdCl2 on the testis. PMID:26935153

  1. Protective effect of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A

    2014-10-01

    Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:24124763

  2. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600 μg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:25852767

  3. Chemical composition and molecular structure of polysaccharide-protein biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed: extraction and purification process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The biological functions of natural biopolymers from plant sources depend on their chemical composition and molecular structure. In addition, the extraction and further processing conditions significantly influence the chemical and molecular structure of the plant biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the chemical and molecular structure of a natural biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed. A size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multi angle laser light-scattering (SEC-MALS) was applied to analyze the molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn). Results The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%), glucose (37.1-45.1%), arabinose (0.58-3.41%), and xylose (0.3-3.21%). The predominant fatty acid of the lipid fraction from the durian seed gum were palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:2). The most abundant amino acids of durian seed gum were: leucine (30.9-37.3%), lysine (6.04-8.36%), aspartic acid (6.10-7.19%), glycine (6.07-7.42%), alanine (5.24-6.14%), glutamic acid (5.57-7.09%), valine (4.5-5.50%), proline (3.87-4.81%), serine (4.39-5.18%), threonine (3.44-6.50%), isoleucine (3.30-4.07%), and phenylalanine (3.11-9.04%). Conclusion The presence of essential amino acids in the chemical structure of durian seed gum reinforces its nutritional value. PMID:23062269

  4. Rice, indica (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Indica varieties, which are generally recalcitrant to tissue culture and transformation, occupy 80 % of rice cultivation area in the world. Therefore, transformation method for indica rice must be improved greatly so that global rice production would take full advantage of cutting-edge biotechnology. An efficient protocol for indica transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is hereby described. Immature embryos collected from plants in a greenhouse are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens after pretreatment with heat and centrifuging. The protocol was successfully tested in many elite indica cultivars such as IR8, IR24, IR58025B, IR64, IR72, Suweon 258, and Nanjing 11, yielding between 5 and 15 of independent transgenic plants per immature embryo. The use of immature embryos is recommended because gene transfer to them could be much more efficient and much less genotype dependent than gene transfer to callus. PMID:25300838

  5. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  6. Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, J; Kataoka, S; Koga, T; Ariga, T

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic effect of proanthocyanidin-rich extracts from grape seeds in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Proanthocyanidin-rich extracts (0.1% and 1% in diets [w/w]) did not appreciably affect the changes in serum lipid profile of cholesterol-fed rabbits. The level of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (ChE-OOH) induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane-dihydrochloride (AAPH) were lower in the plasma of rabbits fed proanthocyanidin-rich extract plus cholesterol than in the plasma of rabbits fed cholesterol alone, but not in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Aortic malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased in rabbits fed proanthocyanidin-rich extract. Feeding proanthocyanidin-rich extracts (0.1 and 1% in the diet) to rabbits significantly reduced severe atherosclerosis in the aorta. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a decrease in the number of oxidized LDL-positive macrophage-derived foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits fed proanthocyanidin-rich extract. When proanthocyanidin-rich extract was administered orally to rats, proanthocyanidin was detected in the plasma by Porters method but not in the lipoproteins (LDL plus VLDL). In an in vitro experiment using human plasma, proanthocyanidin-rich extract added to the plasma inhibited the oxidation of cholesteryl linoleate in LDL, but not in the LDL isolated after the plasma and the extract were incubated in advance. These results suggested that proanthocyanidins, the major polyphenols in red wine, might trap reactive oxygen species in aqueous series such as plasma and interstitial fluid of the arterial wall, thereby inhibiting oxidation of LDL and showing an antiatherosclerotic activity. PMID:9920515

  7. Extraction of methylxanthines from guaraná seeds, maté leaves, and cocoa beans using supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Marleny D A; Zetzl, Carsten; Mohamed, Rahoma S; Brunner, G

    2002-08-14

    New experimental data on the extraction of caffeine from guaraná seeds and maté tea leaves, and theobromine from cocoa beans, with supercritical CO2 were obtained using a high-pressure extraction apparatus. The effect of the addition of ethanol to carbon dioxide on the extraction efficiency was also investigated. Caffeine extraction yields of 98% of the initial caffeine content in both wet ground guaraná seeds and maté tea leaves were obtained. Extractions of caffeine from guaraná seeds and maté tea leaves also exhibited a retrograde behavior for the two temperatures considered in this work. In the removal of theobromine from cocoa beans, a much smaller extraction yield was obtained with longer extraction periods and consequently larger solvent requirements. The results of this study confirm the higher selectivity of CO2 for caffeine in comparison with that for theobromine, and also the influence of other components in each particular natural product on the extraction of methylxanthines. The effect of the addition of ethanol to carbon dioxide on the extraction of methylxanthines was significant, particularly in the extraction of theobromine from cocoa beans. In general, the use of ethanol results in lower solvent and energy requirements and thereby improved extraction efficiency. PMID:12166966

  8. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Securigera securidaca seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Ziba; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Moradi, Reyhaneh; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Saghebi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperlipidemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. Lowering of serum lipid levels seems to be associated with a decrease in the risk of vascular disease and related complications. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Securigera securidaca seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: Control, diabetic, and diabetic rats treated with the Securigera extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. The animals were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin. Diabetic rats received the Securigera extract daily in drinking water from the day on which diabetes was confirmed for 4 weeks. The levels of serum glucose and lipids were spectrophotometrically measured in all groups at weeks 0 (before diabetes induction), 2, and 4. Results: The results showed that there was a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, accompanied by a decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Treatment of diabetic rats with S. securidaca seed extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg over a 4-week period significantly reduced the levels of serum glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol and increased the level of HDL-cholesterol, compared to diabetic untreated rats. Conclusions: Securigera extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in streptozotocin-diabetic rats during the 4-week treatment period. This provides a valid scientific basis for using it in the treatment of diabetes in Iranian folk medicine. PMID:25709998

  9. In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.</