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1

Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Results Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds- Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken - the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds - the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD= 0.341, LK= 0.357, DA=0.349 and CH= 0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The FST values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The FST values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. Conclusion These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the same ancestors. These indigenous chicken breeds were more closely related to red jungle fowls than those of the commercial breeds. These findings showed that the proposed SNP panel can effectively be used to characterize the four Thai indigenous chickens. PMID:24674423

2014-01-01

2

Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*  

PubMed Central

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

2013-01-01

3

Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB  

PubMed Central

Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:25178289

Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

2014-01-01

4

PROCESSING, PRODUCTS, AND FOOD SAFETY Differences in Carcass and Meat Characteristics Between Chicken Indigenous to Northern Thailand (Black-Boned and Thai Native) and Imported Extensive Breeds (Bresse and Rhode Island Red)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of 4 geno- types of chicken, all suitable for extensive fattening, on carcass and meat quality using 320 chickens divided into 4 equally sized groups. The comparison included 2 indig- enous chicken strains from Thailand, Black-boned and Thai native (Thai), and 2 imported chicken breeds, Bresse and Rhode Island Red (Rhode, a layer breed). The

S. Jaturasitha; T. Srikanchai; M. Kreuzer; M. Wicke

5

Genetic dissection of growth traits in a Chinese indigenous × commercial broiler chicken cross  

PubMed Central

Background In China, consumers often prefer indigenous broiler chickens over commercial breeds, as they have characteristic meat qualities requested within traditional culinary customs. However, the growth-rate of these indigenous breeds is slower than that of the commercial broilers, which means they have not yet reached their full economic value. Therefore, combining the valuable meat quality of the native chickens with the efficiency of the commercial broilers is of interest. In this study, we generated an F2 intercross between the slow growing native broiler breed, Huiyang Beard chicken, and the fast growing commercial broiler breed, High Quality chicken Line A, and used it to map loci explaining the difference in growth rate between these breeds. Results A genome scan to identify main-effect loci affecting 24 growth-related traits revealed nine distinct QTL on six chromosomes. Many QTL were pleiotropic and conformed to the correlation patterns observed between phenotypes. Most of the mapped QTL were found in locations where growth QTL have been reported in other populations, although the effects were greater in this population. A genome scan for pairs of interacting loci identified a number of additional QTL in 10 other genomic regions. The epistatic pairs explained 6–8% of the residual phenotypic variance. Seven of the 10 epistatic QTL mapped in regions containing candidate genes in the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathway, suggesting the importance of this pathway in the regulation of growth in this chicken population. Conclusions The main-effect QTL detected using a standard one-dimensional genome scan accounted for a significant fraction of the observed phenotypic variance in this population. Furthermore, genes in known pathways present interesting candidates for further exploration. This study has thus located several QTL regions as promising candidates for further study, which will increase our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying growth-related traits in chickens. PMID:23497136

2013-01-01

6

The influence of genetic background versus commercial breeding programs on chicken immunocompetence.  

PubMed

Immunocompetence of livestock plays an important role in farm profitability because it directly affects health maintenance. Genetics significantly influences the immune system, and the genotypic structure of modern fast-growing chickens has been changed, particularly after decades of breeding for higher production. Therefore, this study was designed to help determine if intensive breeding programs have adversely affected immunocompetence or whether the immune response profiles are controlled to greater extent by genetic background. Thus, 3 indigenous chicken populations from different genetic backgrounds and 2 globally available modern broiler strains, Ross 308 and Cobb 500, were evaluated for various aspects of immune response. These included antibody responses against sheep red blood cells and Brucella abortus antigen, as well as some aspects of cell-mediated immunocompetence by toe web swelling test and in vitro blood mononuclear cell proliferation. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in antibody responses to both antigens and cellular proliferation were observed among populations but not consistently between modern commercial strains versus the indigenous populations. In fact, the immune response profiles of Cobb 500 were similar to the indigenous populations, but varied compared with the other commercial strain. In addition, considerable variation was recorded between indigenous populations for all responses measured in this study. The results of this study suggest that the variation observed in immune responses between these strains of chickens is most likely due to differences in the genetic background between each strain of chicken rather than by commercial selection programs for high production. PMID:24570426

Emam, Mehdi; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Barjesteh, Neda; Nikbakht, Gholamreza; Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Charkhkar, Saeid; Mallard, Bonnie

2014-01-01

7

Proteome Changes in Thai Indigenous Chicken Muscle during Growth Period  

PubMed Central

Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1), heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25) and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3). These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i) the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05), (ii) the expression levels of APOA1 and FABP3 proteins were negatively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05) and (iii) the expression levels of the HSP25 protein were up- and down-regulated during growth period. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the FABP3 and HSP25 genes were significantly decreased in muscle during the growth period (p<0.05), whereas no significant changes of the PGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period. PMID:19893640

Teltathum, Tawatchai; Mekchay, Supamit

2009-01-01

8

Comparison of production systems for efficient use of indigenous pig breeds in developing countries.  

PubMed

Conserving pig genetic resources and improving their productivity is important to increase returns over investment in developing countries. The purebred, first-cross, rotational cross and backcross matings representing production systems based on pig breeds indigenous to the country and exotic pig breeds were investigated. The number of pigs in the nucleus and commercial herds necessary to produce a defined quantity of pork was considered. The amount of heterosis between the indigenous and exotic breeds, superiority in meat production, and degree of inferiority in reproductive performance of the exotic breed compared with that of the indigenous breed were investigated. The number of breeding pigs in the whole system was in the following order: pure breeding (PB) > first-cross (F1) > rotational cross (RC) > backcross (BC) systems. The number of breeding pigs in the nucleus herds of the RC and BC systems was smaller than that in the nucleus herds of the PB and F1 systems. The degree of inferiority in reproductive performance of the exotic breed compared with that of the indigenous breed affected the efficiency of the production system. PMID:23480699

Furukawa, Tsutomu; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Ishii, Kazuo; Thuy, Le T; Satoh, Masahiro

2013-03-01

9

Signatures of Selection in the Genomes of Commercial and Non-Commercial Chicken Breeds  

PubMed Central

Identifying genomics regions that are affected by selection is important to understand the domestication and selection history of the domesticated chicken, as well as understanding molecular pathways underlying phenotypic traits and breeding goals. While whole-genome approaches, either high-density SNP chips or massively parallel sequencing, have been successfully applied to identify evidence for selective sweeps in chicken, it has been difficult to distinguish patterns of selection and stochastic and breed specific effects. Here we present a study to identify selective sweeps in a large number of chicken breeds (67 in total) using a high-density (58 K) SNP chip. We analyzed commercial chickens representing all major breeding goals. In addition, we analyzed non-commercial chicken diversity for almost all recognized traditional Dutch breeds and a selection of representative breeds from China. Based on their shared history or breeding goal we in silico grouped the breeds into 14 breed groups. We identified 396 chromosomal regions that show suggestive evidence of selection in at least one breed group with 26 of these regions showing strong evidence of selection. Of these 26 regions, 13 were previously described and 13 yield new candidate genes for performance traits in chicken. Our approach demonstrates the strength of including many different populations with similar, and breed groups with different selection histories to reduce stochastic effects based on single populations. PMID:22384281

Elferink, Martin G.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Vereijken, Addie; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Groenen, Martien A. M.

2012-01-01

10

Genetic Parameters of Embryonic Viability Traits in a Traditional Chicken Breed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common practice of candling chicken eggs during incubation, allows classification of embryonic mortality at three stages: early, mid-term and late embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of embryonic mortality at three stages of incubation as well as fertility and hatchability in an ancient chicken breed. Hatchability of fertile eggs had a favourable genetic

J.-M. Lariviere; C. Michaux; P. Leroy

2009-01-01

11

FASN gene polymorphism in indigenous cattle breeds of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the variants of the thioesterase (TE) beta-ketoacyl reductase (KR) domains of the Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) gene, in the East Anatolian Red (EAR) and South Anatolian Red (SAR) cattle breeds. It has been suggested that the FASN gene is effective on fatty acid composition of meat in cattle. In this study, the genotype and allele frequencies of g.17924 A>G, g.18440 G>A and g.16024 G>A, g.16039 T>C in TE and KR domains, respectively, were detected by using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The g.18663 T>C polymorphism of the TE domain was determined by direct sequencing. The GG genotype of the g.17924 A>G polymorphism, which affects unsaturated fatty acid composition positively, has a high frequency in EAR and SAR breeds. The frequencies of the two haplotypes g.16024 G>A and g.16039 T>C in the KR domain were found to be significantly high in both breeds. These haplotypes also have positive effects on unsaturated fatty acid composition. The AA genotype of the g. 18440 G>A polymorphism, which is suggested to be absent in Bos taurus breeds, was detected in SAR and EAR breeds with frequencies close to those in Bos indicus breeds. In conclusion, we suggest that SAR and EAR cattle breeds have an advantage in terms of genotype and haplotype distribution of the polymorphisms in TE and KR domains of the FASN gene. Additionally g.18440 G>A polymorphism might be a potential marker for breed discrimination. PMID:24745147

Oztabak, Kemal; Gursel, Feraye Esen; Akis, Iraz; Ates, Atila; Yardibi, Hasret; Turkay, Gulhan

2014-01-01

12

Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600?bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens can be grouped into two clades, IV and IIIa only. Median joining networks analysis showed that haplotype LBB49 has the highest frequency. The hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variation within the population was 88.6% and the differentiation among the population was 11.4%. When the populations was redefined into two geographical zones, rich and poor Savanna, the results were fractioned into three genetic variations: between individuals within population 95.5%, between populations within the group 0.75%, and genetic variation between groups 3.75%. The pair wise Fst showed high genetic difference between Betwil populations and the rest with Fst ranging from 0.1492 to 0.2447. We found that there is large number of gene exchanges within the Sudanese indigenous chicken (Nm = 4.622). PMID:25535590

Wani, Charles E.; Yousif, Ibrahim A.; Ibrahim, Muntasir E.; Musa, Hassan H.

2014-01-01

13

Genetic Diversity and Relationships of Korean Chicken Breeds Based on 30 Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

The effective management of endangered animal genetic resources is one of the most important concerns of modern breeding. Evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship of local breeds is an important factor towards the identification of unique and valuable genetic resources. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of six Korean native chicken breeds (n = 300), which were compared with three imported breeds in Korea (n = 150). For the analysis of genetic diversity, 30 microsatellite markers from FAO/ISAG recommended diversity panel or previously reported microsatellite markers were used. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15 per locus, with a mean of 8.13. The average observed heterozygosity within native breeds varied between 0.46 and 0.59. The overall heterozygote deficiency (FIT) in native chicken was 0.234±0.025. Over 30.7% of FIT was contributed by within-population deficiency (FIS). Bayesian clustering analysis, using the STRUCTURE software suggested 9 clusters. This study may provide the background for future studies to identify the genetic uniqueness of the Korean native chicken breeds PMID:25178290

Suh, Sangwon; Sharma, Aditi; Lee, Seunghwan; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Hyun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Yeon, Seong-Hum; Kim, Dong-Hun; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu

2014-01-01

14

Genetic diversity and relationships of korean chicken breeds based on 30 microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The effective management of endangered animal genetic resources is one of the most important concerns of modern breeding. Evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship of local breeds is an important factor towards the identification of unique and valuable genetic resources. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of six Korean native chicken breeds (n = 300), which were compared with three imported breeds in Korea (n = 150). For the analysis of genetic diversity, 30 microsatellite markers from FAO/ISAG recommended diversity panel or previously reported microsatellite markers were used. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15 per locus, with a mean of 8.13. The average observed heterozygosity within native breeds varied between 0.46 and 0.59. The overall heterozygote deficiency (F IT) in native chicken was 0.234±0.025. Over 30.7% of F IT was contributed by within-population deficiency (F IS). Bayesian clustering analysis, using the STRUCTURE software suggested 9 clusters. This study may provide the background for future studies to identify the genetic uniqueness of the Korean native chicken breeds. PMID:25178290

Suh, Sangwon; Sharma, Aditi; Lee, Seunghwan; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Hyun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Yeon, Seong-Hum; Kim, Dong-Hun; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu

2014-10-01

15

Breeding and Non-Breeding Survival of Lesser Prairie-Chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus in Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus have declined throughout their range because of loss or fragmen- tation of habitat from conversion of native prairie to agricultural cropland, exacerbated by overgrazing and drought. We used data from radio-marked lesser prairie-chickens to determine whether differences in survival ex- isted between populations occurring in two areas dominated by different vegetation types (sand sagebrush Artemisia filifolia

Eddie K. Lyons; Bret A. Collier; Nova J. Silvy; Roel R. Lopez; Benjamin E. Toole; Ryan S. Jones; Stephen J. DeMaso

2009-01-01

16

Characterization of the GHR gene genetic variation in Chinese indigenous goat breeds.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene exon 10, characterize the genetic variation in three Chinese indigenous goat breeds, and search for its potential association with cashmere traits. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) protocol has been developed for rapid genotyping of the GHR gene in goats. One hundred seventy-eight goats from Liaoning Cashmere (96), Inner Mongolia White Cashmere (40), and Chengdu Grey (42) breeds in China were genotyped at GHR locus using the protocol developed. In all goat breeds investigated, a SNP in exon 10 of GHR gene has been identified by analyzing genomic DNA. The polymorphism consists of a single nucleotide substitution A ? G, resulting in two alleles named, respectively, A and G based on the nucleotide at the position. The allele A was found to be more common in the animals investigated, and seems to be more consistent with cattle and zebu at this polymorphic site found in goats. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of genotype distributions of GHR locus was verified in Liaoning Cashmere, and Inner Mongolia White Cashmere breeds. According to the classification of polymorphism information content (PIC), Chengdu Grey was less polymorphic than Liaoning Cashmere and Inner Mongolia White Cashmere breeds at this locus. The phylogenetic tree of different species based on the nucleotide sequences of GHR gene exon 10 is generally in agreement with the known species relationship. No significant association was found between the polymorphism revealed and the cashmere traits analyzed in present work. PMID:20364329

Bai, W L; Zhou, C Y; Ren, Y; Yin, R H; Jiang, W Q; Zhao, S J; Zhang, S C; Zhang, B L; Luo, G B; Zhao, Z H

2011-01-01

17

Breed-dependent transcriptional regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, cytosolic form, expression in the liver of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Hepatic gluconeogenesis is the main source of glucose during chicken embryonic development, and it plays a major role in glucose homeostasis for developing embryos. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of gluconeogenesis, yet how hepatic PEPCK expression is differentially regulated between chicken breeds remains elusive. In this study, fertile eggs from a slow-growing Chinese Yellow Feathered Chicken and a fast-growing White Recessive Rock Chicken were incubated under the same standard conditions, and serum and liver samples were collected on embryonic d 18 (18E). The fast-growing breed had a significantly higher fetal weight (P < 0.01) and serum glucose concentration (P < 0.05) compared with the slow-growing breed. The fast-growing breed also had significantly higher hepatic mRNA expression levels of the cystolic form of PEPCK (PEPCK-c; P < 0.05) and significantly higher hepatic mRNA and protein expression levels of cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB-1; P < 0.05). Moreover, the binding of phosphorylated CREB-1 to the PEPCK-c promoter tended to be higher in the fast-growing breed (P = 0.08). Breed-specific epigenetic modifications of the PEPCK-c promoter were also observed; the fast-growing breed demonstrated lower CpG methylation (P < 0.05) and histone H3 (P < 0.05) levels but more histone H3 acetylation (H3ac) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3; P < 0.05) compared with the slow-growing breed. Our results suggest that hepatic PEPCK-c expression is transcriptionally regulated in a breed-specific manner and that fast- and slow-growing broiler chicken fetuses exhibit different epigenetic modifications on their PEPCK-c promoter regions. PMID:24046422

Guo, Feng; Zhang, Yanhong; Su, Lanli; Ahmed, Abdelkareem A; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

2013-10-01

18

The gait dynamics of the modern broiler chicken: a cautionary tale of selective breeding.  

PubMed

One of the most extraordinary results of selective breeding is the modern broiler chicken, whose phenotypic attributes reflect its genetic success. Unfortunately, leg health issues and poor walking ability are prevalent in the broiler population, with the exact aetiopathogenesis unknown. Here we present a biomechanical analysis of the gait dynamics of the modern broiler and its two pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (A and B) in order to clarify how changes in basic morphology are associated with the way these chickens walk. We collected force plate and kinematic data from 25 chickens (market age), over a range of walking speeds, to quantify the three-dimensional dynamics of the centre of mass (CoM) and determine how these birds modulate the force and mechanical work of locomotion. Common features of their gait include extremely slow walking speeds, a wide base of support and large lateral motions of the CoM, which primarily reflect changes to cope with their apparent instability and large body mass. These features allowed the chickens to keep their peak vertical forces low, but resulted in high mediolateral forces, which exceeded fore-aft forces. Gait differences directly related to morphological characteristics also exist. This was particularly evident in Pureline B birds, which have a more crouched limb posture. Mechanical costs of transport were still similar across all lines and were not exceptional when compared with more wild-type ground-running birds. Broiler chickens seem to have an awkward gait, but some aspects of their dynamics show rather surprising similarities to other avian bipeds. PMID:23685968

Paxton, Heather; Daley, Monica A; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

2013-09-01

19

Behavioural and physiological responses of three chicken breeds to pre-slaughter shackling and acute heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The aim of this study was to compare the behavioural and physiological responses to hanging and acute heat stress in three different chicken breeds. Chicks were obtained from a slow-growing French ‘Label Rouge’ line (SGL), a fast-growing standard line (FGL) and a heavy line (HL). The SGL, FGL and HL birds were slaughtered at their respective market ages of

M. Debut; C. Berri; C. Arnould; D. Guemené; V. Santé-Lhoutellier; N. Sellier; E. Baéza; N. Jehl; Y. Jégo; C. Beaumont; E. Le Bihan-Duval

2005-01-01

20

The genome-wide structure of two economically important indigenous Sicilian cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, provided background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals. The aim of this work was to investigate the genetic structure, the genome-wide estimates of inbreeding, coancestry, effective population size (Ne), and the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 2 economically important Sicilian local cattle breeds, Cinisara (CIN) and Modicana (MOD), using the Illumina Bovine SNP50K v2 BeadChip. To understand the genetic relationship and to place both Sicilian breeds in a global context, genotypes from 134 other domesticated bovid breeds were used. Principal component analysis showed that the Sicilian cattle breeds were closer to individuals of Bos taurus taurus from Eurasia and formed nonoverlapping clusters with other breeds. Between the Sicilian cattle breeds, MOD was the most differentiated, whereas the animals belonging to the CIN breed showed a lower value of assignment, the presence of substructure, and genetic links with the MOD breed. The average molecular inbreeding and coancestry coefficients were moderately high, and the current estimates of Ne were low in both breeds. These values indicated a low genetic variability. Considering levels of LD between adjacent markers, the average r(2) in the MOD breed was comparable to those reported for others cattle breeds, whereas CIN showed a lower value. Therefore, these results support the need of more dense SNP arrays for a high-power association mapping and genomic selection efficiency, particularly for the CIN cattle breed. Controlling molecular inbreeding and coancestry would restrict inbreeding depression, the probability of losing beneficial rare alleles, and therefore the risk of extinction. The results generated from this study have important implications for the development of conservation and/or selection breeding programs in these 2 local cattle breeds. PMID:25253807

Mastrangelo, S; Saura, M; Tolone, M; Salces-Ortiz, J; Di Gerlando, R; Bertolini, F; Fontanesi, L; Sardina, M T; Serrano, M; Portolano, B

2014-11-01

21

Chicken Toxoplasmosis in Different Types of Breeding: A Seroprevalence Survey in Southern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Since the meat of chicken is considered one of the sources of the human infection, this study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging with semi-industrial and industrial chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Shiraz, Southern, Iran. 203 serum samples from free-ranging chickens of sub-urban districts, 50 serum samples of semi-industri al chickens which rearing in

Q. Asgari; F. Akrami Mohajeri; M. Kalantari; B. Esmaeilzadeh; A. Farzaneh; M. Moazeni; S. R. Ghalebi; F. Saremi; M. Zarifi Kalyani; M. H. Motazedian

2008-01-01

22

THE West African Dwarf (WAD) goat is the indigenous breed in the humid and sub-humid zones of West Africa. It is of  

E-print Network

THE West African Dwarf (WAD) goat is the indigenous breed in the humid and sub-humid zones of West Africa. It is of major economic importance to rural communities, where the vast majority of the goat population in these zones is to be found. In Eastern Nigeria, WAD goat production is essentially a subsidiary

Nottingham, University of

23

Valuing Indigenous Cattle Breeds in Kenya: An Empirical Comparison of Stated and Revealed Preference Value Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compare revealed and stated-preference approaches to value traits of cattle in Kenya. The premise is that much can be learnt about non-market values of indigenous animal genetic resources (AnGRs) from the use of multi-attribute stated-preference methods, if these compare well with revealed-preference results. The objective is to investigate the performance of choice experiments (CEs) in Maasai

Riccardo Scarpa; Eric S. K. Ruto; Patti Kristjanson; Maren Radeny; Adam G. Drucker; John E. O. Rege

2002-01-01

24

Expression Pattern of Genes of RLR-Mediated Antiviral Pathway in Different-Breed Chicken Response to Marek's Disease Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

It has been known that the chicken's resistance to disease was affected by chicken's genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breed chickens at 4, 7, and 21?d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN-? genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21?d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN-? genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV. PMID:23710447

Feng, Ze-Qing; Lian, Ting; Huang, Yong; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Yi-Ping

2013-01-01

25

Breeding and Genetics Symposium: a systems biology definition for chicken semen quality.  

PubMed

Rooster semen is an effluent from paired reproductive tracts. Each tract includes a testis, epididymis, and deferent duct. Upon ejaculation, efficacy of sperm propulsion varies among roosters. This phenotype is sperm mobility, that is, the movement of sperm against resistance at body temperature. The present work 1) compares reproductive tract throughput between lines of chickens selected for low and high sperm mobility, 2) demonstrates how semen quality can be defined in terms of an interaction between reproductive tract throughput and the proportion of mobile sperm ejaculated, 3) confirms that phenotype can be linked to genomewide differences in SNPlotype, and 4) shows how breeding can affect semen quality. Sperm mobility phenotype distributions were based on the average of duplicate observations per male (n = 241 and 262 roosters for low and high lines, respectively). Distributions were skewed and normal for low and high lines, respectively. Subsequent analyses used these base populations as sources for test subjects. In the first analysis, 10 males were selected from the mode of each distribution, and sperm mobility data were evaluated by nested ANOVA. Variation was observed between lines (P < 0.0001) but not among males within lines (P = 0.980). Sperm mobility data along with data from paired reproductive tracts were used to estimate combined reproductive tract throughput. Whereas testicular output was 1.2-fold greater in the low line (P = 0.037), the output of mobile sperm per day was 10.5-fold greater in the high line (P < 0.0001). Deferent duct transit differed between tails of the low line (P < 0.0001) but not between the tails of the high line (P = 0.514). Males from the mode and upper tail of the low line were SNPlotyped using a 60k chip by DNA Landmarks. These test subjects were used to associate phenotype with SNPlotype because founder effects and genetic drift could be discounted. Loci of interest were found on multiple chromosomes. Loci on chromosome Z were of particular interest because roosters are homozygous for this sex chromosome and a pronounced maternal effect was observed in a prior heritability study. Midrange phenotypes were produced by crossing low and high sperm mobility lines. Our experimental outcomes demonstrate that genes affect reproductive tract function as well as sperm cell attributes and thereby make semen quality subject to genetic selection. PMID:23100593

Froman, D P; Rhoads, D D

2013-02-01

26

Analysis of Genome-Wide Copy Number Variations in Chinese Indigenous and Western Pig Breeds by 60 K SNP Genotyping Arrays  

PubMed Central

Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a substantial source of structural variants in mammals and contribute to both normal phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. Although low-resolution CNV maps are produced in many domestic animals, and several reports have been published about the CNVs of porcine genome, the differences between Chinese and western pigs still remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used Porcine SNP60 BeadChip and PennCNV algorithm to perform a genome-wide CNV detection in 302 individuals from six Chinese indigenous breeds (Tongcheng, Laiwu, Luchuan, Bama, Wuzhishan and Ningxiang pigs), three western breeds (Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc) and one hybrid (Tongcheng×Duroc). A total of 348 CNV Regions (CNVRs) across genome were identified, covering 150.49 Mb of the pig genome or 6.14% of the autosomal genome sequence. In these CNVRs, 213 CNVRs were found to exist only in the six Chinese indigenous breeds, and 60 CNVRs only in the three western breeds. The characters of CNVs in four Chinese normal size breeds (Luchuan, Tongcheng and Laiwu pigs) and two minipig breeds (Bama and Wuzhishan pigs) were also analyzed in this study. Functional annotation suggested that these CNVRs possess a great variety of molecular function and may play important roles in phenotypic and production traits between Chinese and western breeds. Our results are important complementary to the CNV map in pig genome, which provide new information about the diversity of Chinese and western pig breeds, and facilitate further research on porcine genome CNVs. PMID:25198154

Sun, Yaqi; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, Chao; Yu, Shaobo; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Bin; Li, Kui; Liu, Bang

2014-01-01

27

The breeding animals used to produce the germ-free chicken are of a White Leghorn strain, (Orthoxenic PA 12), created at our Station.  

E-print Network

. On day 18 of incubation, the eggs after sterilization of the shells, are transferred into a sterileThe breeding animals used to produce the germ-free chicken are of a White Leghorn strain, (Orthoxenic PA 12), created at our Station. After sanitation, the eggs are hatched in protected atmosphere

Boyer, Edmond

28

Behavioural and physiological responses of three chicken breeds to pre-slaughter shackling and acute heat stress.  

PubMed

1. The aim of this study was to compare the behavioural and physiological responses to hanging and acute heat stress in three different chicken breeds. Chicks were obtained from a slow-growing French 'Label Rouge' line (SGL), a fast-growing standard line (FGL) and a heavy line (HL). The SGL, FGL and HL birds were slaughtered at their respective market ages of 12, 6 and 6 weeks, in an attempt to achieve similar body weights. Before stunning, birds were either shackled by their legs on the moving line for 2 min (shackling stress: SH) or placed in a room at 35 degrees C and 60% of humidity for 3.5 h and then shackled for 2 min (acute heat stress plus shackling: H + SH) or subjected to minimal stress by shackling for 10 s before stunning (control group: C). 2. Bird physiological responses to the three pre-slaughter treatments were estimated by measuring blood corticosterone, glycaemia, creatine kinase activity, acid-base status and electrolyte concentration as well as lactate content and glycolytic potential in the breast (Pectoralis major) and thigh (Ilio tibialis) muscles. Behavioural responses to shackling stress were evaluated by measuring wing flapping duration, straightening up attempts and vocalisations. 3. Blood corticosterone was higher in SH and H+SH groups than in the C group, regardless of genotype. The struggling activity on the shackle line differed among chicken breeds. It was more intense and occurred more rapidly after hanging in the SGL birds than in both other breeds. Furthermore, SGL struggling activity was not affected by hanging duration while it increased with hanging duration in FGL and HL birds. 4. Wing flapping duration was negatively correlated with blood pH, bicarbonate concentration and positively correlated with breast muscle lactate content, indicating that struggling stimulated antemortem glycolysis activity in breast muscle. Acute heat stress affected blood Ca2+ and Na+ concentration and increased glycaemia and glycolytic potential of thigh muscle. 5. Both acute heat stress and shackling before slaughter were experienced as stressful events by all types of birds. PMID:16359104

Debut, M; Berri, C; Arnould, C; Guemené, D; Santé-Lhoutellier, V; Sellier, N; Baéza, E; Jehl, N; Jégo, Y; Beaumont, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E

2005-10-01

29

The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens  

E-print Network

The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler and perhaps contributed to lameness. We measured the muscle architectural properties of the right pelvic limb in pelvic limb muscle mass in the commer- cial line birds that may compromise their locomotor abilities

Hutchinson, John

30

Reproductive parameters of the Italian local chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global use of highly productive breeds has been coupled to a loss of genetic diversity in most species of farm animals. A considerable porti on of avian genetic stocks has disappeared in the last decades and the relevance to establish pol icies toward conservation and sustainable use of animal genetic resources is widely recognised. O ur aim was to

L. ZANIBONI; M. G. MANGIAGALLI; S. TONA; S. CEROLINI

31

Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard\\u000a chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard\\u000a pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois

C. Lans; K. Georges; G. Brown

2007-01-01

32

Protection conferred by recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (rHVT-H5) vaccine in the rearing period in two commercial layer chicken breeds in Egypt.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006(H5N1)) clade 2.2 virus (rHVT-H5) vaccine was evaluated in two layer chicken breeds (White Bovans [WB] and Brown Shaver [BS]). One dose of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered at day 1 and birds were monitored serologically (haemagglutination inhibition test) and virologically for 19 weeks. Maternally-derived antibody and post-vaccination H5 antibody titres were measured using the Chinese (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) HA and the Egyptian (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1)) HA as antigens. The challenge was conducted at 19 weeks of age and on six experimental groups: Groups I (WB) and II (BS), both vaccinated and challenged; Groups III (WB) and IV (BS), both vaccinated but not challenged; Groups V and VI, unvaccinated specific pathogen free chickens, serving respectively as positive and negative controls. The challenge virus was the clade 2.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 at a dose of 10(6) median embryo infective dose. For both breeds, complete maternally-derived antibody waning occurred at the age of 4 weeks. The immune response to rHVT-H5 vaccination was detected from the sixth week. The seroconversion rates for both breeds reached 85.7 to 100% in the eighth week of age. Protection levels of 73.3%, 60% and 0% were respectively recorded in Groups I, II and V. No mortalities occurred in the unchallenged groups. Group I showed superior results for all measured post-challenge parameters. In conclusion, a single rHVT-H5 hatchery vaccination conferred a high level of protection for a relatively extended period. This vaccine could be an important tool for future A/H5N1 prevention/control in endemic countries. Further studies on persistence of immunity beyond 19 weeks, need for booster with inactivated vaccines, breed susceptibility and vaccinal response, and transmissibility are recommended. PMID:25245772

Kilany, Walid; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Selim, Abdullah; Tripodi, Astrid; Samy, Mohamed; Sobhy, Heba; VonDobschuetz, Sophie; Safwat, Marwa; Saad, Mona; Erfan, Ahmed; Hassan, Mohamed; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma

2014-12-01

33

Association of chicken growth hormone polymorphisms with egg production.  

PubMed

Growth hormone (GH) has diverse functions in animals, together with other hormones from the somatotropic axis. Here, chicken GH (cGH) was investigated in recessive white chickens and Qingyuan partridge chickens as a candidate gene affecting egg production traits. Chicken egg production traits were studied in association with 4 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (T185G, G662A, T3094C, and C3199T). Genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. T185G was significantly associated with the egg production traits of body weight at first egg (BW), egg weight at first egg (EW), and the total egg production of 300-day old birds (EN 300). T3094C was also significantly associated with certain egg production traits; however, it affected the 2 breeds differently. Haplotypes of the 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms were also significantly associated with egg production traits of chicken age at first egg laying, BW, EW, and EN 300. H1H6 was the most advantageous diplotype for egg production. We putatively concluded that polymorphisms in the cGH gene and its haplotypes could be used as potential molecular markers for egg production traits to enhance the breeding programs of indigenous chickens. PMID:25062422

Su, Y J; Shu, J T; Zhang, M; Zhang, X Y; Shan, Y J; Li, G H; Yin, J M; Song, W T; Li, H F; Zhao, G P

2014-01-01

34

Identification of spontaneous mutations within the long-range limb-specific Sonic Hedgehog enhancer (ZRS) that alter Sonic Hedgehog expression in the chicken limb mutants oligozeugodactly and Silkie Breed  

PubMed Central

The evolutionarily conserved, non-coding ~800 base-pair zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) regulatory sequence (ZRS) controls Shh expression in the posterior limb. We report that the chicken mutant oligozeugodactly (ozd), which lacks limb Shh expression, has a large deletion within the ZRS. Furthermore, the preaxial polydactylous, Silkie Breed chicken, which develops ectopic anterior limb Shh expression, has a single base-pair change within the ZRS. Using an in vivo reporter assay to examine enhancer function in the chick limb, we demonstrate that the wild-type ZRS drives ?-galactosidase reporter expression in the ZPA of both wild-type and ozd limbs. The Silkie ZRS drives ?-galactosidase in both posterior and anterior Shh domains in wild-type limb buds. These results support the hypothesis that the ZRS integrates positive and negative prepatterned regulatory inputs in the chicken model system and demonstrate the utility of the chicken limb as an efficient genetic system for gene regulatory studies. PMID:21509895

Maas, Sarah A.; Suzuki, Takayuki; Fallon, John F.

2011-01-01

35

The magnetic field effect affecting on the metallic chemical components of egg shell as demonstrated for breeding chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chickens were raised under fixation of the permanent magnet (80 mT) and the effect of extra magnetic field, which affects on the content of the several inorganic chemical elements of egg shell, was investigated by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. From 3 days after fixing the magnet, the relative concentration of Ca begun to increase. After 10 days, the relative contents

Kazuhiko Ishizu; Hideo Hasegawa; Isao Yokoi; Akitane Mori

2000-01-01

36

Breed differences in the biochemical determinism of ultimate pH in breast muscles of broiler chickens--a key role of AMP deaminase?  

PubMed

The biochemical determinism of ultimate pH (pHu) was studied in the pectoralis muscle of broiler chickens. Thirty birds of 3 genetic types (a fast-growing standard (FG), a slow-growing French "Label Rouge" (SG), and a heavy line type (HL)) were kept under conventional breeding methods until the usual marketing age (6, 12, and 6 wk for FG, SG, and HL birds, respectively). The birds were divided into 3 different antemortem treatment groups: minimum stress, shackling for a longer time (2 min), and heat stress (exposure to 35 degrees C for 3.5 h and shackling for 2 min before stunning). The birds were slaughtered on the same day. The pHu differed (P < 0.001) among the 3 genetic types, ranking as follows: FG (5.95+/-0.01) > HL (5.85+/-0.02) > SG (5.73+/-0.02). In SG and HL birds, pHu was strongly correlated with muscle glycogen content at slaughter (r = -0.74 and -0.82; P < 0.01 respectively), whereas this correlation was weak in FG birds. Regardless of genetic type, neither buffering capacity nor lactate accumulation significantly contributed to pHu variations (P > 0.05). The activity of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPd) was significantly higher in FG chickens (0.98+/-0.31; P < 0.05) than in HL and SG birds (0.46+/-0.24 and 0.34+/-0.18, respectively). Significant correlations were found between AMPd activity, pHu, and glycolytic potential (GP) at slaughter (r = 0.34 and -.29; P < 0.01, respectively). Further research is needed to study in more detail the role of AMPd in the determinism of pHu, particularly in fast-growing broilers. PMID:15339023

El Rammouz, R; Berri, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Babilé, R; Fernandez, X

2004-08-01

37

Genetic Diversity and Relationships of Vietnamese and European Pig Breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for

N. T. D. Thuy; E. Melchinger; A. W. Kuss; T. Peischl; H. Bartenschlager; N. V. Cuong; H. Geldermann

38

Effect of free-range days on a local chicken breed: growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 1,000 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were raised for 21 d. On d 21, 720 birds with similar BW (536 ± 36 g) were selected and randomly assigned to free-range treatment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 21, 14, 7, and 0 d, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 5 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (180 birds per treatment). All the birds were raised in indoor floor pens measuring 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses before free-range treatment. In the free-range treatment, the chickens were raised in indoor floor houses measuring 3 × 5 m (15 m(2), 2.4 birds/m(2)). In addition, they also had an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The BW of birds after being assigned to free-range treatment for 7 d decreased significantly compared with that in the conventional treatment (P < 0.05). However, there was no effect of the free-range days on the BW at 42 d of age (P > 0.05). The daily weight gain, feed per gain, daily feed intake, and mortality from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by free-range days (P > 0.05). At 42 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), whereas the thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields decreased linearly (P < 0.05). The lung yield showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). The water-holding capacity of the thigh muscle decreased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in the meat color, shear force, and muscle pH (P > 0.05). The absolute thymus weight and thymus:BW ratio showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that increasing free-range days advantageously affects breast yield, but decreases thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields as well as the water-holding capacity of thigh. No evidence was found that increasing free-range days caused changes in growth performance, meat quality, and lymphoid organs except for changes in water-holding capacity and thymus. PMID:24931968

Tong, H B; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Chang, L L; Fu, S Y

2014-08-01

39

Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary. PMID:19294991

Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

2008-12-01

40

The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens: a comparative study across modern and ancestral populations  

PubMed Central

Intensive artificial selection has led to the production of the modern broiler chicken, which over the last few decades has undergone a dramatic increase in growth rate and noticeable changes in body conformation. Unfortunately, this has been associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities which have altered the walking ability of these birds, raising obvious welfare concerns, as well as causing economic losses. Here we present a comparative study of ancestral and derived muscle anatomy in chickens to begin to tease apart how evolutionary alterations of muscle form in chickens have influenced their locomotor function and perhaps contributed to lameness. We measured the muscle architectural properties of the right pelvic limb in 50 birds, including the Giant Junglefowl, a commercial strain broiler and four pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (from which the broiler populations are derived) to identify which features of the broiler’s architectural design have diverged the most from the ancestral condition. We report a decline in pelvic limb muscle mass in the commercial line birds that may compromise their locomotor abilities because they carry a larger body mass. This greater demand on the pelvic limb muscles has mostly led to changes in support at the hip joint, revealing significantly larger abductors and additionally much larger medial rotators in the broiler population. Differences were seen within the commercial line bird populations, which are likely attributed to different selection pressures and may reflect differences in the walking ability of these birds. In addition, Junglefowl seem to have both greater force-generating capabilities and longer, presumably faster contracting muscles, indicative of superior musculoskeletal/locomotor function. We have provided baseline data for generating hypotheses to investigate in greater depth the specific biomechanical constraints that compromise the modern broiler’s walking ability and propose that these factors should be considered in the selection for musculoskeletal health in the chickens of the future. Our new anatomical data for a wide range of domestic and wild-type chickens is useful in a comparative context and for deeper functional analysis including computer modelling/simulation of limb mechanics. PMID:20557402

Paxton, Heather; Anthony, Nicolas B; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

2010-01-01

41

Development of a controlled release formulation of an indigenous insect growth regulator, DPE-28, a substituted diphenylether, for controlling the breeding of Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: DPE-28, a substituted diphenyl ether (2,6-ditertiarybutyl phenyl-2’,4’-dinitro phenyl ether) was reported to exhibit promising insect growth regulating activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis. A controlled release formulation (CRF) of DPE-28 has been developed to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in its breeding habitats. Toxicity of DPE-28, safety to non-target mosquito predators and the release profile of the CRF of DPE-28 are studied and discussed. Methods: The acute oral and dermal toxicity was tested in male and female Wistar rats as per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 425 and 402 respectively. The toxicity of DPE-28 to non-target predators was tested as per the reported procedure from this laboratory. The CRF of DPE-28 was prepared by following the reported procedure developed at this laboratory earlier. The concentration of DPE-28 released from the CRF was monitored by HPLC by constructing a calibration graph by plotting the peak area in the Y-axis and the concentration of DPE-28 in the X-axis. Results: DPE-28 has been tested for acute oral toxicity and found to be moderately toxic with LD50 value of 1098 mg/kg body weight (b.w). The results of the acute dermal toxicity and skin irritation studies reveal that DPE-28 is safe and non-irritant. DPE-28 when tested at 0.4 mg/litre against non-target mosquito predators did not produce any mortality. The release profile of the active ingredient DPE-28 from the CRF by HPLC technique showed that the average daily release (ADR) of DPE-28 ranged from 0.07 to 5.0 mg/litre during first four weeks. Thereafter the matrix started eroding and the ADR ranged from 5 to 11 mg/litre during the remaining 5 wk. The cumulative release of active ingredient showed that > 90 per cent of the active ingredient was released from the matrix. Interpretation & conclusions: The controlled release matrix of DPE-28 was thus found to inhibit the adult emergence (>80%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus for a period of nine weeks. The CRF of DPE-28 may play a useful role in field and may be recommended for mosquito control programme after evaluating the same under field conditions. PMID:21727665

Kalyanasundaram, M.; Mathew, Nisha; Elango, A.; Padmanabhan, V.

2011-01-01

42

Phylogeography and origin of Chinese domestic chicken.  

PubMed

The loss of local chicken breeds as result of replacement with cosmopolitan breeds indicates the need for conservation measures to protect the future of local genetic stocks. The aim of this study is to describe the patterns of polymorphism of the hypervariable control region of mitochondrial DNA (HVR1) in domestic chicken in China's Jiangxi province to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure and phylo-dynamics. To this end, we sequenced the mtDNA HVR1 in 231 chickens including 22 individuals which belonged to previously published sequences. A neighbor-joining tree revealed that these samples clustered into five lineages (Lineages A, B, C, E and G). The highest haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were both found in Anyi tile-liked gray breed. We estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the local chicken existed approximately 16 million years ago. The mismatch distribution analysis showed two major peaks at positions 4 and 9, while the neutrality test (Tajima's D =?-2.19, p < 0.05) and Fu's F-statistics (-8.59, p < 0.05) revealed a significant departure from the neutrality assumption. These results support the idea that domestication of chickens facilitated population increases. Results of a global AMOVA indicated that there was no obvious geographic structure among the local chicken breeds analyzed in this study. The data obtained in this study will assist future conservation management of local breeds and also reveals intriguing implications for the history of human population movements and commerce. PMID:23617370

Wu, Y P; Huo, J H; Xie, J F; Liu, L X; Wei, Q P; Xie, M G; Kang, Z F; Ji, H Y; Ma, Y H

2014-04-01

43

Indigenous Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Indigenous Australia Website, presented in affiliation with the Australian Museum and the Australia's Cultural Network, combines two Websites -- Dreaming Online and Stories of the Dreaming (see the July 16, 1999 Scout Report) -- into one comprehensive resource. An engaging introduction to the 60,000-year-old cultural heritage of Australia's Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, the site is divided into four main sections: Background Info, Stories of the Dreaming, For Kids, and For Teachers. The Background section provides users with a nice overview, accompanied by images, of art and dress, spiritual and family life, the relationship of indigenous peoples to the land, and their interactions with British colonists, as well as a fairly detailed timeline. Stories of the Dreaming offers short movies of people reciting the tales from their ancestors about the land, sea, and animals. These were filmed in the rugged backdrop of Australia and are available as low or high quality videos (RealPlayer) or as audio or text only. The Teachers and Kids pages supply additional resources including links, a glossary, a FAQ, and advice on teaching lessons in indigenous studies.

44

Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland  

SciTech Connect

Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

1981-10-01

45

A decrease of circulating CD4? T cells in Attwater's prairie chickens infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus.  

E-print Network

??A problem encountered by captive breeding facilities attempting to save the Attwater's prairie chicken (APC; Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) from extinction is infection with reticuloendotheliosis virus… (more)

Ferro, Pamela Joyce Bloomer

2012-01-01

46

Genetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens  

E-print Network

Genetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens Weronica Ek Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics Uppsala Doctoral thesis Swedish Cover: Ronald Nelson, SLU #12;Genetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens Abstract

47

[Genetic diversity in goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis].  

PubMed

Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301

Xu, Limei; Liu, Chousheng; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Zhigang; Han, Xu; Li, Xiaoxia; Chang, Shuang

2010-05-01

48

Hatching Chickens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, from Science NetLinks, is intended to help students realize that they can learn a lot about chickens -and animals in general - through close observation. Students begin the lesson by expressing what they know about chickens in general and then are encouraged to think and talk about how eggs hatch into chicks and the kinds of special things that are needed to care for eggs/chicks.

Science Netlinks;

2003-11-20

49

Vietnamese chickens: a gate towards Asian genetic diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource and the conservation of local breeds is an issue for the preservation of this resource. The genetic diversity of a breed is mainly evaluated through its nuclear diversity. However, nuclear genetic diversity does not provide the same information as mitochondrial genetic diversity. For the species Gallus gallus, at least 8 maternal lineages

C Berthouly-Salazar; X Rognon; T Nhu Van; M Gély; C Vu Chi; M Tixier-Boichard; B Bed'Hom; N Bruneau; E Verrier; JC Maillard; JR Michaux

2010-01-01

50

Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review  

PubMed Central

Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration and formation of undesirable “warmed over flavour” in chicken meat products are supposed to be the lack of ?-tocopherol in chicken meat. PMID:25049846

Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

2013-01-01

51

Indigeneity: global and local.  

PubMed

The term indigenous, long used to distinguish between those who are "native" and their "others" in specific locales, has also become a term for a geocultural category, presupposing a world collectivity of "indigenous peoples" in contrast to their various "others." Many observers have noted that the stimuli for internationalization of the indigenous category originated principally from particular nation-states-Anglo-American settler colonies and Scandinavia. All, I argue, are relevantly political cultures of liberal democracy and weighty (in different ways) in international institutional affairs. However, international indigeneity has not been supported in any unqualified way by actions taken in the name of several nation-states that were among its main points of origin. In fact, staunch resistance to the international indigenous project has recently come from four of them. In 2007, the only four voting countries to reject the main product of international indigenist activity over the past 30 years, the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, were Australia, the United States, Canada, and New Zealand. In these locations, forms of "indigenous relationship" emerged that launched international indigeneity and that strongly influenced international perceptions of what "indigeneity" is and who "indigenous peoples" may be. Some other countries say the model of indigenous relationship that they see represented by the "establishing" set is inapplicable to themselves (but have nonetheless had to take notice of expanding internationalist indigenism). The apparently paradoxical rejection of the draft declaration by the establishing countries is consistent with the combination of enabling and constraining forces that liberal democratic political cultures offer. PMID:19827331

Merlan, Francesca

2009-06-01

52

Backcross Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the conventional breeding method of backcross breeding is done.This is the seventh of a series of seven animations that detail theprocess of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Gun.)

53

Dog Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online Flash game gets learners thinking like geneticists in order to breed a border collie puppy with select traits, including coat color, coat length, and ear length. Progressive levels of play encourage learners as they move from novice to master breeders. Learners can click on the Why button to learn more about genes and dog breeding.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

54

The Ascent of Cat Breeds: Genetic Evaluations of Breeds and Worldwide Random Bred Populations  

PubMed Central

The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing seventeen random bred populations from five continents and twenty-two breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese Bobtail were more aligned with European/American than Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity, however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age. PMID:18060738

Lipinski, Monika J.; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C.; Billings, Nicholas C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Levy, Alon M.; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Lyons, Leslie A.

2008-01-01

55

What Is Indigenous Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Canadian Indigenous researcher discusses the need to link research objectives and methodologies to community needs and context; the meaningful integration of knowledge obtained through research into Indigenous ways of knowing and being; interview methods; and the role of trust and accountability in researcher-interviewee relations. (SV)

Weber-Pillwax, Cora

2001-01-01

56

Indigenous Healing Legacies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On a tour of Cuba, Native scholars from North and South America reconnected with the "extinct" Taino people and shared their knowledge of traditional healing herbs. Western science is just beginning to validate the tremendous knowledge base that indigenous healers have developed--most indigenous medicinal knowledge is useful for finding new…

Taliman, Valerie

2001-01-01

57

Global diversity and genetic contributions of chicken populations from African, Asian and European regions.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and population structure of 113 chicken populations from Africa, Asia and Europe were studied using 29 microsatellite markers. Among these, three populations of wild chickens and nine commercial purebreds were used as reference populations for comparison. Compared to commercial lines and chickens sampled from the European region, high mean numbers of alleles and a high degree of heterozygosity were found in Asian and African chickens as well as in Red Junglefowl. Population differentiation (FST ) was higher among European breeds and commercial lines than among African, Asian and Red Junglefowl populations. Neighbour-Net genetic clustering and structure analysis revealed two main groups of Asian and north-west European breeds, whereas African populations overlap with other breeds from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean region. Broilers and brown egg layers were situated between the Asian and north-west European clusters. structure analysis confirmed a lower degree of population stratification in African and Asian chickens than in European breeds. High genetic differentiation and low genetic contributions to global diversity have been observed for single European breeds. Populations with low genetic variability have also shown a low genetic contribution to a core set of diversity in attaining maximum genetic variation present from the total populations. This may indicate that conservation measures in Europe should pay special attention to preserving as many single chicken breeds as possible to maintain maximum genetic diversity given that higher genetic variations come from differentiation between breeds. PMID:25315897

Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Eding, H; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

2014-12-01

58

Indigenous Continuance: Collaboration and Syncretism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this keynote address, the author talks about Indigenous peoples who are presently in a dynamic circumstance of constant change that they are facing courageously with creative collaboration and syncretism. In the address, the author speaks "of" an Indigenous consciousness and he speaks "with" an Indigenous consciousness so that Indigenous

Ortiz, Simon J.

2011-01-01

59

Reclaiming Indigenous Representations and Knowledges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores contemporary Indigenous artists', activists', and scholars' use of the Internet to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, culture, art, history, and worldview; critique the political realities of dominant discourse; and address the genocidal history and ongoing repression of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Internet examples include…

Iseke-Barnes, Judy; Danard, Deborah

2007-01-01

60

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...animals, and other mammals. However, it does not include poultry, chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, other birds, fish, frogs, reptiles, etc. (b)(1) Whether or not livestock is held by the taxpayer for draft, breeding,...

2013-04-01

61

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...animals, and other mammals. However, it does not include poultry, chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, other birds, fish, frogs, reptiles, etc. (b)(1) Whether or not livestock is held by the taxpayer for draft, breeding,...

2012-04-01

62

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...animals, and other mammals. However, it does not include poultry, chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, other birds, fish, frogs, reptiles, etc. (b)(1) Whether or not livestock is held by the taxpayer for draft, breeding,...

2011-04-01

63

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...animals, and other mammals. However, it does not include poultry, chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, other birds, fish, frogs, reptiles, etc. (b)(1) Whether or not livestock is held by the taxpayer for draft, breeding,...

2014-04-01

64

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...animals, and other mammals. However, it does not include poultry, chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, other birds, fish, frogs, reptiles, etc. (b)(1) Whether or not livestock is held by the taxpayer for draft, breeding,...

2010-04-01

65

The action of the sex linked barring gene on Spanish chickens with gold plumage  

E-print Network

The action of the sex linked barring gene on Spanish chickens with gold plumage J. L. CAMPO F of Spanish chickens breeds and study of the action of the sex-linked barring gene observed in gold plumage populations of Northern Spain. The crosses of Gold Barred Basque with cc Gastetlana(Black Spanish) show

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Campylobacter jejuni Is Not Merely a Commensal in Commercial Broiler Chickens and Affects Bird Welfare  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. PMID:24987092

Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom

2014-01-01

67

Dog Breeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

;

2004-07-05

68

Simulated Breeding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

Unemi, Tatsuo

69

Chicken soup and sickness  

MedlinePLUS

Chicken soup, a popular home remedy for the common cold since at least the 12th century, may really ... chicken soup reduce the inflammation associated with the common cold, thus providing some relief of symptoms. Although researchers ...

70

SPRING PRECIPITATION AND FLUCTUATIONS IN ATTWATER'S PRAIRIE-CHICKEN NUMBERS: HYPOTHESES REVISITED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two related hypotheses argue that greater than normal precipitation during May alone or spring (Mar-Jun) leads to decreased Attwater's ~rairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) breeding success, whereas less than normal precipitation during these periods leads to increased breeding success. These hypotheses have been accepted by wildlife managers and, seemingly because of observer expectancy bias, have been used to explain annual variation

MARKUS J. PETERSON; NOVA J. SILVY

71

Evolutionary Pets: Offspring Numbers Reveal Speciation Process in Domesticated Chickens  

PubMed Central

Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059). Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75%±7.10%, M±SE) hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75%±15.32%, M±SE). These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal. PMID:22879889

Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

2012-01-01

72

Chicken Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Chicken Salad Ingredients: 2 1/2 cups boneless skinless chicken breasts, cooked and diced 1/2 onion cooked chicken breasts and add to bowl. 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side

Liskiewicz, Maciej

73

Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients  

E-print Network

Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients: 4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1/3 cup flour 1/3 cup honey 1/4 cup lemon juice Directions 1. Preheat oven to 375ÂşF. Spray a cooking sheet with non stick cooking. 5. Meanwhile, mix together honey and lemon juice in a small bowl. 6. Remove chicken from oven

Liskiewicz, Maciej

74

Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Ascites Syndrome in Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for the ascites syn- drome (AS) were estimated for meat-type chickens. Data had been collected over 11 generations of selection for body weight and other traits within two distinct breeds (Cornish and White Rock). Linear methods (LM) were used to estimate genetic parameters and also to analyze a binary measure of survival. Survival analyses (SA) were also conducted

H. K. Moghadam; I. McMillan; J. R. Chambers; R. J. Julian

75

The Indigenous Australian Marriage  

E-print Network

1 The Indigenous Australian Marriage Paradox Small-World Dynamics on a Continental Scale Douglas R systems consistently embody endogamous marriage as both a norm and a logical requirement. #12: Problems · Weil (1949); abstract closure of marriage classes · Hammel (1960): descent groups; exogamous

White, Douglas R.

76

Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

2012-01-01

77

Isolation of Mycoplasma meleagridis from chickens.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma meleagridis (MM) is a major cause of disease and economic loss in turkeys. Formerly it was thought that this species was very host specific and only restricted to turkey. In this study, we report on the recovery of MM from breeding flocks of chickens located near a turkey breeding unit. Ten MM field strains were isolated (by culture on Frey broth medium) from tracheal swabs of chickens displaying clinical signs of mycoplasmosis-essentially respiratory symptoms and poor performance. Assignment of the isolated field strains to MM was confirmed by a growth inhibition assay using MM-specific polyclonal antiserum and by PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA sequence as well as the Mm14 sequence, a MM-species-specific DNA fragment previously identified and characterized in our laboratory. The nucleotide sequence of Mm14 proved to be highly conserved among the 10 MM field strains, indicating a common source of infection. However, on the basis of slight differences in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis whole-cell proteins and western blot profiles, two groups of the isolated MM field strains could be distinguished. Evidence of MM infection of chickens was further provided by serology, since 13.77% (35/254) of sera proved positive to MM by either rapid serum agglutination or recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, sera of all chickens from which MM was isolated were positive for antibodies to MM. Collectively, the data unambiguously show that MM could infect chickens; thus, MM warrants further exploration to determine its pathogenicity in this unusual host. PMID:21500629

Béjaoui Khiari, A; Landoulsi, A; Aissa, H; Mlik, B; Amouna, F; Ejlassi, A; Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi, B

2011-03-01

78

Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat. PMID:25049967

Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.

2014-01-01

79

Campylobacter jejuni is not merely a commensal in commercial broiler chickens and affects bird welfare.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. Importance: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of food-borne bacterial diarrheal disease in the developed world. Chicken is the most common source of infection. C. jejuni infection of chickens had previously not been considered to cause disease, and it was thought that C. jejuni was part of the normal microbiota of birds. In this work, we show that modern rapidly growing chicken breeds used in intensive production systems have a strong inflammatory response to C. jejuni infection that can lead to diarrhea, which, in turn, leads to damage to the feet and legs on the birds due to standing on wet litter. The response and level of disease varied between breeds and is related to regulation of the inflammatory immune response. These findings challenge the paradigm that C. jejuni is a harmless commensal of chickens and that C. jejuni infection may have substantial impact on animal health and welfare in intensive poultry production: PMID:24987092

Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom; Wigley, Paul

2014-01-01

80

Investigation of MC1R SNPs and Their Relationships with Plumage Colors in Korean Native Chicken.  

PubMed

The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene is related to the plumage color variations in chicken. Initially, the MC1R gene from 30 individuals was sequenced and nine polymorphisms were obtained. Of these, three and six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were confirmed as synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations, respectively. Among these, three selected SNPs were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method in 150 individuals from five chicken breeds, which identified the plumage color responding alleles. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree using MC1R gene sequences indicated three well-differentiated different plumage pigmentations (eumelanin, pheomelanin and albino). Also, the genotype analyses indicated that the TT, AA and GG genotypes corresponded to the eumelanin, pheomelanin and albino plumage pigmentations at nucleotide positions 69, 376 and 427, respectively. In contrast, high allele frequencies with T, A and G alleles corresponded to black, red/yellow and white plumage color in 69, 376 and 427 nucleotide positions, respectively. Also, amino acids changes at position Asn23Asn, Val126Ile and Thr143Ala were observed in melanin synthesis with identified possible alleles, respectively. In addition, high haplotype frequencies in TGA, CGG and CAA haplotypes were well discriminated based on the plumage pigmentation in chicken breeds. The results obtained in this study can be used for designing proper breeding and conservation strategies for the Korean native chicken breeds, as well as for the developing breed identification markers in chicken. PMID:25049831

Hoque, M R; Jin, S; Heo, K N; Kang, B S; Jo, C; Lee, J H

2013-05-01

81

Indigenous knowledge and science revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a guided tour through three diverse cultural ways of understanding nature: an Indigenous way (with a\\u000a focus on Indigenous nations in North America), a neo-indigenous way (a concept proposed to recognize many Asian nations’ unique\\u000a ways of knowing nature; in this case, Japan), and a Euro-American scientific way. An exploration of these three ways of knowing\\u000a unfolds

Glen S. Aikenhead; Masakata Ogawa

2007-01-01

82

Lung disease in indigenous children.  

PubMed

Children in indigenous populations have substantially higher respiratory morbidity than non-indigenous children. Indigenous children have more frequent respiratory infections that are, more severe and, associated with long-term sequelae. Post-infectious sequelae such as chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis are especially prevalent among indigenous groups and have lifelong impact on lung function. Also, although estimates of asthma prevalence among indigenous children are similar to non-indigenous groups the morbidity of asthma is higher in indigenous children. To reduce the morbidity of respiratory illness, best-practice medicine is essential in addition to improving socio-economic factors, (eg household crowding), tobacco smoke exposure, and access to health care and illness prevention programs that likely contribute to these issues. Although each indigenous group may have unique health beliefs and interfaces with modern health care, a culturally sensitive and community-based comprehensive care system of preventive and long term care can improve outcomes for all these conditions. This article focuses on common respiratory conditions encountered by indigenous children living in affluent countries where data is available. PMID:24958089

Chang, A B; Brown, N; Toombs, M; Marsh, R L; Redding, G J

2014-12-01

83

Molecular genetic diversity and genetic structure of Vietnamese indigenous pig populations.  

PubMed

The study characterized genetic diversity and genetic structure of five indigenous pig populations (Ha Lang, Muong Te, Mong Cai, Lung and Lung Pu), two wild pig populations (Vietnamese and Thai wild pigs) and an exotic pig breed (Yorkshire) using FAO/ISAG recommended 16 microsatellite markers in 236 samples. All estimated loci were very polymorphic indicated by high values of polymorphism information content (from 0.76 in S0225 to 0.92 in Sw2410). Indigenous populations had very high level of genetic diversity (mean He = 0.75); of all indigenous breeds, Lung Pu showed highest mean number of alleles (MNA = 10.1), gene diversity (He = 0.82), allele richness (5.33) and number of private alleles (10). Thirteen percentage of the total genetic variation observed was due to differences among populations. The neighbour-joining dendrogram obtained from Nei's standard genetic distance differentiated eight populations into four groups including Yorkshire, two wild populations, Mong Cai population and a group of four other indigenous populations. The Bayesian clustering with the admixture model implemented in Structure 2.1 indicated seven possible homogenous clusters among eight populations. From 79% (Ha Lang) to 98% (Mong Cai). individuals in indigenous pigs were assigned to their own populations. The results confirmed high level of genetic diversity and shed a new light on genetic structure of Vietnam indigenous pig populations. PMID:24373066

Pham, L D; Do, D N; Nam, L Q; Van Ba, N; Minh, L T A; Hoan, T X; Cuong, V C; Kadarmideen, H N

2014-10-01

84

Indigenous Language Immersion Schools for Strong Indigenous Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…

Reyhner, Jon

2010-01-01

85

Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

Indigenous Affairs, 1997

1997-01-01

86

Commentary: Indigenous Health Special Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…

Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy

2010-01-01

87

Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…

Enn, Rosa

2012-01-01

88

Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

Indigenous Affairs, 1996

1996-01-01

89

Chicken Wing Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore cooked chicken wings and identify the various parts including: bones (radius, ulna, humerus, shoulder joint, elbow joint), tendons, and cartilage. Learners observe the relationships between bones, tendons, and cartilage and identify how a chicken wing is similar to a human arm.

Arizona Science Center

2012-01-01

90

The effect of selection on ventral feather tract and inferior space width in broiler type chickens  

E-print Network

demonstrated the im- portance of feather coverage and rate of feathering to the incidence of breast blisters. Removing breast feathexing by breeding or clip- ping resulted in a significant increase both in number and size of breast blisters, regardless.... F. Krueger Bidirectional selection was applied to 117 female and 23 male, adult Cornish-type chickens in an attempt to develop two sublines differing in the morphology of the feathered and nonfeatherad regions of the breast of the chicken. One...

Kiker, John Thomas

2012-06-07

91

GENETICS Association of Polymorphisms in the Promoter Region of Chicken Prolactin with Egg Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken prolactin (PRL) is a physiological candidate gene for egg production. The objective of the current research was to investigate the association of poly- morphisms in the chicken PRL promoter region with egg production. Genotyping of 177 individuals from White Leghorn, Yangshan, Taihe Silkies, White Rock, and Non- gdahe breeds for 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (C- 2402T, C-2161G, T-2101G, C-2062G,

J.-X. Cui; H.-L. Du; Y. Liang; X.-M. Deng; N. Li; X.-Q. Zhang

92

Genome-Wide Patterns of Genetic Variation in Two Domestic Chickens  

PubMed Central

Domestic chickens are excellent models for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity, as numerous phenotypic changes in physiology, morphology, and behavior in chickens have been artificially selected. Genomic study is required to study genome-wide patterns of DNA variation for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We sequenced the genomes of the Silkie and the Taiwanese native chicken L2 at ?23- and 25-fold average coverage depth, respectively, using Illumina sequencing. The reads were mapped onto the chicken reference genome (including 5.1% Ns) to 92.32% genome coverage for the two breeds. Using a stringent filter, we identified ?7.6 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8,839 copy number variations (CNVs) in the mapped regions; 42% of the SNPs have not found in other chickens before. Among the 68,906 SNPs annotated in the chicken sequence assembly, 27,852 were nonsynonymous SNPs located in 13,537 genes. We also identified hundreds of shared and divergent structural and copy number variants in intronic and intergenic regions and in coding regions in the two breeds. Functional enrichments of identified genetic variants were discussed. Radical nsSNP-containing immunity genes were enriched in the QTL regions associated with some economic traits for both breeds. Moreover, genetic changes involved in selective sweeps were detected. From the selective sweeps identified in our two breeds, several genes associated with growth, appetite, and metabolic regulation were identified. Our study provides a framework for genetic and genomic research of domestic chickens and facilitates the domestic chicken as an avian model for genomic, biomedical, and evolutionary studies. PMID:23814129

Fan, Wen-Lang; Ng, Chen Siang; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Chen, Yu-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Jung; Wu, Siao-Man; Chen, Chih-Kuan; Chen, Jiun-Jie; Mao, Chi-Tang; Lai, Yu-Ting; Lo, Wen-Sui; Chang, Wei-Hua; Li, Wen-Hsiung

2013-01-01

93

A Complex Genomic Rearrangement Involving the Endothelin 3 Locus Causes Dermal Hyperpigmentation in the Chicken  

PubMed Central

Dermal hyperpigmentation or Fibromelanosis (FM) is one of the few examples of skin pigmentation phenotypes in the chicken, where most other pigmentation variants influence feather color and patterning. The Silkie chicken is the most widespread and well-studied breed displaying this phenotype. The presence of the dominant FM allele results in extensive pigmentation of the dermal layer of skin and the majority of internal connective tissue. Here we identify the causal mutation of FM as an inverted duplication and junction of two genomic regions separated by more than 400 kb in wild-type individuals. One of these duplicated regions contains endothelin 3 (EDN3), a gene with a known role in promoting melanoblast proliferation. We show that EDN3 expression is increased in the developing Silkie embryo during the time in which melanoblasts are migrating, and elevated levels of expression are maintained in the adult skin tissue. We have examined four different chicken breeds from both Asia and Europe displaying dermal hyperpigmentation and conclude that the same structural variant underlies this phenotype in all chicken breeds. This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals. PMID:22216010

Dorshorst, Ben; Molin, Anna-Maja; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Johansson, Anna M.; Strömstedt, Lina; Pham, Manh-Hung; Chen, Chih-Feng; Hallböök, Finn; Ashwell, Chris; Andersson, Leif

2011-01-01

94

More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous

Bunten, Alexis Celeste

2010-01-01

95

Indigenous Nations' Responses to Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On August 1st, 2007, Indigenous nations from within the United States, Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa (New Zealand) signed a treaty to found the United League of Indigenous Nations. The Treaty of Indigenous Nations offers a historic opportunity for sovereign Indigenous governments to build intertribal cooperation outside the framework of the…

Grossman, Zoltan

2008-01-01

96

Molecular characterization and identification of a novel polymorphism of 200 bp indel associated with age at first egg of the promoter region in chicken follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene.  

PubMed

Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) plays an important role in animal follicular development. Polymorphisms in FSHR promoter region likely impact transcription and follicle growth and maturation. In this study, a fragment of ~1.9 kb of cFSHR promoter for Zang, Xianju, Lohmann Brown, Jining Bairi and Wenchang breeds (line) was obtained. Totally 49 variations were revealed, of which 39 are single nucleotide substitutions, one is nucleotide substitution of (TTG) to (CAC) and nine are indels. Polymorphism at -874 site (a 200 bp indel mutation) was identified, and their effects on egg production traits as well as gene expression were analyzed. At this site, allele I(+) was dominant in Lohmann Brown and Xinyang Brown (a synthetic egg-laying line) lines, but very rare in three Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, namely Jining Bairi, Wenchang, Zang and one synthetic boiler line (Luqin). In Xinyang Brown population, the polymorphism was associated with age at first egg (AFE) (P < 0.05) and its effect on egg number at 37 weeks of age (E37) and egg number at 57 weeks of age (E57) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The cFSHR mRNA level was not significantly different between three genotypes in small white and small yellow follicles of Xinyang Brown hens, however, allele I(+) tends to increase cFSHR transcription. PMID:21678054

Kang, Li; Zhang, Ningbo; Zhang, Yujie; Yan, Huaxiang; Tang, Hui; Yang, Changsuo; Wang, Hui; Jiang, Yunliang

2012-03-01

97

Advanced Backcross Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is a detailed explanation of the backcross breeding process. Variations based on whether backcrossing is performed with dominant, recessive, or multiple traits are discussed. Calculations associated with backcross breeding are explained.

98

Cattle Breed Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How many of you all grew up on a cattle farm? This is a diagram that we will use to tell some advantages and disadvantages about beef cattle as we study different beef breeds. Diagram Advantages and Disadvantages of beef cattle breeds The first website that we will look at for the identification of beef cattle breeds is The Beef Site. Choose three breeds and look for some advantages ...

Mr. Harbour

2012-04-04

99

Chickpea Breeding and Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book presents the current status of chickpea breeding and management by experts from around the world. It thoroughly covers a wide array of subject on chickpea genetics and breeding ranging from cytogenetics, wild relatives and biodiversity, conventional and modern breeding techniques and achi...

100

Molecular characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations.  

PubMed

Six Ethiopian indigenous goat populations viz. Gumuz, Agew, Begia-Medir, Bati, Abergelle, and Central Abergelle were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Society for Animal Genetics. A total of 158 individual goats were tested to assess genetic variations within and between the goat populations in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. The markers revealed 100% polymorphism across six goat populations indicating the presence of genetic diversity, which is an important variable to measure genetic variability within and between populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.56 (Central Abergelle) to 0.68 (Bati) and 0.59 (Abergelle) to 0.69 (Agew goat), respectively. The lowest genetic distance was observed between Begia-Medir and Central Abergelle (0.039), and the largest distances between Agew and Abergelle (0.140) and Gumuz and Abergelle (0.169). Neighbor-joining and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods with bootstrap value of 1,000 was used which grouped the six goat populations into two major groups viz. the Abergelle goat cluster as one group and the Agew, Gumuz, Bati, Begia-Medir, and Central Abergelle goats as the second group. In our study, the obtained higher total variation within the goat populations (95%) confirms a close relatedness of the studied goat ecotypes, which might have happened due to the existence of uncontrolled animal breeding strategies resulting from uncontrolled movement of animals through various market routes and agricultural extension systems. The study contributed to the genetic characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations and demonstrated the usefulness of the 15 microsatellite makers for biodiversity studies in goats. PMID:22237413

Hassen, Halima; Lababidi, Samer; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Baum, Michael; Tibbo, Markos

2012-08-01

101

Polymorphism of dopamine receptor D4 exon I corresponding region in chicken.  

PubMed

In stockbreeding, there are indications that behavioral traits of livestock have an effect on breeding and production. If the variation in individual behavior is related to that in neurotransmitter-related genes such as in humans, it would be possible to breed pedigrees composed of individuals having behavioral traits that are useful to production and breeding using selection based on genotypes. In this study, we investigated the exon I region of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), in which variation is related to psychiatric disorder in humans, in major poultry species namely Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), chicken (Gallus gallus), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). Furthermore, we investigated Japanese cormorant (Phalacrocorax capillatus) and Japanese jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) as an out-group. In these species of birds, the repeat of proline was identified in the region corresponding to the human polymorphic region. The repeat number was 9 in Japanese quail, ring-necked pheasant and Japanese cormorant; 12 in helmeted guinea fowl; and 3 in Japanese jungle crow. However, no polymorphism was found in these species. In contrast, polymorphism was observed in chicken and two alleles with 8 and 9 repeats were identified. Although 9 repeats (allele 9) were predominant in most chicken breeds, Black Minorca had only 8 repeats (allele 8). Intra-breed polymorphism was found in 6 out of 12 breeds, and two alleles (alleles 8 and 9) were detected in these breeds. This polymorphism, which is the first to be reported on a neurotransmitter-related gene in birds, would contribute significant information for elucidation of differences in behavioral traits in chicken breeds. PMID:15459452

Sugiyama, Akinori; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Miwa, Mitsuru; Ohashi, Riyako; Kayang, Boniface Baboreka; Mizutani, Makoto; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Odai, Masaharu; Minezawa, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Shigeru; Ito, Shin'ichi

2004-09-01

102

Persistency of accuracy of genomic breeding values for different simulated pig breeding programs in developing countries.  

PubMed

Genetic improvement of pigs in tropical developing countries has focused on imported exotic populations which have been subjected to intensive selection with attendant high population-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD). Presently, indigenous pig population with limited selection and low LD are being considered for improvement. Given that the infrastructure for genetic improvement using the conventional BLUP selection methods are lacking, a genome-wide selection (GS) program was proposed for developing countries. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the option of using 60 K SNP panel and observed amount of LD in the exotic and indigenous pig populations. Several scenarios were evaluated including different size and structure of training and validation populations, different selection methods and long-term accuracy of GS in different population/breeding structures and traits. The training set included previously selected exotic population, unselected indigenous population and their crossbreds. Traits studied included number born alive (NBA), average daily gain (ADG) and back fat thickness (BFT). The ridge regression method was used to train the prediction model. The results showed that accuracies of genomic breeding values (GBVs) in the range of 0.30 (NBA) to 0.86 (BFT) in the validation population are expected if high density marker panels are utilized. The GS method improved accuracy of breeding values better than pedigree-based approach for traits with low heritability and in young animals with no performance data. Crossbred training population performed better than purebreds when validation was in populations with similar or a different structure as in the training set. Genome-wide selection holds promise for genetic improvement of pigs in the tropics. PMID:24628765

Akanno, E C; Schenkel, F S; Sargolzaei, M; Friendship, R M; Robinson, J A B

2014-10-01

103

The specific expression pattern of globin mRNAs in Tibetan chicken during late embryonic stage under hypoxia.  

PubMed

Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus) is a specific chicken breed with strong ability to resist hypoxia, especially during embryonic stage. Though this breed has lived in Tibet plateau for thousands of years, the adaptive mechanism in response to hypoxia is still unknown. In order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, we analyzed the mRNA expression pattern of globins in the present study. The fertilized eggs from Tibetan chicken and dwarf recessive white chicken breeds were incubated under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (13% O2) conditions, equivalent to the altitude of 3600m. We observed that Tibetan chicken embryos had higher hatchability (48%) in hypoxia than their lowland controls (7.8%). Northern blot showed that globin mRNA expression in Tibetan chicken embryos differed greatly from lowland controls under hypoxia. The expressions of four dominant globin mRNAs, named ?(A), ?(D), ?(A) and ?(H), were significantly induced under hypoxia. Tibetan chicken embryos had lower globin mRNA level in red cells than that of lowland controls at day 19 (P<0.05). Based on real-time PCR the same result was confirmed. Furthermore, we observed accumulation of globins induced by hypoxia in red cells by performing the separation of globin analysis, showing higher level of globins in red cells of Tibetan chicken embryos than that of lowland chicken embryos. Overall, our results provide new evidence that flexible regulation of globins at the level of transcription and translation may play a role in allowing the Tibetan chicken embryo to resist hypoxia. PMID:23000881

Liu, C; Zhang, L F; Li, N

2013-04-01

104

Establishment of inbred strains of chicken and Japanese quail and their potential as animal models.  

PubMed

We started establishing inbred strains of chicken and Japanese quail in 1970. In class Aves, full sib mating is highly difficult due to inbreeding depression. In the chicken, we attempted to establish some inbred strains in three breeds, Black Minorca, White Leghorn and Fayoumi by fixing all the characters that differentiate individuals homozygously. In this paper, we describe some marker genes and characters fixed in the inbred strains of chicken and Japanese quail as well as a calculation of a putative coefficient of inbreeding in 8 chicken inbred strains using band sharing values detected by AFLP analysis. We established generalized glycogenosis type II quail, myotonic dystrophy quail, neurofilament deficient quail, visually impaired chicken, double oviduct chicken with partial kidney deficiency, chicken showing spontaneous lymphocytic thyroiditis with feathered amelanosis, and chicken with a hereditary nervous disorder. The processes of establishment and characteristics of these animal models are described with some interesting information obtained from these animal models. In generalized glycogenosis type II quail, the results of enzyme replacement therapy and gene therapy are described. PMID:12451702

Mizutani, Makoto

2002-10-01

105

Towards conservation of omani local chicken: phenotypic characteristics, management practices and performance traits.  

PubMed

Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05). A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05), being 1.3±0.65 kg and 1.1±0.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 22±7.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.3±2.85 and annual production 64.5±2.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 88±6.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 16±1.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations. PMID:25050013

Al-Qamashoui, B; Mahgoub, O; Kadim, I; Schlecht, E

2014-06-01

106

Towards Conservation of Omani Local Chicken: Phenotypic Characteristics, Management Practices and Performance Traits  

PubMed Central

Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05). A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05), being 1.3±0.65 kg and 1.1±0.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 22±7.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.3±2.85 and annual production 64.5±2.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 88±6.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 16±1.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations. PMID:25050013

Al-Qamashoui, B.; Mahgoub, O.; Kadim, I.; Schlecht, E.

2014-01-01

107

Optimizing the use of breed types in developing country livestock production systems: a neglected research area.  

PubMed

Developing country livestock production systems are diverse and dynamic, and include those where existing indigenous breeds are currently optimal and likely to remain so, those where non-indigenous breed types are already in common use, and systems that are changing, such as by intensification, where the introduction of new breed types represents significant opportunities. These include opportunities to improve the livelihood of the world's poor, increase food and nutrition security and enhance environmental sustainability. At present, very little research has focused on this issue, such that significant knowledge gaps in relation to breed-change interventions remain. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of this issue and suggests strategic research areas to begin filling these knowledge gaps. Such strategic research would include (i) assessing the impact of differing breed types in developing country livestock productions systems, from a range of viewpoints including intrahousehold livelihood benefit, food and nutrition security at different scales, and environmental sustainability; (ii) identification of specific livestock production systems within developing countries, and the type of livestock keepers within these system, that are most likely to benefit from new breed types; and (iii) identification of new breed types as candidates for in-situ testing within these systems, such as through the use of spatial analysis to identify similar production environments combined with community acceptance studies. Results of these studies would primarily assist stakeholders in agriculture, including both policy makers and livestock keepers, to make informed decisions on the potential use of new breed types. PMID:24467512

Marshall, K

2014-10-01

108

RESTORATION OF SPERMATOGENESIS AND MALE FERTILITY BY TRANSPLANTATION OF DISPERSED TESTICULAR CELLS IN THE CHICKEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transplantation of male germ cells into sterilized recipients has been widely used in mammals for conventional breeding as well as for transgenesis. This study presents a workable approach for germ cell transplantation between chicken males. Testicular cells from adult and pre-pubertal donors were ...

109

Cytokine gene expression profile in Fayoumi chicken after Eimeria maxima infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry causing substantial economic losses. This study was conducted to investigate the cytokines related with the resistance against coccidiosis. Two breeding lines of Fayoumi chicken were evaluated for the expression of 9 cytokine genes: IFN-gamma, IFN...

110

Indigenous health and climate change.  

PubMed

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

Ford, James D

2012-07-01

111

Indigenous Health and Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global–local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

2012-01-01

112

Metabolism of SFZ-47 in chicken embryo by liquid chroma tography-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry1  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To develop an alternative method for investigation of drug metabolism by fertilized chicken eggs using 3H- 1,2-dihydro-2-(4-methyl-phenylamino) methyl-1-pyrrolizinone (SFZ-47) as a probe drug. METHODS: SFZ-47 (15 mg) was injected into the albumen of eggs from standardized breed chickens previously incubated for 10 d. After 72 h of further incubation, the allantoic liquid was subjected to solid phase extraction on

DONG Qing-Guang; GU Jing-Kai; ZHONG Da-Fang; J Paul; ZHOU Hui

113

Population Research of Genetic Polymorphism at Amino Acid Position 631 in Chicken Mx Protein with Differential Antiviral Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single amino acid substitution between Asn and Ser at position 631 in the chicken Mx protein has been reported to determine\\u000a resistant and sensitive antiviral activity. In this study, we investigate whether various kinds of chicken breeds and jungle\\u000a fowls carry the resistant or sensitive Mx allelic gene by using the mismatched PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. In

T. Seyama; J. H. Ko; M. Ohe; N. Sasaoka; A. Okada; H. Gomi; A. Yoneda; J. Ueda; M. Nishibori; S. Okamoto; Y. Maeda; T. Watanabe

2006-01-01

114

Indigenous lunar construction materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary design of the lunar shelter showed us that joining is a critical technology needed for building a structure from large segments. The problem of joining is important to the design of any structure that is not completely prefabricated. It is especially important when the structure is subjected to tensile loading by an internal pressure. For a lunar shelter constructed from large segments the joints between these large segments must be strong, and they must permit automated construction. With a cast basalt building material which is brittle, there is the additional problem of connecting the joint with the material and avoiding stress concentration that would cause failure. Thus, a well-defined project which we intend to pursue during this coming year is the design of joints for cast basalt structural elements.

Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

1991-01-01

115

Broiler Chicken Deboning.  

E-print Network

Tooe :;:L Z TA24S.7 ~ 8873 I NO.160S 8-1605 Texas Agricultural Extension Service l\\BRARY FEB 0 1 1989 Texas A&M Univers? BROILER CHICKEN DEBONING J. H. Denton and D. B. Mellor Extension Poultry Marketing Specialists The Texas A...&M University System Texas Agricultural Extension Service. Zerle L. Carpenter, Director. The Texas A&M University System. College Station, Texas The demand for boneless chicken meat is increasing because of the development of food service convenience...

Denton, J.H.; Mellor, D.B.

1988-01-01

116

UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA Indigenous Education Statement 2008  

E-print Network

HIGHER EDUCATION The University of Canberra (UC) has continued its commitment to Indigenous Higher Islander cultures. The Ngunnawal Indigenous Higher Education Centre has a major role in the operation. This group includes membership from each of the ACT Indigenous Higher Education Centres, DEEWR and ACT

Canberra, University of

117

Indigenous Specializations: Dreams, Developments, Delivery and Vision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents the establishment of the Indigenous Specializations program in the School of Social Work at the University of Victoria. In the absence of funding for Indigenous programs, First Nations professors Robina Thomas and Jacquie Green developed the Indigenous Specializations program "off the side of their desk". This article…

Richardson, Cathy; Thomas, Robina; Green, Jacquie; Ormiston, Todd

2012-01-01

118

Indigenous Environmental Perspectives: A North American Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a brief overview of the nature of indigenous sustainable subsistence economies, and the present underdevelopment and dependency of North American indigenous economies resulting from colonialism and marginalization. Describes environmental and personal contamination on indigenous lands from uranium and coal mining, toxic and nuclear waste,…

LaDuke, Winona

1992-01-01

119

Serologic evidence in commercial chicken and turkey flocks of infection with reticuloendotheliosis virus.  

PubMed

A serologic survey has documented probable infection with reticuloendotheliosis (RE) virus in 21.0% of 101 layer flocks, 23.5% of 85 broiler and broiler-breeder flocks, 2.3% of 43 backyard chicken flocks, and 4.8% of 125 turkey production and breeder flocks. However, no infection was detected in 72 grandparent lines of chicken breeding stocks representing meat-type and layer strains. The existence of natural infection was further supported by isolation of RE virus from one experimental chicken flock and two commercial turkey flocks. This study supports earlier but subsequently discounted data by Aulisio and Shelokov that exposure to RE virus occurs commonly among commercial chickens in the United States, as has also been reported in other countries. PMID:6186237

Witter, R L; Peterson, I L; Smith, E J; Johnson, D C

1982-01-01

120

The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples. PMID:23338830

Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

2014-06-01

121

Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives.  

PubMed

The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice. PMID:21333035

Kirmayer, Laurence J; Dandeneau, Stéphane; Marshall, Elizabeth; Phillips, Morgan Kahentonni; Williamson, Karla Jessen

2011-02-01

122

Providing Space for Indigenous Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colonial influences have generally failed to respect indigenous knowledge, languages, and cultures. Determination to reclaim First Nations identity is visible in many jurisdictions. First Nations Peoples continue to call on governments to facilitate changes needed to revitalize their economic, social, cultural, and spiritual well-being. This…

Tangihaere, Tracey Mihinoa; Twiname, Linda

2011-01-01

123

Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…

Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

2008-01-01

124

Biculturalism among Indigenous College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Indigenous" college students in both Canada and the United States have the lowest rates of obtaining postsecondary degrees, and their postsecondary dropout rates are higher than for any other minority (Freeman & Fox, 2005; Mendelson, 2004; Reddy, 1993). There has been very little research done to uncover possible reasons for such low academic…

Miller, Colton D.

2011-01-01

125

Chicken Quesadillas Ingredients  

E-print Network

-cooked and shredded 2 tablespoons chunky salsa 1/4 onion, chopped 1/4 cup green bell pepper, chopped 1/2 cup Monterey with cooking spray and heat to medium. 2. Mix chicken, salsa, onion, and green pepper (optional). 3. Place 1

Liskiewicz, Maciej

126

Variation of meat quality traits among five genotypes of chicken.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to examine the diversity of meat quality traits among 5 chicken genotypes. The genotypes included 2 Chinese native breeds (Wenchang,WCH, and Xianju), 1 commercial broiler line (Avian, AV), 1 commercial layer line (Hy-Line Brown, HLB), and 1 Chinese commercial broiler line (Lingnanhuang, LNH) synthesized by exotic and native breeds, which were slaughtered at their market ages: 16, 7, 16, and 8 wk, respectively. The effects of genotype, muscle type, and sex on meat quality traits were examined. Birds from slow-growing genotypes (WCH, Xianju, and HLB) exhibited higher shear value, inosine-5'-monophosphate concentration, lower cook loss, and more fat than those from fast-growing genotypes (AV and LNH). Chickens from WCH possessed the lowest expressible moisture, cook loss, and the highest lipid (%) among the 3 slow-growing genotypes. The HLB birds were intermediate in expressible moisture and cook loss and lowest in lipid among all genotypes. The LNH cross birds were similar to AV broilers in most meat quality parameters, although they had a lower shear force value and higher fat content than AV broilers. Breast muscle had higher expressible moisture, shear force, protein (%), inosine-5'-monophosphate content, lower cook loss, and lipid (%) than leg muscle. Muscles from male chickens had higher expressible moisture than those from the females. Variability of meat quality characteristics is mainly related to genotype and muscle type differences. PMID:19762878

Tang, H; Gong, Y Z; Wu, C X; Jiang, J; Wang, Y; Li, K

2009-10-01

127

CGIAR Integrated Breeding Platform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Integrated Breeding Platform is a development being led by the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP), a part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) which has a mission to bring scientists from different horizons and with different skills to work together, bridging the gap between upstream and applied research, so that biotechnology could have greater impact on plant breeding efficiency in developing countries.The Integrated Breeding Platform functions as a one-stop-shop to provide information, tools, services and training.  Furthermore IBP hopes to provide developing countries with access to modern breeding technologies, breeding materials, and related information to facilitate their adoption of molecular breeding approaches and improve their plant breeding efficiency.This site provides educational and training opportunities to help people be able to better utilize the tools at the Integrated Breeding Platform, as well as to provide an online community area for webinars and discussion forums. In order to access the self-paced courses found at the left, you will need to click on the "Join Now" button found in the upper right corner of this page.  Right now the courses are under development and not ready for participants.  While you wait, you can view any materials found under the "lessons" or "animations/video" buttons.

128

Supplemental arachidonic acid-enriched oil improves the taste of thigh meat of Hinai-jidori chickens.  

PubMed

The Hinai-dori is a breed of chicken native to the Akita prefecture in Japan. A cross between the Hinai-dori and Rhode Island Red breeds has been commercialized as the Hinai-jidori chicken, one of the most popular brands in Japan. High arachidonic acid (AA) content is a characteristic feature of Hinai-jidori chicken meat. To elucidate the relationship between AA content and the palatability of the Hinai-jidori chicken, we examined the effects of palm oil (PO), corn oil (CO), and arachidonic acid-enriched oil (AAO) diet supplementation on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions in thigh meat. Each oil and silicate was mixed at a ratio of 7:3, 5% of fresh matter was added to the finisher diet, and Hinai-jidori chickens were fed these diets for 2 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the AAO group was significantly more than 2-fold higher than that of the PO and CO groups. Other fatty acid contents were not significantly different among the groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the total taste intensity, umami (l-glutamate taste), kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness), and aftertaste of the AAO group were significantly higher than those of PO and CO groups in both chicken soup and steamed minced meat. These data suggest that the palatability of chicken meat can be improved by dietary AA supplementation. PMID:21753220

Kiyohara, R; Yamaguchi, S; Rikimaru, K; Takahashi, H

2011-08-01

129

Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To view additional success stories click on the link in the left menu Please click here to report your plant breeding success stories.  Click on TCAP logo to see the Economic impact of USDA-NIFA small grains CAPsThe Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee (SCC 080) is the USDA-sponsored advisory group of representatives from land grant universities.  The Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee represents national plant breeding with a focus on education in the broader sense, including providing information to the public and administrators, and encouraging the development of formal educational opportunities, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Mission: To provide a forum for leadership on issues and opportunities of strategic importance to national core competency in plant breeding research and education Membership: The PBCC members will consist of the representatives of the SCC-080 committee and others by request. 

130

The value of resequence data for poultry breeding: a primary layer breeder perspective.  

PubMed

Poultry breeding companies are facing a new paradigm. Since 2004, extensive resources have been developed to increase understanding of the fundamental biology of the chicken. The chicken genome has been sequenced and revised twice, millions of novel DNA variants have been identified, and new tools have been created that allow rapid and inexpensive detection of these DNA variations. These developments have led to the establishment of molecular-based breeding programs within major poultry breeding companies that are revolutionizing the primary poultry breeding industries. Costs of sequencing continue to drop and are predicted to eventually reach the point where it is feasible to sequence the entire genome of elite birds before selection. There are multiple challenges to be resolved before this information can be fully incorporated into a breeding program. These include handling and analyzing the extremely large data sets generated, understanding which genes, variants, or both are relevant for commercial production traits, development of new bio-informatic tools, and integration of molecular information with traditional breeding programs. The novel variation identified within elite commercial lines will lead to enhancements in commercial breeding programs. Applications of this information include whole genomic selection, parentage identification, trait association studies, and quality control. PMID:24570474

Fulton, Janet E

2014-02-01

131

Extensive female-mediated gene flow and low phylogeography among seventeen goat breeds in southwest China.  

PubMed

Indigenous Chinese goat mtDNA is highly diverse but lacks geographic specificity; however, whether gene flow or gene exchange contributed to this remains unknown. We reanalyzed a consensus fragment of 481 bp in the D-loop region from 339 individuals. The network and neighbor-joining tree revealed three divergent maternal haplogroups (A, B1, and B2) in 17 local breeds. Although high polymorphism resulting in 198 different haplotypes was observed (h = 0.984 ± 0.002; ? = 0.0336 ± 0.0008), neither the distribution of haplotypes nor PCA analysis revealed any obvious geographic structure in the local breeds. Extensive gene flow was widely detected among breeds from southwest China. High levels of gene exchange were detected between Qianbei Brown goats and the other breeds, indicating either more contribution or introgression to their gene pools. This study will be helpful in understanding the phylogeography and gene flow among the goat breeds of southwest China. PMID:24777493

Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Lin Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hong Ping

2014-08-01

132

Consumer Attitudes and Preferences Regarding Chicken.  

E-print Network

in protein value. Apparently few consumers know it. Promotion of chicken among medium and high-income families to increase its preference rating over other meat. Greater advertising emphasis on baked chicken and chicken and dumplings as menu items... to stimulate a broader consumer use for chicken. This would need to be supported by proved recipes for these dishes. Programs to stimulate greater use of chicken as a noonday meal or lunch box item. More, advertising or promotional material featuring chicken...

Branson, Robert E.; Mountney, George J.

1958-01-01

133

Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?breeds (DA?=?0.184) while WAD and Balami are the farthest apart breeds (DA?=?0.665), which is coincident with distance based on morphological analysis and population structure assessed by STRUCTURE. Conclusions These results suggest that within-breed genetic variation in Nigerian sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep. PMID:23176051

2012-01-01

134

Genetic Differentiation of Chinese Indigenous Meat Goats Ascertained Using Microsatellite Information  

PubMed Central

To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats. PMID:25049548

Ling, Y. H.; Zhang, X. D.; Yao, N.; Ding, J. P.; Chen, H. Q.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ren, C. H.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhang, X. R.

2012-01-01

135

Mapping and genotypic analysis of the NK-lysin gene in chicken  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are important elements of the first line of defence against pathogens in animals. NK-lysin is a cationic AMP that plays a critical role in innate immunity. The chicken NK-lysin gene has been cloned and its antimicrobial and anticancer activity has been described but its location in the chicken genome remains unknown. Here, we mapped the NK-lysin gene and examined the distribution of a functionally significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) among different chicken inbred lines and heritage breeds. Results A 6000 rad radiation hybrid panel (ChickRH6) was used to map the NK-lysin gene to the distal end of chromosome 22. Two additional genes, the adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1-like gene (AEBP1) and the DNA polymerase delta subunit 2-like (POLD2) gene, are located in the same NW_003779909 contig as NK-lysin, and were thus indirectly mapped to chromosome 22 as well. Previously, we reported a functionally significant SNP at position 271 of the NK-lysin coding sequence in two different chicken breeds. Here, we examined this SNP and found that the A allele appears to be more common than the G allele in these heritage breeds and inbred lines. Conclusions The chicken NK-lysin gene mapped to the distal end of chromosome 22. Two additional genes, AEBP1 and POLD2, were indirectly mapped to chromosome 22 also. SNP analyses revealed that the A allele, which encodes a peptide with a higher antimicrobial activity, is more common than the G allele in our tested inbred lines and heritage breeds. PMID:25001618

2014-01-01

136

Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.  

PubMed

Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated. PMID:24287655

Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

2013-11-01

137

Stabilizer state breeding  

E-print Network

We present a breeding protocol that distills pure copies of any stabilizer state from noisy copies and a pool of predistilled pure copies of the same state, by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements and classical communication.

Erik Hostens; Jeroen Dehaene; Bart De Moor

2006-08-18

138

Stabilizer state breeding  

SciTech Connect

We present a breeding protocol that distills pure copies of any stabilizer state from noisy copies and a pool of predistilled pure copies of the same state, by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements, and classical communication.

Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; Moor, Bart de [ESAT-SCD, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2006-12-15

139

Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissăo and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Săo Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissăo the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissăo and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. PMID:24069494

Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Ângelo P.

2013-01-01

140

Commonality Among Unique Indigenous Communities: An Introduction to Climate Change and Its Impacts on Indigenous Peoples  

E-print Network

This book (Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples: The Search for Legal Remedies) explores how climate change affects the rights of indigenous peoples. Climate change is a global environmental problem caused by greenhouse ...

Abate, Randall S.; Kronk, Elizabeth Ann

2013-01-01

141

Toward health and wellbeing for indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

The health of indigenous Australians remains well below that of non-indigenous Australians and indigenous peoples in Canada and New Zealand. Although recent planning has initiated many outstanding, culturally appropriate programmes with indigenous involvement, health statistics only reflect marginal improvement in recent years. It is crucial that positive programmes are sustained with appropriately directed funding. An approach that includes respect for the emotional and spiritual wellbeing of Australia's indigenous peoples will assist to redress some of the disadvantage caused by dispossession of country, language, and identity. It is clear from many programmes that are in place, that primary health care delivered locally through community controlled organisations, will minimise the impact of serious illnesses that currently threaten whole families and communities. Westernized health care systems are slow to learn from indigenous peoples in Australia and other places, that maintenance of wellness, not management of illness should be the goal. PMID:16210456

van Holst Pellekaan, S M; Clague, L

2005-10-01

142

Age-related expression profile of the SLC27A1 gene in chicken tissues.  

PubMed

The solute carrier family 27 (SLC27, also known as fatty acid transport proteins [FATPs]) plays important biological roles in cells. However, there is no report about the expression profile of SLC27 member in chicken. In this study, we quantified the expression of SLC27A1 (FATP1) mRNA in a mountainous black-boned chicken breed (MB) and a commercial meat type chicken breed (S01), to discern the tissue and age-related specific expression pattern and their potential involvement in fat deposition and muscle fatty acid metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed for accurate measurement of SLC27A1 mRNA levels in different tissues from chicken with different ages (0-12 weeks). Expression of SLC27A1 mRNA was detected in all tissues examined. There was a significantly age-related change of the SLC27A1 mRNAs in heart, breast muscle (BMW), leg muscle (LMW), liver, and abdominal fat (AF) tissues (P < 0.05). The breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had the highest expression of SLC27A1 mRNA than the other tissues from the same individual at 0, 2 and 4 weeks. The overall SLC27A1 mRNA level exhibited a "rise-decline" developmental change in all tissues except for breast muscle, subcutaneous fat, and brain. The S01 chicken had a higher expression of the SLC27A1 mRNA in breast muscle, subcutaneous fat, and heart tissues than the MB chicken. Our results showed that the expression of SLC27A1 mRNA in chicken tissues exhibits specific developmental changes and age-related patterns. PMID:21184181

Wang, Yan; Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yao, Yong-Gang; Liu, Yi-Ping

2011-11-01

143

Digital Library for Indigenous Science Resources (DLISR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Indigenous Science Resources is a collection of online text, video, audio, and image files of Indigenous science that includes knowledge about the natural world and ways of teaching and learning about it. All resources are authored and/or produced by Indigenous persons or organizations or approved for inclusion in the collection by an elder or other Indigenous person with the expertise to assess the resource. It is intended for users of all cultures, but can be a particularly important resource for teachers and students in Native Studies programs and in tribal schools and colleges. The current sets of resources are primarily from SnowChange, Tribal College Journal and Winds of Change.

144

The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous education.…

Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

2012-01-01

145

Indigenous Education, Mainstream Education, and Native Studies: Some Considerations when Incorporating Indigenous Pedagogy into Native Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A person coming to know for him or herself while respecting differences characterizes the author's experience of Indigenous education. Based on his experience with Indigenous education, he has found that what constitutes validity is very different than mainstream education. In this article, the author presents characteristics of Indigenous

Lambe, Jeff

2003-01-01

146

PRADEL et al. Experience and breeding probability Breeding experience might be a major determinant of breeding  

E-print Network

PRADEL et al. Experience and breeding probability Breeding experience might be a major determinant of breeding probability in long-lived species: the case of the greater flamingo2 Roger Pradel: corresponding Appendix A Multi-event modeling of breeding experience Online Appendix B Implementation of the generic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients  

E-print Network

Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds chicken breast, skinless, boneless 1 onion of the onion and peel off the brown layers. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side tops and stems, set aside. 4. Spray a large skillet with nonstick cooking spray. Add onion

Liskiewicz, Maciej

148

Chicken Cabbage Stir Fry Ingredients  

E-print Network

Chicken Cabbage Stir Fry Ingredients: 3 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1 teaspoon vegetable oil water. Place on a cutting board and cut in half through the core. Save half for other uses. Lay the half the white core center. Slice thin layers of cabbage off the quarter until there are three cups. Save

Liskiewicz, Maciej

149

Salmonella penetration through eggshells of chickens of different genetic backgrounds.  

PubMed

Eggs have been identified as a source of salmonellosis, making the transmission of Salmonella to eggs of great concern to the poultry industry. The goal of this experiment was to determine the ability of Salmonella to penetrate the eggshell of 5 different breeds of noncommercial chicken, Barred Plymouth Rock, White Leghorn, Brown Leghorn, Fayoumi, and Light Sussex, and 1 commercial Lohmann LSL-Lite. Egg weight, breaking force, shell weight, and shell thickness measurements were taken for 30 eggs per breed. A 1 cm in diameter hole was cut out from the narrow end of 30 additional eggs per breed. The shells were filled with plate count agar containing tetracycline and 0.1% 2,3,5-triphenyl terazolium chloride and sealed with paraffin wax. Agar-filled eggs were submerged for 1 min in an overnight culture of tetracycline-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg and incubated at 37°C for 40 h. Eggs were candled and visual colonies were counted and reported as cfu per egg and cfu per gram of shell. The SAS mixed model was used to evaluate differences between breeds for egg quality characteristics and the number of cfu per egg and per gram of shell. Commercial layers (62.6 g) and Barred Plymouth Rock (61.5 g) produced the largest eggs, whereas Fayoumi (47.1 g) produced the smallest (P < 0.05). Force to break the shell was lowest (P < 0.05) for Barred Plymouth Rock (3.6 kg) and greatest for the commercial (4.4 kg), White Leghorn (4.4 kg), and Fayoumi (4.2 kg). Bacteria penetrating the shell was lowest (P < 0.05) for Barred Plymouth Rock (10.7 cfu/g) and highest for Light Sussex (27.7 cfu/g) and Brown Leghorn (27.2 cfu/g), with other breeds intermediate. These results indicate that there are breed-specific influences on the ability of an egg to resist Salmonella, which cannot be explained by shell quality measurements. Further investigations are warranted to determine the contributing factors to shell penetration by bacteria. This study highlights the value in maintaining heritage chicken breeds as a genetic resource for the future. PMID:23960130

Rathgeber, Bruce M; McCarron, Paige; Budgell, Krista L

2013-09-01

150

Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA  

PubMed Central

European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of ?1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and China and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia. PMID:18663216

Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Mobegi, Victor A.; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A.; Matus, Jose T.; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J.; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J.; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

2008-01-01

151

Indigenous Autoethnography: Formulating Our Knowledge, Our Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to engage the cultural interface where Indigenous knowledge meets Western academia, by questioning the validity of traditional research methods. Firstly, it is a response to the challenges facing Indigenous people confronted with the ethical and methodological issues arising from academic research. Secondly, it is a journey "into"…

Houston, Jennifer

2007-01-01

152

Indigenizing Teacher Education: An Action Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research report focuses on a new elective course entitled "Indigenizing Education: Education for/about Aboriginal Peoples" that was developed and taught by two teacher educators--one Euro-Canadian and the other Metis. The purpose of the course was to increase understanding of Indigenous peoples and of the impact of…

Kitchen, Julian; Raynor, Marg

2013-01-01

153

Personal Thoughts on Indigenous Language Stabilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents personal reflections on factors in the preservation and stabilization of North American indigenous languages. All indigenous languages in North America are in danger of being lost. Linguistic and cultural minority communities must control the institutions that affect their lives if there is to be significant and sustainable…

Burnaby, Barbara

154

Positive Educational Responses to Indigenous Student Mobility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging positively with the mobility of Indigenous students has been the centre of a 5-year action research project in Queensland, Australia. Drawing on responses developed for other marginalised mobile populations, and with consideration for the extent of mobility amongst many Indigenous people in Australia, this paper focuses on the…

Hill, Angela; Lynch, Andrea; Dalley-Trim, Leanne

2012-01-01

155

Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

White, Rob

2009-01-01

156

Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

Bevan-Brown, Jill

2013-01-01

157

Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

Torres, Lourdes

2006-01-01

158

An Indigenous View of North America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses stories of U.S. and Canadian indigenous individuals who defended their lands against uranium mining and hydroelectric development to contrast the thinking of indigenous people (natural law as pre-eminent, spiritual practice, intergenerational residency in the same place) with industrial thinking (man's dominion over nature, linear thinking,…

LaDuke, Winona

1998-01-01

159

Evaluation of quality characteristics of chicken meat emulsion/nuggets prepared by using different equipment.  

PubMed

Chicken meat emulsions prepared using food processor (FP), an indigenous meat cutter (MC) and bowl chopper (BC) were evaluated for physicochemical, texture and electron microscopic studies (SEM). Product yield, emulsion stability, hydration properties and gel strength (N) were significantly (P?indigenously developed meat cutter found suitable for producing a stable chicken meat emulsion required for indigenous meat products. PMID:24587526

Devatkal, Suresh K; Manjunatha, M; Narsaiah, K; Patil, R T

2014-03-01

160

The Contribution of Geography to Disparities in Preventable Hospitalisations between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Main outcome measures Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. Results PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Conclusions Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity. PMID:24859265

Harrold, Timothy C.; Randall, Deborah A.; Falster, Michael O.; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R.

2014-01-01

161

Atrial fibrillation in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardiac structural characteristics in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study linking clinical, echocardiography and administrative databases over a 10-year period. Setting A tertiary, university teaching hospital in Adelaide, Australia. Participants Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Main outcome measures AF prevalence and echocardiographic characteristics. Results Indigenous Australians with AF were significantly younger compared to non-Indigenous Australians (55±13 vs 75±13?years, p<0.001). As a result, racial differences in AF prevalence and left atrial diameter varied according to age. In those under 60?years of age, Indigenous Australians had a significantly greater AF prevalence (2.57 vs1.73%, p<0.001) and left atrial diameters (39±7 vs 37±7?mm, p<0.001) compared to non-Indigenous Australians. In those aged 60?years and above, however, non-Indigenous Australians had significantly greater AF prevalence (9.26 vs 4.61%, p<0.001) and left atrial diameters (39±7 vs 37±7?mm, p<0.001). Left ventricular ejection fractions were less in Indigenous Australians under 60?years of age (49±14 vs 55±11%, p<0.001) and not statistically different in those aged 60?years and above (47±11 vs 52±13, p=0.074) compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Despite their younger age, Indigenous Australians with AF had similar or greater rates of cardiovascular comorbidities than non-Indigenous Australians with AF. Conclusions Young Indigenous Australians have a significantly greater prevalence of AF than their non-Indigenous counterparts. In contrast, older non-Indigenous Australians have a greater prevalence of AF compared to their Indigenous counterparts. These observations may be mediated by age-based differences in comorbid cardiovascular conditions, left atrial diameter and left ventricular ejection fraction. Our findings suggest that AF is likely to be contributing to the greater burden of morbidity and mortality experienced by young Indigenous Australians. Further study is required to elucidate whether strategies to prevent and better manage AF in Indigenous Australians may reduce this burden. PMID:25344486

Wong, Christopher X; Brooks, Anthony G; Cheng, Yi-Han; Lau, Dennis H; Rangnekar, Geetanjali; Roberts-Thomson, Kurt C; Kalman, Jonathan M; Brown, Alex; Sanders, Prashanthan

2014-01-01

162

United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the 20th century, there has been a concerted effort by a number of transnational organizations and advocacy groups to effectively lobby for the rights and protection of indigenous groups in all parts of the world. In 2000, the United Nations Economic and Social Council established the Permanent Form on Indigenous Issues to effectively address the needs of the 370 million indigenous peoples around the world. On the site, visitors can read official documents and proceedings created by the Forum's work, peruse a photo gallery of indigenous peoples, and read the text of various speeches on indigenous issues. Finally, visitors will also want to peruse the list of upcoming events sponsored by the Forum and also review its latest press releases.

163

Indigenous Mortality (Revealed): The Invisible Illuminated.  

PubMed

Inaccuracies in the identification of Indigenous status and the collection of and access to vital statistics data impede the strategic implementation of evidence-based public health initiatives to reduce avoidable deaths. The impact of colonization and subsequent government initiatives has been commonly observed among the Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The quality of Indigenous data that informs mortality statistics are similarly connected to these distal processes, which began with colonization. We discuss the methodological and technical challenges in measuring mortality for Indigenous populations within a historical and political context, and identify strategies for the accurate ascertainment and inclusion of Indigenous people in mortality statistics. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 11, 2014: e1-e9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.301994). PMID:25211754

Freemantle, Jane; Ring, Ian; Arambula Solomon, Teshia G; Gachupin, Francine C; Smylie, Janet; Cutler, Tessa Louise; Waldon, John A

2014-09-11

164

Intellectual disability and indigenous Australians: an overview.  

PubMed

The review summarizes important literature in the emerging field of intellectual disability (ID) in indigenous Australians. Search of various electronic databases revealed 19 papers that provide information regarding prevalence, sociodemographic factors, and issues in assessment and management. Overall, there is limited information regarding ID in indigenous Australians, which is reported to be more prevalent compared with nonindigenous Australians. Sociocultural constructs affect what is considered to be ID in indigenous communities and this may be at odds with western notions. Other difficulties include lack of validated psychometric instruments to effectively measure cognitive functioning in indigenous Australians. Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal factors are significant factors that impair brain development and contribute to ID in indigenous communities. Comorbid physical and psychiatric disorders need to be assessed and managed. This paper provides an overview of current knowledge regarding this important area that requires further research, appropriate training, and resourcing. PMID:25339537

Roy, Meera; Balaratnasingam, Sivasankaran

2014-12-01

165

Indigenous child health: Are we making progress?  

PubMed

We identified 244 relevant articles pertinent to indigenous health (4% of the total) with a steady increase in number since 1995. Most Australian publications in the journal (with a small Indigenous population) have focussed on conditions such as malnutrition, diarrhoeal disease, iron deficiency, rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and respiratory and ear infections, and in settings where nearly all affected children are Indigenous. In contrast, New Zealand publications (with a large Maori and Pacific Islander population) have addressed important health issues affecting all children but emphasised the over-representation of Maori and Pacific Islanders. Publications in the journal are largely descriptive studies with relatively few systematic reviews and randomised trials. Our review attempts to cover the important Indigenous health issues in our region as represented by articles published in the Journal. The studies do document definite improvements in indigenous child health over the last 50 years. PMID:25534334

Brewster, David R; Morris, Peter S

2015-01-01

166

The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.  

PubMed

The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

2014-11-01

167

Indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous embedded microbial filaments, bacterial cells and other microfossils were found in the Orgueil, Ivuna (CI1), Murchison, and Bells (CM2) carbonaceous meteorites. Biominerals, biofilms, framboids, magnetite platelets, and curious elemental iron ovoids covered with minute fibrils and carbon sheaths were also found. The S-4100 Hitachi Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) were used for in situ investigations of freshly fractured interior meteorite surfaces. EDAX x-ray spectra shows the microfossils bear signatures of the meteorite matrix and possess elemental ratios indicating they are indigenous and not recent microbial contaminants. Many of the well-preserved biogenic remains in the meteorites are encased within carbon-rich, sometimes electron transparent, sheaths. Their size, morphology and ultra microstructure are comparable to microfossils known from the phosphorites of Khubsughul, Mongolia and to some of the living cyanobacteria and other sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria known from the halophilic Microcoleus mats of Sivash Lagoon, Crimea and from Mono Lake in California.

Hoover, Richard B.; Jerman, Gregory; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Sipiera, Paul P.

2004-11-01

168

Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa  

PubMed Central

Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective population sizes particularly in the conservation flocks. The utility and limitations of the iselect chicken SNP60K in village chicken populations is discussed. PMID:25691890

Khanyile, Khulekani S.; Dzomba, Edgar F.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.

2015-01-01

169

A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms.  

PubMed

We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This map is based on a comparison of the sequences of three domestic chicken breeds (a broiler, a layer and a Chinese silkie) with that of their wild ancestor, red jungle fowl. Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% of the variant sites are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about five SNPs per kilobase for almost every possible comparison between red jungle fowl and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--in contrast to the notion that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated before domestication, and there is little evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales greater than 100 kilobases. PMID:15592405

Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Liu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Zengjin; Meng, Qingshun; Zhou, Jun; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Jingjing; Ni, Peixiang; Li, Songgang; Ran, Longhua; Li, Heng; Zhang, Jianguo; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Shengting; Zheng, Hongkun; Lin, Wei; Li, Guangyuan; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Wenming; Li, Jun; Ye, Chen; Dai, Mingtao; Ruan, Jue; Zhou, Yan; Li, Yuanzhe; He, Ximiao; Zhang, Yunze; Wang, Jing; Huang, Xiangang; Tong, Wei; Chen, Jie; Ye, Jia; Chen, Chen; Wei, Ning; Li, Guoqing; Dong, Le; Lan, Fengdi; Sun, Yongqiao; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Yang, Zheng; Yu, Yingpu; Huang, Yanqing; He, Dandan; Xi, Yan; Wei, Dong; Qi, Qiuhui; Li, Wenjie; Shi, Jianping; Wang, Miaoheng; Xie, Fei; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Pei; Zhao, Yiqiang; Li, Ning; Yang, Ning; Dong, Wei; Hu, Songnian; Zeng, Changqing; Zheng, Weimou; Hao, Bailin; Hillier, Ladeana W; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Brandström, Mikael; Ellegren, Hans; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; van der Poel, Jan J; Bovenhuis, Henk; Groenen, Martien A M; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Gordon, Laurie; Stubbs, Lisa; Lucas, Susan; Glavina, Tijana; Aerts, Andrea; Kaiser, Pete; Rothwell, Lisa; Young, John R; Rogers, Sally; Walker, Brian A; van Hateren, Andy; Kaufman, Jim; Bumstead, Nat; Lamont, Susan J; Zhou, Huaijun; Hocking, Paul M; Morrice, David; de Koning, Dirk-Jan; Law, Andy; Bartley, Neil; Burt, David W; Hunt, Henry; Cheng, Hans H; Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Wahlberg, Per; Andersson, Leif; Kindlund, Ellen; Tammi, Martti T; Andersson, Björn; Webber, Caleb; Ponting, Chris P; Overton, Ian M; Boardman, Paul E; Tang, Haizhou; Hubbard, Simon J; Wilson, Stuart A; Yu, Jun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming

2004-12-01

170

Raspberry Breeding and Genetics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the origin, speciation, and history of improvement of the raspberries, Rubus section idaeobatus. The world industry in North America, Australasia, China, Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America and the breeding objectives of programs in those areas are discussed. Ger...

171

Plant Breeding Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a traditional breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

172

Animal breeding systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of breeding systems explores relationships between mating behaviour and parental care. Recent findings have shown that in many birds, fishes, anurans, and insects, females play a more active role than previously thought, by engaging in mate choice, mating with more than one male, and selecting genetic partners separately from social partners. Theoretical advances have improved our understanding of

John D. Reynolds

1996-01-01

173

BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

174

Hop Cultivars and Breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pest management decision making in hops varies among cultivars. Historically, the primary objective of hop breeding programs has been to increase the yield or characteristics associated with either bittering (high alpha-acids) or aroma (unique volatile oil profiles) cultivars. Other factors consid...

175

Red Clover Breeding Progress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

176

Genetic trends of abdominal fat content in a male broiler chicken line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data of chickens from a broiler-breeding program were collected and used to determine the genetic trends of absolute and rela- tive abdominal fat content. The genetic trends were estimated by the regression of trait genetic value averages on hatch-years. Genetic val- ues from 32,485 individuals were used for regression analysis. The ge- netic trend estimate for absolute abdominal fat content

Leila de Genova Gaya; Gerson Barreto Mourăo; Fernanda Marcondes de Rezende; Elisângela Chicaroni de Mattos; Tércio Michelan Filho; Luís Gustavo; Girardi Figueiredo; José Bento Sterman Ferraz; Joanir Pereira Eler

177

Ascites and venous carbon dioxide tensions in juvenile chickens of highly selected genotypes and native strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous study by this group demonstrated that a high carbon dioxide tension in venous blood (pvCO2) of juvenile broiler chickens is a reliable predictor for ascites susceptibility. In a new experiment with five highly selected genetic stocks and two ascites resistant old breeds we studied levels and variability of pvCO2 within each stock at an early age. Effects of

C. W. Scheele; Klis van der J. D; C. Kwakernaak; R. A. Dekker; Middelkoop van J. H; J. Buyse; E. Decuypere

2005-01-01

178

Breeding Programs for Sustainable Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definition of breeding goals for sustainable fish production is considered, with emphasis on non-market (e.g., ethical) as well as market values. The need for long-term biologically, ecologically, and sociologically sound breeding goals is emphasized, because animal breeding determined only by short-term market forces has lead to unwanted side effects. Farmed fish is at an early stage of domestication and breeding,

I. Olesen; T. Gjedrem; H. B. Bentsen; B. Gjerde; M. Rye

2003-01-01

179

Effect of Hybridization on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Erlang Mountainous Chickens  

PubMed Central

Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05). Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05) compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken. PMID:25049734

Yin, H. D.; Gilbert, E. R.; Chen, S. Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Z. C.; Zhao, X. L.; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Q.

2013-01-01

180

Genetic diversity and population structure of 20 north European cattle breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood samples were collected from 743 animals from 15 indigenous, 2 old import- ed, and 3 commercial North European cattle breeds. The samples were analyzed for 11 erythrocyte antigen systems, 8 proteins, and 10 microsatellites, and used to assess inter- and intrabreed genetic variation and genetic population structures. The microsatellites BoLA-DRBP1 and CSSM66 were nonneutral markers according to the Ewens-Watterson

J. Kantanen; I. Olsaker; L.-E. Holm; S. Lien; J. Vilkki; K. Brusgaard; E. Eythorsdottir; B. Danell; S. Adalsteinsson

2000-01-01

181

Where is conifer breeding at  

E-print Network

Where is conifer breeding at today? What are the options for the future? By: Steve Lee, Forest and established breeding populations for Sitka spruce Scots pine Corsican pine Hybrid Larch Improved planting improvement at the moment. We cost about ÂŁ700k per year #12;The objective has always been to breed timber

182

Stabilizer state breeding Erik Hostens,  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Stabilizer state breeding Erik Hostens, Jeroen Dehaene, and Bart De Moor ESAT-SCD, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium We present a breeding protocol that distills pure copies to asymptotic (hashing/breeding) [12­17] versus recurrence-like schemes [13­24], to whether they take noise

183

Beyond Justice: What Makes an Indigenous Justice Organization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data from a longitudinal study of seven indigenous justice service organizations in four colonized countries were analyzed to identify the characteristics that made them "indigenous." Although nine common organizational characteristics emerged, of these, four are essential and specific to indigenous organizations (dependency on indigenous

Nielsen, Marianne O.; Brown, Samantha

2012-01-01

184

Indigenous Australians and Preschool Education: Who Is Attending?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the individual, family, household and area level characteristics associated with preschool attendance for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians (aged three to five years who are not at school). Controlling for these factors explains all of the difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous attendance rates for…

Biddle, Nicholas

2007-01-01

185

Towards an indigenous science curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of a national science curriculum in M?ori opened up space to contest whose knowledge and whose ways of knowing are included. This paper outlines the background to the curriculum development work in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous M?ori people and science education. Concern is expressed about the fitting of one cultural framework into another and questions are raised about the approach used in the development of the science curriculum. Further research in the area of language, culture and science education is discussed along with how M?ori might move forward in the endeavour of developing a curriculum that reflects M?ori culture and language.

McKinley, Elizabeth

1996-06-01

186

AMF Associated with Indigenous and Non-indigenous Plants at Urban and Desert Sites in Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) biodiversity from 30 sites throughout the Phoenix, USA, metropolitan area was compared\\u000a to determine the impact of urbanization on AMF communities. Spores from pot cultures started with soil collected from non-indigenous\\u000a and indigenous plants at urban sites and from indigenous plants at desert sites were identified. The total number of species\\u000a detected, number of species per

Robert J. Bills

187

Combined effect of mutations in ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART genes on IMP content in chickens.  

PubMed

1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ADSL gene, GARS-AIRS-GART gene and their combination genotype on inosine monophosphate content (IMP) in chicken. 2. The chicken breeds used for this study were Recessive White chicken (RW, Jiang-13 strain of white Plymouth Rock) and preserved population of 4 Chinese native chicken breeds, including Silkies, Baier, Tibetan and Xiaoshan. 3. The primers for exon 2 in ADSL gene and 5'UTR region in GARS-AIRS-GART gene were designed and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. 4. Two SNPs were detected, C/T substitution at position 3484 in exon 2 of ADSL gene, which was a silent mutation, and C/T point mutation at position -179 in 5'UTR region of GARS-AIRS-GART gene. In ADSL gene, individuals with TT genotype had significantly higher IMP content than CT and CC genotype individuals. No significant difference was observed between CT and CC genotypes. Similar results were obtained for GARS-AIRS-GART gene. The combination of genotypes ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART genes also had a significant effect on IMP content. Individuals with TTTT genotype had the highest muscle IMP content, while individuals with CCCT genotype had the lowest. 4. We putatively drew the conclusion that the SNPs in these two genes, as well as the combination genotypes, could be used as potential molecular markers for meat quality in chicken. PMID:19946821

Shu, J T; Bao, W B; Zhang, X Y; Ji, C J; Han, W; Chen, K W

2009-11-01

188

Durum Wheat Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter summarizes the scientific and technical knowledge for durum wheat breeding, giving some examples of the methods\\u000a applied in national programs. Section 1 refers to the importance of durum wheat in the world. Sections 2 and 3 give technical\\u000a details on genetic diversity and the choice of germplasm, while the main varietal groups are explained in Section 4. Information

Conxita Royo; Elias M. Elias; Frank A. Manthey

189

Pathology and microbiology of dermal squamous cell carcinoma in young brown chickens reared on reused litter.  

PubMed

Dermal squamous cell carcinoma (DSCC) was found in young brown chicken flocks reared on reused litter in Japan. DSCC was often detected at slaughter from April 2007 to March 2009, especially in June and July 2007. No DSCC was observed in the broiler chickens on the farms. Twelve 11-wk-old brown chickens with DSCC were investigated pathologically and microbiologically. Various degrees of crater-like skin lesions were found on the back, waist, neck, legs, abdomen, and wings of the carcasses. The feather follicles were enlarged. The feather follicular epithelial cells proliferated, and the squamous cells proliferated neoplastically in association with collagen fibers and fibroblasts in the dermis under the feather follicular epithelium. "Keratin pearl" structures were often seen in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the keratin antigen was positive in the neoplastically proliferated squamous cells in the dermis. Avian leukosis virus antigens could not be found in the neoplastic squamous cells in the dermis. Ultrastructurally, no viral agents could be detected in the skin with DSCC. Virologically, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions of the skin with DSCC for fowlpox virus and avian leukosis virus were negative. No viruses could be isolated from the skin with DSCC. This study suggests that the chicken breed, reused litter, and season may be associated with the incidence of DSCC in brown chickens. PMID:20945801

Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Ito, Mitsuru; Fujino, Koji; Yamamoto, Yu; Mase, Masaji; Yamada, Manabu; Kobayashi, Hideki; Harada, Tadato

2010-09-01

190

Indigenous Resource Management and Environmental Contamination  

E-print Network

effects of 5 heavy metals; copper, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, and discusses the need for studies to identify potential exposure pathways that are associated with a Native American / Indigenous Lifeways. Gaps in the data include exposure pathways...

Holder, Stanley Richard

2008-07-28

191

Indigenous family violence: a statistical challenge.  

PubMed

The issue of family violence and sexual abuse in Indigenous communities across Australia has attracted much attention throughout 2007, including significant intervention by the federal government into communities deemed to be in crisis. This paper critically examines the reporting and recording of Indigenous violence in Australia and reflects on what 'statistics' can offer as we grapple with how to respond appropriately to a problem defined as a 'national emergency'. PMID:19130914

Cripps, Kyllie

2008-12-01

192

Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

193

Making medicine indigenous: homeopathy in South India.  

PubMed

Historical studies of homeopathy in Europe and the USA have focused on practitioners' attempts to emphasize 'modern' and 'scientific' approaches. Studies of homeopathy in India have focused on a process of Indianization. Arguing against such unilineal trajectories, this paper situates homeopathy in South India within the context of shifting relations between 'scientific' and 'indigenous' systems of medicine. Three time periods are considered. From 1924 through 1934, homeopathy was singled out by Government of Madras officials as 'scientific', as contrasted with the 'indigenous' Ayurvedic, Siddha, and Unani systems of medicine. From 1947 through 1960, both 'indigenous' and 'scientific' interpretations of homeopathy were put forward by different factions. An honorary director of homeopathy proposed the Indianization of homeopathy, and its reconciliation with Ayurveda; this view conflicted with the Madras government's policy of expanding the 'scientific' medical curriculum of the Government College of Indigenous Medicine. It was not until the early 1970s that homeopathy was officially recognized in Tamilnadu State. By then, both homeopathy and Ayurveda had become conceptualized as non-Tamil, in contrast with promotion of the Tamil Siddha system of 'indigenous' medicine. Thus, constructs of 'indigenous' and 'scientific' systems of medicine are quite malleable with respect to homeopathy in South India. PMID:12638553

Hausman, Gary J

2002-08-01

194

Immunisation issues for Indigenous Australian children.  

PubMed

Vaccination has provided major benefits to the health of indigenous children in the face of continuing poorer socioeconomic conditions but several issues have been identified for improvement. While indigenous children are vaccinated at high rates for the standard schedule vaccines, vaccination is more commonly delayed. Coverage for 'targeted' vaccines is substantially lower, and data on coverage for indigenous adolescents is non-existent. Improved identification of indigenous clients by immunisation providers and the expansion of the childhood register are required. The progressive removal of early-acting Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines from schedules for indigenous children because of an international shortage raises the risk of disease re-emergence and highlights the need for vigilant surveillance including carriage. The expanded use of existing vaccines (influenza) and early adoption of new vaccines (higher valency pneumococcal conjugates) are needed to maximise benefits, in particular the potential to impact on non-invasive disease such as otitis media and non-bacteraemic pneumonia that are so prevalent in indigenous children. PMID:21564384

Menzies, Robert; Andrews, Ross

2014-10-01

195

Resilience and Indigenous Spirituality: A Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Indigenous spirituality is a more complex phenomenon than the term spirituality alone, as generally understood, implies. Spirituality is closely bound up with culture and ways of living in Indigenous communities and requires a more holistic or comprehensive research approach. Two conceptual frameworks could help to orient Indigenous resilience research. One is the enculturation framework. Enculturation refers to the degree of integration within a culture, which can be protective in social behaviour, academic achievement, alcohol abuse and cessation, substance abuse, externalizing behaviours, and depressive symptoms. Instruments for measuring enculturation generally have three components: traditional activities, cultural identification, and traditional spirituality. A second conceptual framework is cultural spiritual orientation which distinguishes between cultural spiritual orientations and tribal spiritual beliefs. Enculturation and cultural orientations are protective against alcohol abuse, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. New tools are emerging for measuring the multidimensional nature of culturally rooted spirituality in Indigenous communities, tools that are context-specific and often the product of collaborative design processes. As the ability of researchers to measure these complex processes advances and Indigenous communities take increasing charge of their own research, it should become easier to design interventions that take advantage of the cultural/spiritual dimension of Indigenous traditions to promote individual, family, and community resilience. PMID:20963185

Fleming, John; Ledogar, Robert J.

2010-01-01

196

Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis  

PubMed Central

Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome. PMID:19811618

Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

2009-01-01

197

The evolution of intermittent breeding.  

PubMed

A central issue in life history theory is how organisms trade off current and future reproduction. A variety of organisms exhibit intermittent breeding, meaning sexually mature adults will skip breeding opportunities between reproduction attempts. It's thought that intermittent breeding occurs when reproduction incurs an extra cost in terms of survival, energy, or recovery time. We have developed a matrix population model for intermittent breeding, and use adaptive dynamics to determine under what conditions individuals should breed at every opportunity, and under what conditions they should skip some breeding opportunities (and if so, how many). We also examine the effect of environmental stochasticity on breeding behavior. We find that the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for breeding behavior depends on an individual's expected growth and mortality, and that the conditions for skipped breeding depend on the type of reproductive cost incurred (survival, energy, recovery time). In constant environments there is always a pure ESS, however environmental stochasticity and deterministic population fluctuations can both select for a mixed ESS. Finally, we compare our model results to patterns of intermittent breeding in species from a range of taxonomic groups. PMID:23076830

Shaw, Allison K; Levin, Simon A

2013-03-01

198

Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens.2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5 and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained with

G. Deng; Y. Zhang; X. Peng; D. Guo; C. Li

2006-01-01

199

The Echocardiographic Characteristics of Ascites Syndrome Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

B-mode and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare the cardiac functioning of broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and fifteen normal chickens at the ages of three, four, five and six weeks from the same flock were used. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained with

Ganzhen Deng; Yi Zhang; Dingzong Guo; Xiuli Peng; Chengye Li

200

Association of Mx1 Asn 631 variant alleles with enhanced resistance and altered cytokine response in chickens infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Myxovirus-resistance (Mx) proteins are produced by host cells and have been shown to limit replication of influenza and other viruses. Selective breeding for the Mx polymorphism is an attractive approach to improve genetic resistance of chickens to avian influenza (AI) viruses. Following infection w...

201

Research on Indigenous Elders: From Positivistic to Decolonizing Methodologies  

PubMed Central

Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders. PMID:23841952

Braun, Kathryn L.

2014-01-01

202

Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics  

PubMed Central

This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled us first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low-molecular-weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that are responsible for the mammalian genome reprograming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance caused by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The authors substantiate the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics investigations as well as in disease prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although the discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies. PMID:23990811

Shenderov, Boris Arkadievich

2012-01-01

203

Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics.  

PubMed

This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled us first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low-molecular-weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that are responsible for the mammalian genome reprograming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance caused by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The authors substantiate the necessity to create an international project 'Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics' that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics investigations as well as in disease prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although the discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies. PMID:23990811

Shenderov, Boris Arkadievich

2012-01-01

204

Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial\\/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures

Hugo Amigo; Patricia Bustos; Jay S Kaufman

2010-01-01

205

Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

Kuokkanen, Rauna

2011-01-01

206

Commonality Among Unique Indigenous Communities: An Introduction to Climate Change and Its Impacts on Indigenous Peoples  

E-print Network

of the commonalities generally found among indigenous peoples in greater depth. Part III of this article addresses three of these legal responses being utilized by indigenous communities: (1) law suits based on procedural rights, (2) law suits based on common law legal...

Abate, Randall S.; Kronk, Elizabeth Ann

2013-01-01

207

Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas (WBBA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initiated in 1995, the Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas (WBBA) is an on-going project to document all bird species breeding in the state of Wisconsin. A project of the Wisconsin Society for Ornithology, WBBA documents the presence and breeding status of bird species detected within a selected 5km x 5km area, as well as (optionally) the estimated abundance of the species and the type of habitat in which it was detected. The results of this ambitious initiative are now available in the form of online Species Distribution Maps and multiple species summaries. While not all maps have been error-checked, these color maps offer detailed images showing confirmed and probable breeding locations for Wisconsin's several hundred species of breeding birds. In addition to the maps, the site provides a section on WBBA methods, numerous bird identification images, and a Casual Observation Form. A select list of links (to other states's Breeding Bird Atlas projects) rounds out the site.

208

Historical demographic profiles and genetic variation of the East African Butana and Kenana indigenous dairy zebu cattle.  

PubMed

Butana and Kenana breeds from Sudan are part of the East African zebu Bos indicus type of cattle. Unlike other indigenous zebu cattle in Africa, they are unique due to their reputation for high milk production and are regarded as dairy cattle, the only ones of their kind on the African continent. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop of 70 animals to understand the maternal genetic variation, demographic profiles and history of the two breeds in relation to the history of cattle pastoralism on the African continent. Only taurine mtDNA sequences were identified. We found very high mtDNA diversity but low level of maternal genetic structure within and between the two breeds. Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed different historical and demographic profiles for the two breeds, with an earlier population expansion in the Butana vis a vis the Kenana. The maternal ancestral populations of the two breeds may have diverged prior to their introduction into the African continent, with first the arrival of the ancestral Butana population. We also reveal distinct demographic history between the two breeds with the Butana showing a decline in its effective population size (Ne ) in the recent past ~590 years. Our results provide new insights on the early history of cattle pastoralism in Sudan indicative of a large ancient effective population size. PMID:25308478

Salim, Bashir; Taha, Khalid M; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwacharo, Joram M

2014-12-01

209

Breeding for Grain Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding for complex multigenic phenotypic quality characters in cereals by chemical analyses and functional pilot tests is\\u000a traditionally a slow and expensive process. The development of new instrumental screening methods for complex quality traits\\u000a evaluated by multivariate data analysis has during the last decades revolutionised the economy and scale in breeding for quality.\\u000a The traditional explorative plant breeding view is

Lars Munck

210

Genome-Wide Characterization of Insertion and Deletion Variation in Chicken Using Next Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Insertion and deletion (INDEL) is one of the main events contributing to genetic and phenotypic diversity, which receives less attention than SNP and large structural variation. To gain a better knowledge of INDEL variation in chicken genome, we applied next generation sequencing on 12 diverse chicken breeds at an average effective depth of 8.6. Over 1.3 million non-redundant short INDELs (1–49 bp) were obtained, the vast majority (92.48%) of which were novel. Follow-up validation assays confirmed that most (88.00%) of the randomly selected INDELs represent true variations. The majority (95.76%) of INDELs were less than 10 bp. Both the detected number and affected bases were larger for deletions than insertions. In total, INDELs covered 3.8 Mbp, corresponding to 0.36% of the chicken genome. The average genomic INDEL density was estimated as 0.49 per kb. INDELs were ubiquitous and distributed in a non-uniform fashion across chromosomes, with lower INDEL density in micro-chromosomes than in others, and some functional regions like exons and UTRs were prone to less INDELs than introns and intergenic regions. Nearly 620,253 INDELs fell in genic regions, 1,765 (0.28%) of which located in exons, spanning 1,358 (7.56%) unique Ensembl genes. Many of them are associated with economically important traits and some are the homologues of human disease-related genes. We demonstrate that sequencing multiple individuals at a medium depth offers a promising way for reliable identification of INDELs. The coding INDELs are valuable candidates for further elucidation of the association between genotypes and phenotypes. The chicken INDELs revealed by our study can be useful for future studies, including development of INDEL markers, construction of high density linkage map, INDEL arrays design, and hopefully, molecular breeding programs in chicken. PMID:25133774

Yan, Yiyuan; Yi, Guoqiang; Sun, Congjiao; Qu, Lujiang; Yang, Ning

2014-01-01

211

Plant Breeding Graduate Student Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Growing the FutureWith the loss of plant breeding positions in the public sector, there has been a loss of the infrastructure that supports plant breeding training, including a reduction in professors with plant breeding expertise, a critical mass of students often too low to provide a stimulating learning environment, and the inability to offer courses with sufficient audience. Although studies support the positive impact of a strong community on learning, currently, students are often trained in isolation.  The PBTN has been established to mitigate isolation barriers that currently limit plant breeding education at most institutions and in most plant breeding work places around the world.  PBTN supports online course sharing (See list of courses).  The PBTN online graduate student community  is a place for students around the world to make contact with other plant breeding students, providing an opportunity  to exchange ideas, develop interpersonal skills (such as communication and collaboration) and build a plant breeding student community.If you have questions about the community, graduate work in plant breeding, or career oportunities, please contact us. Jamie ShermanDirector-TCAP graduate community and PBTNjsherman@montana.edu Mary BrakkeDirector-TCAP undergraduate communitybrakk001@umn.edu Deana Namuth-CovertDirector-Plant Breeding Training Network (PBTN)dcovert2@unl.edu  This community is funded by the Triticeae CAP project. 

212

CROP IMMUNE RESPONSE POST-SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS CHALLENGE IN EIGHT COMMERCIAL LAYER BREED-STRAINS AND SPECIFIC-PATHOGEN-FREE (SPF)WHITE LEGHORNS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pre- and post-SE-challenge mucosal immune responses within the crops of eight commercial layer-breeds (5 white-egg & 3 brown-egg layer strains) and SPF-White Leghorn chickens were evaluated. The hen groups were orally challenged with ~10e8 cfu/ml Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a. Fecal and crop samp...

213

PREDICTING GENETIC INTERACTIONS WITHIN AND ACROSS BREEDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multi-breed models enable across-breed selection by calculating estimated breeding values (EBV) for crossbred animals and providing routine estimates of breed differences and heterosis. Evaluations for U.S. dairy cattle recently were revised to account for inbreeding, and a multi-breed model that ac...

214

RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding In Rosaceae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RosBREED will create a national, dynamic, sustained effort in research, infrastructure establishment, training, and extension for applying marker-assisted breeding (MAB) to deliver improved plant materials more efficiently and rapidly. The Rosaceae family (including apple, peach, sweet and tart cher...

215

Are happy chickens safer chickens? Poultry welfare and disease susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis.2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic

Tom Humphrey

2006-01-01

216

Genetic Diversity and Variability in Endangered Pantesco and Two Other Sicilian Donkey Breeds Assessed by Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

The genetic variability of Pantesco and other two Sicilian autochthonous donkey breeds (Ragusano and Grigio Siciliano) was assessed using a set of 14 microsatellites. The main goals were to describe the current differentiation among the breeds and to provide genetic information useful to safeguard the Pantesco breed as well as to manage Ragusano and Grigio Siciliano. In the whole sample, that included 108 donkeys representative of the three populations, a total of 85 alleles were detected. The mean number of alleles was lower in Pantesco (3.7), than in Grigio Siciliano and Ragusano (4.4 and 5.9, resp.). The three breeds showed a quite low level of gene diversity (He) ranging from 0.471 in Pantesco to 0.589 in Grigio. The overall genetic differentiation index (Fst) was quite high; more than 10% of the diversity was found among breeds. Reynolds' (DR) genetic distances, correspondence, and population structure analysis reproduced the same picture, revealing that, (a) Pantesco breed is the most differentiated in the context of the Sicilian indigenous breeds, (b) within Ragusano breed, two well-defined subgroups were observed. This information is worth of further investigation in order to provide suitable data for conservation strategies. PMID:22649301

Bordonaro, Salvatore; Guastella, Anna Maria; Criscione, Andrea; Zuccaro, Antonio; Marletta, Donata

2012-01-01

217

The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

Afonso, G. B.

2003-08-01

218

High incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

A study was completed to characterize cardiac arrhythmias in broiler chickens. The data were collected from 505 (265 males and 240 females) commercial broilers. Electrocardiograph (ECG) readings were obtained from all birds between 7 and 9, 21 and 23, and 42 and 44 days of age. For comparison, ECG recordings were also collected from 180 broiler breeders at 3 and 8 weeks of age, and from 100 6-week-old Brown Leghorn and 100 6-week-old Barred Plymouth Rock chicks. The measurements included evaluation of heart rhythm, and incidence of ascites and of sudden death syndrome (SDS). Heart arrhythmias in broiler breeders or in the two other breeds examined were sporadic. Cardiac arrhythmias in broiler chickens were seen as early as 7 days of age. The incidence of arrhythmias increased with age. At 42-44 days of age 17% of the broiler population showed disrhythmia. The incidence was higher in male broilers (P < 0.012) in comparison to females. The most frequently observed disturbances of the rhythm were ventricular arrhythmias (VA), the most common being premature ventricular contractions (PVC). In most cases PVC occurred as one or two episodes, but in several birds, runs of three or more consecutive PVCs occurred. Unifocal PVCs were considerably more frequent than multifocal PVCs. Sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) was least frequent. Heart-related mortalities were observed only in broiler chickens. There were 23 SDS cases (4.55% of the population) and 13 birds developed ascites (2.25% of the population). Male broilers had a higher incidence of SDS (P < 0.027) and ascites (P = 0.064) compared to females. Males represented 74% of all SDS cases and 77% of all ascites cases. Whereas three birds that died of SDS and one bird that developed ascites had a history of VA, five birds that developed ascites had a history of conduction block. It has been concluded that, compared to other chickens, the hearts of broiler chickens are considerably more susceptible to arrhythmias. Cardiac arrhythmias are involved in the pathogenesis of SDS and are likely in some cases of ascites. PMID:9591472

Olkowski, A A; Classen, H L

1998-03-01

219

Maximum bite force in elderly indigenous and non-indigenous denture wearers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the measures of maximum bite force (MBF) in elderly edentulous indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous individuals with new complete dentures at two different measuring times. A sample of 100 elderly subjects was divided into two groups: 50 indigenous and 50 non-indigenous, each including 25 females and 25 males. All individuals were totally edentulous, with new maxillary and mandibular removable complete dentures. Measurements were taken at the time of new prosthesis placement and after 1 month of use. Subjects were asked to perform with maximum effort three bites per side at maximum intercuspidation, with a rest time of 2 minutes in between. Statistics were analyzed with Student 's t-test. The MBF values were significantly higher in indigenous than non-indigenous subjects. Force after 1 month of wearing the new prosthesis was significantly higher than at the time of new prosthesis placement. No significant difference was found between sides. Elderly indigenous complete denture wearers had the greatest MBF values. Denture wearers were observed to undergo an adaptation process to the new prosthesis, with MBF increasing considerably after one month of use. PMID:25560689

Borie, Eduardo; Orsi, Iara A; Fuentes, Ramón; Beltrán, Víctor; Navarro, Pablo; Pareja, Felipe; Raimundo, Lariça B

2014-01-01

220

The breeding of crop ideotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most plant breeding is based on “defect elimination” or “selection for yield”. A valuable additional approach is available through the breeding of crop ideotypes, plants with model characteristics known to influence photosynthesis, growth and (in cereals) grain production. Some instances of the successful use of model characters of this kind are quoted.

C. M. Donald

1968-01-01

221

Cereal Breeding and Varietal Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the influence of cereal breeding on yield increase. Suggests that future breeding programmes should be based on both financial information and yield. Summarizes the results of a first attempt to include financial and yield data for the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) leaflet Recommended Varieties of Cereals. Discusses implications for breeders and farmers. Suggests that evaluation by financial

Stuart M. Meikle; David H. Scarisbrick

1994-01-01

222

Plant breeding in crop improvement  

E-print Network

Plant breeding in crop improvement Paul Gepts 2-7743, plgepts@ucdavis.edu #12;P Crop improvement: what for? P Why genetic improvement or plant breeding? P Phases of genetic improvement P New plant products Crop improvement: what for? #12;#12;1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975

Gepts, Paul

223

THE USDA PECAN BREEDING PROGRAM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper outlines how the USDA Pecan Breeding Program is operated to produce superior new cultivars that are given names of Native American peoples, and released for planting in new pecan orchards. The USDA conducts the largest pecan breeding and genetics program in the world. The program is div...

224

Identification of Genes Related to Beak Deformity of Chickens Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling  

PubMed Central

Frequencies of up to 3% of beak deformity (normally a crossed beak) occur in some indigenous chickens in China, such as and Beijing-You. Chickens with deformed beaks have reduced feed intake, growth rate, and abnormal behaviors. Beak deformity represents an economic as well as an animal welfare problem in the poultry industry. Because the genetic basis of beak deformity remains incompletely understood, the present study sought to identify important genes and metabolic pathways involved in this phenotype. Digital gene expression analysis was performed on deformed and normal beaks collected from Beijing-You chickens to detect global gene expression differences. A total of >11 million cDNA tags were sequenced, and 5,864,499 and 5,648,877 clean tags were obtained in the libraries of deformed and normal beaks, respectively. In total, 1,156 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified in the deformed beak with 409 being up-regulated and 747 down-regulated in the deformed beaks. qRT-PCR using eight genes was performed to verify the results of DGE profiling. Gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes of the keratin family on GGA25 were abundant among the DEGs. Pathway analysis showed that many DEGs were linked to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and glycerolipid metabolism. Combining the analyses, 11 genes (MUC, LOC426217, BMP4, ACAA1, LPL, ALDH7A1, GLA, RETSAT, SDR16C5, WWOX, and MOGAT1) were highlighted as potential candidate genes for beak deformity in chickens. Some of these genes have been identified previously, while others have unknown function with respect to thus phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide study to investigate the transcriptome differences in the deformed and normal beaks of chickens. The DEGs identified here are worthy of further functional characterization. PMID:25198128

Sun, Yanyan; Liu, Ranran; Liu, Nian; Li, Dongli; Wen, Jie; Chen, Jilan

2014-01-01

225

Visuospatial selective attention in chickens  

PubMed Central

Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d?) increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an “indecision” model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens—a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies—as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L.; Schwarz, Jason S.; Knudsen, Eric I.

2014-01-01

226

Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

227

Experimental ochratoxicosis in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the toxicity signs that developed when the diet of male broiler chickens was artificially contaminated with different levels of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA). Chicks were assigned randomly to three groups of 80 chicks that were fed a diet containing 0 oarts per billion (ppb) (control, group 1), 400 ppb (group 2) or 800 ppb (group 3)

M. A. Elaroussi; F. R. Mohamed; E. M. El Barkouky; A. M. Atta; A. M. Abdou; M. H. Hatab

2006-01-01

228

Uncovering Genomic Features and Maternal Origin of Korean Native Chicken by Whole Genome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The Korean Native Chicken (KNC) is an important endemic biological resource in Korea. While numerous studies have been conducted exploring this breed, none have used next-generation sequencing to identify its specific genomic features. We sequenced five strains of KNC and identified 10.9 million SNVs and 1.3 million InDels. Through the analysis, we found that the highly variable region common to all 5 strains had genes like PCHD15, CISD1, PIK3C2A, and NUCB2 that might be related to the phenotypic traits of the chicken such as auditory sense, growth rate and egg traits. In addition, we assembled unaligned reads that could not be mapped to the reference genome. By assembling the unaligned reads, we were able to present genomic sequences characteristic to the KNC. Based on this, we also identified genes related to the olfactory receptors and antigen that are common to all 5 strains. Finally, through the reconstructed mitochondrial genome sequences, we performed phylogenomic analysis and elucidated the maternal origin of the artificially restored KNC. Our results revealed that the KNC has multiple maternal origins which are in agreement with Korea's history of chicken breed imports. The results presented here provide a valuable basis for future research on genomic features of KNC and further understanding of KNC's origin. PMID:25501044

Oh, Jae-Don; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Lee, Jun-Heon; Lee, Woon Kyu; Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Hak-Kyo

2014-01-01

229

Biodiversity of 52 chicken populations assessed by microsatellite typing of DNA pools  

PubMed Central

In a project on the biodiversity of chickens funded by the European Commission (EC), eight laboratories collaborated to assess the genetic variation within and between 52 populations from a wide range of chicken types. Twenty-two di-nucleotide microsatellite markers were used to genotype DNA pools of 50 birds from each population. The polymorphism measures for the average, the least polymorphic population (inbred C line) and the most polymorphic population (Gallus gallus spadiceus) were, respectively, as follows: number of alleles per locus, per population: 3.5, 1.3 and 5.2; average gene diversity across markers: 0.47, 0.05 and 0.64; and proportion of polymorphic markers: 0.91, 0.25 and 1.0. These were in good agreement with the breeding history of the populations. For instance, unselected populations were found to be more polymorphic than selected breeds such as layers. Thus DNA pools are effective in the preliminary assessment of genetic variation of populations and markers. Mean genetic distance indicates the extent to which a given population shares its genetic diversity with that of the whole tested gene pool and is a useful criterion for conservation of diversity. The distribution of population-specific (private) alleles and the amount of genetic variation shared among populations supports the hypothesis that the red jungle fowl is the main progenitor of the domesticated chicken. PMID:12939204

Hillel, Jossi; Groenen, Martien AM; Tixier-Boichard, Michčle; Korol, Abraham B; David, Lior; Kirzhner, Valery M; Burke, Terry; Barre-Dirie, Asili; Crooijmans, Richard PMA; Elo, Kari; Feldman, Marcus W; Freidlin, Paul J; Mäki-Tanila, Asko; Oortwijn, Marian; Thomson, Pippa; Vignal, Alain; Wimmers, Klaus; Weigend, Steffen

2003-01-01

230

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting susceptibility in chicken to develop the Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (PHS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), also referred to as ascites syndrome, is a growth-related disorder of chickens frequently observed in fast-growing broilers with insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity at low temperature and\\/or at high altitude. A cross between two genetically different broiler dam lines that originated from the White Plymouth Rock breed was used to produce a three-generation population. This population was

T. S. K. M. Rabie; R. P. M. A. Crooijmans; H. Bovenhuis; A. L. J. Vereijken; A. Veenendaal; Poel van der J. J; Arendonk van J. A. M; A. Pakdel; M. A. M. Groenen

2005-01-01

231

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) of Central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

SUMMARY We performed a seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from October 2012 to May 2013. We used cross-sectional two-stage cluster sampling to collect blood samples from wing veins of 601 chickens from central Ethiopia. T. gondii-specific antibodies were assayed by modified agglutination test (MAT). We collected information about risk factors by questionnaire and used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to assess risk factors. An overall seroprevalence of 30·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26·27-34·14] and 54·2% (95% CI 47·06-61·36) was found at animal- and flock-level, respectively. The MAT end titre of seropositive chickens (n = 183) were 1 : 60 in 46, 1 : 180 in 28, 1 : 540 in 29, ?1 : 1620 in 48, 1 : 6000 in 22, 1 : 18 000 in five, 1 : 54 000 in one, and ?1 : 162 000 in four. Animal-level risk factors identified using multivariable logistic regression model were: midland altitude [odds ratio (OR) 2·53, 95% CI 1·12-5·72], cross and exotic breeds (OR 3·17, 95% CI 1·39-7·23), increased age of chickens (OR 2·32, 95% CI 1·19-4·49), extensive management (OR 6·92, 95% CI 1·34-35·86) and the presence of cats (OR 2·08, 95% CI 1·20-3·61). Similarly, flock-level risk factors were midland altitude (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·31-9·99) and the presence of cats (OR 1·19-4·94). The knowledge of the local people about the health risk of cats to humans and animals is poor. Housing and management of cats and chickens are also poor. The widespread presence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens of Central Ethiopia provides suggestive evidence for the high level of contamination of the living environment of people with T. gondii oocysts. Meat from free-range chickens might be an important source of infection for humans. Altitude, breed, age, management and presence of cats are independent predictors of seropositivity. Education of farmers about toxoplasmosis and further studies to elucidate the burden of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans warrants consideration. PMID:24763135

Gebremedhin, E Z; Tesfamaryam, G; Yunus, H A; Duguma, R; Tilahun, G; DI Marco, V; Vitale, M

2015-02-01

232

Further studies on the inhibition of colonization of the chicken alimentary tract with Salmonella typhimurium by pre-colonization with an avirulent mutant.  

PubMed Central

Oral administration to newly hatched chickens or to chicks up to 5 days of age with an avirulent, rough, spectinomycin-resistant mutant of Salmonella typhimurium strain F98 inhibited the colonization of a nalidixic acid-resistant mutant of the same strain administered by the same route 1 day later. The second strain passed rapidly through the alimentary tract and persisted in the caeca of only a few chickens. Resistance to colonization did not develop until 24 h after inoculation of the first strain but was still evident if the second strain was inoculated up to 7 days later. Resistance occurred in 5 different breeds of chicken and in chickens reared on 5 different diets. Protection was evident against a very high challenge dose and could be produced by the introduction of small numbers of the first strain. Pre-colonization of chicks with the first strain of F98 reduced faecal excretion of the second strain over many weeks, whether chickens were challenged directly or by contact with other infected chickens. The rough strain F98 produced protection against only a few S. typhimurium strains and not against other serotypes. However, strains of S. infantis and S. heidelberg, chosen because they colonized the chicken alimentary tract better than did F98, produced inhibition of a wider range of serotypes. PMID:2140794

Berchieri, A.; Barrow, P. A.

1990-01-01

233

Reflecting Visions. New Perspectives on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 14 papers: "Indigenous Peoples and Adult Education: A Growing Challenge" (Rodolfo Stavenhagen); "Indigenous Peoples: Progress in the International Recognition of Human Rights and the Role of Education" (Julian Burger); "Adult Learning in the Context of Indigenous Societies" (Linda King); "Linguistic Rights and the Role of…

King, Linda, Ed.

234

Indigenous Research Methodology: Exploratory Discussion of an Elusive Subject.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that an indigenous research methodology is being created, and asserts that the process should be led by indigenous scholars. Poses the question of who should participate in the development of a defined methodology, and discusses several principles that should be included in academic discourse on indigenous research. (EMH)

Weber-Pillwax, Cora

1999-01-01

235

Australian Directions in Indigenous Education 2005-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational outcomes of Indigenous Australians have improved over recent decades. This is evident across a range of indicators on the enrolment, participation and achievement of Indigenous students in the early childhood education and school sectors. There has also been increased representation of Indigenous students in New Apprenticeships and…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

236

The Work-Study Experience of Indigenous Undergraduates in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the large number of universities in Taiwan and the increased availability of scholarships for disadvantaged students, the number of college students from indigenous families has been on the rise in recent years. However, many indigenous students still find it necessary to work part-time. In this study, indigenous students were interviewed…

Chen, Shan-Hua

2014-01-01

237

Thinking Place: Animating the Indigenous Humanities in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of…

Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood

2005-01-01

238

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil  

E-print Network

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil Hundreds of indigenous people demonstrated at the National Congress in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, following the announcement in the 1990s in the midst of extensive protests in Brazil and around the world. On February 8, an indigenous

Milchberg, Howard

239

Partnership for Improving Outcomes in Indigenous Education: Relationship or Business?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the Australian government's Indigenous policy by interrogating the concept of partnership between governments and Indigenous communities through three examples. Increasingly, the Australian federal government is focusing attention on the poor literacy and numeracy outcomes for Indigenous children in remote and very remote…

Ma Rhea, Zane

2012-01-01

240

Eagle and the Condor: Indigenous Alliances for Youth Leadership Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This narrative describes the growth of an alliance between two indigenous organizations in North and South America, illustrating how a shared indigenous vision of cultural survival and connection to the land led to the creation of an ongoing collaboration for indigenous youth leadership development, which has extended to encompass collaboration…

Wihak, Christine; Hately, Lynne; Allicock, Sydney; Lickers, Michael

2007-01-01

241

Implementing Indigenous Standpoint Theory: Challenges for a TAFE Trainer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocational education and training outcomes for Indigenous Australians have remained below expectations for some time. Implementation of Indigenous Standpoint Theory (IST) presents the opportunity to further enhance Vocational Education and Training for Indigenous people in Australia. This paper briefly discusses this theory, the concept of…

Choy, Sarojni C.; Woodlock, Julie

2007-01-01

242

Indigenized conceptual and empirical analyses of selected Chinese psychological characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An academic movement to switch from Westernized Chinese psychology to an indigenized Chinese psychology in Chinese societies (Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China) has existed for about three decades. Indigenous?oriented Chinese psychologists have conducted serious indigenized research on about 50 different broad topics. Kuo?Shu Yang's conceptual and empirical analyses on 3 of them are briefly reviewed in this article: (a) Chinese

2006-01-01

243

The management of diabetes in indigenous Australians from primary care  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous Australians have high rates of diabetes and its complications. This study examines ethnic differences in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian primary care. Methods Diabetes management and outcomes in Indigenous patients enrolled in the NEFRON study (n = 144) was systematically compared with that in non-Indigenous patients presenting consecutively to the same practitioner (n = 449), and the NEFRON cohort as a whole (n = 3893). Results Indigenous Australians with diabetes had high rates of micro- and macrovascular disease. 60% of Indigenous patients had an abnormal albumin to creatinine ratio compared to 33% of non-Indigenous patients (p < 0.01). When compared to non-Indigenous patients, Indigenous patients were more likely to have established macrovascular disease ((adjusted Odds ratio 2.7). This excess in complications was associated with poor glycemic control, with an HbA1c ? 8.0%, observed in 55% of all Indigenous patients, despite the similar frequency use of oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Smoking was also more common in Indigenous patients (38%vs 10%, p < 0.01). However, the achievement of LDL and blood pressure targets was the same or better in Indigenous patients. Conclusion Although seeing the same doctors and receiving the same medications, glycaemic and smoking cessation targets remain unfulfilled in Indigenous patients. This cross-sectional study confirms Aboriginal ethnicity as a powerful risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular disease, which practitioners should use to identify candidates for intensive multifactorial intervention. PMID:17958918

Thomas, Mark; Weekes, Andrew J; Thomas, Merlin C

2007-01-01

244

Indigenous Digital Storytelling in Video: Witnessing with Alma Desjarlais  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous digital storytelling in video is a way of witnessing the stories of Indigenous communities and Elders, including what has happened and is happening in the lives and work of Indigenous peoples. Witnessing includes acts of remembrance in which we look back to reinterpret and recreate our relationship to the past in order to understand the…

Iseke, Judy M.

2011-01-01

245

Improving organisational systems for diabetes care in Australian Indigenous communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from diabetes. There is an urgent need to understand how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver diabetes services to those most in need, to monitor the quality of diabetes care received by Indigenous people, and to improve systems for better diabetes care. METHODS: The intervention featured

Ross Bailie; Damin Si; Michelle Dowden; Lynette O'Donoghue; Christine Connors; Gary Robinson; Joan Cunningham; Tarun Weeramanthri

2007-01-01

246

Indigenous Representation and Alternative Schooling: Prioritising an Epistemology of Relationality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on a case study of a small alternative Indigenous school in Queensland, Australia. From the perspective of several of the school's Indigenous Elders, the paper foregrounds the significance of group differentiation at the school on the basis of Indigenous representation. However, it also considers how such…

Keddie, Amanda

2014-01-01

247

Indigenous Youth and Bilingualism—Theory, Research, Praxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this introduction, we situate the theme issue within a growing body of research on Indigenous youth language practices, communicative repertoires, and ideologies, articulating points of intersection in scholarship on Indigenous and immigrant youth bilingualism. Our geographic focus is North America. Ethnographic studies from the Far North to Mexico counter stereotypical assumptions that Indigenous youth simply orient away from local

Teresa L. McCarty; Leisy T. Wyman

2009-01-01

248

Educational Leadership and Indigeneity: Doing Things the Same, Differently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational leadership, it is argued, must play a critical role in improving student outcomes, especially those of minoritized and Indigenous students. In the process of improving education and schooling for Indigenous students, Indigenous educational leadership needs to be considered alongside educational leadership more generally. This article…

Hohepa, Margie Kahukura (Ngapuhi)

2013-01-01

249

Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome.  

PubMed

1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload. PMID:17190684

Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C

2006-12-01

250

Farming practices and genetic characterization of Nicobari pig, an indigenous pig germplasm of Nicobar group of islands, India.  

PubMed

The Nicobari pig, locally known as Ha-un, is an indigenous pig germplasm located only in the Nicobar group of islands, India. The present study documents the Nicobari pig-rearing practices of the tribal farmers and genetically characterizes them using 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years (2010-2012) in Car Nicobar, India. A total of 225 farmers were surveyed (15 farmers per village of 15 villages). Information on herd statistics, husbandry practices, and constraints faced by the farmers in pig production were collected. The pigs were reared in a free-range system. Mean pig herd size per house hold was 8.9, and main feed for pigs was coconut and some indigenous feed materials such as pandanus, bread fruit, and Nicobari alu. The main constraints faced by the farmers were lack of feed after the tsunami, different disease conditions, piglet mortality, and predator attack. The Nicobari pigs were genotyped by 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The mean observed number of alleles for all 23 loci in Nicobari pigs was 6.96 ± 0.31. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.66 ± 0.02 and 0.75 ± 0.01, respectively. It was found that the genetic diversity of this pig breed was very high compared to Large White Yorkshire and other European pig breeds. This genetic characterization of the pig breed will be helpful in their conservation effort. PMID:24595559

De, Arun Kumar; Jeyakumar, S; Kundu, Madhu Sudan; Kundu, Anandamoy; Sunder, Jai; Ramachandran, M

2014-04-01

251

Helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of indigenous poultry in parts of Kenya.  

PubMed

A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78%. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53%), Heterakis gallinarum (21.33%), Ascaridia galli (10.03%), Strongyloides avium (9.96%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61%), Cotugnia digonopora (3.6%), Capillaria sp. (1.5%), Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04%) and Syngamus trachea (0.40%). Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat such cases. PMID:15214699

Irungu, L W; Kimani, R N; Kisia, S M

2004-03-01

252

Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Norway. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Norway.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education for indigenous peoples in Norway was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Norway's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

Lund, Svein

253

Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.  

PubMed

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post-mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks. PMID:21858730

Njagi, Lucy Wanjiru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Nyaga, Phillip Njeru; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Minga, Uswege M

2012-04-01

254

Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

2011-01-01

255

TRUDEAU SCHOLARSHIP Student of Indigenous law  

E-print Network

speed reading TRUDEAU SCHOLARSHIP Student of Indigenous law wins $150,000 award Andrée Boisselle. Story on page 4. NEW SCHOLARSHIPS Black gives back David Black, owner of Black Press, has established 37 new scholarships for BCom students from communities across the province. Black played a major role

Victoria, University of

256

Software Tools for Indigenous Knowledge Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous communities are beginning to realize the potential benefits digital technologies can offer with regard to the documentation and preservation of their histories and cultures. However, they are also coming to understand the opportunities for knowledge misuse and misappropriation of their knowledge which may accompany digitization. In this…

Hunter, Jane; Koopman, Bevan; Sledge, Jane

257

Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

2006-01-01

258

Indigenous Metissage: A Decolonizing Research Sensibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a report on the theoretical origins of a decolonizing research sensibility called Indigenous Metissage. This research praxis emerged parallel to personal and ongoing inquiries into historic and current relations connecting Aboriginal peoples and Canadians in the place now called Canada. I frame the colonial frontier origins of these…

Donald, Dwayne

2012-01-01

259

Indigenous People: Emancipatory Possibilities in Curriculum Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I argue that emancipatory possibilities for Maori, the Indigenous people of New Zealand, rely on structural changes that enable them to have control over resources, decision making, and meaning, and that emancipation is a journey traveled by oppressed groups as they exercise their collective agency. The 1990s development of…

McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

2008-01-01

260

RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

261

Mutation breeding by ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

1991-07-01

262

Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

263

A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a comparison of the sequences of 3 domestic chickens (broiler, layer, Silkie) to their wild ancestor Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about 5 SNP/kb for almost every possible comparison between RJF and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--contrary to the idea that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated prior to domestication, and there is little to no evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales of greater than 100 kb.

Wong, G K; Hillier, L; Brandstrom, M; Croojmans, R; Ovcharenko, I; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L; Lucas, S; Glavina, T; Kaiser, P; Gunnarsson, U; Webber, C; Overton, I

2005-02-20

264

Prevalence of Salmonella serovars in chickens in Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, 151 (18.6%) of 814 ceca obtained during in-line processing of 28 broiler (Hybro G, Avian, Arbor acres, and Cobb breeds) and 5 layer (Ross, Tetra SL, Isa Brown, and Brown Nick breeds) flocks in Turkey were found to be contaminated with four different Salmonella serovars. Only Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) was recovered from layer birds, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (81.5%). Salmonella Agona (7.6%), Salmonella Thompson (10.1%), and Salmonella Sarajane (0.8%) were isolated from broiler birds. Isolations of Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Thompson from poultry are reported for the first time in Turkey. The isolation of Salmonella Sarajane from chickens is the first report in the world. The standard method of National Poultry Improvement Plan, U.S. Department of Agriculture, was used to detect Salmonella from chicken cecal samples. Primary and delayed secondary enrichments (PE and DSE) were done in tetrathionate-Hajna broth (TTHB). Two different agar media, xylose lysine tergitol 4 (XLT4) and brilliant green with novobiocin (BGN) were used to observe, and compared for their isolation and selective differentiation of, Salmonella-suspected colonies. Isolated salmonellae were then biotyped and serotyped. Ninety-one and 151 salmonellae were isolated with XLT4 agar after PE and DSE, respectively. From the same samples, BGN agar was able to detect only 50 and 131 Salmonella after PE and DSE, respectively. The isolation rate with XLT4 was 11.2% (P < 0.01) with PE, and this rate increased to 18.6% after DSE. Also, the PE isolation rate (11.2%) with XLT4 agar was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than PE with BGN agar (6.1%). Salmonella was isolated from 39.3% (11 of 28) of the broiler flocks and from 60.0% (3 of 5) of the layers. The detection sensitivity of the isolation method was determined as 1 CFU g(-1) experimentally. These data demonstrate the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Thompson, Salmonella Agona, and Salmonella Sarajane in chicken flocks in Turkey. PMID:11726169

Carli, K T; Eyigor, A; Caner, V

2001-11-01

265

Occurrence of glycosphingolipids in chicken egg yolk.  

PubMed Central

Chicken egg yolk was found to contain a unique glycosphingolipid pattern not seen in other types of tissue or cell. These glycosphingolipids were isolated in pure form and their structures established by sequential enzymic hydrolysis and permethylation analysis. The major gangliosides in chicken egg yolk are N-acetylneuraminosylgalactosylceramide, N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide and di-N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide. The only neutral glycosphingolipid found in chicken egg yolk is galactosylceramide. Images Fig. 1. PMID:567981

Li, S C; Chien, J L; Wan, C C; Li, Y T

1978-01-01

266

Effective population size of an indigenous Swiss cattle breed estimated from linkage disequilibrium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective population size is an important parameter for the assessment of genetic diversity within a livestock population and its development over time. If pedigree information is not available, linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis might offer an alternative perspective for the estimation of effecti...

267

Contrasting Colonist and Indigenous Impacts on Amazonian Forests  

PubMed Central

To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups. PMID:20337669

LU, FLORA; GRAY, CLARK; BILSBORROW, RICHARD E.; MENA, CARLOS F.; ERLIEN, CHRISTINE M.; BREMNER, JASON; BARBIERI, ALISSON; WALSH, STEPHEN J.

2012-01-01

268

Best of Breed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No team of engineers, no matter how much time they took or how many bottles of cabernet they consumed, would dream up an antenna that looked like a deer antler on steroids. Yet that's what a group at NASA Ames Research Center came up with-thanks to a little help from Darwin. NASA's Space Technology 5 nanosatellites, which are scheduled to start measuring Earth's magnetosphere in late 2004, requires an antenna that can receive a wide range of frequencies regardless of the spacecraft's orientation. Rather than leave such exacting requirements in the hands of a human, the engineers decided to breed a design using genetic algorithms and 32 Linux PCs. The computers generated small antenna-constructing programs (the genotypes) and executed them to produce designs (the phenotypes). Then the designs were evaluated using an antenna simulator. The team settled on the form pictured here. You won't find this kind of antenna in any textbook, design guide, or research paper. But its innovative structure meets a challenging set of specifications. If successfully deployed, it will be the first evolved antenna to make it out of the lab and the first piece of evolved hardware ever to fly in space.

Lohn, Jason

2004-01-01

269

Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone  

SciTech Connect

The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

1990-01-01

270

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

Arnold, Jonathan

271

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

Arnold, Jonathan

272

The Kintamani dog: genetic profile of an emerging breed from Bali, Indonesia.  

PubMed

The Kintamani dog is an evolving breed indigenous to the Kintamani region of Bali. Kintamani dogs cohabitate with feral Bali street dogs, although folklore has the breed originating 600 years ago from a Chinese Chow Chow. The physical and personality characteristics of the Kintamani dog make it a popular pet for the Balinese, and efforts are currently under way to have the dog accepted by the Federation Cynologique Internationale as a recognized breed. To study the genetic background of the Kintamani dog, 31 highly polymorphic short tandem repeat markers were analyzed in Kintamani dogs, Bali street dogs, Australian dingoes, and nine American Kennel Club (AKC) recognized breeds of Asian or European origin. The Kintamani dog was identical to the Bali street dog at all but three loci. The Bali street dog and Kintamani dog were most closely aligned with the Australian dingo and distantly related to AKC recognized breeds of Asian but not European origin. Therefore, the Kintamani dog has evolved from Balinese feral dogs with little loss of genetic diversity. PMID:16014810

Puja, I K; Irion, D N; Schaffer, A L; Pedersen, N C

2005-01-01

273

COMMENTS ON OPTIMIZATION OF CATTLE BREEDING SCHEMES  

E-print Network

REVIEW COMMENTS ON OPTIMIZATION OF CATTLE BREEDING SCHEMES : BEEF BREEDS FOR SUCKLING HERDS (1 zootechniques, I. N. R. A., 78350 Jouy en Josas (France) SUMMARY Optimization of selection of beef breeds objectives. We have distinguished between 3 types of populations : specialized beef breed herds, hardy herds

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

Plant Breeding Program COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL  

E-print Network

Plant Breeding Program COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Office of the Dean Cereal Fiber Forage Fruit germplasm Nuts oilseed orNameNtal Vegetable plaNt breediNg aCademy researCh aNd iNFormatioN CeNters 100 years of breeding #12;2 UC Davis Plant Breeding Program Summarizing 100 years of history

Bradford, Kent

275

Identification of smallholder farmers and pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits: choice model approach.  

PubMed

Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly homogeneous preferences were investigated. In the pastoral production system, attention was given to coat color of both breeding rams and ewes, favoring brown and white colors over black. Ram libido influenced producers' decisions in Bonga, Horro and Menz areas. The influence of milk yield and twinning on respondents' decision making was high in Afar and Horro, respectively. Breeders in all areas attempt to combine production and reproduction traits as well as they can in order to maximize benefits from their sheep. The elicited measurable objective traits were used to design alternative community-based sheep breeding plans for the four indigenous sheep breeds in their production environments that have been implemented since. PMID:22440475

Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

2011-12-01

276

Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model for "science for all".

Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

2011-09-01

277

Are supernovae recorded in indigenous astronomical traditions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the skywatching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in indigenous oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral traditions and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Aboriginal Australian traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Aboriginal traditions, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous Australian oral or material traditions.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2014-07-01

278

Social networks among Indigenous peoples in Mexico.  

PubMed

We examine the extent to which social networks among indigenous peoples in Mexico have a significant effect on a variety of human capital investment and economic activities, such as school attendance and work among teenage boys and girls, and migration, welfare participation, employment status, occupation, and sector of employment among adult males and females. Using data from the 10 percent population sample of the 2000 Population and Housing Census of Mexico and the empirical strategy that Bertrand, Luttmer, and Mullainathan (2000) propose, which allows us to take into account the role of municipality and language group fixed effects, we confirm empirically that social network effects play an important role in the economic decisions of indigenous people, especially in rural areas. Our analysis also provides evidence that better access to basic services such as water and electricity increases the size and strength of network effects in rural areas. PMID:21188887

Skoufias, Emmanuel; Lunde, Trine; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

2010-01-01

279

Early childhood caries in indigenous communities.  

PubMed

The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) and the United States (American Indian, Alaska Native) is a major child health issue: there is a high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and resulting adverse health effects in this community, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. This statement includes recommendations for preventive oral health and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health-promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride-varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management, and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial. PMID:21624884

2011-06-01

280

Indigenous Knowledge and Sea Ice Science: What Can We Learn from Indigenous Ice Users?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drawing on examples mostly from Ińupiaq and Yup’ik sea-ice expertise in coastal Alaska, this contribution examines how local, indigenous knowledge (LIK) can inform and guide geophysical and biological sea-ice research. Part of the relevance of LIK derives from its linkage to sea-ice use and the services coastal communities derive from the ice cover. As a result, indigenous experts keep track of a broad range of sea-ice variables at a particular location. These observations are embedded into a broader worldview that speaks to both long-term variability or change and to the system of values associated with ice use. The contribution examines eight different contexts in which LIK in study site selection and assessment of a sampling campaign in the context of inter annual variability, the identification of rare or inconspicuous phenomena or events, the contribution by indigenous experts to hazard assessment and emergency response, the record of past and present climate embedded in LIK, and the value of holistic sea-ice knowledge in detecting subtle, intertwined patterns of environmental change. The relevance of local, indigenous sea-ice expertise in helping advance adaptation and responses to climate change as well as its potential role in guiding research questions and hypotheses are also examined. The challenges that may have to be overcome in creating an interface for exchange between indigenous experts and seaice researchers are considered. Promising approaches to overcome these challenges include cross-cultural, interdisciplinary education, and the fostering of Communities of Practice.

Eicken, H.

2010-12-01

281

Inserting random and site-specific changes into the genome of chickens.  

PubMed

During the past decade, modifications to the chicken genome have evolved from random insertions of small transgenes using viral vectors to site-specific deletions using homologous recombination vectors and nontargeted insertions of large transgenes using phi-31 integrase. Primordial germ cells (PGC) and gonocytes are the germline-competent cell lines in which targeted modifications and large transgenes are inserted into the genome. After extended periods of in vitro culture, PGC retain their capacity to form functional gametes when reintroduced in vivo. Rates of stable germline modification vary from 1 × 10(-5) for nontargeted insertions to 1 × 10(-8) for targeted insertions. Following transfection, clonally derived cell lines are expanded, injected into Stage 13-15 Hamburger and Hamilton embryos, and putative chimeras are incubated to term in surrogate shells. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is incorporated into transgenes to reveal the presence of genetically modified PGC in culture and the extent of colonization of the gonad during the first week posthatch. If the extent of colonization is adequate, cohorts of putative chimeras are reared to sexual maturity. Semen is collected and the contribution from donor PGC is estimated by evaluating GFP expression using flow cytometry and PCR. The most promising candidates are selected for breeding to obtain G1 heterozygote offspring. To date, this protocol has been used to (1) knockout the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes and produce chickens lacking humoral immunity, (2) insert human V genes and arrays of pseudo V genes into the heavy and light immunoglobulin loci to produce chickens making antibodies with human V regions, (3) insert GFP into nontargeted locations within the genome to produce chickens expressing GFP, and (4) insert Cre recombinase into the genome to produce chickens that excise sequences of DNA flanked by loxP sites. PMID:25332140

Collarini, Ellen; Leighton, Philip; Pedersen, Darlene; Harriman, Bill; Jacob, Roy; Mettler-Izquierdo, Shelley; Yi, Henry; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile; Etches, Robert J

2014-10-20

282

Nutrient Content of South African Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutrient content of South African chicken, of three genotypes (308 Ross, Cobb, 788 Ross), two treatments (fresh and frozen (spin chilled)), raw and\\/or cooked (dry and moist) and different portions (white and dark meat, skin and separable fat) was determined. Frozen compared to fresh chicken skin had a higher mineral and vitamin A, but lower vitamin E content. Medium-chain

S. M. van Heerden; H. C. Schönfeldt; M. F. Smith; D. M. Jansen van Rensburg

2002-01-01

283

What's so special about chicken immunology?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

284

Monoclonal antibodies against chicken interleukin-6  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced against a recombinant (r) chicken interleukin-6 (IL-6). Eight mAbs that were produced were tested for isotype; ability to inhibit recombinant forms of chicken (ch), human (h) and murine (m) IL-6; and recognition of rchIL-6 by Western immunoblotting. The mA...

285

Autolytic degradation of chicken intestinal proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the exhaustive degradation of chicken intestinal proteins by endogenous proteases, which could be utilized as a means to prepare protein hydrolysate, is reported in the present paper. Chicken intestine possesses proteolytic activities (cathepsin B, D, H, L, aminopeptidases and alkaline proteases) comparable to that in organ tissues like liver and spleen, which could degrade the tissue proteins extensively.

S. N. Jamdar; P. Harikumar

2005-01-01

286

Biodegradation of chlorobenzene by indigenous bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and ground water from four sites chronically contaminated with chlorobenzenes were examined to determine whether indigenous bacteria could degrade the contaminants and whether the addition of specific chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria enhanced the degradation rate. At each site, chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria were readily isolated from chlorobenzene-contaminated wells, whereas similar samples from noncontaminated wells yielded no chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria. Isolates were tested for growth

Shirley F Nishino; Jim C Spain; Charles A Pettigrew

1994-01-01

287

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

SciTech Connect

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

2003-02-11

288

Indigenous Australians’ knowledge of weather and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the last 200 years of colonisation has brought radical changes in economic and governance structures for thousands\\u000a of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders living in remote areas of northern Australia, many of these Indigenous people still\\u000a rely upon, and live closely connected to, their natural environment. Over millennia, living ‘on country’, many of these communities\\u000a have developed a sophisticated appreciation

Donna Green; Jack Billy; Alo Tapim

2010-01-01

289

Indigenous Plants Reported for Hypoglycemic Activity  

PubMed Central

Plants are the only source of a well established traditional and modern drugs and phytochemicals. Many plant species are known in folk medicine of different cultures to be used for their hypoglycemic properties and therefore used for treatment of diabetes. The evaluation of these plants and of their active natural principles is logic way of searching for new drugs to treat this disease. The present paper deals with the uses of indigenous plants for curing diabetes. PMID:22557024

Roy, Shipra; Agrawal, Venu

2001-01-01

290

[Effects of introducing Eucalyptus on indigenous biodiversity].  

PubMed

Eucalyptus is well-known as an effective reforestation tree species, due to its fast growth and high adaptability to various environments. However, the introduction of Eucalyptus could have negative effects on the local environment, e. g., inducing soil degradation, decline of groundwater level, and decrease of biodiversity, and especially, there still have controversies on the effects of introduced Eucalyptus on the understory biodiversity of indigenous plant communities and related mechanisms. Based on a detailed analysis of the literatures at home and abroad, it was considered that the indigenous plant species in the majority of introduced Eucalyptus plantations were lesser than those in natural forests and indigenous species plantations but more than those in other exotic species plantations, mainly due to the unique eco-physiological characteristics of Eucalyptus and the irrational plantation design and harvesting techniques, among which, anthropogenic factors played leading roles. Be that as it may, the negative effects of introducing Eucalyptus on local plant biodiversity could be minimized via more rigorous scientific plantation design and management based on local plant community characteristics. To mitigate the negative effects of Eucalyptus introduction, the native trees and understory vegetation in plantations should be kept intact during reforestation with Eucalyptus to favor the normal development of plant community and regeneration. At the same time, human disturbance should be minimized to facilitate the natural regeneration of native species. PMID:19899483

Ping, Liang; Xie, Zong-Qiang

2009-07-01

291

Biodegradation of chlorobenzene by indigenous bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Soil and ground water from four sites chronically contaminated with chlorobenzenes were examined to determine whether indigenous bacteria could degrade the contaminants and whether the addition of specific chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria enhanced the degradation rate. At each site, chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria were readily isolated from chlorobenzene-contaminated wells, whereas similar samples from noncontaminated wells yielded no chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria. Isolates were tested for growth on a variety of substrates. At a site contaminated with several solvents, a bioreactor was inoculated with the chlorobenzene-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150. Contaminated water was pumped through this bioreactor and a control bioreactor that had been colonized by in indigenous microorganisms. The contaminants were removed from both bioreactors; however, JS150 could not be recovered from the inoculated bioreactor after three weeks of operation. A follow-up lab study using ground water from the contaminated site confirmed the field results. The authors conclude that chlorobenzene contamination of soil causes the development of indigenous degradative populations that have a competitive advantage over inoculated strains. The mechanism and time course of this acclimation are poorly understood and require additional study.

Nishino, S.F.; Spain, J.C.; Pettigrew, C.A. (AL/EQOL, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States))

1994-06-01

292

Effect of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme with reference to biocontrol strategies.  

PubMed

A study was carried out at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, to assess the impact of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding and identify indigenous biocontrol agents with potential for controlling mosquito breeding in the scheme. The study established a close relationship between the schedule of the farming practices (particularly the flooding phase) and mosquito breeding. Two groups of agents, entomopathogenic bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) and larvivorous fish, were identified. Laboratory evaluation of the agents produced encouraging results. The bacterial isolates showed broad-spectrum larvicidal potency against Anopheles, Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae and 2 of the fish species, Tilapia zilli and Oreochromis niloticus, demonstrated a strong predation for a mosquito larval diet. To facilitate their use in effective biocontrol strategies, the agents would require further evaluation under field conditions. PMID:8096871

Asimeng, E J; Mutinga, M J

1993-03-01

293

Pacific walruses, indigenous hunters, and climate change: Bridging scientific and indigenous knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents and evaluates two perspectives on changing climate-walrus-human relationships in the Beringian region, from the viewpoints of marine biology and ecology, and from that of indigenous hunters. Bridging these types of knowledge is vital in order to grasp the complexity of the processes involved and for advancing understanding of subarctic marine ecosystems that are currently experiencing rapid ecological and social change. We argue that despite substantial gaps and distinctions, information generated by scientists and indigenous hunters have many similarities. Differences in interpretation are primarily due to scaling and temporal rates of change of knowledge, which could be rectified through more active sharing of expertise and records, enhanced documentation of indigenous observations, more collaborative research, and increased insight from the social sciences.

Krupnik, Igor; Ray, G. Carleton

2007-11-01

294

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America.  

PubMed

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands. PMID:24687096

Hamilton, Marcus J; Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C

2014-01-01

295

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America  

PubMed Central

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands. PMID:24687096

Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

2014-01-01

296

Microsatellite based phylogeny and bottleneck studies of Iranian indigenous goat populations.  

PubMed

Genetic analyses, structure, and bottlenecks were examined in six populations of Iranian indigenous goat using 13 microsatellite loci. The overall heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC), and Shannon index values were 0.80, 0.74, and 2.14, respectively, indicating high genetic diversity. Both a phylogenetic tree and factorial correspondence analysis grouped the populations into two major clusters. Signatures for bottleneck events in the populations were examined by two methods, which suggested that bottlenecks had occurred in two Tali and Markhoz populations, whereas other populations (Raeini, Korki jonobe Khorasan, Lori, and Najdi) showed no signature of a genetic bottleneck in the recent past. The results showed that Iranian goats have high genetic diversity and may be of value to alternative breeding and conservation programs. PMID:24669871

Mahmoudi, Bizhan; Panahi, Bahman; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolgasem; Daliri, Morteza; Babayev, Majnoun Sh

2014-01-01

297

Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Methods Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. Results With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Conclusions Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained molecular breeding values had similar accuracies. The benefit of adding data from other breeds to a within-breed training population is the ability to produce molecular breeding values that are more robust across breeds and these can be utilized until enough training data has been accumulated to allow for a within-breed training set. PMID:23953034

2013-01-01

298

Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04) years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys) completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day), over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI)), calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)), folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls), and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL)). Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods. PMID:22304829

2012-01-01

299

Empowering identity reconstruction of indigenous college students through transformative learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the interplay between identity reconstruction of indigenous college students and the effects of transformative learning on their self-development and collective action. Seventeen indigenous college students were interviewed for this study. The findings showed that most indigenous college students developed stigmatized identity and low self-esteem before entering college. Participating in native student clubs and a non-formal tribal service

Peiying Chen

2011-01-01

300

Empowering identity reconstruction of indigenous college students through transformative learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the interplay between identity reconstruction of indigenous college students and the effects of transformative learning on their self-development and collective action. Seventeen indigenous college students were interviewed for this study. The findings showed that most indigenous college students developed stigmatized identity and low self-esteem before entering college. Participating in native student clubs and a non-formal tribal service

Peiying Chen

2012-01-01

301

Design concepts for pressurized lunar shelters utilizing indigenous materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to design a pressurized shelter build of indigenous lunar material. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar conditions which impact design; secondary factors; review of previously proposed concepts; cross section of assembly facility; rationale for indigenous materials; indigenous material choices; cast basalt properties; design variables; design 1, cylindrical segments; construction sequence; design 2, arch-slabs with post-tensioned ring girders; and future research.

Happel, John Amin; Willam, Kaspar; Shing, Benson

1991-01-01

302

Diet of canvasbacks during breeding  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

1990-01-01

303

The journey between Western and indigenous research paradigms.  

PubMed

This article is an account of the author's journey as a White researcher preparing to do a community-based participatory action research study with Mi'kmaq men. In this article, a postcolonial approach is examined, interrogating the utility of this theoretical approach in research with Aboriginal people. Next, the foundations of an Indigenous worldview is identified, followed by a debate about the strengths and weaknesses of a critical social theory approach in light of an Indigenous worldview. Finally, lessons about an Indigenous research paradigm including the benefits of using a theoretical approach based on an Indigenous knowledge system are identified. PMID:19820173

Getty, Grace A

2010-01-01

304

Breeding monkeys for biomedical research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

1973-01-01

305

Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous

Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

2014-01-01

306

Isolation of chicken follicular dendritic cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which had been infected with Eimeria tenella. CD45- dendritic cells were selected using the specific monoclonal antibody against chicken CD45, which is a marker for chicken leukocytes, but is not expressed on chicken FDC. Isolated FDC were characterized morphologically, phenotypically and functionally. The phenotype of the selected cells was consistent with FDC in that they expressed IgG, IgM, complement factors C3 and B, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, but lacked cell surface markers characteristic of macrophages, T-, and B cells. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed their characteristic dendritic morphology. In addition, the identity of the FDC was further confirmed by their ability to trap chicken immune complexes (ICs) on their surface, whereas they did not trap naive antigen (ovalbumin) or ICs generated with mammalian immunoglobulins. Co-culturing allogeneic or autologous isolated FDC with B cells resulted in enhanced B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production. The lack of MHC restriction, a functional characteristic feature of FDC, further reinforces the identity of the isolated cells as chicken FDC. PMID:18374351

Del Cacho, Emilio; Gallego, Margarita; López-Bernard, Fernando; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad; Lillehoj, Hyun S

2008-05-20

307

Occurrence of Chicken Parvovirus Infection in Poland  

PubMed Central

The aim of the foregoing study was the determination of the occurrence of parvovirus in chicken flocks from different regions of Poland during 2002-2011. The material used for this study originated from chickens showing clinical symptoms of stunting and emaciation. For the quick detection of genetic material of the viruses in field samples, real-time PCR was applied. The conducted study implied on the occurrence of parvoviral infections in Poland in approximately 18% of investigated chicken flocks. However, their exact role remains still unknown. PMID:22393336

Tarasiuk, Karolina; Wo?niakowski, Grzegorz; Samorek-Salamonowicz, El?bieta

2012-01-01

308

Forage Breeding and New Varieties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the focus of the forage breeding program is to identify and develop novel germplasm and cultivars. The main objective is to produce cultivars with superior persistence, nutritive value and forage yield. This program also emphasizes two other objectives, namely:...

309

Forage breeding and new varieties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the focus of the forage breeding program is to identify and develop novel germplasm and cultivars. The main objective is to produce cultivars with superior persistence, nutritive value and forage yield. This program also emphasizes two other objectives, namely:...

310

The Need for Learning Arenas: Non-Indigenous Teachers Working in Indigenous School Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work contexts shape conditions for work. Teachers working in Indigenous school contexts face conditions different from teachers working in mainstream schools. Challenging working conditions for these teachers result in high teacher turnover, making it even more difficult for already disadvantaged students to progress. From a social justice…

Parding, Karolina

2013-01-01

311

The State versus Indigenous Peoples: The Impact of Hydraulic Projects on Indigenous Peoples of Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…

Thi Dieu, Nguyen

1996-01-01

312

Indigenizing Student-Centred Learning: A Western Approach in an Indigenous Educational Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the alignment of the teaching and learning practices with a student-centred learning approach in an indigenous educational institution. The findings indicated that when a western concept is applied in the classroom, it is vital for it to be culturally relevant and appropriate to the cultural beliefs and values of the…

Kennedy, Chona Pineda

2013-01-01

313

Get It Right: Indigenous Demands for Control of Indigenous Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the proliferation of indigenous higher education programs and institutions in Australia, Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders are concerned about continuing forms of imposition and domination. The central challenge is to understand that continuing forms of colonialism are responsible for the insidious and embedded features of hegemonic…

Williams, Shayne; And Others

314

Hypoxia-Induced miR-15a Promotes Mesenchymal Ablation and Adaptation to Hypoxia during Lung Development in Chicken  

PubMed Central

The lungs undergo changes that are adaptive for high elevation in certain animal species. In chickens, animals bred at high elevations (e.g., Tibet chickens) are better able to hatch and survive under high-altitude conditions. In addition, lowland chicken breeds undergo physiological effects and suffer greater mortality when they are exposed to hypoxic conditions during embryonic development. Although these physiological effects have been noted, the mechanisms that are responsible for hypoxia-induced changes in lung development and function are not known. Here we have examined the role of a particular microRNA (miRNA) in the regulation of lung development under hypoxic conditions. When chicks were incubated in low oxygen (hypoxia), miR-15a was significantly increased in embryonic lung tissue. The expression level of miR-15a in hypoxic Tibet chicken embryos increased and remained relatively high at embryonic day (E)16–20, whereas in normal chickens, expression increased and peaked at E19–20, at which time the cross-current gas exchange system (CCGS) is developing. Bcl-2 was a translationally repressed target of miR-15a in these chickens. miR-16, a cluster and family member of miR-15a, was detected but did not participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of bcl-2. Around E19, the hypoxia-induced decrease in Bcl-2 protein resulted in apoptosis in the mesenchyme around the migrating tubes, which led to an expansion and migration of the tubes that would become the air capillary network and the CCGS. Thus, interfering with miR-15a expression in lung tissue may be a novel therapeutic strategy for hypoxia insults and altitude adaptation. PMID:24887070

Hao, Rui; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Changxin; Li, Ning

2014-01-01

315

Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.  

PubMed

Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719

Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

2004-04-01

316

A simple and efficient method for extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from chicken eggshells.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported a method for discriminating a Japanese brand of chicken, the Hinai-jidori. As an application of this method for discriminating Hinai-jidori eggs, we here report an efficient method for extracting maternal DNA from eggshells. Eggshell powder was completely decalcified with EDTA solution, and then DNA was isolated by conventional phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. The efficiency of DNA recovery from eggshells was 50-fold higher than that of a previously reported method. The recovered DNA could be used for PCR, and 10 markers for identifying the Hinai-jidori chicken were detected. The genotypes of the Hinai-jidori exactly matched those of the Hinai-dori breed. Using this method, Hinai-jidori and Hinai-dori eggs could be distinguished from the eggs of Rhode Island Reds. This is the first report of a technique that can be used to discriminate the eggs of Hinai-jidori from those of other chickens, and it can also be utilized to validate the labeling of Hinai-jidori eggs in the market. PMID:20163594

Rikimaru, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hideaki

2009-04-01

317

Probabilistic cognition in two indigenous Mayan groups.  

PubMed

Is there a sense of chance shared by all individuals, regardless of their schooling or culture? To test whether the ability to make correct probabilistic evaluations depends on educational and cultural guidance, we investigated probabilistic cognition in preliterate and prenumerate Kaqchikel and K'iche', two indigenous Mayan groups, living in remote areas of Guatemala. Although the tested individuals had no formal education, they performed correctly in tasks in which they had to consider prior and posterior information, proportions and combinations of possibilities. Their performance was indistinguishable from that of Mayan school children and Western controls. Our results provide evidence for the universal nature of probabilistic cognition. PMID:25368160

Fontanari, Laura; Gonzalez, Michel; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Girotto, Vittorio

2014-12-01

318

Rose Breeding Program MOORE ROSE COLLECTION  

E-print Network

Rose Breeding Program MOORE ROSE COLLECTION The father of the miniature rose, Ralph Moore, has donated all of his breeding stock, nursery business, and plant inventory to Texas AgriLife Research unreleased varieties that are used for breeding stock. Few of the commercially released rose varieties have

319

Horticultural Plant Breeding: Past Accomplishments, Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic improvement of agronomic crops through breeding, which typically are marketed as commodities, are grower directed. Breeding objectives principally involve increasing yield, often based on resistance to biotic and non-biotic stress. For example improvement in hybrid maize yields have relied on increasing yield stability under high populations. In horticultural crops, breeding objectives must be consumer directed because consumers make individual

Jules Janick

320

Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Signaling Pathways Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition in Skeletal Muscle of Sex-Linked Dwarf Chickens  

PubMed Central

Intramuscular fat (IMF) plays an important role in meat quality. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying IMF deposition in skeletal muscle have not been addressed for the sex-linked dwarf (SLD) chicken. In this study, potential candidate genes and signaling pathways related to IMF deposition in chicken leg muscle tissue were characterized using gene expression profiling of both 7-week-old SLD and normal chickens. A total of 173 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the two breeds. Subsequently, 6 DEGs related to lipid metabolism or muscle development were verified in each breed based on gene ontology (GO) analysis. In addition, KEGG pathway analysis of DEGs indicated that some of them (GHR, SOCS3, and IGF2BP3) participate in adipocytokine and insulin signaling pathways. To investigate the role of the above signaling pathways in IMF deposition, the gene expression of pathway factors and other downstream genes were measured by using qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Collectively, the results identified potential candidate genes related to IMF deposition and suggested that IMF deposition in skeletal muscle of SLD chicken is regulated partially by pathways of adipocytokine and insulin and other downstream signaling pathways (TGF-?/SMAD3 and Wnt/catenin-? pathway). PMID:24757673

Ye, Yaqiong; Lin, Shumao; Mu, Heping; Tang, Xiaohong; Ou, Yangdan; Chen, Jian; Ma, Yongjiang; Li, Yugu

2014-01-01

321

Low Rates of Postpartum Glucose Screening Among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Women in Australia with Gestational Diabetes.  

PubMed

Women with gestational diabetes have a high risk of type 2 diabetes postpartum, with Indigenous women particularly affected. This study reports postpartum diabetes screening rates among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women with gestational diabetes, in Far North Queensland, Australia. Retrospective study including 1,012 women with gestational diabetes giving birth at a regional hospital from 1/1/2004 to 31/12/2010. Data were linked between hospital records, midwives perinatal data, and laboratory results, then analysed using survival analysis and logistic regression. Indigenous women had significantly longer times to first oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) [hazards ratio (HR) 0.62, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.79, p < 0.0001) and 'any' postpartum glucose test (HR 0.81, 95 % CI 0.67-0.98, p = 0.03], compared to non-Indigenous women. Postpartum screening rates among all women were low. However, early OGTT screening rates (<6 months) were significantly lower among Indigenous women (13.6 vs. 28.3 %, p < 0.0001), leading to a persistent gap in cumulative postpartum screening rates. By 3 years postpartum, cumulative rates of receiving an OGTT, were 24.6 % (95 % CI 19.9-30.2 %) and 34.1 % (95 % CI 30.6-38.0 %) among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Excluding OGTTs in previous periods, few women received OGTTs at 6-24 months (7.8 vs. 6.7 %) or 2-4 years (5.2 vs. 6.5 %), among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Low rates of postpartum diabetes screening demonstrate that essential 'ongoing management' and 'equity' criteria for population-based screening for gestational diabetes are not being met; particularly among Indigenous women, for whom recent guideline changes have specific implications. Strategies to improve postpartum screening after gestational diabetes are urgently needed. PMID:24981736

Chamberlain, Catherine; McLean, Anna; Oats, Jeremy; Oldenburg, Brian; Eades, Sandra; Sinha, Ashim; Wolfe, Rory

2014-07-01

322

Indigenous Peoples and Education in the Circumpolar North.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers represents an attempt to define better the purposes and content of education among the indigenous peoples of the circumpolar north. All the papers, except one on the Soviet Union, were written by members of indigenous groups in the far north. They are professionally involved in the field of Native education in their…

Demmert, William G., Jr., Ed.

323

Towards Growing Indigenous Culturally Competent Legal Professionals in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Review of Australian Higher Education (Bradley Review, 2008) and the Review of Higher Education Access and Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People (Behrendt Review, 2012) identified the need for tertiary institutions to incorporate Indigenous knowledges into curriculum to improve educational outcomes for Indigenous

Burns, Marcelle

2013-01-01

324

Mathematics Registers in Indigenous Languages: Experiences from South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through reporting on an initiative in South Africa that aimed to provide epistemological access to teachers and learners of mathematics (and science) through translating mathematical concepts into two indigenous languages, this paper argues for the urgent development of mathematical registers in indigenous languages for mathematics and …

Schafer, Marc

2010-01-01

325

New computational resources for indigenous and minority languages  

E-print Network

New computational resources for indigenous and minority languages Kevin Scannell Saint Louis speakers of indigenous and minority languages to communicate online First: Simplified keyboard input University May 13, 2011 #12;Global reach Two projects aimed at language revitalization Basic goal: allow

Scannell, Kevin Patrick

326

Repatriating Indigenous Technologies in an Urban Indian Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous people are significantly underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). The solution to this problem requires a more robust lens than representation or access alone. Specifically, it will require careful consideration of the ecological contexts of Indigenous school age youth, of which more than 70%…

Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda; Faber, Lori; Suzukovich, Eli S., III

2013-01-01

327

A Motivational Psychology for the Education of Indigenous Australian Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores an integrative framework for a motivational psychology for the education of Indigenous students. Drawing on and adapting Graham's (1994) taxonomy for motivational psychology, it is suggested that enhancing the educational outcomes of Indigenous students involves addressing factors relevant to the self (positive identity,…

Martin, Andrew J.

2006-01-01

328

Indigenous Knowledge and the Role of Information Literacy Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper the authors argued that effective information literacy education (ILE) must consider the indigenous cultural context of a country and tailor programmes according to this context. In this paper the discussion is carried further, with Laos as a case study of how culture and indigenous knowledge affect planning for ILE that is culturally and contextually appropriate. Based

Dan Dorner; G. E. Gorman

329

Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

Robertson, Carmen

2012-01-01

330

Closing the Gap: cultural safety in Indigenous health education.  

PubMed

The challenge for the future is to embrace a new partnership aimed at closing the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians on life expectancy, educational achievement and employment opportunities. Significant improvements in contemporary Indigenous health care can be achieved through culturally safe health education programs for Indigenous students. However, while participation rates of Australian Indigenous students in the higher education sector are increasing, attrition rates are markedly higher than those of the general student population. This paper focuses on a unique degree program that is offered exclusively to Indigenous students in the field of mental health in the School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health, Charles Sturt University. This qualitative exploratory study aimed to identify strategies that were especially helpful in sustaining students in the program and to identify and address barriers to the retention of students, to empower students to better prepare for the university environment and to inform academics within the course about areas that could be improved to provide a more culturally safe learning environment. The first stage of the study utilised focus group interviews with 36 Indigenous students across all three years of the program. The findings of the study addressing the issues of culturally appropriate pedagogy, curricula and cultural safety in the mental health degree program are discussed. PMID:21591823

Rigby, Wayne; Duffy, Elaine; Manners, Jan; Latham, Heather; Lyons, Lorraine; Crawford, Laurie; Eldridge, Ray

331

Australian indigenous tourism policy: practical and sustainable policies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of Australia's policies for indigenous tourism and analyses those policies for their sustainable tourism content. It notes that in Australia, tourism is increasingly seen as an instrument for sustaining indigenous communities, many of whom look to tourism for a better future. Growing intervention from Australian federal and, more recently, State\\/Territory governments has sought to create

Michelle M. Whitford; Lisa M. Ruhanen

2010-01-01

332

Indigenous Teacher Education in Neo-Liberal Settler Societies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the extent to which Canadian Indigenous teacher education programs (TEPs) reproduced the values and practices of a settler state or, postcolonial indigenousness. Data were gathered via surveys of 14 TEPs and site visits at 10 of them. Findings were contradictory. There was evidence of settler culture embedded in documents such as…

Hesch, Rick

333

Indigenous Employment and Enterprise Agreements in Australian Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considering the benefits that enterprise agreements (EAs) can bring to Indigenous employees, this paper considers the question of whether respectful cultural policies that are aligned with reconciliation and included in EAs can be achieved to Close the Gap on reducing Indigenous disadvantage. A document analysis of EAs at eight Australian…

Brown, Cath

2014-01-01

334

Tourists' Perception of Authenticity in Indigenous Souvenirs in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes to a body of knowledge concerning tourists' perception of authenticity for indigenous souvenirs in Taiwan. Researchers evaluated, designed, and produced souvenir cups chosen to represent Taiwan's indigenous Paiwan culture. Markers, designs, and materials were researched and selected in order to examine tourists' perceptions of authenticity. Tourists were asked to evaluate the cups and to explain their perceived

Philip Feifan Xie; Tsung-Chiung Wu; Hui-Wen Hsieh

2012-01-01

335

Classroom Discourse of an Experienced Teacher of Indigenous Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will examine the discourse of one experienced teacher of Indigenous children in lessons observed as part of the Conductive Hearing Loss (CHL) project conducted by Edith Cowan University in Perth. In the classroom observed, all the children were Indigenous and the teacher was aware that some children were suffering from CHL. This…

Thwaite, Anne

2004-01-01

336

Indigenous Knowledge and Science in a Globalized Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This forum explores and expands on Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's article titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how indigenous knowledge is appropriated in science classrooms; how students from indigenous students'…

Regmi, Jagadish; Fleming, Michelle

2012-01-01

337

Anticolonial Strategies for the Recovery and Maintenance of Indigenous Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Indigenous Knowledge (IK) systems must be recovered and promoted by academics, indigenous knowledge holders, and political leaders by dismantling colonialism and state government control. While Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) has received attention due to its focus on management of natural resources and conservation, non-native…

Simpson, Leanne R.

2004-01-01

338

Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus  

E-print Network

. However, both the plants themselves and the shamanic knowledge of the plants are fading fast dueAntimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis By Daniel The knowledge of medicinal plant use by indigenous populations constitutes the most understudied medical

Firestone, Jeremy

339

Composite Indigenous Genre: Cheyenne Ledger Art as Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This author, a teacher of American Indian and Alaskan Native literature at an all-native school, contends that suppression of Indigenous literary texts is an aspect of colonization, and that reclamation of Indigenous American literature is a critical component of cultural sovereignty. In her classes, she emphasizes the hybrid nature of…

Low, Denise

2006-01-01

340

Effective Practices in Teaching Indigenous Students with Conductive Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hearing impairment due to conductive hearing loss can have a devastating effect on children's language development, and consequently educational outcomes, especially for Indigenous students, for whom there may be the additional issue of being educated in their second or third language. With appropriate interventions, however, Indigenous students…

Partington, Gary; Galloway, Ann

2005-01-01

341

Canadian Indigenous engagement and capacity building in health impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consultations with concerned stakeholders are a cornerstone to effective impact assessment, not only within Canada, but internationally as well. The environment is of paramount importance to Indigenous communities, as many continue to rely heavily on the land and natural resources for their subsistence, including their socio-economic, cultural, spiritual and physical survival. Indigenous communities want reassurances from governments and industry that

Roy E. Kwiatkowski; Constantine Tikhonov; Diane McClymont Peace; Carrie Bourassa

2009-01-01

342

Growth and Empowerment for Indigenous Australians in Substance Abuse Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes psychosocial outcomes of an Indigenous residential substance abuse rehabilitation centre in Australia, examines the sensitivity to change of the new Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), and explores the degree to which service users value cultural components of the treatment program. Participants were 57 Indigenous and 46…

Berry, Stacey L.; Crowe, T. P.; Deane, F. P.; Billingham, M.; Bhagerutty, Y.

2012-01-01

343

Coyote Goes to School: The Paradox of Indigenous Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching about Indigenous culture from an Indigenous perspective in a Western educational institution involves unresolvable contradictions. A Metis faculty member describes how she has changed traditional academic practices by normalizing relationships with her students, taking students out of the classroom and bringing the outside in, encouraging…

Harris, Heather

2002-01-01

344

Indigenous Australians' Access to Higher Education: A Catholic University's Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia's Indigenous peoples represent 2.5% of the national population but this number is increasing at a faster rate than the national average of other demographic groups. The history of the Indigenous peoples is one of dispossession and displacement, and a loss of cultures and languages. Access to and participation in education at all levels,…

Carpenter, Peter G.; McMullen, Gabrielle L.

2006-01-01

345

Across the Colonial Divide: Conversations about Evaluation in Indigenous Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay engages questions of evaluator role and indigenous peoples participation in evaluation within colonial and decolonization contexts. Specifically, I critique the Western emphasis on cultural competence and contrast the utility of "mainstream" evaluation approaches alongside three indigenous inquiry models (Te Kotahitanga,…

Cavino, Hayley Marama

2013-01-01

346

Free Software for Indigenous Languages Kevin P. Scannell  

E-print Network

(sometimes referred to as "Irish Gaelic"), the indigenous language of Ireland. Like most other indigenous that the language is taught in schools throughout Ireland and receives support from the government as a result, movies, and music that young people find most attractive. Irish, on the other hand, is associated

Scannell, Kevin Patrick

347

Preparing Indigenous Language Advocates, Teachers, and Researchers in Western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

As is evident in this statement, the Indigenous peoples of Canada recognize the value of their languages and have been concerned for some time about the possibility of the loss of this resource. Our intentions in this paper are to discuss the context of Indigenous language education in Western Canada, the hope of language revitalization, and the role of the

Heather A. Blair; Donna Paskemin; Barbara Laderoute

348

Closing the Gap: Using Graduate Attributes to Improve Indigenous Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peter J. Anderson and Bernadette Atkinson teach Indigenous and Traditionally Education in a Global World as a fourth year unit in the Faculty of Education at Monash University, Clayton. This paper is a self reflective piece of work where they discuss the use of graduate attributes relating to Indigenous Education, put forward by the Australian…

Anderson, Peter J.; Atkinson, Bernadette

2013-01-01

349

Methodological Metissage: An Interpretive Indigenous Approach to Environmental Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the development of a methodological metissage that combined Indigenous and interpretive traditions. This metissage was developed during a doctoral study conducted with Canadian environmental educators who incorporate Western and Indigenous knowledge and philosophy into their ecological identities and pedagogical praxis. It…

Lowan-Trudeau, Greg

2012-01-01

350

Quest of Visual Literacy: Deconstructing Visual Images of Indigenous People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces five concepts that guide teachers' and students' critical inquiry in the understanding of media and visual representation. In a step-by-step process, the paper illustrates how these five concepts can become a tool with which to critique and examine film images of indigenous people. The Sani are indigenous people of the…

Semali, Ladislaus

351

Indigenous Wellbeing Frameworks in Australia and the Quest for Quantification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an emerging global recognition of the inadequacies of conventional socio-economic and demographic data in being able to reflect the relative wellbeing of Indigenous peoples. This paper emerges out of a recent desktop study commissioned by an Australian Indigenous organization who identified a need to enhance local literacies in data…

Prout, Sarah

2012-01-01

352

7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2012-01-01

353

7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2011-01-01

354

7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2012-01-01

355

7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2011-01-01

356

7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2014-01-01

357

7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2014-01-01

358

7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2013-01-01

359

7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2013-01-01

360

CHICKEN DISEASE CHARACTERIZATION BY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize chicken carcass spectra. Spectral signatures of three different disease categories of poultry carcasses (airsacculitis, cadaver, and septicemia) were obtained from fluorescence emission measurements in the wavelength range of 360 to 600 nm with 330 ...

361

Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits) and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's

Solomon Gizaw; Hans Komen; Jack J. WINDIG; Olivier Hanotte; Johan AM van Arendonk

2008-01-01

362

Economic Opportunities for Indigenous Peoples in Latin America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With an increasing interest in the role of indigenous peoples in the economy, the World Bank's Latin America & Caribbean division has created this 55-page report on that very subject. Published in February 2007, this report is primarily concerned with the fact that more than 80 percent of Latin America's indigenous population still lives in abject poverty. Some of the results from the paper include the finding that many indigenous persons tend to be concentrated in few occupations, and that they mostly work in the informal economy. The report's authors, Emmanuel Skoufias and Harry Patrinos, do have a number of policy suggestions, including designing development programs that improve infrastructure in areas where indigenous persons live and also raising the general awareness of the needs of indigenous people at the national and international levels. For persons with an interest in this region and public policy issues, this report will be a most valuable read.

Patrinos, Harry Anthony

2007-01-01

363

Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project emerging between experts in the higher education, library, archive and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a culturally sensitive manner.

Nakata, Martin; Hamacher, Duane W.; Warren, John; Byrne, Alex; Pagnucco, Maurice; Harley, Ross; Venugopal, Srikumar; Thorpe, Kirsten; Neville, Richard; Bolt, Reuben

2014-06-01

364

All-time Favorites: Chicken Turkey.  

E-print Network

and flour slightly giving additional color and flavor. Add all liquid at once. Cook, stirring constantly until uniformly thickened. Season to taste. Add chopped giblets and sliced hard-cookeci eggs- RICE STUFFING 2 cups cooked rice 1 No. 2 can tomatoes... Mix rice lightly with butter or margarine; add celery, onion, green pepper, chicken livers and tomato broken into pieces with a fork. Combine seasonings; add to mixture. Mix in egg, lightly. Spoon stuffing lightly into chicken. Makes enough for 5...

Miller, Marshall; Reasonover, Frances

1967-01-01

365

Acute monensin toxicosis in broiler chickens  

E-print Network

Acute Monensin Toxicosis in Broiler Chickens. (December 1979) Lynn Allen Hanrahan, B. S. , D. V. M. , Purdue University Chairman of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Donald E. Carrier The toxic effects of monensin were studied in 3 groups of broiler chickens... of Veterinary Pathology and Dr. S. A. Naqi of the Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Para- sitology. My sincere thanks are extended to Dr. K. R. Pierce, Head, Department of Veterinary Pathology whose guidance and confidence has been an encouragement...

Hanrahan, Lynn Allen

1979-01-01

366

Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.  

PubMed

This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility. PMID:25241484

Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

2014-01-01

367

Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.  

PubMed

When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. PMID:24528101

Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

2014-06-01

368

A quest for indigenous truffle helper prokaryotes.  

PubMed

Tuber aestivum is the most common European truffle with significant commercial exploitation. Its production originates from natural habitats and from artificially inoculated host tree plantations. Formation of Tuber ectomycorrhizae in host seedling roots is often inefficient. One possible reason is the lack of indigenous associative microbes. Here we aimed at metagenetic characterization and cultivation of indigenous prokaryotes associated with T. aestivum in a field transect cutting through the fungus colony margin. Several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed close association with the T. aestivum in the ectomycorrhizae and in the soil, but there was no overlap between the associative prokaryotes in the two different habitats. Among those positively associated with the ectomycorrhizae, we identified several bacterial genera belonging to Pseudonocardineae. Extensive isolation efforts yielded many cultures of ectomycorrhizae-associative bacteria belonging to Rhizobiales and Streptomycineae, but none belonging to the Pseudonocardineae. The specific unculturable Tuber-associated prokaryotes are likely to play important roles in the biology of these ectomycorrhizal fungi, including modulation of competition with other symbiotic and saprotrophic microbes, facilitation of root penetration and/or accessing mineral nutrients in the soil. However, the ultimate proof of this hypothesis will require isolation of the microbes for metabolic studies, using novel cultivation approaches. PMID:23754715

Gryndler, Milan; Soukupová, Lucie; Hršelová, Hana; Gryndlerová, Hana; Borovi?ka, Jan; Streiblová, Eva; Jansa, Jan

2013-06-01

369

Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ?3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision. PMID:23116367

2012-01-01

370

Migratory double breeding in Neotropical migrant birds  

PubMed Central

Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers south in midsummer to breed a second time during the same summer in coastal west Mexico or Baja California Sur. They then migrate further south to their final wintering areas in the Neotropics. Our discovery of dual breeding ranges in Neotropical migrants reveals a hitherto unrealized flexibility in life-history strategies for these species and underscores that demographic models and conservation plans must consider dual breeding for these migrants. PMID:19858484

Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.

2009-01-01

371

Comparative analysis of the distribution of segmented filamentous bacteria in humans, mice and chickens  

PubMed Central

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are indigenous gut commensal bacteria. They are commonly detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Despite the significant role they have in the modulation of the development of host immune systems, little information exists regarding the presence of SFB in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and diversity of SFB in humans and to determine their phylogenetic relationships with their hosts. Gut contents from 251 humans, 92 mice and 72 chickens were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction and subjected to SFB 16S rRNA-specific PCR detection. The results showed SFB colonization to be age-dependent in humans, with the majority of individuals colonized within the first 2 years of life, but this colonization disappeared by the age of 3 years. Results of 16S rRNA sequencing showed that multiple operational taxonomic units of SFB could exist in the same individuals. Cross-species comparison among human, mouse and chicken samples demonstrated that each host possessed an exclusive predominant SFB sequence. In summary, our results showed that SFB display host specificity, and SFB colonization, which occurs early in human life, declines in an age-dependent manner. PMID:23151642

Yin, Yeshi; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Liying; Liu, Wei; Liao, Ningbo; Jiang, Mizu; Zhu, Baoli; Yu, Hongwei D; Xiang, Charlie; Wang, Xin

2013-01-01

372

Mean Total Arsenic Concentrations in Chicken 1989-2000 and Estimated Exposures for Consumers of Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in

Tamar Lasky; Wenyu Sun; Abdel Kadry; Michael K. Hoffman

2003-01-01

373

PATHOGENESIS OF CHICKEN-PASSAGED NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES ISOLATED FROM CHICKENS, WILD, AND EXOTIC BIRDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens and wild (anhinga) and exotic (yellow nape parrot, pheasant, and dove isolate) birds was examined after four passages of the isolates in domestic chickens. Groups of four-week-old specific-pathogen-free White Legh...

374

Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds  

PubMed Central

A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27), and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity. PMID:14736401

Laval, Guillaume; Iannuccelli, Nathalie; Legault, Christian; Milan, Denis; Groenen, Martien AM; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Andersson, Leif; Nissen, Peter H; Jřrgensen, Claus B; Beeckmann, Petra; Geldermann, Hermann; Foulley, Jean-Louis; Chevalet, Claude; Ollivier, Louis

2000-01-01

375

Enhancing Genome-Wide Copy Number Variation Identification by High Density Array CGH Using Diverse Resources of Pig Breeds  

PubMed Central

Copy number variations (CNVs) are important forms of genomic variation, and have attracted extensive attentions in humans as well as domestic animals. In the study, using a custom-designed 2.1 M array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), genome-wide CNVs were identified among 12 individuals from diverse pig breeds, including one Asian wild population, six Chinese indigenous breeds and two modern commercial breeds (Yorkshire and Landrace), with one individual of the other modern commercial breed, Duroc, as the reference. A total of 1,344 CNV regions (CNVRs) were identified, covering 47.79 Mb (?1.70%) of the pig genome. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 3.37 Kb to 1,319.0 Kb with a mean of 35.56 Kb and a median of 11.11 Kb. Compared with similar studies reported, most of the CNVRs (74.18%) were firstly identified in present study. In order to confirm these CNVRs, 21 CNVRs were randomly chosen to be validated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and a high rate (85.71%) of confirmation was obtained. Functional annotation of CNVRs suggested that the identified CNVRs have important function, and may play an important role in phenotypic and production traits difference among various breeds. Our results are essential complementary to the CNV map in the pig genome, which will provide abundant genetic markers to investigate association studies between various phenotypes and CNVs in pigs. PMID:24475311

Wang, Jiying; Jiang, Jicai; Wang, Haifei; Kang, Huimin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

2014-01-01

376

Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions  

E-print Network

Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

Wenander, F J C

2013-01-01

377

Indigenous knowledge on the nutritional quality of urban and peri-urban livestock feed resources in Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

This study identified the indigenous criteria used by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala to assess the nutritional quality of available feed resources. Focus group discussions and questionnaire interviews (with a total of 120 livestock farming households) were conducted. The findings showed that banana peels, leftover food and own-mixed feeds were the most commonly used feed resources for cattle, pigs and chickens, respectively. Farmers use several indigenous criteria to judge the nutritional quality of the available feed resources. These included perceived effects on disease resistance, feed intake, growth/body condition, hair coat appearance, faecal output, faecal texture and level of production, among others. According to farmers, animals offered with a feed resource of good nutritional quality are more resistant to diseases, ingest much of the feed, gain weight with well-filled bodies, have smooth hair coats, produce large quantities of faeces that are not too firm or watery and exhibit good performance (lactating cows produce more milk, sows produce piglets of good body size, hens lay more eggs of normal size, etc.). Although this indigenous knowledge exists, farmers put more importance on availability and cost as opposed to nutritional quality when choosing feed resources. This explains why banana peels were among the feed resources perceived to be of low nutritional quality but, at the same time, were found to be the most commonly used. Hence, there is a need to sensitise farmers on the importance of nutritional quality in ensuring better and efficient utilisation of the available feed resources. PMID:23568618

Lumu, Richard; Katongole, Constantine Bakyusa; Nambi-Kasozi, Justine; Bareeba, Felix; Presto, Magdalena; Ivarsson, Emma; Lindberg, Jan Erik

2013-10-01

378

Breeding of Tomorrow’s Chickens to Improve Well-Being  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animals have the ability to change their behavior (behavioral plasticity) and physiology (physiological plasticity) based on the costs and benefits in order to ‘fit’ their environment (adaptation). Through natural selection, the population preserves and accumulates traits that are beneficial and rej...

379

[Infant mortality in the indigenous population: backwardness and contrasts].  

PubMed

Some 6.4 million speakers of indigenous languages were enumerated in the 1990 Mexican census. The same census provided the basis for an indirect estimate of infant mortality using data on the numbers of live born and surviving children. Municipios with 40% or more of the population speaking an indigenous language were studied. The overall estimated infant mortality rate for indigenous municipios was 55.1/1000 live births, the equivalent of the Mexican infant mortality rate around 1982. Mexico's national infant mortality rate in 1990 was 34.8/1000. Great contrasts were found in indigenous infant mortality rates. Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatan, the states of the Mayan region, had a low rate of 35.09/1000, very close to the national average. Infant mortality levels were relatively low in the indigenous populations of Hidalgo, the state of Mexico, and Michoacan, with rates of 44 to 48. Chiapas, Oaxaca, Puebla, Durango, Guerrero, and San Luis Potosi had rates of 55 to 65. The highest rates were in states with few indigenous municipios, including Chihuahua, Jalisco, and Nayarit. The Huichol of Jalisco had the highest rate at 100.01/1000. Infant mortality levels were found to be correlated in different degrees with socioeconomic indicators. The highest infant mortality rates were in the indigenous regions with the poorest socioeconomic conditions. PMID:12346037

Fernandez Ham, P

1993-01-01

380

An EAV-HP Insertion in 5? Flanking Region of SLCO1B3 Causes Blue Eggshell in the Chicken  

PubMed Central

The genetic determination of eggshell coloration has not been determined in birds. Here we report that the blue eggshell is caused by an EAV-HP insertion that promotes the expression of SLCO1B3 gene in the uterus (shell gland) of the oviduct in chicken. In this study, the genetic map location of the blue eggshell gene was refined by linkage analysis in an F2 chicken population, and four candidate genes within the refined interval were subsequently tested for their expression levels in the shell gland of the uterus from blue-shelled and non-blue-shelled hens. SLCO1B3 gene was found to be the only one expressed in the uterus of blue-shelled hens but not in that of non-blue-shelled hens. Results from a pyrosequencing analysis showed that only the allele of SLCO1B3 from blue-shelled chickens was expressed in the uterus of heterozygous hens (O*LC/O*N). SLCO1B3 gene belongs to the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family; and the OATPs, functioning as membrane transporters, have been reported for the transportation of amphipathic organic compounds, including bile salt in mammals. We subsequently resequenced the whole genomic region of SLCO1B3 and discovered an EAV-HP insertion in the 5? flanking region of SLCO1B3. The EAV-HP insertion was found closely associated with blue eggshell phenotype following complete Mendelian segregation. In situ hybridization also demonstrated that the blue eggshell is associated with ectopic expression of SLCO1B3 in shell glands of uterus. Our finding strongly suggests that the EAV-HP insertion is the causative mutation for the blue eggshell phenotype. The insertion was also found in another Chinese blue-shelled breed and an American blue-shelled breed. In addition, we found that the insertion site in the blue-shelled chickens from Araucana is different from that in Chinese breeds, which implied independent integration events in the blue-shelled chickens from the two continents, providing a parallel evolutionary example at the molecular level. PMID:23359636

Yang, Xiaolin; Li, Guangqi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Junying; Wang, Xiaotong; Bai, Jirong; Xu, Guiyun; Deng, Xuemei; Yang, Ning; Wu, Changxin

2013-01-01

381

Community as Classroom: Dilemmas of Valuing African Indigenous Literacy in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface between school and indigenous knowledge of local plants is rarely a focus of attention in classrooms. The transfer of indigenous knowledge from everyday life to schoolwork is not always valued or encouraged, and indigenous ways of knowing may not be recognized by teachers. This article defines and documents the interplay between indigenous folk knowledge and modern (western) curriculum

Ladislaus Semali

1999-01-01

382

Academic Staff Perceptions of Factors Underlying Program Completion by Australian Indigenous Nursing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…

West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee

2014-01-01

383

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous

Breen, Helen M.

2012-01-01

384

Mending baskets: The process of using indigenous epistemology to reinterpret Sacagawea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is an interdisciplinary study that applies indigenous epistemology to a study of Sacagawea, the Shoshone woman who traveled with the Lewis and Clark expedition. The research addresses the problem of misrepresentation of Sacagawea and other Indigenous Peoples. It incorporates indigenous epistemology toward alternative social action, language and rationality. This study refined seven categories that describe an indigenous epistemology

Selene G Phillips

2003-01-01

385

Cultural Dimensions of Indigenous Participation in Education and Training. NCVER Monograph Series 02/2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preservation of Indigenous cultures is a controversial issue in Australia. On the one hand, the maintenance of traditional Indigenous culture has been viewed as a barrier to integration with mainstream society and the achievement of socio-economic equality between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. An alternative view sees maintenance…

Dockery, Alfred Michael

2009-01-01

386

The Strong Selective Sweep Candidate Gene ADRA2C Does Not Explain Domestication Related Changes In The Stress Response Of Chickens  

PubMed Central

Analysis of selective sweeps to pinpoint causative genomic regions involved in chicken domestication has revealed a strong selective sweep on chromosome 4 in layer chickens. The autoregulatory ?-adrenergic receptor 2C (ADRA2C) gene is the closest to the selective sweep and was proposed as an important gene in the domestication of layer chickens. The ADRA2C promoter region was also hypermethylated in comparison to the non-selected ancestor of all domesticated chicken breeds, the Red Junglefowl, further supporting its relevance. In mice the receptor is involved in the fight-or-flight response as it modulates epinephrine release from the adrenals. To investigate the involvement of ADRA2C in chicken domestication, we measured gene expression in the adrenals and radiolabeled receptor ligand in three brain regions comparing the domestic White Leghorn strain with the wild ancestor Red Junglefowl. In adrenals ADRA2C was twofold greater expressed than the related receptor gene ADRA2A, indicating that ADRA2C is the predominant modulator of epinephrine release but no strain differences were measured. In hypothalamus and amygdala, regions associated with the stress response, and in striatum, receptor binding pIC50 values ranged between 8.1–8.4, and the level was not influenced by the genotyped allele. Because chicken strains differ in morphology, physiology and behavior, differences attributed to a single gene may be lost in the noise caused by the heterogeneous genetic background. Therefore an F10 advanced intercross strain between White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl was used to investigate effects of ADRA2C alleles on fear related behaviors and fecundity. We did not find compelling genotype effects in open field, tonic immobility, aerial predator, associative learning or fecundity. Therefore we conclude that ADRA2C is probably not involved in the domestication of the stress response in chicken, and the strong selective sweep is probably caused by selection of some unknown genetic element in the vicinity of the gene. PMID:25111139

Elfwing, Magnus; Fallahshahroudi, Amir; Lindgren, Isa; Jensen, Per; Altimiras, Jordi

2014-01-01

387

Breeding without Breeding: Is a Complete Pedigree Necessary for Efficient Breeding?  

PubMed Central

Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called “Breeding without Breeding” (BwB) that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS) and incomplete (half-sib: HS) analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors), growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP) or complete (FS) pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB. PMID:21991342

El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Cappa, Eduardo P.; Liewlaksaneeyanawin, Cherdsak; Klápšt?, Jaroslav; Lstib?rek, Milan

2011-01-01

388

Fatty Acid and Transcriptome Profiling of Longissimus Dorsi Muscles between Pig Breeds Differing in Meat Quality  

PubMed Central

Fat and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in meat quality characteristics including the fatty acid composition of muscle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. This study compared meat quality traits between Lantang (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Landrace (a typical lean breed). The Lantang pigs showed higher L* values and intramuscular fat content, lower pH45min, pH24h and shear force in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle than Landrace (P < 0.05). Fatty acid analysis demonstrated the lower monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage in Lantang LD than that in Landrace LD (P < 0.05). To further identify candidate genes for fatty acid composition, the transcriptome of LD muscle from the two breeds were measured by microarrays. There were 586 transcripts differentially expressed, of which 267 transcripts were highly expressed in Lantang pigs. After the validation by real-time quantitative PCR, 13 genes were determined as candidate genes for fatty acid composition of muscle, including Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Then, a SCD over-expression plasmid was transfected into C2C12 cells to reveal the effect of SCD on the fatty acid composition in vitro. The results showed that SCD over-expression significantly increased PUFA proportion, while reduced that of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in C2C12 cells (P < 0.05). In summary, this study compared the differences of fatty acid composition and transcriptome in two breeds differing in meat quality, and further identified the novel role of SCD in the regulation of PUFA deposition. PMID:23355796

Yu, Kaifan; Shu, Gang; yuan, Fangfang; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Wang, Songbo; Wang, Lina; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Shouquan; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Yan; Wu, Tongshan; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Qingyan

2013-01-01

389

Globalization, states, and the health of indigenous peoples.  

PubMed Central

The consequences of globalization are mixed, and for the indigenous peoples of poor countries globalization has potentially important benefits. These are the result not of participation in the global economy but of participation in global networks of other indigenous peoples, environmental activists, and nongovernmental organizations. Since World War II, nonstate actors such as these have gained standing in international forums. It is indigenous peoples' growing visibility and ability to mobilize international support against the policies of their own national governments that has contributed in some important instances to their improved chances of survival. PMID:11029984

Kunitz, S J

2000-01-01

390

Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken

Edwards, Scott

391

Distribution of Escherichia coli F4 adhesion phenotypes in pigs of 15 Chinese and Western breeds and a White DurocxErhualian intercross.  

PubMed

Diarrhoea in newborn and weaned piglets is mainly caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) with fimbriae F4. To investigate the prevalence of resistance to three fimbrial strains, F4ab, F4ac and F4ad, among Chinese indigenous pigs and Western commercial pigs introduced into China, we determined the ETEC F4 adhesion phenotypes in 292 pure-bred piglets from three Western commercial breeds and 12 Chinese indigenous breeds, and a total of 1093 adult pigs in a White DurocxErhualian intercross, by an in vitro microscopic adhesion assay. All the Tibet and Lantang pigs and a majority of the Erhualian and Rongchang pigs were resistant (nonadherent) to ETEC F4 whereas all the Laiwu pigs and most of the Jiangquhai and Tongcheng pigs were susceptible (adhesive) to at least one of the F4 strains. Yushan Black pigs were uniformly resistant to F4ab, and Jinhua pigs were predominantly resistant to F4ac. Susceptible and resistant animals were observed in the other breeds, indicating that diarrhoea caused by ETEC F4 could be prevalent in these breeds. This study confirmed the existence of eight previously reported F4 adhesion patterns, and supported the assumption that the three F4 receptors are encoded by distinct loci. Expression of the weakly adherent phenotype was observed in six pure-bred piglets and 90 adult F(2)/F(3) animals, and the inheritance of this phenotype and its correlation with susceptibility to disease are still not known. PMID:19574416

Yan, Xueming; Huang, Xiang; Ren, Jun; Zou, Zhengzhi; Yang, Shujin; Ouyang, Jing; Zeng, Weihong; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Shijun; Huang, Lusheng

2009-08-01

392

Multiple maternal origins of chickens: Out of the Asian jungles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic chickens have long been important to human societies for food, religion, entertainment, and decorative uses, yet the origins and phylogeography of chickens through Eurasia remain uncertain. Here, we assessed their origins and phylogeographic history by ana- lyzing the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) for 834 domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Eurasia as well as 66 wild red

Yi-Ping Liu; Gui-Sheng Wu; Yong-Gang Yao; Yong-Wang Miao; Gordon Luikart; Mumtaz Baig; Albano Beja-Pereira; Zhao-Li Ding; Malliya Gounder Palanichamy; Ya-Ping Zhang

2005-01-01

393

Multiple maternal origins of chickens: Out of the Asian jungles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic chickens have long been important to human societies for food, religion, entertainment, and decorative uses, yet the origins and phylogeography of chickens through Eurasia remain uncertain. Here, we assessed their origins and phylogeographic history by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) for 834 domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Eurasia as well as 66 wild red jungle

Yi-Ping Liu; Gui-Sheng Wu; Yong-Gang Yao; Yong-Wang Miao; Gordon Luikart; Mumtaz Baig; Albano Beja-Pereira; Zhao-Li Ding; Malliya Gounder Palanichamy; Ya-Ping Zhang

2006-01-01

394

Visualizing axon guidance phenotypes induced by RNAi in chicken embryos  

E-print Network

Visualizing axon guidance phenotypes induced by RNAi in chicken embryos The ability to turn off the chicken embryo has been a classical model system for developmental studies in vertebrates because of its RNAi, the chicken embryo has once again re-emerged as an excellent vertebrate model system. To study

Cai, Long

395

Fate of nitrogen during composting of chicken litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken litter (a mixture of chicken manure, wood shavings, waste feed, and feathers) was composted in forced-aeration piles to understand the changes and losses of nitrogen (N) during composting. During the composting process, the chemical [different N fractions, organic matter (OM), organic carbon (C), and C:N ratio], physical, and microbial properties of the chicken litter were examined. Cumulative losses and

S. M Tiquia; N. F. Y Tam

2000-01-01

396

Development of Heart Rate Circadian Rhythm in Chickens *, R. Akiyamab  

E-print Network

in the chicken, and includes rhythms in daily egg laying, calling at dawn, and daily changes in physiological of heart rate in embryos and hatchlings Fertile eggs of broiler chickens that were brought from a localDevelopment of Heart Rate Circadian Rhythm in Chickens K. Moriyaa *, R. Akiyamab , E.M. Dzialowskic

Burggren, Warren

397

Original article Comparison of pig and chicken pepsins  

E-print Network

Original article Comparison of pig and chicken pepsins for protein hydrolysis Irène CrĂ©vieu of the two plant proteins to hydrolysis by each of the two pepsins was studied at pH levels near the chicken/Elsevier, Paris. in vitro protein hydrolysis / pepsin / pig / chicken RĂ©sumĂ© ― Comparaison de l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

Original article Release of chicken luteinising hormone-releasing  

E-print Network

Original article Release of chicken luteinising hormone-releasing hormone-I (cLHRH-I) by mediobasal) of cockerels and a radioimmunoassay for chicken luteinising hormone-releasing hormone-I (cLHRH-1) were / hypothalamus / incubation / excitatory amino acids RĂ©sumĂ© ― SĂ©crĂ©tion de chicken luteinising hormone

Boyer, Edmond

399

Suppression of Avian Influenza Transmission in Genetically Modified Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of chickens with avian influenza virus poses a global threat to both poultry production and human health that is not adequately controlled by vaccination or by biosecurity measures. A novel alternative strategy is to develop chickens that are genetically resistant to infection. We generated transgenic chickens expressing a short-hairpin RNA designed to function as a decoy that inhibits and

Jon Lyall; Richard M. Irvine; Adrian Sherman; Trevelyan J. McKinley; Alejandro Núńez; Auriol Purdie; Linzy Outtrim; Ian H. Brown; Genevieve Rolleston-Smith; Helen Sang; Laurence Tiley

2011-01-01

400

Problem 1. In a barn with chickens and dogs there are 5 heads and 14 legs. How many chickens are there? (A chicken has 2 legs and a dog has 4.)  

E-print Network

Problem 1. In a barn with chickens and dogs there are 5 heads and 14 legs. How many chickens are there? (A chicken has 2 legs and a dog has 4.) Problem 1. In a barn with chickens and dogs there are 5 heads and 14 legs. How many chickens are there? (A chicken has 2 legs and a dog has 4.) #12;Problem 2

Smith, Roy

401

A review of engagement of Indigenous Australians within mental health and substance abuse services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance misuse is a significant issue in Australia, and a large proportion of individuals with substance misuse disorders have co-existing mental health disorders. There is evidence that Indigenous Australians are more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to experience the adverse effects of alcohol consumption, and that mental health disorders are more prevalent in Indigenous communities than non-Indigenous communities. Indigenous Australians currently

Stacey L Berry; Trevor P Crowe

2009-01-01

402

Adjuvant effect of ginsenoside-based nanoparticles (ginsomes) on the recombinant vaccine against Eimeria tenella in chickens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to study the adjuvant effect of ginsomes on the recombinant profilin in coccidian-infected breeding birds. Three-day-old chickens were vaccinated with Eimeria tenella recombinant profilin antigen (10, 50, and 100 ?g per chicken) with or without 50 ?g ginsomes per chicken. The boost vaccination was carried out 14 days later. Two weeks after the booster, the chickens were challenged with 1.5?×?10(4) homologous sporulated oocysts. The specific antibody response, lymphocyte proliferation, and IL-1 release from lymphocyte were measured at 1-42 days after boost vaccination. Seven days post-challenge, the rate of survival, body weight gains (BWG) were examined then all chickens were sacrificed and lesion scores and oocysts per gram were monitored to evaluate the protective effects of the vaccination after challenge. Compared with the group of vaccinating with profilin only, groups of 50 and 100 ?g antigen plus ginsomes significantly enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and IL-1 secretion. The profilin specific antibody level in the four vaccinated groups was significantly higher than in the control group and in groups vaccinated with profilin containing ginsomes than profilin only. In the groups vaccinated with profilin plus ginsomes, the BWG was significantly higher than that of group of profilin only, but there was no significant difference between profilin plus adjuvant ginsomes, diclazuril medicated and uninfected-unmedicated-unvaccinated control groups. The lesion scores in groups immunized with profilin plus ginsomes was significantly lower than that both of groups unimmunized-challenged-unmedicated control and group vaccinated with profilin only. Oocyst excretion in groups vaccinated with 50 or 100 ?g profilin plus ginsomes was lower than that of groups vaccinated with profilin only. These results demonstrate that the adjuvant ginsomes can promote subunit vaccine to induce a strong immune response and protective effects. PMID:22215190

Zhang, De-Fu; Xu, Hui; Sun, Bing-Bing; Li, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Qian-Jin; Zhang, Hong-Li; Du, Ai-Fang

2012-06-01

403

Animal Planet: Dog Breed Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you considering bringing a canine into the family, and wondering which type of dog would be the best fit? This website from Animal Planet provides potential dog owners with information about a variety of breeds. The site directory lists dogs under such categories as Hound, Sporting, Terrier, Working, Herding, and more. Site visitors can view profiles for many different types of dogs including the Bernese Mountain Dog, Irish Setter, Old English Sheepdog, and Tibetan Spaniel. Dog profiles contain a photograph, Rating of Characteristics; and concise sections addressing History, Temperament, Form and Function, Upkeep, and Health. Profiles also include a hyperlinked list of related dogs.

404

Advances towards a Marker-Assisted Selection Breeding Program in Prairie Cordgrass, a Biomass Crop  

PubMed Central

Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link) is an indigenous, perennial grass of North America that is being developed into a cellulosic biomass crop suitable for biofuel production. Limited research has been performed into the breeding of prairie cordgrass; this research details an initial investigation into the development of a breeding program for this species. Genomic libraries enriched for four simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were developed, 25 clones from each library were sequenced, identifying 70?SSR regions, and primers were developed for these regions, 35 of which were amplified under standard PCR conditions. These SSR markers were used to validate the crossing methodology of prairie cordgrass and it was found that crosses between two plants occurred without the need for emasculation. The successful cross between two clones of prairie cordgrass indicates that this species is not self-incompatible. The results from this research will be used to instigate the production of a molecular map of prairie cordgrass which can be used to incorporate marker-assisted selection (MAS) protocols into a breeding program to improve this species for cellulosic biomass production. PMID:23227036

Gedye, K. R.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. L.; Owens, V.; Boe, A.

2012-01-01

405

Genome-wide genetic diversity, population structure and admixture analysis in African and Asian cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Knowledge about genetic diversity and population structure is useful for designing effective strategies to improve the production, management and conservation of farm animal genetic resources. Here, we present a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of genetic diversity, population structure and admixture based on 244 animals sampled from 10 cattle populations in Asia and Africa and genotyped for 69 903 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mainly derived from the indicine breed. Principal component analysis, STRUCTURE and distance analysis from high-density SNP data clearly revealed that the largest genetic difference occurred between the two domestic lineages (taurine and indicine), whereas Ethiopian cattle populations represent a mosaic of the humped zebu and taurine. Estimation of the genetic influence of zebu and taurine revealed that Ethiopian cattle were characterized by considerable levels of introgression from South Asian zebu, whereas Bangladeshi populations shared very low taurine ancestry. The relationships among Ethiopian cattle populations reflect their history of origin and admixture rather than phenotype-based distinctions. The high within-individual genetic variability observed in Ethiopian cattle represents an untapped opportunity for adaptation to changing environments and for implementation of within-breed genetic improvement schemes. Our results provide a basis for future applications of genome-wide SNP data to exploit the unique genetic makeup of indigenous cattle breeds and to facilitate their improvement and conservation. PMID:25359181

Edea, Z; Bhuiyan, M S A; Dessie, T; Rothschild, M F; Dadi, H; Kim, K S

2015-02-01

406

Talking Past Each Other: Genetic Testing and Indigenous Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue- based, peer reviewed article considers how an ethical approach to genetic testing of indigenous populations requires protection from racial discrimination, preservation of human rights, prior informed consent of individuals, and retention of a populations cultural self-determination.

Ikechi Mgbeoji (York University; )

2007-09-01

407

Talking Past Each Other: Genetic Testing and Indigenous Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The peer-reviewed resource portrays how an ethical approach to genetic testing of indigenous populations requires protection from racial discrimination, preservation of human rights, prior informed consent of individuals, and retention of a population's cultural self-determination.

Ikechi Mgbeoji (University of British Columbia; )

2007-09-01

408

Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

2010-01-01

409

RESEARCH Open Access Indigenous fodder trees can increase grazing  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Indigenous fodder trees can increase grazing accessibility for landless by livestock owned by landless pastoralists and create social tension. This study proposes an alternative scarcity, nutritional value, landless transhumants, trekking routes Introduction Forestry agencies in many

Sola, Rolf Haenni

410

Social Gradients in the Health of Indigenous Australians  

PubMed Central

The pattern of association between socioeconomic factors and health outcomes has primarily depicted better health for those who are higher in the social hierarchy. Although this is a ubiquitous finding in the health literature, little is known about the interplay between these factors among indigenous populations. We begin to bridge this knowledge gap by assessing evidence on social gradients in indigenous health in Australia. We reveal a less universal and less consistent socioeconomic status patterning in health among Indigenous Australians, and discuss the plausibility of unique historical circumstances and social and cultural characteristics in explaining these patterns. A more robust evidence base in this field is fundamental to processes that aim to reduce the pervasive disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous population health. PMID:22095336

Li, Jianghong; Zubrick, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

411

1. SOUTH FACADE. CONSTRUCTED (ca. 1895) OF INDIGENOUS LIMESTONE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SOUTH FACADE. CONSTRUCTED (ca. 1895) OF INDIGENOUS LIMESTONE AND USED AS LOCKPORTS CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL FOR MORE THAN SIXTY YEARS. - Lockport Historic District, Central High School, Lockport, Will County, IL

412

Endothelin Receptor B2 (EDNRB2) Is Responsible for the Tyrosinase-Independent Recessive White (mow) and Mottled (mo) Plumage Phenotypes in the Chicken  

PubMed Central

A mutation that confers white plumage with black eyes was identified in the Minohiki breed of Japanese native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The white plumage, with a few partially pigmented feathers, was not associated with the tyrosinase gene, and displayed an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance against the pigmented phenotype. All F1 offspring derived from crosses with mottled chickens (mo/mo), which show characteristic pigmented feathers with white tips, had plumage with a mottled-like pattern. This result indicates that the white plumage mutation is a novel allele at the mo locus; we propose the gene symbol mow for this mutant allele. Furthermore, the F1 hybrid between the mow/mow chicken and the panda (s/s) mutant of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), whose causative gene is the endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2) gene, showed a mow/mow chicken-like plumage, suggesting the possibility that the mutations in parental species are alleles of the same gene, EDNRB2. Nucleotide sequencing of the entire coding region of EDNRB2 revealed a non-synonymous G1008T substitution, which causes Cys244Phe amino acid substitution in exon 5 (which is part of the extracellular loop between the putative fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of EDNRB2) in the mutant chicken. This Cys244Phe mutation was also present in individuals of four Japanese breeds with white plumage. We also identified a non-synonymous substitution leading to Arg332His substitution that was responsible for the mottled (mo/mo) plumage phenotype. These results suggest that the EDN3 (endothelin 3)–EDNRB2 signaling is essential for normal pigmentation in birds, and that the mutations of EDNRB2 may cause defective binding of the protein with endothelins, which interferes with melanocyte differentiation, proliferation, and migration. PMID:24466053

Kinoshita, Keiji; Akiyama, Toyoko; Mizutani, Makoto; Shinomiya, Ai; Ishikawa, Akira; Younis, Hassan Hassan; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Namikawa, Takao; Matsuda, Yoichi

2014-01-01

413

AA amyloidosis in vaccinated growing chickens.  

PubMed

Systemic amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in birds occurs most frequently in waterfowl such as Pekin ducks. In chickens, AA amyloidosis is observed as amyloid arthropathy. Outbreaks of systemic amyloidosis in flocks of layers are known to be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as those resulting from multiple vaccinations with oil-emulsified bacterins. Outbreaks of fatal AA amyloidosis were observed in growing chickens in a large scale poultry farm within 3 weeks of vaccination with multiple co-administered vaccines. This study documents the histopathological changes in tissues from these birds. Amyloid deposits were also observed at a high rate in the tissues of apparently healthy chickens. Vaccination should therefore be considered as a potential risk factor for the development of AA amyloidosis in poultry. PMID:23570943

Murakami, T; Inoshima, Y; Sakamoto, E; Fukushi, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T; Ishiguro, N

2013-01-01

414

The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry. PMID:22853945

Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

2012-06-01

415

Indigenous Wellbeing Frameworks in Australia and the Quest for Quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an emerging global recognition of the inadequacies of conventional socio-economic and demographic data in being able\\u000a to reflect the relative wellbeing of Indigenous peoples. This paper emerges out of a recent desktop study commissioned by\\u000a an Australian Indigenous organization who identified a need to enhance local literacies in data collection and interpretation\\u000a in order to monitor the wellbeing

Sarah Prout

416

Precipitation of Calcite by Indigenous Microorganisms to Strengthen Liquefiable Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichments for indigenous microorganisms capable of hydrolyzing urea in the presence of CaCl2 were performed on potentially liquefiable saturated soils in both the laboratory and in situ. Following enrichment, treatment of soils with nutrients, CaCl2 and urea resulted in significant in situ precipitation of calcite, even at depth, by indigenous microorganisms. The biomineralized soils showed properties that indicate calcite precipitation

Malcolm B. Burbank; Thomas J. Weaver; Tonia L. Green; Barbara C. Williams; Ronald L. Crawford

2011-01-01

417

Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did) was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.5) in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3) in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence. PMID:20698967

2010-01-01

418

Breed structure of Senepol cattle.  

PubMed

Data were collected by the Virgin Islands Beef Cattle Improvement Program and the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station staff to establish the breed structure of the Senepol cattle. Data for the analysis were limited to the two Virgin Islands Senepol breeders with the most complete and largest set of records, representing approximately 65% of the entire Senepol population. Inbreeding (F) and coancestry relationship coefficients (rAB) and the theoretical inbreeding (FT) were determined from each data set and for the combined data from both farms, for each year, ranging from 1947 to 1984 for Annaly Farms, and from 1967 to 1984 for Castle Nugent Farm. The data sets for both farms were examined for the possibility of separation into families. Actual F within the Senepol population was relatively low, averaging less than 1.00%. Some separation into families occurred within Annaly Farms' cattle. The F and FT decreased (1.6 to 0.7% and 1.0 to 0.2%, respectively) as population numbers increased. The low F was accomplished through the breeding programs and exchanges of animals between farms on the island. PMID:3367044

Williams, A R; Hupp, H D; Thompson, C E; Grimes, L W

1988-01-01

419

Integrating genomics into Eucalyptus breeding.  

PubMed

The advent of high throughput genomic technologies has opened new perspectives in the speed, scale and detail with which one can investigate genes, genomes and complex traits in Eucalyptus species. A genomic approach to a more detailed understanding of important metabolic and physiological processes, which affect tree growth and stress resistance, and the identification of genes and their allelic variants, which determine the major chemical and physical features of wood properties, should eventually lead to new opportunities for directed genetic modifications of far-reaching economic impact in forest industry. It should be kept in mind, however, that basic breeding strategies, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods, breeder's experience and breeder's intuition, will continue to generate significant genetic gains and have a clear measurable impact on production forestry. Even with a much more global view of genetic processes, genomics will only succeed in contributing to the development of improved industrial forests if it is strongly interconnected with intensive fieldwork and creative breeding. Integrated genomic projects involving multi-species expressed sequence tag sequencing and quantitative trait locus detection, single nucleotide polymorphism discovery for association mapping, and the development of a gene-rich physical map for the Eucalyptus genome will quickly move toward linking phenotypes to genes that control the wood formation processes that define industrial-level traits. Exploiting the full power of the superior natural phenotypic variation in wood properties found in Eucalyptus genetic resources will undoubtedly be a key factor to reach this goal. PMID:15614728

Grattapaglia, Dario

2004-01-01

420

An Indigenously Designed Apparatus for Measuring Orthodontic Force  

PubMed Central

Aim: An indigenous apparatus is designed to measure the orthodontic force delivered from elastomeric chains and compare this force with values obtained from the Instron universal testing machine. Material and Methods: An indigenously designed apparatus is developed to evaluate forces delivered by various orthodontic auxiliaries. The apparatus consists of a flat steel platform, movable arm, and a mounted screw gauge arm. Orthodontic brackets can be attached to these arms. An electric circuit is connected, to the movable arm, which will estimate the forces exerted between brackets with elastomeric chain. The circuit is connected to the signal conditioner which will display the reading. Elastomeric chain with four links is attached to the arms. The movable arm is adjusted to create orthodontic forces and calibrated on the digital displayer. Twenty Elastomeric chains are used and forces are calibrated with the indigenously designed apparatus. The values of the force is compared with the forces calibrated with Instron universal testing machine to compare the efficacy of the indigenous apparatus. Results: The force values obtained from activation of elastomeric chain segments, in the Instron universal testing machine and the indigenous apparatus were in the range of 100 to 150 grams, initially at 1mm activation then, took a steep rise to 300 to 350 grams at 5mm activation and then, had a gradual increase for the remaining 5mm activation, reaching 400 to 450 grams. Conclusion: The Indigenous apparatus can be considered efficient in measuring tensile force generated by orthodontic auxiliaries. PMID:24392423

Dinesh, S.P. Saravana; Arun, A.V.; Sundari, K.K. Shantha; Samantha, Christine; Ambika, K.

2013-01-01

421

Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians?  

PubMed

The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking. PMID:25315647

Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

2015-03-01

422

Cloning and expression of chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase.  

PubMed Central

We report the sequences of cDNAs encoding chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13). The complete mRNA consists of 3345/3349 nucleotides and predicts a single open reading frame. Nine peptide sequences derived from partial digests of the isolated protein agreed with the corresponding translation of the open reading frame. Approximately 60% identities between the avian protein and three related mammalian enzymes were found. Chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase mRNA is most abundant in red blood cells and kidney, and it accumulates during erythroid cell differentiation. Images PMID:1357669

Weraarchakul-Boonmark, N; Jeong, J M; Murthy, S N; Engel, J D; Lorand, L

1992-01-01

423

Chicken embryonic stem cells and transgenic strategies.  

PubMed

The production of transgenic birds is an important goal for both fundamental and applied biology. Different methods have been employed to generate transgenic chickens, including microinjection, use of retroviruses and transfection of primordial germ or embryonic germ cells. In this review we will briefly describe these techniques and our efforts to obtain genetically modified avian embryonic stem (ES) cells using liposomes. This latter technique should allow us to modify chicken ES cells with a high efficiency, permitting the rapid generation of transgenic bird lines. PMID:10592393

Pain, B; Chenevier, P; Samarut, J

1999-01-01

424

Build It and They Will Come: Building the Capacity of Indigenous Units in Universities to Provide Better Support for Indigenous Australian Postgraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous participation rates in higher education are significantly lower than the rates reported for non-Indigenous people in Australia--with the greatest disparity evident in the area of postgraduate studies. This problem needs to be addressed by providing culturally appropriate support mechanisms to Indigenous postgraduate students. This…

Trudgett, Michelle

2009-01-01

425

Indigenous History at the University of Winnipeg The Department of History offers a broad selection of undergraduate courses on the history of Indigenous  

E-print Network

Indigenous History at the University of Winnipeg The Department of History offers a broad selection of undergraduate courses on the history of Indigenous Peoples in Canada and the Americas. From the early contact including oral and archival research. In addition to courses that focus on Indigenous Peoples' history

Martin, Jeff

426

Human papillomavirus prevalence among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian women prior to a national HPV vaccination program  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC) cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous), prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively), and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P < 0.001), specifically HPV clades ?5 (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.3) and ?7, excluding type 18 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3). In multivariate analysis, detection of any HPV genotype was strongly associated with smoking and Pap-test abnormalities, with both risk factors more common among Indigenous women. Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact. PMID:21910918

2011-01-01

427

Associations with low rates of postpartum glucose screening after gestational diabetes among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women.  

PubMed

Objectives: To explore factors associated with postpartum glucose screening among women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Methods: A retrospective study using linked records from women with GDM who gave birth at Cairns Hospital in Far North Queensland, Australia, from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2010. Results: The rates of postpartum Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) screening, while having increased significantly among both Indigenous* and non-Indigenous women from 2004 to 2010 (HR 1.15 per year, 95%CI 1.08-1.22, p<0.0001), remain low, particularly among Indigenous women (10% versus 27%, respectively at six months postpartum). Indigenous women in Cairns had a longer time to postpartum OGTT than Indigenous women in remote areas (HR 0.58, 0.38-0.71, p=0.01). Non-Indigenous women had a longer time to postpartum OGTT if they: were born in Australia (HR 0.76, 0.59-1.00, 0.05); were aged <25 years (HR 0.45, 0.23-0.89, p=0.02); had parity >5 (HR 0.33, 0.12-0.90, p=0.03); smoked (HR 0.48, 0.31-0.76, p=0.001); and did not breastfeed (HR 0.09, 0.01-0.64, p=0.02). Conclusions: Postpartum diabetes screening rates following GDM in Far North Queensland are low, particularly among Indigenous women, with lower rates seen in the regional centre; and among non-Indigenous women with indicators of low socioeconomic status. Implications: Strategies are urgently needed to improve postpartum diabetes screening after GDM that reach women most at risk. PMID:25377028

Chamberlain, Catherine; Fredericks, Bronwyn; McLean, Anna; Oldenburg, Brian; Mein, Jacqueline; Wolfe, Rory

2014-11-01

428

Health service use in indigenous Sami and non-indigenous youth in North Norway: A population based survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This is the first population based study exploring health service use and ethno-cultural factors in indigenous Sami and non-Sami youth in North Norway. The first aim of the present study was to compare the frequency of health service use between Sami adolescents and their non-indigenous peers. The second aim was to explore the relationships between health service use and

Anne Lene Turi; Margrethe Bals; Ingunn B Skre; Siv Kvernmo

2009-01-01

429

“Health divide” between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Kerala, India: Population based study  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes) and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. Methods A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N?=?1660 men and women, 18–96?years). Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI?indigenous groups. There is a need to enhance the capacity of the disadvantaged to equally take advantage of health opportunities. PMID:22642770

2012-01-01

430

"Yarning" as a method for community-based health research with Indigenous women: the Indigenous Women's Wellness Research Program.  

PubMed

This project explores yarning as a methodology for understanding health and wellness from an indigenous woman's perspective. Previous research exploring indigenous Australian women's perspectives have used traditional Western methodologies and have often been felt by the women themselves to be inappropriate and ineffective in gathering information and promoting discussion. This research arose from the indigenous women themselves, and resulted in the exploration of using yarning as a methodology. Yarning is a conversational process that involves the sharing of stories and the development of knowledge. It prioritizes indigenous ways of communicating, in that it is culturally prescribed, cooperative, and respectful. The authors identify different types of yarning that are relevant throughout their research, and explain two types of yarning-family yarning and cross-cultural yarning-which have not been previously identified in research literature. This project found that yarning as a research method is appropriate for community-based health research with indigenous Australian women. This may be an important finding for health professionals and researchers to consider when working and researching with indigenous women from other countries. PMID:23980668

Walker, Melissa; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Mills, Kyly; Anderson, Debra

2014-01-01

431

INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS  

SciTech Connect

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

2003-09-01

432

Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM) team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM) to: (i) evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii) identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii) build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice. PMID:23256553

2012-01-01

433

Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous extraterrestrial propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary examination of a concept for a Mars and outer solar system exploratory vehicle is presented. Propulsion is provided by utilizing a nuclear thermal reactor to heat a propellant volatile indigenous to the destination world to form a high thrust rocket exhaust. Candidate propellants, whose performance, materials compatibility, and ease of acquisition are examined and include carbon dioxide, water, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and argon. Ballistics and winged supersonic configurations are discussed. It is shown that the use of this method of propulsion potentially offers high payoff to a manned Mars mission. This is accomplished by sharply reducing the initial mission mass required in low earth orbit, and by providing Mars explorers with greatly enhanced mobility in traveling about the planet through the use of a vehicle that can refuel itself each time it lands. Thus, the nuclear landing craft is utilized in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear-thermal interplanetary launch. By utilizing such a system in the outer solar system, a low level aerial reconnaissance of Titan combined with a multiple sample return from nearly every satellite of Saturn can be accomplished in a single launch of a Titan 4 or the Space Transportation System (STS). Similarly a multiple sample return from Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa can also be accomplished in one launch of a Titan 4 or the STS.

Zubrin, Robert M.

1990-01-01

434

Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

435

Specific adaptation and breeding for marginal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding has been very successful in generating cultivars that in favorable environments, and together with large use of fertilizer and chemical control of weeds, pest and diseases, have increased agricultural production several fold. Today the environmental impact of high input agriculture in more favorable environments causes growing concern. By contrast, the impact of breeding in marginal environments has been elusive.

Salvatore Ceccarelli

1994-01-01

436

Perennial Grass Breeding Program BIOENERGY PROGRAM  

E-print Network

Perennial Grass Breeding Program BIOENERGY PROGRAM One Texas AgriLife Research initiative for bioenergy is the perennial grass breeding program. Results are outlined here. Pearl Millet-Napiergrass P Ă? g hybridizations utilizing improved parental lines. Maiden Grass Miscanthus sinensis Maiden Grass

437

PlantGeneticsandBreeding Original article  

E-print Network

PlantGeneticsandBreeding Original article Differential aluminum tolerance of Portuguese rye populations and North European rye cultivars Olinda PINTO-CARNIDE*, Henrique GUEDES-PINTO Department into breeding material is one way of solving the problem. Rye is considered one of the most tolerant species

Boyer, Edmond

438

BLACK PHOEBE BREEDING RANGE EXPANSION INTO COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breeding range of the Black Phoebe (Sayornis nigricans) has recently expanded into Colorado. Since the first state record in 1972, this species has become a regular visitor, ultimately establishing a satellite breeding population in southwest Colorado. In 1998, observers surveying while floating down the San Miguel River, Montrose County, detected 28 Black Phoebes as well as several nests. Since

DOUG FAULKNER; COEN DEXTER; RICH LEVAD; TONY LEUKERING

439

Multilocus minisatellite DNA fingerprinting and cooperative breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

McRae and Amos (1999) make the valuable point that, when incest has occurred in cooperatively breeding birds, multilocus minisatellite DNA fingerprinting is limited in its ability to resolve parentage. Their general point is a good one, and one that they rightly point out has not been fully appreciated in studies of cooperative breeding. We nonetheless feel that they have overemphasized

Patricia G. Parker; Thomas C. Jones; Joseph Haydock; Janis L. Dickinson; Bradley D. Worden

1999-01-01

440

BREEDING DISPLAYS OF THE LOUISIANA HERON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the breeding behavior of herons is for the most part not sufficiently detailed to permit comparative analysis. However, as a conse- quence of modern ethological research methods and theory (see, for example, Lorenz 1950, Tinbergen 1952, Hinde 1970), the behavioral patterns of nu- merous species of ardeids are now better understood. Meyerriecks (1960), while concentrating on the breeding

JAMES A. RODGERS

441

Genomic Analyses of Modern Dog Breeds  

PubMed Central

A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized world-wide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other. PMID:22231497

Parker, Heidi G.

2013-01-01

442

Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Tomato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato has long been a model crop for plant breeding and genetics research. The research field is diverse and ranges from classical genetics and traditional breeding to structural/functional genomics and metabolomics. This has resulted in a large rapidly expanding volume of literature on the subje...

443

Breeding population fluctuations in some raptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated differences in annual breeding population stability and its relationship to diversity in food habits for several species of raptors. Chi-square tests showed no significant differences between observed and expected (based on logistic growth equation) breeding population sizes for Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) during recovery from pesticide induced declines in 4 Alaskan populations. This indicates that no major Peregrine

D. P. Mindell; J. L. B. Albuquerque; C. M. White

1987-01-01

444

Identification of differentially expressed genes and pathways for intramuscular fat deposition in pectoralis major tissues of fast-and slow-growing chickens  

PubMed Central

Background Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the important factors influencing meat quality, however, for chickens, the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying this trait have not yet been determined. In this study, a systematic identification of candidate genes and new pathways related to IMF deposition in chicken breast tissue has been made using gene expression profiles of two distinct breeds: Beijing-you (BJY), a slow-growing Chinese breed possessing high meat quality and Arbor Acres (AA), a commercial fast-growing broiler line. Results Agilent cDNA microarray analyses were conducted to determine gene expression profiles of breast muscle sampled at different developmental stages of BJY and AA chickens. Relative to d 1 when there is no detectable IMF, breast muscle at d 21, d 42, d 90 and d 120 (only for BJY) contained 1310 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in BJY and 1080 DEGs in AA. Of these, 34–70 DEGs related to lipid metabolism or muscle development processes were examined further in each breed based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. The expression of several DEGs was correlated, positively or negatively, with the changing patterns of lipid content or breast weight across the ages sampled, indicating that those genes may play key roles in these developmental processes. In addition, based on KEGG pathway analysis of DEGs in both BJY and AA chickens, it was found that in addition to pathways affecting lipid metabolism (pathways for MAPK & PPAR signaling), cell junction-related pathways (tight junction, ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton), which play a prominent role in maintaining the integrity of tissues, could contribute to the IMF deposition. Conclusion The results of this study identified potential candidate genes associated with chicken IMF deposition and imply that IMF deposition in chicken breast muscle is regulated and mediated not only by genes and pathways related to lipid metabolism and muscle development, but also by others involved in cell junctions. These findings establish the groundwork and provide new clues for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying IMF deposition in poultry. Further studies at the translational and posttranslational level are now required to validate the genes and pathways identified here. PMID:22646994

2012-01-01

445

50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24 Section 15.24 Wildlife...ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements...

2013-10-01

446

Mussel meal as a high quality protein source for broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate mussel meal as a protein source in broiler chicken diets. The experiment included in total 288 broiler chickens (Ross 308), divided into 36 pens with initially 8 chickens per pen. The chickens had free access to a standard commercial chicken diet with either 0 , 3, 6, 9 or 12 % mussel

L. WALDENSTEDT; L. JÖNSSON

447

Rodents on pig and chicken farms – a potential threat to human and animal health  

PubMed Central

Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited. PMID:22957130

Backhans, Annette; Fellström, Claes

2012-01-01

448

Dielectric Spectroscopy of Fresh Chicken Breast Meat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dielectric properties of fresh chicken breast meat were measured at temperatures from 5 to 85 'C over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz by dielectric spectroscopy techniques with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer. Samples were cut from both the Pectoralis major an...

449

Thermal stress on chickens in transit.  

PubMed

1. An artificial chicken, 'Gloria', was constructed to simulate heat exchanges of poultry during transport. Tests of the instrument in a wind tunnel showed it to have insulation properties similar to that of a live bird. 2. Gloria accompanied chickens in two types of transport modules, A (enclosed) and B (open). The average temperature difference between inside and outside the loaded vehicles when stationary and in motion were 14.0 and 7.6 for Type A and 8.8 and 6.0 for Type B. Average air movement while vehicles were in motion was 0.5 m/s for Type A and 3.3 m/s for Type B. 3. Measurements of sensible heat loss from Gloria at different temperatures and wind speeds were compared with published estimates of thermoneutral heat production and thermal insulation for well and poorly feathered chickens to estimate the range of thermal stresses likely to be experienced by chickens in transit. 4. The results showed that the combination of circumstances necessary to ensure thermal comfort for birds both at rest and in motion is very rare (e.g. only between 7 and 8 degrees C for well feathered birds in enclosed vehicles). It is, however, possible to ensure thermal comfort over a wide range of ambient air temperatures by appropriate control of air movement within the vehicle whether at rest or in motion. PMID:8513408

Webster, A J; Tuddenham, A; Saville, C A; Scott, G B

1993-05-01

450

Chicken, Broccoli, and Brown Rice Dinner Ingredients  

E-print Network

Chicken, Broccoli, and Brown Rice Dinner Ingredients: 1 onion 1 teaspoon vegetable oil 3 cups water of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one side to the other, then lay the slices on their side

Liskiewicz, Maciej

451

Central Wisconsin Prairie Chicken Survey 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

There was a 26% decrease (based on the mean count) in the number of male Greater Prairie- Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) counted on booming grounds in central Wisconsin in the spring of 2008 compared to the spring of 2007. This decrease follows a 26% population increase (based on the maximum count) between the spring of 2006 and 2007. A mean

Lesa Kardash

452

Central Wisconsin Prairie Chicken Census 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

There was a 26% increase (based on the maximum count) in the number of male Greater Prairie- Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) counted on booming grounds in central Wisconsin in the spring of 2007 compared to the spring of 2006. This increase follows a 10% population increase between the spring of 2005 and 2006. A mean of 569 (range 520-616) male

Lesa Skuldt

453

Ecology and Greater Prairie-Chicken  

E-print Network

Ecology and Management of the Greater Prairie-Chicken Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University E-969E-969E-969 Ecology, Editor Professor and Extension Specialist Rangeland Ecology and Management Department of Plant and Soil

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

454

Antimicrobial activity of chicken egg white cystatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin was purified from chicken egg white and its antimicrobial activity determined for a series of pathogenic bacteria. The results indicate that Acinetobacter lwoffii, Escherichia coli, Oligella sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are highly sensitive to low concentrations of cystatin, which possesses bactericidal activity. No inhibition was observed with a Citrobacter freundii strain. Fifty percent growth inhibition

Ewelina Wesierska; Yousif Saleh; Tadeusz Trziszka; Wieslaw Kopec; Maciej Siewinski; Kamila Korzekwa

2005-01-01

455

EFFECTS OF HUMIC ACID ON BROILER CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In view of the alleged effect of humic acid (HA) on growth plate arthrosis in humans, we sought to find if poultry tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is caused by HA that can occur as ground water contaminant. In two separate trials, broiler chickens were fed different concentrations of HA added to their...

456

Composites from ground chicken quill and polypropylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical and acoustical properties of composites from ground chicken quill and polypropylene (PP) have been investigated and compared with jute–PP composites. A functional composite of ground poultry quill may potentially lead to significant reduction of environmental pollution through replacement of nonrenewable materials in composites. The effect of concentration of ground quill, holding temperature, and density on mechanical properties of composites

Shah Huda; Yiqi Yang

2008-01-01

457

Gene finding in the chicken genome  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the continuous production of genome sequence for a number of organisms, reliable, comprehensive, and cost effective gene prediction remains problematic. This is particularly true for genomes for which there is not a large collection of known gene sequences, such as the recently published chicken genome. We used the chicken sequence to test comparative and homology-based gene-finding methods followed by experimental validation as an effective genome annotation method. Results We performed experimental evaluation by RT-PCR of three different computational gene finders, Ensembl, SGP2 and TWINSCAN, applied to the chicken genome. A Venn diagram was computed and each component of it was evaluated. The results showed that de novo comparative methods can identify up to about 700 chicken genes with no previous evidence of expression, and can correctly extend about 40% of homology-based predictions at the 5' end. Conclusions De novo comparative gene prediction followed by experimental verification is effective at enhancing the annotation of the newly sequenced genomes provided by standard homology-based methods. PMID:15924626

Eyras, Eduardo; Reymond, Alexandre; Castelo, Robert; Bye, Jacqueline M; Camara, Francisco; Flicek, Paul; Huckle, Elizabeth J; Parra, Genis; Shteynberg, David D; Wyss, Carine; Rogers, Jane; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Birney, Ewan; Guigo, Roderic; Brent, Michael R

2005-01-01

458

CONCENTRATION OF NUCLEI IN CHICKEN MUSCLE FIBRE  

E-print Network

.e. muscle proteins. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the changes of nuclear concentrationCONCENTRATION OF NUCLEI IN CHICKEN MUSCLE FIBRE IN RELATION TO THE INTENSITY OF GROWTH Helena KNĂŤ concentration on a constant length segment of muscle fibre released by maceration has been investigated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

459

INNATE IMMUNOPROFILING OF COMMERCIAL BROILER CHICKEN LINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four commercial broiler chicken lines (designated Lines A, B, C and D) were profiled for efficiency of their innate immunologic response. Oxidative burst and bactericidal functions of both heterophils and monocytes, as well as heterophil degranulation, were analyzed. The birds were tested 1, 4, 8,...

460

Original article Pharmacokinetics of fosfomycin in chickens  

E-print Network

and tissue levels following chronic oral administration JJ Aramayona MA Bregante C Solans S Rueda LJ Fraile a single iv bolus dose (10 mg/kg of body weight) in broiler chickens. Serial blood samples were collected up to 5 h post- administration. Fosfomycin serum concentrations were determined by a microbiological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

461

CHICKEN FEATHER FIBERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Summary of Findings (Outputs/Outcomes): A Sievert’s apparatus for measuring the H2 storage capacities of adsorbents was built. The nitrogen adsorption and H2 storage test performed on the pyrolyzed chicken feather fibers (PCFF) prepared by a p...

462

September 2011 Menu 1 Barbeque chicken,  

E-print Network

, cucumbers, salad dressing 3 4 5 SCDC Closed 6 Macaroni and Cheese, mixed vegeta- bles and bananas 7 Chinese , ground turkey, California vegetables 10 11 12 Enchiladas, mixed vegetables, bananas 13 Chicken alfredo and crackers 7 Strawberries, wheat croissants w/ straw- berry jam Boiled eggs and crackers 8 Bananas, raisins

Liu, Taosheng

463

Behavioural assessment of flicker fusion frequency in chicken Gallus gallus domesticus.  

PubMed

To interact with its visual environment, an organism needs to perceive objects in both space and time. High temporal resolution is hence important to the fitness of diurnally active animals, not least highly active aerial species such as birds. However, temporal resolution, as assessed by flicker fusion frequency (FFF; the stimulus frequency at which a flickering light stimulus can no longer be resolved and appears continuous) or critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF; the highest flicker fusion frequency at any light intensity) has rarely been assessed in birds. In order to further our understanding of temporal resolution as a function of light intensity in birds we used behavioural experiments with domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from an old game breed 'Gammalsvensk dvärghöna' (which is morphologically and behaviourally similar to the wildtype ancestor, the red jungle fowl, G. gallus), to generate an 'Intensity/FFF curve' (I/FFF curve) across full spectrum light intensities ranging from 0.2 to 2812 cd m?˛. The I/FFF curve is double-branched, resembling that of other chordates with a duplex retina of both rods and cones. Assuming that the branches represent rod and cone mediated responses respectively, the break point between them places the transition between scotopic and photopic vision at between 0.8 and 1.9 cd m?˛. Average FFF ranged from 19.8 Hz at the lowest light intensity to a CFF 87.0 Hz at 1375 cd m?˛. FFF dropped slightly at the highest light intensity. There was some individual variation with certain birds displaying CFFs of 90-100 Hz. The FFF values demonstrated by this non-selected breed appear to be considerably higher than other behaviourally derived FFF values for similar stimuli reported for white and brown commercial laying hens, indicating that the domestication process might have influenced temporal resolution in chicken. PMID:21527269

Lisney, Thomas J; Rubene, Diana; Rózsa, Jani; Lřvlie, Hanne; Hĺstad, Olle; Ödeen, Anders

2011-06-21

464

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting susceptibility in chicken to develop pulmonary hypertension syndrome.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), also referred to as ascites syndrome, is a growth-related disorder of chickens frequently observed in fast-growing broilers with insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity at low temperature and/or at high altitude. A cross between two genetically different broiler dam lines that originated from the White Plymouth Rock breed was used to produce a three-generation population. This population was used for the detection and localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting PHS-related traits. Ten full-sib families consisting of 456 G2 birds were typed with 420 microsatellite markers covering 24 autosomal chromosomes. Phenotypic observations were collected on 4202 G3 birds and a full-sib across family regression interval mapping approach was used to identify QTL. There was statistical evidence for QTL on chicken chromosome 2 (GGA2), GGA4 and GGA6. Suggestive QTL were found on chromosomes 5, 8, 10, 27 and 28. The most significant QTL were located on GGA2 for right and total ventricular weight as percentage of body weight (%RV and %TV respectively). A related trait, the ratio of right ventricular weight as percentage to total ventricular weight (RATIO), reached the suggestive threshold on this chromosome. All three QTL effects identified on GGA2 had their maximum test statistic in the region flanked by markers MCW0185 and MCW0245 (335-421 cM). PMID:16293119

Rabie, T S K M; Crooijmans, R P M A; Bovenhuis, H; Vereijken, A L J; Veenendaal, T; van der Poel, J J; Van Arendonk, J A M; Pakdel, A; Groenen, M A M

2005-12-01

465

Indigenous and Contaminant Microbes in Ultradeep Mines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rock, air and service water samples were collected for microbial analyses from 3.2 kilometers depth in a working Au mine in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. The approx. 1 meter wide mined zone was comprised of a carbonaceous, quartz, sulfide, uraninite and Au bearing layer, called the Carbon Leader, sandwiched by quartzite and conglomerates. The microbial community in the service water was dominated by mesophilic aerobic and anaerobic, alpha, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria with a total biomass concentration approx. 10(exp 4) cells/ml, whereas, that of the mine air was dominated by members of the Chlorobi and Bacteroidetes groups and a fungal component. The microorganisms in the Carbon Leader were predominantly mesophilic, aerobic heterotrophic, nitrate reducing and methylotrophic, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria that were more closely related to service water microorganisms rather than air microbes. Rhodamine WT dye and fluorescent microspheres employed as contaminant tracers, however, indicated that service water contamination of most of the rock samples was < 0.01% during acquisition. The microbial contaminants most likely originated from the service water, infiltrated the low permeability rock through and accumulated within mining-induced fractures where they survived for several days prior to being mined. Combined PLFA and terminal restriction fragment length profile (T-RFLP) analyses suggest that the maximum concentration of indigenous microorganisms in the Carbon Leader was < 10(exp 2) cells/g. PLFA, (35)S autoradiography and enrichments suggest that the adjacent quartzite was less contaminated and contained approx. 10(exp 3) cells/gram of a thermophilic, sulfate reducing bacteria, SRB, some of whom are delta Proteobacteria. Pore water and rock geochemical analyses suggest that these SRB's may have been sustained by sulfate diffusing from the adjacent U-rich, Carbon Leader where it was formed by radiolysis of sulfide.

Onstott, T. C.; Moser, D. P.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Brockman, F. J.; Phelps, T. J.; White, D. C.; Peacock, A.; Balkwill, D.; Hoover, R. B.

2003-01-01

466

Indigenous and Contaminant Microbes in Ultradeep Mines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rock, air and service water samples were collected for microbial analyses from 3.2 kilometers depth in a working Au mine in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. The approx. 1 meter wide mined zone was comprised of a carbonaceous, quartz, sulfide, uraninite and Au bearing layer, called the Carbon Leader, sandwiched by quartzite and conglomerates. The microbial community in the service water was dominated by mesophilic aerobic and anaerobic, alpha, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria with a total biomass concentration approx. l0(exp 4) cells/ ml, whereas, that of the mine air was dominated by members of the Chlorobi and Bacteroidetes groups and a fungal component. The microorganisms in the Carbon Leader were predominantly mesophilic, aerobic heterotrophic, nitrate reducing and methylotrophic, beta and gamma - Proteobacteria that were more closely related to service water microorganisms rather than air microbes. Rhodamine WT dye and fluorescent microspheres employed as contaminant tracers, however, indicated that service water contamination of most of the rock samples was less that 0.01% during acquisition. The microbial contaminants most likely originated from the service water, infiltrated the low permeability rock through and accumulated within mining-induced fractures where they survived for several days prior to being mined. Combined PLFA and terminal restriction fragment length profile (T-RFLP) analyses suggest that the maximum concentration of indigenous microorganisms in the Carbon Leader was less than lo(exp 2) cells/ g. PLFA, S-35 autoradiography and enrichments suggest that