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Sample records for indicus alimentadas con

  1. Indopithecus giganteus distinct from Sivapithecus indicus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madden, C.T.; Lewis, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The very large Eurasian Miocene ape Indopithecus giganteus is distinct from contemporanious Sivapithecus (non-Dryopithecus)indicus. The probabilities that length and width for the only specimen of I. giganteus could be sampled from populations similar or identical to those of S. indicus are less than six chances in 100,000 for both parameters. ?? 1980 Japan Monkey Centre.

  2. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant. PMID:21455454

  3. Subcutaneous Mycoleptodiscus indicus Infection in an Immunosuppressed Dog ▿

    PubMed Central

    Metry, Catherine A.; Hoien-Dalen, Patricia S.; Maddox, Carol W.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Romanelli, Anna M.; Wickes, Brian L.; MacNeill, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    An 8-year-old dog presented with several dermal excoriations. Lesion cytology revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation with branching, septate hyphae. A mold identified as Mycoleptodiscus indicus by morphology and sequencing was cultured from fine-needle aspirates. This is the first report of a Mycoleptodiscus species as an etiologic agent in a dog. PMID:20519473

  4. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems, and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to its improvement. The first results of the application of genomic selection in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population are presented in this paper...

  5. Meiotic Chromosome Analysis of the Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus

    PubMed Central

    Wisoram, Wijit; Saengthong, Pradit; Ngernsiri, Lertluk

    2013-01-01

    The giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae), a native species of Southeast Asia, is one of the largest insects belonging to suborder Heteroptera. In this study, the meiotic chromosome of L. indicus was studied in insect samples collected from Thailand, Myanmar, Loas, and Cambodia. Testicular cells stained with lacto-acetic orcein, Giemsa, DAPI, and silver nitrate were analyzed. The results revealed that the chromosome complement of L. indicus was 2n = 22A + neo-XY + 2m, which differed from that of previous reports. Each individual male contained testicular cells with three univalent patterns. The frequency of cells containing neo-XY chromosome univalent (∼5%) was a bit higher than that of cells with autosomal univalents (∼3%). Some cells (∼0.5%) had both sex chromosome univalents and a pair of autosomal univalents. None of the m-chromosome univalents were observed during prophase I. In addition, this report presents clear evidence about the existence of m-chromosomes in Belostomatidae. PMID:23895100

  6. Prednisolone and Mycobacterium indicus pranii in Tuberculous Pericarditis

    PubMed Central

    Mayosi, Bongani M; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Bosch, Jackie; Pandie, Shaheen; Jung, Hyejung; Gumedze, Freedom; Pogue, Janice; Thabane, Lehana; Smieja, Marek; Francis, Veronica; Joldersma, Laura; Thomas, Kandithalal M.; Thomas, Baby; Awotedu, Abolade A.; Magula, Nombulelo P.; Naidoo, Datshana P.; Damasceno, Albertino; Banda, Alfred Chitsa; Brown, Basil; Manga, Pravin; Kirenga, Bruce; Mondo, Charles; Mntla, Phindile; Tsitsi, Jacob M.; Peters, Ferande; Essop, Mohammed R.; Russell, James B.W.; Hakim, James; Matenga, Jonathan; Barasa, Ayub F.; Sani, Mahmoud U.; Olunuga, Taiwo; Ogah, Okechukwu; Ansa, Victor; Aje, Akinyemi; Danbauchi, Solomon; Ojji, Dike; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tuberculous pericarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality even if antituberculosis therapy is administered. We evaluated the effects of adjunctive glucocorticoid therapy and Mycobacterium indicus pranii immunotherapy in patients with tuberculous pericarditis. METHODS Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 1400 adults with definite or probable tuberculous pericarditis to either prednisolone or placebo for 6 weeks and to either M. indicus pranii or placebo, administered in five injections over the course of 3 months. Two thirds of the participants had concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death, cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis, or constrictive pericarditis. RESULTS There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between patients who received prednisolone and those who received placebo (23.8% and 24.5%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.18; P = 0.66) or between those who received M. indicus pranii immunotherapy and those who received placebo (25.0% and 24.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.29; P = 0.81). Prednisolone therapy, as compared with placebo, was associated with significant reductions in the incidence of constrictive pericarditis (4.4% vs. 7.8%; hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.87; P = 0.009) and hospitalization (20.7% vs. 25.2%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.99; P = 0.04). Both prednisolone and M. indicus pranii, each as compared with placebo, were associated with a significant increase in the incidence of cancer (1.8% vs. 0.6%; hazard ratio, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 10.03; P = 0.03, and 1.8% vs. 0.5%; hazard ratio, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.03 to 13.24; P = 0.03, respectively), owing mainly to an increase in HIV-associated cancer. CONCLUSIONS In patients with tuberculous pericarditis, neither prednisolone nor M. indicus pranii had a significant effect on the

  7. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

    PubMed

    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  8. Resorptive tooth root lesions in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Kortegaard, Hanne E; Choong, Siew Shean; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2011-03-01

    Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature. seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. Dental disease, Malayan tapir, radiology, resorptive lesions, Tapirus indicus. PMID:22946368

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in elephants (Elephus maximus indicus) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tuntasuvan, D; Mohkaew, K; Dubey, J P

    2001-02-01

    Serum samples from captive 156 elephants (Elephus maximus indicus) from Thailand were examined for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT) and the latex agglutination test (LAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 45.5% of 156 elephants by MAT (> or = 1:50) and 25.6% of 156 elephants by LAT (> or = 1:64). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in E. maximus indicus from Asia. PMID:11227899

  10. Cultural control of the root nematodes Pratylenchus indicus in rice through crop rotations.

    PubMed

    Prasad, J S; Moorty, B T; Rao, Y S

    1983-01-01

    Pratylenchus indicus nematodes cause damage to the roots of rice plants, which may lead to considerable yield reductions. In field trials with six different rice-based rotations it was tested whether the inclusion of other crops into the rotation can influence the population of Pratylenchus indicus. Investigation of soil samples and roots showed that rice, safflower, and tobacco increased the nematodes, whereas fallowing or growing Phaseolus radiatus L. decreased them. PMID:6626134

  11. [Anthraquinones isolated from Morinda officinalis and Damnacanthus indicus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Y J; Shu, H Y; Min, Z D

    1992-01-01

    From chloroform extract of the root of Morinda officinalis, eight anthraquinones were isolated whose structures were deduced to be rubiadin (I), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (II), 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (III), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (IV), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (V), 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VI), 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VII) and physcion (VIII). Except for compound I and compound II, the other compounds, 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (IX), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (X), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (XI), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XII) and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XIII), were isolated from chloroform extract of root of Damnacanthus indicus. Compound V, VI and XIII are new compounds. PMID:1442057

  12. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  13. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to accelerate genetic improvement of production and fertility in this breed. We present the first results of the implementation of genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population. Methods Influential bulls were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD chip in order to assess genomic predictive ability for weight and carcass traits, gestation length, scrotal circumference and two selection indices. 685 samples and 320 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used in the analyses. A forward-prediction scheme was adopted to predict the genomic breeding values (DGV). In the training step, the estimated breeding values (EBV) of bulls were deregressed (dEBV) and used as pseudo-phenotypes to estimate marker effects using four methods: genomic BLUP with or without a residual polygenic effect (GBLUP20 and GBLUP0, respectively), a mixture model (Bayes C) and Bayesian LASSO (BLASSO). Empirical accuracies of the resulting genomic predictions were assessed based on the correlation between DGV and dEBV for the testing group. Results Accuracies of genomic predictions ranged from 0.17 (navel at weaning) to 0.74 (finishing precocity). Across traits, Bayesian regression models (Bayes C and BLASSO) were more accurate than GBLUP. The average empirical accuracies were 0.39 (GBLUP0), 0.40 (GBLUP20) and 0.44 (Bayes C and BLASSO). Bayes C and BLASSO tended to produce deflated predictions (i.e. slope of the regression of dEBV on DGV greater than 1). Further analyses suggested that higher-than-expected accuracies were observed for traits for which EBV means differed significantly between two breeding subgroups that were identified in a principal component analysis based on genomic relationships. Conclusions Bayesian regression models are of interest for future applications of genomic selection in this population

  14. Cadmium uptake and accumulation by the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S

    2005-09-01

    Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns. PMID:15769503

  15. Genome wide association study on early puberty in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A V; Matos, M C; Seno, L O; Romero, A R S; Garcia, J F; Grisolia, A B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fertility traits (early puberty) in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus). Fifty-five Nellore cows were selected from a herd monitored for early puberty onset (positive pregnancy at 18 months of age). Extremes of this phenotype were selected; 30 and 25 individuals were pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively, at that age. DNA samples were genotyped using a high-density SNP chip (>777.000 SNP). GWAS using a case-control strategy highlighted a number of significant markers based on their proximity with the Bonferroni correction line. Results indicated that chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 10, and 22 were associated with the traits of interest. The most significant SNPs on these chromosomes were rs133039577, rs110013280, rs134702839, rs109551605, and rs41639155. Candidate genes, as well as quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously reported in the Ensembl and Cattle QTLdb databases, were further investigated. Analysis of the regions close to the SNP on chromosomes 9 and 10 revealed that four QTL had been previously classified under the reproduction category. In conclusion, we have identified SNPs in close proximity to genes associated with reproductive traits. Moreover, U6 spliceosomal RNA was present on three different chromosomes, which is possibly associated with age at first calving, suggesting that it might be a strong candidate for future studies. PMID:26909970

  16. Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Koṭṭaikkarantai)

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Shakila

    2013-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

  17. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brunelle, Brian W; Greenlee, Justin J; Seabury, Christopher M; Brown, Charles E; Nicholson, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular indel region and

  18. Genome-based reclassification of Bacillus cibi as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus indicus and emended description of Bacillus indicus.

    PubMed

    Stropko, Samantha J; Pipes, Shannon E; Newman, Jeffrey D

    2014-11-01

    While characterizing a related strain, it was noted that there was little difference between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacillus indicus LMG 22858(T) and Bacillus cibi DSM 16189(T). Phenotypic characterization revealed differences only in the utilization of mannose and galactose and slight variation in pigmentation. Whole genome shotgun sequencing and comparative genomics were used to calculate established phylogenomic metrics and explain phenotypic differences. The full, genome-derived 16S rRNA gene sequences were 99.74% similar. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the two strains was 98.0%, the average amino acid identity (AAI) was 98.3%, and the estimated DNA-DNA hybridization determined by the genome-genome distance calculator was 80.3%. These values are higher than the species thresholds for these metrics, which are 95%, 95% and 70%, respectively, suggesting that these two strains should be classified as members of the same species. We propose reclassification of Bacillus cibi as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus indicus and an emended description of Bacillus indicus. PMID:25142211

  19. Membrane proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction: A proteomic comparison between Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) and Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Othman, Iekhsan; Yee, Tee Ting; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-11-01

    Production performance of European cattle breeds has significantly improved through various breeding programs. However, European breeds are more susceptible to heat stress compared to zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as their conception rate can range between 20 to 30% in hot seasons compared to winter. To identify cattle sperm proteins associated with zebu cattle higher fertility and heat tolerance in tropical environments, we utilised a proteomics-based approach to compare sperm from the highly fertile Malaysian indigenous breed, Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus), with sperm from the sub-fertile crossbreed, Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus). Frozen semen of three high performance bulls from each breed was processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Proteins were separated and gel bands were processed by in-gel tryptic digestion. For each breed, mass spectrometry data was acquired over 11 replicates. The analyzed data identified peptides with different expression levels (99% confidence level) and protein identification was determined by targeted MS/MS. Among the identified proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction, two proteins were up-regulated in Kedah Kelantan sperm and 7 proteins were up-regulated in or specific to Mafriwal. Our results suggest that the higher fertility of zebu cattle in tropical areas may not be related to more efficient sperm-oocyte interaction. Further analysis of the other regulated proteins in these two breeds may contribute further knowledge on the physiological reason/s for higher fertility and heat tolerance of Zebu cattle in tropical areas.

  20. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of relatively low number of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, conservation of genetic resources and maintenance of the sustainability of the breed...

  1. Sequence analysis for a de novo genome assembly of Bos indicus (Nelore) cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A second draft sequence assembly of the bovine genome based on the sub-species, Bos indicus, is essential to better evaluate the genetic variation underlying the prototypical beef and dairy cattle in tropical and sub-tropical production environments. A linebred bull (Futuro), two generations remove...

  2. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIAVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN BOS INDICUS BEEF CATTLE (NELLORE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci of economic importance in purebred Bos indicus beef cattle breed (Nellore). Two half-sib families constituted of 187 (family 1) and 189 (family 2) female sisters, daughters from two distinct bulls, where used. Each parent (F0) was ...

  3. Functional Characterization of a c-type Lysozyme from Indian Shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Viswanathan; Kamalakannan, Vijayan; Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparambu Saidumuhammed; Singh, Issac S Bright; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2014-06-01

    Lysozyme gene from Fenneropenaeus indicus was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The cDNA consists of 477 base pairs and encodes amino acid sequence of 159 residues. F. indicus lysozyme had high identity (98%) with Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and Fenneropenaeus chinensis and exhibits low to moderate identities with lysozymes of other invertebrates and vertebrates. This lysozyme is presumed to be chicken types as it possesses two catalytic and eight cysteine residues that are conserved across c-type lysozymes and a c-terminal extension, which is a characteristic of lysozymes from marine invertebrates. Further, the antimicrobial properties of the recombinant lysozyme from F. indicus were determined in comparison with recombinant hen egg white lysozyme. This exhibited high activity against a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and two fungal strains Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in turbidimetric assay. Distribution of lysozyme gene and protein in tissues of shrimps infected with white spot syndrome virus revealed that the high levels of lysozyme are correlated with low and high viral load in abdominal muscle and tail, respectively. In conclusion, lysozyme from F. indicus has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties, which once again emphasizes its role in shrimp innate immune response. PMID:24676722

  4. Genome Sequence of the Piezophilic, Mesophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio indicus J2T

    PubMed Central

    Maignien, Lois; Shao, Zongze; Alain, Karine

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Desulfovibrio indicus J2T, a member of the family Desulfovibrionaceae, consists of 3,966,573-bp in one contig and encodes 3,461 predicted genes, 5 noncoding RNAs, 3 rRNAs operons, and 52 tRNA-encoding genes. The genome is consistent with a heterotrophic, anaerobic lifestyle including the sulfate reduction pathway. PMID:27056223

  5. Genome Sequence of the Piezophilic, Mesophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio indicus J2T.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junwei; Maignien, Lois; Shao, Zongze; Alain, Karine; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence ofDesulfovibrio indicusJ2(T), a member of the familyDesulfovibrionaceae, consists of 3,966,573-bp in one contig and encodes 3,461 predicted genes, 5 noncoding RNAs, 3 rRNAs operons, and 52 tRNA-encoding genes. The genome is consistent with a heterotrophic, anaerobic lifestyle including the sulfate reduction pathway. PMID:27056223

  6. Involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of reproduction in the prawn Penaeus indicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.

  7. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0–5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus. PMID:26204839

  8. Age-related habitat selection by brown forest skinks (Sphenomorphus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, Qi-Ping; ZHU, Meng-Yao; HU, Ying-Chao; ZHANG, Xue-Ya; DING, Guo-Hua; LIN, Zhi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In reptiles, habitat selection is the process whereby suitable habitat is selected that optimizes physiological functions and behavioral performance. Here, we used the brown forest skink (Sphenomorphus indicus) as a model animal and examined whether the frequency of active individuals, environmental temperature, illumination of activity area, and habitat type vary with different age classes. We surveyed the number of active individuals and measured environmental variables at Baiyunshan Mountain in Lishui, Zhejiang, China. We found no difference in the activity frequency of adult and juvenile S. indicus; the activity pattern of active individuals was bimodal. The mean environmental temperature selected by adults was higher than that selected by juveniles. The environmental temperature of active areas measured at 0900-1000 h and 1100-1200h was higher than at 1400-1500h; illumination of the active area at 1000-1200h was also higher than at 1400h-1600 h. The number of active individuals, the environmental temperature and illumination of activity areas showed pairwise positive correlation. There was a difference in habitat type between juveniles and adults whereby juveniles prefer rock habitats. We predict that active S. indicus select optimal habitats with different environmental temperatures and types to reach the physiological needs particular to their age classes. PMID:25730458

  9. Variation in wood fibre traits among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A G Devi; Al-Sagheer, Nageeb A

    2012-03-01

    Wood elements and anatomical ratio of Dipterocarpus indicus were studied to evaluate variation among populations and to recommend for end selection. The variation of wood element [fibre length (FL), fibre diameter (FD), lumen diameter (LD), cell wall thickness (CWT), double wall thickness (DWT), and lumen volume (LV)] and anatomical ratio [fibre lumen area (FLA), slenderness ratio (SR) and runkel ratio (RR)] were investigated in a girth class of 100 - 120 cm among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India. The study revealed a significant variations in FL (0.2426), FD (4.7019), LD (3.1689), CWT (2.7104), DWT and (5.4298) among populations. The variations in anatomical ratios were significant among populations except in case of LV. The causes of variations among populations in their wood traits were attributed to the site factors. The interaction between genetic makeup of wood traits combined with effects of edaphic, local and regional climatic conditions reflect the amount of variation among populations. The highest coefficient of variation (CV %) for FL, FD, CWT and DWT was recorded in population of Gundya whereas low coefficient of variation were recorded in the population of Makuta (FL), Devimane (FD, CWT and DWT), and Sampaje (LD). The wood of Dipterocarpus indicus was found undesirable for pulp wood but can be utilized for plywood timbers. PMID:23033683

  10. Metabolic and endocrine differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus females that impact the interaction of nutrition with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Roberto; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Melo, Leonardo F; Baruselli, Pietro S; Bastos, Michele R

    2016-07-01

    During the last decade, researchers have studied the differences in the reproductive physiology between Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. This manuscript focuses on the main aspects of ovarian function and circulating hormones of B. taurus and B. indicus cows and heifers. In general, there is no difference in the number of follicle waves during the estrous cycle, however B. indicus have greater antral follicle count, circulating insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) than B. taurus. Moreover, despite of B. taurus having larger ovulatory follicle diameter and maximum CL volume, they have lesser peak circulating estradiol concentrations and lesser circulating progesterone concentrations than B. indicus. We may speculate that there are two main factors related to lesser circulating concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in B. taurus when compared with B. indicus: increased liver metabolism of steroid hormones and lesser production by follicles and CL. Differences between the two genetic groups are also observed with respect to in vitro embryo production because in addition to B. indicus having greater numbers of retrieved oocytes, due to greater antral follicle count, they also have greater percentages of viable oocytes, number of blastocysts, and blastocyst rates when compared with B. taurus. Effects of dietary intake on embryo quality may differ between B. taurus and B. indicus due to different concentrations of circulating insulin and IGF1. For in vivo and in vitro embryo production, an increase in circulating insulin concentrations is negatively associated with oocyte/embryo quality and conception rates. However, this seems to be more pronounced in B. taurus breeds. Differences in ovarian function related or not to nutrition between these two genetic groups are very consistent and may be related to the influence of metabolic hormones such as insulin and IGF1. PMID:27156680

  11. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. PMID:27390089

  12. Genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812T)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, K; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Jeffries, Cynthia; Chang, Yun-Juan; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the genomically so far poorly characterized family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  13. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M.; Vajrabukka, C.; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal ( B. indicus) ( n = 10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) ( B. taurus) ( n = 10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% ( n = 10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % ( n = 10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm2; 1.60 μ3 × 10-6) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm2; 0.51 μ3x10-6) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm2; 0.68 μ3 × 10-6) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm2; 0.61 μ3 × 10-6) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm2) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm2); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm2 for HF75% and HF87.5 %) ( P < 0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred ( P < 0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction ( P < 0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic

  14. Susceptibility to trypanosomosis of three Bos indicus cattle breeds in areas of differing tsetse fly challenge.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Gettinby, G; Reid, S W; Murray, M

    1998-09-01

    Studies to assess the differences in susceptibility to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds (Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran and Galana Boran) were conducted under conditions of varying tsetse fly challenge at the Nguruman escarpment in south-western Kenya, for a period of 1 year. It was found that under tsetse challenge quantified as high, Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were less susceptible than Galana Boran to trypanosome infections, as judged by the significantly lower incidence of infection, development of less severe anaemia, fewer requirements for trypanocidal drug treatments, higher growth rates and fewer mortalities. In the area where tsetse challenge was considered low as a result of a tsetse fly control operation using odour-baited traps, only the Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were compared. No significant differences in the incidence of infection, degree of anaemia or growth rates were observed between the two breeds, but all were significantly different from their counterparts in the high tsetse challenge area. These results suggest that there is variation in resistance to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds that could be exploited as part of the integrated trypanosomosis control programmes in East Africa. PMID:9777722

  15. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  16. Impact of parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus origins on copy number variation in traditional Chinese cattle breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution o...

  17. Cryosurvival and pregnancy rates after exposure of IVF-derived Bos indicus embryos to forskolin before vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sanches, B V; Marinho, L S R; Filho, B D O; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Meirinhos, M L G; Silva-Santos, K C; Ferreira, C R; Seneda, M M

    2013-09-01

    In vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos are more sensitive to cryopreservation than their in vivo counterparts due to their higher lipid concentrations, whereas Bos indicus IVP embryos are even more sensitive than Bos taurus IVP embryos. To examine the effects of a lipolytic agent, before vitrification of Bos indicus IVP embryos, on embryo survival, viability, and pregnancy rates, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, Bos indicus (Nelore) embryos were produced from abattoir-derived ovaries and allocated into two groups. In the treatment group, 10 μM of forskolin was added to the in vitro culture medium on Day 5 and incubated for 48 hours. On Day 7 of culture, IVP-expanded blastocysts from both the control (n = 101) and treatment (n = 112) groups were vitrified with ethylene glycol and DMSO via the Cryotop procedure. Although there was no significant difference between the rates of blastocoel reexpansion and hatching of the embryos exposed to forskolin (87.5% and 70.5%, respectively) compared with the control embryos (79.2% and 63.3%, respectively), the numerically superior rates of the embryos exposed to forskolin led to another experiment. In experiment 2, blastocysts produced from the ovum pick up were exposed or not exposed to the lipolytic agent and vitrified as in experiment 1. Embryos treated with forskolin had higher pregnancy rates than the control group (48.8% vs. 18.5%). In view of these results, 1908 Bos indicus embryos were produced from ovum pick up, exposed to the lipolytic agent, and blastocysts were transferred to recipients, and the pregnancy rates of the embryos of various breeds were compared. The mean pregnancy rate obtained was 43.2%. All data were analyzed by chi-square or by binary logistic regression (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, treatment with forskolin before vitrification improved cryotolerance of Bos indicus IVP embryos, resulting in good post-transfer pregnancy rates. PMID:23746692

  18. Analysis and Determination of Trace Metals (Nickel, Cadmium, Chromium, and Lead) in Tissues of Pampus argenteus and Platycephalus indicus in the Hara Reserve, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadnabizadeh, Sahar; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Afshari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The accumulations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were measured in muscle, gill, kidney, and liver of Platycephalus indicus and Pampus argenteus. Our results indicated that all metals were found to be the highest in tissues in P. indicus (benthic species). Except Ni in P. indicus, concentrations of metals and bioaccumulation factor were in the following sequence: liver > kidney > gill > muscle. The data revealed that there is a significant negative correlation between concentrations of metals and size and age factors. The Ni and Cr levels in the muscles were higher than the maximum acceptable limit recommended by WHO and FEPA. Similarly, the concentration of Pb measured in P. indicus muscle exceeded the FAO standard limit. PMID:25132850

  19. A new species of Sunipea Griffin & Tranter, 1986 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Inachidae) and a redescription of Sunipea indicus (Alcock, 1895).

    PubMed

    Santana, William

    2015-01-01

    A new species of spider crab, Sunipea callistus, n. sp., from Cape Guardafui, Somali Republic, is described and illustrated. Sunipea indicus (Alcock, 1895) is also redescribed and figured. Sunipea callistus n. sp. differs from S. indicus in the structures of the carapace, third maxillipeds, thoracic sternum, male abdomen, and chelipeds. Despite a number of characteristics that separate both species, these differences are more pronounced in males and are less evident in females. A diagnosis for the genus is provided. PMID:26701438

  20. Pinniped tuberculosis in Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and its transmission to other terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Jurczynski, Kerstin; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Gomis, David; Moser, Irmgard; Greenwald, Rena; Moisson, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    In the last 7 yr, three different species of terrestrial mammals were diagnosed with Mycobacterium pinnipedii either within one collection or through the introduction of an infected animal from another zoo. The affected species included the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus), and crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). In the first zoo, all of these were living in exhibits adjacent to a group of South American sea lions (Otariaflavescens) and were cared for by the same keeper. One infected tapir was transferred to a different zoo and transmitted M. pinnipedii infection to three other Malayan tapirs. The tapirs were tested with various diagnostic methods, including comparative intradermal tuberculin test, PCR and culture of sputum samples, Rapid Test (RT), and multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). The M. pinnipedii infection was confirmed at postmortem examination in all animals. RT and MAPIA showed the diagnostic potential for rapid antemortem detection of this important zoonotic disease. PMID:22946398

  1. Gross anatomy and ultrasonographic images of the reproductive system of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Lilia, K; Rosnina, Y; Abd Wahid, H; Zahari, Z Z; Abraham, M

    2010-12-01

    The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) is the largest among the four tapir species and is listed as an endangered species. Ultrasound examination and description of the external anatomy of the female reproductive system of three adult females were performed, whereas the internal anatomy was investigated in necropsied samples of four adult females and one subadult female. Descriptions of the male external genitalia were conducted on one adult male. Gross examination revealed the presence of a bicornuate uterus. The uterine cervix is firm and muscular with projections towards its lumen, which is also evident on ultrasonography. The elongated and relatively small ovaries, which have a smooth surface, could not be imaged on ultrasonography, due to their anatomical position. The testes are located inside a slightly pendulous scrotum that is sparsely covered with soft, short hairs. The penis has one dorsal and two lateral penile projections just proximal to the glans penis. PMID:20809915

  2. Effect of additives in the shelflife extension of chilled and frozen stored Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus).

    PubMed

    Manimaran, Uthaman; Shakila, Robinson Jeya; Shalini, Rajendran; Sivaraman, Balasubramanian; Sumathi, Ganesan; Selvaganapathi, Rajendran; Jeyasekaran, Geevarathnam

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of commercial additives viz. cafodos and altesa employed to treat Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus) was examined during chilled and frozen storage. Shelf lives of treated and untreated octopus in ice were 6 and 8 days, respectively in ice. Treated and untreated frozen octopus had a shelf life of 40 days. Autolytic and microbiological changes were not controlled by the additives, as evidenced through rapid reduction in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and α-amino nitrogen (α-AN) compounds; as well as accumulation of water soluble ammoniacal nitrogen and total volatile base- nitrogen (TVB-N) compounds. Loss of texture and colour were the major quality defects noticed in treated octopus as a result of enhanced protein solubility. Therefore, the additives approved for use in octopus neither enhanced the shelf life nor improved the sensory quality. PMID:27162416

  3. Observations on the life cycle of Coelomomyces indicus (Blastocladiales: Coelomomycetaceae) in anopheline mosquitoes from the Philippines and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Whisler, H C; Gabriel, B P; Chanpaisaeng, J; Zebold, S L; Padua, L E

    1999-11-01

    The water mold Coelomomyces indicus Iyengar is a widespread pathogen of anopheline mosquitoes in Asia and Africa, and it infects the copepod Microcyclops varicans Sars as its crustacean alternate host. This was determined by direct observation of field-infected copepods, selective meiospore encystment on M. varicans, and experimental infections of the copepod with zoospores from both thick and thin-walled meiosporangia. The physiological conditions governing germination of the 2 sporangial types were determined. The gametothallus in the copepod displays a light yellow pigmentation at maturity, and gametogenesis in both field and experimentally infected copepods occurs just at night fall, or 24 h after dark induction. In vivo culture was attained with the mosquito host Anopheles culicifacies Giles. Attempts to infect Anopheles stephensi Liston and Anopheles gambiae Giles, reported hosts of C. indicus, were unsuccessful. PMID:10593068

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus): the only extant Tapiridae species in the old world.

    PubMed

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Kaolim, Nongnid; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Dongsaard, Khwanruean; Maikaew, Umaporn; Sanannu, Saowaphang

    2016-01-01

    Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is categorized as Endangered on the 2008 IUCN red list. The first full-length mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Asian tapir is 16,717 bp in length. Base composition shows 34.6% A, 27.2% T, 25.8% C and 12.3% G. Highest polymorphic site is on the control region as typical for many species. PMID:24621216

  5. Trace Element Distribution in Selected Edible Tissues of Zebu (Bos indicus) Cattle Slaughtered at Jimma, SW Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dermauw, Veronique; Lopéz Alonso, Marta; Duchateau, Luc; Du Laing, Gijs; Tolosa, Tadele; Dierenfeld, Ellen; Clauss, Marcus; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2014-01-01

    The amount of trace elements present in edible bovine tissues is of importance for both animal health and human nutrition. This study presents data on trace element concentrations in semitendinosus and cardiac muscles, livers and kidneys of 60 zebu (Bos indicus) bulls, sampled at Jimma, Ethiopia. From 28 of these bulls, blood samples were also obtained. Deficient levels of copper were found in plasma, livers, kidneys and semitendinosus muscles. Suboptimal selenium concentrations were found in plasma and semitendinosus muscles. Semitendinosus muscles contained high iron concentrations. Trace elements were mainly stored in the liver, except for iron and selenium. Cardiac muscles generally contained higher concentrations of trace elements than semitendinous muscles except for zinc. A strong association was found between liver and kidney concentrations of copper, iron, cobalt and molybdenum. Liver storage was well correlated with storage in semitendinosus muscle for selenium and with cardiac muscle for cobalt and selenium. Plasma concentrations of copper, selenium, cobalt were well related with their respective liver concentrations and for cobalt and selenium, also with cardiac muscle concentrations. The data suggest multiple trace element deficiencies in zebu cattle in South-West Ethiopia, with lowered tissue concentrations as a consequence. Based on the comparison of our data with other literature, trace element concentrations in selected edible tissues of Bos indicus seem quite similar to those in Bos taurus. However, tissue threshold values for deficiency in Bos taurus cattle need to be refined and their applicability for Bos indicus cattle needs to be evaluated. PMID:24465529

  6. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The apparent effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on phenotype depends on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the SNP and a quantitative trait locus (QTL). However, the phase of LD between a SNP and a QTL may differ between Bos indicus and Bos taurus because they diverged at least one hundred thousand years ago. Here, we test the hypothesis that the apparent effect of a SNP on a quantitative trait depends on whether the SNP allele is inherited from a Bos taurus or Bos indicus ancestor. Methods Phenotype data on one or more traits and SNP genotype data for 10 181 cattle from Bos taurus, Bos indicus and composite breeds were used. All animals had genotypes for 729 068 SNPs (real or imputed). Chromosome segments were classified as originating from B. indicus or B. taurus on the basis of the haplotype of SNP alleles they contained. Consequently, SNP alleles were classified according to their sub-species origin. Three models were used for the association study: (1) conventional GWAS (genome-wide association study), fitting a single SNP effect regardless of subspecies origin, (2) interaction GWAS, fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies-origin, and (3) best variable GWAS, fitting the most significant combination of SNP and sub-species origin. Results Fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies origin resulted in more significant SNPs (i.e. more power) than a conventional GWAS. Thus, the effect of a SNP depends on the subspecies that the allele originates from. Also, most QTL segregated in only one subspecies, suggesting that many mutations that affect the traits studied occurred after divergence of the subspecies or the mutation became fixed or was lost in one of the subspecies. Conclusions The results imply that GWAS and genomic selection could gain power by distinguishing SNP alleles based on their subspecies origin, and that only few QTL segregate in both B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. Thus, the QTL that segregate in

  7. Identification of a null allele in genetic tests for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Fozia; Malik, Naveed A; Qureshi, Javed A; Raadsma, Herman W; Tammen, Imke

    2012-12-01

    Two clinically healthy mature Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle were genotyped as homozygous affected for the lethal immunodeficiency disorder bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) using previously described PCR-RFLP based DNA tests which was confirmed by sequencing. Sequencing of Bos taurus and B. indicus × B. taurus genomic DNA surrounding the disease causing mutation (c.383A > G) in the ITGB2 gene identified numerous variations in exonic and intronic regions within and between species, including substantial variation in primer annealing sites for three PCR-RFLP tests for one of the B. indicus allelic variants. These variations in the primer annealing sites resulted in a null allele in the DNA tests causing the misdiagnosis of some heterozygous B. taurus × B. indicus cattle to be classified as homozygous affected. New primers were designed and a modified test was developed which simultaneously identified the disease mutation and the Pakistani B. indicus allelic variant associated with the null allele in the previous test. PMID:22374219

  8. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Lucy A.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Newman, Scott H.; Scott, Graham R.; Sathiyaselvam, Ponnusamy; Takekawa, John Y.; Wikelski, Martin; Bishop, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000 m in 7–8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8–2.2 km·h−1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power. PMID:21628594

  9. Comprehensive transcriptome profiling of squamous cell carcinoma of horn in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Koringa, P G; Jakhesara, S J; Bhatt, V D; Meshram, C P; Patel, A K; Fefar, D T; Joshi, C G

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of horn is frequently observed in Bos indicus affecting 1% of cattle population and accounting 83.34% of total tumours found. The transcriptome profile of horn cancer (HC) tissue and the matched normal (HN) tissue were analysed by RNA-seq using Roche 454 sequencing. A total of 1 504 900 reads comprising of 612 MB data were used to identify differentially expressed genes using CLC Genomic Workbench. These include up-regulation of KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT14, SFN, KRT84, PI3, COL17A1, ANLN, SERPINB5 and down-regulation of BOLA, SCGB1A1, CXCL17, KRT19, BPIFB1, NR4A1 and TFF3 in HC, which are involved in regulation of gene transcription, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell survival and metabolic pathways. The qPCR analysis of several targets suggested concordance of gene expression profile with RNA-seq analysis. The present findings would provide basis for further screening of genes and identification of markers for early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of HC. PMID:24314272

  10. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  11. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    PubMed

    G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  12. The polled locus maps to BTA1 in a Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, R A; Davis, S K; Sanders, J O; Burns, B M; Wheeler, T C; Turner, J W; Taylor, J F

    1996-01-01

    Two hundred and nine reciprocal backcross and F2 progeny produced by embryo transfer from Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) parents and their 60 parents and grandparents were utilized to localize the locus (POLL) responsible for the polled phenotype in a genetic map of bovine chromosome 1. Progeny were scored for polled, scurred, and horned phenotypes at 1 year of age and again following skull disection at slaughter at 20 months of age. Phenotype frequencies were independent of gender. One hundred and forty-two informative meioses for POLL and 13 microsatellite loci with an average of 267 informative meioses per locus contributed to a genetic map spanning 124.6 cM with an average interval of 9.6 cM. POLL mapped proximal to the centromere and 4.9 cM from TGLA49 supporting a previous study that employed two anonymous microsatellites. Difficulties in discriminating between scurred and horned phenotypes indicate that bracketing markers will be essential for refining the model for inheritance of the horned, scurred, and polled phenotypes and for effective marker assisted selection (MAS) for polled. PMID:8830095

  13. Packaging performance of organic acid incorporated chitosan films on dried anchovy (Stolephorus indicus).

    PubMed

    Vimaladevi, S; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Xavier, K A Martin; Bindu, J

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial chitosan films were prepared with acetic acid and propionic acid with glycerol as plasticizer and its efficiency was compared with polyester-polyethylene laminate (PEST/LDPE). The tensile strength of acetic acid/chitosan (ACS) films were higher than propionic acid/chitosan (PCS) films. The elongation percentage (6.43-11.3) and water vapour permeability (0.015-0.03 g/m(2)/day) were significantly lower (p<0.05) for chitosan films when compared to control. Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of control and propionic acid/chitosan (PCS) films were significantly higher (p<0.05) than acetic acid/chitosan (ACS) films. Dried anchovy (Stolephorus indicus) wrapped in these films were stored at ambient temperature for three months. Quality indices like peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) and microbiological parameters such as aerobic plate count (APC) and total fungal count (TFC) were periodically determined. In terms of microbial and chemical indices, anchovies wrapped in ACS and PCS films were superior to those wrapped with PEST/LDPE films during storage. Study revealed the suitability of chitosan film as wraps for increasing storage stability of dried fish. PMID:25965473

  14. Identical marker alleles in Podolic cattle (Bos taurus) and Indian zebu (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Pieragostini, E; Scaloni, A; Rullo, R; Di Luccia, A

    2000-09-01

    In the context of biochemical marker research and in order to add new information on native breeds, the present work focuses on a local Southern Italy cattle, namely Italian Podolic. We provide the complete structural characterisation of alpha-lactalbumins and beta-globin chains isolated from Podolic cattle (Bos taurus). Given the unavailability of the complete sequence for alpha-lactalbumin A of taurine cattle in the literature, we intended to check its structure in order to ascertain the absence of any possible silent mutation. Screening the Podolic cattle, we found a new beta-globin variant not detectable by conventional methods. The presence of such a new variant might be helpful in the study of the Podolic population genetic structure and for a better knowledge of the gene pool per se, and in comparison with the other breeds. Structural analyses showed that the new beta-globin Podolic variant exhibited the same sequence as beta-globin Azebu. The alpha-lactalbumin A was the same as that isolated from zebu cattle (Bos indicus). The results are discussed in relation to the possible involvement of the two markers in the debate on the origin of the Podolic breed. PMID:11126744

  15. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zavarez, Ludmilla B; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ferenčaković, Maja; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M; Curik, Ino; Cole, John B; Van Tassell, Curtis P; da Silva, Marcos V G B; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José F

    2015-01-01

    The use of relatively low numbers of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, which affects conservation of genetic resources and sustainability of this breed. Here, we investigated the distribution of autozygosity levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a sample of 1,278 Nellore cows, genotyped for over 777,000 SNPs. We found ROH segments larger than 10 Mb in over 70% of the samples, representing signatures most likely related to the recent massive use of few sires. However, the average genome coverage by ROH (>1 Mb) was lower than previously reported for other cattle breeds (4.58%). In spite of 99.98% of the SNPs being included within a ROH in at least one individual, only 19.37% of the markers were encompassed by common ROH, suggesting that the ongoing selection for weight, carcass and reproductive traits in this population is too recent to have produced selection signatures in the form of ROH. Three short-range highly prevalent ROH autosomal hotspots (occurring in over 50% of the samples) were observed, indicating candidate regions most likely under selection since before the foundation of Brazilian Nellore cattle. The putative signatures of selection on chromosomes 4, 7, and 12 may be involved in resistance to infectious diseases and fertility, and should be subject of future investigation. PMID:25688258

  16. Studies on host resistance to tick infestations among trypanotolerant Bos indicus cattle breeds in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Ndung'U, J M; Stear, M J; Reid, S W; Gettinby, G; Murray, M

    1998-06-29

    Recent epidemiological studies carried out in East Africa have indicated that some Bos indicus cattle breeds such as the Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu have a degree of trypanotolerance worth exploitation by their introduction into trypanosomosis endemic areas where other cattle breeds cannot survive. However, in most areas of East Africa, trypanosomosis, ticks, and tick-borne diseases occur together. It is therefore important to obtain information on the susceptibility of these breeds to tick infestation and tick-borne diseases. This study was therefore designed to determine the susceptibility of these cattle breeds to tick infestations. They were compared with the Galana Boran (trypanosusceptible) and the Friesian (susceptible to tick infestations, tick-borne diseases, and trypanosomosis). The four breeds of cattle were exposed to natural tick challenge for a period of seven months and whole body weekly tick counts were done on each animal. Significant differences to tick infestations among the four breeds were observed. For both Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Boophilus decoloratus, susceptibility to infestation increased in the order, Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran, Galana Boran and Friesian. The results generated by this pilot study so far suggest that variation in susceptibility to tick infestations exists among the four breeds. The Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu showed greater resistance to tick-infestations than the Galana Boran and Friesian. This suggests that utilization of these trypanotolerant cattle breeds could be feasible even in the face of tick challenge and should therefore be considered when planning integrated trypanosomosis and tick control strategies. PMID:9668465

  17. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  18. Induction of ovarian follicular wave emergence and ovulation in progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocols for Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Baldrighi, J M; Sales, J N S; Crepaldi, G A; Carvalho, J B P; Bó, G A; Baruselli, P S

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (FWE) and ovulation in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) synchronization protocols using norgestomet ear implants (NORG) in Bos indicus cattle. In Experiment 1, the synchronization of FWE was evaluated when two different estradiol esters in different doses [2mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 2.5mg EV or 5mg estradiol valerate (EV)] were administered with NORG implant insertion in B. indicus cattle (estrous cyclic heifers and cows with suckling calves; n=10 per treatment). After estradiol treatment, ovarian ultrasonic exams were performed once daily to detect the interval between treatment and FWE. There were significant treatment-by-animal category interaction (P=0.05) on the interval from the estradiol treatment to FWE. An earlier (P<0.0001) and less variable (P=0.02) interval from estradiol treatment to FWE was observed in heifers treated with EB (2.5±0.2; mean±SE) than in those treated with 2.5mg EV (4.2±0.3) or 5mg EV (6.1±0.6). Cows treated with 5mg EV (4.0±0.5) had longer (P=0.05) interval than cows receiving EB (2.5±0.2), however, there was an intermediate interval in those cows treated with 2.5mg EV (3.1±0.4). In Experiment 2, the number of uses of the NORG implant (new; n=305 or previously used once; n=314) and three different ovulation induction hormones [0.5mg estradiol cypionate (EC) at implant removal (n=205), 1mg EB given 24h after implant removal (n=219), or 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH) given at FTAI (n=195)] were evaluated in Nelore heifers (2×3 factorial design). Similar pregnancy per AI (P/AI; 30 days after FTAI; P>0.05) were achieved using each of the three ovulation induction hormones (EB=40.6%; EC=48.3%, or GnRH=48.7%) and with a new (47.2%) or once-used NORG implant (44.3%). In Experiment 3, the effect of different ovulation induction hormones for FTAI [1mg EC at NORG implant removal (n=228), 10μg buserelin acetate at FTAI (GnRH; n

  19. Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide production by Azotobacter indicus using flower extract of Madhuca latifolia L.

    PubMed

    Patil, Satish V; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Deepak M; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2010-10-01

    Efficacy of Azotobacter indicus ATCC 9540 strain for production exopolysaccharide (EPS) bioflocculant was investigated. Mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L), a natural substrate at the concentration of 20 g L(-1), gave maximum recovery of EPS followed by sucrose and mannitol as compared to other carbon sources after 172 h. Yeast extract was found to be the most effective nitrogen source as compared to beef extract, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, casein hydrolysate, and urea for the production of EPS. EPS production was increased in presence of nitrogen (5.51 g L(-1)) as compared to nitrogen-free medium (3.51 g L(-1)), and fermentation time was also reduced by 28 h. Maximum EPS production (6.10 g L(-1)) was found in the presence of 20 g L(-1) flower extract and 0.5 g L(-1) yeast extract containing Ashby's media with 180 rpm at 30 degrees C at 144 h, under controlled conditions in 2.5 L fermenter using optimized medium. The isolated EPS showed cation-dependent flocculating activity. Concentration of EPS played an important role in bioflocculating activity which increased in a concentration-dependent manner up to a certain limit, with the maximum flocculation of 72% at 500 mg L(-1) concentration but remained almost static after this concentration. Extracted polymer was characterized by different chemical tests, FT-IR spectroscopy, and TLC which showed presence of uronic acids, O-acetyl groups, and Orcinol with suggestive indication of alginate like polymer. This study suggests that use of M. latifolia L. flowers can be a potential alternative bioresource for production of exopolysaccharide. PMID:19921493

  20. A case study of Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M

    2013-01-01

    The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations. PMID:22610959

  1. Iron deficiency anemia in captive āalayan tapir calves (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Helmick, Kelly E; Milne, Victoria E

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was diagnosed in two captive female neonatal Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at separate institutions. Both calves had unremarkable exams and normal blood parameters within the first 3 days of life. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (hematocrit, HCT= 20%; mean corpuscular volume, MCV = 32.8 fl; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH = 10.5 pg) was diagnosed at day 66 of age in calf EPZ-1. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 71. A normal HCT (33%) with microcytosis and hypochromasia (MCV = 33.0 fl; MCH = 11.7 pg) was identified at day 80. No further concerns were noted through 610 days of age. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (HCT = 16%; MCV = 38.4 fl; MCH = 13.3 pg; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC= 34.6 g/dl) with thrombocytosis (platelets= 1018 10(3)/UL) and poikilocytosis was diagnosed at day 38 of age in calf WPZ-1 by samples obtained through operant conditioning. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 40 and day 68. Improving hematocrit (32%) and low serum iron (45 micorg/dl) was identified at day 88; total iron binding capacity (TIBC; 438 microg/dl) and percentage saturation (10%) were also measured. No further concerns were noted through day 529 of age. Retrospective evaluation identified presumptive IDA in two male siblings of calf WPZ-1. One calf died at day 40 (iron = 40 microg/dl; TIBC = 482 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 4%) and another at day 72 (HCT = 11%; iron = 26 microg/dl; TIBC = 470 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 6%). Death in both calves was attributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and bacterial septicemia. IDA can develop in Malayan tapirs between day 38 and day 72 of age and may be a significant precursor to bacterial septicemia and death in neonatal Malayan tapirs. PMID:23272357

  2. Food selection of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) under semi-wild conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Boyd K.; Shukor, M. N.; Magintan, David

    2013-11-01

    A study on the selection of food plants by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) was undertaken in a 30 hectare natural forest enclosure at the Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapirs browsed on 217 species of plants (from 99 genera and 49 families) from a total of the 1142 specimens collected and identified. Food plants were heavily dominated by sapling trees and shrubs which comprised 93% of all plants taken, with the remainder comprising woody lianas, vines and herbaceous plants. Although tapirs browsed on a wide variety of plant species, the top 30 species consumed represented more than 60% of all the plants selected, whilst the vast majority of species were rarely eaten. More than 80 species of trees and shrubs were available, but not eaten at all. The most readily consumed species were the sub-canopy and understorey trees Xerospermum noronhianum, Aporosa prainiana and Baccaurea parviflora, while Aporosa, Knema and Xerospermum were the dominant plant genera. The Phyllanthaceae (leaf flowers), Myristicaceae (nutmegs) and Sapindaceae (rambutans) were the most commonly selected families comprising 45% of the diet. Tapirs fed on saplings trees up to 8.3 m in height, while plants taller than about 1.6 m were bent, broken or pushed to the ground to gain access to the foliage. Sapling stems up to 4.2 cm in diameter could be snapped by biting, while larger trees to 7 cm diameter could be pushed down. Tapirs typically fed on the newer leaves and shoots, however, often only consuming half of the available foliage on a plant. This study documents 160 new plant species suitable as Malayan tapir food, and is consistent with the generalist, but selective browsing nature of the Tapirus species in general.

  3. Ovarian function in Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) cows after post-ovulation hormonal treatments.

    PubMed

    Machado, R; Bergamaschi, M A C M; Barbosa, R T; de Oliveira, C A; Binelli, M

    2008-04-15

    Maternal recognition of pregnancy in the cow requires successful signaling by the conceptus to block luteolysis. Conceptus growth and function depend on an optimal uterine environment, regulated by luteal progesterone. The objective of this study was to test strategies to optimize luteal function, as well as prevent a dominant follicle from initiating luteolysis. Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) beef cows (n=40) were submitted to a GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH protocol. Cows that ovulated from a dominant ovarian follicle (ovulation=Day 0) were allocated to receive: no additional treatment (G(C); n=7); 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 (G(hCG); n=5); 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(E2); n=6); or 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 and 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(hCG/E2); n=5). Ultrasonographic imaging of the ovaries, assessment of plasma progesterone concentration, and detection of estrus were done daily from Day 5 to the day of subsequent ovulation. Treatment with hCG induced an accessory CL, increased CL volume, and plasma progesterone concentration throughout the luteal phase (P<0.01). Estradiol-17beta induced atresia and recruitment of a new wave of follicular growth; it eliminated a potentially estrogen-active, growing ovarian follicle within the critical period for maternal recognition of pregnancy, but it also hastened luteolysis (Days 16 or 17 vs. Days 18 or 19 in non-treated cows). In conclusion, the approaches tested enhanced luteal function (hCG) and altered ovarian follicular dynamics (estradiol-17beta), but were unable to extend the life-span of the CL in Nelore cows. PMID:18336896

  4. Genome wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting tick resistance in cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In tropical countries, losses caused by bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation have a tremendous economic impact on cattle production systems. Genetic variation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus to tick resistance and molecular biology tools might allow for the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance traits that could be used as an auxiliary tool in selection programs. The objective of this work was to identify QTL associated with tick resistance/susceptibility in a bovine F2 population derived from the Gyr (Bos indicus) × Holstein (Bos taurus) cross. Results Through a whole genome scan with microsatellite markers, we were able to map six genomic regions associated with bovine tick resistance. For most QTL, we have found that depending on the tick evaluation season (dry and rainy) different sets of genes could be involved in the resistance mechanism. We identified dry season specific QTL on BTA 2 and 10, rainy season specific QTL on BTA 5, 11 and 27. We also found a highly significant genome wide QTL for both dry and rainy seasons in the central region of BTA 23. Conclusions The experimental F2 population derived from Gyr × Holstein cross successfully allowed the identification of six highly significant QTL associated with tick resistance in cattle. QTL located on BTA 23 might be related with the bovine histocompatibility complex. Further investigation of these QTL will help to isolate candidate genes involved with tick resistance in cattle. PMID:20433753

  5. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of Fein-Penaeidin from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    PubMed Central

    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Shanthi, Sathappan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Penaeidins are members of a special family of antimicrobial peptide existing in penaeid shrimp and play an important role in the immunological defense of shrimp. Here, we report a penaeidin sequence cloned from the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaus indicus (Fein-Penaeidin). The Fein-Penaeidin open reading frame encodes a 77 amino acid peptide including a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequences of Fein-Penaeidin include a proline rich N-terminal domain and a carboxyl-domain that contains six cysteine residues. Structural analysis revealed an alpha-helix in its secondary structure and the predicted 3D structure indicated two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison with other known peaneidin suggest the gene shows high similarity to that of penaeidin from Peneaus monodon (95%), F. indicus (80%) and Fenneropenaeus chinensis (74%). Fein-Penaeidin was examined in normal and microbial challenged shrimp and was found to be constitutively expressed in haemocytes, Heart, gills, muscles, intestine, hepatopancreas and eyestalk. Bacterial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, inducing expression at 6 h post injection indicating the penaeidin involved in the innate immunity. PMID:24371565

  6. Immune modulations and protection by translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in Fenneropenaeus indicus harboring white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, S; Kamalakannan, V; Narayanan, R B

    2014-07-01

    Fenneropenaeus indicus translationally controlled tumor protein (Fi-TCTP) was cloned and expressed using pET 100a-D-TOPO in prokaryotic expression system and it exhibited putative antioxidant activity as assessed in vitro by enhanced growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The protective efficacy of recombinant Fi-TCTP (rFi-TCTP) was evaluated in F. indicus by intramuscular and oral administration. Intramuscular injection of rFi-TCTP to shrimps, on subsequent white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection exhibited 42% relative percent survival. To understand the mechanism of protection, immunological parameters such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), phenoloxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed in early (24h) and late (60h) stages of infection. rFi-TCTP pretreatment significantly lowers the WSSV induced ROS generation and respiratory burst during early and late stages of infection. Further, WSSV induced apoptotic changes such as reduced haemocyte count, loss in MMP and DNA fragmentation were significantly reduced during early and late stage of infection upon rFi-TCTP administration. Hence, the immunomodulatory studies suggest that protective effect of rFi-TCTP in treated shrimps, might be due to the reduction in ROS and apoptosis, following decreased mitochondrial damage together with reduced phenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst. PMID:24837973

  7. Effect of electrical stimulation on protease activity and tenderness of M. longissimus from cattle with different proportions of Bos indicus content.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D M; Jiang, S T; Hearnshaw, H; Rymill, S R; Thompson, J M

    2000-07-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on protease activity (at approx. 3 h postmortem), sensory tenderness scores and shear force was determined on M. longissimus samples from three Bos indicus genotypes (0% Hereford, 50% Brahman×Hereford and 100% Brahman). The samples were divided and aged for 1 or 30 days. Electrical stimulation resulted in a general reduction in calpastatin activity suggesting that it accelerated proteolysis. Calpastatin activity increased commensurate with increasing Bos indicus content. Several significant interactions were shown, the most relevant of these was the interaction between Bos indicus content×electrical stimulation. In contrast to the other genotypes, calpain I and calpain II activities were shown to increase (significant for calpain II only) following stimulation in the purebred Brahmans (100%). There was a significant reduction in tenderness with increasing Bos indicus content. However, breed differences in shear force were reduced by electrical stimulation. The improvement in shear force following ageing was smaller for stimulated carcasses compared to the controls. This tends to reinforce the premise that electrical stimulation accelerates proteolysis. The results of this study show clear genotypic differences in proteolytic activity and tenderness. However, electrical stimulation can be employed to reduce breed differences in tenderness of the M. longissimus. PMID:22061281

  8. Chemical composition of whole body and carcass of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Nardon, R F; Figueiredo, L A; Alleoni, G F

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between the chemical composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section and the chemical composition of the carcass and empty body were evaluated for Bos indicus (108 Nellore and 36 Guzerah; GuS) and tropically adapted Bos taurus (56 Caracu; CaS) bulls, averaging 20 to 24 mo of age at slaughter. Nellore cattle were represented by 56 animals from the selected herd (NeS) and 52 animals from the control herd (NeC). The CaS and GuS bulls were from selected herds. Selected herds were based on 20 yr of selection for postweaning BW. Carcass composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, and analyzing soft tissue and bones. Similarly, empty body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Bulls were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was composed of 36 NeS, 36 NeC, 36 CaS, and 36 GuS bulls and had water, ether extract (EE), protein, and ash chemically determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section and in the carcass. Group 2 was composed of 20 NeS, 16 NeC, and 20 CaS bulls and water, EE, protein, and ash were determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section, carcass, and empty body. Linear regressions were developed between the carcass and the 9th- to 11th-rib section compositions for group 1 and between carcass and empty body compositions for group 2. The 9th- to 11th-rib section percentages of water (RWt) and EE (RF) predicted the percentages of carcass water (CWt) and carcass fat (CF) with high precision: CWt, % = 29.0806 + 0.4873 × RWt, % (r(2) = 0.813, SE = 1.06) and CF, % = 10.4037 + 0.5179 × RF, % (r(2) = 0.863, SE = 1.26), respectively. Linear regressions between percentage of CWt and CF and empty body water (EBWt) and empty body fat (EBF) were also predicted with high precision: EBWt, % = -9.6821 + 1.1626 × CWt, % (r(2) = 0.878, SE = 1.43) and EBF, % = 0.3739 + 1.0386 × CF, % (r(2) = 0.982, SE = 0.65), respectively. Chemical composition of the 9th- to 11

  9. Investigation of novel solid lipid microparticles based on homolipids from Bos indicus for the delivery of gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Kenechukwu, Franklin C.; Momoh, Mumuni A.; Umeyor, Emmanuel C.; Uronnachi, Emmanuel M.; Attama, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to formulate solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS)-based solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) using homolipids from tallow fat (Bos indicus) and evaluate its potential for enhanced delivery of gentamicin. Materials and Methods: SLMs were formulated by melt-emulsification using SRMS (15% w/w Phospholipon® 90G in 35% w/w Bos indicus), polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) and gentamicin (1.0, 2.0, 3.0% w/w), and characterized with respect to size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency % and pH-dependent stability. The in vitro release of gentamicin from the SLMs was performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) while bioevaluation was carried out using clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Results showed that the lipid matrix accommodated gentamicin in a concentration-dependent manner, and that stable and spherical SLMs with size range of 18.62 ± 1.24-20.59 ± 1.36 μm and 21.35 ± 1.57-50.62 ± 2.37 μm respectively for unloaded and drug-loaded formulations were obtained. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that SRMS-based SLMs could better be used to control the release of gentamicin than gentamicin injection. Results of sensitivity test revealed that the SLMs time-dependently and capacity-limitedly produced greater inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) than the standards, an indication of improved bioactivity against the test organisms, with greater IZDs against S. aureus than E. coli. Overall, SLMs containing 2% w/w SRMS, 3% w/w gentamicin and PEG 4000 entrapped the highest amount of drug, achieved complete drug release and gave highest IZD against the organisms within 420 min, while plain gentamicin gave the least. Conclusion: This research has shown that SLMs based on Bos indicus and P90G is a potential carrier system for dissolution and bioactivity enhancement of gentamicin. PMID:27014617

  10. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  11. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. PMID:25752498

  12. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present. PMID:20071017

  13. A new blue-tailed Monitor lizard (Reptilia, Squamata, Varanus) of the Varanus indicus group from Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Weijola, Valter; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Lindqvist, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Varanus from Mussau Island, north-east of New Guinea. The new species is a member of the Varanus indicus species group and is distinguished from all other members by both morphological and molecular genetic characters. It is the third species of Varanus reported from the Bismarck Archipelago and the first record of a yellow tongued member of the Varanus indicus species group from a remote oceanic island. The herpetofauna of Mussau Island has not been well studied but the discovery of this new species is in accordance with recent findings indicating that the island may harbor several unknown endemic vertebrates. The distribution of the closely related Varanus finschi is also discussed in the light of recent fieldwork and a review of old records. PMID:27103877

  14. Morphology and molecular analysis of Mizelleus indicus Jain () and M. longicirrus (Tripathi, ) Venkatanarasaiah & Kulkarni 1981 (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the freshwater shark Wallago attu in the Ganga River, India.

    PubMed

    Verma, C; Chaudhary, A; Singh, H S

    2016-09-01

    Species of the genus Mizelleus Jain (1957) have always been controversial regarding identification and validity. Members of this group of species differ from each other in the morphology of their hard parts, which can be misleading and subject to differing interpretation among scientists. Therefore, the main objective of present study was to identify Mizelleus worms by morphological methods and molecular analysis on the basis of 18S ribosomal DNA to clarify their phylogenetic status. In this study, specimens were isolated from the gill filaments of Wallago attu (Siluriformes) and studied morphologically. In accordance with morphological characters, the specimens were found to be Mizelleus indicus and Mizelleus longicirrus. Partial sequences of nuclear 18S rDNA of these two species were amplified. The results confirm the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic validation of M. indicus and M. longicirrus in India. PMID:26373618

  15. Molecular cloning of peroxinectin gene and its expression in response to peptidoglycan and Vibrio harveyi in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Shanthi, Sathappan; Manju, Sivalingam; Rajakumaran, Perumal; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2014-12-01

    The cDNA sequence of peroxinectin was obtained from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus using RT-PCR and RACE. Fenneropenaeus indicus peroxinectin (Fi-Pxn) sequence has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2415 bp encoding a protein of 804 amino acids with 21 residues signal sequence. The mature protein has molecular mass of 89.8 kDa with an estimated pI of 8.6. Two putative integrin-binding motifs, RGD and KGD, were observed at the basic N-terminal and C-terminal part of the mature aminoacid sequence. Fi-Pxn nucleotide sequence comparison showed high homology to mud crab Scylla serrata (89%) and to various vertebrate and invertebrate species. qRT-PCR showed peroxinectin mRNA transcript in haemocytes of F. indicus increased at 6 h post injection of peptidoglycan and Vibrio harveyi. The Fi-Pxn was mainly expressed in the tissues of haemocytes and the heart. The moulting stage responses showed Fi-Pxn expression in premoult stages D0/1 and D0/2. PMID:25072536

  16. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Morotti, F; Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Siqueira, E R; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2014-03-15

    Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P < 0.05), the pregnancy rate (bull I, 45% vs. 40%; II, 35% vs. 50%; and III, 47% vs. 48% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore

  17. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to

  18. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties. PMID:21947308

  19. Evaluation of two progestogen-based estrous synchronization protocols in yearling heifers of Bos indicus × Bos taurus breeding.

    PubMed

    McKinniss, E N; Esterman, R D; Woodall, S A; Austin, B R; Hersom, M J; Thatcher, W W; Yelich, J V

    2011-06-01

    Yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers (n = 410) from three locations, were synchronized with either the Select Synch/CIDR+timed-AI (SSC+TAI) or 7-11+timed-AI (7-11+TAI) treatments. On Day 0 of the experiment, within each location, heifers were equally distributed to treatments by reproductive tract score (RTS; Scale 1-5: 1 = immature, 5 = estrous cycling) and body condition score. The 7-11+TAI treatment consisted of melengestrol acetate (0.5 mg/head/d) from Days 0 to 7, with PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 7, GnRH (100 μg im) on Day 11, and PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 18. The SSC+TAI heifers received the same carrier supplement (without MGA) from Days 0 to 7, and on Day 11 they were given 100 μg GnRH and an intravaginal CIDR (containing 1.38 g progesterone). The CIDR were removed on Day 18, concurrent with 25 mg PGF(2α) im For both treatments, estrus was visually detected for 1 h twice daily (0700 and 1600 h) for 72 h after PGF(2α), with AI done 6 to 12 h after a detected estrus. Non-responders were timed-AI and received GnRH (100 μg im) 72 to 76 h post PGF(2α). The 7-11+TAI heifers had a greater (P < 0.05) estrous response (55.2 vs 41.9%), conception rate (47.0 vs 31.3%), and synchronized pregnancy rate (33.5 vs 24.8%) compared to SSC+TAI heifers, respectively. Heifers exhibiting estrus at 60 h (61.7%) had a greater (P < 0.05) conception rate compared to heifers that exhibited estrus at ≤ 36 (35.3%), 48 (31.6%), and 72 h (36.2%), which were similar (P > 0.05) to each other. As RTS increased from ≤ 2 to ≥ 3, estrous response, conception rate, synchronized pregnancy rate, and 30 d pregnancy rate all increased (P < 0.05), irrespective of synchronization treatment. In conclusion, the 7-11+TAI treatment yielded greater synchronized pregnancy rates compared to SSC+TAI treatment in yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers. PMID:21356555

  20. Exogenous progesterone enhances ova and embryo quality following superstimulation of the first follicular wave in Nelore (Bos indicus) donors.

    PubMed

    Nasser, L F; Sá Filho, M F; Reis, E L; Rezende, C R; Mapletoft, R J; Bó, G A; Baruselli, P S

    2011-07-15

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous progesterone on superovulatory response and ova/embryo quality in Bos indicus donors superstimulated during the first follicular wave (FFW). We hypothesized that exogenous progesterone during gonadotropin treatments would improve ova and embryo quality. In Experiment 1, 18 Nelore cows were randomly allocated to three groups: (1) FFW; (2) FFW plus a progesterone-releasing device (FFW+P4); and (3) control (E2+P4). Cows in the FFW groups were superstimulated beginning at synchronized ovulation, whereas cows in the control group were superstimulated after synchronization of follicular wave emergence with estradiol plus progesterone (E2+P4). There were no differences in mean (± SD) numbers of transferable embryos between FFW+P4 (8.0 ± 4.5) and control (6.7 ± 4.8) groups, but both were higher (P = 0.006) than the FFW group (0.2 ± 0.4). In Experiment 2, FFW and FFW+P4 were compared in 20 Nelore donors; exogenous progesterone increased the number of transferable embryos (3.9 ± 3.4 vs. 1.3 ± 4.1, P = 0.003). In Experiment 3, FFW and FFW+P4 were compared in 10 Nelore donors except that cows were slaughtered 12 h after pLH (Lutropin-V(®), Bioniche Animal Health, Belleville, ON, Canada) treatment. More mature cumulus oocyte complex (COC) (expanded cumulus cell layers) were collected in the FFW+P4 group than in the FFW group (21.8 ± 13.1 vs. 10.8±14.7; P = 0.003). In summary, superovulatory response was satisfactory when FSH (Folltropin-V(®), Bioniche Animal Health) treatment was initiated at emergence of the first follicular wave in Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, and the hypothesis that administration of exogenous progesterone during the treatment will improve oocyte and embryo quality was supported. PMID:21496903

  1. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: I. Reproductive, maternal, and size traits.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Cows (n = 116) sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls and from Hereford dams were evaluated (when bred to the same breed of bull) for reproductive performance and cow weight and height and their calves (n = 1,161) were evaluated for birth and weaning weight in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). Cows were born from 1982 to 1985 and their calves were born from 1985 to 1999. Crossbred cows sired by Angus had a higher (P < 0.10) occurrence of calving difficulty than Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman crossbreds. Calves from Gir crossbreds had lighter (P < 0.10) birth weight (34.8 kg) than calves from Angus and Red Brahman crossbreds (39.4 and 37.2 kg). Calves from Angus crossbreds cows had lighter (P < 0.001) weaning weight (227.0 kg) than calves from Bos indicus crossbreds. Cows sired by Angus were lighter (P < 0.10) as mature cows (520.69 kg) than Gray Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds (585.6, 571.9, and 577.6 kg, respectively). They also had smaller (P < 0.05) hip height (124.7 cm) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Mature cows sired by Indu-Brazil had greater (P < 0.05) hip height (138.3 cm) than Gir crossbreds (133.8 cm). Differences among sire breeds were noted within cow age categories (2 through 14 yr of age) for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, calf survival rate (as a trait of cow), and calf crop weaned. Angus and Indu-Brazil crossbred cows were lower (P < or = 0.10) than Gir and Nellore crossbreds for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, and(or) calf crop weaned at some, but not all, ages. Indu-Brazil crossbreds had a lower (P < or = 0.10) calf survival rate than most other breed groups at ages 11 to 14 yr. The results of this study indicate that Nellore and Gir crossbreds, but not Indu-Brazil, could perform as well or better than breeds traditionally used in cross-breeding programs of U.S. cow-calf production. PMID:11424679

  2. Diversity and evolution of 11 innate immune genes in Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus cattle

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Christopher M.; Seabury, Paul M.; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1) genes play key roles in the innate immune systems of mammals. While the TLRs recognize a variety of invading pathogens and induce innate immune responses, PGLYRP1 is directly microbicidal. We used custom allele-specific assays to genotype and validate 220 diallelic variants, including 54 nonsynonymous SNPs in 11 bovine innate immune genes (TLR1-TLR10, PGLYRP1) for 37 cattle breeds. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and we were unable to differentiate between the specialized B. t. taurus beef and dairy breeds, despite an average polymorphism density of one locus per 219 bp. Ninety-nine tagSNPs and one tag insertion-deletion polymorphism were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at all 11 innate immune loci in both subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 58 tagSNPs captured 100% of the variation at 172 loci in B. t. taurus. PolyPhen and SIFT analyses of nonsynonymous SNPs encoding amino acid replacements indicated that the majority of these substitutions were benign, but up to 31% were expected to potentially impact protein function. Several diversity-based tests provided support for strong purifying selection acting on TLR10 in B. t. taurus cattle. These results will broadly impact efforts related to bovine translational genomics. PMID:20018671

  3. Bacillus indicus sp. nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium isolated from an aquifer in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Suresh, K; Prabagaran, S R; Sengupta, S; Shivaji, S

    2004-07-01

    Strain Sd/3T (=MTCC 4374T=DSM 15820T), an arsenic-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a sand sample obtained from an arsenic-contaminated aquifer in Chakdah district in West Bengal, India (23 degrees 3' N 88 degrees 35' E). The bacterium was Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-motile, endospore-forming and yellowish-orange pigmented. It possessed all the characteristics that conform to the genus Bacillus, such as it had A4beta murein type (L-orn-D-Asp) peptidoglycan variant, MK-7 as the major menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acids. Based on its chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain Sd/3T was identified as a species of the genus Bacillus. It exhibited maximum similarity (95%) at the 16S rRNA gene level with Bacillus cohnii; however, DNA-DNA similarity with B. cohnii was 60.7%. Strain Sd/3T also exhibited a number of phenotypic differences from B. cohnii (DSM 6307T). These data suggest that Sd/3T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus. The name Bacillus indicus sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:15280316

  4. Estimating the population density of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) in a selectively logged forest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rayan, D Mark; Mohamad, Shariff Wan; Dorward, Leejiah; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Christopher, Wong Chai Thiam; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David

    2012-12-01

    The endangered Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, forest fragmentation and increased hunting pressure. Conservation planning for this species, however, is hampered by a severe paucity of information on its ecology and population status. We present the first Asian tapir population density estimate from a camera trapping study targeting tigers in a selectively logged forest within Peninsular Malaysia using a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. With a trap effort of 2496 nights, 17 individuals were identified corresponding to a density (standard error) estimate of 9.49 (2.55) adult tapirs/100 km(2) . Although our results include several caveats, we believe that our density estimate still serves as an important baseline to facilitate the monitoring of tapir population trends in Peninsular Malaysia. Our study also highlights the potential of extracting vital ecological and population information for other cryptic individually identifiable animals from tiger-centric studies, especially with the use of a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. PMID:23253368

  5. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 is type I myofiber specific in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Coles, C A; Wadeson, J; Knight, M I; Cafe, L M; Johns, W H; White, J D; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B

    2014-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12) is involved in the regulation of myogenesis and adipogenesis and is of interest as a potential target to manipulate skeletal muscle development and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in cattle to increase beef yield and improve meat quality. The longissimus thoracis muscle (LM) and semitendinosus muscle (STM) from 5 Bos taurus (Angus) and 5 Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle were collected for histological and ADAM12 gene and protein expression analysis. Myofiber typing was used to determine if ADAM12 expression patterns related to differences in muscling and IMF deposition, which are influenced by proportions of the different myofiber types. The STM was found to contain a higher proportion of glycolytic myofibers than the LM, which contained a greater proportion of oxidative myofibers (myofiber ratio of glycolytic to more oxidative types in LM and STM of 1.1 and 3.5, respectively; P < 0.05). ADAM12 gene expression, fluorescent immunohistochemical staining for ADAM12, and image analysis found ADAM12 to be greater in the LM (P < 0.05). Regression analysis found a strong, positive relationship for the distribution of ADAM12 against the proportion of type I myofibers (P < 0.05, r(2) = 0.86). These findings suggest ADAM12 is upregulated in muscles with more slow-oxidative myofibres, such as the LM, and is linked to type I myofibers in cattle. ADAM12 may be important in the regulation and maintenance slow myofibers in the LM muscle. PMID:24663211

  6. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of heat killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) on various human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Menaga; In, Lionel L A; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ahmed, Niyaz; Nagoor, Noor Hasima

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is a non-pathogenic mycobacterium, which has been tested on several cancer types like lung and bladder where tumour regression and complete recovery was observed. In discovering the potential cytotoxic elements, a preliminary test was carried out using four different fractions consisting of live bacteria, culture supernatant, heat killed bacteria and heat killed culture supernatant of MIP against two human cancer cells A549 and CaSki by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was investigated in MCF-7 and ORL-115 cancer cells by poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation assays. Among four MIP fractions, only heat killed MIP fraction (HKB) showed significant cytotoxicity in various cancer cells with inhibitory concentration, IC50 in the range 5.6–35.0 μl/(1.0 × 106 MIP cells/ml), while cytotoxicity effects were not observed in the remaining fractions. HKB did not show cytotoxic effects on non-cancerous cells contrary to cancerous cells, suggesting its safe usage and ability to differentially recognize between these cells. Evaluation on PARP assay further suggested that cytotoxicity in cancer cells were potentially induced via caspase-mediated apoptosis. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of MIP HKB have indicated that this fraction can be a good candidate to further identify effective anti-cancer agents. PMID:26817684

  7. Inhibition of Cancer Cell Proliferation and Antiradical Effects of Decoction, Hydroalcoholic Extract, and Principal Constituents of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.

    PubMed

    Statti, Giancarlo; Marrelli, Mariangela; Conforti, Filomena; Spagnoletti, Antonella; Tacchini, Massimo; Fimognari, Carmela; Brognara, Eleonora; Gambari, Roberto; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra

    2015-06-01

    Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.) is widely used in Indian traditional medicine. In the present work, we explored the effects of decoction, traditional Ayurvedic preparation, and hydroalcoholic extract, a phytocomplex more traditionally studied and commercialized as food supplement in western medicine, from the roots as possible source of chemicals with new functional potential linked to their nutritional uses. The antiproliferative and antioxidant properties were assayed. To test antiproliferative affects, different cancer cell lines, growing both as monolayers (CaCo2, MCF-7, A549, K562, MDA-MB-231, Jurkat, HepG2, and LoVo) and in suspension (K562 and Jurkat) were used. The decoction showed strong activity on HepG2 cells, while the hydroalcoholic extracts were active on HepG2, LoVo, MCF-7, K562, and Jurkat cell lines. Weak inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was observed for the principal constituents of the preparations: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that were tested alone. The antiradical activity was tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt tests and inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Interesting result has also been obtained for hydroalcoholic extract regarding genoprotective potential (58.79% of inhibition at 37.5 µg/mL). PMID:25753739

  8. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution. PMID:27589726

  9. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ≤ 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605. PMID:20637126

  10. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m2/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m2/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m2/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m2/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In conclusion

  11. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m(2)/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m(2)/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m(2)/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m(2)/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In

  12. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diantoro, Markus; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin, Sujito, Hidayat, Arif

    2016-03-01

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C6-C3-C6 carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  13. Mycobacterium indicus pranii and Mycobacterium bovis BCG lead to differential macrophage activation in Toll-like receptor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Tyagi, Rohit; Das, Gobardhan; Bhaskar, Sangeeta

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is an atypical mycobacterial species possessing strong immunomodulatory properties. It is a potent vaccine candidate against tuberculosis, promotes Th1 immune response and protects mice from tumours. In previous studies, we demonstrated higher protective efficacy of MIP against experimental tuberculosis as compared with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Since macrophages play an important role in the pathology of mycobacterial diseases and cancer, in the present study, we evaluated the MIP in live and killed form for macrophage activation potential, compared it with BCG and investigated the underlying mechanisms. High levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), IL-6 and nitric oxide were produced by MIP-stimulated macrophages as compared with BCG-stimulated macrophages. Prominent up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 was also observed in response to MIP. Loss of response in MyD88-deficient macrophages showed that both MIP and BCG activate the macrophages in a MyD88-dependent manner. MyD88 signalling pathway culminates in nuclear factor-κB/activator protein-1 (NF-κB/AP-1) activation and higher activation of NF-κB/AP-1 was observed in response to MIP. With the help of pharmacological inhibitors and Toll-like receptor (TLR) -deficient macrophages, we observed the role of TLR2, TLR4 and intracellular TLRs in MIP-mediated macrophage activation. Stimulation of HEK293 cells expressing TLR2 in homodimeric or heterodimeric form showed that MIP has a distinctly higher level of TLR2 agonist activity compared with BCG. Further experiments suggested that TLR2 ligands are well exposed in MIP whereas they are obscured in BCG. Our findings establish the higher macrophage activation potential of MIP compared with BCG and delineate the underlying mechanism. PMID:24766519

  14. Ultrasonographic measurement of fetal growth parameters over three successive pregnancies in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Hoyer, M J; van Engeldorp Gastelaars, H M D

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish representative curves that allow evaluation of fetal growth and estimation of gestational age from measurement of fetal structures by ultrasound in Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). Three pregnancies (i.e. 3 fetuses) were examined in one female Malayan tapir. Transabdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed without anesthesia from 79 ± 8 days to 281 ± 48 days (mean ± S.D.) post mating. To assess fetal growth attempts were made to measure biparietal diameter (BPD), head length (HL), thorax diameter A (TDA), thorax height A (THA), thorax diameter B (TDB), thorax height B (THB), abdomen diameter (AD), abdomen height (AH), humerus length (HUL) and Crown rump length (CRL). The value of each parameter as an estimator of gestational age was assessed by ease of observation and the length of time the parameter was measurable throughout gestation. The most precise predictors for gestational age in this study were BPD and CRL (weeks 10-20 of gestation), as well as AD and AH (weeks 14-43 of gestation). The parameters TDB, THB and HUL (weeks 15-41 of gestation) gave almost as good predictions. Fetal viability was assessed by identifying a fetal heartbeat and movement. All pregnancies resulted in normal deliveries and healthy offspring. The ultrasound examination was well tolerated by the female. The gestation lengths (399 ± 3 days) were within reported ranges. The serial transabdominal ultrasound, without the need for anesthesia, was an effective method to evaluate fetal growth, development and well being in a Malayan tapir. PMID:25042428

  15. Comparative sensitivity to environmental variation and human disturbance of Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and other wild ungulates in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Antony J; Tantipisanuh, Naruemon; Chutipong, Wanlop; Ngoprasert, Dusit; Baker, Megan C; Cutter, Passanan; Gale, George; Kitamura, Shumpei; Steinmetz, Robert; Sukmasuang, Ronglarp; Thunhikorn, Somying

    2012-12-01

    Southeast Asia's tropical forests suffer the highest rates of deforestation and disturbance of any on Earth, with poorly understood impacts on native fauna. Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) are among the least studied of the large mammals in these forests. Using records from 9 camera trap surveys in 7 of the largest (>1000 km(2) ) protected area complexes, we assessed the influence of environmental variation and human-induced disturbance on tapir occurrence. Tapirs were detected at 13% of locations sampled, significantly associated with evergreen forest (P < 0.001). A multiple logistic regression model predicted tapir presence 87% of the time. According to this model, tapir occurrence was positively influenced by annual rainfall and proximity to the forest edge. However, tapirs may not avoid edges but instead prefer wetter evergreen forest, a habitat type that tended to occur further from the forest edge at higher elevations in our particular study sites (P < 0.001). By comparison, 4 other wild ungulate species that share habitats with tapirs showed a range of differing responses. Tapirs are expected to be less sensitive to disturbance because they are not targets for hunting and trade, and are almost entirely active at night, so avoid peak traffic periods in parks. Tapir populations in Thailand may be more stable than in other parts of their global range because rates of forest loss have decreased >40% over the past 20 years. We recommend surveys to fill gaps in the understanding of the status in lesser-known protected areas, research to better understand the fine-scale environmental influences on behavior and habitats of tapirs, and other forest ungulates, and continued legal status for tapirs in the highest category of protection. PMID:23253370

  16. Superovulation, collection and transfer of embryos and demi-embryos from Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Jordt, T; Lorenzini, E

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG); a total of four embryos and 4.1 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) ova per ova-producing donor resulted. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P) was then used to superovulate 49 Boran cows for a total of 106 superovulations, of which 63 (59.4%) produced an average of 3.7 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SEM) embryos. The embryo production was not influenced by either the season or the number of times(one to five) the cows were superovulated. A higher pregnancy rate was obtained when the selection of Boran recipients was based on their plasma-progesterone values (overall 52.5%, single embryos 63.3%, twin demi-embryos 45.8%) than when they were selected by palpation per rectum only (overall 43.8%, single embryos 50%, twin demi-embryos 36.4%). The twinning rate of twin demiembryos was 62.5%, whereas only single calves were born after transfer of two embryos per recipient. No pregnancies were produced following transfer of twin demi-embryos without zonae pellucidae. Transferring single demi-embryos gave a low pregnancy rate (13.3%). Twelve donor Boran cows (21 superovulations) bred with their fathers resulted in a high rate of early embryonic death; additionally, only 20.9% (overall) of the recipients became pregnant. Estrus synchronization of Boran cows with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for a short period (7 d) combined with one injection of prostaglandin (Day 6) produced a larger number of good quality recipients (70.5%) than using double prostaglandin injections (60%). PMID:16726476

  17. Stable isotopes suggest low site fidelity in Bar-Headed Geese (Anser indicus) in Mongolia: Implications for disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiangming Xiao; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-central Mongolia. Samples were collected from actively molting Bar-headed Geese (n = 61), and some individual samples included both a newly grown feather (still in sheath) and an old, worn feather from the bird's previous molt (n = 21). Although there was no difference in mean hydrogen isotope ratios for the old and new feathers, the isotopic variance in old feathers was approximately three times higher than that of the new feathers, which suggests that these birds use different and geographically distant molting locations from year to year. To further test this conclusion, online data and modeling tools from the isoMAP website were used to generate probability landscapes for the origin of each feather. Likely molting locations were much more widespread for old feathers than for new feathers, which supports the prospect of low molt-site fidelity. This finding indicates that population connectivity would be greater than expected based on data from a single annual cycle, and that disease spread can be rapid even in areas like Mongolia where Bar-headed Geese generally breed in small isolated groups.

  18. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: II. Udder, mouth, longevity, and lifetime productivity.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Postpartum udder characteristics, aged mouth condition scores, and cow survival, longevity, and productivity were evaluated for 15 yr on F1 cows in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). The cows (n = 116) were progeny of Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman sires and Hereford dams. Crossbred cows sired by Nellore had smaller (P < 0.05) postpartum teat length than cows of all other crossbred groups and smaller (P < 0.10) postpartum teat diameter than Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman crossbreds. The Nellore crossbred cows had larger (P < 0.10) postpartum udder support scores (more well-supported udders) than Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds. As 14-yr-old cows, Angus crossbreds had lower (P < 0.05) mouth scores (indicative of one or more missing incisors) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Under actual and artificial (records were removed) culling procedures, Nellore crossbreds had the highest cow survival to age 14 and the highest longevity. Indu-Brazil crossbreds tended to be the lowest for both survival and longevity. Curves were fitted by nonlinear regression procedures to the adjusted frequencies of cows remaining at each age; scale and shape parameters were estimated and compared for the different breed groups. Breed group cow survival rates, calf crop weaned, and calf weaning weights were used 1) to construct population projection and production matrices for each breed group and 2) to generate breed group vectors containing projected age distributions and production information. Cows sired by Nellore and Gir were projected to require the fewest purebred cows to generate replacement heifers and to have the most calves and the largest total calf weight sold per year. PMID:11424680

  19. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Matthew C.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Wiggans, George R.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Weber, Kristina L.; Penedo, Cecilia T.; Berry, Donagh P.; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Machado, Marco A.; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C.; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Keele, John W.; Piper, Emily K.; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2013-01-01

    To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ≤1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset. PMID:24065982

  20. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: Effects on growth and concentrations of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus calves of intra-testicular injection of either saline (n=9) or one of two doses of zinc acetate ((ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10, or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) or surgical castration (n=9) on circulating concentrations of testostosterone and liveweight. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, 1500IU) was administered 202 and 525 days after treatment on Day 0 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. In animals left intact treatment with ZA reduced mean serum concentrations of testosterone (Saline: 5.58±0.79ng/mL, ZA1: 1.28±0.27ng/mL, ZA2: 1.01±0.17ng/mL; P<0.001) and concentrations 48h following administration of hCG. The maximum concentration of testosterone recorded throughout the study in six out of 19 animals treated with ZA was ≤0.21ng/mL. Treatment with ZA did not significantly affect live weights or carcass weights or result in any detectable scrotal lesions. Animals with concentrations of testosterone ≥1.0ng/mL exhibited greater liveweights throughout most of the study and yielded heavier carcass weights (340.9±7.02 versus 309.3±6.17kg, P=0.002). It is concluded that a single, intra-testicular administration of either 57.75mg or 71.75mg of ZA was able to similarly reduce circulating concentrations of testosterone without significantly affecting liveweights or carcass weights. Treatment with ZA can result in variation in circulating concentrations of testosterone which could lead to differences in behaviour, liveweights and carcass characteristics. PMID:26130602

  1. Geographic variation in Bar-headed geese Anser indicus: connectivity of wintering and breeding grounds across a broad front.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Javed, Salim; Newman, Scott H.; Suwal, Rajendra N.; Rahman, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Wikelski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas.

  2. Analysis of host genetic factors influencing African trypanosome species infection in a cohort of Tanzanian Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Morrison, Liam J; Black, Alana; Turner, C Michael R; Kambarage, Dominic M; Ballingall, Keith T

    2011-06-30

    Trypanosomosis caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma is a major health constraint to cattle production in many African countries. One hundred and seventy one Bos indicus cattle from traditional pastoral Maasai (87) and more intensively managed Boran (84) animals in Tanzania were screened by PCR for the presence of African animal trypanosomes (Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei), using blood samples archived on FTA cards. All cattle screened for trypanosomes were also genotyped at the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB3 locus to investigate possible associations between host MHC and trypanosome infection. Overall, 23.4% of the 171 cattle tested positive for at least one of the three trypanosome species. The prevalence of individual trypanosome species was 8.8% (T. congolense), 4.7% (T. vivax) and 15.8% (T. brucei). The high prevalence of T. brucei compared with T. congolense and T. vivax was unexpected as this species has previously been considered to be of lesser importance in terms of African bovine trypanosomosis. Significantly higher numbers of Maasai cattle were infected with T. brucei (23.0%, p=0.009) and T. congolense (13.8%, p=0.019) compared with Boran cattle (8.3% and 3.6%, respectively). Analysis of BoLA-DRB3 diversity in this cohort identified extensive allelic diversity. Thirty-three BoLA-DRB3 PCR-RFLP defined alleles were identified. One allele (DRB3*15) was significantly associated with an increased risk (odds ratio, OR=2.71, p=0.034) of T. brucei infection and three alleles (DRB3*35, *16 and *23) were associated with increased risk of T. congolense infection. While further work is required to dissect the role of these alleles in susceptibility to T. brucei and T. congolense infections, this study demonstrates the utility of FTA archived blood samples in combined molecular analyses of both host and pathogen. PMID:21377802

  3. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  4. Comparison of synthetic oviductal fluid and G1/G2 medium under low-1 oxygen atmosphere on embryo production and pregnancy rates in Nelore (Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Ferreira, C R; Perecin, F; Seneda, M M

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we evaluated whether embryo development and pregnancy rates would be affected by culturing bovine Bos indicus embryos in Synthetic Oviductal Fluid with amino acids (SOFaa) or G1/G2 sequential medium under a low-oxygen atmosphere. Using Ovum Pick Up, we obtained 1,538 oocytes, divided into G1/G2 (n = 783) and SOFaa (n = 755). No difference was observed for blastocyst development among the groups (27.8% ± 14.6 and 34.9% ± 20.0 for G1/G2 and SOFaa respectively, p > 0.05). Transferring the embryos (n = 450) from both groups to recipients resulted in similar pregnancy rates for the G1/G2 (38.4% n = 78/203) compared to the SOFaa (39.7% n = 98/247). Our findings confirm that Bos indicus embryos cultured in SOFaa and G1/G2 under low-oxygen atmosphere have similar in vitro (blastocyst rate) and in vivo (pregnancy rate) developmental capacity. However, embryos cultured in G1/G2 medium have higher cleavage than those cultured in SOFaa medium. PMID:22448771

  5. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P < 0.05). Measurements related to the calcium-dependent protease system and myofibrillar fragmentation explained the bulk of the variation among breeds, whereas variation in fibre type, sarcomere length and connective tissue properties gave less convincing support. With the exception of the Tuli, Sanga and Sanga-related breeds produced more tender (according to SF) meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05). PMID:22445415

  6. Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Uma Maheswari, M.; Ravi, T. K.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Saravanan, S.; Rajasekaran, A.; Dharman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200 mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100 mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers. PMID:20953435

  7. Functional analysis of ars gene cluster of Pannonibacter indicus strain HT23(T) (DSM 23407(T)) and identification of a proline residue essential for arsenate reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Saumya; Das, Subrata K

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring ubiquitous highly toxic metalloid. In this study, we have identified ars gene cluster in Pannonibacter indicus strain HT23(T) (DSM 23407(T)), responsible for reduction of toxic pentavalent arsenate. The ars gene cluster is comprised of four non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a transcriptional regulator (ArsR), a low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (LMW-PTPase) with hypothetical function, an arsenite efflux pump (Acr3), and an arsenate reductase (ArsC). Heterologous expression of arsenic inducible ars gene cluster conferred arsenic resistance to Escherichia coli ∆ars mutant strain AW3110. The recombinant ArsC was purified and assayed. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to ascertain the role of specific amino acids in ArsC catalysis. Pro94X (X = Ala, Arg, Cys, and His) amino acid substitutions led to enzyme inactivation. Circular dichroism spectra analysis suggested Pro94 as an essential amino acid for enzyme catalytic activity as it is indispensable for optimum protein folding in P. indicus Grx-coupled ArsC. PMID:26915994

  8. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a novel antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-3 (Fi-Pen3) from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B

    2012-03-20

    A new member of antimicrobial peptide genes of the penaeidin family, penaeidin 3, was cloned from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropeneaus indicus (F. indicus), by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE-PCR) methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of cDNA clone of Indian white shrimp F. indicus Penaeidin 3 (Fi-Pen3) was 243bp long and has an open reading frame which encodes 80 amino acid peptide. The homology analysis of Fi-Pen3 sequence with other Penaeidins 3 shows higher similarity with Penaeus monodon (92%). The theoretical 3D structure generated through ab initio modelling indicated the presence of two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. The signal peptide sequence of Fi-Pen3 is almost entirely homologous to that of other Penaeidin 3 of crustaceans, while differing relatively in the N-terminal domain of the mature peptide. The mature peptide has a predicted molecular weight of 84.9kDa, and a theoretical pI of 9.38. Phylogenetic analysis of Fi-Pen3 shows high resemblance with other Pen-3 from P. monodon, Litopenaeus stylirostris, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus. Fi-Pen3 found to be expressed in haemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, muscles, gills, intestine, and eyestalk with higher expression in haemocytes. Microbial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, up to 6h post injection of Vibrio parahemolyticus. The Fi-Pen3 mRNA expression of F. indicus in the premolt stage (D(01) and D(02)) was significantly up-regulated than the postmolt (A and B) and intermolt stages (C). The findings of the present paper underline the involvement of Fi-Pen3 in innate immune system of F. indicus. PMID:21885268

  9. Luteolysis in Bos indicus cows on Days 5 and 7 of estrous cycle with varying doses of PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species. PMID:27221255

  10. Influence of calf genotype on colostral immunoglobulins in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows and serum immunoglobulins in their calves.

    PubMed

    Vann, R C; Holloway, J W; Carstens, G E; Boyd, M E; Randel, R D

    1995-10-01

    Purebred Bos indicus calves are documented to have lower survival rates than Bos taurus calves. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the possibility that this decreased survival rate may be attributed to dam colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations and subsequent calf serum Ig concentrations. The specific objective was to determine the effect of breed type of calf on colostrum production, immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and calf serum, and availability and absorption efficiency of Ig. Brahman (B) and Angus (A) cattle were reciprocally mated to produce calves of the following types: A x A (n = 8), A x B (n = 9), B x B (n = 11), and B x A (n = 11). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and a blood sample was collected before feeding pooled colostrum (30 mL/kg birth weight) at 1 and 6 h of age. From 6 to 12 h of age, each calf was placed in a box that allowed interaction with the dam but prevented suckling. At 12 h of age, each calf was fed its dam's colostrum and placed with the dam. Additional blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 48 h after birth. Serum and colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA using single radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay techniques. The cows were hand-milked after induction of milk letdown with oxytocin at 1 and 12 h after calving. Colostrum volume was recorded, and samples were collected. Brahman cows produced more (P < .001) colostrum at 1 and 12 h than A cows. Total Ig concentrations were obtained by summing IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA concentrations. Total Ig (P < .02), IgG (P < .005), and IgA (P < .01) concentrations in colostrum were greater in cows producing crossbred calves. Total Ig (P < .006), IgG (P < .02), IgG1 (P < .004), and IgG2 (P < .02) available in colostrum were affected by B x B and A x B breed types of calf. Brahman cows had more Ig available at 1 and 12 h than A cows due to increased production of colostrum. Breed type influenced colostral Ig in cattle

  11. Synchronization of ovulation in beef cows (Bos indicus) using GnRH, PGF2alpha and estradiol benzoate.

    PubMed

    Barros, C M; Moreira, M B; Figueiredo, R A; Teixeira, A B; Trinca, L A

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate protocols for synchronizing ovulation in beef cattle. In Experiment 1, Nelore cows (Bos indicus) at random stages of the estrous cycle were assigned to 1 of the following treatments: Group GP controls (nonlactating, n=7) received GnRH agonist (Day 0) and PGF2alpha (Day 7); while Groups GPG (nonlactating, n=8) and GPG-L (lactating, n=9) cows were given GnRH (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and GnRH again (Day 8, 30 h after PGF2alpha). A new follicular wave was observed 1.79+/-0.34 d after GnRH in 19/24 cows. After PGF2alpha, ovulation occurred in 19/24 cows (6/7 GP, 6/8 GPG, 7/9 GPG-L). Most cows (83.3%) exhibited a dominant follicle just before PGF2alpha, and 17/19 ovulatory follicles were from a new follicular wave. There was a more precise synchrony of ovulation (within 12 h) in cows that received a second dose of GnRH (GPG and GPG-L) than controls (GP, ovulation within 48 h; P<0.01). In Experiment 2, lactating Nelore cows with a visible corpus luteum (CL) by ultrasonography were allocated to 2 treatments: Group GPE (n=10) received GnRH agonist (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and estradiol benzoate (EB; Day 8, 24 h after PGF2alpha); while Group EPE (n=11), received EB (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 9) and EB (Day 10, 24 h after PGF2alpha). Emergence of a new follicular wave was observed 1.6+/-0.31 d after GnRH (Group GPE). After EB injection (Day 8) ovulation was observed at 45.38+/-2.03 h in 7/10 cows within 12 h. In Group EPE the emergence of a new follicular wave was observed later (4.36+/-0.31 d) than in Group GEP (1.6+/-0.31 d; P<0.001). After the second EB injection (Day 10) ovulation was observed at 44.16+/-2.21 h within 12 (7/11 cows) or 18 h (8/11 cows). All 3 treatments were effective in synchronizing ovulation in beef cows. However, GPE and, particularly, EPE treatments offer a promising alternative to the GPG protocol in timed artificial insemination of beef cattle, due to the low cost of EB compared with GnRH agonists. PMID

  12. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent.

    PubMed

    White, S N; Casas, E; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Keele, J W; Smith, T P L

    2005-09-01

    The three objectives of this study were to 1) test for the existence of beef tenderness markers in the CAPN1 gene segregating in Brahman cattle; 2) test existing CAPN1 tenderness markers in indicus-influenced crossbred cattle; and 3) produce a revised marker system for use in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. Previously, two SNP in the CAPN1 gene have been described that could be used to guide selection in Bos taurus cattle (designated Markers 316 and 530), but neither marker segregates at high frequency in Brahman cattle. In this study, we examined three additional SNP in CAPN1 to determine whether variation in this gene could be associated with tenderness in a large, multisire American Brahman population. One marker (termed 4751) was associated with shear force on postmortem d 7 (P < 0.01), 14 (P = 0.015), and 21 (P < 0.001) in this population, demonstrating that genetic variation important for tenderness segregates in Bos indicus cattle at or near CAPN1. Marker 4751 also was associated with shear force (P < 0.01) in the same large, multisire population of cattle of strictly Bos taurus descent that was used to develop the previously reported SNP (referred to as the Germplasm Evaluation [GPE] Cycle 7 population), indicating the possibility that one marker could have wide applicability in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. To test this hypothesis, Marker 4751 was tested in a third large, multisire cattle population of crossbred subspecies descent (including sire breeds of Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford, and Angus referred to as the GPE Cycle 8 population). The highly significant association of Marker 4751 with shear force in this population (P < 0.001) confirms the usefulness of Marker 4751 in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds, including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and crossbred descent. This wide applicability adds substantial value over previously released Markers 316 and 530. However, Marker 316, which had previously been shown to be

  13. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (p<0.05). A multiple regression analyses of these SPPs, using three models; non-parametric Tree Model, Generalized Additive Model, and a step-wise selection method were conducted, and 6 SPPs could be used to predict PNS24; four SPPs had positive and two had negative association with PNS24. Together these spots explained 35% of the phenotypic variation in PNS24. Using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF and TripleToF-MS) the SPPs with positive relationship contained mainly apolipoprotein A-I (1310), protein DJ-1 and glutathione peroxidase 3 (2308), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (6402) and apolipoprotein A-I and secretoglobin family 1D member (8008). The SPPs inversely associated with PNS24 were clusterin/seminal plasma protein A3 (1411) and epididymal secretory protein E1 (8108). This is the first comprehensive report on the association between seminal plasma protein composition in Bos indicus Brahman bulls and sperm morphology. PMID:26417650

  14. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    PubMed

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment. PMID:1938641

  15. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P < 0.05), suggesting the presence of variation affecting meat tenderness. All three informative SNP at the CAPN1 gene were associated with hump height (P < 0.02). The TG marker was associated with fat thickness and LMA (P < 0.05), but not with marbling score. No significant associations of the SNP in the DGAT1 gene were observed for any trait. Allele frequencies of the SNP in TG and CAPN1 were different in this Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers. PMID:15583037

  16. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.

    PubMed

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera (Wild.), Leucas aspera ethanolic extract (LAEE), Plumbago zeylanica L., Plumbago zeylanica ethanolic extract (PZEE), and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Tridax procumbens ethanolic extract (TPEE) were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE, and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization, blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study. PMID:26106379

  17. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. Calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon ratchasima Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Keawrayup, S.; Duvallet, G.; Sukonthabhirom, S.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.

    2012-01-01

    A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2%) and S. calcitrans (49.5%). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%). The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05). The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00) during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. PMID:22910668

  18. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Keawrayup, S; Duvallet, G; Sukonthabhirom, S; Chareonviriyaphap, T

    2012-08-01

    A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2%) and S. calcitrans (49.5%). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%). The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05). The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00) during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. PMID:22910668

  19. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult

    PubMed Central

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H.; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera (Wild.), Leucas aspera ethanolic extract (LAEE), Plumbago zeylanica L., Plumbago zeylanica ethanolic extract (PZEE), and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Tridax procumbens ethanolic extract (TPEE) were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE, and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization, blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study. PMID:26106379

  20. The interval between the emergence of pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular waves and ovum pickup does not significantly affect in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Lindsay U; Ferraz, Márcio L; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Mesquita, Lígia G; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Meirelles, Flávio V; Trinca, Luzia A; Rennó, Francisco P; Watanabe, Yeda F; Baruselli, Pietro S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal phase of the follicular wave to perform ovum pickup (OPU) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in various genetic groups. For this purpose, 27 heifers-nine Bos taurus (Holstein), nine Bos indicus (Nelore), and nine Bubalus bubalis (Mediterranean)-were maintained under the same nutritional, management, and environmental conditions. Heifers within each genetic group were submitted to six consecutive OPU trials with 14-day intersession intervals, at three different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5 after follicular wave emergence), in a 3 × 3 crossover design. When OPU was performed at different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes recovered (70.5 ± 3.1%, 75.0 ± 3.1%, 76.0 ± 3.2%, respectively; P = 0.41) or blastocyst production rates (19.4 ± 2.9%, 16.6 ± 2.9%, 15.9 ± 2.6%, respectively; P = 0.36). Comparing genetic groups, B indicus showed a higher blastocyst rate (28.3(a) ± 2.8%; P < 0.01) than B taurus and B bubalis (14.1(b) ± 2.9% and 10.2(b) ± 2.0%, respectively). However, only B indicus heifers showed a variation in the number of visualized follicles and the total and viable oocytes along consecutive OPU sessions. In conclusion, different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular wave did not affect OPU-IVEP in B indicus, B taurus, and B bubalis heifers. Additionally, B indicus heifers showed greater OPU-IVEP efficiency than did the other genetic groups, under the same management conditions. PMID:25447149

  1. Effect of circulating progesterone concentration during synchronization for fixed-time artificial insemination on ovulation and fertility in Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Soares, J G; Girotto, R W; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations during a synchronization of ovulation protocol for the timed artificial insemination (TAI) of Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cattle. In the first trial, 13 ovariectomized Nelore heifers were randomly allocated into one of three groups using new P4 devices (New; 1.0 g P4), previously used P4 devices for 8 days (Used1x), and previously used P4 devices for 16 days (Used2x), in a crossover experimental design. The circulating P4 concentrations during the P4 device treatment were lower for Used1x (2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and Used2x (2.0 ± 0.1 ng/mL) than those for New (3.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In the second trial, the ovarian follicular dynamics of 60 anestrous cows were evaluated after the cows received the treatments described previously (New [n = 20], Used1x [n = 20], and Used2x [n = 20]). During the insertion of the P4 device, the cows were administered 2.0-mg estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the P4 device was removed, and the cows were administered 0.53-mg sodium cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, and 1-mg estradiol cypionate. There were no differences among the groups during the interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (73.7 ± 2.9 vs. 69.8 ± 2.4 vs. 68.4 ± 2.3 hours) or regarding the ovulation rate (70.0% vs. 80.0% vs. 85.0%). However, the maximum diameter of the largest follicle was greater (P = 0.06) in the Used2x (15.3 ± 0.4 mm) than that of New (13.5 ± 0.8 mm) and Used1x (14.9 ± 0.5 mm). In experiment 3, 443 anestrous cows were randomly assigned into one of the three treatments (New [n = 144] vs. Used1x [n = 167] vs. Used2x [n = 132]) and received a TAI 48 hours after the P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle during the device removal (10.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.2 vs. 11.3 ± 0.3 mm) and the 30-day pregnancy rates (51.4% vs. 53.9% vs. 43.2%) did not differ among the experimental

  2. The Effect of Temperature and Hydrogen Limited Growth on the Fractionation of Sulfur Isotopes by Thermodesulfatator indicus, a Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoek, J.; Reysenbach, A.; Habicht, K.; Canfield, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria fractionate sulfur isotopes during dissimilatory sulfate reduction, producing sulfide depleted in 34S. Although isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction of pure cultures has been extensively studied, most of the research to date has focused on mesophilic sulfate reducers, particularly for the species Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Results from these studies show that: 1) fractionations range from 3-46‰ with an average around 18‰ , 2) when organic electron donors are utilized, the extent of fractionation is dependent on the rate of sulfate reduction, with decreasing fractionations observed with higher specific rates, 3) fractionations are suppressed with low sulfate concentrations, and when hydrogen is used as the electron donor. High specific sulfate-reduction rates are encountered when sulfate-reducing bacteria metabolize at their optimal temperature and under non-limiting substrate conditions. Changes in both temperature and substrate availability could shift fractionations from those expressed under optimal growth conditions. Sulfate reducers may frequently experience substrate limitation and sub-optimal growth temperatures in the environment. Therefore it is important to understand how sulfate-reducing bacteria fractionate sulfur isotopes under conditions that more closely resemble the restrictions imposed by the environment. In this study the fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Thermodesulfatator indicus was explored during sulfate reduction under a wide range of temperatures and with both hydrogen-saturating and hydrogen-limited conditions. T. indicus is a thermophilic (temperature optimum = 70° C) chemolithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium, which was recently isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent on the Central Indian Ridge. This bacterium represents the type species of a new genus and to date is the most deeply branching sulfate-reducing bacterium known. T. indicus was grown in carbonate-buffered salt-water medium

  3. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle. PMID:9051459

  4. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P < 0.05) gestation length but did not differ in their average birth weight from A backcrosses. Among B backcrosses, B x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P < 0.05) birth weight (F(1) x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning

  5. Select Synch and Co-Synch protocols using a CIDR yield similar pregnancy rates after a fixed-time insemination in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Regina D; Alava, Erin N; Austin, Brad R; Hersom, Matthew J; Yelich, Joel V

    2016-03-15

    Primiparous and multiparous suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows were used to compare a Select Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol (SSC) to a modified CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (COS). Five separate groups of cows were utilized (n = 659) and within a group, cows were allotted to two treatments on the basis of body condition score (BCS) taken 10 days before and days postpartum at CIDR insertion (Day 0). Blood samples were collected on Day -10 and 0 for assessment of circulating concentrations of progesterone to determine estrous cycling status. Cows in both treatments received intramuscular (im) GnRH (100 μg) and a CIDR inserted on Day 0. On Day 7, the SSC treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg), whereas COS treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg) on Day 7.5. In the SSC treatment, estrus was detected daily at 0700 and 1700 hours for 72 hours after PGF2α administration, and cows were artificially inseminated 8 to 12 hours after a detected estrus. Cows failing to exhibit estrus were subjected to timed-AI and received im GnRH (100 μg) 76 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. In the COS treatment, cows received im GnRH (100 μg) and were fixed-time artificially inseminated at 64 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. Although group differences (P < 0.05) existed for synchronized AI pregnancy rates, there were no significant interactions of group with any variable analyzed; hence, groups were pooled for further evaluation. Within the SSC treatment, the 72-hour estrous response was 50.6% (168 of 332). Conception rate of cows in estrus was 66.1% (111 of 168), and timed-AI pregnancy rate for nonresponders was 32.3% (53 of 164). Overall synchronized AI pregnancy rates were similar (P > 0.05) for SSC (49.4%; n = 164 of 332) and COS (47.1%; n = 154 of 327). Estrous cycling status and days postpartum did not (P > 0.05) influence synchronized AI pregnancy rates but BCS did (P

  6. A comparison of the cytotoxic potential of standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of a polyherbal mixture comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots) and Smilax glabra (rhizome)

    PubMed Central

    Samarakoon, Sameera R.; Thabrew, Ira; Galhena, Prasanna B.; De Silva, Dilip; Tennekoon, Kamani H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A decoction (hot-water extract) comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots), and Smilax glabra (rhizome) has been reported to prevent chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenic changes in rats and to exert significant cytotoxic effects on human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. However, the decoction used in previous studies to determine cytotoxicity was not standardized. Further, during preparation of pharmaceuticals for clinical use, it is more convenient to use an ethanolic extract. Therefore this study was carried out to (a) develop standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant mixture (N. sativa, H. indicus, and S. glabra) used in the preparation of the original decoction, and (b) compare the cytotoxic effects of these two extracts by evaluating cytotoxicity to the human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. Methods: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts have been standardized by evaluating organoleptic characters, physicochemical properties, qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents, and analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) profiles. Cytotoxic potentials of the above standardized extracts were compared by evaluating their effects on the survival and overall cell activity of HepG2 cells by use of the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl) -2, 5 – biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assays. Results: Results from MTT and SRB assays demonstrated that both extracts exerted strong dose-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. The standardized aqueous extract showed a marginally (though significantly, P<0.05) higher cyotoxic potential than the ethanolic extract. Thymoquinone, an already known cytotoxic compound isolated from N. sativa seeds was only observed in the standardized ethanolic extract. Thus, compounds other than thymoquinone appear to mediate the cytotoxicity of the standardized aqueous extract of this poly-herbal preparation. Conclusion: It

  7. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. PMID:25172758

  8. Evaluation of Mucor indicus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae capability to ferment hydrolysates of rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus as affected by the pretreatment method.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Szymańska, Karolina; Kordala, Natalia; Dąbrowska, Aneta; Bednarski, Włodzimierz; Juszczuk, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus was pretreated chemically with oxalic acid or sodium hydroxide. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed with enzymatic preparations of cellulase, xylanase and cellobiase. The highest concentration of reducing sugars was achieved after hydrolysis of M. giganteus pretreated with NaOH (51.53gdm(-3)). In turn, the highest yield of enzymatic hydrolysis determined based on polysaccharides content in the pretreated substrates was obtained in the experiments with M. giganteus and oxalic acid (99.3%). Rape straw and M. giganteus hydrolysates were fermented using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7, NRRL 978 or filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii (Mucor indicus) DSM 1191. The highest ethanol concentration was determined after fermentation of M. giganteus hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH using S. cerevisiae (1.92% v/v). Considering cellulose content in the pretreated solid, the highest degree of its conversion to ethanol (86.2%) was achieved after fermentation of the hydrolysate of acid-treated M. giganteus using S. cerevisiae. PMID:27107482

  9. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  10. In vitro and in silico studies on cell adhesion protein peroxinectin from Fenneropenaeus indicus and screening of heme blockers against activity.

    PubMed

    Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    In invertebrates, the prophenoloxidase (proPO) pathway is involved in the phenol-like antioxidant production against invading pathogens. Overproduction of melanin and phenolic substances leads to the disruption of hemocytes (own host cells); therefore, there is a prerequisite to regulate the antioxidant production, which is performed by the proteases and proPO-associated cell adhesion protein peroxinectin (PX). PX is a macromolecular structure consisting of protein involved in the proPO pathway, which is a potential target in the regulatory mechanism in crustaceans. In the proPO cascade, pattern recognition proteins initiate the proPO cascade by the consequent reaction, and PX is involved in the key step in the regulatory mechanism of phenoloxidase enzyme synthesis. In the present study, Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus PX (Fein-PX) gene sequence was used. Upregulation of Fein-PX was determined using immunostimulants β-glucan (agonists) and examined its expression by quantitative RT-PCR. To find the downregulation or negative regulation of Fein-PX, inhibitors were screened, and its 3D model provides molecular insights into the rationale inhibitor design for developing an effective molecule against Fein-PX. PMID:26686319

  11. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower (P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle. PMID:26070369

  12. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  13. Strategies for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to enhance genotype imputation in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle: Comparison of commercially available SNP chips.

    PubMed

    Boison, S A; Santos, D J A; Utsunomiya, A H T; Carvalheiro, R; Neves, H H R; O'Brien, A M Perez; Garcia, J F; Sölkner, J; da Silva, M V G B

    2015-07-01

    Genotype imputation is widely used as a cost-effective strategy in genomic evaluation of cattle. Key determinants of imputation accuracies, such as linkage disequilibrium patterns, marker densities, and ascertainment bias, differ between Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds. Consequently, there is a need to investigate effectiveness of genotype imputation in indicine breeds. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate strategies and factors affecting the accuracy of genotype imputation in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle. Four imputation scenarios were studied using 471 sires and 1,644 dams genotyped on Illumina BovineHD (HD-777K; San Diego, CA) and BovineSNP50 (50K) chips, respectively. Scenarios were based on which reference high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel (HDP) should be adopted [HD-777K, 50K, and GeneSeek GGP-75Ki (Lincoln, NE)]. Depending on the scenario, validation animals had their genotypes masked for one of the lower-density panels: Illumina (3K, 7K, and 50K) and GeneSeek (SGGP-20Ki and GGP-75Ki). We randomly selected 171 sires as reference and 300 as validation for all the scenarios. Additionally, all sires were used as reference and the 1,644 dams were imputed for validation. Genotypes of 98 individuals with 4 and more offspring were completely masked and imputed. Imputation algorithms FImpute and Beagle v3.3 and v4 were used. Imputation accuracies were measured using the correlation and allelic correct rate. FImpute resulted in highest accuracies, whereas Beagle 3.3 gave the least-accurate imputations. Accuracies evaluated as correlation (allelic correct rate) ranged from 0.910 (0.942) to 0.961 (0.974) using 50K as HDP and with 3K (7K) as low-density panels. With GGP-75Ki as HDP, accuracies were moderate for 3K, 7K, and 50K, but high for SGGP-20Ki. The use of HD-777K as HDP resulted in accuracies of 0.888 (3K), 0.941 (7K), 0.980 (SGGP-20Ki), 0.982 (50K), and 0.993 (GGP-75Ki). Ungenotyped individuals were imputed with an

  14. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictive endocrine marker to select Bos taurus (Holstein) and Bos indicus (Nelore) calves for in vitro embryo production.

    PubMed

    Batista, E O S; Guerreiro, B M; Freitas, B G; Silva, J C B; Vieira, L M; Ferreira, R M; Rezende, R G; Basso, A C; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus (Nelore; experiment 1) and Bos taurus (Holstein; experiment 2) calves superstimulated or not with 140 mg of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; 4 decreasing doses twice daily). Oocytes were recovered from calves aged 2 to 4 mo after receiving gonadotropin stimulation (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12) or not (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12). Cycling heifers formed a positive control group (n = 15 for Nelore [aged 18-24 mo], n = 10 for Holstein [aged 14-16 mo]). All the calves underwent laparoscopic ovum pickup, and cycling heifers underwent a regular transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pickup for oocyte recovery. Immediately before oocyte retrieval, blood samples were taken for subsequent AMH determination (ng/mL). Regardless of the genetic group, calves that received pFSH (3.6 ± 1.1 in Nelore and 4.6 ± 1.2 in Holstein) or did not receive pFSH (3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore and 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein) had greater plasma AMH concentrations (P = 0.01 in Nelore and P = 0.003 in Holstein) than cycling heifers (1.1 ± 0.2 in Nelore and 0.6 ± 0.07 in Holstein). AMH concentrations in calves with or without pFSH were similar in both genetic groups (3.6 ± 1.1 vs 3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore; 4.6 ± 1.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein). In calves, positive correlations were observed between plasma AMH concentrations and the numbers of follicles >2 mm (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.78, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.82, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), COCs cultured (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.79, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), and blastocysts produced (r = 0.62, P = 0.0003 in Nelore; r = 0.58, P = 0.009 in Holstein), and these results were independent of pFSH treatment. In conclusion, calves had greater plasma AMH concentrations than cycling heifers. In addition

  15. Ovum pick up, in vitro embryo production, and pregnancy rates from a large-scale commercial program using Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) donors.

    PubMed

    Pontes, J H F; Melo Sterza, F A; Basso, A C; Ferreira, C R; Sanches, B V; Rubin, K C P; Seneda, M M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to clarify in vitro production of bovine embryos in Brazil. Data from 656 ovum pick-up/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) procedures, performed on 317 Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, without hormone stimulation or control of ovarian follicular waves, were analysed. Donors were subjected to OPU from one to nine times (no specific schedule), with < 15 d between consecutive procedures. There were 20,848 oocytes, of which 15,747 (75.53%) were considered viable, 5,446 embryos were obtained, 5,398 embryos were immediately transferred, resulting in 1,974 pregnancies (36.57%) at Day 30 and 1,788 (33.12%) pregnancies at Day 60. The average number of total and viable oocytes produced per OPU session was (mean ± SEM) 30.84 ± 0.88 and 23.35 ± 0.7 (average of 8.1 ± 0.3 embryos and 3.0 ± 0.1 pregnancies per OPU-IVP procedure). Since oocyte production varied widely among donor, they were designated as very high, high, intermediate, and low, with 58.94 ± 2.04, 32.61 ± 0.50, 22.13 ± 0.50, and 10.26 ± 0.57 oocytes, respectively, produced by 78, 80, 79, and 80 donors. The number of viable oocytes recovered ranged from 0 to 128; since donors with numerous viable oocytes produced many viable embryos and pregnancies, oocyte production was useful for donor selection. However, there was no significant effect of the number of OPU sessions per donor on mean numbers of oocytes produced. In conclusion, we confirmed field reports of high oocyte production by some Nelore donors and demonstrated individual variation in oocyte yield, which was associated with embryo production and pregnancy rates. PMID:21334055

  16. Annotation and functional assignment of the genes for the C30 carotenoid pathways from the genomes of two bacteria: Bacillus indicus and Bacillus firmus.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Sabine; Perez-Fons, Laura; Cutting, Simon M; Fraser, Paul D; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus indicus and Bacillus firmus synthesize C30 carotenoids via farnesyl pyrophosphate, forming apophytoene as the first committed step in the pathway. The products of the pathways were methyl 4'-[6-O-acyl-glycosyl)oxy]-4,4'-diapolycopen-4-oic acid and 4,4'-diapolycopen-4,4'-dioic acid with putative glycosyl esters. The genomes of both bacteria were sequenced, and the genes for their early terpenoid and specific carotenoid pathways annotated. All genes for a functional 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase pathway were identified in both species, whereas genes of the mevalonate pathway were absent. The genes for specific carotenoid synthesis and conversion were found on gene clusters which were organized differently in the two species. The genes involved in the formation of the carotenoid cores were assigned by functional complementation in Escherichia coli. This bacterium was co-transformed with a plasmid mediating the formation of the putative substrate and a second plasmid with the gene of interest. Carotenoid products in the transformants were determined by HPLC. Using this approach, we identified the genes for a 4,4'-diapophytoene synthase (crtM), 4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (crtNa), 4,4'-diapolycopene ketolase (crtNb) and 4,4'-diapolycopene aldehyde oxidase (crtNc). The three crtN genes were closely related and belonged to the crtI gene family with a similar reaction mechanism of their enzyme products. Additional genes encoding glycosyltransferases and acyltransferases for the modification of the carotenoid skeleton of the diapolycopenoic acids were identified by comparison with the corresponding genes from other bacteria. PMID:25326460

  17. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P < 0.05). The protein spot weighing 15.52 ± 0.53 kDa with a pI value of 5.78 ± 0.12 is highlighted by its high abundance in bulls with low semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. PMID:27118515

  18. A pre-synchronization program at early postpartum might increase the chances of Bos indicus cows cycling prior to 50 days regardless of the length of calf separation

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-TORRES, Libia; RUBIO, Ivette; CORRO, Manuel; COHEN, Abraham; ORIHUELA, Agustín; GALINA, Carlos S.; PABLOS, J. Luis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if pre-synchronization would enhance the number of animals cycling prior to conventional breeding at 45 days irrespective of the length of calf separation. Multiparous Bos indicus cows were allotted in four groups (n = 10). Control group (C) dams remained with their calves; groups G24, G48 and G72, which were partially weaned for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, were estrus synchronized using a controlled internal drug. These procedures were performed at 25 days and again at 45 days postpartum. The number of follicles, presence of a corpus luteum and back fat thickness (BFT) were determined by ultrasound. The proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation at day 25 postpartum was statistically different between the control and treated groups, with the values being 20, 60, 50 and 70 for the control, G24, G48 and G72 groups respectively (P < 0.05). At days 45 postpartum, the proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation was different in group G48 compared with the other groups (P <0.05). The average BFT and body condition score for the four experimental groups in the two periods were similar (P >0.05). Animals with a higher proportion of follicles from 17 to 21 mm, BFT values above 3.5 mm and a regular body condition were significantly different regardless of whether the dams remained with their calves or were separated, regardless of the length of this event. It can be concluded that (1) a pre-synchronization program at day 25 could trigger the onset of ovarian activity and facilitate a breeding program at day 50 and (2) temporary weaning enhances the effect of a pre-synchronization program. PMID:25739397

  19. Preventive and curative role of a 43kD protein from the leaves of the herb Cajanus indicus L on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Kasturi; Ghosh, Ayantika; Sil, Parames C

    2005-09-01

    An approximately 43kD protein has been isolated and purified from the herb Cajanus indicus L and believed to be the most active principle for its hepatoprotective action. In this study, experiments have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of that protein for the preventive and curative action against thioacetamide-induced toxicity in vivo using a murine model. Mice were treated with the protein intraperitoneally at a dose of 2mg/kg body weight for 2 and 6 days before and separately 1-5 days after thioacetamide administration to evaluate its preventive and curative role, respectively. Thioacetamide was administered once at a dose of 150mg/kg body weight and after 48h of its application, the animals were sacrificed. Levels of various markers related to physiological and pathological conditions of the liver, e.g., glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), etc. were determined in the murine sera under different experimental conditions. In addition, antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), were measured from the liver homogenates. The antioxidant property of the protein was compared with the potent antioxidant, vitamin E (used as a positive control). The active principle effectively reduced the elevated GPT and ALP levels in serum and lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue. The reduced levels of SOD, CAT and GST by thioacetamide were again brought back to almost normal levels upon pre- and post-treatment with the protein. Histopathological changes in the liver of TAA control and protein-treated groups also prove that the protein possesses hepatoprotective activity. The protein acts dose-dependently and maximum hepatoprotectivity was obtained when administered at a dose of 2mg/kg body weight. Data suggest that the active principle plays an important preventive and curative role against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity

  20. Validation of the i-STAT and HemoCue systems for the analysis of blood parameters in the bar-headed goose, Anser indicus

    PubMed Central

    Harter, T. S.; Reichert, M.; Brauner, C. J.; Milsom, W. K.

    2015-01-01

    Every year, bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) perform some of the most remarkable trans-Himalayan migrations, and researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the physiology underlying their high-altitude flight performance. A major challenge is generating reliable measurements of blood parameters on wild birds in the field, where established analytical techniques are often not available. Therefore, we validated two commonly used portable clinical analysers (PCAs), the i-STAT and the HemoCue systems, for the analysis of blood parameters in bar-headed geese. The pH, partial pressures of O2 and CO2 (PO2 and PCO2), haemoglobin O2 saturation (sO2), haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin concentration [Hb] were simultaneously measured with the two PCA systems (i-STAT for all parameters; HemoCue for [Hb]) and with conventional laboratory techniques over a physiological range of PO2, PCO2 and Hct. Our results indicate that the i-STAT system can generate reliable values on bar-headed goose whole blood pH, PO2, PCO2 and Hct, but we recommend correcting the obtained values using the linear equations determined here for higher accuracy. The i-STAT is probably not able to produce meaningful measurements of sO2 and [Hb] over a range of physiologically relevant environmental conditions. However, we can recommend the use of the HemoCue to measure [Hb] in the bar-headed goose, if results are corrected. We emphasize that the equations that we provide to correct PCA results are applicable only to bar-headed goose whole blood under the conditions that we tested. We encourage researchers to validate i-STAT or HemoCue results thoroughly for their specific study conditions and species in order to yield accurate results. PMID:27293706

  1. Detection of a new microsporidium Perezia sp. in shrimps Penaeus monodon and P. indicus by histopathology, in situ hybridization and PCR.

    PubMed

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Lightner, Donald V; Redman, Rita M; Le Groumellec, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Samples of microsporidia-infected shrimps exhibiting clinical signs of cotton shrimp disease were collected from Madagascar, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2014. The tails of the infected shrimps appeared opaque and whitish; subsequent histological examination revealed the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions and mature spores in tissues of the muscle, hepatopancreas, gills, heart, and lymphoid organ. PCR analysis targeting the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) from infected samples resulted in the amplification of a 1.2 kbp SSU rDNA sequence fragment 94% identical to the corresponding region in the genome of the microsporidian Perezia nelsoni, which infects populations of Penaeus setiferus in the USA. Its SSU rDNA sequence was 100% identical among isolates from Madagascar and Saudi Arabia, indicating that shrimps from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean were infected with the same microsporidium, the novel Perezia sp. A 443 bp fragment of the SSU rDNA sequence was cloned, labeled with digoxigenin and subjected to an in situ hybridization assay with tissue sections of Perezia sp.-infected Penaeus monodon from Madagascar and Mozambique, and P. indicus from Saudi Arabia. The probe hybridized to the mature spores in the hepatopancreas and muscle from which the spores had been obtained for DNA isolation. This assay was specific, showing no reaction to another microsporidium, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), infecting the hepatopancreas of shrimp P. stylirostris cultured in SE Asian countries. We also developed an SSU rDNA-based PCR assay, specific for the novel Perezia sp. This PCR did not react to EHP, nor to genomic DNA of shrimp and other invertebrates. PMID:27409240

  2. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature. PMID:19392828

  3. A 43 kD protein isolated from the herb Cajanus indicus L attenuates sodium fluoride-induced hepatic and renal disorders in vivo.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2007-05-31

    The herb, Cajanus indicus L, is well known for its hepatoprotective action. A 43 kD protein has been isolated, purified and partially sequenced from the leaves of this herb. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies carried out in our laboratory suggest that this protein might be a major component responsible for the hepatoprotective action of the herb. Our successive studies have been designed to evaluate the potential efficacy of this protein in protecting the hepatic as well as renal tissues from the sodium fluoride (NaF) induced oxidative stress. The experimental groups of mice were exposed to NaF at a dose of 600 ppm through drinking water for one week. This exposure significantly altered the activities of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and the cellular metabolites such as reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), total thiols, lipid peroxidation end products in liver and kidney compared to the normal mice. Intraperitoneal administration of the protein at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight for seven days followed by NaF treatment (600 ppm for next seven days) normalized the activities of the hepato-renal antioxidant enzymes, the level of cellular metabolites and lipid peroxidation end products. Post treatment with the protein for four days showed that it could help recovering the damages after NaF administration. Time-course study suggests that the protein could stimulate the recovery of both the organs faster than natural process. Effects of a known antioxidant, vitamin E, and a non-relevant protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been included in the study to validate the experimental data. Combining all, result suggests that NaF could induce severe oxidative stress both in the liver and kidney tissues in mice and the protein possessed the ability to attenuate that hepato-renal toxic effect of NaF probably via its antioxidant activity. PMID:17562290

  4. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. PMID:25284281

  5. Celeribacter indicus sp. nov., a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium from deep-sea sediment and reclassification of Huaishuia halophila as Celeribacter halophilus comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiliang; Cao, Junwei; Yuan, Jun; Li, Fuying; Shao, Zongze

    2014-12-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on strain P73(T), which was isolated from deep-sea sediment of the Indian Ocean by enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strain was able to degrade biphenyl, naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, 4-methyldibenzothiophene and fluoranthene, but not pyrene or chrysene. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain P73(T) formed a clade with the genera Celeribacter and Huaishuia within the family Rhodobacteraceae, with highest sequence similarity of 96.98 % to Celeribacter neptunius H 14(T), followed by Huaishuia halophila ZXM137(T) (96.42 %). The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped and non-motile. Growth was observed at salinities from 0.5 to 12 % and at temperatures from 10 to 41 °C. The principal fatty acids (>10 %) of strain P73(T) were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/ω6c) and C19 : 0ω8c cyclo. The sole respiratory quinone was Q-10. The major lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown aminolipid, one unknown phospholipid and one unknown lipid; a second unknown phospholipid and one unknown glycolipid were present as minor components. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 66.0 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain P73(T) represents a novel species of the genus Celeribacter, for which the name Celeribacter indicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P73(T) ( = MCCC 1A01112(T) = LMG 27600(T) = DSM 27257(T)). Phylogenetic study and existing phenotypic information also show that Huaishuia halophila should be transferred to the genus Celeribacter as Celeribacter halophilus comb. nov. (type strain ZXM137(T) = MCCC 1A06432(T) = CGMCC 1.8891(T) = LMG 24854(T)). PMID:25256706

  6. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    PubMed

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P<0.05) than PR and MAI. Similarly, FL and DOT heifers had greater (P<0.05) concentrations than PR and MAI, with EIM intermediate. Creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations were greater (P<0.05) in FL and EIM heifers compared with the other treatments, with a similar pattern seen in the cows. Haptoglobin concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the FL heifers compared with other treatments in the 8- to 24-h and 24- to 96-h periods postprocedures, and in cows were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the FL and DOT compared with PR in the 24- to 96-h period. Behavioral responses complemented the physiological responses; standing head down was shown by more (P<0.05) FL cows and heifers to 3 d postprocedures compared with other treatments, although there was no difference between FL and DOT heifers at the end of the day of procedures. At this same time, fewer (P<0.05) FL and DOT heifers and cows were observed feeding compared with other treatments, although in cows there was no difference between FL, DOT, and EIM. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude

  7. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P < 0.001) LM area, more (P < 0.001) marbling, and lower (P < 0.001) Warner-Bratzler shear force than B back-cross calves, but no consistent trends were detected between reciprocal crosses for any of these traits, in contrast with the trends observed for the weight traits. Furthermore, males were heavier than females entering (P < 0.001) and leaving (P < 0.001) the feedyard, produced a heavier carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces

  8. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher on day 15 than between 50 and 150 days of lactation in case of Sahiwal cows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (P<0.05), respectively. Murrah buffaloes showed low levels of IGFBP-5 protein in milk as compared with

  9. Response to GnRH on day 6 of the estrous cycle is diminished as the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increases in Angus, Brangus, and Brahman x Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Germán E; Bridges, G Allen; de Araujo, Jennifer W; Shaw, Mary-Karen V; Schrick, F Neal; Thatcher, William W; Yelich, Joel V

    2008-01-15

    Angus (n=6), Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Brahman, n=6), and Brahman x Angus (3/8 Angus x 5/8 Brahman, n=6) heifers exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals were used to determine if the percentage of Bos indicus breeding influenced the secretory patterns of LH in response to a GnRH treatment on Day 6 of the estrous cycle. Heifers were pre-synchronized with a two-injection PGF(2 alpha) protocol (25 mg i.m. Day -14 and 12.5 mg i.m. Day -3 and -2 of experiment). Heifers received 100 microg GnRH i.m. on Day 6 of the subsequent estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after GnRH to determine concentrations of serum LH. Estradiol concentrations were determined at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH. On Day 6 and 8, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to determine if ovulation occurred. On Day 13, heifers received 25 mg PGF(2 alpha) i.m. and blood samples were collected daily until either the expression of estrus or Day 20 for heifers not exhibiting estrus to determine progesterone concentrations. There was no effect (P>0.10) of breed on ovulation rate to GnRH as well as size of the largest follicle, mean estradiol, and mean corpus luteum volume at GnRH. Mean LH was greater (P<0.05) for Angus (7.0+/-0.8 ng/mL) compared to Brangus (4.6+/-0.8 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (2.9+/-0.8 ng/mL), which were similar (P>0.10). Mean LH peak-height was similar (P>0.10) for Brangus (13.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) compared to Angus (21.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (8.0+/-3.4 ng/mL), but was greater (P<0.05) for Angus compared to Brahman x Angus. Interval from GnRH to LH peak was similar (P>0.10) between breeds. As the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increased the amount of LH released in response to GnRH on Day 6 of the estrous cycle decreased. PMID:17212980

  10. Immune Response of Bos indicus Cattle against the Anti-Tick Antigen Bm91 Derived from Local Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Ticks and Its Effect on Tick Reproduction under Natural Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Lambertz, Christian; Chongkasikit, Natthaphon; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Gauly, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Antigens of anti-tick vaccines are more efficacious for homologous challenge with local tick strains. cDNA clones encoding for Bm91 from local Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strains were developed to immunize Bos indicus cattle under field conditions. Three groups of six animals each were injected with the antigen Bm91, saline, and adjuvant, respectively. Animals were immunized three times at 3-week intervals and a fourth time after six months. The anti-Bm91 antibody level, measured by ELISA, was monitored for 7 months and the reproductive performance of naturally infested R. (B.) microplus was determined. Bm91-immunized animals developed a strong immune response expressed by high anti-Bm91 levels remaining on high levels until the end of the study. Western blot analysis confirmed that Bm91 is immunogenic. Compared to control animals, the reproductive efficiency index and the egg viability were 6% and 8%, respectively, lower in the Bm91 group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, it was demonstrated that Bm91 induced a long-lasting immune response. However, the effect on the tick reproduction was not sufficient for an efficient tick control. Further studies under field conditions are warranted to enhance the effect on the tick reproduction by optimizing the immunization regimen, alone or in combination with other vaccine candidate antigens. PMID:23213489

  11. Synthetic slings: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Staskin, David R; Plzak, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Historically, the choice of sling material for the treatment of urinary incontinence has been based on the surgeon's preference and experience. In general, pelvic surgeons have not differentiated artificial graft materials by their inherent qualities or for biocompatibility in the female pelvis and vaginal wall. The introduction of new artificial graft materials and new methods of implantation for the correction of genuine stress incontinence has generated renewed interest in the "pros and cons" associated with nonabsorbable material use. In this review, we discuss and differentiate sling materials and techniques. We consider some of the physical and biologic qualities of artificial graft materials, present theories and practices associated with the successful use of permanent grafts, and discuss the natural evolution of artificial graft slings to the current use of the tension-free vaginal tape and Suprapubic Arc Sling System (American Medical Systems, Minneapolis, MN). PMID:12354353

  12. Modulation of apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells) by a standardized herbal decoction of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus roots and Smilax glabra rhizomes with anti- hepatocarcinogenic effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A standardized poly-herbal decoction of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus roots and Smilax glabra rhizomes used traditionally in Sri Lanka for cancer therapy has been demonstrated previously, to have anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and up regulation of p53 and p21 activities are considered to be some of the possible mechanisms through which the above decoction may mediate its anti-hepatocarcinogenic action. The main aim of the present study was to determine whether apoptosis is also a major mechanism by which the decoction mediates its anti-hepatocarcinogenic action. Methods Evaluation of apoptosis in HepG2 cells was carried out by (a) microscopic observations of cell morphology, (b) DNA fragmentation analysis, (c) activities of caspase 3 and 9, as well as by (d) analysis of the expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins associated with cell death. Results The results demonstrated that in HepG2 cells, the decoction can induce (a) DNA fragmentation and (b) characteristic morphological changes associated with apoptosis (nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies). The decoction could also, in a time and dose dependent manner, up regulate the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax and down regulate expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene (as evident from RT-PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry and western blotting). Further, the decoction significantly (p < .001) enhanced the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in a time and dose dependent manner. Conclusions Overall findings provide confirmatory evidence to demonstrate that the decoction may mediate its reported anti-hepatocarcinogenic effect, at least in part, through modulation of apoptosis. PMID:22458551

  13. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated. PMID:24990384

  14. Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 2. The effect of rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur on voluntary food intake and rumen characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hunter, R A; Siebert, B D

    1985-05-01

    In a number of experiments voluntary food intake of three low-quality roughages, either alone or supplemented with rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur and minerals, was measured in Brahman (Bos indicus) and Hereford (Bos taurus) steers. The chaffed hays were Spear grass (Heteropogon contortus) (6.2 g N/kg organic matter (OM)), Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) (7.9 g N/kg OM), and Pangola grass (12.0 g N/kg OM). Rumen characteristics relating to rate of fluid outflow from the rumen were also determined. There was no significant difference between breeds in the dry-matter intakes of the unsupplemented diets which ranged from 11.3 to 17.8 g/kg body-weight (BW) by Herefords and from 11.8 to 16.1 g/kg BW by Brahmans. Supplementation of Spear grass with N and S significantly (P less than 0.05) increased intake by Herefords (24%) but not by Brahmans. When the lower-N Pangola grass was supplemented there was a significant increase in intake by both breeds with the magnitude of the response in Herefords (42%) (P less than 0.001) being greater than that in Brahmans (15%) (P less than 0.05). The intakes of both the supplemented Spear grass and the lower-N Pangola diets were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater by Herefords than Brahmans. There was no breed difference in intake when the higher-N Pangola grass was supplemented. Both breeds recorded an 8% intake response to supplementation, although the increase was only significant (P less than 0.05) in Herefords. The mean retention time of fluid in the rumen on the unsupplemented Pangola grass diet of lower N content was 12.7 h in Brahmans compared with 17.5 h in Herefords (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2998450

  15. Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) with natural estrus or estrus induced with prostaglandin F2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, O L; Barros, C M; Figueiredo, R A; do Valle, E R; Encarnação, R O; Padovani, C R

    1998-02-01

    Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval are essential for estimating the best time to artificially inseminate cattle. Because these parameters are not well characterized in the Nelore breed (Bos indicus), the main purpose of the this study was to determine the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore heifers and cows with natural estrus or with estrus induced by treatments with PGF2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate (NEV). The cows and heifers were observed continuously (24 h a day) to determine the onset of estrus and to study estrous behavior in the cows. Ten hours after the start of estrus the ovaries were scanned every 2 h by ultrasonography to monitor the dominant follicle until ovulation. Blood samples were collected periodically to determine progesterone levels by RIA. Administration of PGF2 alpha (2 injections, 11 days apart) did not induce estrus in most Nelore females in spite of the presence of functional CL, indicated by progesterone concentrations above 6.0 ng/ml in 25 of 28 animals. Treatment with NEV induced high sexual receptivity in cows (10/11), but only 66% ovulated. Cows with natural or induced estrus exhibited behavioral estrus of 10.9 +/- 1.4 h, and ovulation occurred 26.6 +/- 0.44 h (n = 26) after the onset of estrus. In most of the cows (53.8%) estrus began at night (between 1801 and 600 h), and 34.6% it started and finished during the night. It is concluded that in Nelore females ovulation occurs approximately 26 h after the onset of estrus. Additionally, estrous behavior is shorter than in European breeds, and there is a high incidence of estrus at night, which makes it difficult to detect and, consequently, impairs Al in Nelore cattle. The observation that a high percentage of Nelore females with an active CL did not respond to usual dosages of PGF2 alpha warrants further investigation. PMID:10732045

  16. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  17. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  18. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  19. conF and conJ contribute to conidia germination and stress response in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Sarikaya Bayram, Özlem; Bayram, Özgür; Braus, Gerhard H

    2013-07-01

    Light induces various responses in fungi including formation of asexual and sexual reproductive structures. The formation of conidia in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is regulated by red and blue light receptors. Expression of conidia associated con genes, which are widely spread in the fungal kingdom, increases upon exposure to light. We have characterized the light-inducible conF and conJ genes of A. nidulans which are homologs of con-6 and con-10 of Neurospora crassa. con genes are expressed during conidia formation in asexual development. Five minutes light exposure are sufficient to induce conF or conJ expression in vegetative mycelia. Similar to N. crassa there were no significant phenotypes of single con mutations. A double conF and conJ deletion resulted in significantly increased cellular amounts of glycerol or erythritol. This leads to a delayed germination phenotype combined with increased resistance against desiccation. These defects were rescued by complementation of the double mutant strain with either conF or conJ. This suggests that fungal con genes exhibit redundant functions in controlling conidia germination and adjusting cellular levels of substances which protect conidia against dryness. PMID:23644150

  20. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60 d of the breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous

  1. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods. PMID:20232594

  2. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  3. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  4. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  5. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  6. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  7. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  8. Energy Star program benefits Con Edison

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Impressed with savings in energy costs achieved after upgrading the lighting and air conditioning systems at its Manhattan headquarters, Home Box Office (HBO) wanted to do more, James Flock, vice president for computer and office systems, contacted Con Edison Co. of New York in March 1991 to determine what the company could do to save money by reducing energy consumed by personal computers. Arthur Kressner, Con Edison Research and Development manager contacted industry organizations and manufacturers for advice, but was told only to shut off computers at night and on weekends. Kressner arranged a series of meetings with IBM and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to discuss the issue, then approached the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was designing a program to promote the introduction and use of energy-efficient office equipment. In 1992, the EPA announced the Energy Star program for PCs, enabling manufacturers to display the Energy Star logo on machines meeting program criteria, including the ability to enter a sleep mode in which neither the computer nor monitor consume more than 30 W or electricity. Industry experts estimate national energy consumption by office equipment could double by the year 2000, but Energy Star equipment is expected to improve efficiency and help maintain electric loads.

  9. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

  10. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Schempf, H.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  11. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  12. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  13. ProCon - PROteomics CONversion tool.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Gerhard; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Kohl, Michael; Marcus, Katrin; Eisenacher, Martin

    2015-11-01

    With the growing amount of experimental data produced in proteomics experiments and the requirements/recommendations of journals in the proteomics field to publicly make available data described in papers, a need for long-term storage of proteomics data in public repositories arises. For such an upload one needs proteomics data in a standardized format. Therefore, it is desirable, that the proprietary vendor's software will integrate in the future such an export functionality using the standard formats for proteomics results defined by the HUPO-PSI group. Currently not all search engines and analysis tools support these standard formats. In the meantime there is a need to provide user-friendly free-to-use conversion tools that can convert the data into such standard formats in order to support wet-lab scientists in creating proteomics data files ready for upload into the public repositories. ProCon is such a conversion tool written in Java for conversion of proteomics identification data into standard formats mzIdentML and Pride XML. It allows the conversion of Sequest™/Comet .out files, of search results from the popular and often used ProteomeDiscoverer® 1.x (x=versions 1.1 to1.4) software and search results stored in the LIMS systems ProteinScape® 1.3 and 2.1 into mzIdentML and PRIDE XML. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics. PMID:26182917

  14. Combinación de radioterapia con quimioterapia mejora la supervivencia con raro cáncer cerebral

    Cancer.gov

    Los resultados de dos estudios clínicos de seguimiento a largo plazo confirman que ciertos pacientes viven substancialmente más si se les trata con una combinación de quimioterapia y radioterapia en comparación con radioterapia solamente.

  15. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  16. 53. SECONDARY CONNING STATION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. SECONDARY CONNING STATION - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH, HELM, RADAR, GYRO REPEATERS, PORTHOLE WITH BATTLE PORTS CLOSED. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. 52. SECONDARY CONNING STATION FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. SECONDARY CONNING STATION - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH, HELM, RADAR, GYRO REPEATERS, PORTHOLE WITH BATTLE PORTS CLOSED. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. View forward of interior of conning tower and steering station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward of interior of conning tower and steering station; helmsman or observer viewed action through narrow opening at top of photo. (p57) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives. PMID:27514827

  20. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  1. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia. PMID:27571559

  2. Paramagnetic-to-Ferromagnetic Transition in Con Under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Pickett, Warren

    2004-03-01

    Motivated by reports of synthesis of zincblende (ZB) structure CrAs in thin film form, strong interest has developed in understanding transition metal pnictides and their tendencies toward magnetic order.Literature on the experimental analysis of the structure of CoN is varied, with reports of both magnetically ordered NaCl structure CoN and non-magnetic ZB CoN. We present results of first principles analysis of electronic structure, magnetism and Murnaghan equation of state for both structures. The non-magnetic ZB structure, stable at ambient pressure transforms to a collapsed ferromagnetic NaCl phase at 10GPa (ΔV = -15%). These results will be compared to data and similarities/differences with other transition metal nitrides will be discussed.

  3. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  4. The Academic Con-Men. Advice to Young College Professors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerins, Francis J.

    1979-01-01

    The academic con-man is defined as one who, despite a lack of striking originality or tremendous learning, becomes extraordinary, well-known, and revered in the world of higher education. Advice is offered to young college professors on how they can achieve such status. (Article originally published in 1961.) (AF)

  5. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  6. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  7. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  8. Runtime Verification for Generic Classes with ConGu 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crispim, Pedro; Lopes, Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vasco T.

    Even though generics became quite popular in mainstream object-oriented (OO) languages, approaches for checking at runtime the conformance of such programs against formal specifications still lack appropriate support. In order to overcome this limitation within ConGu, a tool-based approach we have been developing to support runtime conformance checking of Java programs against algebraic specifications, we recently proposed a notion of refinement mapping that allows to define correspondences between parametric specifications and generic classes. Based on such mappings, we also put forward a notion of conformance between the two concepts. In this paper we present how the new notion of conformance is supported by version 2 of the ConGu tool.

  9. ConStrains identifies microbial strains in metagenomic datasets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chengwei; Knight, Rob; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short reads to faithfully recover the original strain-level genotypes, which have highly similar sequences. We present ConStrains, an open-source algorithm that identifies conspecific strains from metagenomic sequence data and reconstructs the phylogeny of these strains in microbial communities. The algorithm uses single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns in a set of universal genes to infer within-species structures that represent strains. Applying ConStrains to simulated and host-derived data sets provides insights into microbial community dynamics. PMID:26344404

  10. ConStrains identifies microbial strains in metagenomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengwei; Knight, Rob; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short reads to faithfully recover the original strain-level genotypes, which have highly similar sequences. We present ConStrains, an open-source algorithm that identifies conspecific strains from metagenomic sequence data and reconstructs the phylogeny of these strains in microbial communities. The algorithm uses single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns in a set of universal genes to infer within-species structures that represent strains. Applying ConStrains to simulated and host-derived datasets provides insights into microbial community dynamics. PMID:26344404

  11. Topical Oxygen for Chronic Wounds: A PRO/CON Debate

    PubMed Central

    Mutluoglu, Mesut; Cakkalkurt, Aslican; Uzun, Gunalp; Aktas, Samil

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxygen in wound healing is universally accepted and does not require any further evidence; however the controversy as to whether oxygen delivery systems have the potential to improve wound healing remains to be concluded. Topical oxygen treatment (TOT) involves the delivery of 100% oxygen for a mean of 90 min, once a day at an atmospheric pressure slightly above 1 atm abs. The use of TOT gained increasing interest recently. The current manuscript will summarize the pros and cons of TOT in the view of the available literature. PMID:26199891

  12. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  13. Impact of Bos indicus genetics on the global beef industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the cattle in the world are maintained in tropical environments between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. In the U.S., about 40% of the beef cows are located in subtropical environments of the hot and humid Southeast or more arid Southwest. Results of research documenting the ...

  14. Pregnancy Rates to Fixed Embryo Transfer of Vitrified IVP Bos indicus, Bos taurus or Bos indicus × Bos taurus Embryos.

    PubMed

    Marinho, L S R; Sanches, B V; Rosa, C O; Tannura, J H; Rigo, A G; Basso, A C; Pontes, J H F; Seneda, M M

    2015-10-01

    The pregnancy rates obtained after the transfer of cryopreserved in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos are usually low and/or inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rates of Holstein, Gyr and Holstein × Gyr cattle after the transfer of vitrified IVP embryos produced with X-sorted sperm. Seventy-two Gyr and 703 Holstein females were subjected to ovum pickup (OPU) sessions, followed by in vitro embryo production using semen from sires of the same breeds. Embryos (1636 Holstein, 241 Gyr and 1515 Holstein × Gyr) were exposed to forskolin for 48 h prior to vitrification. The pregnancy rate achieved with Gyr dam and sire was 46.1%, which was similar (p = 0.11) to that of Holstein dam and Gyr sire (40.3%). Crossing Gyr dams with Holstein sires resulted in a pregnancy rate of 38.9% and did not differ (p = 0.58) from the pregnancy rate obtained with the cross between Holstein dams and Gyr sires. The rate obtained with Holstein dam and sire was 32.5%. The average pregnancy rate was 36.6%, and no difference was found in the proportion of female foetuses (88.8%, in average) among breeds (p > 0.05). In conclusion, transfer of cryopreserved X-sorted embryos represents an interesting choice for dairy cattle. Despite the small differences between pregnancy rates, we highlight the efficiency of this strategy for all of the racial groups studied. PMID:26280798

  15. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2005021

  16. RoboCon: Operator interface for robotic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Warwick, J.; Fung, M.; Chemel, B.; Blackwell, M.

    1996-12-31

    Carnegie Mellon U. and ORNL`s Robotics and Process Systems Division are developing a state-of-the-art robot operator control station (RoboCon) with standardized hardware and software control interfaces to be adaptable to a variety of remote and robotic equipment currently funded by DOE`s Office of Science & Technology Robotics Technology Development Program. The human operation and telerobotic and supervisory control of sophisticated and remote and robotic systems is a complex, tiring, and non-intuitive activity. Since decontamination & decommissioning, selective equipment removal, mixed waste operations, and in-tank cleanup are going to be a major future activity in DOE environmental restoration and waste management cleanup agenda, it seems necessary to utilize an operator control station and interface which maximizes operator comfort and productivity.

  17. [Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, F

    2014-01-01

    The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and cons of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty. PMID:26021098

  18. Molecular classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms-pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Moosa; Harrison, Claire

    2013-12-01

    Dameshek first postulated a common myeloproliferative heritage for the myeloproliferative disorders, now termed neoplasms. This prescient observation was validated by the description of a common mutation in exon 14 of JAK2 for patients with essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis. In recent years, our knowledge of the molecular abnormalities underpinning these disorders has expanded significantly. At the same time, we have continued to use a classification based largely upon the first clinical descriptions of these entities, which sometimes proves problematic in differentiating between these conditions and normal reactive processes, myelodysplasia and between the myeloproliferative neoplasm entities themselves. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of a molecular classification and its potential utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics. PMID:24091831

  19. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs. PMID:27314106

  20. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  1. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J. ); Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  2. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  3. Opciones de cirugía para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno- página de publicaciones

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre los tipos de cirugía de seno, como la operación para conservar el seno y la mastectomía, y ayuda a las mujeres diagnosticadas con CDIS o con cáncer de seno a decidir cuál cirugía es la más conveniente para ellas.

  4. Investigation on the conA binding properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Anuar, A S S; Tay, S T

    2014-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a healthcare-associated bacterial pathogen which causes severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals. Concanavalin A (conA), a lectin which recognizes proteins with mannose or glucose residues, has been reported to agglutinate K. pneumoniae and hence, is postulated to have therapeutical potential for K. pneumoniae-induced liver infection. This study investigated the conA binding properties of a large collection of clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae. ConA agglutination reaction was demonstrated by 94 (51.4%) of 183 K. pneumoniae isolates using a microtiter plate assay. The conA agglutination reactions were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mg/ml D-mannose and 2.5 mg/ml glucose, and following pretreatment of the bacterial suspension with protease and heating at 80ºC. Majority of the positive isolates originated from respiratory specimens. Isolation of conA-binding proteins from K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603 strain was performed using conA affinity column and the conA binding property of the eluted proteins was confirmed by western blotting analysis using conA-HRP conjugates. Proteins with molecular weights ranging from 35 to 60 kDa were eluted from the conA affinity column, of which four were identified as outer membrane protein precursor A (37 kDa), outer membrane protein precursor C (40 kDa), enolase (45 kDa) and chaperonin (60 kDa) using mass spectrometry analysis. Several conA binding proteins (including 45 and 60 kDa) were found to be immunogenic when reacted with rabbit anti-Klebsiella antibody. The function and interplay of the conA binding proteins in bacterium-host cell relationship merits further investigation. PMID:25776607

  5. Pruebas de BRCA en pacientes jóvenes con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Pruebas de mutaciones genéticas fuertemente asociadas con un mayor riesgo de cáncer de seno han aumentado dramáticamente entre mujeres menores de 40 años diagnosticadas con la enfermedad, según un nuevo estudio.

  6. ConSearch: An Electronic Document Research and Retrieval Utility for Windows from Management Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews ConSearch 3.0, a product that provides flexible searching of electronic files, allowing the location of related meanings as well as exact matches. ConSearch 3.0 differs from other file retrieval approaches by relating words in search phrases of questions to the "meaning" of the words, which are stored in a "conceptual database," or lexicon…

  7. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  8. Gestational surrogacy: could be a way to be a way to reproduction? Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Clementina, Peris

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article was to address pros and cons of gestational surrogacy, the social and psychological issues involved in surrogate motherhood triads. Pros and cons of surrogacy, the possible insurgence of a hematologic disease in the fetus, hemolytic disease of the newborn, naturally acquired microchimerism in surrogacy cases, ethical, medical, psychologic, legal and religious issues of a problem are discussed. PMID:21778533

  9. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  10. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  11. Pros and Cons of Medical Management of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Shen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation limited to the colon and rectum. Although a complete medical cure may not be possible, UC can be treated with medications that induce and maintain remission. The medical management of this disease continues to evolve with a goal to avoid colectomy and ultimately alter the natural history of UC. Emergence of antitumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) agents has expanded the medical armamentarium. 5-Aminosalicylates continue to be used in mild to moderate UC and corticosteroids are mainly used for induction of remission with immunomodulators (6-mercaptopurine/azathiopurine/methotrexate) being applied as steroid-sparing agents for maintenance therapy. Infliximab has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and used in the treatment of moderate to severe UC; nevertheless, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects and have a negative impact on the postoperative course should the patients undergo restorative proctocolectomy. In addition, there is always a concern about patients' compliance to medical therapy, cost of medications, and risk for UC-associated dysplasia. The authors discuss the pros and cons of medications used in the treatment of UC. PMID:22131893

  12. Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Challa, Siva Reddy

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and cons of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain. PMID:24831263

  13. Determination of composition in stoichiometric Co-N ultrathin films by nitrogen plasma sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. W.; Huang, M. S.; Chang, Y. C.; Tsai, T. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-02-01

    This work utilizes low-energy sputtering to incorporate the generated nitrogen plasma into an epitaxial 1.4nm Co film on the surface of a ZnO(002) substrate. In this method, ultrathin Co-N amorphous films were formed. Interestingly, Co is key to the formation of Co-N films. Without the deposition of Co on the ZnO(002), nitride films cannot be formed. Observations of the surface composition of the Co-N films after the firing of a N+ ion beam onto it demonstrated that the surface concentration of Co reduced at the same rate as the reduction in the concentration of N upon successive sputtering. Theoretical calculations based on the Auger peak-to-peak amplitudes established that the composition of the amorphous Co-N thin films may be Co3N2.

  14. The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

    Cancer.gov

    The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.

  15. CONspiracies to crush competition. Hospitals using CON laws to thwart rival's projects.

    PubMed

    Burda, D

    1991-07-01

    In their eagerness to protect their market share and check advances by rivals, hospitals are trying to use state certificate-of-need laws to their advantage. Some hospitals are clinging to CON laws, which require state approval of new construction and renovation, because they protect them from competitors who threaten their market. A look into CON wars in five states uncovers some competitive tactics. PMID:10111448

  16. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    SciTech Connect

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

  17. Evaluation of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process for treating gunite tank sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.; Chase, C.W.; Egan, B.Z.

    1996-05-01

    A test was conducted to evaluate this process for selectively removing actinides from Gunite tank sludge. Mixed waste sludge from Gunite tank W-6 was subjected to the ACT*DE*CON selective leaching process. (Nearly all the TRU content was attributed to Pu.) The sludge sample was first washed with 0.01M NaOH to remove excess sodium and nitrate in the interstitial liquid supernatant. The washed wet solids were treated with the ACT*DE*CON solvent (aqueous carbonate solution containing a chelating agent and an oxidant), using a ratio of 20 ml solvent per gram wet solids. Sludge and solvent were separated by centrifugation, and the ACT*DE*CON treatment was repeated twice. Analyses showed that 71% of the solids in the sludge were dissolved while 80% of the TRU-waste components dissolved. Low separation of the TRU-waste components from other components of the sludge mixture is indicated. Almost all the U and Ca were removed from the sludge. For sludges where most of the TRU content is Pu, the ACT*DE*CON process as tested is not effective in rendering the sludge a non-TRU waste. It is recommended that ACT*DE*CON be optimized for this specific application and that other processes using different chelating and oxidizing agents be tested. Also, the ACT*DE*CON process should be tested on TRU mixed waste in which most of the TRU elements are not Pu.

  18. Virulence, Speciation and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Ocular Coagualase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Ravindran; Mythili, Arumugam; Singh, Yendremban Randhir Babu; Sreekumar, Haridas; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Panneerselvam, Kanesan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are common inhabitants of human skin and mucous membranes. With the emergence of these organisms as prominent pathogens in patients with ocular infections, investigation has intensified in an effort to identify important virulence factors and to inform new approaches to treatment and prevention. Aim: To isolate CoNS from ocular specimens; to study the possible virulence factors; speciation of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) which were isolated from ocular complications; antibiotic susceptibility testing of ocular CoNS. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected from the target patients who attended the Microbiology Laboratory of a tertiary care eye hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu state, India. The isolates were subjected to tube and slide coagulase tests for the identification of CoNS. All the isolates were subjected to screening for lipase and protease activities. Screening for other virulence factors viz., slime production on Congo red agar medium and haemagglutination assay with use of 96-well microtitre plates. These isolates were identified upto species level by performing biochemical tests such as phosphatase test, arginine test, maltose and trehalose fermentation tests and novobiocin sensitivity test. The isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility studies, based on the revised standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI). Results: During the one year of study, among the total 260 individuals who were screened, 100 isolates of CoNS were obtained. Lipolytic activity was seen in all the isolates, whereas 38 isolates showed a positive result for protease. A total of 63 isolates showed slime production. Of 100 isolates, 30 isolates were analyzed for haemagglutination, where 4 isolates showed the capacity to agglutinate the erythrocytes. The results of the biochemical analysis revealed that of the 100 isolates of CoNS, 43% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. The other

  19. conSSert: Consensus SVM Model for Accurate Prediction of Ordered Secondary Structure.

    PubMed

    Kieslich, Chris A; Smadbeck, James; Khoury, George A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2016-03-28

    Accurate prediction of protein secondary structure remains a crucial step in most approaches to the protein-folding problem, yet the prediction of ordered secondary structure, specifically beta-strands, remains a challenge. We developed a consensus secondary structure prediction method, conSSert, which is based on support vector machines (SVM) and provides exceptional accuracy for the prediction of beta-strands with QE accuracy of over 0.82 and a Q2-EH of 0.86. conSSert uses as input probabilities for the three types of secondary structure (helix, strand, and coil) that are predicted by four top performing methods: PSSpred, PSIPRED, SPINE-X, and RAPTOR. conSSert was trained/tested using 4261 protein chains from PDBSelect25, and 8632 chains from PISCES. Further validation was performed using targets from CASP9, CASP10, and CASP11. Our data suggest that poor performance in strand prediction is likely a result of training bias and not solely due to the nonlocal nature of beta-sheet contacts. conSSert is freely available for noncommercial use as a webservice: http://ares.tamu.edu/conSSert/ . PMID:26928531

  20. ConA-based glucose sensing using the long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Brian; Simpson, Jonathan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo W.; Graham, Duncan; Birch, David; Coté, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescent glucose sensing technologies have been identified as possible alternatives to current continuous glucose monitoring approaches. We have recently introduced a new, smart fluorescent ligand to overcome the traditional problems of ConA-based glucose sensors. For this assay to be translated into a continuous glucose monitoring device where both components are free in solution, the molecular weight of the smart fluorescent ligand must be increased. We have identified ovalbumin as a naturally-occurring glycoprotein that could serve as the core-component of a 2nd generation smart fluorescent ligand. It has a single asparagine residue that is capable of displaying an N-linked glycan and a similar isoelectric point to ConA. Thus, binding between ConA and ovalbumin can potentially be monovalent and sugar specific. This work is the preliminary implementation of fluorescently-labeled ovalbumin in the ConA-based assay. We conjugate the red-emitting, long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) dye to ovalbumin, as ADOTA have many advantageous properties to track the equilibrium binding of the assay. The ADOTA-labeled ovalbumin is paired with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled ConA to create a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that is glucose dependent. The assay responds across the physiologically relevant glucose range (0-500 mg/dL) with increasing intensity from the ADOTA-ovalbumin, showing that the strategy may allow for the translation of the smart fluorescent ligand concept into a continuous glucose monitoring device.

  1. ConSole: using modularity of Contact maps to locate Solenoid domains in protein structures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Periodic proteins, characterized by the presence of multiple repeats of short motifs, form an interesting and seldom-studied group. Due to often extreme divergence in sequence, detection and analysis of such motifs is performed more reliably on the structural level. Yet, few algorithms have been developed for the detection and analysis of structures of periodic proteins. Results ConSole recognizes modularity in protein contact maps, allowing for precise identification of repeats in solenoid protein structures, an important subgroup of periodic proteins. Tests on benchmarks show that ConSole has higher recognition accuracy as compared to Raphael, the only other publicly available solenoid structure detection tool. As a next step of ConSole analysis, we show how detection of solenoid repeats in structures can be used to improve sequence recognition of these motifs and to detect subtle irregularities of repeat lengths in three solenoid protein families. Conclusions The ConSole algorithm provides a fast and accurate tool to recognize solenoid protein structures as a whole and to identify individual solenoid repeat units from a structure. ConSole is available as a web-based, interactive server and is available for download at http://console.sanfordburnham.org. PMID:24766872

  2. Structural basis of ConM binding with resveratrol, an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bruno A M; Teixeira, Claudener S; Silva-Filho, José C; Nóbrega, Raphael B; Alencar, Daniel B; Nascimento, Kyria S; Freire, Valder N; Gottfried, Carmem J S; Nagano, Celso S; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Cavada, Benildo S; Delatorre, Plínio

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol can also inhibit the activation of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines at the early gene expression stage. It is well known that lectins are sugar-binding proteins that act as both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the binding of a polyphenol compound with a lectin of Canavalia maritima (ConM) based on their ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory processes. To accomplish this, ConM was purified and crystallized, and resveratrol was soaked at 5mM for 2h of incubation. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group C2, the final refinement resulted in an Rfactor of 16.0% and an Rfree of 25.5%. Resveratrol binds in the rigid β-sheet through H-bonds and hydrophobic interaction with amino acids that compose the fifth and sixth β-strands of the rigid β-sheet of ConM. The ConM and resveratrol inhibited DPPH oxidation, showing synergic activity with the most effective ratio of 2:3 and carbohydrate binding site is not directly related to antioxidant activity. It is the interaction between ConM and resveratrol that indicates the synergism of these two molecules in acting as free radicals scavengers and in reducing the inflammatory process through the inhibition of many pro-inflammatory events. PMID:25192853

  3. Orbit and spin resolved magnetic properties of size selected [ConRh]⁺ and [ConAu]⁺ nanoalloy clusters.

    PubMed

    Dieleman, Dennis; Tombers, Matthias; Peters, Lars; Meyer, Jennifer; Peredkov, Sergey; Jalink, Jeroen; Neeb, Matthias; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Rasing, Theo; Niedner-Schatteburg, Gereon; Kirilyuk, Andrei

    2015-11-14

    Bi-metallic nanoalloys of mixed 3d-4d or 3d-5d elements are promising candidates for technological applications. The large magnetic moment of the 3d materials in combination with a high spin-orbit coupling of the 4d or 5d materials give rise to a material with a large magnetic moment and a strong magnetic anisotropy, making them ideally suitable in for example magnetic storage devices. Especially for clusters, which already have a higher magnetic moment compared to the bulk, these alloys can profit from the cooperative role of alloying and size reduction in order to obtain magnetically stable materials with a large magnetic moment. Here, the influence of doping of small cobalt clusters on the spin and orbital magnetic moment has been studied for the cations [Co(8-14)Au](+) and [Co(10-14)Rh](+). Compared to the undoped pure cobalt [Co(N)](+) clusters we find a significant increase in the spin moment for specific Co(N-1)Au(+) clusters and a very strong increase in the orbital moment for some Co(N-1)Rh(+) clusters, with more than doubling for Co12Rh(+). This result shows that substitutional doping of a 3d metal with even just one atom of a 4d or 5d metal can lead to dramatic changes in both spin and orbital moment, opening up the route to novel applications. PMID:26104269

  4. Pros and cons of quitting, self-efficacy, and the stages of change in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, A; de Vries, H; Bakker, M

    1996-08-01

    In The Netherlands, 34% of the population smoke, and 70% of these smokers are not planning to quit. The lower percentages in the U.S. population seem to reflect a difference in smoking culture. This study analyzes the pros and cons of quitting and self-efficacy expectation in the 5 stages of change in the Dutch population. The results are compared with the pattern of the pros and cons of smoking and self-efficacy expectations found in U.S. samples. The data show the hypothesized pattern: In the first 2 stages, the expected positive outcomes of quitting discriminated better between the stages than self-efficacy, whereas for later stages, self-efficacy was the better discriminator. This study shows that the stage typology is applicable to the Dutch population and that the pattern of the pros, cons, and self-efficacy is very similar to the pattern found in the U.S. populations. PMID:8803366

  5. C-ON Bond Homolysis of Alkoxyamines, Part 11: Activation of the Nitroxyl Fragment.

    PubMed

    Audran, Gérard; Brémond, Paul; Marque, Sylvain R A; Yamasaki, Toshihide

    2016-03-01

    A few years ago, Bagryanskaya and colleagues (J. Org. Chem. 2011) showed that protonation of the nitroxyl fragment deactivated the alkoxyamine C-ON bond. Conversely, our group showed that protonation (Chem. Commun. 2011), as well as other chemical reactions such as oxidation or amine quaternization (Org. Lett. 2012), of the pyridyl moiety carried by the alkyl fragment was suitable to activate the homolysis of the C-ON bond. To pursue our goal of applying alkoxyamines as theranostic agents (Org. Biomol. Chem. 2014 and Mol. Pharmaceutics 2014) by activation of the C-ON bond homolysis, we turned our interest to the chemical activation of the nitroxyl fragment by oxidation/reduction of selected functions. Conversion of a hydroxyl group located close to the nitroxyl moiety successively into aldehyde, then acid, and eventually into ester, led to a successive decrease in kd. PMID:26878593

  6. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26356902

  7. Experiences using INGRES in a large battlefield simulation (ConMod)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, S.D.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes the experiences of using INGRES in a large battlefield simulation. The paper includes a project overview, a section on INGRES components, and conclusions. The project overview describes the ConMod project and its objectives. This section also discusses our needs for the project with respect to a data storage system. The section on INGRES components briefly describes what the components are, how we used them in the ConMod project, and their advantages and disadvantages. The last section concludes with some general comments about INGRES and its appropriateness for particular projects. 3 refs.

  8. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.27 Limiting...

  9. The Con Edison Emergency Child Care Plan for Management Employees: Summary Plan Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

    This summary plan description offers guidelines for participation in a pilot program that provides short-term emergency care for children of Con Edison managers who are under 13 years old. The plan offers professional, in-home child care that can be used when usual arrangements have collapsed. The summary plan description addresses the following…

  10. Algunas mujeres con cáncer de seno pueden abstenerse de quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de resultados del estudio TAILORx indica que mujeres con cáncer de seno receptor de hormonas en estadio inicial tienen un riesgo bajo de recurrencia según una prueba de expresión de 21 genes.

  11. CHILES Con Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES Con Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES Con Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES Con Pol radio data.

  12. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.27 Limiting...

  13. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.27 Limiting...

  14. Asociación de XMRV con enfermedades humanas se debe a contaminación

    Cancer.gov

    Nuevas investigaciones muestran que una asociación, mencionada en numerosos estudios, entre el retrovirus conocido como XMRV y el cáncer de próstata así como el síndrome de fatiga crónica, se debe a contaminación de laboratorio con un virus que se originó en ratones.

  15. A National Look at Postmodernism's Pros and Cons in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsell, Rhodena

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to take a look at the pros and cons of postmodernism. It is imperative for administrators to closely examine educational theories and practices prior to instituting changes. The ability to read and digest challenging material keeps one informed and prepared to lead effectively. This paper will list the pros and cons…

  16. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.27 Limiting...

  17. A Qualitative Approach to Upward Evaluation of Leadership Performance: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turrentine, Cathryn G.; Lener, Edward F.; Young, Michelle L.; Kok, Victoria T.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative upward evaluation of the leadership performance of library managers. Follow-up studies were conducted, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of the qualitative approach to upward appraisal. The authors discuss pros and cons to guide others who might use this methodology for upward appraisals in the…

  18. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  19. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.27 Limiting...

  20. Jóvenes con cáncer y supervivientes participan en estudio de oncofertilidad

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los esfuerzos que se realizan para conectar con pacientes jóvenes y lograr su participación en estudios clínicos para evaluar y remediar la esterilidad causada por el cáncer y su tratamiento.

  1. Pros and Cons of Teaching Reading to Four- and Five-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollila, Lloyd O.

    There are many pros and cons to the recent trend of early reading. The opponents fear that too much emphasis on early reading may lead to a less rounded development of the child; they agree on providing the child with richer and more varied experiences to insure reading readiness. The advocates believe that today's children have already had more…

  2. Mandated Mental Health Insurance: A Complex Case of Pros and Cons. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    The pros and cons of state laws mandating mental health insurance are discussed in this report. The history of a 1985 Supreme Court case which held that states could mandate mental health benefits introduces the report. In an overview of the issue, the long-standing argument between the insurance industry and the mental health establishment is…

  3. Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles.

    PubMed

    Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A; Ortega, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of the ConRed cyberbullying intervention program. The program's impacts were separately determined for the different roles within cyberbullying that students can take, i.e., cyber-victims, cyber-bullies, cyber-bully/victims, and bystanders. The ConRed program is a theory-driven program designed to prevent cyberbullying and improve cyberbullying coping skills. It involves students, teachers, and families. During a 3-month period, external experts conducted eight training sessions with students, two with teachers and one with families. ConRed was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design, in which students from three secondary schools were separated into experimental and control groups. The sample comprised 875 students, aged between 11 and 19 years. More students (n = 586) were allocated to the experimental groups at the specific insistence of the management of all schools; the remainder (n = 289) formed the control. Repeated measures MANOVA showed that cyber victims, cyber aggressors and cyberbully/victims reduced their involvement in cyberbullying. Moreover, cyber-victims and bystanders adjusted their perceptions about their control of personal information on the Internet, and cyber aggressors and bystanders reduced their Internet dependence. The ConRed program had stronger effects on male participants, especially in heightening their affective empathy. PMID:26351131

  4. A Manual for Merger. A Guide to Examine the Feasibility & Implications of Merger: The Pros & Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgman, John N., Jr., Ed.

    Written for boards of education, school administrators, and others who wish to explore the possibilities of merger within their own counties, this manual examines the pros and cons through the experiences of those who have implemented school district mergers in recent years in North Carolina. Guidelines are provided for implementing mergers…

  5. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5 cm long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10–20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90–95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2–3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-tovacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer. PMID:25667060

  6. Papás que tienen a un niño con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información práctica para los padres, cuando un hijo tiene cáncer. Sugerencias para ayudar a los niños y a los padres a salir adelante y mantenerse fuertes; junto con respuestas a preguntas que padres e hijos hacen con frecuencia.

  7. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

  8. GeConT 2: gene context analysis for orthologous proteins, conserved domains and metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Guerrero, C. E.; Ciria, R.; Abreu-Goodger, C.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G.; Merino, E.

    2008-01-01

    The Gene Context Tool (GeConT) allows users to visualize the genomic context of a gene or a group of genes and their orthologous relationships within fully sequenced bacterial genomes. The new version of the server incorporates information from the COG, Pfam and KEGG databases, allowing users to have an integrated graphical representation of the function of genes at multiple levels, their phylogenetic distribution and their genomic context. The sequence of any of the genes can be easily retrieved, as well as the 5′ or 3′ regulatory regions, greatly facilitating further types of analysis. GeConT 2 is available at: http://bioinfo.ibt.unam.mx/gecont. PMID:18511460

  9. Confirmatory analysis of opinions regarding the pros and cons of mammography.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, W; Andersen, M R; Stoddard, A M; Urban, N; Rimer, B K; Lane, D S; Fox, S A; Costanza, M E

    1997-09-01

    This investigation extends prior research to apply decision-making constructs from the transtheoretical model (TTM) of behavior change to mammography screening. Study subjects were 8,914 women ages 50-80, recruited from 40 primarily rural communities in Washington State. Structural equation modeling showed that favorable and unfavorable opinions about mammography (i.e., pros and cons) fit the observed data. Analysis of variance supported the associations between readiness to obtain screening (i.e., stage of adoption) and opinions about mammography (i.e., decisional balance) previously found in research using smaller samples from another geographic region. This report extends these earlier studies by using structural equation modeling, opinion scales based both on principal component analyses and on a priori definitions, a developmental sample and a confirmatory sample, and by sampling from a different geographic region. It is recommended that future research examine whether opinions regarding the cons of mammography are more individually specific than the pros. PMID:9302540

  10. Pro/con debate: Is etomidate safe in hemodynamically unstable critically ill patients?

    PubMed

    Flynn, Gordon; Shehabi, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Etomidate is an induction agent known for its smooth intubating conditions and cardiovascular stability. Studies, however, have shown that a single dose of etomidate can result in a prolonged adrenal insufficiency. The impact of this in patients with sepsis has been a matter for debate. This review presents a pro/con case for using etomidate in hemodynamically unstable critically ill patients and provides guidance for alternative induction techniques and when the use of etomidate might be justified despite these concerns. PMID:22809235

  11. Cómo hacer las gestiones con su plan de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Hay formas de saber si su plan de salud cubre los costos de atención médica de rutina durante un estudio clínico. Esta información puede servirle para saber con quién comunicarse para solicitar ayuda, preguntas que puede hacer y la información que debe recoger y guardar si decide participar en un estudio clínico.

  12. NASA KSC/AFRL Reusable Booster System (RBS) Concept of Operations (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeno, Dnany; Mosteller, Ted; McCleskey, Carey; Jhnson, Robert; Hopkins, Jason; Miller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study and findings of the study on the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for Reusable Booster System (RBS) centering on rapid turnaround and launch of a two-stage partially reusable payload delivery system (i.e., 8 hours between launches). The study was to develop rapid ground processing (aircraft like concepts) and identify areas for follow-on study, technology needs, and proof-of-concept demonstrations.

  13. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  14. Con-T[M8Q] potently attenuates the expression and development of morphine tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Baolan; Zhou, Zhijie; Liu, Zhuguo; Li, Bailin; Ou, Jie; Dai, Qiuyun

    2015-06-15

    As a variant of peptide conantokin-T (con-T), con-T[M8Q] is derived from the venom of Conus tulipa. Our previous study has demonstrated that con-T[M8Q] selectively targets N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) NR2B subunit. In the present study, we determined the effects of con-T[M8Q] on the expression and development of morphine tolerance using hot plate test and acetic acid writhing test. Our results demonstrated that con-T[M8Q] could efficiently attenuate the expression and development of morphine analgesic tolerance in mice at low doses (5-20nmol/kg), and it exhibited more potent effects compared with ifenprodil, a typical small-molecule antagonist of NMDAR. In addition, low doses of con-T[M8Q] (5-20nmol/kg) did not cause drug resistance and apparent analgesic activity compared with morphine. Taken together, con-T[M8Q] could be a promising new candidate in attenuating morphine tolerance. PMID:25896730

  15. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-07-01

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree. PMID:27166375

  16. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-01-01

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree. PMID:27166375

  17. Nuevas observaciones de 3C10 con el VLA*: estudio de la expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynoso, E. M.; Moffett, D. A.:; Dubner, G. M.; Giacani, E. B.; Reynolds, S. P.; Goss, W. M.; Dickel, J.

    Se presentan nuevos resultados sobre la expansión del remanente de la supernova de Tycho a lo largo de un intervalo de 10.9 años, comparando nuevas observaciones tomadas con el VLA a 1375 y 1635 MHz durante 1994 y 1995, con observaciones previas realizadas entre 1983 y 1984 (Dickel y col. ~1991 AJ 101, 2151), usando las mismas configuraciones, anchos de banda, calibradores y tiempos de integración. El coeficiente de expansión se calcula para sectores radiales de 4o de ancho cada uno, ajustando la correlación cruzada de las derivadas de los perfiles promedio para cada época. A partir de la expansión medida, se estima el índice (parámetro de expansión) de la ley potencial R∝ tm como m≡ d ln R/d ln t . Este valor se compara con coeficientes teóricos para diferentes fases evolutivas de remanentes de supernova.

  18. ConPADE: Genome Assembly Ploidy Estimation from Next-Generation Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Margarido, Gabriel R. A.; Heckerman, David

    2015-01-01

    As a result of improvements in genome assembly algorithms and the ever decreasing costs of high-throughput sequencing technologies, new high quality draft genome sequences are published at a striking pace. With well-established methodologies, larger and more complex genomes are being tackled, including polyploid plant genomes. Given the similarity between multiple copies of a basic genome in polyploid individuals, assembly of such data usually results in collapsed contigs that represent a variable number of homoeologous genomic regions. Unfortunately, such collapse is often not ideal, as keeping contigs separate can lead both to improved assembly and also insights about how haplotypes influence phenotype. Here, we describe a first step in avoiding inappropriate collapse during assembly. In particular, we describe ConPADE (Contig Ploidy and Allele Dosage Estimation), a probabilistic method that estimates the ploidy of any given contig/scaffold based on its allele proportions. In the process, we report findings regarding errors in sequencing. The method can be used for whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing data. We also show applicability of the method for variant calling and allele dosage estimation. Results for simulated and real datasets are discussed and provide evidence that ConPADE performs well as long as enough sequencing coverage is available, or the true contig ploidy is low. We show that ConPADE may also be used for related applications, such as the identification of duplicated genes in fragmented assemblies, although refinements are needed. PMID:25880203

  19. Mound-ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} feasibility study. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    A portion of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal paralleling the Greater Miami River receives the runoff and storm-water discharge from Mound Laboratory. In 1969, a low-level plutonium leak contaminated sediment as far away as 1.5 mi from the Mound site along the old canal system. An estimated one million cubic feet of sediment requires remediation. The technology being evaluated for the remediation of the low-level plutonium-238 contamination of the sediment involves two processes: washing the sediments with ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution to dissolve the contaminant, followed by extraction of the solution and processing with the MAG*SEP{sup SM} process to concentrate the contaminant and allow reuse of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution. The processes are being optimized for pilot-scale and field demonstration. Phase 2 of the project primarily involved identification at the laboratory scale of the optimal ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} formulation, identification of the ion-exchanger and MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles, verification of the plutonium mobility in the treated soil, and evaluation of other process parameters according to a series of tasks.

  20. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial. PMID:25724751

  1. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  2. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  3. Online measurement of motivational processes: introducing the Continuous Delay Aversion Test (ConDAT).

    PubMed

    Müller, Ueli C; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Brandeis, Daniel; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2006-02-15

    The Continuous Delay Aversion Test (ConDAT), a new computer task for online monitoring and continuously measuring delay aversion (DA), is introduced. DA is a motivational style related to a shortened delay gradient which is proposed as a major endophenotype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is characterised by avoiding or escaping from delay-rich situations despite the prospects of a reward. In each ConDAT trial the rapidly diminishing reward/delay ratio, which tends asymptotically towards zero, is visually presented on the computer screen. The test subject is permanently confronted with the question whether to quit or to continue the trial in the face of the deteriorating reward/time ratio. An elaborated control of stimuli and responses, including the sending of trigger codes to external recording devices, makes the task useful for neurophysiological or brain imaging experiments. Compared to existing tasks, the ConDAT is more flexible and sensitive due to its asymptotic open-ended trials and the interval-scaled output measure. Pilot data give evidence for satisfactory reliability and external validity of the task. PMID:16376991

  4. Con_A-carbone nanotube conjugate with short wave near-infrared laser ablation for tumor therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan-Yao; Peng, Ching-An; Tang, Ming-Jer; Reindhart, Kit; Szu, Harold H.

    2009-04-01

    Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-beam Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (Con_A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of Con_A can eradicate the established malign tumor, because Con_A can induce tumor cell autophagic, cell-programmed death, as well as activate the effector T cells. Combined, in this paper, with the absorption exceeding the Carbon NanoTube (CNT) band-gap (ɛbg=~1/CNT diameter) with an active short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1.2~1.5 micron wavelengths), which happened to be translucent to the irradiation upon animal skin, similar to that used in hospital fingertip-clamped Pulse Oxymetry. Once the Con_ACNT is guided to hepatoma cells, it is bonded and internalized into the mitochondria (MC) compartment, the cellular energy factory. Con_A has the higher specificity for tumor cells useful for targeting because of the abnormal glycosylation on tumor cells. When CNT hitch hike with Con_A, they can t together like a laser-denotable chemical missile surgically targeting at the tumor cells precisely by Con_A-guidance. We switch on SWIR laser, when the Con_A-CNT conjugated complex has been bonded and internalized to MC of malign cells and already commenced cellular programmed death. Thus, it might appear to casual readers that we have initiated an overkill, chemical drugged autophage followed with physical laser ablation, but what if we can eradicate hepatoma totally if no blue print is left behind inadvertently in case of a partial failure. We conclude that using Con_A-CNT conjugated complex targeting specifically at malign tumor cells is a novel targeted-laser-radiation therapy for tumors in mice.

  5. Estudio muestra reducción de mortalidad en hombres con cáncer de próstata de grado intermedio

    Cancer.gov

    Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patroci

  6. The pros and cons about the digital recording of Intangible Cultural Heritage and some strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Intangible Cultural Heritage (referred to as ICH), whose fundamental nature different from the tangible cultural heritage is "Intangible", and the related physical presence of the heritage is not the core content. Digital means have irreplaceable advantages in recording intangible and dynamic ICH resources, while it also needs flexible and rigorous recording means as a support, thus striving to maximize resources recording and protection. This article will focus on the pros and cons about the digital recording of ICH, and preliminarily discuss some strategies used in the process of recording.

  7. Confrontando teorías físicas con la Cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse con el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.

  8. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  9. Co-N Decorated Hierarchically Porous Graphene Aerogel for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Acid.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaogang; Choi, Ja-Yeon; Zamani, Pouyan; Jiang, Gaopeng; Hoque, Md Ariful; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen-functionalized graphene materials have been demonstrated as promising electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), owning to their respectable activity and excellent stability in alkaline electrolyte. However, they exhibit unacceptable catalytic activity in acid medium. Here, a hierarchically porous Co-N functionalized graphene aerogel is prepared as an efficient catalyst for the ORR in acid electrolyte. In the preparation process, polyaniline (PANI) is introduced as a pore-forming agent to aid in the self-assembly of graphene species into a porous aerogel networks, and a nitrogen precursor to induce in situ nitrogen doping. Therefore, a Co-N decorated graphene aerogel framework with a large surface area (485 m(2) g(-1)) and an abundance of meso/macropores is effectively formed after heat treatment. Such highly desired structures can not only expose sufficient active sites for the ORR but also guarantee the fast mass transfer in the catalytic process, which provides significant catalytic activity with positive onset and half wave potentials, low hydrogen peroxide yield, high resistance to methanol crossover, and remarkable stability that is comparable to commercial Pt/C in acid medium. PMID:26937737

  10. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  11. PDP-CON: prediction of domain/linker residues in protein sequences using a consensus approach.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Basu, Subhadip; Zubek, Julian; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    The prediction of domain/linker residues in protein sequences is a crucial task in the functional classification of proteins, homology-based protein structure prediction, and high-throughput structural genomics. In this work, a novel consensus-based machine-learning technique was applied for residue-level prediction of the domain/linker annotations in protein sequences using ordered/disordered regions along protein chains and a set of physicochemical properties. Six different classifiers-decision tree, Gaussian naïve Bayes, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine, random forest, and multilayer perceptron-were exhaustively explored for the residue-level prediction of domain/linker regions. The protein sequences from the curated CATH database were used for training and cross-validation experiments. Test results obtained by applying the developed PDP-CON tool to the mutually exclusive, independent proteins of the CASP-8, CASP-9, and CASP-10 databases are reported. An n-star quality consensus approach was used to combine the results yielded by different classifiers. The average PDP-CON accuracy and F-measure values for the CASP targets were found to be 0.86 and 0.91, respectively. The dataset, source code, and all supplementary materials for this work are available at https://cmaterju.org/cmaterbioinfo/ for noncommercial use. PMID:26969678

  12. Methane activation by cobalt cluster cations, Con+ (n=2-16): Reaction mechanisms and thermochemistry of cluster-CHx (x=0-3) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citir, Murat; Liu, Fuyi; Armentrout, P. B.

    2009-02-01

    The kinetic energy dependences of the reactions of Con+ (n =2-16) with CD4 are studied in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer over the energy range of 0-10 eV. The main products are hydride formation, ConD+, dehydrogenation to form ConCD2+, and double dehydrogenation yielding ConC+. These primary products decompose to form secondary and higher order products, ConCD+, Con-1D+, Con-1C+, Con-1CD+, and Con-1CD2+ at higher energies. Adduct formation of ConCD4+ is also observed for the largest cluster cations, n ≥10. In general, the efficiencies of the single and double dehydrogenation processes increase with cluster size, although the hexamer cation shows a reduced reactivity compared to its neighbors. All reactions exhibit thresholds, and cross sections for the various primary and secondary reactions are analyzed to yield reaction thresholds from which bond energies for cobalt cluster cations to D, C, CD, CD2, and CD3 are determined. The relative magnitudes of these bond energies are consistent with simple bond order considerations. Bond energies for larger clusters rapidly reach relatively constant values, which are used to estimate the chemisorption energies of the C, CD, CD2, and CD3 molecular fragments to cobalt surfaces.

  13. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or ‘pros and cons’) of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. Methods We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Results Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Conclusions Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the ‘Distorted Mirror Hypothesis’. PMID:24548463

  14. Formación estelar en NGC 6357: viendo a través del polvo con Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, G.; Morrell, N.; Barbá, R.

    Presentamos aquí los primeros resultados de fotometría JHKs obtenidos con Flamingos I en el telescopio Gemini Sur. El mosaico comprendido por tres posiciones adyacentes tomadas a lo largo de varios semestres nos permite caracterizar la población estelar en la zona que presenta una interacción más importante entre las estrellas masivas y la nube molecular que les dió origen. Los diagramas color-magnitud nos permiten identificar numerosas fuentes con exceso infrarrojo, la mayoría de ellas imposible de detectarse en el rango óptico debido a la fuerte absorción del polvo presente en la región. Es altamente probable que la mayoría de estas fuentes con exceso sean protoestrellas, aunque es necesario realizar espectroscopía infrarroja de las mismas para confirmar su naturaleza.

  15. DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad con grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando con seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641

  16. The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: pros and cons for pediatric and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L

    2008-01-01

    The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and cons of these issues in advocating for their patients. PMID:19051848

  17. Nest destruction elicits indiscriminate con- versus heterospecific brood parasitism in a captive bird.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachael C; Feeney, William E; Hauber, Mark E

    2014-12-01

    Following nest destruction, the laying of physiologically committed eggs (eggs that are ovulated, yolked, and making their way through the oviduct) in the nests of other birds is considered a viable pathway for the evolution of obligate interspecific brood parasitism. While intraspecific brood parasitism in response to nest predation has been experimentally demonstrated, this pathway has yet to be evaluated in an interspecific context. We studied patterns of egg laying following experimental nest destruction in captive zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, a frequent intraspecific brood parasite. We found that zebra finches laid physiologically committed eggs indiscriminately between nests containing conspecific eggs and nests containing heterospecific eggs (of Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata vars. domestica), despite the con- and heterospecific eggs differing in both size and coloration. This is the first experimental evidence that nest destruction may provide a pathway for the evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds. PMID:25512846

  18. Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and cons?

    PubMed

    Liao, Song-Yan; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure after myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Existing medical and interventional therapies can only reduce the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction but are unable to replenish the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes after the insult, which contributes to progressive pathological left ventricular remodeling and progressive heart failure. As a result, cell-based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells) have been explored as potential therapeutic approaches to restore cardiac function in heart failure. Nevertheless, the optimal cell type with the best therapeutic efficacy and safety for heart regeneration is still unknown. In this review, the potential pros and cons of different types of multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells that have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies are reviewed, and the future perspective of stem cell-based therapy for heart regeneration is discussed. PMID:24476362

  19. Protective Effects of Dracocephalum heterophyllum in ConA-Induced Acute Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qilan; Lu, Xiaohua; Shi, Qiangqiang; Zou, Junhui

    2016-01-01

    Dracocephalum heterophyllum (DH) is a Chinese herbal medicine used in treating hepatitis. However, the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of DH in hepatitis are unknown. In this study, we found that pretreatment with DH extract significantly ameliorated liver injury and suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in Concanavalin A- (ConA-) induced hepatitis (CIH). DH recruited more CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to the liver and suppressed infiltration of macrophages (Kupffer cells) in the liver. The present work explores DH as an effective hepatoprotective medicine to inhibit inflammation and liver injury caused by hepatitis. PMID:27524863

  20. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  1. Serological Patterns of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis and Q Fever in Bos indicus Cattle in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Scolamacchia, Francesca; Handel, Ian G.; Fèvre, Eric M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever are important infections of livestock causing a range of clinical conditions including abortions and reduced fertility. In addition, they are all important zoonotic infections infecting those who work with livestock and those who consume livestock related products such as milk, producing non-specific symptoms including fever, that are often misdiagnosed and that can lead to severe chronic disease. This study used banked sera from the Adamawa Region of Cameroon to investigate the seroprevalences and distributions of seropositive animals and herds. A classical statistical and a multi-level prevalence modelling approach were compared. The unbiased estimates were 20% of herds were seropositive for Brucella spp. compared to 95% for Leptospira spp. and 68% for Q fever. The within-herd seroprevalences were 16%, 35% and 39% respectively. There was statistical evidence of clustering of seropositive brucellosis and Q fever herds. The modelling approach has the major advantage that estimates of seroprevalence can be adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test used and the multi-level structure of the sampling. The study found a low seroprevalence of brucellosis in the Adamawa Region compared to a high proportion of leptospirosis and Q fever seropositive herds. This represents a high risk to the human population as well as potentially having a major impact on animal health and productivity in the region. PMID:20098670

  2. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Jamwal, Manu; Singh, Surender; Kumar, Saravanan; Panigrahi, Aswini K; Hariprasad, Gururao; Jena, Manoj K; Anand, Vijay; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K; Dang, Ajay K; Mukesh, Manishi; Mishra, Bishnu P; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Reddy, Vanga S; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2013-11-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. PMID:24030930

  3. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    PubMed

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

  4. MHC class I loci of the Bar-Headed goose (Anser indicus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    MHC class I proteins mediate functions in anti-pathogen defense. MHC diversity has already been investigated by many studies in model avian species, but here we chose the bar-headed goose, a worldwide migrant bird, as a non-model avian species. Sequences from exons encoding the peptide-binding region (PBR) of MHC class I molecules were isolated from liver genomic DNA, to investigate variation in these genes. These are the first MHC class I partial sequences of the bar-headed goose to be reported. A preliminary analysis suggests the presence of at least four MHC class I genes, which share great similarity with those of the goose and duck. A phylogenetic analysis of bar-headed goose, goose and duck MHC class I sequences using the NJ method supports the idea that they all cluster within the anseriforms clade. PMID:21637434

  5. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed. PMID:26613758

  6. Nutrition, metabolic profiles and puberty in Brahman (Bos indicus) beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Samadi, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B; D'Occhio, M J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain an improved understanding of the relationships between body weight (BW), body condition (BCS), and metabolic homeostasis, and the attainment of puberty in Brahman heifers in a subtropical environment. Brahman heifers (200±3kg BW; 2.00±0.0 BCS) were assigned to a moderate nutrition (MN, n=11) or improved nutrition (IN, n=11) treatment from 11 to 23 months-of-age. The heifers were monitored at regular intervals for circulating concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, glucose and leptin, and ovarian follicular activity was recorded until the first ovulation. From approximately 16 months of age, heifers on IN had a greater (P<0.01) BW and greater (P<0.01) BCS than heifers on MN. Heifers on IN also had a generally improved metabolic homeostasis than heifers on MN which was reflected in greater circulating concentrations of insulin, leptin, IGF-1 and glucose in the former heifers. Heifers on IN attained puberty between 21 and 23 months of age and only one heifer on MN had reached puberty by 23 months. This study has shown that Brahman heifers on IN had a metabolic homeostasis that was supportive of reproductive maturation and puberty. PMID:24725537

  7. Assessment of inbreeding depression in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inbreeding has been incriminated as a cause of decrease in reproductive performance in cattle. This negative correlation is known as ‘inbreeding depression’, and evidence supporting this hypothesis was generated from association studies between reproductive traits and estimates of inbreeding coeffic...

  8. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Frappell, P.B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W.K.; Newman, S.H.; Prosser, D.J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawam, J.Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M.J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima.

  9. Cow/calf preweaning efficiency of Nellore and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if Bos taurus percentage had an effect on ME requirements and milk production, and to compare cow/calf efficiency among three production systems. Metabolizable energy requirements were estimated in a pregnancy and lactation feeding trial for 2 groups of...

  10. Freezing, thawing and aging effects on beef tenderness from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina N; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Gomide, Lúcio Alberto M; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ladeira, Márcio M; Ramos, Eduardo M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of freezing prior to aging on the meat tenderness of young Nellore and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Samples of the longissimus thoracis muscle were submitted to two treatments: conventional aging and freezing (-20°C for 40days) followed by thawing and aging periods. The meats were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 aging days (1°C). Freezing increased (P<0.05) purge, cooking loss and total exudate loss throughout aging. Nellore meats had greater total exudate loss and shorter sarcomere lengths (P<0.05). Freezing increased proteolysis during aging in the meats of both breeds, but reduced shear force was found (P<0.05) only in Aberdeen Angus meats and only at time zero. These results suggest that the meat tenderizing process by freezing prior to aging may contribute to meat tenderness in the first weeks of aging, but it is dependent on the animal breed. PMID:26878609

  11. Characterization of the rumen microbiome of Indian Kankrej cattle (Bos indicus) adapted to different forage diet.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Amrutlal K; Parmar, Nidhi R; Patel, Anand B; Reddy, Bhaskar; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-12-01

    Present study described rumen microbiome of Indian cattle (Kankrej breed) to better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the rumen microbiome under different dietary treatments. Kankrej cattle were gradually adapted to a high-forage diet (four animals with dry forage and four with green forage) containing 50 % (K1), 75 % (K2) to 100 % (K3) forage, and remaining concentrate diet, each for 6 weeks followed by analysis of rumen fiber adherent and fiber-free metagenomic community by shotgun sequencing using ion torrent PGM platform and EBI-metagenomics annotation pipeline. Taxonomic analysis indicated that rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes followed by Firmicutes, Fibrobacter, Proteobacteria, and Tenericutes. Functional analysis based on gene ontology classified all reads in total 157 categories based on their functional role in biological, molecular, and cellular component with abundance of genes associated with hydrolase activity, membrane, transport, transferase, and different metabolism (such as carbohydrate and protein). Statistical analysis using STAMP revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) between solid and liquid fraction of rumen (in 65 categories), between all three treatments (in 56 categories), and between green and dry roughage (17 categories). Diet treatment also exerted significant difference in environmental gene tags (EGTs) involved in metabolic pathways for production of volatile fatty acids. EGTs for butyrate production were abundant in K2, whereas EGTs for propionate production was abundant during K1. Principal component analysis also demonstrated that diet proportion, fraction of rumen, and type of forage affected rumen microbiome at taxonomic as well as functional level. PMID:25359471

  12. Utilization of Bos Indicus cattle in Florida beef enterprises: Carcass Traits and Merit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The F1 Brahman cow is the most productive cow type for the Southern United States, both in terms of reproduction (calving and weaning rate) and maternal ability. However, the substandard quality and tenderness of beef from Brahman and Brahman-cross cattle is an opportunity for improvement in the br...

  13. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, L. A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P. J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D. C.; Frappell, P. B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W. K.; Newman, S. H.; Prosser, D. J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G. R.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M. J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima. PMID:23118436

  14. Cow/calf preweaning efficiency of Nellore and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses.

    PubMed

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Ferrell, C L; Lanna, D P D

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if percentage Bos taurus (0 or 50%) of the cow had an effect on ME requirements and milk production, and to compare cow/calf efficiency among 3 mating systems. Metabolizable energy requirements were estimated during a feeding trial that encompassed a gestation and lactation feeding trial for each of 2 groups of cows. Cows were 0 or 50% Bos taurus (100 or 50% Nellore) breed type: Nellore cows (NL; n = 10) mated to Nellore bulls, NL cows (n = 9) mated to Angus bulls, Angus x Nellore (ANL; n = 10) and Simmental x Nellore (SNL; n = 10) cows mated to Canchim (5/8 Charolais 3/8 Zebu) bulls. Cows were individually fed a total mixed diet that contained 11.3% CP and 2.23 Mcal of ME/kg of DM. At 14-d intervals, cows and calves were weighed and the amount of DM was adjusted to keep shrunk BW and BCS of cows constant. Beginning at 38 d of age, corn silage was available to calves ad libitum. Milk production at 42, 98, 126, and 180 d postpartum was measured using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. At 190 d of age, calves were slaughtered and body composition estimated using 9-10-11th-rib section to obtain energy deposition. Regression of BW change on daily ME intake (MEI) was used to estimate MEI at zero BW change. Increase in percentage Bos taurus had a significant effect on daily ME requirements (Mcal/d) during pregnancy (P < 0.01) and lactation (P < 0.01). Percentage Bos taurus had a positive linear effect on maintenance requirements of pregnant (P = 0.07) and lactating (P < 0.01) cows; during pregnancy, the ME requirements were 91 and 86% of those in lactation (131 +/- 3.5 vs. 145 +/- 3.4 Mcal x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)) for the 0 and 50% B. taurus groups, respectively. The 50% B. taurus cows, ANL and SNL, suckling crossbred calves had greater total MEI (4,319 +/- 61 Mcal; P < 0.01) than 0% B. taurus cows suckling NL (3,484 +/- 86 Mcal) or ANL calves (3,600 +/- 91 Mcal). The 0% B. taurus cows suckling ANL calves were more efficient (45.3 +/- 1.6 g/Mcal; P = 0.03) than straightbred NL (35.1 +/- 1.5 g/Mcal) and ANL or SNL pairs (41.0 +/- 1.0 g/Mcal). Under the conditions of this study, crossbreeding improved cow/ calf efficiency and showed an advantage for cows that have lower energy requirements. PMID:18952743

  15. Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 1. Rumen digestion.

    PubMed

    Hunter, R A; Siebert, B D

    1985-05-01

    Six Hereford and six Brahman steers were fed ad lib. Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and Spear grass (Heteropogon contortus) hay alone and supplemented with rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur and minerals. The rumen digestion of the two feeds was determined by reference to the disappearance of substrate from nylon bags suspended in the rumen and withdrawn after intervals ranging from 8 to 120 h. The digestion of the unsupplemented Pangola grass diet occurred more rapidly in Brahmans than in Herefords and was associated with higher rumen ammonia concentrations in Brahmans (40 v. 16 mg/l). The rumen NH3 concentrations were increased to over 100 mg/l by supplementation. The digestion rate increased in both breeds after supplementation and the breed difference disappeared. Increases in digestion rate were not achieved above NH3 concentrations of 60-80 mg/l. Spear grass, especially the cell-wall-constituent fraction, was more resistant to digestion than Pangola grass. Digestion of the unsupplemented Spear grass diet proceeded more rapidly in Brahmans than in Herefords. The digestion rate in Brahmans were similar irrespective of whether the diet was supplemented or not. Supplementation increased digestion rate in Herefords. PMID:2998449

  16. Ovariectomy by left flank approach in prepubertal Nelore (Bos indicus) heifers

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Juliana R.; Nogueira, Geison M.; Nogueira, Guilherme P.; Perri, Silvia H.V.; Cardoso, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate a recumbent left flank approach to bilateral ovariectomy in prepubertal heifers and to develop an optimal surgical technique for this procedure. Both ovaries were removed from 6 Nelore heifers by left flank approach without any complications, except in 1 heifer, which was believed to have had only 1 ovary based on ultrasound and exploration during surgery, but was later found to have a remaining functional ovary. Ovariectomy via left flank approach in recumbent prepubertal heifers is feasible and technically easy. This procedure does not involve special instrumentation and, despite the invasive approach, it allows optimal visualization of the ovaries and uterus. PMID:19794897

  17. Genome-wide association with residual body weight gain in Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Gomes, R C; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Novais, F J; Bonin, M N; Fukumasu, H; Garcia, J F; Alexandre, P A; Oliveira Junior, G A; Coutinho, L L; Ferraz, J B S

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain is a key performance trait for beef cat-tle; however, attention should be given to the production costs for better profitability. Therefore, a feed efficiency trait based on per-formance can be an interesting approach to improve performance without increasing food costs. To identify candidate genes and ge-nomic regions associated with residual body weight gain (RWG), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 720 Nellore cattle using the GRAMMAR-Gamma association test. We identified 30 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), especially on chromosomes 2, 8, 12, and 17. Several genes and quantitative train loci (QTLs) present in the regions identified were appointed; we highlight DMRT2 (doublesex and mab-3 related tran-scription factor 2), IFFO2 (intermediate filament family orphan 2), LNX2 (ligand of numb-protein X 2), MTIF3 (mitochondrial transla-tional initiation factor 3), and TRNAG-CCC (transfer RNA glycine anticodon CCC). The metabolic pathways that can explain part of the phenotypic variation in RWG are related to oxidative stress and muscle control. PMID:26125717

  18. Un programa innovador busca ayudar a las personas que cuidan a pacientes con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un programa educativo del City of Hope Cancer Center que ofrece a los profesionales de salud la información y las herramientas necesarias para ayudar a los familiares a saber cómo cuidarse a si mismos y a sus seres queridos con cáncer.

  19. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  20. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: INTERNATIONAL WASTE TECHNOLOGIES/GEO-CON IN SITU STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION - VOLUME IV - UPDATE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term performance tests provide information on the first follow-up sampling and analysis on the SITE program demonstration of the International Waste Technologies additive, and the Geo-Con deep soil mixing equipment. he samples containing PCBs, were collected one year aft...

  1. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: INTERNATIONAL WASTE TECHNOLOGIES/GEO-CON IN SITU STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION - VOLUME III - UPDATE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term performance tests provide information on the first follow-up sampling and analysis on the SITE program demonstration of the International Waste Technologies additive, and the Geo-Con deep soil mixing equipment. he samples containing PCBs, were collected one year aft...

  2. iPathCons and iPathDB: an improved insect pathway construction tool and the database

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zan; Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Jie, Wencai; Lei, Wenjie; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Insects are one of the most successful animal groups on earth. Some insects, such as the silkworm and honeybee, are beneficial to humans, whereas others are notorious pests of crops. At present, the genomes of 38 insects have been sequenced and made publically available. In addition, the transcriptomes of dozens of insects have been sequenced. As gene data rapidly accumulate, constructing the pathway of molecular interactions becomes increasingly important for entomological research. Here, we developed an improved tool, iPathCons, for knowledge-based construction of pathways from the transcriptomes or the official gene sets of genomes. Considering the high evolution diversity in insects, iPathCons uses a voting system for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology assignment. Both stand-alone software and a web server of iPathCons are provided. Using iPathCons, we constructed the pathways of molecular interactions of 52 insects, including 37 genome-sequenced and 15 transcriptome-sequenced ones. These pathways are available in the iPathDB, which provides searches, web server, data downloads, etc. This database will be highly useful for the insect research community. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ipath/ PMID:25388589

  3. Conantokins Derived from the Asprella Clade Impart ConRl-B, an NMDA Receptor Antagonist with a Unique Selectivity Profile for NR2B Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Gowd, Konkallu Hanumae; Han, Tiffany S.; Twede, Vernon; Gajewiak, Joanna; Smith, Misty D.; Watkins, Maren; Platt, Randall J.; Toledo, Gabriela; White, H. Steve; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Bulaj, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Using molecular phylogeny has accelerated the discovery of peptidic ligands targeted to ion channels and receptors. One clade of venomous cone snails, Asprella, appears to be significantly enriched in conantokins, antagonists of N-Methyl D-Asparate receptors (NMDARs). Here, we describe the characterization of two novel conantokins from Conus rolani, including conantokin conRl-B that has shown an unprecedented selectivity for blocking NMDARs that contain NR2B subunits. ConRl-B shares only some sequence similarity to the most studied NR2B-selective conantokin, conG. The divergence between conRl-B and conG in the second inter-Gla loop was used to design analogs for structure-activity studies; the presence of Pro10 was found to be key to the high potency of conRl-B for NR2B, whereas the ε-amino group of Lys8 contributed to discrimination in blocking NR2B- and NR2A-containing NMDARs. In contrast to previous findings from Tyr5 substitutions in other conantokins, conRl-B [L5Y] showed potencies on the four NR2 NMDA receptor subtypes that were similar to those of the native conRl-B. When delivered into the brain, conRl-B was active in suppressing seizures in the model of epilepsy in mice, consistent with NR2B-containing NMDA receptors being potential targets for antiepileptic drugs. Circular dichroism experiments confirmed that the helical conformation of conRl-B is stabilized by divalent metal ions. Given the clinical applications of NMDA antagonists, conRl-B provides a potentially important pharmacological tool for understanding the differential roles of NMDA receptor subtypes in the nervous system. This work shows the effectiveness of coupling molecular phylogeny, chemical synthesis and pharmacology for discovering new bioactive natural products. PMID:22594498

  4. [Teoria della Mente e funzionamento sociale nella schizofrenia: correlazione con anomalie del linguaggio figurato, sintomatologia clinica e intelligenza generale].

    PubMed

    Piovan, Cristiano; Gava, Laura; Campeol, Mara

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Negli ultimi decenni gli studi hanno mostrato come la Teoria della Mente (ToM) non sia un processo unitario, ma un sistema che include aspetti cognitivi e affettivi. Nell'ambito dei domini che definiscono la social cognition, la ToM rappresenta il miglior predittore dello scarso funzionamento sociale nella schizofrenia. Lo scopo del presente lavoro è stato di esaminare la competenza di un gruppo di pazienti ambulatoriali affetti da schizofrenia in compiti di ToM, di riconoscimento di aspetti metaforici e idiomatici del linguaggio, in una prova di rispetto di regole conversazionali e di indagarne la relazione con il funzionamento sociale. Metodi. Sono stati reclutati 30 pazienti ambulatoriali con diagnosi di schizofrenia e 24 controlli sani. Sono stati somministrati il TIB per il calcolo del QI premorboso, la PANSS, il Theory of Mind Picture Sequencing Task, un test di comprensione di metafore e idiomi e un test conversazionale. Il funzionamento sociale è stato valutato con la PSP. Risultati. Non vi era differenza significativa tra i valori medi del QI premorboso del gruppo dei pazienti e dei controlli. Ai test di ToM e di competenza pragmatica, la differenza tra i gruppi è risultata altamente significativa, con i pazienti che hanno eseguito le prove in modo peggiore. È emersa una correlazione tra la comprensione di metafore e idiomi e le false credenze di secondo ordine. La PSP è risultata correlata con la PANSS e con la quota di ToM cognitiva, ma non con la ToM affettiva. Conclusioni. I risultati hanno mostrato che i soggetti affetti da schizofrenia, in condizione clinica di stabilizzazione, hanno evidenti difficoltà nelle prove di ToM e di comprensione del linguaggio figurato. Nel nostro modello teorico, la correlazione evidenziata tra la ToM cognitiva, i deficit pragmatici, lo stato clinico e il livello di funzionamento sociale suggerisce l'utilità di interventi riabilitativi di recupero delle funzioni metacognitive e delle abilit

  5. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  6. Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys (EE-Con)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Florian; Brantl, Dirk; Meyer, Lukas; Steininger, Karl; Sass, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The Alps and their population are particularly vulnerable to geomorphological and hydrological hazards and this problem might be amplified by ongoing climate change. Natural disasters cause severe monetary damage which often leads to the difficult question whether it socially pays to protect settlements at high costs or whether alternatively settlement areas should better be abandoned. By investigations in the Johnsbachtal and the Kleinsölktal (Styria), the interdisciplinary project "Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys" (EE-Con), funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Are natural hazards and associated damages in fact increasing, and is this due to meteorological triggers, to anthropogenic factors or to internal process dynamics? (2) What is the perception and knowledge of local people, how is risk and risk prevention communicated? (3) What is the respective cost ratio between protection infrastructure, soft measures of adaptation and other options (e.g. reduction of settlement area)? (4) What legitimate claims to compensation do people have, how far does societal responsibility go and where does individual responsibility start if parts of the settlement area had to be abandoned? These questions will be tackled in an interdisciplinary cooperation between geography, economics and normative theory (philosophy). EE-Con will follow broadly the path of risk analysis and risk assessment, focusing on the temporal dimension (past - present - future) with the aim to unravel the history of natural hazards in the areas and to analyse the economic values involved. In the following, natural hazard scenarios for the future (2050 and 2100) will be developed considering the economic consequences. Besides this, the project deals with local knowledge, risk perception and risk communication, which will be investigated via group interviews and stakeholder workshops and be integrated into a human

  7. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  8. Añadir quimioterapia después de la radioterapia mejora la supervivencia de adultos con un tipo de tu

    Cancer.gov

    Adultos con gliomas de grado bajo, una forma de tumor cerebral, que recibieron tratamiento con quimioterapia después de la radioterapia vivieron más tiempo que pacientes que recibieron solo radioterapia, según los resultados de seguimiento a largo plazo d

  9. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  11. Pros and cons in endocrine practice: pre-surgical treatment with somatostatin analogues in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Losa, Marco; Bollerslev, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this commentary is to balance the pros and cons for pre-surgical SSA treatment in a modern perspective ending up with a pragmatic recommendation for treatment based on the current evidence and expertise of the authors. Even though prospective and randomized studies in this particular area are hampered by obvious limitations, the interpretation of the four published trials has in general been in favor of pre-treatment with SSA, showing a better outcome following surgery. However, major drawbacks of these studies, such as non-optimal diagnostic criteria for cure, potential selection bias, and timing of the postoperative evaluation in SSA pre-treated patients, limit their overall interpretation. Three matched-controlled studies showed remarkably similar results with no apparent beneficial effect of SSA pre-treatment on surgical outcome. Both prospective, randomized studies and retrospective studies did not find any significant difference in the rate of endocrine and non-endocrine complications related to surgery, despite the beneficial clinical effects of SSA treatment in most acromegalic patients. The newly diagnosed patient with acromegaly should be carefully evaluated in the trans-disciplinary neuroendocrine team and treatment individualized accordingly. The issue of SSA pre-treatment to improve surgical outcome is yet to be settled and further methodologically sound studies are probably necessary to clarify this point. PMID:26785848

  12. Assessing ComSciCon 2013: A science communication workshop for STEM graduate students (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, S.; Ranjan, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the efficacy of Communicating Science 2013, a science communication workshop for graduate students. Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. Science graduate students are a prime group to target for communication training, as they will be our future scientists, educators, and EPO professionals. To this end, Communicating Science 2013 (ComSciCon), a workshop organized by and for STEM graduate students, was held in June of this year. This workshop taught graduate students from around the nation to effectively communicate science to both their peers and the public. To learn about grad students' attitudes toward science communication and establish the workshop's efficacy, we surveyed the participants both before and after the workshop. This assessment probed topics such as communication preparation the participants have already received, how science communication is perceived in their home department, and what participants gained from the workshop. We report the results here.

  13. Pros and cons of condom use among gay and bisexual men as explored via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Gullette, Donna L; Turner, Joan G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey utilizing Internet technology related to gay and bisexual men's condom use behavior as an expression of safer sexual practices. A total of 241 self-identified gay and bisexual men responded to the questionnaire in a 3-month period of time. Confidentiality was assured by utilizing an electronic system whereby the respondents e-mail address was eliminated. The study was conceptually guided by the use of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavioral Change (TMC) and the pros and cons of condom of use were explored. Fifty-six percent of the participants reported that one advantage (pro) of using condoms with casual partners was that it would make them safer from disease. About half of the respondents (n = 119, 49%) reported a history of one or more sexually transmitted diseases. There were 14 variables found to be significantly associated with using a condom with primary and casual partners among gay and bisexual men. Essentially, findings from this study corresponded to results obtained by more traditional data collection methods. Therefore, the authors conclude that electronic data collection may well be an alternative means for collecting sensitive data such as those collected in this study. PMID:12925313

  14. Pros and cons of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients

    PubMed Central

    Baccarani, Umberto; Righi, Elda; Adani, Gian Luigi; Lorenzin, Dario; Pasqualucci, Alberto; Bassetti, Matteo; Risaliti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Before the introduction of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy, a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological status represented an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplant (SOT). The advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy in 1996 largely contributed to the increased demand for SOT in HIV-positive individuals due to increased patients’ life expectancy associated with the increasing prevalence of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Nowadays, liver failure represents a frequent cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population mainly due to coinfection with hepatitis viruses sharing the same way of transmission. Thus, liver transplantation (LT) represents a reasonable approach in HIV patients with stable infection and ESLD. Available data presently supports with good evidence the practice of LT in the HIV-positive population. Thus, the issue is no longer “whether it is correct to transplant HIV-infected patients”, but “who are the patients who can be safely transplanted” and “when is the best time to perform LT”. Indeed, the benefits of LT in HIV-infected patients, especially in terms of mid- and long-term patient and graft survivals, are strictly related to the patients’ selection and to the correct timing for transplantation, especially when hepatitis C virus coinfection is present. Aim of this article is to review the pros and cons of LT in the cohort of HIV infected recipients. PMID:24833865

  15. Weighing the cons and pros: women's reasons for discontinuing hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Reece, Susan McClennan

    2002-01-01

    As a greater proportion of U.S. women move into midlife, there has been increased interest in meeting their preventive health needs. Although hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may not be an option for all postmenopausal women, it has been documented as prolonging life expectancy and protecting against osteoporosis. Despite its advantages for many women, often those who initiate HRT discontinue its use within a short time. The purpose of this qualitative study is to gain insights into women's reasons for discontinuing HRT. We collected data by semistructured interview from three diverse samples: 10 women who had been on HRT for two years or less, 11 health care providers of women, and 34 women who had gone off HRT. Reasons for discontinuing fell into seven broad categories: general Gestalt, somatic complaints, mind (knowledge, emotion), not being heard, hassles, indecisive medical community, and cons outweighed pros. Results indicate that women who discontinue HRT do so for a variety of reasons, many of which are connected to the health care system and its providers. Outcomes also suggest that sharing in decision making along with increased education, support, and individualized care are necessary to better address the preventive health care needs of postmenopausal women. PMID:11822557

  16. Single step purification of concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of Con A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean. PMID:26923569

  17. Strain Rate by Geodetic Observations Associated with Seismic Events in the SIRGAS-CON Network Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, G. S.; Franca, G.; Galera Monico, J. F.; Fuck, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    This research investigates surface strains related to seismic events and their relationship with pre- and post-seismic events in South American, Antarctica, Nazca, Cocos, North American and Caribbean plates , by analyzing the variation of estimated earth coordinates, for the period 2000-2014, supplied by a geodetic network called SIRGAS-CON. Based on data provided by the USGS for the same period, and after the Global Congruency test, we selected the events associated with unstable geodetic network points. The resulting strains were estimated based on the finite element method. It was possible to determine the strains along with the resulting guidelines for pre- and post-seismic, considering each region formed for analysis as a homogeneous solid body. Later, a multi-year solution of the network was estimated and used to estimate the strain rates of the earth surface from the changing directions of the velocity vectors of 332 geodetic points located in the South American plate and surround plates. The strain rate was determined and, using Euler vector computed, it was possible to estimate the convergence and accommodation rates to each plate. The results showed that contraction regions coincide with locations with most of the high magnitude seismic events. It suggest that major movements detected on the surface occur in regions with more heterogeneous geological structures and multiple rupture events; significant amounts of elastic strain can be accumulated on geological structures away from the plate boundary faults; and, behavior of contractions and extensions is similar to what has been found in seismological studies. Despite the association between seismic events and the strain of geodetic network, some events of high magnitude were excluded because it does not show the surface strain, which is located at great depths. It was confirmed that events of greater magnitude provide increased surface strain rate when compared with other similar depths.

  18. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  19. Estereotipos Sexuales y su Relación con Conductas Sexuales Riesgosas1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Los estereotipos sexuales son creencias generalmente aceptadas y poco cuestionadas que podrían contribuir a cómo los hombres y las mujeres debemos expresar nuestra sexualidad. Los objetivos de este estudio eran identificar cuántos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales en Puerto Rico endosaban ciertos estereotipos acerca de la sexualidad masculina y femenina y explorar la relación entre el endoso de estos estereotipos sexuales y las actitudes hacia el condón masculino y su uso en relaciones sexuales vaginales Llevamos a cabo un estudio descriptivo-correlacional mediante el cual le administramos dos escalas, una sobre sexualidad masculina y otra sobre sexualidad femenina a un grupo de 429 personas heterosexuales. Encontramos que los hombres endosaron estereotipos sexuales masculinos y femeninos más que las mujeres y que estos tienden a tener una visión más conservadora respecto a la sexualidad femenina que la que tienen sobre su propia sexualidad. Las mujeres, por otra parte, tienden a ver su propia sexualidad y la sexualidad masculina en términos menos estereotipados y más equitativos. También encontramos que a mayor endoso de creencias tradicionales sobre la sexualidad masculina y femenina, peor la actitud hacia el uso del condón masculino. Sin embargo, el endosar estereotipos sexuales masculinos y/o femeninos no se relacionó con el uso del condón. Estos hallazgos contradicen la literatura que sugiere que estos estereotipos sexuales y de género resultan en conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, lo cual tiene implicaciones importantes para el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención. PMID:24575164

  20. Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321

  1. Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix ComiCon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Phoenix ComiCon (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.

  2. Quantum analytical modeling and simulation of CNT on insulator (COI) and CNT on nothing (CON) FET: a comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sudipta; Bandyopadhyay, Dipan; Dutta, Pranab Kishore; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive performance analysis by quantum analytical modeling of CNT on insulator (COI) and CNT on nothing (CON) FET having channel length 20 nm has been proposed and investigated on the basis of 2D Poisson's Equation and solution of 1-D Schrodinger's Equation and validated using ATLAS 2D simulator. As classical approximations fail to describe carrier quantization, charge inversion and potential profile of a device at sub-100 nm regime, here for the first time an analytical model in quantum mechanical aspect for COI/CON devices has been derived. Effects of high-k dielectrics in place of conventional SiO2 over the device characteristics have been thoroughly discussed. Moreover, all noticeable benefits of our device to the so called SOI/SON architecture have also been vividly justified.

  3. A new species of kukri snake (Squamata: Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Le, Son Hong; Murphy, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new kukri snake, Oligodon condaoensis sp. nov., from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam based on the morphological characters of four specimens. It differs from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: medium size in adults (total length up to 552 mm); 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows; deeply forked hemipenes without spines and papillae, extending to subcaudal 13 or 14; 11-13 maxillary teeth, the posterior three being enlarged; cloacal plate undivided; head scalation complete; nasal divided; presubocular absent; 168-176 ventrals; 33-37 subcaudals; overall dorsal coloration dark gray, faint body stripes present or absent; and ventral coloration cream to dark gray without rectangular blotches. We also provide a list of 43 species of amphibians and terrestrial reptiles recorded from Con Dao Islands. PMID:27470803

  4. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E.; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  5. UniCon3D: de novo protein structure prediction using united-residue conformational search via stepwise, probabilistic sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Recent experimental studies have suggested that proteins fold via stepwise assembly of structural units named ‘foldons’ through the process of sequential stabilization. Alongside, latest developments on computational side based on probabilistic modeling have shown promising direction to perform de novo protein conformational sampling from continuous space. However, existing computational approaches for de novo protein structure prediction often randomly sample protein conformational space as opposed to experimentally suggested stepwise sampling. Results: Here, we develop a novel generative, probabilistic model that simultaneously captures local structural preferences of backbone and side chain conformational space of polypeptide chains in a united-residue representation and performs experimentally motivated conditional conformational sampling via stepwise synthesis and assembly of foldon units that minimizes a composite physics and knowledge-based energy function for de novo protein structure prediction. The proposed method, UniCon3D, has been found to (i) sample lower energy conformations with higher accuracy than traditional random sampling in a small benchmark of 6 proteins; (ii) perform comparably with the top five automated methods on 30 difficult target domains from the 11th Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment and on 15 difficult target domains from the 10th CASP experiment; and (iii) outperform two state-of-the-art approaches and a baseline counterpart of UniCon3D that performs traditional random sampling for protein modeling aided by predicted residue-residue contacts on 45 targets from the 10th edition of CASP. Availability and Implementation: Source code, executable versions, manuals and example data of UniCon3D for Linux and OSX are freely available to non-commercial users at http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/UniCon3D/. Contact: chengji@missouri.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are

  6. Violación del Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Sisterna, P. D.; Vucetich, H.

    Se estudian las violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas. En estos modelos, algunas de las constantes fundamentales dependen del espacio y del tiempo. Se muestra que los experimentos de caída libre no tienen aún precisión como para poner límites a los parámetros de la teoría.

  7. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  8. CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

  9. [Food Addiction: definizione, misurazione e prevalenza in soggetti sani e in pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare].

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Vumbaca, Viviana; Innamorati, Marco; Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Il costrutto della "Food Addiction" (FA) è stato introdotto negli ultimi anni per meglio comprendere i pattern alimentari disfunzionali osservati nei pazienti obesi e in sovrappeso e nei pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare (DCA). Nonostante i numerosi parallelismi tra la dipendenza da sostanze e la FA, non c'è ancora accordo nel considerare la FA come un indipendente DCA né un concetto utile. L'obiettivo della presente rassegna è stato quello di riassumere i dati disponibili al fine di aumentare le conoscenze su: 1) definizione, misurazione e caratteristiche generali della FA; 2) prevalenza della FA in campioni clinici e non clinici. I dati disponibili suggeriscono che la FA sia un costrutto transnosografico presente in tutti i DCA, con una prevalenza più elevata nella bulimia nervosa. Nonostante il dibattito sull'autonomia della FA come DCA rimanga aperto, gli studi riportati suggeriscono che la comorbilità tra FA e DCA sia associata con peggiori outcome clinici, giustificando di conseguenza l'assessment e il trattamento della FA. PMID:27183510

  10. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons): Undergraduate Education Through Interdisciplinary, Team-Based, Real-World Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuominen, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Attitude, Skills, Knowledge (ASK) - In this order, these are fundamental characteristics of scientific innovators. Through first-hand practice in using science to unpack and solve complex real-world problems, students can become self-motivated scientific leaders. This presentation describes the pedagogy of a recently developed interdisciplinary undergraduate science education program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst focused on addressing global challenges with scientific solutions. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons) is an overarching concentration program that supplements the curricula provided within each student's chosen major. iCons is a platform for students to perform student-led research in interdisciplinary collaborative teams. With a schedule of one course per year over four years, the cohort of students move through case studies, analysis of real-world problems, development of potential solutions, integrative communication, laboratory practice, and capstone research projects. In this presentation, a track emphasizing renewable energy science is used to illustrate the iCons pedagogical methods. This includes discussion of a third-year laboratory course in renewable energy that is educationally scaffolded: beginning with a boot camp in laboratory techniques and culminating with student-designed research projects. Among other objectives, this course emphasizes the practice of using reflection and redesign, as a means of generating better solutions and embedding learning for the long term. This work is supported in part by NSF grant DUE-1140805.

  11. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, Stefan H; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J J; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389

  12. A novel biclustering algorithm of binary microarray data: BiBinCons and BiBinAlter.

    PubMed

    Saber, Haifa Ben; Elloumi, Mourad

    2015-01-01

    The biclustering of microarray data has been the subject of a large research. No one of the existing biclustering algorithms is perfect. The construction of biologically significant groups of biclusters for large microarray data is still a problem that requires a continuous work. Biological validation of biclusters of microarray data is one of the most important open issues. So far, there are no general guidelines in the literature on how to validate biologically extracted biclusters. In this paper, we develop two biclustering algorithms of binary microarray data, adopting the Iterative Row and Column Clustering Combination (IRCCC) approach, called BiBinCons and BiBinAlter. However, the BiBinAlter algorithm is an improvement of BiBinCons. On the other hand, BiBinAlter differs from BiBinCons by the use of the EvalStab and IndHomog evaluation functions in addition to the CroBin one (Bioinformatics 20:1993-2003, 2004). BiBinAlter can extracts biclusters of good quality with better p-values. PMID:26628919

  13. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J.J.; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J.; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389

  14. Water as an economic good and water tariff design. Comparison between IBT-con and IRT-cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junguo; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Xu, Jianxin

    Although the proclamation of “water as an economic good” has been generally accepted among water resources managers, there are still some debates on the explanation of this topic. In this paper it is argued that different water forms or uses have different kinds of economic value. Even for the same form or use, water economic value can be transferred from one kind to another by interventions. If water is an economic good, water pricing should be recognized as one of the important incentive measures for water demand management. Although the increased block tariffs (IBTs) have become the tariff structure of choice in many developing countries, it still deserves more careful examination. The traditional IBT-con cannot achieve the initial objectives of IBTs for its incorrect designed structure. This paper is intent to critically examine the use of IBT-con and to strongly promote a new tariff structure, IRT-cap. The case study of Weinan City shows that IRT-cap is an effective tariff to achieve the objectives of equity, simplicity, transparency and implement as well. Also IRT-cap seems easier to achieve cost recovery than the traditional IBT-con taking the ability to pay of water consumers into account. Pilot projects are necessary to be formulated for verification of this new tariff.

  15. Dependence of the seal property of ConFlat-type flanges on the fine dimensions of the knife edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokouchi, Satoshi; Shinoda, Satsuo; Morita, Shinsaku

    2003-03-01

    The shape of the sealing face on ConFlat-type flanges has not been addressed at all in the International Standards Organization standards, yet it is the distinct shape of the sealing face on the flange, generally referred to as the "knife edge" that primarily distinguishes the ConFlat sealing system. Results of profiling on the sealing face of 70 mm diameter ConFlat-type flanges, provided by ten individual manufacturers, reveal that while all the sealing faces share a common 20deg angle on the taper face, there are variations in the tip radius of the knife edge, and in the angle of the counterslope against the 20deg taper face. In flange tightening tests using the ConFlat flanges, the tip radius was observed to influence flange penetration into the gasket. It was also determined that the knife edges of all the test flanges were plastically deformed to some extent in the process of tightening twice at a torque of 120 kgf cm. The knife-edge shape was neither found to be dependent on the magnitude of deformation, nor did the deformation have an observable influence on the seal property. In order to closely investigate the dependence of the ConFlat-type flange seal property on the fine shape of its sealing face, four types of 152 mm diameter flanges, each with a different knife-edge shape, were subjected to flange tightening tests. The results indicated that flanges with a small tip radius and a small counterslope angle maintained a satisfactory seal ability, even when applied tightening torque was lower, but had difficulty retaining sealing stability under an elevated temperature. On the other hand, flanges with a large tip radius or large counterslope angle on the knife edge had an advantage in terms of seal stability in baking conditions, but required relatively higher tightening torque to attain secure sealing. To evaluate the tip radius and the counterslope angle at which the flange seal capability and the sealing stability at an elevated temperature are in goo

  16. Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchán Bonete, M.

    Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de carácter experimental y de naturaleza teórica se irá difuminando progresivamente y la problemática a resolver quedará en escena como el único actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperación teórico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodología químico-cuántica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de carácter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodología químico-cuántica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos años, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la última década, dentro del campo de la Espectroscopía Teórica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tamaño como en complejidad, abordando problemáticas espectroscópicas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribución científica más relevante reside en el carácter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectroscópicas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los años noventa los resultados ab initio solían presentar para las energías de excitación de sistemas de tamaño molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de más de 1 eV. En comparación con el éxito relativo de los métodos semiempíricos, la frustración de la metodología ab initio quedaba todavía más patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensión profunda de los espectros electrónicos en sistemas orgánicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectroscópicas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del método CASPT2 junto al diseño de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el carácter cuantitativo con el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran clásicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el

  17. Antidepressant-like effect of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) lectin in mice: evidence for the involvement of the glutamatergic system.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Débora K; Costa, Ana Paula; Budni, Josiane; Moretti, Morgana; Barbosa, Sabrina Giovana Rocha; Nascimento, Kyria S; Teixeira, Edson H; Cavada, Benildo S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Leal, Rodrigo B

    2014-07-01

    Lectins recognize and reversibly bind to carbohydrates attached to proteins and lipids modulating a variety of signaling pathways. We previously showed that ConBr, a lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds, produced an antidepressant-like effect in mice by modulating the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Moreover, ConBr blocked hippocampal neurotoxicity induced by quinolinic acid in vivo and by glutamate in vitro, suggesting a neuroprotective activity of ConBr via glutamatergic system modulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the antidepressant-like action displayed by ConBr in the forced swimming test (FST). With the aim of verifying the involvement of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr (10 μg/site, i.c.v.), an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pretreatment with either NMDA (0.1 pmol/site) or D-serine (30 μg/site) was carried out. The results show that both treatments blocked the effect of ConBr. Furthermore, the coadministration of subeffective doses of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.001 mg/kg, i.p.) or ketamine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.; NMDA receptor antagonist) and ConBr (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) caused a synergistic reduction in immobility time. In order to verify the dependence of the L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway, on the effect of ConBr in the FST, a pretreatment with the NO precursor, L-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p.), or the PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil (5 mg/kg, i.p.), was performed. Both drugs abolished the antidepressant-like action of ConBr. Finally, the administration of subeffective doses of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 30 pmol/site, i.c.v.) and ConBr (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST. Taken together, the results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr in the FST involves NMDA

  18. Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de las advertencias sanitarias (AS) con pictogramas en las cajetillas de tabaco en adultos fumadores. Material y métodos Cohorte de fumadores con representatividad poblacional de siete ciudades mexi canas, antes (2010) y después (2011) de la implementación de AS con pictogramas (ASP). Para determinar el cambio en las variables sobre el impacto cognitivo y conductual de las advertencias, se estimaron modelos bivariados y ajustados de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada. En el Segundo levantamiento (2011), se estimaron modelos para determiner los factores que se asocian con el reporte de recordar cada advertencia que había entrado al mercado, además de los factores asociados con el autorreporte del impacto de cada advertencia vigente. Resultados Se observaron incrementos importantes de 2010 a 2011 en los conocimientos sobre los riesgos de fumar, los componentes tóxicos del tabaco y el número telefónico para recibir consejos sobre dejar de fumar. La recordación e impacto de las primeras advertencias con pictogramas parecen ser amplios y equitativos a través de la población fumadora. En comparación con 2010, un mayor nivel de ex fumadores entrevistados en 2011 reportaron que las advertencias habían influido mucho en dejar de fumar (RM=2.44, 95% IC 1.27–4.72). Conclusiones Las AS con pictogramas han logrado un impacto importante en el conocimiento y conducta, información relevante para la población y en tomadores de decisiones. PMID:22689162

  19. A signal-on electrochemiluminescence biosensor for detecting Con A using phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride as signal probe.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xin; Tan, Xingrong; Liu, Xiaofang; Lu, Qiyi; Chen, Shihong; Wei, Shaping

    2015-08-15

    A novel signal-on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for detecting concanavalin A (Con A) was fabricated with phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride (DexP-g-C3N4) as signal probe. In this construction strategy, the nanocomposites of three-dimensional graphene and gold nanoparticles (3D-GR-AuNPs) were used as matrix for high loading of glucose oxidase (GOx), which served as recognition element for bounding Con A. Con A further interacted with DexP-g-C3N4 through a specific carbohydrate-Con A interaction to achieve a sandwiched scheme. With the increase of Con A incubated onto the electrode, the ECL signal resulted from DexP-g-C3N4 would enhance, thus achieving a signal-on ECL biosensor for Con A detection. Due to the integration of the virtues of 3D-GR-AuNPs and the excellent ECL performance of DexP-g-C3N4, the prepared biosensor exhibits a wide linear response range from 0.05 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 17 pg/mL (S/N=3). PMID:25796041

  20. No adverse effects of simultaneous vaccination with the immunocontraceptive GonaCon and a commercial rabies vaccine on rabies virus neutralizing antibody production in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bender, Scott C; Bergman, David L; Wenning, Krista M; Miller, Lowell A; Slate, Dennis; Jackson, Felix R; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2009-11-27

    Parenteral vaccination campaigns are integral to the elimination of canine rabies. To maximize herd immunity in dogs, immunocontraception provided at the time of rabies vaccination should reduce fecundity and dog abundance. GonaCon has been used successfully as an immunocontraceptive in a variety of mammals, and by inference, the dog would be an ideal candidate for testing. As an initial step in evaluating a combination-vaccination program, we assessed the effects of GonaCon on rabies virus neutralizing antibody production in dogs after administration of a veterinary rabies vaccine. Eighteen feral/free ranging dogs were included in this initial study: six were given GonaCon only, six were given rabies vaccination only, and six received GonaCon and rabies vaccination. Antibody levels were evaluated over 82 days. The use of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon did not affect the ability of dogs to seroconvert in response to the rabies vaccine. Thus, GonaCon provides a potential immunocontraceptive for use in combination with rabies vaccine to increase herd immunity and address dog population over abundance to better manage rabies. PMID:19925955

  1. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  2. Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrabal Capilla, Maria

    Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la

  3. Influence of parameter values and variances and algorithm architecture in ConsExpo model on modeled exposures.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of parameter values and variances and model architecture on modeled exposures, and identified important data gaps that influence lack-of-knowledge-related uncertainty, using Consexpo 4.1 as an illustrative case study. Understanding the influential determinants in exposure estimates enables more informed and appropriate use of this model and the resulting exposure estimates. In exploring the influence of parameter placement in an algorithm and of the values and variances chosen to characterize the parameters within ConsExpo, "sensitive" and "important" parameters were identified: product amount, weight fraction, exposure duration, exposure time, and ventilation rate were deemed "important," or "always sensitive." With this awareness, exposure assessors can strategically focus on acquiring the most robust estimates for these parameters. ConsExpo relies predominantly on three algorithms to assess the default scenarios: inhalation vapors evaporation equation using the Langmuir mass transfer, the dermal instant application with diffusion through the skin, and the oral ingestion by direct uptake algorithm. These algorithms, which do not necessarily render health conservative estimates, account for 87, 89 and 59% of the inhalation, dermal and oral default scenario assessments,respectively, according them greater influence relative to the less frequently used algorithms. Default data provided in ConsExpo may be useful to initiate assessments, but are insufficient for determining exposure acceptability or setting policy, as parameters defined by highly uncertain values produce biased estimates that may not be health conservative. Furthermore, this lack-of-knowledge uncertainty makes the magnitude of this bias uncertain. Significant data gaps persist for product amount, exposure time, and exposure duration. These "important" parameters exert influence in requiring broad values and variances to account for their uncertainty. Prioritizing

  4. Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

  5. Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina con metodologías activas

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña con una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242

  6. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  7. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  8. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments

    PubMed Central

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people’s attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments’ polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture. PMID:26840219

  9. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people's attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments' polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture. PMID:26840219

  10. Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on ConA-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using ConA (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before ConA injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053

  11. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  12. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  13. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  14. Probabilidad de colisión de cometas periódicos con partículas interplanetarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil Hutton, R.

    Se presentan resultados sobre la probabilidad de colisión de cometas de corto período con la población de partículas interplanetarias presentes en la región del cinturón de asteroides. Se encuentra que este proceso colisional afecta la evolución física de los cometas de manera no despreciable y puede ser el responsable de variaciones de brillo de tipo ``outburst". Se presentan resultados para algunos cometas en particular y se obtiene un límite inferior para el tamaño de los núcleos en función de la distribución de radios del cinturón de asteroides.

  15. Neuropeptide S reduces fear and avoidance of con-specifics induced by social fear conditioning and social defeat, respectively.

    PubMed

    Zoicas, Iulia; Menon, Rohit; Neumann, Inga D

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) has anxiolytic effects and facilitates extinction of cued fear in rodents. Here, we investigated whether NPS reverses social fear and social avoidance induced by social fear conditioning (SFC) and acute social defeat (SD), respectively, in male CD1 mice. Our results revealed that intracerebroventricular NPS (icv; 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) reversed fear of unknown con-specifics induced by SFC and dose-dependently reduced avoidance of known aggressive con-specifics induced by SD. While 50 nmol of NPS completely reversed social avoidance and reinstated social preference, 10 nmol of NPS reduced social avoidance, but did not completely reinstate social preference in socially-defeated mice. Further, a lower dose (1 nmol/2 μl) of NPS facilitated the within-session extinction of cued fear, while a higher dose (10 nmol/2 μl) reduced the expression of cued fear. We could also confirm the anxiolytic effects of NPS (1, 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) on the elevated plus-maze (EPM), which were not accompanied by alterations in locomotor activity either on the EPM or in the home cage. Finally, we could show that icv infusion of the NPS receptor 1 antagonist D-Cys((t)Bu)(5)-NPS (10 nmol/2 μl) did not alter SFC-induced social fear, general anxiety and locomotor activity. Taken together, our study extends the potent anxiolytic profile of NPS to a social context by demonstrating the reduction of social fear and social avoidance, thus providing the framework for studies investigating the involvement of the NPS system in the regulation of different types of social behaviour. PMID:27044664

  16. Effect of the carboxylate salt on the C--ON bond homolysis of SG1-based alkoxyamines.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Marque, Sylvain R A; Siri, Didier; Tordo, Paul; Trappo, Gregory

    2008-02-01

    Alkoxyamines and persistent nitroxides are important regulators of the nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (NMP). Since the polymerization time decreases with increasing values of the homolysis rate constant (kd) for the C--ON bond between the polymer chain and the nitroxide moiety, the factors influencing kd are of considerable interest. Environmentally friendly polymerization methods, such as NMP in emulsion medium, have now been developed. The success of the polymerization depends not only on the strength of the C--ON bond but also on the solubility of the initiator/controller alkoxyamines, which control the nucleation. Various salts of SG1-based alkoxyamines (S+-OOCCMeH-SG1) labelled 1 a-f, where S+=Li+ (a), Na+ (b), K+ (c), nBu3HN+ (d), NH4+ (e), and nBu4N+ (f) are prepared, all of which are soluble in most organic solvents (e.g. pentane, dichlomethane, benzene, ethanol, etc.) as well as in water. Their kd values, which are measured in tert-butylbenzene, reveal unexpected behaviors depending on the diastereoisomers. For the RR/SS diatereoisomers (i.e. slowly homolyzing isomers), kd was not found to be sensitive to any of the salts, whereas for the RS/SR diastereoisomers (i.e. quickly homolyzing isomers), kd is observed to decrease to a greater or lesser extent depending on the type of salt. The conformations of the diastereoisomers of several salts are determined by means of DFT calculations, and the orbital interactions are studied by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. PMID:18200479

  17. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  18. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): A potential NLO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinakaran, Paul M.; Kalainathan, S.

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6 × 2 × 3 mm3) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  19. Aumento de la supervivencia en hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico que reciben quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Los hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico sensible a las hormonas que recibieron el fármaco quimioterapéutico docetaxel al inicio de la terapia hormonal convencional vivieron más tiempo que los pacientes que recibieron solo terapia hormonal, de acuer

  20. Media-Based Interactive Visual Image-Controlled (Vis-I-Con) Instruction Delivery System for Instruction of Deaf and Hearing-Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Raymond

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a programmable media-based microprocessor-controlled interactive instruction delivery system using super 8 film and addressable audiotape messages, the Vis-I-Con system. (Author/PHR)

  1. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package

    PubMed Central

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Plumley, Joshua A.; Martin, Roger I.; Merz, Kenneth M.; Westerhoff, Lance M.

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein–ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography. PMID:24816093

  2. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  3. [Evaluation of estimated blood concentration of propofol on wake-up using "ConGrase", a software to control the syringe pump for propofol infusion].

    PubMed

    Nagata, O; Sawada, K; Sato, M; Sekiyama, H; Yajima, C; Hanaoka, K

    1998-10-01

    We developed a software to control a Graseby 3500 syringe pump for propofol infusion through the serial port of Apple Macintosh/Power-Macintosh computer. This software, "ConGrase", was developed with Metrowerks CodeWarrior Professional (CWP 1) and PowerPlant framework using C++. ConGrase communicates with the syringe pump at least every three seconds, and calculates the estimated blood concentration (EBC) of propofol based on the amount of propofol actually infused by applying either the Euler or Runge-Kutta method using the three-compartment pharmacokinetic model. The parameter sets reported by Gepts et al. are used. ConGrase was released at the 44 th Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Anesthesiology, and is distributed freely. The mean and S.D. of the emergence EBC calculated by ConGrase were 1.22 micrograms.ml-1 and 0.16 microgram.ml-1, respectively. These values are almost the same as values already reported outside Japan. The necessary wake-up time can be calculated with this estimated concentration. With this system, anesthetists can control the EBC at the required level and avoid long delays before the patients wake up after anesthesia. PMID:9834602

  4. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y los síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y el tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  5. Synthesis of water-soluble Ag₂Se QDs as a novel resonance Rayleigh scattering sensor for highly sensitive and selective ConA detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuguang; Zhang, Lichun; Tang, Yurong; Lv, Yi

    2014-09-01

    Ag2Se quantum dots (QDs) have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential applications in biosensing and bioimaging. A strategy is presented that involves coupling of selenium powder reduction with the binding of silver ions, and thioglycollic acid (TGA) and glycine as stabilizers to obtain ultrasmall Ag2Se QDs at 85 °C in aqueous solution. This strategy avoids high temperatures, high pressures and organic solvents so that water-soluble 3 nm Ag2Se QDs can be directly obtained. The conjugation of ConA to TGA stabilized Ag2Se QDs by hydrogen bonds leads to the adsorption of ConA to Ag2Se QDs and forms the aggregation and leads to the generation of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) as a readout signal for the sensing events. The reaction mechanism of Ag2Se QD RRS enhancement is studied in this work. The resulting RRS sensor enables the detection of ConA with limit of detection reaching 0.08 μg mL(-1) concentration in a wide linear range from 0.27 μg mL(-1) to 35 μg mL(-1). The recovery of spiked ConA in human serum samples ranges from 94% to 106%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for eleven replicate detections is 3.6%. Our results correlate many important experimental observations and will fuel the further growth of this field. PMID:24957549

  6. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  7. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  8. hI-con1, a factor VII-IgGFc chimeric protein targeting tissue factor for immunotherapy of uterine serous papillary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cocco, E; Hu, Z; Richter, C E; Bellone, S; Casagrande, F; Bellone, M; Todeschini, P; Krikun, G; Silasi, D-A; Azodi, M; Schwartz, P E; Rutherford, T J; Buza, N; Pecorelli, S; Lockwood, C J; Santin, A D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Uterine serous papillary adenocarcinoma (USPC) is a highly aggressive variant of endometrial cancer. Human immuno-conjugate molecule (hI-con1) is an antibody-like molecule targeted against tissue factor (TF), composed of two human Factor VII (fVII) as the targeting domain, fused to human immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 Fc as an effector domain. We evaluated hI-con1 potential activity against primary chemotherapy-resistant USPC cell lines expressing different levels of TF. Methods: A total of 16 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded USPC samples were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for TF expression. Six primary USPC cell lines, half of which overexpress the epidermal growth factor type II (HER2/neu) receptor at 3+ levels, were assessed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR for TF expression. Sensitivity to hI-con1-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (IDCC) was evaluated in 5-hour-chromium release assays. Finally, to investigate the effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on IDCC, 5-h 51Cr assays were also conducted in the presence of low doses of IL-2 (i.e., 50–100 IU ml−1). Results: Cytoplasmic and/or membrane TF expression was observed in all 16 (100%) USPC samples tested by IHC, but not in normal endometrium. High expression of TF was found in 50% (three out of six) of the USPC cell lines tested by real-time PCR and flow cytometry when compared with normal endometrial cells (NECs; P<0.001). Uterine serous papillary adenocarcinoma cell lines overexpressing TF, regardless of their high or low HER2/neu expression, were highly sensitive to IDCC (mean killing±s.d., 65.6±3.7%, range 57.5–77.0%, P<0.001), although negligible cytotoxicity against USPC was seen in the absence of hI-con1 or in the presence of Rituximab control antibody. The addition of low doses of IL-2 further increased the cytotoxic effect induced by hI-con1 against chemotherapy-resistant USPC. Conclusion: hI-con1 induces strong cytotoxicity against primary chemotherapy-resistant USPC cell

  9. Analysis of cancer risk and BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence in the kConFab familial breast cancer resource

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Graham J; Thorne, Heather; Balleine, Rosemary L; Butow, Phyllis N; Clarke, Christine L; Edkins, Edward; Evans, Gerda M; Fereday, Sián; Haan, Eric; Gattas, Michael; Giles, Graham G; Goldblatt, Jack; Hopper, John L; Kirk, Judy; Leary, Jennifer A; Lindeman, Geoffrey; Niedermayr, Eveline; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Picken, Sandra; Pupo, Gulietta M; Saunders, Christobel; Scott, Clare L; Spurdle, Amanda B; Suthers, Graeme; Tucker, Kathy; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab) is a multidisciplinary, collaborative framework for the investigation of familial breast cancer. Based in Australia, the primary aim of kConFab is to facilitate high-quality research by amassing a large and comprehensive resource of epidemiological and clinical data with biospecimens from individuals at high risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer, and from their close relatives. Methods Epidemiological, family history and lifestyle data, as well as biospecimens, are collected from multiple-case breast cancer families ascertained through family cancer clinics in Australia and New Zealand. We used the Tyrer-Cuzick algorithms to assess the prospective risk of breast cancer in women in the kConFab cohort who were unaffected with breast cancer at the time of enrolment in the study. Results Of kConFab's first 822 families, 518 families had multiple cases of female breast cancer alone, 239 had cases of female breast and ovarian cancer, 37 had cases of female and male breast cancer, and 14 had both ovarian cancer as well as male and female breast cancer. Data are currently held for 11,422 people and germline DNAs for 7,389. Among the 812 families with at least one germline sample collected, the mean number of germline DNA samples collected per family is nine. Of the 747 families that have undergone some form of mutation screening, 229 (31%) carry a pathogenic or splice-site mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Germline DNAs and data are stored from 773 proven carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA1 mutations. kConFab's fresh tissue bank includes 253 specimens of breast or ovarian tissue – both normal and malignant – including 126 from carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Conclusion These kConFab resources are available to researchers anywhere in the world, who may apply to kConFab for biospecimens and data for use in ethically approved, peer-reviewed projects. A high calculated risk

  10. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  11. Tissue factor expression in ovarian cancer: implications for immunotherapy with hI-con1, a factor VII-IgGF(c) chimeric protein targeting tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Emiliano; Varughese, Joyce; Buza, Natalia; Bellone, Stefania; Lin, Ken-Yu; Bellone, Marta; Todeschini, Paola; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E; Rutherford, Thomas J; Carrara, Luisa; Tassi, Renata; Pecorelli, Sergio; Lockwood, Charles J; Santin, Alessandro D

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated the expression of tissue factor (TF) in ovarian cancer (EOC) and the potential of hI-con1, an antibody-like molecule targeting TF, as a novel form of therapy against chemotherapy-resistant ovarian disease. We studied the expression of TF in 88 EOC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the levels of membrane-bound-complement-regulatory-proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 in primary EOC cell lines by flow-cytometry. Sensitivity to hI-con1-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity (IDCC), complement-dependent-cell-cytotoxicity and inhibition of IDCC by γ-immunoglobulin were evaluated in 5-h (51)chromium-release-assays. Cytoplasmic and/or membrane TF expression was observed in 24 out of 25 (96%) of the EOC samples tested by IHC, but not in normal ovarian-tissue. EOC with clear cell histology significantly overexpress TF when compared to serous, endometrioid, or undifferentiated tumors by qRT-PCR. With a single exception, all primary EOC that overexpressed TF demonstrated high levels of CD46, CD55 and CD59 and regardless of their histology or resistance to chemotherapy, were highly sensitive to IDCC. The effect of complement and physiologic doses of γ-immunoglobulin on IDCC in ovarian cancer cell lines overexpressing TF was tumor specific and related to the overexpression of CD59 on tumor cells. Small-interfering-RNA-mediated knockdown of CD59 expression in ovarian tumors significantly increased hI-con1-mediated cytotoxic activity in vitro. Finally, low doses of interleukin-2 further increased the cytotoxic effect induced by hI-con1 (P < 0.01). hI-con1 molecule induces strong cytotoxicity against primary chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines overexpressing TF and may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of ovarian tumors refractory to standard treatment modalities. PMID:21725665

  12. Tissue factor expression in ovarian cancer: implications for immunotherapy with hI-con1, a factor VII-IgGFc chimeric protein targeting tissue factor

    PubMed Central

    Cocco, Emiliano; Varughese, Joyce; Buza, Natalia; Bellone, Stefania; Lin, Ken-Yu; Bellone, Marta; Todeschini, Paola; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E.; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Carrara, Luisa; Tassi, Renata; Pecorelli, Sergio; Lockwood, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the expression of tissue factor (TF) in ovarian cancer (EOC) and the potential of hI-con1, an antibody-like molecule targeting TF, as a novel form of therapy against chemotherapy-resistant ovarian disease. We studied the expression of TF in 88 EOC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the levels of membrane-bound-complement-regulatory-proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 in primary EOC cell lines by flow-cytometry. Sensitivity to hI-con1-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity (IDCC), complement-dependent-cell-cytotoxicity and inhibition of IDCC by γ-immunoglobulin were evaluated in 5-h 51chromium-release-assays. Cytoplasmic and/or membrane TF expression was observed in 24 out of 25 (96%) of the EOC samples tested by IHC, but not in normal ovarian-tissue. EOC with clear cell histology significantly overexpress TF when compared to serous, endometrioid, or undifferentiated tumors by qRT-PCR. With a single exception, all primary EOC that overexpressed TF demonstrated high levels of CD46, CD55 and CD59 and regardless of their histology or resistance to chemotherapy, were highly sensitive to IDCC. The effect of complement and physiologic doses of γ-immunoglobulin on IDCC in ovarian cancer cell lines overexpressing TF was tumor specific and related to the overexpression of CD59 on tumor cells. Small-interfering-RNA-mediated knockdown of CD59 expression in ovarian tumors significantly increased hI-con1-mediated cytotoxic activity in vitro. Finally, low doses of interleukin-2 further increased the cytotoxic effect induced by hI-con1 (P < 0.01). hI-con1 molecule induces strong cytotoxicity against primary chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines overexpressing TF and may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of ovarian tumors refractory to standard treatment modalities. PMID:21725665

  13. Monitoring chemical reactions by low-field benchtop NMR at 45 MHz: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Milburn, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring chemical reactions is the key to controlling chemical processes where NMR can provide support. High-field NMR gives detailed structural information on chemical compounds and reactions; however, it is expensive and complex to operate. Conversely, low-field NMR instruments are simple and relatively inexpensive alternatives. While low-field NMR does not provide the detailed information as the high-field instruments as a result of their smaller chemical shift dispersion and the complex secondary coupling, it remains of practical value as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and is complimentary to other established methods, such as ReactIR and Raman spectroscopy. We have tested a picoSpin-45 (currently under ThermoFisher Scientific) benchtop NMR instrument to monitor three types of reactions by 1D (1) H NMR: a Fischer esterification, a Suzuki cross-coupling, and the formation of an oxime. The Fischer esterification is a relatively simple reaction run at high concentration and served as proof of concept. The Suzuki coupling is an example of a more complex, commonly used reaction involving overlapping signals. Finally, the oxime formation involved a reaction in two phases that cannot be monitored by other PAT tools. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of monitoring these reactions at a low-field of 45 MHz by 1D (1) H NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25616193

  14. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  15. Expected and Unexpected Consequences of the Affordable Care Act: The Impact on Patients and Surgeons-Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Marek; Armstrong, John H; Clark, Clancy; Marcus, Stuart G; Sacks, Lee; Moser, A James; Reid-Lombardo, K Marie

    2016-02-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), called the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or "ObamaCare" for short, was enacted in 2010. The Public Policy and Advocacy Committee of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract (SSAT) hosted a debate with an expert panel to discuss the ACA and its impact on surgical care after the first year of patient enrollment. The purpose of this debate was to focus on the impact of ACA on the public and surgeons. At the core of the ACA are insurance industry reforms and expanded coverage, with a goal of improved clinical outcomes and reduced costs of care. We have observed supportive and opposing views on ACA. Nonetheless, we will witness major shifts in health care delivery as well as restructuring of our relationship with payers, institutions, and patients. With the rapidly changing health care landscape, surgeons will become key members of health systems and will likely need to lead transition from solo-practice to integrated care systems. The full effects of the ACA remain unrealized, but its implementation has begun to change the map of the American health care system and will surely impact the practice of surgery. Herein, we provide a synopsis of the "pro" and "con" arguments for the expected and unexpected consequences of the ACA on society and surgeons. PMID:26589524

  16. Circulating microRNA Biomarkers as Liquid Biopsy for Cancer Patients: Pros and Cons of Current Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Shigeshi; Lam, Stella; Nagahara, Makoto; Hoon, Dave S. B.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have focused on circulating microRNAs (cmiRNA) in cancer patients’ blood for their potential as minimally-invasive biomarkers. Studies have reported the utility of assessing specific miRNAs in blood as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; however, the methodologies are not validated or standardized across laboratories. Unfortunately, there is often minimum limited overlap in techniques between results reported even in similar type studies on the same cancer. This hampers interpretation and reliability of cmiRNA as potential cancer biomarkers. Blood collection and processing, cmiRNA extractions, quality and quantity control of assays, defined patient population assessment, reproducibility, and reference standards all affect the cmiRNA assay results. To date, there is no reported definitive method to assess cmiRNAs. Therefore, appropriate and reliable methodologies are highly necessary in order for cmiRNAs to be used in regulated clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize the developments made over the past decade towards cmiRNA detection and discuss the pros and cons of the assays. PMID:26512704

  17. Evaluation of GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM and GOCO01S Geopotential Models in Venezuela and Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orihuela, N. D.; Garcia, A. D.; Tabare, T.; Scientific Team Of Venezuelan; Caribbean Crustal Study From Satellital Data

    2010-12-01

    This paper shows two maps of the magnitude of the surface gravity vector (MSGV) of Venezuela and Caribbean region at 1:500.000 scale in the geographic window between the 0-20 north latitude and 74-58 western longitude (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2), that were generated from GOCE gravity gradients data provided by the European Space Agency (ESA). The maps that are showed come from the combined global gravity field model GOCO01s [GOCO Consortium., 2010] and from the satellite-only global gravity field model GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM [Pail et al., 2010], both of 224 degree. The DEMs used for the evaluation of the MSGV are: Etopo2v2 [NGDC., 2006] and Etopo1 [Amante and Eakins, 2009] respectively. The data processing was done using: Shm2func [ICGEM., 2007]; Goce User Toolbox [ESA., 2009]; Gravsoft package [Tscherning et al., 1992] and Oasis Montaj (Geosoft). This research shows a review of observed gravity in the main geological provinces of the Venezuela and Caribbean region geography, revealing gravitational features important of the geological structures that are in Venezuelan and Caribbean subsurface.

  18. Document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports based on an extension of the ConText algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Brian E; Lee, Sean; Kang, Hyunseok Peter; Chapman, Wendy W

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we describe an application called peFinder for document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports. peFinder is based on a generalized version of the ConText algorithm, a simple text processing algorithm for identifying features in clinical report documents. peFinder was used to answer questions about the disease state (pulmonary emboli present or absent), the certainty state of the diagnosis (uncertainty present or absent), the temporal state of an identified pulmonary embolus (acute or chronic), and the technical quality state of the exam (diagnostic or not diagnostic). Gold standard answers for each question were determined from the consensus classifications of three human annotators. peFinder results were compared to naive Bayes' classifiers using unigrams and bigrams. The sensitivities (and positive predictive values) for peFinder were 0.98(0.83), 0.86(0.96), 0.94(0.93), and 0.60(0.90) for disease state, quality state, certainty state, and temporal state respectively, compared to 0.68(0.77), 0.67(0.87), 0.62(0.82), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using unigrams, and 0.75(0.79), 0.52(0.69), 0.59(0.84), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using bigrams. PMID:21459155

  19. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  20. Virgin Caenorhabditis remanei females are attracted to a coital pheromone released by con-specific copulating males

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Mathew; García, Luis René

    2013-01-01

    The gonochoristic soil nematode Caenorhabditis remanei strictly requires copulation for species propagation. Males of this species are sexually promiscuous with females of other species; therefore, we asked in this study whether virgin C. remanei females display evidence of mate choice. We digitally recorded and measured the locomotor behaviors of one or more virgin females in the presence of a single male on a 5 mm diameter mating lawn. We observed that initially only the male modifies his locomotor trajectory to another animal on the mating lawn; the virgin females showed no locomotor bias toward the mate-searching male. However, once a male started to copulate, females in the vicinity altered their movement trajectories toward the copulating couple. Newly inseminated females are refractive to the coital signal, but partially regain their attraction to copulating males after 24 h. We found only copulating males with an intact gonad can attract females, and that the coital signal can be broadcasted at least 1.5 mm through the air. Unlike males, which are also attracted to hetero-specific females, virgin C. remanei females will only crawl toward a copulating con-specific male. We suggest that Caenorhabditis females use the coital signal as a pheromone to identify a vigorous male of their own species. PMID:24058874

  1. Laboratory simulation of Kuiper belt object volatile ices under ionizing radiation: CO-N2 ices as a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Zhang, F; Kaiser, R I

    2011-09-21

    The exposure of icy Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) by ionizing radiation was simulated in this case of exposing carbon monoxide-nitrogen (CO-N(2)) ices by energetic electrons. The radiation-induced chemical processing was monitored on-line and in situ via FTIR spectroscopy and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Besides the array of carbon oxides being reproduced as in neat irradiated carbon monoxide (CO) ices studied previously, the radiation exposure at 10 K resulted in the formation of nitrogen-bearing species of isocyanato radical (OCN), linear (l-NCN), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), plus diazirinone (N(2)CO). The infrared assignments of these species were further confirmed by isotopic shifts. The temporal evolution of individual species was found to fit in first-order reaction schemes, prepping up the underlying non-equilibrium chemistry on the formation of OCN, l-NCN, and NO radicals in particular. Also unique to the binary KBO model ices and viable for the future remote detection is diazirinone (N(2)CO) at 1860 cm(-1) (2ν(5)) formed at lower radiation exposure. PMID:21687881

  2. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P < 0.05) between FSF and daily milk yield; pregnancy rates were 42.20% and 41.67% for the SC-FTAI and NSE-IA groups, respectively (P > 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  3. Bos indicus-cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters.

    PubMed

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Deesing, M J

    1997-08-01

    Temperament ratings based on a numerical scale (chute score) were assessed during weighing and handling of cattle at a feedlot. Breeds studied included Braford, Red Brangus and Simbrah. Cattle were fed to a constant fat thickness of 9 to 13 mm (target = 11 mm) over the 12th rib as determined by periodic ultrasound measurements. Cattle were slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant and stunned by captive bolt. Temperament rating had a significant effect on the incidence of borderline dark cutters which were downgraded by a USDA grader (P = 0.01). Temperament score also had a significant effect on tenderness (P < 0.001) as evaluated by Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS) force at day 14 post mortem. The calmest animals which stood still when restrained in a hydraulic squeeze chute had a mean WBS force of 2.86 ± 11 kg and cattle which became highly agitated and struggled violently during restraint averaged 3.63 ± 19 kg. Forty percent of these cattle had WBS force values which were over 3.9 kg which is a threshold value for acceptability in food service establishments. These data show that cattle with the most excitable temperament ratings produce carcasses with tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters than cattle with calm temperament ratings. PMID:22062320

  4. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P < 0.01); however, heifers receiving MGA had lower conception results following AI (51.6 vs. 71.4%; P = 0.01). In addition, MGA-treated heifers were more likely to have a corpus luteum in the middle of the breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P < 0.01), although the Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate was similar (P = 0.29) at the end of the breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers. PMID:26115267

  5. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  6. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability. PMID:26476524

  7. Reticulo-ruminal motility in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) fed a low quality roughage diet.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, C S; Kennedy, P M; John, A

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of A and B sequence contractions of the reticulo-rumen on passage rate of digesta was compared in buffaloes and cattle fed low quality rhodes grass. 2. Both species ate the same amount per unit body weight but buffaloes spent 53% more time ruminating than cattle. 3. Buffaloes had fewer A and B sequence contractions each day and the rate of these contractions during eating, ruminating and at rest were slower. 4. A larger pool of fine feed particles in the rumen of buffaloes, generated by extra ruminating activity was associated with the 30% shorter mean residence time of particulate matter in the forestomach compared with cattle. 5. It is concluded that the difference in the number and frequency of contractions between the species was insufficient to affect passage rate of digesta from the stomach. PMID:2575949

  8. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Kouamo, J; Dawaye, S M; Zoli, A P; Bah, G S

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ < 3 mm), medium (3 ≥ Φ ≤ 8 mm) and large (Φ > 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10) and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI): oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII): oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII): oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV): denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary) and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS) and pregnancy status of cow) on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%). Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%), 2.72±0.15 (24.82%), 2.24±0.15 (20.43%) and 2.47±0.20 (22.54%) respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P < 0.05) compared with other animals. Oocytes with quality (grade I and II) acceptable for IVEP constituted 57.15% of the harvest. This study indicated that factors such as age, pregnancy status, BCS and ovarian size must be taken into account to increase the potential of the ovary for IVEP. PMID:26623353

  9. An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutrosa subgutrosa) and a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Wolf, Tiffany M; Wünschmann, Arno; Morningstar-Shaw, Brenda; Pantlin, Gayle C; Rasmussen, James M; Thompson, Rachel L

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis enteritis occurred in two juvenile goitered gazelles and an adult Malayan tapir over a period of 5 wk at the Minnesota Zoo. Diagnosis was made postmortem on one gazelle and one tapir, and a second gazelle was diagnosed via fecal culture. The death of the tapir was attributed to S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis septicemia, while salmonellosis was considered to be a contributing factor besides ostertagiasis for the death of one goitered gazelle and for the diarrhea of another goitered gazelle. A third gazelle became ill in the same time period, but Salmonella infection was not confirmed by culture. All exhibited the clinical signs of profuse, watery diarrhea. The gazelles developed a protein-losing enteropathy, and the tapir showed signs of sepsis and endotoxemia. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the Salmonella isolates to be indistinguishable from each other. One year prior to this outbreak, Salmonella sp. was cultured from a Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) housed in the same building as the tapir. After further investigation into the outbreak, spread of this pathogen was speculated to be associated with human movement across animal areas. PMID:22204065

  10. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, a...

  11. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences ( P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference ( P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  12. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) initial yield values compared to supplements given 2d prior to slaughter. Supplementation had no significant effect on meat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly decrease plasma magnesium and iron concentrations when given 2d before slaughter. There were no detectable amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the blood or muscle of any cattle at slaughter. PMID:22061376

  13. Microsatellite DNA Variation and the Evolution, Domestication and Phylogeography of Taurine and Zebu Cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus)

    PubMed Central

    MacHugh, D. E.; Shriver, M. D.; Loftus, R. T.; Cunningham, P.; Bradley, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic variation at 20 microsatellite loci was surveyed to determine the evolutionary relationships and molecular biogeography of 20 different cattle populations from Africa, Europe and Asia. Phylogenetic reconstruction and multivariate analysis highlighted a marked distinction between humpless (taurine) and humped (zebu) cattle, providing strong support for a separate origin for domesticated zebu cattle. A molecular clock calculation using bison (Bison sp.) as an outgroup gave an estimated divergence time between the two subspecies of 610,000-850,000 years. Substantial differences in the distribution of alleles at 10 of these loci were observed between zebu and taurine cattle. These markers subsequently proved very useful for investigations of gene flow and admixture in African populations. When these data were considered in conjunction with previous mitochondrial and Y chromosomal studies, a distinctive male-mediated pattern of zebu genetic introgression was revealed. The introgression of zebu-specific alleles in African cattle afforded a high resolution perspective on the hybrid nature of African cattle populations and also suggested that certain West African populations of valuable disease-tolerant taurine cattle are under threat of genetic absorption by migrating zebu herds. PMID:9215909

  14. Developmental Block and Programmed Cell Death in Bos indicus Embryos: Effects of Protein Supplementation Source and Developmental Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sheila Merlo; Marinho, Luciana Simões Rafagnin; Lunardelli, Paula Alvares; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if the protein source of the medium influences zebu embryo development and if developmental kinetics, developmental block and programmed cell death are related. The culture medium was supplemented with either fetal calf serum or bovine serum albumin. The embryos were classified as Fast (n = 1,235) or Slow (n = 485) based on the time required to reach the fourth cell cycle (48 h and 90 h post insemination - hpi -, respectively). The Slow group was further separated into two groups: those presenting exactly 4 cells at 48 hpi (Slow/4 cells) and those that reached the fourth cell cycle at 90 hpi (Slow). Blastocyst quality, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential and signs of apoptosis or necrosis were evaluated. The Slow group had higher incidence of developmental block than the Fast group. The embryos supplemented with fetal calf serum had lower quality. DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential were absent in embryos at 48 hpi but present at 90 hpi. Early signs of apoptosis were more frequent in the Slow and Slow/4 cell groups than in the Fast group. We concluded that fetal calf serum reduces blastocyst development and quality, but the mechanism appears to be independent of DNA fragmentation. The apoptotic cells detected at 48 hpi reveal a possible mechanism of programmed cell death activation prior to genome activation. The apoptotic cells observed in the slow-developing embryos suggested a relationship between programmed cell death and embryonic developmental kinetics in zebu in vitro-produced embryos. PMID:25760989

  15. Evaluation of carcass characteristics of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds selected for postweaning weight.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Alleoni, G F; Nardon, R F; Resende, F D

    2008-08-01

    Data from 9 studies were compiled to evaluate the effects of 20 yr of selection for postweaning weight (PWW) on carcass characteristics and meat quality in experimental herds of control Nellore (NeC) and selected Nellore (NeS), Caracu (CaS), Guzerah (GuS), and Gir (GiS) breeds. These studies were conducted with animals from a genetic selection program at the Experimental Station of Sertãozinho, São Paulo State, Brazil. After the performance test (168 d postweaning), bulls (n = 490) from the calf crops born between 1992 and 2000 were finished and slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality. Treatments were different across studies. A meta-analysis was conducted with a random coefficients model in which herd was considered a fixed effect and treatments within year and year were considered as random effects. Either calculated maturity degree or initial BW was used interchangeably as the covariate, and least squares means were used in the multiple-comparison analysis. The CaS and NeS had heavier (P = 0.002) carcasses than the NeC and GiS; GuS were intermediate. The CaS had the longest carcass (P < 0.001) and heaviest spare ribs (P < 0.001), striploin (P < 0.001), and beef plate (P = 0.013). Although the body, carcass, and quarter weights of NeS were similar to those of CaS, NeS had more edible meat in the leg region than did CaS bulls. Selection for PWW increased rib-eye area in Nellore bulls. Selected Caracu had the lowest (most favorable) shear force values compared with the NeS (P = 0.003), NeC (P = 0.005), GuS (P = 0.003), and GiS (P = 0.008). Selection for PWW increased body, carcass, and meat retail weights in the Nellore without altering dressing percentage and body fat percentage. PMID:18407987

  16. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite markers (MS) have traditionally been used for parental verification and are still the international standard in spite of their higher cost, error rate, and turnaround time compared with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) -based assays. Despite domestic and international demands fr...

  17. Supplementation with sunflower seed increases circulating cholesterol concentrations and potentially impacts on the pregnancy rates in Bos indicus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Mariângela B; Peres, Mariana S; de Souza, Johnny M; Gaspar, Pércio; Barbiere, Fausto; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Filho, Milton Maturana; Dinardi, Robson N; Nogueira, Guilherme P; Mesquita, Fernando S; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Martins, Thiago; Binelli, Mario; Membrive, Claudia M B

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with sunflower seed on blood concentrations of progesterone and cholesterol and on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) and timed embryo transfer (TET). In experiment 1, cows were received 22-day supplements containing (sunflower, n = 66) sunflower seed or not (control, n = 67) immediately after a progesterone/estradiol-based TAI protocol (Day 0). The cholesterol concentration on Day 21 and the pregnancy rate were greater (P < 0.03) in the sunflower group (148.2 ± 6.1 mg/dL and 66.7%) than those in the control group (116.0 ± 6.4 mg/dL and 47.8%). In experiment 2, heifers received an in vitro-produced embryo 7 days after the expected time of the synchronized ovulation. Heifers were separated into two supplementation groups (sunflower, n = 106 and control, n = 111) for 22 days. The plasma progesterone concentration on Day 7 was not different between the groups. However, on Day 19, the plasma progesterone concentration was greater (P < 0.0001) in the sunflower group (5.8 ± 0.4 ng/mL) than that in the control group (3.5 ± 0.4 ng/mL). A greater (P < 0.05) cholesterol concentration was observed in the sunflower group than that in the control group on Days 7 (306.0 ± 11.6 vs. 277.1 ± 11.9 mg/dL, respectively) and 19 (260.5 ± 8.0 vs. 232.0 ± 8.0 mg/dL, respectively). The pregnancy rate was greater (P = 0.01) in the sunflower-treated heifers (55.7%) than that in control-treated heifers (36.9%). Results indicate that sunflower seed supplementation increases the circulating cholesterol concentrations and potentially impacts the pregnancy rate in suckled beef cattle subjected to TAI or TET. PMID:25772849

  18. Tracking the autumn migration of the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) with satellite telemetry and relationship to environmental conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Yaonan; Hao, Meiyu; Takekawa, John Y.; Lei, Fumin; Yan, Baoping; Prosser, Diann J.; Douglas, David C.; Xing, Zhi; Newman, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    The autumn migration routes of bar-headed geese captured before the 2008 breeding season at Qinghai Lake, China, were documented using satellite tracking data. To assess how the migration strategies of bar-headed geese are influenced by environmental conditions, the relationship between migratory routes, temperatures, and vegetation coverage at stopovers sites estimated with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were analyzed. Our results showed that there were four typical migration routes in autumn with variation in timing among individuals in start and end times and in total migration and stopover duration. The observed variation may be related to habitat type and other environmental conditions along the routes. On average, these birds traveled about 1300 to 1500 km, refueled at three to six stopover sites and migrated for 73 to 83 days. The majority of the habitat types at stopover sites were lake, marsh, and shoal wetlands, with use of some mountainous regions, and farmland areas.

  19. Neo-Conned University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Andee

    2014-01-01

    Censorship, says Australian political theorist John Keane (1991), can "echo within us, take up residence within ourselves, spying on us, a private amanuensis who reminds us never to go too far... It makes us zip our lips, tremble and think twice" (p. 39). It can also make us sick. The author states that this is her argument here: that,…

  20. Circumcision: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Burgu, Berk; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Tangal, Semih; Soygur, Tarkan

    2010-01-01

    Circumcision is possibly the most frequently performed elective surgical procedure in men. It can simply be described as the excision of the preputium. There have been several studies about the association between circumcision and urinary tract infections (UTI). Many studies have demonstrated that the frequency of UTI increase in uncircumcised males, especially in the first year of life. This review discusses the embryology of the preputium, epidemiology, indications, complications and benefits of circumcision, as well as operation and anesthesiology techniques. It especially examines the association between UTI and circumcision and the importance of circumcision in congenital urinary system anomalies. In addition, this review examines the associations between circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and the protective role of circumcision on penile cancer. PMID:20535279

  1. The Classics, Con Brio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James

    1978-01-01

    Sponsored by a consortium of 30 American universities, Rome's Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies offers a year of study to American undergraduate classics majors. Instructors are also American and normally stay only a year; teaching assistants are always ex-students of the center. Extensive field trips are an important part of the…

  2. Fotodensitometro realizzato con microscopio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, G.

    1989-02-01

    This work describes the chracteristics and use of a microphotometer suitable for the measure of photographic density of photos of stars. The optics is a normal microscope which projects the small photographic image of a star on the plate of a photodiode. This high sensitivity instrument is easy to build up.

  3. Concepciones Alternativas de "Fotosintesis" en estudiantes Universitarios del curso basico de Biologia y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus Roman, Sandra

    Concepciones Alternativas de Fotosíntesis en estudiantes Universitariosdel curso básico de Biología y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF El modelo educativo para la enseñanza de Fotosíntesis (MODEF) se implantó para trabajar el problema de las concepciones alternativas (CA) en un curso de Biología General. Se evaluaron los resultados en cuanto al logro del aprendizaje significativo. La pregunta central de la investigación fue: ¿Cómo aporta el modelo educativo en la didáctica y comprensión del tema de fotosíntesis? Se efectuó una investigación acción con una fase cuantitativa y una cualitativa. Para la fase cuantitativa se elaboró una prueba para determinar las concepciones alternativas, se validó y se sometió a los estudiantes que participaron en el estudio antes y después de ofrecer la unidad de metabolismo celular. Los participantes eran estudiantes de primer año de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en Bayamón (UPRB). Se llevó a cabo un análisis de consistencia interna de la prueba mediante el método Alfa de Cronbach. Se analizaron las contestaciones a cada pregunta mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado de contingencia, se efectuó la prueba de t y el coeficiente r de Pearson. La fase cualitativa incluyó la observación participativa de la investigadora- profesora, las reflexiones de los estudiantes y la información de las entrevistas semi-estructuradas que se realizaron a tres estudiantes del curso. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el Modelo de Wolcott. Se trabajaron diez CA de las cuales siete fueron corregidas mediante el Modelo MODEF. Las actividades más importantes para el proceso de aprendizaje incluyeron el trabajo de investigación o búsqueda de información para hacer una presentación digital, la elaboración de tablas, los mapas de conceptos, el uso de visuales o videos y las analogías para explicar conceptos o procesos. En conclusión: se recomienda el uso del Modelo MODEF para la discusión del tema de

  4. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data

    PubMed Central

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4–6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data. PMID:27471441

  5. Obtención de velocidades radiales de precisión con el espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Con el fin de ser empleados como espectros de referencia, han sido obtenidos recientemente 80 espectrogramas de estrellas candidatas a patrones de velocidad radial de todos los tipos espectrales desde B0 a M5, con una dispersión aproximada de 7 Å/mm. Se estudia la influencia de distintos factores (flexión, refracción atmosférica, etc.) en la determinación de velocidades radiales. Se analizan diferentes técnicas de reducción y medición de velocidades, su aplicación a estrellas de diferentes tipos espectrales y velocidades de rotación y se discute la precisión obtenible en cada caso.

  6. A methodological approach to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages: socio-economic and technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagno, Eleonora; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Petrucci, Olga; Forciniti, Pinuccia R.

    2014-05-01

    Cavallerizzo have been analysed within the frame of a PhD thesis by one of the authors. The present study focuses on the Cavallerizzo case study to discuss a methodological approach useful to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages, aiming at properly considering socio-economic effects in addition to technical issues.

  7. Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.

    2012-12-01

    An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from <1 to 400 ng g-1 wet tissue. PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, DDT and its degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154

  8. Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-based Operations (STBO): Results of Piloted Simulations and Implications for Concepts of Operation (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Bakowski, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    The results offour piloted medium-fidelity simulations investigating flight deck surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) will be reviewed. In these flight deck STBO simulations, commercial transport pilots were given taxi clearances with time and/or speed components and required to taxi to the departing runway or an intermediate traffic intersection. Under a variety of concept of operations (ConOps) and flight deck information conditions, pilots' ability to taxi in compliance with the required time of arrival (RTA) at the designated airport location was measured. ConOps and flight deck information conditions explored included: Availability of taxi clearance speed and elapsed time information; Intermediate RTAs at intermediate time constraint points (e.g., intersection traffic flow points); STBO taxi clearances via ATC voice speed commands or datal ink; and, Availability of flight deck display algorithms to reduce STBO RTA error. Flight Deck Implications. Pilot RTA conformance for STBO clearances, in the form of ATC taxi clearances with associated speed requirements, was found to be relatively poor, unless the pilot is required to follow a precise speed and acceleration/deceleration profile. However, following such a precise speed profile results in inordinate head-down tracking of current ground speed, leading to potentially unsafe operations. Mitigating these results, and providing good taxi RTA performance without the associated safety issues, is a flight deck avionics or electronic flight bag (EFB) solution. Such a solution enables pilots to meet the taxi route RTA without moment-by-moment tracking of ground speed. An avionics or EFB "error-nulling" algorithm allows the pilot to view the STBO information when the pilot determines it is necessary and when workload alloys, thus enabling the pilot to spread his/her attention appropriately and strategically on aircraft separation airport navigation, and the many other flight deck tasks concurrently required

  9. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  10. The Pros And Cons Of Various Optical Media For The Soldier's Interfacility Radiographic Record (SIRR) In The Combat Casualty Care System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlin, Barbara D.; Johnson, William P.

    1989-05-01

    Ongoing research and evaluation projects sponsored by the Army Medical Research and Development Command are leading towards filmless radiography in the combat casualty care system of the 1990s. With the elimination of film, the question arises as to the most appropriate medium for archiving and transporting x-ray images and related patient data with the wounded between facilities. This paper considers the pros and cons of the various candidate media in relation to their specifications, availability, and appropriateness under simulated combat casualty care conditions.

  11. Engaging Community With Promotores de Salud to Support Infant Nutrition and Breastfeeding Among Latinas Residing in Los Angeles County: Salud con Hyland's.

    PubMed

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; Espinoza, Lilia; Galvez, Gino; Garcia-Vega, Melawhy

    2015-01-01

    The Salud con Hyland's Project: Comienzo Saludable, Familia Sana [Health With Hyland's Project: Healthy Start, Healthy Family],was developed to provide education and support to Latina mothers regarding healthy infant feeding practices and maternal health. The promotora-delivered intervention was comprised of two charlas (educational sessions) and a supplemental, culturally and linguistically relevant infant feeding and care rolling calendar. Results indicate that the intervention increased intention to breastfeed exclusively, as well as to delay infant initiation of solids by 5 to 6 months. Qualitative feedback identified barriers to maternal and child health education as well as highlighted several benefits of the intervention. PMID:24625100

  12. [Modello di Management (Mo.Ma) del paziente affetto da schizofrenia: controllo della crisi, mantenimento, prevenzione delle ricadute e recovery con gli antipsicotici LAI].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La schizofrenia colpisce circa l'1% della popolazione e rappresenta un grave disturbo mentale con un notevole impatto anche sul funzionamento sociale, lavorativo e sulle attività della vita quotidiana. Le persone con schizofrenia hanno un tasso di mortalità superiore di 2-2,5 rispetto a quello della popolazione generale. La non aderenza ai farmaci antipsicotici è uno dei più importanti fattori di rischio per le ricadute e le ospedalizzazioni, sia nei pazienti con disturbo cronico sia al primo episodio, e conseguentemente contribuisce all'aumento dei costi sanitari. Gli antipsicotici atipici LAI possono migliorare l'aderenza al trattamento contribuendo a diminuire i tassi di ricaduta nei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia fin dall'esordio. Gli obiettivi primari nella gestione dei pazienti schizofrenici sono diretti, non solo alla riduzione dei sintomi nel breve termine, ma anche al mantenimento fisico e della funzionalità mentale, migliorando la qualità della vita e promuovendo il recupero del paziente. Scopo. Proporre un modello integrato, basato sulle evidenze, che fornisca un algoritmo efficace per il recupero del paziente schizofrenico e indagare l'efficacia e la sicurezza degli antipsicotici LAI nel trattamento, nel mantenimento, nella prevenzione delle ricadute e nella recovery dei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia. Metodi. Dopo un'accurata analisi di letteratura abbiamo identificato, raccolto e analizzato gli elementi qualificanti per un'ottimale gestione del paziente schizofrenico, definendo un modello di gestione e selezione delle alternative terapeutiche. Conclusioni. Il modello di gestione della schizofrenia proposto potrebbe consentire un migliore recupero funzionale del paziente grazie alla scelta di iniziare il percorso terapeutico, fin dalle prime fasi del disturbo soprattutto se in giovane età e al primo episodio, con un farmaco atipico LAI. All'interno dei farmaci antipsicotici atipici la formulazione LAI rappresenta una scelta

  13. Potential pros and cons of external healthcare performance evaluation systems: real-life perspectives on Iranian hospital evaluation and accreditation program

    PubMed Central

    Jaafaripooyan, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Performance evaluation is essential to quality improvement in healthcare. The current study has identified the potential pros and cons of external healthcare evaluation programs, utilizing them subsequently to look into the merits of a similar case in a developing country. Methods: A mixed method study employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques was adopted to achieve the study end. Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and professionals were approached for two-stage process of data collection. Results: Potential advantages included greater attractiveness of high accreditation rank healthcare organizations to their customers/purchasers and boosted morale of their personnel. Downsides, as such, comprised the programs’ over-reliance on value judgment of surveyors, routinization and incurring undue cost on the organizations. In addition, the improved, standardized care processes as well as the judgmental nature of program survey were associated, as pros and cons, to the program investigated by the professionals. Conclusion: Besides rendering a tentative assessment of Iranian hospital evaluation program, the study provides those running external performance evaluations with a lens to scrutinize the virtues of their own evaluation systems through identifying the potential advantages and drawbacks of such programs. Moreover, the approach followed could be utilized for performance assessment of similar evaluation programs. PMID:25279381

  14. The International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen): An Initiative by the NIMH and IGSLI to Study the Genetic Basis of Response to Lithium Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Thomas G.; Alda, Martin; Adli, Mazda; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Bui, Elise T.; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Czerski, Piotr; Del Zompo, Maria; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Hoban, Rebecca; Iwata, Nakao; Kassem, Layla; Kato, Tadafumi; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Kelsoe, John R.; Kusumi, Ichiro; Laje, Gonzalo; Leckband, Susan G.; Manchia, Mirko; MacQueen, Glenda; Masui, Takuya; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H.; Pfennig, Andrea; Piccardi, Paola; Richardson, Sara; Rouleau, Guy; Reif, Andreas; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Sasse, Johanna; Schumacher, Johannes; Severino, Giovanni; Smoller, Jordan W.; Squassina, Alessio; Turecki, Gustavo; Young, L. Trevor; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Bauer, Michael; McMahon, Francis J.

    2010-01-01

    For more than half a decade, lithium has been successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. Worldwide, it is considered the first-line mood stabilizer. Apart from its proven antimanic and prophylactic effects, considerable evidence also suggests an antisuicidal effect in affective disorders. Lithium is also effectively used to augment antidepressant drugs in the treatment of refractory major depressive episodes and prevent relapses in recurrent unipolar depression. In contrast to many psychiatric drugs, lithium has outlasted various pharmacotherapeutic ‘fashions’, and remains an indispensable element in contemporary psychopharmacology. Nevertheless, data from pharmacogenetic studies of lithium are comparatively sparse, and these studies are generally characterized by small sample sizes and varying definitions of response. Here, we present an international effort to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Following an initiative by the International Group for the Study of Lithium-Treated Patients (www.IGSLI.org) and the Unit on the Genetic Basis of Mood and Anxiety Disorders at the National Institute of Mental Health, lithium researchers from around the world have formed the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (www.ConLiGen.org) to establish the largest sample to date for genome-wide studies of lithium response in bipolar disorder, currently comprising more than 1,200 patients characterized for response to lithium treatment. A stringent phenotype definition of response is one of the hallmarks of this collaboration. ConLiGen invites all lithium researchers to join its efforts. PMID:20453537

  15. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  16. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis. PMID:27035150

  17. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  18. Food for thought: a pilot study of the pros and cons of changing eating patterns within cognitive-behavioural therapy for the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Evans, Jane; Pugh, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders has an early focus on behavioural changes around food intake. However, patients' anxiety around such change might account for why they often seem unmotivated in treatment. In order to determine the impact of changing intake, this pilot study of patients with bulimic disorders (N = 19) or anorexia nervosa (N = 9) used a mixed quantitative and qualitative design to retrospectively examine their perspectives of the short- and long-term pros and cons of such change. As expected, change was seen negatively in the short-term (with particularly high numbers reporting anxiety), but there were few reports of long-term negative outcomes. In contrast, there were both short- and long-term benefits of changing eating. The patients described what was helpful in making changes and what they had learned as a result. In both cases, their descriptions mapped closely onto the content and process of evidence-based CBT for the eating disorders. Although there is a need for more extensive research, these findings suggest that patients (and therapists) might benefit from being aware of the contrast between the short- and the long-term pros and cons of changing eating within CBT for the eating disorders. PMID:23820156

  19. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  20. The soil-water balance simulations of a grassland in response to CO2, rainfall, and biodiversity manipulations at BioCON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinker, R. H.; Cardenas, M.; Caldwell, T. G.; Rich, R.; Reich, P.

    2013-12-01

    The BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2 and N) experiment has been continuously running since 1997. Operated by the University of Minnesota and located within the Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve in Minnesota, USA, BioCON is a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment that investigates plant community response to three key environmental variables: nitrogen, atmospheric CO2 and biodiversity. More recently rainfall exclusion and temperature manipulation were added to the experiment which amounts to 371 plots. The site attempts to replicate predicted average temperature increases and a northern shift of plant species and any associated consequences. FACE experiments have been conducted for a number of years in different countries, but the focus has generally been on how plant communities, soil respiration and microbes respond. Minimal work has been focused on the hydrologic aspects of these experiments which are potentially valuable for investigating global warming effects on local and plot-scale ecohydrology. Thus, the objective of this work is to characterize and model unsaturated flow for different CO2 and rainfall treatments in order to see how they affect soil moisture dynamics and groundwater recharge on grasslands of central Minnesota. Our study focuses on simulating soil moisture dynamics in eighteen of the BioCON plots: six bare plots with regular rainfall regimes (zero plant species, three plots with elevated atmospheric CO2 levels), six regular rainfall regimes (nine plant species, three plots with elevated atmospheric CO2 levels) and six reduced rainfall regimes (nine plant species, three plots with elevated atmospheric CO2 levels). The Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model, which solves the Richards equation for unsaturated zone water flow coupled to a comprehensive energy balance model, was parameterized with a combination of field and lab estimates of soil properties. Field estimates of saturated hydraulic conductivity using tension infiltrometers ranged

  1. Pros and Cons of Physical/Empirical SAR Altimetry Retracking in Seasonally Ice-Covered Waters in Preparation for Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Maulik; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    2015-12-01

    An investigation is performed into the retrieval of sea surface heights in the Arctic Ocean to evaluate the determination of seasonal sea level in the Arctic Ocean from satellite altimetry. Physical retrackers assume a uniform probability density function for the wave height within the footprint which is frequently compromised in the Arctic Ocean due to the presence of seasonal sea ice and the period of initial freezing of the ocean. Preliminary investigations highlight the pros of the empirical retrackers for seasonal sea ice covered regions as it does not assume anything about physical properties and the pros of a physical retracker for either permanent near fully ice covered or open ocean. Comparison with tide gauge data is performed in this study to highlight the pros and cons of physical and empirical retracking in the Arctic Ocean.

  2. Broadening, shifting, and line asymmetries in the 2<--0 band of CO and CO-N2: Experimental results and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Bouanich, J. P.; Benner, D. Chris; May, A. D.; Drummond, J. R.

    2000-07-01

    We have measured the room temperature, widths, pressure shifts, and line asymmetry coefficients for many transitions of the first overtone band of CO and CO perturbed by N2. The broadening coefficients were obtained with an accuracy of about 1%. The pure CO profiles have been fitted by a Voigt profile while the CO-N2 spectral profiles have been fitted with a Lorentz and an empirical line shape model (HCv) that blends together a hard collision model and a speed-dependent Lorentz profile. In addition to the Voigt, Lorentz, and HCv models, we have added a dispersion profile to account for weak line mixing. The line broadening and shift coefficients are compared to semiclassical calculations employing a variety of intermolecular interactions. The line asymmetry results are compared to line mixing calculations based on the energy corrected sudden (ECS) model. The results indicate that effects other than line mixing also contribute to the measured line asymmetry.

  3. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  4. Estudio de NIH señala relación de la TC en la infancia con leucemia y cáncer de cerebro más tarde

    Cancer.gov

    Niños y adultos jóvenes a quienes se les hicieron exploraciones muchas veces con tomografía computarizada (TC), una herramienta de diagnóstico de uso frecuente, tienen un riesgo ligeramente mayor de padecer leucemia y tumores cerebrales en la década poste

  5. Linking innovative measurement technologies (ConMon and Dataflow© systems) for high-resolution temporal and spatial dissolved oxygen criteria assessment.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, C A; Perry, E; Bayard, A; Wainger, L; Boynton, W R

    2015-10-01

    One consequence of nutrient-induced eutrophication in shallow estuarine waters is the occurrence of hypoxia and anoxia that has serious impacts on biota, habitats, and biogeochemical cycles of important elements. Because of the important role of dissolved oxygen (DO) on these ecosystem features, a variety of DO criteria have been established as indicators of system condition. However, DO dynamics are complex and vary on time scales ranging from diel to decadal and spatial scales from meters to multiple kilometers. Because of these complexities, determining DO criteria attainment or failure remains difficult. We propose a method for linking two common measurement technologies for shallow water DO criteria assessment using a Chesapeake Bay tributary as a test case. Dataflow© is a spatially intensive (30-60-m collection intervals) system used to map surface water conditions at the whole estuary scale, and ConMon is a high-frequency (15-min collection intervals) fixed station approach. The former technology is effective with spatial descriptions but poor regarding temporal resolution, while the latter provides excellent temporal but very limited spatial resolution. Our methodology for combining the strengths of these measurement technologies involved a sequence of steps. First, a statistical model of surface water DO dynamics, based on temporally intense ConMon data, was developed. The results of this model were used to calculate daily DO minimum concentrations. Second, this model was then inserted into Dataflow©-generated spatial maps of DO conditions and used to adjust measured DO concentrations to daily minimum concentrations. This information was used to assess DO criteria compliance at the full tributary scale. Model results indicated that it is vital to consider the short-term time scale DO criteria across both space and time concurrently. Large fluctuations in DO occurred within a 24-h time period, and DO dynamics varied across the length and width of the

  6. Selective removal of plutonium 238 from a canal sediment using a carbonate-chelant soil washing technology (ACT*DE*CON).

    PubMed

    Negri, M C; Swift, N A; Carfagno, D; Neff, R A; North, J

    1999-04-23

    The Mound laboratory site in Miamisburg, OH, a former plutonium processing facility, contains approximately 40000 yd(3) (30,580 m3) of plutonium- and thorium-contaminated soils and sediments at levels that require remediation. Existing applicable remediation technologies are unsatisfactory, because they are expensive and do not provide volume reduction. ACT*DE*CON is a chemical soil leaching technology for the treatment of soils that utilizes contaminant dissolution via dilute selective solutions to remove radionuclides. In bench-scale tests, process parameters were developed for the optimal treatment of the Miami Erie Canal soil at the Mound site, combining the maximum plutonium removal with an acceptable amount of soil dissolution and minimizing the costs of reagents. Parameters evaluated included soil to extractant mass ratio, temperature, rinse solution composition, kinetics, and the application of several dewatering aids. Plutonium removal rates of >95% were achieved, and the residual plutonium in the treated soil proved to be very immobile-confirming that the process had removed the most accessible species of the radionuclide. Currently being tested at Mound is an engineering scale-up that includes an attrition scrubber, a counter-current extractor, and a reverse osmosis system. Economic evaluations based on bench-scale results put the treatment cost at US$278/yd(3) (US$364/m3), compared to US$350/yd(3) (US$458/m3) for the 'box-and-bury' baseline alternative treatment system. PMID:10379033

  7. ACTIVE MEDIA: Gain dynamics in a pulsed laser amplifier on CO-He, CO-N2 and CO-O2 gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetoshkin, S. V.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Klimachev, Yu M.; Kozlov, A. Yu; Kotkov, A. A.; Rulev, O. A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.

    2007-02-01

    Small-signal gain (SSG) dynamics G(t) in the active medium of a pulsed laser amplifier operating on the v+1→vP(J) vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO molecule, including high (v > 15) vibrational transitions, is studied experimentally. It is demonstrated that as the vibrational number increases from 7 to 31, G changes with time slower, while Gmax decreases in this case by three times. It is found that at a fixed value of v the rate of the SSG rise increases with increasing the rotational number J > 6. It is shown that in oxygen-containing gas mixtures (CO:O2 = 1:19) the value of Gmax at low vibrational levels (for v < 13) can substantially exceed Gmax in mixtures containing nitrogen (CO:N2 = 1:19) instead of oxygen. It is found that the efficiency (47%) of a CO laser on mixtures with a high concentration of oxygen considerably exceeds the efficiency (30%) of a CO laser operating on a nitrogen-containing mixture.

  8. Obtención de perfiles teóricos de elementos metálicos con velocidades macroscópicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Costa, A.; Rovira, M.

    El propósito de este trabajo es poder establecer -a partir de la modelización de perfiles de distintas especies- patrones de comparación observacional que permitan caracterizar los fenómenos físicos que están presentes en las estructuras que se observan. Para ello se resuelven las ecuaciones de equilibrio de ionización para un determinado átomo y una atmósfera de parámetros determinados. A partir de ello se definen las poblaciones para los distintos grados de ionización. Considerando distintas configuraciones e intensidades de flujos de masa se deducen la función fuente, el espesor óptico y se calculan los perfiles de las distintas líneas. Se obtuvieron perfiles teóricos de líneas del CII, CIV y del OIV para flujos entrante, saliente y pasante. La forma del perfil, las intensidades relativas entre los distintos flujos y el corrimiento Doppler da cuenta de una caracterización teórica a partir de la cual se comparará con observaciones.

  9. Distribución espacial de órbitas con diferentes grados de caoticidad en modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Mosquera, M.

    En trabajos anteriores (Carpintero et al., Cel. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 85, 247, 2003), mostramos que las órbitas caóticas son muy importantes en los satélites galácticos. Sin embargo, los únicos modelos autoconsistentes de los que se disponía para ellos eran los de Heggie-Ramamani, cuya función de distribución depende sólo de la energía por lo que no mostraban diferencias entre las distribuciones de sus órbitas regulares y caóticas. Ahora, mediante una aproximación cuadrupolar, hemos logrado construir modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos con distribuciones de velocidades anisotrópicas (lo que indica que sus funciones de distribución no dependen sólo de la energía) y hemos logrado revelar las diferencias entre las estructuras espaciales de las órbitas de distinta caoticidad.

  10. The pros and cons of routine central compartment neck dissection for clinically nodal negative (cN0) papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ai Chen; Wong, Kai Pun

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic disease to regional lymph nodes (LNs) is common in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). LN dissection is increasingly performed as part of the surgical management of PTC. The role of prophylactic central neck dissection (pCND) in PTC is unclear. There is limited evidence to support a routine pCND in clinical setting for nodal negative (cN0) PTC. The aim of this review was to examine the pros and cons of prophylactic neck dissection in cN0 PTC. In summary, the advantages of pCND are: removal of the central LNs that potentially harbor micro-metastases, more accurate staging of disease in order to plan more individualized management, reducing the need for re-operation to remove the metastatic LNs which have developed later and possible improvement in overall survival. The disadvantages are: an extensive surgery but lack of evidence of survival benefit, higher incidence of complications with little impact on local recurrence rate, possibility of over treating in cN0 patients and it does not sound like a cost effective approach in the management of small thyroid cancer. Considering low frequency of permanent morbidity, some authors believe that prophylactic neck dissection is safe in experienced hands even though its prognostic benefit has yet to be demonstrated. PMID:25083482

  11. Entrenamiento con el traje espacial

    NASA Video Gallery

    Después de 10 paseos espaciales, el astronauta de la NASA Michael López- Alegría sabe bastante de trajes espaciales. En este video, López Alegría comparte su experiencia acerca del uso y el entrena...

  12. Biochar Usage: Pros and Cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fertility benefits of charcoal application have been reported as early as 1847 indicating that plant nutrients are sorbed within charcoal pores. The use of biomass-derived black carbon or biochar, the solid byproduct from the pyrolysis processing of any organic feedstock, has garnered recent a...

  13. Laboratory research in homeopathy: con.

    PubMed

    Moffett, John R; Arun, Peethambaran; Namboodiri, M A A

    2006-12-01

    Alternative medical approaches to human diseases such as cancer are becoming increasingly popular, but reports on their success rates have been highly variable. Homeopathy is an alternative medical practice often applied to less critical human diseases but one that has also been applied sporadically to the treatment of cancer. Animal studies on the use of homeopathy to treat experimental cancer are few and the evidence provided to date is far from conclusive. The debate presented here concerns the utility of animal studies on cancer treatment with homeopathic preparations. As part of a Point-Counterpoint feature, this review and its companion piece in this issue by Khuda-Bukhsh (Integr Cancer Ther. 2006;5:320-332) are composed of a thesis section, a response section in reaction to the companion thesis, and a rebuttal section to address issues raised in the companion response. PMID:17101762

  14. Temperature optimization of high con

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabry, M.

    2016-06-01

    Active cooling is essential for solar cells operating under high optical concentration ratios. A system comprises four solar cells that are in thermal contact on top of a copper tube is proposed. Water is flowing inside the tube in order to reduce solar cells temperature for increasing their performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of such system has been performed in order to investigate the effect of water flow rate, tube internal diameter, and convective heat transfer coefficient on the temperature of the solar cells. It is found that increasing convective heat transfer coefficient has a significant effect on reducing solar cells temperatures operating at low flow rates and high optical concentration ratios. Also, a further increase of water flow rate has no effect on reducing cells temperatures.

  15. Crossing the Rubric-Con

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This essay engages the prospect and peril of employing rubrics in America. It discusses how institutional independence affects the enterprise, and addresses whether rubrics will be received as salvation or subservience by educational agents. It asks how rubrics can benefit stakeholders while examining their unintended consequences. It concludes by…

  16. White Flight: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossell, Christine

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of school desegregation on White enrollment, the policy impact from two long-term demographic trends among middle class Whites--suburbanization and the declining birth rate--must be isolated. (Author/MC)

  17. A method for transforming a full computation of the effects of a complex-explosion scenario to a simple computation by ConWep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostraich, B.; Sadot, O.; Levintant, O.; Anteby, I.; Ben-Dor, G.

    2011-04-01

    When a large amount of explosive that is stored inside a structure explodes, a blast wave is generated. The strength of the blast depends on both the explosive (type and weight) and the properties of the storing structure, since part of the blast energy is needed to destroy the structure. If one is to determine the dynamic load (e.g., pressure and impulse) that is exerted by the blast on a neighboring structure, he needs to conduct a full numerical simulation with a validated numerical code. If the amount of the stored explosive changes while the storing structure remains the same a new full hydrodynamic computation is required. In the present study, we present a method by which, for a given structure inside which explosive is stored, only a few full hydrodynamic computations with different amounts of explosive are required in order to obtain the resulted blast wave load on a neighboring structure that is located at different distances from the exploding structure for any amount of explosive between the minimal and the maximal amounts that were used in the full hydrodynamic computations. By means of the proposed method, the problem, which as mentioned above needs a full hydrodynamic computation, is replaced by an equivalent problem of the explosion of a bare hemispherical charge. The equivalent problem can be solved by means of an empirical model such as ConWep, which is very simple to apply. The solution of the equivalent problem results in identical peak pressure and peak impulse at close and far ranges from the explosion source and very similar pressure and impulse profiles at far ranges. The proposed method is demonstrated by an explanatory example in which the effect of an explosion inside an ammunition magazine on the surroundings is studied.

  18. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of

  19. Comparison of embryo yield and pregnancy rate between in vivo and in vitro methods in the same Nelore (Bos indicus) donor cows.

    PubMed

    Pontes, J H F; Nonato-Junior, I; Sanches, B V; Ereno-Junior, J C; Uvo, S; Barreiros, T R R; Oliveira, J A; Hasler, J F; Seneda, M M

    2009-03-01

    To investigate why the preferred means to produce bovine embryos in Brazil has changed from in vivo to in vitro, we compared these two approaches in the same Nelore cows (n=30) and assessed total embryo production and pregnancy rates. Without a specific schedule, all cows were subjected to ultrasound-guided ovum pick up (OPU)/in vitro production (IVP) and MOET, with intervals ranging from 15 to 45 d between procedures, respectively. To produce in vivo embryos, cows were superovulated and embryos were recovered nonsurgically from 1 to 3 times (1.4+/-0.6), whereas OPU/IVP was repeated from 1 to 5 times (3.2+/-1.2) in each donor cow during a 12-mo interval. Embryos obtained from both methods were transferred to crossbred heifers. On average, 25.6+/-15.3 immature oocytes were collected per OPU attempt. The average number of embryos produced by OPU/IVP (9.4+/-5.3) was higher (P<0.05) than the MOET method (6.7+/-3.7). However, pregnancy rates were lower (P<0.05) following transfer of IVP (33.5%) versus in vivo-derived embryos (41.5%) embryos. Embryonic losses between Days 30 and 60 and fetal sex ratio were similar (P>0.05) between in vivo and in vitro-derived embryos. We concluded that in Nelore cows, with an interval of 15 d between OPU procedures, it was possible to produce more embryos and pregnancies compared to conventional MOET. PMID:18995895

  20. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vacc...

  1. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  2. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Moser, I; Prodinger, W M; Hotzel, H; Greenwald, R; Lyashchenko, K P; Bakker, D; Gomis, D; Seidler, T; Ellenberger, C; Hetzel, U; Wuennemann, K; Moisson, P

    2008-03-18

    Tuberculosis infections caused by Mycobacterium (M.) pinnipedii in a South American sea lion, Bactrian camel, and Malayan tapirs kept in two zoological gardens spanning a time period of 5 years are reported. The zoos were linked by the transfer of one tapir. Conventional bacteriological and molecular methods were applied to detect the pathogen. Spoligotyping and MIRU/VNTR-typing performed to assess the genetic similarity revealed identical molecular characteristics of the isolates from all animals involved. Anti-tuberculosis antibodies were detected using ELISA and a recently developed serological rapid test. The study shows that: (i) using molecular methods, the assessment of the genetic relationship of infectious agents helps to confirm the routes of infection, and that (ii) immunological tests may help to detect tuberculosis infections ante mortem more reliably and early. This would prevent the transfer of tuberculosis by asymptomatic animals. PMID:17913401

  3. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shreya M.; Koringa, Prakash G.; Nathani, Neelam M.; Patel, Namrata V.; Shah, Tejash M.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  4. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  5. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    PubMed

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds. PMID:3610866

  6. High-throughput sequencing reveals the core gut microbiome of Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) in different wintering areas in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Cao, Jian; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xuelian; Zheng, Sisi; Sharshov, Kirill; Li, Laixing

    2016-04-01

    Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core gut microbiome related to wild bar-headed goose is of crucial importance for probiotics development that may meet the demands of bar-headed goose artificial breeding industries and accelerate the domestication of this species. However, the core microbial communities in the wild bar-headed geese remain totally unknown. Here, for the first time, we present a comprehensive survey of bar-headed geese gut microbial communities by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology using nine individuals from three distinct wintering locations in Tibet. A total of 236,676 sequences were analyzed, and 607 OTUs were identified. We show that the gut microbial communities of bar-headed geese have representatives of 14 phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The additive abundance of these four most dominant phyla was above 96% across all the samples. At the genus level, the sequences represented 150 genera. A set of 19 genera were present in all samples and considered as core gut microbiome. The top seven most abundant core genera were distributed in that four dominant phyla. Among them, four genera (Lactococcus, Bacillus, Solibacillus, and Streptococcus) belonged to Firmicutes, while for other three phyla, each containing one genus, such as Proteobacteria (genus Pseudomonas), Actinobacteria (genus Arthrobacter), and Bacteroidetes (genus Bacteroides). This broad survey represents the most in-depth assessment, to date, of the gut microbes that associated with bar-headed geese. These data create a baseline for future bar-headed goose microbiology research, and make an original contribution to probiotics development for bar-headed goose artificial breeding industries. PMID:26842811

  7. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  8. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  9. Effects of biostimulation and nutritional supplementation on pubertal age and pregnancy rates of Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C M G; Oliveira Filho, B D; Gambarini, M L; Viu, M A O; Lopes, D T; Sousa, A P F

    2009-07-01

    To determine effects of biostimulation (BIO) and dietary supplementation (BIO+S) on pubertal age and pregnancy rates, Nelore heifers (n=392) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups (n=98/group). All animals were in tropical environmental conditions, in the middle-west region of Brazil, grazing in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu; Panicum Maximum, cv. Tanzânia and Brachiaria humidícula. The heifers of the BIO group were kept in the presence of bulls while being maintained on pasture; the animals in the BIO+S group were kept in the presence of bulls while being managed on pasture and were fed a diet with greater energy and protein content to produce 0.49 kg of BW gain/day; the animals in control group (the NBIO) were kept away from bulls and under pasture conditions; and the animals in the NBIO+S group were kept away from bulls, were maintained on pasture, and were fed the same diet as the BIO+S group. Heifers were bred at 22-23 months of age, and pregnancy diagnosis was made 45 days after the end of the breeding season. There were differences (P<0.05) between groups regarding pubertal heifers up to 19 months (NPH), final body weight (FBW) and pregnancy rates (P<0.01), with an advantage for the animals in the BIO and BIO+S groups. Although the effect of a diet with greater protein and energy content was not clear in this experiment, the exposure of heifers to a male during the prepubertal period decreased age at the first breeding season, resulting in a significant reduction in age of first pregnancy in Nelore heifers kept under extensive management systems in a tropical environment. PMID:18805660

  10. Documenting trans-Himalayan migration through satellite telemetry: a report on capture, deployment, and tracking of bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) from India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Javed, S.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Douglas, D.C.; Rahmani, A.R.; Choudhury, B.C.; Landfried, S.L.; Sharma, S.

    2000-01-01

    Trichomonas gallinae-free pigeons and mourning doves were infected with the Jones' Barn strain of T. gallinae to determine the rate of disease resistant T. gallinae-free birds in each population. Although all birds became infected 88% of the pigeons were resistant to trichomoniasis while 82% of the mourning doves were resistant. It was concluded that these birds had been previously infected and spontaneously lost their trichomonad fauna while retaining their resistance to fatal infection.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium BHG1.1, a Strain Isolated from Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) Feces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Zheng, Si-Si; Sun, Hao; Cao, Jian; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xue-Lian; Li, Lai-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a soil-inhabiting Gram-positive bacterium that is routinely used in industrial applications for recombinant protein production and bioremediation. Studies involving Bacillus megaterium isolated from waterfowl are scarce. Here, we report a 6.26-Mbp draft genome sequence of Bacillus megaterium BHG1.1, which was isolated from feces of a bar-headed goose. PMID:27174262

  12. Preweaning growth of Angus- (Bos taurus), Brahman- (Bos indicus), and Tuli- (Sanga) sired calves and reproductive performance of their Brahman dams.

    PubMed

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-09-01

    Calves born to Angus (A), Brahman (B), or Tuli (T) bulls and B cows were evaluated to determine sire breed of calf effects on preweaning calf growth and reproductive performance of their dams. Records from 242 cow-calf pairs over 2 yr were used to assess birth weight, calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and postpartum interval to estrus (PPI). The sire breed x sex of calf interaction was important (P < .05) for birth weight, weaning weight, and gestation length. Birth weights of BB males (32.8 +/- .8 kg) were significantly heavier than for AB and TB males (30.1 +/- .9 and 28.6 +/- .7 kg, respectively) and BB females (29.4 +/- .7 kg). As a main effect, sire breed of calf affected (P < .05) calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and PPI. Calf ADG and weaning weights were greater for AB (.90 +/- .01 kg/d; 220.9 +/- 3.5 kg) than for TB (.81 +/- .01 kg/d; 200.4 +/- 3.0 kg) and BB calves (.78 +/- .01 kg/d; 198.8 +/- 3.5 kg). Gestation lengths differed (P < .01) among all calf genotypes (284, 288, and 294 +/- 1 d for AB, TB, and BB, respectively). Postpartum intervals were shorter (P < .05) for cows nursing BB calves (83 +/- 4 d) than for cows nursing AB (95 +/- 5 d) and TB calves (97 +/- 4 d). Tuli-sired F1 calves were inferior to Angus-sired F1 calves and similar to straightbred Brahman calves in preweaning growth. Crossbred calves had shorter gestations but longer postpartum intervals than purebred calves. PMID:8582844

  13. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits. PMID:12162647

  14. Effect of nutritional status on the ovarian follicular population, yield and quality of oocytes in the Ngaoundere Gudali zebu (Bos indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Kouamo, Justin; Tidjou, Sorelle Gwladys Djatche; Zoli, Andre Pagnah; Mfopit, Youssouf Mouliom

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutritional status of the Gudali cows slaughtered at the Ngaoundere abattoir on follicular population, quality, and oocytes yield. Materials and Methods: Blood and ovaries were collected from 81 cows aged 6.35±0.24 years (3-12 years old), with a body condition score (BCS) of 2.93±0.09 (1-5). In each ovary, the follicle were counted and classified as small (<3 mm), medium (3-8 mm) and large (>8 mm) using an electronic caliper. Oocytes were collected by slicing technique and classified according to the homogeneity of the cytoplasm and layers of granulosa into four groups: I, II, III, and IV. The nutritional status of the animals was determined by quantification of serum glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulins, urea, and phosphorus level. Results: Of the total 162 ovaries harvested, 2916 follicles were counted on the ovarian surface with an average population of 36.00±2.17 follicles/cow. According to a size distribution, 16.67±1.54 (46.3%), 18.83±1.27 (52.3%), and 0.51±0.07 (1.4%), respectively for small (<3 mm), medium (3-8 mm), and large (>8 mm) were recorded. About 1,929 oocytes were obtained, with an average recovered of 23.81±1.53 oocytes/cow. Depending on the quality, 7.79±0.55 (32.7%), 6.04±0.41 (25.3%), 4.89±0.44 (20.6%), and 5.10±0.54 (21.4%) oocytes qualities I, II, III, and IV were obtained respectively; with an average cultivable oocyte recovered of 13.83±0.89 (58%). Cows with BCS > 3 and a high albumin and phosphorus level showed a highest number of follicles and oocytes able for in vitro maturation. Conclusion: These results indicated that nutrition remains an important factor for the in vitro production of the good embryo and the BCS is a useful tool for the selection of females’ oocytes donors. PMID:27047123

  15. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus).

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  16. Impact of progesterone and estradiol treatment before the onset of the breeding period on reproductive performance of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Nasser, L F T; Penteado, L; Prestes, R; Marques, M O; Freitas, B G; Monteiro, B M; Ferreira, R M; Gimenes, L U; Baruselli, P S

    2015-09-01

    The present aimed to develop a hormonal therapy based on the insertion of a progesterone (P4) insert (PI) during 10 d plus an estradiol injection (E2) at PI removal before the onset of breeding of beef heifers. In Exp. 1, the plasma P4 profile of prepubertal heifers showed that the insertion of a PI or 24 d previously used P4 insert (UPI) sustained plasma P4 above 1 ng/mL for at least the first 7 d of the treatment. In Exp. 2 there was no positive effect of additional estradiol benzoate (EB) administered at the insertion of UPI on the proportion of heifers with a corpus luteum (CL/Treated) 30 d after UPI removal [UPI + EB = 85.3%(a) (n = 134); EB + UPI + EB = 80.8%(a) (n = 125)]; however, both were greater (P < 0.0001) than the Control group [60.3%(b) (n = 129)]. In Exp. 3, a positive effect (P=0.01) of UPI treatment and both E2 supplementations [EB and estradiol cypionate (EC); P = 0.10] at the UPI removal was observed on CL/Treated [Control = 42.5%(b) (n = 94); UPI = 58.5%(a) (n= 130); UPI + EB = 64.0%(a) (n = 128); UPI + EC = 67.2%(a) (n = 128)]. However, greater pregnancy per treated heifer (P/Treated) following artificial insemination (AI) upon estrus detection was achieved when EC was applied [Control = 20.2%(b); UPI = 29.2%(ab); UPI + EB = 26.6%(b); UPI + EC = 36.7%(a)]. In Exp. 4, the treatment prior to the timed AI (TAI) tended to improve pregnancy per TAI [P/AI; Control 43.6% (n = 298) vs. UPI+EC 51.9% (n = 342); P = 0.08], but increased P/Treated [26.5% vs. 43.3%; P < 0.001]. Thus, UPI + EC treatment were efficient in increasing the CL/Treated, tended to improve the P/AI and consequently enhanced P/Treated of zebu beef heifers. PMID:26169688

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium BHG1.1, a Strain Isolated from Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) Feces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Zheng, Si-Si; Sun, Hao; Cao, Jian; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xue-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a soil-inhabiting Gram-positive bacterium that is routinely used in industrial applications for recombinant protein production and bioremediation. Studies involving Bacillus megaterium isolated from waterfowl are scarce. Here, we report a 6.26-Mbp draft genome sequence of Bacillus megaterium BHG1.1, which was isolated from feces of a bar-headed goose. PMID:27174262

  18. Linkage disequilibrium levels in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using medium and high density SNP chip data and different minor allele frequency distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the observed correlation between alleles at different loci in the genome, is a determinant parameter in many applications of molecular genetics. With the wider use of genomic technologies in animal breeding and animal genetics, it is worthwhile revising and improving the...

  19. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  20. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P<0.006 and P<0.01, respectively) associated with Brucella abortus seropositivity. Herd composition, abortion in herd, exchange of bulls for mating, introduction of new cattle, and socio-cultural practices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. PMID:26464048

  1. Expression of Tissue factor in Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Implications for immunotherapy with hI-con1, a factor VII-IgGFc chimeric protein targeting tissue factor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer continues to be an important worldwide health problem for women. Up to 35% of patients who are diagnosed with and appropriately treated for cervical cancer will recur and treatment results are poor for recurrent disease. Given these sobering statistics, development of novel therapies for cervical cancer remains a high priority. We evaluated the expression of Tissue Factor (TF) in cervical cancer and the potential of hI-con1, an antibody-like-molecule targeted against TF, as a novel form of immunotherapy against multiple primary cervical carcinoma cell lines with squamous- and adenocarcinoma histology. Methods Because TF is a transmembrane receptor for coagulation factor VII/VIIa (fVII), in this study we evaluated the in vitro expression of TF in cervical carcinoma cell lines by immunohistochemistry (IHC), real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Sensitivity to hI-con1-dependent cell-mediated-cytotoxicity (IDCC) was evaluated in 5-hrs-51chromium-release-assays against cervical cancer cell lines in vitro. Results Cytoplasmic and/or membrane TF expression was observed in 8 out of 8 (100%) of the tumor tissues tested by IHC and in 100% (11 out of 11) of the cervical carcinoma cell lines tested by real-time-PCR and flow cytometry but not in normal cervical keratinocytes (p = 0.0023 qRT-PCR; p = 0.0042 flow cytometry). All primary cervical cancer cell lines tested overexpressing TF, regardless of their histology, were highly sensitive to IDCC (mean killing ± SD, 56.2% ± 15.9%, range, 32.4%-76.9%, p < 0.001), while negligible cytotoxicity was seen in the absence of hI-con1 or in the presence of rituximab-control-antibody. Low doses of interleukin-2 further increased the cytotoxic effect induced by hI-con1 (p = 0.025) while human serum did not significantly decrease IDCC against cervical cancer cell lines (p = 0.597). Conclusions TF is highly expressed in squamous and adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. hI-con1 induces strong cytotoxicity

  2. Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint

  3. HP and UHT metamorphic associations in the Day Nui Con Voi,northwestern Vietnam: The consequence of convergence between the Indian and the Eurasian plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Tran, M. D.; Nguyen, Q. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Red River shear zone (RRSZ) is the most significant geologic discontinuity in Southeast Asia. The Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) massif at the southernmost part of the shear zone bears records of Cenozoic RRSZ activity. The DNCV in northwestern Vietnam predominantly consists of HP granulite facies metapelites, and lenticular enclaves of HP mafic granulites, calc-silicate granulites and UHT aluminum-rich rocks in the metapelites. HP granulites are characterized by the key associations of garnet-kyanite-ternary feldspar (in metapelites) and garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz (in mafic granulites). In the latter case, rocks are typically orthopyroxene-free. The peak assemblage of the HP metapelites includes garnet + kyanite + ternary feldspar + quartz + rutile. The peak assemblage of the HP mafic granulites is garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz. Meanwhile, the peak assemblage of the calc-silicate granulites is high-Ca garnet (Grs>50) + diopside + scapolite + quartz. On the other hand, characteristic UHT metamorphic assemblage occur as the coexistence of spinel and quartz which indicates the metamorphic temperature is higher than 900℃. The peak assemblage of the UHT rocks in DNCV is corundum + spinel + garnet + sillimanite + quartz. P-T conditions of peak metamorphism within HP granulite facies are: T = 750~850℃, P = 12.5~14kbar. The temperature of UHT metamorphism is higher than 900℃, the pressure is higher than 9~9.4 kbar. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircons from the HP mafic granulites and UHT rocks gave minimum ages of ca. 59 Ma and 40 Ma, respectively. HP metapelites gave ca. 60~50Ma and 30Ma. The above facts suggest the DNCV massif experienced HP granulite facies at its peak metamorphism at ˜59 Ma. Thermal disturbance on the local scale to UHT metamorphism occurred at ˜40 Ma. Then isothermal decompression to medium-pressure granulite facies occurred at ˜30Ma, which may reflect a rapid exhumation. The HP rocks are interpreted to be resulted

  4. Remarkable aspects of unsaturation in trinuclear metal carbonyl clusters: the triiron species Fe3(CO)n (n = 12, 11, 10, 9).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Xie, Yaoming; King, R Bruce; Schaefer, Henry F

    2006-09-01

    The trinuclear iron carbonyls Fe(3)(CO)(n) (n = 12, 11, 10, 9) have been studied by density functional theory using the B3LYP and BP86 functionals. The experimentally known C(2)(v) isomer of Fe(3)(CO)(12), namely Fe(3)(CO)(10)(mu-CO)(2), is found to be the global minimum below the unbridged D(3)(h) isomer analogous to the known structures for Ru(3)(CO)(12) and Os(3)(CO)(12). The lowest-energy isomer found for Fe(3)(CO)(11) is Fe(3)(CO)(9)(mu(3)-CO)(2) with iron-iron distances in the Fe(3) triangle, suggesting the one double bond (2.460 A by B3LYP and 2.450 A by BP86) and two single bonds (2.623 A by B3LYP and 2.604 A by BP86) required to give each Fe atom the favored 18-electron configuration. Two different higher-energy dibridged structures Fe(3)(CO)(9)(mu(2)-CO)(2) are also found for Fe(3)(CO)(11). The lowest-energy isomer found for Fe(3)(CO)(10) is Fe(3)(CO)(9)(mu(3)-CO) with equivalent iron-iron distances in the Fe(3) ring (2.47 A by B3LYP or BP86). The lowest-energy isomer found for Fe(3)(CO)(9) is Fe(3)(CO)(6)(mu-CO)(3) with distances in the Fe(3) triangle possibly suggesting one single bond (2.618 A by B3LYP and 2.601 A by BP86), one weak double bond (2.491 A by B3LYP and 2.473 A by BP86), and one weak triple bond (2.368 A by B3LYP and 2.343 A by BP86). A higher-lying isomer of Fe(3)(CO)(9), i.e., Fe(3)(CO)(8)(mu-CO), at approximately 21 kcal/mol above the global minimum, has iron-iron distances strongly suggesting two single bonds (2.6 to 2.7 A) and one quadruple bond (2.068 A by B3LYP and 2.103 A by BP86). Wiberg Bond Indices are also helpful in evaluating the iron-iron bond orders. PMID:16939260

  5. Decrease of intracellular fluorescein fluorescence polarization (IFFP) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes undergoing stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and anti-CD3 antibody.

    PubMed

    Eisenthal, A; Marder, O; Dotan, D; Baron, S; Lifschitz-Mercer, B; Chaitchik, S; Tirosh, R; Weinreb, A; Deutsch, M

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we describe the induction of changes in intracellular fluorescein fluorescence polarization (IFFP) in lymphocytes undergoing activation with a variety of stimulants. These stimulants included the lectins phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin (ConA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and anti-CD3 antibody. Changes in IFFP were detected in individual cells using the Cellscan apparatus. Our results show that by employing mitogenic concentrations of PHA, as revealed in a [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay, a decrease in the IFFP in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) occurred within 40 min. ConA and anti-CD3 affected similarly IFFP, whereas PWM, a B lymphocyte lectin, had no effect on IFFP at the concentrations employed. Kinetic analysis revealed that changes in IFFP occurred within 20-40 min after exposure to the stimulants and lasted for 24 h. Our results show that stimulants which activate CD3+ lymphocytes caused immediate changes in IFFP, in an enriched population of human PBL. The possible mechanisms involved in IFFP modulation following exposure to selected stimulants are discussed. PMID:8893505

  6. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  7. Do not disturb the animals! or, how Con Edison saved $300,000 using a trenchless technology to renew 3,000 feet of leaking gas main at the Bronx Zoo

    SciTech Connect

    Bufe, M.

    1995-07-01

    Every leaking gas main presents a challenge. But when that leaking main follows a series of sweeping bends on its route through North America`s largest urban wildlife park, it presents a special challenge. That was the situation Consolidated Edison Company of New York Inc. recently faced when numerous leaks were discovered along 3,000 feet of a 95-year-old, 12-inch cast-iron main that winds through New York City`s Bronx Zoo. Con Edison knew it needed a long-term solution to this increasingly common problem. Thanks to the cooperative efforts of the utility`s operations and research departments and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), Con Edison also knew about a trenchless technology that could renew the pipe with minimal impact to the environment--while saving the utility a substantial sum of money in the process. In the Paltem system, a woven polyester hose is injected with an epoxy resin and then inverted (turned inside out) into a pipe at an access pit. The liner then bonds to the inside wall of the pipe, forming a smooth, flexible and pressure-resistant lining. The process is environmentally safe, requires very little excavation and can be installed in days, rather than the weeks or months it can take to dig up and replace existing pipe.

  8. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  9. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  10. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  11. Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en République Démocratique du Congo: consécration d'un double standard dans l'accès aux soins

    PubMed Central

    Dunia, Gisèle Mawazo Binti

    2013-01-01

    Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité. PMID:23785563

  12. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the "Villa con ingresso a protiro"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Michela; Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella; De Buergo, Monica Alvarez; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  13. Jets estelares observados con GSAOI/GEMINI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, L. V.; Gómez, M.; Gunthard, G.

    2015-08-01

    In this contribution we present H (2.122 m) and K (2.2 m) images of the Herbig-Haro object HH 137 and the stellar jet MHO 1502, taken with GSAOI+GeMS/GEMINI. The high resolution of GSAOI allows us to identify, with great definition, new internal structures not previously reported in the literature. We perform a detailed morphological description of each object. We detect the near-infrared counterpart of HH 137, that shows a bow shock-like terminal structure and an irregular profile. MHO 1502 shows a gentle ``S-shape'' as well as several nearby nebular (H) regions, probably not associated with this object, with bow shock-like shapes, not previously cataloged.

  14. Proceedings of noise-con 91

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D.A.; Prasad, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    This volume covers the following topics related to noise control: control of mine ventilation fans; physical phenomena; gas turbine exhaust system silencing; computer models for estimating electric utility environmental noise; noise from rotary coal car unloading; noise analysis.

  15. Pro v Con Reviews: Is Food Addictive?

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Baler, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Drug addiction and obesity appear to share several properties. Both can be defined as disorders in which the saliency of a specific type of reward (food or drug) becomes exaggerated relative to, and at the expense of others rewards. Both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects, which are in part mediated by abrupt dopamine increases in the brain reward centres. The abrupt dopamine increases, in vulnerable individuals, can override the brain’s homeostatic control mechanisms. These parallels have generated interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities between addiction and obesity. Predictably, they also engendered a heated debate. Specifically, brain imaging studies are beginning to uncover common features between these two conditions and delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may underlie the observed deficits. The combined results suggest that both obese and drug-addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning, self-control, stress reactivity and interoceptive awareness. In parallel, studies are also delineating differences between them that centre on the key role that peripheral signals involved with homeostatic control exert on food intake. Here, we focus on the shared neurobiological substrates of obesity and addiction. PMID:23016694

  16. Pros and cons of vacuum pressure impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, T.

    1981-12-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using a vacuum pressure impregnation process in the application of insulating varnishes to high voltage electric coils are discussed. The process has the advantages of providing a void free system with high dielectric strength, mechanical resilience, chemical and moisture resistance, and good thermal capabilities. The disadvantages of high cost and large tank size requirements are noted.

  17. Roofing with Urethane: Pro and Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Michael; Scott, Gerald P.E.

    1981-01-01

    Gerald Scott's favorable evaluation of the foamed polyurethane roofing system is based on experiences with 55 buildings at Texas A & M. Michael Kinzer, an architect at Colorado State University, disagrees and claims that the system is difficult to install and maintain, and the cost prohibitive. (MLF)

  18. The pros and cons of code validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1988-01-01

    Computational and wind tunnel error sources are examined and quantified using specific calculations of experimental data, and a substantial comparison of theoretical and experimental results, or a code validation, is discussed. Wind tunnel error sources considered include wall interference, sting effects, Reynolds number effects, flow quality and transition, and instrumentation such as strain gage balances, electronically scanned pressure systems, hot film gages, hot wire anemometers, and laser velocimeters. Computational error sources include math model equation sets, the solution algorithm, artificial viscosity/dissipation, boundary conditions, the uniqueness of solutions, grid resolution, turbulence modeling, and Reynolds number effects. It is concluded that, although improvements in theory are being made more quickly than in experiments, wind tunnel research has the advantage of the more realistic transition process of a right turbulence model in a free-transition test.

  19. Natural-born con artists and counterfeiters

    PubMed Central

    Depczynski, Martial; Gagliano, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Deception is ubiquitous in plant and animal kingdoms and is widely thought to provide selective advantages to the individual and evolutionary success to the species. Mimicry, a form of deception whereby an individual imitates their model to advantage by closely resembling their behavior or appearance, is particularly well documented and represented by the peripheral eyespots seen on the wings of many butterfly species. The significance of butterfly eyespots has been convincingly demonstrated to serve as an anti-predatory function either by imitation of a predator’s own dangerous enemies (intimidation hypothesis) or by deflecting predator strikes toward less-vital parts of the body (deflection hypothesis). A convincing and compelling explanation in butterflies, the functional role of eyespots as anti-predatory devices has become a widely held and firmly entrenched belief that has been freely adopted into other systems. Here we comment on a recent paper that demonstrates a vastly different role for eyespots, that of intra-specific male-male competition, and make the point that even long-held beliefs need to be tested and challenged under different contexts if we are not to be deceived ourselves. PMID:23986808

  20. Stepwise versus Hierarchical Regression: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mitzi

    2007-01-01

    Multiple regression is commonly used in social and behavioral data analysis. In multiple regression contexts, researchers are very often interested in determining the "best" predictors in the analysis. This focus may stem from a need to identify those predictors that are supportive of theory. Alternatively, the researcher may simply be interested…

  1. Experimentar con un cohete de plasma

    NASA Video Gallery

    El Dr. Franklin Chang-Díaz, el primer astronauta hispano de la NASA, es actualmente el presidente y CEO de Ad Astra Rocket Company, la empresa que desarrolla el nuevo cohete de plasma VASIMR. Apren...

  2. A "Con Law" Casualty or Victory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    The 11th Circuit Court upheld a Georgia district's termination of an exemplary teacher who refused an immediate drug test after a police dog sniffed out a marijuana cigarette in her unlocked car. This case illustrates application of zero-tolerance policies to teachers and other personnel despite employees' signed contracts. (MLH)

  3. The pros and cons of phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Jefferson, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant derived compounds found in a wide variety of foods, most notably soy. A litany of health benefits including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms, are frequently attributed to phytoestrogens but many are also considered endocrine disruptors, indicating that they have the potential to cause adverse health effects as well. Consequently, the question of whether or not phytoestrogens are beneficial or harmful to human health remains unresolved. The answer is likely complex and may depend on age, health status, and even the presence or absence of specific gut microflora. Clarity on this issue is needed because global consumption is rapidly increasing. Phytoestrogens are present in numerous dietary supplements and widely marketed as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Soy infant formula now constitutes up to a third of the US market, and soy protein is now added to many processed foods. As weak estrogen agonists/antagonists with molecular and cellular properties similar to synthetic endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol A (BPA), the phytoestrogens provide a useful model to comprehensively investigate the biological impact of endocrine disruptors in general. This review weighs the evidence for and against the purported health benefits and adverse effects of phytoestrogens. PMID:20347861

  4. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

  5. Vencemos Con Libros Y La Lengua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Daniel Flores, Comp.

    The city of Richmond, California has many residents who read and speak only Spanish, and many other Chicanos and Latin Americans who are interested in their heritage. The Service Center Branch of the public library has a collection of books, magazines, and records in Spanish and in English on the problems, history and culture of these people. This…

  6. ConTACT Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Pascrell, Bill, Jr. [D-NJ-8

    2009-03-05

    11/15/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. The Foreign Language Teacher as "Con Artist."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jean S.

    A teacher's experiences in acquiring realia (mostly food-related) for her junior high school French classes are described. The collection of realistic props proved to be both a small adventure in itself and the source of a rewarding change in classroom instruction. The use of a simulated store, in which students bought and sold the imitation food,…

  8. The Pros and Cons of Petroleum Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Charles J.

    1980-01-01

    A mineral agreements expert discusses the options open to tribes, from the most standard lease form to arrangements as yet untried by Indian Nations. Discussion covers 18 basic provisions for inclusion in agreements, tax considerations, and basic forms of petroleum agreements (leases, joint ventures, production sharing, and service contracts).…

  9. Incentives for organ donation: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Chkhotua, A

    2012-01-01

    Altruism still remains the main principle of organ donation worldwide. However, since the current practices has not met the demand for organs, new strategies should be found to encourage organ donation. Implementation of financial incentives in transplantation is a matter of debate among experts in the fields of transplantation, ethics, law, and economics. It should be acknowledged that donors incur many expenses while participating in the transplant process, which seems unfair. Various forms of incentives have been suggested and are currently used worldwide. This article describes current attitudes toward incentives for in transplantation used in different countries, arguing in favor as well as against them. PMID:22841275

  10. [Generic drugs in psychopharmacology: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Cuenca, E; Zaragozá, F

    1999-01-01

    Legislation to facilitate process for generic products has been enacted and generic drugs have entered the market soon after the patent for the brand-name agent have expired. In every instance, the rationale has been economic since it is generally assumed that the copies are not only therapeutically equivalent but also a great deal less expensive than the original. Sometimes this may be so. In this short review several comments are made in order to establish the variables that may influence bioequivalence between the brand-name drug and its generics. Among them emphasis is given to the particle sizes, pharmaceutical supply, choice of the right excipient, in order to avoid possible interactions with the drug, ingredient quality and purity, etc. All these variables must be carefully controlled. Even so a patient who is changed from a trade name product to a generic drug (or vice versa) may respond a little differently, which is important in Psychopharmacology. Two or more products should be considered biologically equivalent only when it can demonstrated that they fulfil three conditions: that they have the same pharmaceutical properties; that they are equally effective in therapeutic use and that they are tolerated equally by patients being treated for the indicated uses. Regulatory agencies could require subsequent versions of an original therapeutic product the type of data regarding pharmacology, toxicology and chemical assessment that was mandatory for the introduction of the original. PMID:10611558

  11. Descending endografts for type A dissections: con.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Sandhu, Harleen K; Estrera, Anthony L

    2016-05-01

    An important goal of surgical repair of type A aortic dissection is to resect the intimal tear. Studies on the fate of residual dissection after acute type A aortic dissection repair in the past decade have driven surgeons to seek procedures to avoid distal reoperation. Aggressive surgical approach with total arch replacement in acute type A dissection has demonstrated lower incidence of distal reoperation and slower aortic growth rate compared to less aggressive ascending/hemiarch repair. Recently, successful results of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in type B aortic dissection have encouraged surgeons to further attack acute type A aortic dissection with hybrid approach: antegrade endografting in the descending thoracic true lumen as an adjunct to hemiarch or total arch repair. However, is the hybrid approach with simultaneous descending endografting justified in all the acute type A aortic dissection cases? The outcomes of the hybrid approach reported by the several groups have demonstrated 80-100% of false lumen thrombus formation in the proximal descending aorta (stented segment); however, the complete obliteration of the false lumen is only 17-50%. The incidence of distal reoperation/reintervention after hybrid approach is as high as 14% and an adjunctive procedure is often performed. Moreover, there are concerns about additional risks associated with the hybrid procedures, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), stent graft induced new entry and stroke. The data on this new approach are still very limited. Hence, further study is warranted to prove its safety and durability. PMID:27386411

  12. Mandatory Arbitration: Weighing the Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settenbrino, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    When big businesses enter into mandatory arbitration agreements with consumers, the large companies typically tout the fairness while the individual is left feeling cheated. Now that mandatory arbitration clauses are finding their way into more and more contracts signed by school systems, school boards and district administrators are realizing…

  13. Hester Prynne as Role Model: Pro & Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWalters, John B.; DeSalvo, Louise

    1980-01-01

    McWalters denies DeSalvo's previous claim (see EJ 209 302) that "The Scarlet Letter" harms students through its message of repressed sexuality; he suggests that the book does not condemn sexuality. DeSalvo replies that "The Scarlet Letter" is presented to students in a harmful way; she again calls for the use of literature that celebrates…

  14. Pros and cons of subpectoral implantation.

    PubMed

    Papillon, J

    1976-04-01

    At the present time, there is no universally accepted surgical technique or prosthesis for augmenting breast volume. Each surgeon has to choose with regard to shape, consistency, and volume, according to his own conviction and respecting his patient's priorities. These priorities will vary with age, profession, sexual habits, and marital and social status. In order to get the best possible results, the plastic surgeon should be adept at alternative methods and should not be restricted to one technique or one prosthesis. Patients vary considerably so our methods should be diversified. Our subpectoral implantations have given us better results than our retroglandular ones, which have been performed during the same period of time and with the same prosthesis. Consequently, retropectoral implantation is still our preferred procedure. We think that this technique, with its proper indications, deserves wider application. PMID:1261186

  15. The office surgical suite: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Simons, R L

    1980-05-01

    Today interest and enthusiasm regarding facial plastic surgery is burgeoning. Office surgery provides a new, more expedient, comfortable method of delivery of health care while directly responding to the growing concern among the public and government for improved cost containment of medical services. Awareness of improved surgical techniques and facilities will help to ensure tomorrow's continued growth and satisfaction for both the surgeon and his patient. PMID:7393580

  16. The Big Con: China's Historical Sabotage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrence Cheng

    2009-01-01

    On June 4, 1989, the Chinese military, under orders from the highest levels of government, violently crushed peaceful civilian demonstrations in Beijing, most symbolically in and around Tiananmen Square. In the end, the Chinese government claimed that the death toll was approximately 200, but the Chinese Red Cross reported 2,000 to 3,000 deaths.…

  17. McLuhan: Pro and Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Raymond, Ed.

    Twenty-one critical essays on the ideas and works of Marshall McLuhan are offered in this review. In the course of the essays, McLuhan is characterized alternately as a genius, an extrapolator, and an oracle; a defender of the choice of choicelessness; a generalizer who rearranges, misinterprets, and misreads the facts to support his theses; an…

  18. Bilingual Education in Kyrgyzstan: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korth, Britta

    This paper discusses the potential of bilingual education and its possible implementation in Kyrgzystan, focusing on why bilingual education can be useful in solving linguistic tension in Kyrgzystan and which organizational questions must be considered to make bilingual education effective. The paper begins by examining and refuting common…

  19. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  20. Endoscopist-directed propofol: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Sang Kil

    2014-03-01

    Concerns about the safety of endoscopist-directed propofol (EDP) have been voiced that propofol should be given only by healthcare professionals trained in the administration of general anesthesia. Here we discuss the safety and drawbacks of EDP for routine endoscopic procedures. Currently, both diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy are well tolerated and accepted by both patients and endoscopists due to the application of sedation in most clinics worldwide. Accordingly, propofol use is increasing in many countries. It is crucial for endoscopists to be very familiar with the use of propofol or a combination of drugs. However, the controversy regarding the administration of sedation by an endoscopist or an anesthesiologist continues. Until now, there have been no randomized control trials comparing sedation induced by propofol administered by an endoscopist or by an anesthesiologist. It might be difficult to perform this kind of study. For the convenience and safety of sedative endoscopy, it would be important that EDP be generally applied to endoscopic procedures, and for more safety, an anesthesiologist may automatically take care of particular patients at high risk of suffering from propofol side effects. PMID:24765594