Sample records for indigenous chickens breed

  1. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

  2. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:25178289

  3. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:25178289

  4. High natural antibody titers of indigenous chickens are related with increased hazard in confinement.

    PubMed

    Wondmeneh, E; Van Arendonk, J A M; Van der Waaij, E H; Ducro, B J; Parmentier, H K

    2015-07-01

    Natural antibody (NAb) levels and survival rates were evaluated in 4 breeds of laying hens in Ethiopia: indigenous, improved indigenous, exotic layer, and crossbred. Titers of NAb isotypes IgG and IgM binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in serum were measured at 20, 26, 35, and 45 wk age. Repeated-measure ANOVA showed that IgG and IgM levels vary with time within each breed (P < 0.05). Indigenous chickens had significantly (P < 0.05) higher NAb levels at all ages. The Cox proportional hazard analysis showed increased hazard with increased levels of NAbs in the exotic layers (P < 0.05). However, the reduced hazards with increased levels of NAbs were not significant in the improved indigenous and crossbred chickens. Indigenous chickens showed increased hazard with increasing levels of NAb (P > 0.05). We concluded that not only the NAb levels but also the effect of Nabs on survival vary between indigenous and improved breeds. The results indicate that NAb levels are associated with survival in elite (improved) breeds, but are associated with increased hazard in indigenous chickens. PMID:25910906

  5. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. PMID:26059109

  6. Breeding of tomorrow's chickens to improve well-being.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H-W

    2010-04-01

    Chickens, as well as other animals, have the ability to change their behavior (behavioral plasticity) and physiology (physiological plasticity) based on the costs and benefits to fit their environment (adaptation). Through natural selection, the population preserves and accumulates traits that are beneficial and rejects those that are detrimental in their prevailing environments. The surviving populations are able to contribute more genes associated with beneficial traits for increased fitness to subsequent generations. Natural selection is slow but constant; working over multiple generations, the changes to the population often appear silent or undetectable at a given point in history. Chickens were domesticated from the wild red jungle fowl. The principle of domestication of chickens, as well as other farm animals, by humans is similar to that of natural selection: selecting the best animals with the highest survivability and reproducibility (artificial selection). Compared with natural selection, the process of artificial selection is motivated by human needs and acts more rapidly with more visible results over a short time period. This process has been further accelerated following the development of current breeding programs and the emergence of specialized breeding companies. A laying hen, for example, produces more than 300 hundred eggs a year, whereas a jungle fowl lays 4 to 6 eggs in a year. During the domestication process, chickens retained their capability to adapt to their housing environments, which is usually achieved by genetic changes occurring with each subsequent generation. Genes control the behavioral, physiological, immunological, and psychological responses of animals to stressors, including environmental stimulations. With advances in understanding of genetic mediation of animal physiology and behavior and the discovery of the genome sequences of many species, animal production breeding programs can be improved in both speed and efficiency. Modern chicken breeding programs have the potential to be operated successfully in the breeding of tomorrow's chickens with high production efficiency and optimal welfare, resulting from resistance to stress, disease, or both. PMID:20308415

  7. Chicken Chicken Chicken: Chicken Chicken Doug Zongker

    E-print Network

    Gousie, Michael B.

    Chicken Chicken Chicken: Chicken Chicken Doug Zongker University of Washington Chicken Chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken. Chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken. Chicken, chicken

  8. Protein Intake of Growing Indigenous Chickens on Free-Range and Their Response to Supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Kingori; J. K. Tuitoek; H. K. Muiruri; A. M. Wachira; E. K. Birech

    2007-01-01

    3 Abstract: Three experiments were conducted to determine protein intake and the response of growin g indigenous chickens to protein supplementation under free-ranging conditions. In the first experiment, data were collected from which a model was designed to estimate daily feed intake of free-ranging indigenous chicken from the Crop Contents (CC). The second experiment applied the model under on-farm conditions

  9. Identification of chicken eNOS gene and differential expression in highland versus lowland chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Peng, J F; Ling, Y; Gou, W Y; Zhang, H; Wu, C X

    2012-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, is synthesized from l-arginine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the endothelium. The objective of the present study was to preliminarily illuminate the expression of the eNOS gene in hypoxic adaptation of chicken embryonic development. The eNOS expression profiles between the Tibet and Shouguang chickens incubated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions were detected by TaqMan real-time PCR. In this study, the chicken eNOS gene was found by both in silico cloning and RACE approaches. From the eNOS gene, we obtained a 3,310-bp mRNA sequence and a 10,666-bp DNA sequence and discovered that it was located on chicken chromosome 2 and had 7 unique transcripts. eNOS mRNA was detected in abundant amounts in some chick embryo organs (i.e., heart, liver, chorio-allantoic membrane, and lung), and expressed stably with the lowest levels in the brain. We observed that when exposed to hypoxia (13% O(2)) different embryo organ tissues had various sensitivities to hypoxia as determined by their eNOS expression profiles. Compared with the Shouguang chicken, the eNOS expression in the Tibet chicken was higher in the lung and liver, lower in the heart, and similar in the brain. In chorio-allantoic membranes, eNOS expression was higher in the Shouguang chicken than the Tibet chicken under hypoxic conditions, but not markedly different under normoxic conditions. The differences of eNOS expression between the 2 breeds may be relative to the hypoxic adaptation ability in Tibet chickens during embryonic development. This work will provide reference for future studies on the role of eNOS in hypoxic adaptation and response. PMID:22912463

  10. Milk fatty acid composition of indigenous goat and ewe breeds from Sindh, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farah N. Talpur; M. I. Bhanger; Nusrat N. Memon

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the breed influence on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, particularly on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from two different indigenous breeds of goats (Pateri and Kamori; n=30 for each breed) and ewes (Kachi and Kooka; n=25 for each) from Sindh, Pakistan. All animals were managed together and received the same diet.

  11. Large scale variation in DNA copy number in chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Detecting genetic variation is a critical step in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic diversity. Until recently, such detection has mostly focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) because of the ease in screening complete genomes. Another type of variant, copy number variation (CNV), is emerging as a significant contributor to phenotypic variation in many species. Here we describe a genome-wide CNV study using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in a wide variety of chicken breeds. Results We identified 3,154 CNVs, grouped into 1,556 CNV regions (CNVRs). Thirty percent of the CNVs were detected in at least 2 individuals. The average size of the CNVs detected was 46.3 kb with the largest CNV, located on GGAZ, being 4.3 Mb. Approximately 75% of the CNVs are copy number losses relatively to the Red Jungle Fowl reference genome. The genome coverage of CNVRs in this study is 60 Mb, which represents almost 5.4% of the chicken genome. In particular large gene families such as the keratin gene family and the MHC show extensive CNV. Conclusions A relative large group of the CNVs are line-specific, several of which were previously shown to be related to the causative mutation for a number of phenotypic variants. The chance that inter-specific CNVs fall into CNVRs detected in chicken is related to the evolutionary distance between the species. Our results provide a valuable resource for the study of genetic and phenotypic variation in this phenotypically diverse species. PMID:23763846

  12. Characterization of the genetic diversity, structure and admixture of British chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S; Wiener, P; Teverson, D; Haley, C S; Hocking, P M

    2012-10-01

    The characterization of livestock genetic diversity can inform breed conservation initiatives. The genetic diversity and genetic structure were assessed in 685 individual genotypes sampled from 24 British chicken breeds. A total of 239 alleles were found across 30 microsatellite loci with a mean number of 7.97 alleles per locus. The breeds were highly differentiated, with an average F(ST) of 0.25, similar to that of European chicken breeds. The genetic diversity in British chicken breeds was comparable to that found in European chicken breeds, with an average number of alleles per locus of 3.59, ranging from 2.00 in Spanish to 4.40 in Maran, and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.49, ranging from 0.20 in Spanish to 0.62 in Araucana. However, the majority of breeds were not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, as indicated by heterozygote deficiency in the majority of breeds (average F(IS) of 0.20), with an average observed heterozygote frequency of 0.39, ranging from 0.15 in Spanish to 0.49 in Cochin. Individual-based clustering analyses revealed that most individuals clustered to breed origin. However, genetic subdivisions occurred in several breeds, and this was predominantly associated with flock supplier and occasionally by morphological type. The deficit of heterozygotes was likely owing to a Wahlund effect caused by sampling from different flocks, implying structure within breeds. It is proposed that gene flow amongst flocks within breeds should be enhanced to maintain the current levels of genetic diversity. Additionally, certain breeds had low levels of both genetic diversity and uniqueness. Consideration is required for the conservation and preservation of these potentially vulnerable breeds. PMID:22497565

  13. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    PubMed

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. PMID:26025652

  14. Empirical Evaluation of genetic clustering methods using multilocus genotypes from 20 chicken breeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noah A. Rosenberg; Terry Burke; Kari Elo; Marcus W. Feldman; P. J. Friedlin; Martien A. M. Groenen; Jossi Hillel; Asko Maki-Tanila; Michele Tixier-Boichard; Alain Vignal; Klaus Wimmers

    2001-01-01

    We tested the utility of genetic cluster analysis in ascertaining population structure of a large data set for which population structure was previously known. Each of 600 individuals representing 20 distinct chicken breeds was genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci, and individual multilocus genotypes were used to infer genetic clusters. Individuals from each breed were inferred to belong mostly to the

  15. Village-based indigenous chicken production system in north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Halima, H; Neser, F W C; Van Marle-Koster, E; De Kock, A

    2007-04-01

    Surveys using both purposive and random sampling methods was carried out in four zones of north-west Ethiopia to describe the village-based poultry production systems and constraints in order to design future improvement and conservation strategies. The majority of the respondents were female (74.16%). This indicated that most of the time the women, whether in male-headed or female-headed households, are responsible for chicken rearing while the men are responsible for crop cultivation and other off-farm activities. About 99% of the respondents gave supplementary feeds to their chickens. Almost all farmers provided night shelter for their chickens, in part of the kitchen (1.36%), in the main house (39.07%), in hand-woven baskets (7.29%), in bamboo cages (1.51%) or in a separate shed purpose-made for chickens (50.77%). The major causes of death of chickens during the study were seasonal outbreaks of Newcastle disease (locally known as fengele) and predation. It is important to collect and conserve local poultry breeds before they are fully replaced by the so-called improved breeds. As most of the poultry production is managed by women, focusing on training and education of women will enable not only the improvement of poultry production but also family planning and the overall living standards of the family and the community. PMID:17691543

  16. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    PubMed

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 ± 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens. PMID:25495676

  17. Phenotypic characterization of indigenous Tswana goats and sheep breeds in Botswana: continuous traits.

    PubMed

    Nsoso, S J; Podisi, B; Otsogile, E; Mokhutshwane, B S; Ahmadu, B

    2004-11-01

    The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783 goats and 1282 sheep kept by traditional farmers, covering nearly all the districts of Botswana. In each district a total of 15 farmers with sheep and goats were selected randomly and records were taken on 4-12 animals per farm, depending on average district flock size. Traits recorded for each animal were body length, body weight, ear length, heart girth, height at withers, hip width, neck length, rump height, shoulder width, tail length (goats only) and horn length. Age (estimated from dentition) and sex of the animals were also recorded and vegetation type was noted. The data were analysed using the general linear model procedure in Statistical Analysis System. Prior to analyses, a main effects model of sex, age and vegetation type was fitted. Later, two types of analyses were done: (i) within a vegetation type fitting sex and age and their interaction, and (ii) within sex fitting age and vegetation type and their interaction. Least-squares means were separated using Student's t-test. Sex, age and vegetation significantly (p<0.05) affected the magnitude of traits. Phenotypic body measurements of castrates were generally higher than in both females and entire males, which were similar. The body measurements of younger animals were less than those of older age groups since the former were still growing compared to the latter. Different vegetation types promoted different body measurements, which should be expected due to differences in nutrient supply from different vegetation types. The indigenous breeds of sheep and goats can be classified as medium-size breeds. The breeds should be conserved since they are well suited to the harsh environment of Botswana where drought and livestock diseases are ever present. Efforts should be undertaken to characterize them genetically and increase their productivity. PMID:15643814

  18. Hematobiochemical and pathological alterations due to chronic chlorpyrifos intoxication in indigenous chicken

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shameem Ara; Upadhyaya, Tirtha Nath; Rahman, Taibur; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Sarma, Kavita; Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Bora, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in indigenous chicken. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two groups I and II. Group I served as control and group II was treated with CPF (0.36 mg/kg) orally daily up to 12 weeks. Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein and uric acid. Representative pieces of tissues from liver and kidney were collected weekly for histopathological examination. Results: A significant (P < 0.01) increase of Hb, TEC, TLC, and heterophil percent and decrease of lymphocyte percent was observed. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly and CHE values decreased significantly in CPF treated birds. The protein level remained similar. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group. The results indicate that chronic CPF intoxication produces hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in treated birds. PMID:25878384

  19. The effects of polymorphisms in IL-2, IFN-?, TGF-?2, IgL, TLR-4, MD-2, and iNOS genes on resistance to Salmonella enteritidis in indigenous chickens.

    PubMed

    Tohidi, Reza; Idris, Ismail Bin; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Bejo, Mohd Hair

    2012-12-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major cause of food poisoning worldwide, and poultry products are the main source of S. Enteritidis contamination for humans. Among the numerous strategies for disease control, improving genetic resistance to S. Enteritidis has been the most effective approach. We investigated the association between S. Enteritidis burden in the caecum, spleen, and liver of young indigenous chickens and seven candidate genes, selected on the basis of their critical roles in immunological functions. The genes included those encoding interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon-? (IFN-?), transforming growth factor ?2 (TGF-?2), immunoglobulin light chain (IgL), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Two Malaysian indigenous chicken breeds were used as sustainable genetic sources of alleles that are resistant to salmonellosis. The polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism technique was used to genotype the candidate genes. Three different genotypes were observed in all of the candidate genes, except for MD-2. All of the candidate genes showed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the two populations. The IL-2-MnlI polymorphism was associated with S. Enteritidis burden in the caecum and spleen. The TGF-?2-RsaI, TLR-4-Sau 96I, and iNOS-AluI polymorphisms were associated with the caecum S. Enteritidis load. The other candidate genes were not associated with S. Enteritidis load in any organ. The results indicate that the IL-2, TGF-?2, TLR-4, and iNOS genes are potential candidates for use in selection programmes for increasing genetic resistance against S. Enteritidis in Malaysian indigenous chickens. PMID:23237374

  20. Relationships Between Bilateral Asymmetry and Tonic Immobility Reaction or Heterophil to Lymphocyte Ratio in Five Breeds of Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Campo; M. Garcia Gil; I. Munoz; M. Alonso

    Bilateral asymmetry of several morpholog- ical traits, tonic immobility reaction, and leucocyte ratio were studied in hens and cocks from four Spanish breeds of chickens (Castellana, Buff Prat, Red Villafranquina, and Barred Red Vasca) and an F2 cross between Castellana and Buff Prat (C × BP - F2). Any two or all three types of bilateral asymmetry (fluctuating asymmetry, directional

  1. Hawks and Baby Chickens: Cultivating the Sources of Indigenous Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    In this response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper on indigenous knowledge (IK) and science teaching in South Africa, I seek to broaden the debate by setting the enterprise of integrating IK into science education in its cultural and socio-political context. I begin by exploring the multiple meanings of indigenous knowledge in Africa, next consider…

  2. Phenotypic Characterization of Indigenous Tswana Goats and Sheep Breeds in Botswana: Continuous Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Nsoso; B. Podisi; E. Otsogile; B. S. Mokhutshwane; B. Ahmadu

    2004-01-01

    The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783

  3. Different immune responses to three different vaccines following H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge in Taiwanese local chicken breeds

    E-print Network

    2011-06-03

    investigates immune responses to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds. Methods Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University, namely Hsin-Yi, Ju...

  4. Analysis of genetic and cultural conservation value of three indigenous Croatian cattle breeds in a local and global context.

    PubMed

    Ramljak, J; Ivankovi?, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

    2011-02-01

    It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed. PMID:21214647

  5. TLR-4 signalling pathway: MyD88 independent pathway up-regulation in chicken breeds upon LPS treatment.

    PubMed

    Karnati, Hanuma Kumar; Pasupuleti, Satya Ratan; Kandi, Ravinder; Undi, Ram Babu; Sahu, Itishri; Kannaki, T R; Subbiah, Madhuri; Gutti, Ravi Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that sense the microbial pathogens are important components of host immune system. TLRs play key roles in the innate defence mechanism against pathogens, in the development of adaptive immunity, and are possibly the major determinants of the susceptibility to infections. To study the resistance pattern in different breeds of chicken, a comprehensive understanding of TLR4 signalling pathways is required. We investigated the TLR-4 pathway regulated gene expressions in PBMCs of chicken breeds of Broiler (Cobb), Aseel, Dahlem Red and Ghagus upon LPS treatment using Quantitative RT-PCR approach. Several genes were found to be up regulated in both TLR-induced MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathways. These genes include TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), MyD88 (Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6), TRIF (TIR domain containing adapter inducing interferon beta), the transcription factors NFkB (Nuclear factor kappa B), IRF7 (Interferon regulatory factor 7) and IFN ? (Interferon beta). We have also studied inflammatory cytokines such as IL2, IL6, IL8, IL1 ? and TNF ? to further understand the downstream signalling of TLR4 pathway. These results showed that higher expression of TLR signalling activation via both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways are more beneficial to chicken mononuclear cells mediated innate immunity. We observed TRIF dependent pathway in Aseel and Ghagus breeds. Our results are in concurrent with general observation that Aseel breed is comparatively more resistant, Ghagus and broilers are moderately resistant and Dahlem Red is comparatively more susceptible to bacterial infections. PMID:25417198

  6. The genetic structure of indigenous Romanian Hucul horse breed inferred from microsatellite data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. GEORGESCU; MARIA ADINA MANEA; MARIETA COSTACHE

    2008-01-01

    The existence of the Hucul horse on the Romanian territory has been documented from the very distant past and some of the theories state that this horse originates from a wild mountain horse, similar to the Tarpan. Today, the Hucul is an independent and unique breed and belongs to the protected gene fund of original and primitive animal breeds of

  7. Expression Pattern of Genes of RLR-Mediated Antiviral Pathway in Different-Breed Chicken Response to Marek's Disease Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ze-Qing; Lian, Ting; Huang, Yong; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been known that the chicken's resistance to disease was affected by chicken's genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breed chickens at 4, 7, and 21?d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN-? genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21?d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN-? genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV. PMID:23710447

  8. Influence of chicken native breeds on some physical and biochemical characteristics and short-term storage of semen.

    PubMed

    Mohan, J; Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Moudgal, R P; Biswas, A; Shit, N

    2011-06-01

    1. The major objective of this study was to examine the influence of 24-h storage of semen at low temperature on semen characteristics and fertilising ability of spermatozoa in two native breeds (Kadaknath-KN, Aseel Peela-AP) and White Leghorn (WL) chicken. 2. Various physical and biochemical properties of freshly ejaculated semen of KN and AP were investigated. Fertility was examined in freshly-ejaculated as well as 24-h-stored (3°C) semen diluted (1:3) with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender. 3. No significant difference was observed in sperm motility among the different breeds whereas live counts were higher in WL than the native breeds. Body weight, semen volume and sperm concentration were highest in AP, followed by KN and WL. A similar trend was observed in the percentage of dead and morphologically-abnormal spermatozoa. 4. The activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in seminal plasma were higher in WL than KN, whereas the opposite trend was recorded for glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases. The cholesterol content of semen was highest in AP, followed by KN and WL. Cholesterol was much lower in seminal plasma compared with whole semen but there were no differences between breeds. Mean values of the methylene blue reduction time test were higher in WL than in the native breeds. 5. Fertility and hatchability, using freshly-diluted semen, were poorer in the native breeds than in WL. The pattern of fertility deteriorated further, especially in native fowls, when the birds were inseminated with 24-h-stored semen. 6. In conclusion, variation in physical and biochemical characteristics of semen in native breeds compared to WL correlated with poor fertility after short-term storage of semen. PMID:21732887

  9. Genome-wide assessment of worldwide chicken SNP genetic diversity indicates significant absence of rare alleles in commercial breeds.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jun; Groenen, Martien A M; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Zhang, Huanmin; Okimoto, Ron; Vereijken, Addie; Jungerius, Annemieke; Albers, Gerard A A; Lawley, Cindy Taylor; Delany, Mary E; MacEachern, Sean; Cheng, Hans H

    2008-11-11

    Breed utilization, genetic improvement, and industry consolidation are predicted to have major impacts on the genetic composition of commercial chickens. Consequently, the question arises as to whether sufficient genetic diversity remains within industry stocks to address future needs. With the chicken genome sequence and more than 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), it is now possible to address biodiversity using a previously unattainable metric: missing alleles. To achieve this assessment, 2551 informative SNPs were genotyped on 2580 individuals, including 1440 commercial birds. The proportion of alleles lacking in commercial populations was assessed by (1) estimating the global SNP allele frequency distribution from a hypothetical ancestral population as a reference, then determining the portion of the distribution lost, and then (2) determining the relationship between allele loss and the inbreeding coefficient. The results indicate that 50% or more of the genetic diversity in ancestral breeds is absent in commercial pure lines. The missing genetic diversity resulted from the limited number of incorporated breeds. As such, hypothetically combining stocks within a company could recover only preexisting within-breed variability, but not more rare ancestral alleles. We establish that SNP weights act as sentinels of biodiversity and provide an objective assessment of the strains that are most valuable for preserving genetic diversity. This is the first experimental analysis investigating the extant genetic diversity of virtually an entire agricultural commodity. The methods presented are the first to characterize biodiversity in terms of allelic diversity and to objectively link rate of allele loss with the inbreeding coefficient. PMID:18981413

  10. Sensitivity of embryos from duck, goose, herring gull, and various chicken breeds to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl.

    PubMed

    Brunström, B

    1988-01-01

    Yolks in embryonated eggs from duck, goose, herring gull, and various breeds of chicken were injected with 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB). Hens' eggs were injected after 4 days of incubation and eggs from the other species were injected after 5 days of incubation. All breeds of chicken tested were very sensitive to TCB. At a dose of 20 micrograms/kg egg the death rate in chick embryos ranged from 70 to 100% at the end of the experiment by Day 18 of incubation. Liver lesions, hydropericardium, subcutaneous edema, shortened beak, and microphthalmia were found in both dead and living TCB-treated chick embryos. Embryos of the other species tested were considerably less sensitive than chick embryos to TCB. The highest dose administered to these species was 5,000 micrograms/kg egg for ducks and 1,000 micrograms/kg egg for geese and herring gulls. These doses did not affect the viability of the embryos and caused no gross abnormalities. PMID:3131755

  11. Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations – Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) – were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ?0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ?0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (FST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, FST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed. PMID:23518904

  12. Analysis of Genome-Wide Copy Number Variations in Chinese Indigenous and Western Pig Breeds by 60 K SNP Genotyping Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yaqi; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, Chao; Yu, Shaobo; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Bin; Li, Kui; Liu, Bang

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a substantial source of structural variants in mammals and contribute to both normal phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. Although low-resolution CNV maps are produced in many domestic animals, and several reports have been published about the CNVs of porcine genome, the differences between Chinese and western pigs still remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used Porcine SNP60 BeadChip and PennCNV algorithm to perform a genome-wide CNV detection in 302 individuals from six Chinese indigenous breeds (Tongcheng, Laiwu, Luchuan, Bama, Wuzhishan and Ningxiang pigs), three western breeds (Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc) and one hybrid (Tongcheng×Duroc). A total of 348 CNV Regions (CNVRs) across genome were identified, covering 150.49 Mb of the pig genome or 6.14% of the autosomal genome sequence. In these CNVRs, 213 CNVRs were found to exist only in the six Chinese indigenous breeds, and 60 CNVRs only in the three western breeds. The characters of CNVs in four Chinese normal size breeds (Luchuan, Tongcheng and Laiwu pigs) and two minipig breeds (Bama and Wuzhishan pigs) were also analyzed in this study. Functional annotation suggested that these CNVRs possess a great variety of molecular function and may play important roles in phenotypic and production traits between Chinese and western breeds. Our results are important complementary to the CNV map in pig genome, which provide new information about the diversity of Chinese and western pig breeds, and facilitate further research on porcine genome CNVs. PMID:25198154

  13. Seroprevalence of Fowl Pox Antibody in Indigenous Chickens in Jos North and South Council Areas of Plateau State, Nigeria: Implication for Vector Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  14. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  15. Genomic Analyses Reveal Potential Independent Adaptation to High Altitude in Tibetan Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Li, Yan; Peng, Min-Sheng; Zhong, Li; Wang, Zong-Ji; Li, Qi-Ye; Tu, Xiao-Long; Dong, Yang; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Lu; Yang, Min-Min; Wu, Shi-Fang; Miao, Yong-Wang; Liu, Jian-Ping; Irwin, David M; Wang, Wen; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Much like other indigenous domesticated animals, Tibetan chickens living at high altitudes (2,200-4,100 m) show specific physiological adaptations to the extreme environmental conditions of the Tibetan Plateau, but the genetic bases of these adaptations are not well characterized. Here, we assembled a de novo genome of a Tibetan chicken and resequenced whole genomes of 32 additional chickens, including Tibetan chickens, village chickens, game fowl, and Red Junglefowl, and found that the Tibetan chickens could broadly be placed into two groups. Further analyses revealed that several candidate genes in the calcium-signaling pathway are possibly involved in adaptation to the hypoxia experienced by these chickens, as these genes appear to have experienced directional selection in the two Tibetan chicken populations, suggesting a potential genetic mechanism underlying high altitude adaptation in Tibetan chickens. The candidate selected genes identified in this study, and their variants, may be useful targets for clarifying our understanding of the domestication of chickens in Tibet, and might be useful in current breeding efforts to develop improved breeds for the highlands. PMID:25788450

  16. Genetic characterization of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Thai indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus), and two commercial lines using selective functional genes compared to microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Akaboot, P; Duangjinda, M; Phasuk, Y; Kaenchan, C; Chinchiyanond, W

    2012-01-01

    Genetic characterization among Red Junglefowl (GS, Gallus gallus spadiceus), Thai indigenous chicken (TIC, Gallus domesticus) and commercial lines has been widely used for studies of genealogical origin, genetic diversity, and effects of selection. We compared the efficiency of genetic characterization of chicken populations that had been under different intensities of selection using selective functional gene versus microsatellite marker analyses. We genotyped 151 chickens from five populations: Red Junglefowl, TIC and commercial lines (BR, broiler and WL, White Leghorn). Genetic structure analyses using six loci of five functional genes - corresponding to heat tolerance (heat shock protein 70, HSP70/C, HSP70/M), broodiness (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1, VIPR-1), egg production-[24-bp indel (insertion or deletion) prolactin, 24bpPRL], ovulation rate (growth hormone receptor, GHR), and growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1) - were compared with 18 microsatellite markers. PCR-RFLP and allele specific PCR were used for functional gene typing. A neighbor-joining tree from Nei's genetic distance was constructed to show genetic relationships. A similar pattern was found with both functional genes and microsatellites. Three groups consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG were formed. A principal component plot based on individual similarity using Dice's coefficient was also constructed to confirm the relationship. Different patterns were found when using functional genes versus microsatellites. A principal component plot with functional genes also gave three clusters consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG. A principal component plot using microsatellites gave four clusters, consisting of WL, GG, TIC, and BR-GS. Characterization of BR and GS differs from previous studies. We concluded that genetic characterization with appropriate functional genes is more accurate when differences in genetic make-up among populations are known. Genetic characterization using functional gene data was consistent in neighbor joining and principal component plot analyses, while genetic characterization using microsatellite data gave varied results depending on the analysis methodology. PMID:22869543

  17. Preliminary result of a genetic polymorphism of ?-lactoglobulin gene and the phylogenetic study of ten balkan and central european indigenous sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Kusza, Szilvia; Sziszkosz, Nikolett; Nagy, Krisztina; Masala, Amela; Kukovics, Sándor; András, Jávor

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism at the ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG) loci in indigenous sheep breeds (Tsigai, Racka, Pramenka) was determined. Altogether 904 sheep were genotyped for the presence of the A, B and C alleles of ?-lactoglobulin by PCR-RFLP. The AB genotype was the most common and the ?-lactoglobulin A was the most frequent in the Cokanski Tsigai (54%), while the B allele was the most common in the Rusty and the Zomborski Tsigai (59%, 60%). The C allele was found only in one individual from Serbian Cokanski flock. These results differ from those that refer to other native sheep breeds. In the Cokanski Tsigai, deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected. Genetic relationship based on ?-lactoglobulin polymorphism was the closest between the Rusty and the Cokanski Tsigai among the studied populations and between sheep and goat among the other ruminants. Part of the promoter region (254 bp) of ?-LG in studied sheep breeds were sequenced in order to identify polymorphisms, analyze haplotypes, and phylogenetic relationship among them. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences showed one haplotype. Analysis of more samples and longer parts of the promoter region of ?-LG are needed to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree. PMID:25730209

  18. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants. PMID:17944308

  19. Different immune responses to three different vaccines following H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge in Taiwanese local chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) are frequently isolated in Taiwan and lead to significant economic losses, either directly or indirectly through association with other infectious diseases. This study investigates immune responses to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds. Methods Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University, namely Hsin-Yi, Ju-Chi, Hua-Tung (Taiwan), Quemoy (Quemoy Island), Shek-Ki (China), Nagoya (Japan) and a specific pathogen free (SPF) White Leghorn line. A total number of 338 chickens have been distributed between a control and a challenge group, H6N1 challenge was performed at 7 weeks of age; vaccination against Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) was performed at 11 weeks. The anti-H6N1 LPAIV antibody titers were measured by ELISA at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after challenge, and the anti-ND, anti-IBD and anti-IB antibody titers were measured by inhibition of hemagglutination test and ELISA at days 0, 14, 28 after vaccination. Results There was no effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge at 7 weeks of age on the subsequent responses to ND and IBD vaccine at 11 weeks of age, but, surprisingly, the H6N1 LPAIV challenge significantly affected antibody levels to IB vaccine in some breeds, since IB0 and IB14 antibody titers were lower in the challenge groups. However, there was no significant difference in IB28 antibody titers among the experimental groups. Conclusions Local breeds have different immune response to H6N1 LPAIV challenge and subsequent vaccines. Differences dealt mainly with kinetics of response and with peak values. Quemoy exhibited higher antibody levels to H6N1, ND and IBD. The negative effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge on IB vaccine response may be related to the fact that both viruses target the lung tissues, and the type of local immune response induced by LPAIV challenge may not be favourable for birds to make optimum IB-specific antibody response. PMID:21645314

  20. Campylobacter colonization and proliferation in the broiler chicken upon natural field challenge is not affected by the bird growth rate or breed.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Fraser J; Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; McAdam, Jim; Avendaño, Santiago; Stanley, William A; Koerhuis, Alfons N M

    2014-11-01

    The zoonotic association between Campylobacter bacteria in poultry and humans has been characterized by decades of research which has attempted to elucidate the epidemiology of this complex relationship and to reduce carriage within poultry. While much work has focused on the mechanisms facilitating its success in contaminating chicken flocks (and other animal hosts), it remains difficult to consistently exclude Campylobacter under field conditions. Within the United Kingdom poultry industry, various bird genotypes with widely varying growth rates are available to meet market needs and consumer preferences. However, little is known about whether any differences in Campylobacter carriage exist across this modern broiler range. The aim of this study was to establish if a relationship exists between growth rate or breed and cecal Campylobacter concentration after natural commercial flock Campylobacter challenge. In one investigation, four pure line genotypes of various growth rates were grown together, while in the second, eight different commercial broiler genotypes were grown individually. In both studies, the Campylobacter concentration was measured in the ceca at 42 days of age, revealing no significant difference in cecal load between birds of different genotypes both in mixed- and single-genotype pens. This is important from a public health perspective and suggests that other underlying reasons beyond genotype are likely to control and affect Campylobacter colonization within chickens. Further studies to gain a better understanding of colonization dynamics and subsequent proliferation are needed, as are novel approaches to reduce the burden in poultry. PMID:25172857

  1. Husbandry and trade of indigenous chickens in Myanmar—Results of a participatory rural appraisal in the Yangon and the Mandalay divisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Henning; A. Khin; T. Hla; J. Meers

    2006-01-01

    There is a variety of professions working with village chickens in developing countries, including farmers, veterinarians\\u000a and chicken traders. People from all these occupations were involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry\\u000a practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country,\\u000a in the Yangon and in the Mandalay

  2. Effect of selection for commercially productive traits on the plasticity of cardiovascular regulation in chicken breeds during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Crossley, D A; Altimiras, J

    2012-10-01

    Domesticated animal breeds have experienced profound anatomical and physiological changes as a result of human-driven genetic selection. In poultry, this selection process has resulted in many distinct phenotypes from the ancestral bird, the Red Junglefowl. Growth rate and egg-laying capacity are 2 traits that have been commercially prioritized, and this has resulted in a fast-growth breed, the broiler, and a prolific egg layer, the White Leghorn. In this study, we investigated basic cardiovascular physiology in these 3 breeds at 90% of incubation. We aimed to identify breed-specific features of arterial blood pressure and heart rate as well as the physiological mechanisms regulating them. Specifically, we investigated mechanisms mediated by the autonomic nervous system by means of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. Our overriding hypothesis was that selection for rapid growth would require an acceleration of heart rate and arterial pressure development in broilers compared with White Leghorns and the ancestral breed. The embryonic broiler is characterized by resting relative hypertensive bradycardia, whereas the White Leghorn is hypotensive. All 3 breeds maintained resting arterial pressure and heart rate via a similar ?- and ?-adrenergic receptor tone; however, cholinergic tone on heart rate was absent in the embryonic White Leghorn. Each breed responded differently to incubation in chronic hypoxic conditions (14% O(2)). White Leghorn relied on augmenting cholinergic heart rate tone, and broilers relied on reducing ?-adrenergic tone on pressure. We concluded that selection for rapid growth shifts cardiovascular regulatory plasticity to emphasize mechanisms that modulate pressure, and that selection for egg-laying capacity emphasizes mechanisms that modulate heart rate. PMID:22991550

  3. The protective effect of MD-resistant breeding and HVT vaccination against immunosuppression caused by MDV infection in chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Chang Jin; Ping Wei; Wei-Fen Liang; Ya Li; Bo-Xue Niu; Xian-Rong Yang

    2010-01-01

    By the titrations of the antibody response to the vaccinations of avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND), the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Marek's disease (MD)-resistant breeding and vaccination against the immunosuppression induced by virulent Marek's disease virus (MDV). The results showed that haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres to AI and ND in MDV-unchallenged groups were

  4. Chicken major histocompatibility complex polymorphism and its association with production traits.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht, Gholamreza; Esmailnejad, Atefeh

    2015-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the best characterized genetic region controlling disease resistance and immune responses in chicken. MHC genes are also involved in various non-immune functions such as productive traits and reproductive success. The genetic diversity of MHC in an Iranian indigenous chicken (Khorasan) was studied, and association of the MHC alleles with production traits was determined. The MHC polymorphism was ascertained by genotyping the LEI0258 microsatellite locus by PCR-based fragment analysis. LEI0258 microsatellite marker is a genetic indicator for MHC, which is located on microchromosome 16 and strongly associated with serologically defined MHC haplotypes. A total of 25 different LEI0258 alleles (185-493 bp) and 76 genotypes were identified in 313 chickens. An allele of 361 bp had the highest frequency (26.44%), and alleles of 207 and 262 bp had the lowest (0.16%). High level of heterozygosity (87%) and good genotype frequency fit to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in this population (P?=?0.238). The association study also revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on body weight, egg weight, egg laying intensity, and weight of sexual maturity in Khorasan population (P?chicken. These data would be applicable in designing breeding and genetic resource conservation for indigenous chicken populations. PMID:25737311

  5. Breed differences in the biochemical determinism of ultimate pH in breast muscles of broiler chickens--a key role of AMP deaminase?

    PubMed

    El Rammouz, R; Berri, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Babilé, R; Fernandez, X

    2004-08-01

    The biochemical determinism of ultimate pH (pHu) was studied in the pectoralis muscle of broiler chickens. Thirty birds of 3 genetic types (a fast-growing standard (FG), a slow-growing French "Label Rouge" (SG), and a heavy line type (HL)) were kept under conventional breeding methods until the usual marketing age (6, 12, and 6 wk for FG, SG, and HL birds, respectively). The birds were divided into 3 different antemortem treatment groups: minimum stress, shackling for a longer time (2 min), and heat stress (exposure to 35 degrees C for 3.5 h and shackling for 2 min before stunning). The birds were slaughtered on the same day. The pHu differed (P < 0.001) among the 3 genetic types, ranking as follows: FG (5.95+/-0.01) > HL (5.85+/-0.02) > SG (5.73+/-0.02). In SG and HL birds, pHu was strongly correlated with muscle glycogen content at slaughter (r = -0.74 and -0.82; P < 0.01 respectively), whereas this correlation was weak in FG birds. Regardless of genetic type, neither buffering capacity nor lactate accumulation significantly contributed to pHu variations (P > 0.05). The activity of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPd) was significantly higher in FG chickens (0.98+/-0.31; P < 0.05) than in HL and SG birds (0.46+/-0.24 and 0.34+/-0.18, respectively). Significant correlations were found between AMPd activity, pHu, and glycolytic potential (GP) at slaughter (r = 0.34 and -.29; P < 0.01, respectively). Further research is needed to study in more detail the role of AMPd in the determinism of pHu, particularly in fast-growing broilers. PMID:15339023

  6. India`s first solar chicken brooder

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.; Naryanaswamy, T.S.; Kumar, A.; Choudhary, U. [Indian Association for the Advancement of Science, New Delhi (India); Sharma, S.K. [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India). Energy Research Centre

    1995-12-31

    A 1,200 bird solar chicken brooder was indigenously designed and operated by the Indian scientists for the first time in the country as a Project under funding by the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources to the All India Women`s Conference. This multi disciplinary project was taken up on the International Sun Day, May 3, 1993 and completed on May, 1994. Data has been collected for the first nine months of operation. Its successful operation has justified multi disciplinary approach. The solar chicken brooder incorporates modern poultry concepts of breeding under controlled temperatures. In view of the mixed climate of Delhi, provision was made for heating and cooling both to take care of the 24 hour cycle. Comfort conditions have been identified and maintained (as is done in the their genetic characteristics) at different temperatures for a period of 8--10 weeks to grow them to a uniform weight of 2.0 kg. Growing them under controlled temperature for the first 4 weeks and then at room temperature was another new concept to grow hard stock. This development has opened avenues for new food industry based on processing of chicken utilizing internationally available technologies.

  7. Differences in the early response of hatchlings of different chicken breeding lines to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection.

    PubMed

    Schokker, D; Peters, T H F; Hoekman, A J W; Rebel, J M J; Smits, M A

    2012-02-01

    Poultry products are the major source of food-borne Salmonella infection in humans. Broiler lines selected to be more resistant to Salmonella could reduce the transfer of Salmonella to humans. To investigate differences in the susceptibility of newly hatched chicks to oral infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 3 commercial broiler lines (A, B, and C) were infected immediately after hatch and compared to healthy controls at 0.33, 1, and 2 d postinfection. Weight, bacteriological examination, and the jejunal influx of CD4, CD8, TCR??, TCR??, and KUL01 (macrophages and dendritic cells) cells that are positive was investigated. In addition, the jejunal transcriptional response was analyzed using whole-genome chicken cDNA arrays. Salmonella colony-forming unit counts from cecal content and liver revealed that Salmonella enterica entered the body at 0.33 d postinfection. Broiler line A appeared most susceptible to intestinal colonization and the systemic spread of Salmonella. In addition, the Salmonella-induced jejunal influx of macrophages in this line showed a clear increase in time, which is in contrast to lines B and C. On the other hand, all lines showed a peak of CD4(+) cells at 1 d postinfection when infected chicks were compared to control chicks. The transcriptional response of line A clearly differed from the responses in lines B and C. Functional analysis indicated that the majority of the differentially expressed genes at 0.33 d postinfection in line A were involved in cell-cycle functions, whereas at 2 d postinfection the majority of the differentially expressed genes could be assigned to inflammatory disorder, differentiation and proliferation of (T) lymphocytes. These data indicate that hatchlings of different broiler lines differ in their systemic spread of Salmonella and suggest that intestinal barrier functions, as well as immunological responses, may be the underlying factors. We hypothesize that the differences between genetic chicken lines divergent in their response to Salmonella infection at a young age include developmental differences of the gut. PMID:22252347

  8. Effects of outdoor access days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed.

    PubMed

    Tong, H B; Cai, J; Lu, J; Wang, Q; Shao, D; Zou, J M

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of outdoor access days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 864 twenty one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens, with similar body weight (536 ± 36g), were selected and raised in indoor floor pens that measured 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses (36 birds per pen). Two hundred and sixteen birds were allowed outdoor access treatments at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age, respectively (access to outdoor for 35, 28, 21, and 14 days, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 6 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (216 birds per treatment). In the outdoor access treatment, the birds had an outdoor free-range paddock that measured 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The body weight of birds at 56 d of age increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P < 0.001), but there was no effect of the outdoor access days on the body weight at 42 d of age (P = 0.161). The daily weight gain, daily feed intake, and feed per gain from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by outdoor access days (P = 0.401, P = 0.463, P = 0.223, respectively). However, the daily weight gain and daily feed intake from 42 to 56 and from 21 to 56 d of age increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P = 0.002, P < 0.001; P = 0.001, P = 0.004; respectively), while the feed per gain tended to decrease linearly from 21 to 56 d of age (P = 0.060). The mortality from 21 to 56 d of age was unaffected by outdoor access days (P = 0.261). At 56 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P < 0.001), while the foot yield decreased linearly (P = 0.016). The light (L*) and red (b*) values of leg meat color increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P = 0.032, P = 0.013, respectively). The spleen: the body weight ratio showed a decreasing and then increasing quadratic response to increasing outdoor access days (P = 0.047). The litter moisture content at 42 and 56 d of age increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P < 0.001, P = 0.013, respectively). The findings of this study suggest that increasing outdoor access days advantageously affects the body weight, daily weight gain, feed per gain and breast yield as well as the light (L*) and red (b*) values of leg meat color, while decreasing foot yield. PMID:25838315

  9. The USDA Feed the Future Initiative for genetic improvement of African goats: an update on genomic resources and genetic characterization of indigenous breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food production systems in Africa depend heavily on the use of locally adapted animals such as goats which are critical to small-scale farmers as they are easier to acquire, maintain, and act as scavengers in sparse pasture and marginal crop regions. Indigenous goat ecotypes have undergone generatio...

  10. Indigenous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magga, Ole-Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses educational experiences of indigenous children. The author points out that while there are those who have the luxury of access to formal schooling, many do not. In the Second Session of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, many indigenous representatives discussed common education issues including poor…

  11. Indigenous Labor and Indigenous History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Mary Jane Logan

    2009-01-01

    This article was originally a response to a call from the Western History Association for papers by Indigenous academics. The call aimed to showcase Indigenous scholarship on certain terms: that it delves into some of the opportunities, challenges, and obstacles involved with "working from home" or doing research that bridges a space called "home"…

  12. Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Eggshell Quality in an F 2 Population Derived from Strong and Weak Eggshell Lines of the White Leghorn Chicken Breed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    De-ji YANG; O Sasaki; M Minezawa; K Nirasawa; H Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Broken and cracked eggshells cause major economic losses to the egg production industry. An F2 population of 262 hens obtained by crossing a strong egg shell line with a weak egg shell line of the White Leghorn breed was used for detecting the quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting eggshell quality. The 2 lines were developed from the same founder population

  13. Chicken Feet

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2009-09-02

    Broadcast Transcript: American chicken feet are no longer welcome on Chinese soil. A possible congressional ban on the import of Chinese chicken for safety reasons has made China madder than a wet hen. And, though officially China is saying...

  14. Polymorphisms of the Ovine BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR and Their Associations with Litter Size in Two Chinese Indigenous Sheep Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weimin; Liu, Shijia; Li, Fadi; Pan, Xiangyu; Li, Chong; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Ma, Youji; La, Yongfu; Xi, Rui; Li, Tingfu

    2015-01-01

    The Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep are two prolific local sheep in China. In this study, the polymorphisms of BMPR-IB (Bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB), BMP-15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) and FSHR (follicle stimulating hormone receptor) were investigated to check whether they are associated with litter size in Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep. Consequently, three polymorphisms, FecB mutation in BMPR-IB (c.746A>G), FecG mutation in BMP-15 (c.718C>T) and the mutation (g. 47C>T) in FSHR were found in the above two sheep breeds with a total number of 1630 individuals. The single marker association analysis showed that the three mutations were significantly associated with litter size. The ewes with genotype FecBB/FecBB and FecBB/FecB+ had 0.78 and 0.58 more lambs (p < 0.01) than those with genotype FecB+/FecB+, respectively. The heterozygous Han and Hu ewes with FecXG/FecX+ genotype showed 0.30 (p = 0.05) more lambs than those with the FecX+/FecX+ genotype. For FSHR gene, the ewes with genotype CC had 0.52 (p < 0.01) and 0.75 (p < 0.01) more lambs than those with genotypes TC and TT, respectively. Combined effect analyses indicated an extremely significant interaction (p < 0.01) between the random combinations of BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR genes on litter size. In addition, the Han and Hu ewes with BB/G+/CC genotype harbor the highest litter size among ewes analyzed in current study. In conclusion, BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR polymorphisms could be used as genetic markers in multi-gene pyramiding for improving litter size in sheep husbandry. PMID:25993301

  15. Polymorphisms of the Ovine BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR and Their Associations with Litter Size in Two Chinese Indigenous Sheep Breeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weimin; Liu, Shijia; Li, Fadi; Pan, Xiangyu; Li, Chong; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Ma, Youji; La, Yongfu; Xi, Rui; Li, Tingfu

    2015-01-01

    The Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep are two prolific local sheep in China. In this study, the polymorphisms of BMPR-IB (Bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB), BMP-15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) and FSHR (follicle stimulating hormone receptor) were investigated to check whether they are associated with litter size in Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep. Consequently, three polymorphisms, FecB mutation in BMPR-IB (c.746A>G), FecG mutation in BMP-15 (c.718C>T) and the mutation (g. 47C>T) in FSHR were found in the above two sheep breeds with a total number of 1630 individuals. The single marker association analysis showed that the three mutations were significantly associated with litter size. The ewes with genotype FecBB/FecBB and FecBB/FecB+ had 0.78 and 0.58 more lambs (p < 0.01) than those with genotype FecB+/FecB+, respectively. The heterozygous Han and Hu ewes with FecXG/FecX+ genotype showed 0.30 (p = 0.05) more lambs than those with the FecX+/FecX+ genotype. For FSHR gene, the ewes with genotype CC had 0.52 (p < 0.01) and 0.75 (p < 0.01) more lambs than those with genotypes TC and TT, respectively. Combined effect analyses indicated an extremely significant interaction (p < 0.01) between the random combinations of BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR genes on litter size. In addition, the Han and Hu ewes with BB/G+/CC genotype harbor the highest litter size among ewes analyzed in current study. In conclusion, BMPR-IB, BMP-15 and FSHR polymorphisms could be used as genetic markers in multi-gene pyramiding for improving litter size in sheep husbandry. PMID:25993301

  16. Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

    1981-10-01

    Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

  17. Development of a controlled release formulation of an indigenous insect growth regulator, DPE-28, a substituted diphenylether, for controlling the breeding of Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kalyanasundaram, M.; Mathew, Nisha; Elango, A.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: DPE-28, a substituted diphenyl ether (2,6-ditertiarybutyl phenyl-2’,4’-dinitro phenyl ether) was reported to exhibit promising insect growth regulating activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis. A controlled release formulation (CRF) of DPE-28 has been developed to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in its breeding habitats. Toxicity of DPE-28, safety to non-target mosquito predators and the release profile of the CRF of DPE-28 are studied and discussed. Methods: The acute oral and dermal toxicity was tested in male and female Wistar rats as per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 425 and 402 respectively. The toxicity of DPE-28 to non-target predators was tested as per the reported procedure from this laboratory. The CRF of DPE-28 was prepared by following the reported procedure developed at this laboratory earlier. The concentration of DPE-28 released from the CRF was monitored by HPLC by constructing a calibration graph by plotting the peak area in the Y-axis and the concentration of DPE-28 in the X-axis. Results: DPE-28 has been tested for acute oral toxicity and found to be moderately toxic with LD50 value of 1098 mg/kg body weight (b.w). The results of the acute dermal toxicity and skin irritation studies reveal that DPE-28 is safe and non-irritant. DPE-28 when tested at 0.4 mg/litre against non-target mosquito predators did not produce any mortality. The release profile of the active ingredient DPE-28 from the CRF by HPLC technique showed that the average daily release (ADR) of DPE-28 ranged from 0.07 to 5.0 mg/litre during first four weeks. Thereafter the matrix started eroding and the ADR ranged from 5 to 11 mg/litre during the remaining 5 wk. The cumulative release of active ingredient showed that > 90 per cent of the active ingredient was released from the matrix. Interpretation & conclusions: The controlled release matrix of DPE-28 was thus found to inhibit the adult emergence (>80%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus for a period of nine weeks. The CRF of DPE-28 may play a useful role in field and may be recommended for mosquito control programme after evaluating the same under field conditions. PMID:21727665

  18. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  19. Genetic Resistance of Egyptian Chickens to Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Hassan; M. A. Afify; M. M. Aly

    2004-01-01

    Genetic resistance of native Egyptian breeds to very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment, birds from four breeds (Gimmizah, Sina, Dandrawi and Mandarah) were challenged with vvIBDV. The Mandarah chickens had the lowest mortalities (10%) compared to the Gimmizah, Sina and Dandrawi chickens (55%, 35% and

  20. Curry Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Curry Chicken Ingredients: 2 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 6 ounces plain low-fat yogurt (one in a shallow bowl. 3. Add chicken to yogurt sauce and coat evenly. 4. Place chicken in baking dish. 5. Spoon remainder of yogurt sauce on top of the chicken. 6. Bake chicken for 35 minutes or until it's no longer pink

  1. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the microRNA miR-1596 locus with residual feed intake in chickens.

    PubMed

    Luo, C; Sun, L; Ma, J; Wang, J; Qu, H; Shu, D

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Genetic variations in microRNA sequences may be associated with phenotype differences by influencing the expression of microRNAs and/or their targets. This study identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomic region of the microRNA miR-1596 locus of chicken. Of the two SNPs, one was 95 bp upstream of miR-1596 (g.5678784A>T) and the other was in the middle of the sequence producing the mature microRNA gga-miR-1596-3p (g.5678944A>G). Genotypic distribution of the two SNPs had large differences among 12 chicken breeds (lines), especially between the fast-growing commercial lines and the slow-growing Chinese indigenous breeds for the g.5678784A>T SNP. Only the g.5678784A>T SNP was significantly associated with residual feed intake (RFI) in the F2 population derived from a fast-growing and a slow-growing broiler as well as in the pure Huiyang bearded chicken. The birds with the AA genotype of the g.5678784A>T SNP had lower RFI and higher expression of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA of miR-1596 than did those with the other genotypes of the same SNP. We also found that the expression of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA of miR-1596 was significantly associated with RFI. These findings suggest that miR-1596 can become a candidate gene related to RFI, and its genetic variation may contribute to changes in RFI by altering expression levels of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA in chicken. PMID:25818998

  2. Chicken skeleton

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; )

    2007-09-01

    The long neck and beak allow the chicken to peck at food to eat it. The large breastbone of birds is indicative a large, volumous chest that fills with air while flying. Thin legs makes the animal lighter in weight, which also aids in flight.

  3. Chicken Barbecue. 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Marshall M.; Mellor, David B.

    1979-01-01

    ;: -:. .. : ;., .~ ... '., 1 .' " . .. 1'- ! 1 CHICKEN B A R B E C U E *Extension poultry marketing specialists, The Texas A&M University System. Marshall M. Miller and David B. Mellor* CONTENTS History 3 The Basting Sauce 5 Splitting the Broilers in Half 5...

  4. Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despagne, Colette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…

  5. Copy number variants in locally raised Chinese chicken genomes determined using array comparative genomic hybridization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Copy number variants contribute to genetic variation in birds. Analyses of copy number variants in chicken breeds had focused primarily on those from commercial varieties with nothing known about the occurrence and diversity of copy number variants in locally raised Chinese chicken breeds. To address this deficiency, we characterized copy number variants in 11 chicken breeds and compared the variation among these breeds. Results We presented a detailed analysis of the copy number variants in locally raised Chinese chicken breeds identified using a customized comparative genomic hybridization array. We identified 833 copy number variants contained within 308 copy number variant regions. The median and mean sizes of the copy number variant regions were 14.6 kb and 35.1 kb, respectively. Of the copy number variant regions, 138 (45%) involved gain of DNA, 159 (52%) involved loss of DNA, and 11 (3%) involved both gain and loss of DNA. Principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering revealed the close relatedness of the four locally raised chicken breeds, Shek-Ki, Langshan, Qingyuan partridge, and Wenchang. Biological process enrichment analysis of the copy number variant regions confirmed the greater variation among the four aforementioned varieties than among the seven other breeds studied. Conclusion Our description of the distribution of the copy number variants and comparison of the differences among the copy number variant regions of the 11 chicken breeds supplemented the information available concerning the copy number variants of other Chinese chicken breeds. In addition to its relevance for functional analysis, our results provided the first insight into how chicken breeds can be clustered on the basis of their genomic copy number variation. PMID:23594354

  6. Teaching Indigenous Languages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site offers a wealth of materials relating to the anthropological, educational, and political issues involved with the teaching of Indigenous Languages. The best feature is the online full-texts of recently published scholarly studies and collections devoted to the subject. These texts include Revitalizing Indigenous Languages (1999), Teaching Indigenous Languages (1997), and Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (1996). The site also offers reprints of scholarly articles on such topics as American Indian language policy, models for teaching and maintaining indigenous languages, selected columns (1990-1999) from NABE (National Association for Bilingual Education) News, and quite a bit more. Many of the texts feature hyperlinks, and a site search engine is provided. Finally, an extensive, occasionally annotated list of links to Bilingual, American Indian, Indigenous Languages, and Literacy/ Reading sites is also posted. Jon Reyhner, an associate professor of bilingual and multicultural education at Northern Arizona University, maintains the site.

  7. Pineapple Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Pineapple Chicken Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1 chicken bouillon cube 1 cup water, hot 28 ounces canned pineapple chunks in juice 1/4 cup rice wine vinegar 1 tablespoon hot water, set aside. Open pineapple and drain juice into a cup. Set aside. 3. Once chicken is done

  8. Salsa Baked Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Salsa Baked Chicken Ingredients: 4 skinless, boneless chicken breasts 1 cup salsa Directions 1. Preheat oven to 400ºF. 2. Place chicken breasts in a medium bowl. Add salsa an allow to marinate for 20 minutes in refrigerator. 3. Spray baking dish with non stick spray. Place chicken in baking dish and pour

  9. Chicken Burritos Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken Burritos Ingredients: 1 cup skinless, boneless chicken breasts, skinless (two breasts in foil. Bake for 10 minutes. 2. Meanwhile, dice the chicken into small pieces. Chop the tomato and grate cheese. 3. Put the chicken, corn and salsa in a large skillet. Cook over medium heat until mixture

  10. Backcross Breeding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How the conventional breeding method of backcross breeding is done.This is the seventh of a series of seven animations that detail theprocess of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Gun.)

  11. Apricot Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apricot orchard area and fruit production are increasing worldwide. Breeding programs engage in apricot development to provide new varieties to meet needs of producers and consumers. Over the last 20 years, breeders have used new techniques to assist in variety development and to increase breeding...

  12. Production of transgenic chickens using an avian retroviral vector

    SciTech Connect

    Kopchick, J.; Mills, E.; Rosenblum C.; Taylor, J.; Kelder, B.; Smith, J.; Chen, H.

    1987-05-01

    The authors efforts to insert genes into the chicken germ line are dependent upon the ability of exogenous avian retroviruses to infect chicken germ cells. They have used a transformation defective Schmidt Ruppin A strain of Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV-SRA) in their initial experiments. The general protocol involved generating RSV-SRA viremic female chickens (Go), which shed exogenous virus via the oviduct. As the fertilized egg passes through the oviduct, embryonic cells are exposed to the virus. If the germ cell precursors are infected by the virus, offspring (G1) should be generated which are capable of passing the viral DNA to the next generation (G2). Fifteen viremic G1 males were selected for breeding and progeny testing. Since male chickens do not congenitally pass retroviruses through semen, production of viremic G2 offspring indicates germ line DNA transmission. This is confirmed by DNA analysis of the experimental chickens. Using a specific probe for exogenous retrovirus, they have detected the presence of RSV-SRA DNA in viremic chickens. Southern DNA analysis revealed junction fragments for RSV-SRA DNA in viremic G2 chickens, but not in non-viremic siblings. Furthermore, DNA isolated from various tissues of a viremic G2 chicken showed an identical DNA junction fragment pattern, indicating all tissues were derived from the same embryonic cell which contained integrated provirus. To date they have generated 50 transgenic chickens.

  13. Identification of specific long noncoding RNA profiles in chicken with different susceptibility to Marek's disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is an avian herpesvirus-induced lymphoma in chicken, which causes more than $1 billion economic loss in poultry industry worldwide. Breeding of genetically resistant chickens has become an important measure in MD control to augment vaccination. Evidently, a better understanding ...

  14. The Origin and Genetic Variation of Domestic Chickens with Special Reference to Junglefowls Gallus g. gallus and G. varius

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Hiromi; Kim, Hie Lim; Kuno, Kaori; Suzuki, Sayaka; Gotoh, Hideo; Takada, Masaru; Takahata, Naoyuki; Satta, Yoko; Akishinonomiya, Fumihito

    2010-01-01

    It is postulated that chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) became domesticated from wild junglefowls in Southeast Asia nearly 10,000 years ago. Based on 19 individual samples covering various chicken breeds, red junglefowl (G. g. gallus), and green junglefowl (G. varius), we address the origin of domestic chickens, the relative roles of ancestral polymorphisms and introgression, and the effects of artificial selection on the domestic chicken genome. DNA sequences from 30 introns at 25 nuclear loci are determined for both diploid chromosomes from a majority of samples. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the DNA sequences of chickens, red and green junglefowls formed reciprocally monophyletic clusters. The Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation further reveals that domestic chickens diverged from red junglefowl 58,000±16,000 years ago, well before the archeological dating of domestication, and that their common ancestor in turn diverged from green junglefowl 3.6 million years ago. Several shared haplotypes nonetheless found between green junglefowl and chickens are attributed to recent unidirectional introgression of chickens into green junglefowl. Shared haplotypes are more frequently found between red junglefowl and chickens, which are attributed to both introgression and ancestral polymorphisms. Within each chicken breed, there is an excess of homozygosity, but there is no significant reduction in the nucleotide diversity. Phenotypic modifications of chicken breeds as a result of artificial selection appear to stem from ancestral polymorphisms at a limited number of genetic loci. PMID:20502703

  15. Indigenous Healing Legacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliman, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    On a tour of Cuba, Native scholars from North and South America reconnected with the "extinct" Taino people and shared their knowledge of traditional healing herbs. Western science is just beginning to validate the tremendous knowledge base that indigenous healers have developed--most indigenous medicinal knowledge is useful for finding new…

  16. Selection for Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens Associates with Less Diet Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently. PMID:26042600

  17. Selection for growth performance in broiler chickens associates with less diet flexibility.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P J

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently. PMID:26042600

  18. Indigenous Continuance: Collaboration and Syncretism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    In this keynote address, the author talks about Indigenous peoples who are presently in a dynamic circumstance of constant change that they are facing courageously with creative collaboration and syncretism. In the address, the author speaks "of" an Indigenous consciousness and he speaks "with" an Indigenous consciousness so that Indigenous

  19. Reclaiming Indigenous Representations and Knowledges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke-Barnes, Judy; Danard, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This article explores contemporary Indigenous artists', activists', and scholars' use of the Internet to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, culture, art, history, and worldview; critique the political realities of dominant discourse; and address the genocidal history and ongoing repression of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Internet examples include…

  20. Vietnamese chickens: a gate towards Asian genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource and the conservation of local breeds is an issue for the preservation of this resource. The genetic diversity of a breed is mainly evaluated through its nuclear diversity. However, nuclear genetic diversity does not provide the same information as mitochondrial genetic diversity. For the species Gallus gallus, at least 8 maternal lineages have been identified. While breeds distributed westward from the Indian subcontinent usually share haplotypes from 1 to 2 haplogroups, Southeast Asian breeds exhibit all the haplogroups. The Vietnamese Ha Giang (HG) chicken has been shown to exhibit a very high nuclear diversity but also important rates of admixture with wild relatives. Its geographical position, within one of the chicken domestication centres ranging from Thailand to the Chinese Yunnan province, increases the probability of observing a very high genetic diversity for maternal lineages, and in a way, improving our understanding of the chicken domestication process. Results A total of 106 sequences from Vietnamese HG chickens were first compared to the sequences of published Chinese breeds. The 25 haplotypes observed in the Vietnamese HG population belonged to six previously published haplogroups which are: A, B, C, D, F and G. On average, breeds from the Chinese Yunnan province carried haplotypes from 4.3 haplogroups. For the HG population, haplogroup diversity is found at both the province and the village level (0.69). The AMOVA results show that genetic diversity occurred within the breeds rather than between breeds or provinces. Regarding the global structure of the mtDNA diversity per population, a characteristic of the HG population was the occurrence of similar pattern distribution as compared to G. gallus spadiceus. However, there was no geographical evidence of gene flow between wild and domestic populations as observed when microsatellites were used. Conclusions In contrast to other chicken populations, the HG chicken population showed very high genetic diversity at both the nuclear and mitochondrial levels. Due to its past and recent history, this population accumulates a specific and rich gene pool highlighting its interest and the need for conservation. PMID:20565868

  1. Chicken soup and sickness

    MedlinePLUS

    Chicken soup, a popular home remedy for the common cold since at least the 12th century, may really ... chicken soup reduce the inflammation associated with the common cold, thus providing some relief of symptoms. Although researchers ...

  2. Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients: 4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1/3 cup flour 1/3 cup honey 1/4 cup lemon juice Directions 1. Preheat oven to 375ºF. Spray a cooking sheet with non stick cooking. 5. Meanwhile, mix together honey and lemon juice in a small bowl. 6. Remove chicken from oven

  3. The Chicken Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Burt

    2006-01-01

    The chicken has long been an important model organism for developmental biology, as well as a major source of protein with billions of birds used in meat and egg production each year. Chicken genomics has been transformed in recent years, with the characterisation of large EST collections and most recently with the assembly of the chicken genome sequence. Since the

  4. Chicken Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken Salad Ingredients: 2 1/2 cups boneless skinless chicken breasts, cooked and diced 1/2 onion cooked chicken breasts and add to bowl. 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side

  5. CONSERVATION NOTES WILD CHICKENS

    E-print Network

    ^-^ CONSERVATION NOTES AMERICA'S WILD CHICKENS Most natural environments in the United States once had at least one kind of Nature's wild chickens, the upland game birds. Just as there are many kinds, wild turkey, and chachalaca. Like domestic chickens they are ground dwellers. They scratch chickenlike

  6. Effect of age on hepatic cytochrome P450 of Ross 708 broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X

    2013-05-01

    Age has significant impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) systems in animals. Ross 708 broiler chicken is a breed of chicken with fast growth characteristics. Cytochrome P450 in the livers of Ross 708 broiler chicken of different ages has been investigated. The birds were raised under standard husbandry conditions. A certain number of chickens was randomly sampled weekly for liver collection from d 1 to 56 posthatch. The chicken body and liver weights were recorded. The chicken livers were processed for liver microsomes though a multiple-step procedure at low temperature. Total CYP450 content in chicken liver homogenates and liver microsomes was measured using a UV/visible spectroscopic method. The enzymatic activities of CYP450 in the chicken liver microsomes were determined through incubation of CYP450 isoform substrates followed by measurement of formation of their metabolites. The chicken showed an opposite age pattern in hepatic CYP450 content and activities compared with most mammals. The hepatic CYP450 content and activities of chicken at d 1 posthatch were higher than at other ages. The total hepatic CYP450 content in chickens at d 1 posthatch was more than twice the average hepatic value of the chickens at d 7 to 28. This high CYP450 fell quickly in the first week posthatch and slightly rose from d 28 to 56. Hepatic CYP450 activities of CYP1A, 3A, 2C, 2D, and 2H were much higher in the chicken at d 1 posthatch. The differences of these enzymatic activities between d 1 and other ages of chicken were CYP450 isoform dependent. This result suggests that embryonic development of chicken livers has a significant impact on the age profile of hepatic CYP450 content and activities of posthatch chickens. PMID:23571338

  7. Indigenous Methodologies Margaret Kovach,

    E-print Network

    Argerami, Martin

    Characteristics 5 Indigenous theory with a Decolonizing Aim Space for Self-location Purpose (motivation) Tribal methods. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Contact Information Margaret Kovach, PhD Assistant Professor, Educational Foundations/Educational Administration College of Education, University

  8. Evolutionary Pets: Offspring Numbers Reveal Speciation Process in Domesticated Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059). Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75%±7.10%, M±SE) hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75%±15.32%, M±SE). These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal. PMID:22879889

  9. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-01-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  10. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World.

    PubMed

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-07-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  11. Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat. PMID:25049967

  12. Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale A Sandercock; Zoe E Barker; Malcolm A Mitchell; Paul M Hocking

    2009-01-01

    Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++,

  13. IMPACTS OF INTRODUCED NORWAY RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) ON LEAST AUKLETS (AETHIA PUSILLA) BREEDING AT KISKA ISLAND,

    E-print Network

    Jones, Ian L.

    IMPACTS OF INTRODUCED NORWAY RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) ON LEAST AUKLETS (AETHIA PUSILLA) BREEDING 2004 #12;ii ABSTRACT I quantified impacts of non-indigenous Norway rats on Least Auklets breeding at Kiska Island. Little direct evidence of rat predation was found in my productivity crevices

  14. Research Perspectives in Indigenous Education: The legitimacy of Indigenous knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Deer

    In the early 1970s Canada's Indigenous peoples began to organize themselves in an effort to rediscover and revitalize their traditional knowledge, heritages, and consciousness. Since then appropriate research for Indigenous peoples and communities has become a significant issue (Barman, Hebert, & McCaskill, 1986). In the area of education, research on Indigenous students represents a challenging situation when one considers that

  15. Indigenous Weather Knowledge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.

  16. Australian Indigenous Knowledge and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Martin, Ed.; Langton, Marcia, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and academics…

  17. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous

  18. Daytime behavioural patterns of slow-growing chickens in deep-litter pens with perches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y P; Chen, T L

    2007-04-01

    1. Behavioural patterns of 4 slow-growing local breeds of chickens in Taiwan and China, Taiwan Country chickens, Beijing Fatty chickens, pure Silkies, and upgraded commercial Silkies, were studied from 5 to 16 weeks of age as a reference of management for commercial production. 2. Fifteen males and 15 females of the same breed were housed in a pen. Every breed had 6 pens and 24 pens were studied. 3. Taiwan Country chickens displayed more aggressive, sexual and feather pecking behaviours, had less resting time, the fastest feeding rate and used perches more often. The fast-growing and heavy commercial Silkies had more feeding activity and less preening activity. They were also similar to the crested and docile Beijing Fatty chickens and had less stand/walking and more resting time. The pure Silky bantams showed much more foraging activity than the other breeds. 4. When males started to display more aggression and sexual behaviour, after 8-12 weeks of age, resting time for all birds started to decline and stand/walking increased. 5. These results could imply that different local breeds need different housing systems for the bird's welfare. PMID:17453801

  19. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for body weights and egg production in Horro chicken of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    vander Waaij, E. H.; van Arendonk, Johan A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A breeding program has been established in 2008 to improve productivity of Horro chicken, an indigenous population in the western highlands of Ethiopia. The pedigree descended from 26 sires and 260 dams. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 8 weeks then every 4 weeks for the next 8 weeks. Egg production was recorded to 44 weeks of age for one generation. Genetic parameters were estimated using animal model fitted with common environmental effects for growth traits and ignoring common environment for egg production traits. Direct heritabilities ranged from low (0.15?±?0.08), for body weight at 6 weeks, to moderate (0.40?±?0.23), for hatch weight. Heritabilities of common environmental effects on growth were high at hatch (0.39?±?0.10) and remained low afterwards. Age at first egg showed a very low heritability (0.06?±?0.15). Heritabilities of egg numbers in the first, second, third, and fourth months of laying were 0.32 (±0.13), 0.20 (±0.16), 0.56 (±0.15), and 0.25 (±0.14), respectively. Heritabilities of cumulative of monthly records of egg numbers were from 0.24?±?0.16 (for the first 2 months, EP12) to 0.35?±?0.16 (over the 6 months, EP16). Body weight at 16 weeks of age (BW16) has a strong genetic correlation with the cumulative of monthly records: 0.92 (with EP12), 0.69 (with EP36), and 0.73 (with EP16). Besides their strong association, BW16 and EP16 showed higher heritability, relative to their respective trait categories. These two traits seemed to have common genes and utilizing them as selection traits would be expected to improve both egg production and growth performance of local chicken. However, the standard errors of estimates in this study were mostly high indicating that the estimates have low precision. Parameter estimations based on more data are needed before applying the current results in breeding programs. PMID:20625931

  20. Poultry abattoir survey of carcass condemnation for standard, vegetarian, and free range chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Herenda, D; Jakel, O

    1994-01-01

    During the period April 1991 to March 1992, data concerning the condemnation rate of standard, vegetarian, and free-range chickens were collected and summarized from one federally inspected abattoir in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to discuss the effects of diet, management, and breed of chickens on pathological lesions, ensuing condemnation rates, and consequent losses to the growers and the poultry industry. The data collected at this abattoir revealed that vegetarian chickens showed a higher condemnation rate (5.23%) for disease and nondisease conditions compared with standard (1.48%) and free-range (0.94%) chickens. Free-range chickens were approximately two weeks older than vegetarian and standard chickens at the time of slaughter. The most common causes of condemnation in vegetarian chickens was cellulitis (1.18%), followed by ascites (0.77%). Ascites and cellulitis (0.26% both) were also the most common causes of condemnation in standard chickens. Cyanosis (0.21%) and mutilation (0.17%) represented the highest rate of condemnation in free-range chickens. The low rate of pathological lesions in free-range chickens is a positive trend in poultry disease management. PMID:8050075

  1. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  2. Chicken Noodle Soup Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    /2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon black pepper 1 teaspoon thyme or sage (optional) 8 ounces whole wheat noodles Directions 1. Remove skin and place chicken in large pot. Cover completely with water. Cover, bring to boil, reduce heat, and simmer until chicken falls off bones, about 1 hour. 2. Remove pot from stove and remove

  3. Breeding Soundness of Bulls 

    E-print Network

    Sprott, L. R.; Thrift, Todd A.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    1998-10-09

    The breeding ability and genetic makeup of the bull are critical to any breeding program. This leaflet explains the function of each organ in the bull's reproductive system, the evaluation of a bull's breeding soundness, and how genetic factors...

  4. Analysis of genome-wide structure, diversity and fine mapping of Mendelian traits in traditional and village chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wragg, D; Mwacharo, J M; Alcalde, J A; Hocking, P M; Hanotte, O

    2012-01-01

    Extensive phenotypic variation is a common feature among village chickens found throughout much of the developing world, and in traditional chicken breeds that have been artificially selected for traits such as plumage variety. We present here an assessment of traditional and village chicken populations, for fine mapping of Mendelian traits using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping while providing information on their genetic structure and diversity. Bayesian clustering analysis reveals two main genetic backgrounds in traditional breeds, Kenyan, Ethiopian and Chilean village chickens. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) reveals useful LD (r2?0.3) in both traditional and village chickens at pairwise marker distances of ?10?Kb; while haplotype block analysis indicates a median block size of 11–12?Kb. Association mapping yielded refined mapping intervals for duplex comb (Gga 2:38.55–38.89?Mb) and rose comb (Gga 7:18.41–22.09?Mb) phenotypes in traditional breeds. Combined mapping information from traditional breeds and Chilean village chicken allows the oocyan phenotype to be fine mapped to two small regions (Gga 1:67.25–67.28?Mb, Gga 1:67.28–67.32?Mb) totalling ?75?Kb. Mapping the unmapped earlobe pigmentation phenotype supports previous findings that the trait is sex-linked and polygenic. A critical assessment of the number of SNPs required to map simple traits indicate that between 90 and 110K SNPs are required for full genome-wide analysis of haplotype block structure/ancestry, and for association mapping in both traditional and village chickens. Our results demonstrate the importance and uniqueness of phenotypic diversity and genetic structure of traditional chicken breeds for fine-scale mapping of Mendelian traits in the species, with village chicken populations providing further opportunities to enhance mapping resolutions. PMID:22395157

  5. Genome-Wide Patterns of Genetic Variation in Two Domestic Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wen-Lang; Ng, Chen Siang; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Chen, Yu-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Jung; Wu, Siao-Man; Chen, Chih-Kuan; Chen, Jiun-Jie; Mao, Chi-Tang; Lai, Yu-Ting; Lo, Wen-Sui; Chang, Wei-Hua; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Domestic chickens are excellent models for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity, as numerous phenotypic changes in physiology, morphology, and behavior in chickens have been artificially selected. Genomic study is required to study genome-wide patterns of DNA variation for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We sequenced the genomes of the Silkie and the Taiwanese native chicken L2 at ?23- and 25-fold average coverage depth, respectively, using Illumina sequencing. The reads were mapped onto the chicken reference genome (including 5.1% Ns) to 92.32% genome coverage for the two breeds. Using a stringent filter, we identified ?7.6 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8,839 copy number variations (CNVs) in the mapped regions; 42% of the SNPs have not found in other chickens before. Among the 68,906 SNPs annotated in the chicken sequence assembly, 27,852 were nonsynonymous SNPs located in 13,537 genes. We also identified hundreds of shared and divergent structural and copy number variants in intronic and intergenic regions and in coding regions in the two breeds. Functional enrichments of identified genetic variants were discussed. Radical nsSNP-containing immunity genes were enriched in the QTL regions associated with some economic traits for both breeds. Moreover, genetic changes involved in selective sweeps were detected. From the selective sweeps identified in our two breeds, several genes associated with growth, appetite, and metabolic regulation were identified. Our study provides a framework for genetic and genomic research of domestic chickens and facilitates the domestic chicken as an avian model for genomic, biomedical, and evolutionary studies. PMID:23814129

  6. Selection of Mx gene genotype as genetic marker for Avian Influenza resistance in Indonesian native chicken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tike Sartika; Sri Sulandari; Moch Syamsul Arifin Zein

    2011-01-01

    Background  In previous studies, the Mx Gene has been demonstrated to confer positive anti viral responses in chicken. The amino acid\\u000a variation of Asn (allele A) at position 631 was specific to positive antiviral Mx\\/resistant, while, that of Ser (allele G)\\u000a was specific to negative Mx\\/susceptible. This research was aimed at selecting one of the native chicken breeds which was found

  7. A Pan-Indigenous Vision of Indigenous Studies

    E-print Network

    Masaquiza, Martina (Salaska Kechwa); B'alam, Pakal (Kaqchikel Mayan)

    2000-03-01

    A Pan-Indigenous Vision of Indigenous Studies Martina Masaquiza (Salasaka Kechwa) and Pakal B'alam (Kaqchikel Mayan) Ethnic identity in an economically integrating world is a complicated matter. A friend told us this story: There was a... of radio, television and technical materials that are practical, educational and culturally appropriate. And we need leaders who will fashion an inspiring vision of where we as indigenous peoples hope to go. Perhaps the greatest barrier to building a Pan...

  8. What Is an Indigenous Research Methodology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Shawn

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous researchers must move beyond merely assuming an Indigenous perspective on non-Indigenous research paradigms. An Indigenous paradigm comes from the fundamental belief that knowledge is relational, is shared with all creation, and therefore can not be owned or discovered. Indigenous research methods should reflect these beliefs and the…

  9. Indigenization of Urban Mobility

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zimo; Xie, Xing; Lian, Defu; Rui, Yong; Zhou, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Uncovering urban mobility patterns is crucial for further predicting and controlling spatially embedded events. In this article, we analyze millions of geographical check-ins crawled from a Chinese leading location-based social networking service, Jiepang.com, which contains demographical information and thus allows the group-specific studies. We found distinguishable mobility patterns of natives and non-natives in all five large cities under consideration, and by assigning different algorithms onto natives and non-natives, the accuracy of location prediction can be largely improved compared with pure algorithms. We further propose the so-called indigenization coefficients to quantify to which extent an individual behaves like a native, which depend only on check-in behaviors, instead of any demographical information. To our surprise, a hybrid algorithm weighted by the indigenization coefficients outperforms the mixed algorithm accounting for additional demographical information.

  10. Touring the Indigenous or Transforming Consciousness? Reflections on Teaching Indigenous Tourism at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins-Desbiolles, Freya

    2007-01-01

    The role of the non-Indigenous educator and researcher in education on Indigenous issues is becoming the subject of critical scrutiny. Indigenous academics are successfully turning the gaze on non-Indigenous peers and practices. This paper narrates some of the experiences of a non-Indigenous educator teaching an undergraduate elective Indigenous

  11. Indigenous knowledge, emancipation and Alienation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Heyd

    1995-01-01

    Recently indigenous knowledge has received increasing academic (see, e.g., Warren et al., 1993; Brokensha et al., 1980; G?mez-Pompa\\u000a and Kaus, 1992) and institutional (see World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987;Agenda 21, 1992) attention. The study, application, and recording of indigenous knowledge, viewed as indigenous technologies for living\\u000a with natural environments, has become a field of great interest and promise

  12. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis) confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars. PMID:22531008

  13. Cholesterol Content vs Egg Shell Color The blue-green eggs of the Araucana chicken have been items of interest for several

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Cholesterol Content vs Egg Shell Color The blue-green eggs of the Araucana chicken have been items the "Easter Egg" chicken because of the pre-colored eggs. The Araucana is not a new breed in the U 1920. Another reason for attention is the report that Araucana eggs contain little or no cholesterol

  14. BREEDING OBJECTIVES FOR ANGUS AND CHAROLAIS SPECIALIZED SIRE LINES FOR USE IN THE EMERGING SECTOR OF SOUTH AFRICAN BEEF PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop breeding objectives for Angus and Charolais bulls intended for breeding indigenous cows to facilitate calves produced in the emerging sector better meeting requirements of the feedlots. An aggregated simulation model that is reliant on user inputs for th...

  15. Effects of breed and feed supplementation on the fertility of cows developed for milk production in Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Garwe; H. H. Hamudikuwanda; C. Mutisi; P. J. H. Ball

    2005-01-01

    Forty-six indigenous Sanga-type (Nkone and Tuli breeds) cows and 46 crossbred (Nkone x Jersey and Tuli x Jersey) cows were randomly allocated to four treatment combinations in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two breeds and two dietary levels, a control diet and a diet supplemented with dairy meal containing 14 per cent crude protein at the rate of

  16. Toxicity of vanadium in female Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Phillips, T D

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary vanadium, fed after the onset of production, on hen day egg production, body weight changes, and mortality in laying breed chickens. Calcium orthovanadate was fed to 29-week-old female laying breed chickens at calculated levels of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 ppm dietary vanadium for five consecutive 28-day laying periods. Hen-day egg production and hen body weights were not influenced by the addition of 12.5 or 25 ppm dietary vanadium. Overall hen body weights and the hen day egg production were decreased in hens fed diets to which 50 ppm vanadium was added with a severe reduction in both parameters at 100 ppm. There were no mortalities during the experiment in the groups fed the 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 ppm vanadium diets. Mortality in the group fed the 100 ppm vanadium diet was 11, 39, and 56% at the end of the 28-day Periods 3, 4, and 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in egg weights, although a trend existed for lower egg weights with increasing levels of dietary vanadium. PMID:6828413

  17. Comparative Gastric Morphometry of Muong Indigenous and Vietnamese Wild Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Pham Hong; Ooi, Peck Toung; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastric glands. Interestingly, the stomach mass correlated well with live body weight in both breeds apart from possessing similar histomorphometry of the gastric gland regions. On the other hand, the thicker (P < 0.05) submucosa in the Vietnamese wild pig is attributed to the presence of numerous loose connective tissues, abundant blood vessels, adipose tissues and nerve plexus. The appearance of lymphoid follicles underneath the tubular gastric glands in the Vietnamese wild pig exceeded that of Muong indigenous pigs. This finding suggested that the difference in feeding behavior as well as immunity. In conclusion, adaptations found in the Vietnamese wild pig indicated that this breed is equipped with a bigger and effectively functional stomach to suit its digestive physiology and immunity in the wild. PMID:23093914

  18. Anger in Australian Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Peter; Mergler, Amanda; Furlong, Michael; Caltabiano, Nerina

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive pilot study examined the cultural differences in the dimensions of self-reported anger in Indigenous and non-Indigenous (Caucasian) students aged 10-13 years in Far North Queensland, Australia. The Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised (MSAI-R) (Boman, Curtis, Furlong, & Smith, 2006) was used to measure affective,…

  19. [Blue wing disease and chicken anemia agent in broilers].

    PubMed

    Braunius, W W

    1988-04-15

    Cases of typical dermatitis were observed on nineteen broiler farms in the province of Gelderland, the Netherlands, ever since 1984. These bloody inflammations occasionally caused a large number of rejects, particularly during the second and third weeks of life. A relationship with Gumboro disease was identified in a number of cases. The causative agent probably is a virus originating from birds of the broiler-breeding poultry flocks. This may possibly be the Chicken Anaemia Agent virus. PMID:2836963

  20. CAPTIVE BREEDING CONTINGENCY PLAN

    E-print Network

    Ernest, Holly

    CAPTIVE BREEDING CONTINGENCY PLAN A Guide for Captive Breeding of Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep Davis CA 95616 Suggested Citation: Ernest HB 2001. Captive Breeding Contingency Plan: A Guide for Captive Breeding of Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep. Report for Interagency Agreement # P9980059 between

  1. Eggcited about Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  2. Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R gene showed no significant difference in expression between the black and white chickens is of particular interest for future studies that aim to elucidate its functional role in the regulation of skin color. PMID:26030885

  3. National Centre for Indigenous Studies

    E-print Network

    Botea, Adi

    G R A M Overview Welcome to the 2012, Higher Degree Research (HDR) retreat hosted by the National Centre for Indigenous Studies (NCIS). A key aim of this annual retreat is to provide an opportunity to specifically support Indigenous research and researchers. Importantly, this retreat also aims to provide

  4. An Overview of Indigenous Suicide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest Hunter

    1997-01-01

    The public understanding of Aboriginal suicide has been shaped by specific events, in particular the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody. The publicity surrounding the Commission contributed to a widespread view that Aboriginal suicide is common, most often occurring in custody, with indigenous prisoners being at much greater risk than non-indigenous inmates. While the Royal Commission demonstrated that these

  5. Information Technology and Indigenous People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel, Ed.; Hendriks, Max, Ed.; Grant, Stephen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…

  6. Women Warriors: Indigenous Voices Conference

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    1st Annual Women Warriors: Indigenous Voices Conference March 11th , 12th and 13th , 2012 Hosted by Knowledge. Conference proceedings will include Indigenous Keynote presenters: Dr. Manulani Meyer, Dr. Val be found at: http://womenwarriorsindigenousvoices.weebly.com/registration.html and sent to conference

  7. Towards conservation of omani local chicken: phenotypic characteristics, management practices and performance traits.

    PubMed

    Al-Qamashoui, B; Mahgoub, O; Kadim, I; Schlecht, E

    2014-06-01

    Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05). A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05), being 1.3±0.65 kg and 1.1±0.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 22±7.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.3±2.85 and annual production 64.5±2.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 88±6.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 16±1.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations. PMID:25050013

  8. Towards Conservation of Omani Local Chicken: Phenotypic Characteristics, Management Practices and Performance Traits

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qamashoui, B.; Mahgoub, O.; Kadim, I.; Schlecht, E.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05). A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05), being 1.3±0.65 kg and 1.1±0.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 22±7.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.3±2.85 and annual production 64.5±2.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 88±6.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 16±1.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations. PMID:25050013

  9. More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunten, Alexis Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous

  10. Indigenous Nations' Responses to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    On August 1st, 2007, Indigenous nations from within the United States, Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa (New Zealand) signed a treaty to found the United League of Indigenous Nations. The Treaty of Indigenous Nations offers a historic opportunity for sovereign Indigenous governments to build intertribal cooperation outside the framework of the…

  11. Cloning, Expression and Biological Analysis of Recombinant Chicken IFN-gamma Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interferon-gamma (CHIFN-') derived from the spleen cells of White Leghorns chicken, a local Chinese breeding species was amplified by RT-PCR. The gene encoding CHIFN-' with the deletion of the N-terminal signal peptide was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET30a, resulting in a recombin...

  12. Cytokine gene expression profile in Fayoumi chicken after Eimeria maxima infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry causing substantial economic losses. This study was conducted to investigate the cytokines related with the resistance against coccidiosis. Two breeding lines of Fayoumi chicken were evaluated for the expression of 9 cytokine genes: IFN-gamma, IFN...

  13. RESTORATION OF SPERMATOGENESIS AND MALE FERTILITY BY TRANSPLANTATION OF DISPERSED TESTICULAR CELLS IN THE CHICKEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transplantation of male germ cells into sterilized recipients has been widely used in mammals for conventional breeding as well as for transgenesis. This study presents a workable approach for germ cell transplantation between chicken males. Testicular cells from adult and pre-pubertal donors were ...

  14. Basic breeding’s genetic goldmine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is a genetically complex crop that is derived from hybridization between different species. The basic breeding program at the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit in Houma, LA strives, through traditional breeding, to move valuable traits from wild species into commercial sugarcane germplasm. ...

  15. Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L). II the genetic parameters of growth compo- nents in Lolium perenne. These parameters might be taken into account be an alternative approach that should be investigated. Lolium perenne = perennial ryegrass / heritability / leaf

  16. Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L). I. Lolium perenne = perennial ryegrass / ploidy/ cutting frequency/ leaf morphogenesis/ genetic progress productivité pour un rythme de coupe donné. Lolium perenne = ray-grass anglais / ploïdie / fréquence de coupe

  17. Breeding Horticultural Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeding involves selection of plants with combinations of improved traits that are inherited in a predictable manner. Collecting, understanding, and incorporating genetic variation into a horticultural breeding program are critical to success. Clearly defined goals help plant breeders choose ...

  18. Advanced Backcross Breeding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson is a detailed explanation of the backcross breeding process. Variations based on whether backcrossing is performed with dominant, recessive, or multiple traits are discussed. Calculations associated with backcross breeding are explained.

  19. Chickpea Breeding and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book presents the current status of chickpea breeding and management by experts from around the world. It thoroughly covers a wide array of subject on chickpea genetics and breeding ranging from cytogenetics, wild relatives and biodiversity, conventional and modern breeding techniques and achi...

  20. Indigenous knowledge and science revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikenhead, Glen S.; Ogawa, Masakata

    2007-07-01

    This article provides a guided tour through three diverse cultural ways of understanding nature: an Indigenous way (with a focus on Indigenous nations in North America), a neo-indigenous way (a concept proposed to recognize many Asian nations' unique ways of knowing nature; in this case, Japan), and a Euro-American scientific way. An exploration of these three ways of knowing unfolds in a developmental way such that some key terms change to become more authentic terms that better represent each culture's collective, yet heterogeneous, worldview, metaphysics, epistemology, and values. For example, the three ways of understanding nature are eventually described as Indigenous ways of living in nature, a Japanese way of knowing seigyo-shizen, and Eurocentric sciences (plural). Characteristics of a postcolonial or anti-hegemonic discourse are suggested for science education, but some inherent difficulties with this discourse are also noted.

  1. Persistency of accuracy of genomic breeding values for different simulated pig breeding programs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Akanno, E C; Schenkel, F S; Sargolzaei, M; Friendship, R M; Robinson, J A B

    2014-10-01

    Genetic improvement of pigs in tropical developing countries has focused on imported exotic populations which have been subjected to intensive selection with attendant high population-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD). Presently, indigenous pig population with limited selection and low LD are being considered for improvement. Given that the infrastructure for genetic improvement using the conventional BLUP selection methods are lacking, a genome-wide selection (GS) program was proposed for developing countries. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the option of using 60 K SNP panel and observed amount of LD in the exotic and indigenous pig populations. Several scenarios were evaluated including different size and structure of training and validation populations, different selection methods and long-term accuracy of GS in different population/breeding structures and traits. The training set included previously selected exotic population, unselected indigenous population and their crossbreds. Traits studied included number born alive (NBA), average daily gain (ADG) and back fat thickness (BFT). The ridge regression method was used to train the prediction model. The results showed that accuracies of genomic breeding values (GBVs) in the range of 0.30 (NBA) to 0.86 (BFT) in the validation population are expected if high density marker panels are utilized. The GS method improved accuracy of breeding values better than pedigree-based approach for traits with low heritability and in young animals with no performance data. Crossbred training population performed better than purebreds when validation was in populations with similar or a different structure as in the training set. Genome-wide selection holds promise for genetic improvement of pigs in the tropics. PMID:24628765

  2. Chicken Quesadillas Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    -cooked and shredded 2 tablespoons chunky salsa 1/4 onion, chopped 1/4 cup green bell pepper, chopped 1/2 cup Monterey with cooking spray and heat to medium. 2. Mix chicken, salsa, onion, and green pepper (optional). 3. Place 1

  3. Ultrasonic determination of chicken composition.

    PubMed

    Chanamai, R; McClements, D J

    1999-11-01

    An ultrasonic technique has been developed for measuring the composition of chicken meat. The relationship between the composition and ultrasonic velocity of chicken meat was determined using chicken analogues of different composition, prepared from dried chicken powder, corn oil, and distilled water. The ultrasonic velocity of chicken analogues was measured at temperatures from 5 to 35 degrees C using an ultrasonic spectrometer. The ultrasonic velocity increased with solids-nonfat (SNF) content at all temperatures but had a more complex dependence on fat content. Around 15 degrees C the ultrasonic velocity was independent of fat content; however, at lower temperatures it increased with fat content, and at higher temperatures it decreased. Semiempirical equations were developed to describe the relationship between ultrasonic velocity and chicken composition. To determine the usefulness of these equations, the ultrasonic velocities of various chicken meats were measured. The compositions of the chicken meats predicted on the basis of ultrasonic measurements were in good agreement with those determined by using standard methods (r(2) > 0. 97). The ultrasonic technique could also be used to measure the solid fat content of chicken fat. This study shows that ultrasonic velocity measurements can be used to characterize chicken composition. This method has great potential for application in the food industry because it is simple, fast, nondestructive, and reliable. PMID:10552873

  4. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the...

  5. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  6. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  7. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the...

  8. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the...

  9. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  10. Indigenous communities and evidence building.

    PubMed

    Echo-Hawk, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous populations in the U.S. and Pacific Islands are underrepresented in mental health and substance abuse research, are underserved, and have limited access to mainstream providers. Often, they receive care that is low quality and culturally inappropriate, resulting in compromised service outcomes. The First Nations Behavioral Health Association (U.S.) and the Pacific Substance Abuse and Mental Health Collaborating Council (Pacific Jurisdictions), have developed a Compendium of Best Practices for American Indian/Alaska Native and Pacific Island Populations. The private and public sector's increasing reliance on evidence-based practices (EBP) leaves many Indigenous communities at a disadvantage. For example, funding sources may require the use of EBP without awareness of its cultural usefulness to the local Indigenous population. Indigenous communities are then faced with having to select an EBP that is rooted in non-native social and cultural contexts with no known effectiveness in an Indigenous community. The field of cultural competence has tried to influence mainstream research, and the escalating requirement of EBP use. These efforts have given rise to the practice-based evidence (PBE) and the community-defined evidence (CDE) fields. All of these efforts, ranging from evidence-based practice to community-defined evidence, have a shared goal: practice improvement. PMID:22400456

  11. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of chickens to hydric stress.

    PubMed

    Chikumba, N; Swatson, H; Chimonyo, M

    2013-09-01

    Dehydration can be extremely damaging to the performance and welfare of indigenous chickens. The effect of water restriction on haematological and biochemical parameters was compared in Naked Neck (NNK) and Ovambo (OVB) chickens. A total of 54 8-week-old pullets each of NNK and OVB chickens with an initial average weight of 641 ± 10 g/bird were randomly assigned to three water intake treatments with three replications, each having six birds. The water restriction treatments were ad libitum, 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. Nine experimental pens with a floor space of 3.3 m2 per strain were used. Feed was provided ad libitum. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and total leucocyte count (WBC), and biochemical parameters (uric acid (UA)), creatinine (CREAT), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLOB), triglyceride (TGA), total cholesterol (TC), high- (HDLC) and low- (LDLC) density lipoprotein cholesterol and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined from blood collected after 60 days of water restriction. PCV was higher (P < 0.05) in NNK than OVB chickens offered water ad libitum, but similar in birds offered 70% and 40% of ad libitum. There were no differences in RBC and MCV values between strains, but MCV was higher in birds on 40% than 70% of ad libitum water intake, irrespective of strain. Naked neck chickens had higher (P < 0.05) WBC values than OVB at 40% restriction level, but lower WBC than OVB at 70% water restriction level. UA, CREAT, TGA, TC, LDLC, TP and GLOB increased (P < 0.05) with each increment in water restriction, but the increase in CREAT and TC was more pronounced in OVB than NNK chickens. The opposite was observed for UA. ALT activity indicated that liver function was not affected by water restriction. It was concluded that the two strains can withstand up to 40% of ad libitum water restriction, but NNK tolerated water stress better than OVB chickens. PMID:23764254

  12. Weaving Indigenous science, protocols and sustainability science

    E-print Network

    Whyte, Kyle Powys; Brewer II, Joseph P.; Johnson, Jay T.

    2015-04-02

    , the authors describe cases of Indigenous protocols in action in relation to scientific inquiry in two Indigenous-led sustainability initiatives in the Great Lakes/Midwest North American region. We claim that each case expresses concepts of stewardship...

  13. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. Results We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Conclusions Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding. PMID:26083354

  14. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements.

  15. Y-Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Diversity in Chinese Indigenous Horse.

    PubMed

    Han, Haoyuan; Zhang, Qin; Gao, Kexin; Yue, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Tao; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to high genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), equine Y chromosome shows extremely low variability, implying limited patrilines in the domesticated horse. In this study, we applied direct sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods to investigate the polymorphisms of 33 Y chromosome specific loci in 304 Chinese indigenous horses from 13 breeds. Consequently, two Y-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (Y-45701/997 and Y-50869) and one Y-indel (Y-45288) were identified. Of those, the Y-50869 (T>A) revealed the highest variation frequency (24.67%), whereas it was only 3.29% and 1.97% in Y-45288 (T/-) and Y-45701/997 (G>T) locus, respectively. These three mutations accounted for 27.96% of the total samples and identified five Y-SNP haplotypes, demonstrating genetic diversity of Y chromosome in Chinese horses. In addition, all the five Y-SNP haplotypes were shared by different breeds. Among 13 horse breeds analyzed, Balikun horse displayed the highest nucleotide diversity (? = 5.6×10(-4)) and haplotype diversity (h = 0.527), while Ningqiang horse showed the lowest nucleotide diversity (? = 0.00000) and haplotype diversity (h = 0.000). The results also revealed that Chinese horses had a different polymorphic pattern of Y chromosome from European and American horses. In conclusion, Chinese horses revealed genetic diversity of Y chromosome, however more efforts should be made to better understand the domestication and paternal origin of Chinese indigenous horses. PMID:26104513

  16. Chicken anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Schat, K A

    2009-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae, is a ubiquitous pathogen of chickens and has a worldwide distribution. CAV shares some similarities with Torque teno virus (TTV) and Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) such as coding for a protein inducing apoptosis and a protein with a dual-specificity phosphatase. In contrast to TTV, the genome of CAV is highly conserved. Another important difference is that CAV can be isolated in cell culture. CAV produces a single polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA), which is translated into three proteins. The promoter-enhancer region has four direct repeats resembling estrogen response elements. Transcription is enhanced by estrogen and repressed by at least two other transcription factors, one of which is COUP-TF1. A remarkable feature of CAV is that the virus can remain latent in gonadal tissues in the presence or absence of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to TTV, CAV can cause clinical disease and subclinical immunosuppression especially affecting CD8+ T lymphocytes. Clinical disease is associated with infection in newly hatched chicks lacking maternal antibodies or older chickens with a compromised humoral immune response. PMID:19230563

  17. Indigenous Knowledge for Development: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjestani, Nicolas

    Indigenous knowledge is a critical factor for sustainable development. Empowerment of local communities is a prerequisite for the integration of indigenous knowledge in the development process. The integration of appropriate indigenous knowledge systems into development programs has already contributed to efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainable…

  18. Indigenous Environmental Perspectives: A North American Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Winona

    1992-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of the nature of indigenous sustainable subsistence economies, and the present underdevelopment and dependency of North American indigenous economies resulting from colonialism and marginalization. Describes environmental and personal contamination on indigenous lands from uranium and coal mining, toxic and nuclear waste,…

  19. Indigenous Studies as an International Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Robles, Rodolfo

    This paper proposes the development of Indigenous Studies as an international field, both in the sense of advancing the discipline internationally, wherever there are Indigenous peoples, and in the sense of incorporating international perspectives into curricula. In Canada, Indigenous Studies has been and is still treated as something to be done…

  20. Indigenous Specializations: Dreams, Developments, Delivery and Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Cathy; Thomas, Robina; Green, Jacquie; Ormiston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the establishment of the Indigenous Specializations program in the School of Social Work at the University of Victoria. In the absence of funding for Indigenous programs, First Nations professors Robina Thomas and Jacquie Green developed the Indigenous Specializations program "off the side of their desk". This article…

  1. Mapping and genotypic analysis of the NK-lysin gene in chicken

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are important elements of the first line of defence against pathogens in animals. NK-lysin is a cationic AMP that plays a critical role in innate immunity. The chicken NK-lysin gene has been cloned and its antimicrobial and anticancer activity has been described but its location in the chicken genome remains unknown. Here, we mapped the NK-lysin gene and examined the distribution of a functionally significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) among different chicken inbred lines and heritage breeds. Results A 6000 rad radiation hybrid panel (ChickRH6) was used to map the NK-lysin gene to the distal end of chromosome 22. Two additional genes, the adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1-like gene (AEBP1) and the DNA polymerase delta subunit 2-like (POLD2) gene, are located in the same NW_003779909 contig as NK-lysin, and were thus indirectly mapped to chromosome 22 as well. Previously, we reported a functionally significant SNP at position 271 of the NK-lysin coding sequence in two different chicken breeds. Here, we examined this SNP and found that the A allele appears to be more common than the G allele in these heritage breeds and inbred lines. Conclusions The chicken NK-lysin gene mapped to the distal end of chromosome 22. Two additional genes, AEBP1 and POLD2, were indirectly mapped to chromosome 22 also. SNP analyses revealed that the A allele, which encodes a peptide with a higher antimicrobial activity, is more common than the G allele in our tested inbred lines and heritage breeds. PMID:25001618

  2. Winter habitat use and survival of lesser prairie-chickens in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pirius, Nicholas E.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Wallace, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range since the late 1800s and is currently proposed for Federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Populations and the distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas, USA, are thought to be at or near all-time lows. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We measured home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the non-breeding seasons (1 Sep-28 Feb) of 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in the West Texas panhandle region. Home range size did not differ among years or between females (503 ha) andmales (489 ha). Over 97% of locations of both male and female prairie-chickens were within 3.2 km of the lek of capture, and 99.9% were within 3.2 km of an available water source (i.e., livestock water tank). Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges; grassland-dominated areas with co-occurring sand shinnery oak were used more than available, but sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-dominated areas with grassland and sand sagebrush-dominated areas with bare ground were both used less than available. Survival rates during the first 2 non-breeding seasons (>80%) were among the highest reported for the species. However, survival during the third non-breeding season was only 57%, resulting in a 3-year average of 72%. It does not appear that non-breeding season mortality is a strong limiting factor in lesser prairie-chicken persistence in the study area.

  3. Variation in the chicken LPIN2 gene and association with performance traits.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, W; Zhang, P; Kang, X; Chen, W

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the distribution of LPIN2 variants and haplotypes among breeds and perform an association analysis of the variants and haplotypes with the broiler traits in chickens. Six breeds were used to study the variation and distribution of chicken LPIN2, and an F2 resource population was used to measure growth traits, carcass traits, meat quality traits and serum biochemistry parameters. A c.-599G>A variant was located in the promoter region of LPIN2 and c.444G>A and c.1730A>T (E577D) coding variant mutations were detected. Linkage disequilibrium tests showed that these three variants were under moderate linkage disequilibrium in the 6 breeds and 7 haplotypes were constructed. The distribution of variation/haplotypes presented clear differences among breeds. Association analysis showed that c.-599G>A was associated with leg muscle weight, jejunum length, ileum length, leg muscle fibre density and leg muscle fibre diameter; c.444G>A was associated with spleen weight, ileum length, body weight at hatch and metatarsus length at 8 weeks; c.1730T>A had significant effects on chicken liver weight, heart weight, body weight at 10 weeks, serum albumin and glucose. Diplotypes were significantly associated with body weight at hatch, heart weight, pancreas weight, duodenum length, leg muscle fibre density and lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:25668704

  4. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples. PMID:23338830

  5. Requirements of Chickens for Vitamin A when Fed as Carotene.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1940-01-01

    reserves of vitamin A, 300 to 400 U. S. P. units are recommended. Obviously the higher quantity is not needed if the chickens are eaten and not saved for production of eggs. Titus (19) suggested 320 U. S. P. units per 100 grams of feed for growing... 500 S. M. units and Titus and associates (19) reported that 1,000 to 1,110 U. S. P. units were necessary for high producing hens and suggested 720 U. S. P. units for laying hens and 1,040 I. U. units for breeding stock, both allowing margins...

  6. Blackberry breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) improvement has made substantial progress with over 400 cultivars named originating from wild selections to many releases from breeding efforts. Public breeding has been ongoing for over 100 years. The result of these improvements is commercial production ...

  7. Tritium breeding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.

  8. CGIAR Integrated Breeding Platform

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Integrated Breeding Platform is a development being led by the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP), a part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) which has a mission to bring scientists from different horizons and with different skills to work together, bridging the gap between upstream and applied research, so that biotechnology could have greater impact on plant breeding efficiency in developing countries.The Integrated Breeding Platform functions as a one-stop-shop to provide information, tools, services and training.  Furthermore IBP hopes to provide developing countries with access to modern breeding technologies, breeding materials, and related information to facilitate their adoption of molecular breeding approaches and improve their plant breeding efficiency.This site provides educational and training opportunities to help people be able to better utilize the tools at the Integrated Breeding Platform, as well as to provide an online community area for webinars and discussion forums. In order to access the self-paced courses found at the left, you will need to click on the "Join Now" button found in the upper right corner of this page.  Right now the courses are under development and not ready for participants.  While you wait, you can view any materials found under the "lessons" or "animations/video" buttons.

  9. Indigenous mortality (revealed): the invisible illuminated.

    PubMed

    Freemantle, Jane; Ring, Ian; Arambula Solomon, Teshia G; Gachupin, Francine C; Smylie, Janet; Cutler, Tessa Louise; Waldon, John A

    2015-04-01

    Inaccuracies in the identification of Indigenous status and the collection of and access to vital statistics data impede the strategic implementation of evidence-based public health initiatives to reduce avoidable deaths. The impact of colonization and subsequent government initiatives has been commonly observed among the Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The quality of Indigenous data that informs mortality statistics are similarly connected to these distal processes, which began with colonization. We discuss the methodological and technical challenges in measuring mortality for Indigenous populations within a historical and political context, and identify strategies for the accurate ascertainment and inclusion of Indigenous people in mortality statistics. PMID:25211754

  10. GREEN CHICKEN EXAM -NOVEMBER 2012 GREEN CHICKEN AND STEVEN J. MILLER

    E-print Network

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    GREEN CHICKEN EXAM - NOVEMBER 2012 GREEN CHICKEN AND STEVEN J. MILLER Question 1: The Green Chicken many primes p such that p + 2 is also prime! You'll also automatically bring back the Green Chicken vertices are not colored the same. The Brown Chicken says the coloring number of this graph is at most 9

  11. Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…

  12. Annual Report Indigenous Research Institute

    E-print Network

    . Eldon Yellowhorn Research The purpose of the Indigenous Research Institute is to promote research. Eldon Yellowhorn and Mr. William Lindsay led a discussion/presentation that addressed many Schools in Canada. Dr. Eldon Yellowhorn and Mr. William Lindsay led a forum, which was open

  13. Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds chicken breast, skinless, boneless 1 onion of the onion and peel off the brown layers. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side tops and stems, set aside. 4. Spray a large skillet with nonstick cooking spray. Add onion

  14. Chicken Pineapple Orange Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken Pineapple Orange Salad Ingredients: 4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 2 stalks celery 1 cup seedless grapes 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 11 ounces mandarin orange 1/4 teaspoon pepper each grape in half. Add to bowl. 4. Open cans of pineapple chunks and mandarin oranges, and drain juice

  15. Chicken and Fruit Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    pineapple chunks in juice, drained well 11 ounces mandarin orange, drained 3 cups boneless, skinless chicken in half. Add to bowl. 3. Open cans of pineapple chunks and mandarin oranges, and drain juice. Save juice for other uses. Add pineapple and oranges to bowl. Sprinkle with pepper. 4. Add cooked chicken and half

  16. Asian Chicken & Orange Packets Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    /6 of sliced chicken on rice. Season with pepper. Evenly share vegetables on top of chicken among packets. 7 Nutrition Assistance Program ­ SNAP. The Supple- mental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help you buy nutritious foods for a better diet

  17. Chicken Skeleton - Gliding Joint (Skull)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-28

    The chicken uses its beak to pick up small pieces of food from the ground. The gliding joint at the base of the skull allows the chicken to move its head in different directions. It can also defend itself by pecking.

  18. Chicken anaemia agent: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. McNulty

    1991-01-01

    Chicken anaemia agent (CAA) is a small, unclassified, icosahedral DNA virus with a single?stranded, circular genome. It seems to have a worldwide distribution. Only one serotype of CAA has been found, and all isolates investigated so far are pathogenic for young chicks.CAA causes a syndrome in chickens characterised by increased mortality, anaemia associated with atrophy of the haematopoietic tissues in

  19. Phylogenetic analyses indicate little variation among reticuloendotheliosis viruses infecting avian species, including the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan L. Bohls; Jose A. Linares; Shannon L. Gross; Pam J. Ferro; Nova J. Silvy; Ellen W. Collisson

    2006-01-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus infection, which typically causes systemic lymphomas and high mortality in the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken, has been described as a major obstacle in repopulation efforts of captive breeding facilities in Texas. Although antigenic relationships among reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) strains have been previously determined, phylogenetic relationships have not been reported. The pol and env of REV proviral DNA from

  20. Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Ângelo P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. PMID:24069494

  1. Molecular characterization of Saudi local chicken strains using mitochondrial DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, H A; Ramadan, H A I; Baeshen, Nabih A; Sadek, Mahmoud Abdel; Abou Alsoud, M E

    2015-08-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate and estimate the genetic diversity of native breeds based on cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of mitochondrial DNA information. The obtained sequences of cyt-b gene segment have TAA as a stop codon at 488 position with no insertions or deletion in all individuals of both native chicken strains. The blast results showed that no variation was found among individuals within both native chicken strains, but when a comparison was established among them and other species of genus Gallus the variation is exploring, additionally many mutant sites were detected as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different sites. The phylogenetic trees exhibited three different groups. The results revealed that the native chicken strains were closely related to the cluster of Gallus gallus and subspecies of Gallus, suggesting that they may be separated from the same origin. According to this result and previously studies, the native chicken strains are genetically closer to Gallus gallus and it could be successfully distinguished from the other wild types of Gallus chicken based on cyt-b gene information. We recommended that the governmental concerns for native chicken strain should be enhanced to screen its genetic structure for large scale in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:24409881

  2. Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

    2006-01-09

    Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

  3. Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?breeds (DA?=?0.184) while WAD and Balami are the farthest apart breeds (DA?=?0.665), which is coincident with distance based on morphological analysis and population structure assessed by STRUCTURE. Conclusions These results suggest that within-breed genetic variation in Nigerian sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep. PMID:23176051

  4. The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-11-01

    The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

  5. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Khanyile, Khulekani S; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective population sizes particularly in the conservation flocks. The utility and limitations of the iselect chicken SNP60K in village chicken populations is discussed. PMID:25691890

  6. Evaluation of quality characteristics of chicken meat emulsion/nuggets prepared by using different equipment.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Manjunatha, M; Narsaiah, K; Patil, R T

    2014-03-01

    Chicken meat emulsions prepared using food processor (FP), an indigenous meat cutter (MC) and bowl chopper (BC) were evaluated for physicochemical, texture and electron microscopic studies (SEM). Product yield, emulsion stability, hydration properties and gel strength (N) were significantly (P?indigenously developed meat cutter found suitable for producing a stable chicken meat emulsion required for indigenous meat products. PMID:24587526

  7. Stabilizer state breeding

    E-print Network

    Erik Hostens; Jeroen Dehaene; Bart De Moor

    2006-08-18

    We present a breeding protocol that distills pure copies of any stabilizer state from noisy copies and a pool of predistilled pure copies of the same state, by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements and classical communication.

  8. Stabilizer state breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; Moor, Bart de [ESAT-SCD, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-12-15

    We present a breeding protocol that distills pure copies of any stabilizer state from noisy copies and a pool of predistilled pure copies of the same state, by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements, and classical communication.

  9. Indigenous Suicide in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette L. Beautrais; David M. Fergusson

    2006-01-01

    This article describes patterns of suicide and attempted suicide among the indigenous (M?ori) population of New Zealand using official data from the New Zealand Health Information Service (NZHIS). The majority of M?ori suicides (75%) occurr in young people aged <35 years. Rates of suicide are higher among M?ori males and females aged <25 than in their non-M?ori peers. Rates of

  10. Commonality Among Unique Indigenous Communities: An Introduction to Climate Change and Its Impacts on Indigenous Peoples

    E-print Network

    Abate, Randall S.; Kronk, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article is part of a special issue of the Tulane Environmental Law Journal exploring how climate change affects the rights of indigenous peoples. Climate change is a global environmental problem caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Indigenous...

  11. Commonality Among Unique Indigenous Communities: An Introduction to Climate Change and Its Impacts on Indigenous Peoples

    E-print Network

    Abate, Randall S.; Kronk, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    This book (Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples: The Search for Legal Remedies) explores how climate change affects the rights of indigenous peoples. Climate change is a global environmental problem caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Although...

  12. Edinburgh Research Explorer Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens Citation for published version: Mc and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens' BMC

  13. Indigenous health: a special moral imperative.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D L; Allen, R J

    1998-10-01

    The provision of health services to Indigenous people is not perceived by many Australians to be a moral issue. Indigenous health, however, is not only a moral issue, it is a moral issue that deserves special consideration. In many sectors of society, the correct moral path is unclear, but the circumstances of Indigenous health warrant special consideration which policy makers and health care administrators are uniquely placed to render. The setting of Australia was at the expense of Indigenous flourishing. There is little doubt that many of the current poor health outcomes of Indigenous Australians result from their past impoverishment. We argue that each member of Australian society has inherited a collective moral responsibility, along with the social assets accrued at the expense of Indigenous Australians, irrespective of their personal complicity. Government, as representatives of the people, has a responsibility to repay some of this society's accrued moral debt through the allocation of resources independent of issues of equity. PMID:9848974

  14. Genetic diversity and admixture analysis of Sanfratellano and three other Italian horse breeds assessed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Zuccaro, A; Bordonaro, S; Criscione, A; Guastella, A M; Perrotta, G; Blasi, M; D'Urso, G; Marletta, D

    2008-07-01

    Sanfratellano is a native Sicilian horse breed, mainly reared in the north east of the Island, developed in the 19th century from local dams and sires with a restricted introgression of Oriental, African and, more recently, Maremmano stallions. In this study, the genetic relationships and admixture among Sanfratellano, the other two Sicilian autochthonous breeds and Maremmano breed were assessed using a set of microsatellites. The main goals were to infer the impact of Maremmano breed in the current Sanfratellano horse and to provide genetic information useful to improve the selection strategies of the Sanfratellano horse. The whole sample included 384 horses (238 Sanfratellano, 50 Sicilian Oriental Purebred, 30 Sicilian Indigenous and 66 Maremmano), chosen avoiding closely related animals. A total of 111 alleles from 11 microsatellite loci were detected, from four at HTG7 to 15 at ASB2 locus. The mean number of alleles was the lowest in Oriental Purebred (6.7), the highest in Sanfratellano (8.3). All the breeds showed a high level of gene diversity (He) ranging from 0.71 ± 0.04 in Sicilian Oriental Purebred to 0.81 ± 0.02 in Sicilian Indigenous. The genetic differentiation index was low; only about 6% of the diversity was found among breeds. Nei's standards (DS) and Reynolds' (DR) genetic distances reproduced the same population ranking. Individual genetic distances and admixture analysis revealed that: (a) nowadays Maremmano breed does not significantly influence the current Sanfratellano breed; (b) within Sanfratellano breed, it is possible to distinguish two well-defined groups with different proportions of Indigenous blood. PMID:22443698

  15. PRADEL et al. Experience and breeding probability Breeding experience might be a major determinant of breeding

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PRADEL et al. Experience and breeding probability Breeding experience might be a major determinant of breeding probability in long-lived species: the case of the greater flamingo2 Roger Pradel: corresponding Appendix A Multi-event modeling of breeding experience Online Appendix B Implementation of the generic

  16. Chews Like Chicken Animal Ambulation

    E-print Network

    Glaser, Rainer

    Stories: Chews Like Chicken Animal Ambulation Going Negative Novel Reaction The Smart Set Copper of the strands to unravel and reform during cell division. The malfunction damages cells and could even cause

  17. Motivation Matters: Profiling Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students' Motivational Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Nelson, Genevieve F.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explored gender and cross-cultural similarities and differences in the motivational profiles of Indigenous Papua New Guinean (PNG) and Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Secondary students (N = 1,792) completed self-report motivational measures. Invariance testing demonstrated that the Inventory of School Motivation…

  18. Leading the Way: Indigenous Knowledge and Collaboration at The Woolyungah Indigenous Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloin, Colleen; Marshall, Anne; Adams, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper derives from collaborative research undertaken by staff at the Woolyungah Indigenous Centre, into our own teaching practice. It articulates a particular strand of inquiry emanating from the research: the importance of Indigenous knowledges as this is taught at Woolyungah in the discipline of Indigenous Studies. The paper is a reflection…

  19. Indigenous Education, Mainstream Education, and Native Studies: Some Considerations when Incorporating Indigenous Pedagogy into Native Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    A person coming to know for him or herself while respecting differences characterizes the author's experience of Indigenous education. Based on his experience with Indigenous education, he has found that what constitutes validity is very different than mainstream education. In this article, the author presents characteristics of Indigenous

  20. Digital Library for Indigenous Science Resources (DLISR)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Indigenous Science Resources is a collection of online text, video, audio, and image files of Indigenous science that includes knowledge about the natural world and ways of teaching and learning about it. All resources are authored and/or produced by Indigenous persons or organizations or approved for inclusion in the collection by an elder or other Indigenous person with the expertise to assess the resource. It is intended for users of all cultures, but can be a particularly important resource for teachers and students in Native Studies programs and in tribal schools and colleges. The current sets of resources are primarily from SnowChange, Tribal College Journal and Winds of Change.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Eimeria Species Naturally Infecting Egyptian Baldi Chickens

    PubMed Central

    GADELHAQ, Sahar M; ARAFA, Waleed M; ABOELHADID, Shawky M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Methods: Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. Results: The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. Conclusion: This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens. PMID:25904950

  2. A genetic analysis of taoyuan pig and its phylogenetic relationship to eurasian pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuan-Yi; Li, Kuang-Ti; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hsuan; Hung, Chien-Yi; Ju, Yu-Ten

    2015-04-01

    Taoyuan pig is a native Taiwan breed. According to the historical record, the breed was first introduced to Taiwan from Guangdong province, Southern China, around 1877. The breed played an important role in Taiwan's early swine industry. It was classified as an indigenous breed in 1986. After 1987, a conserved population of Taoyuan pig was collected and reared in isolation. In this study, mitochondrial DNA sequences and 18 microsatellite markers were used to investigate maternal lineage and genetic diversity within the Taoyuan pig population. Population differentiation among Taoyuan, Asian type, and European type pig breeds was also evaluated using differentiation indices. Only one D-loop haplotype of the Taoyuan pig was found. It clustered with Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China Type pig breeds. Based on the polymorphism of microsatellite markers, a positive fixation index value (FIS) indicates that the conserved Taoyuan population suffers from inbreeding. In addition, high FST values (>0.2105) were obtained, revealing high differentiation among these breeds. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed a clear geometric structure among 7 breeds. Together these results indicate that maternally Taoyuan pig originated in the Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China; however, since being introduced to Taiwan differentiation has occurred. In addition, Taoyuan pig has lost genetic diversity in both its mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25656199

  3. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    PubMed

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. PMID:25795171

  4. GREEN CHICKEN PROBLEMS -OCTOBER 2010 J. ATWATER, G. CHICKEN, E. FITCH AND S. J. MILLER

    E-print Network

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    GREEN CHICKEN PROBLEMS - OCTOBER 2010 J. ATWATER, G. CHICKEN, E. FITCH AND S. J. MILLER Question 1 Chicken by playing the following game. Consider the first one million positive integers. Player A's goal diverges. Question 6: Let be a positive integer. Prove 1 #12;2 J. ATWATER, G. CHICKEN, E. FITCH AND S. J

  5. Pathology and microbiology of dermal squamous cell carcinoma in young brown chickens reared on reused litter.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Ito, Mitsuru; Fujino, Koji; Yamamoto, Yu; Mase, Masaji; Yamada, Manabu; Kobayashi, Hideki; Harada, Tadato

    2010-09-01

    Dermal squamous cell carcinoma (DSCC) was found in young brown chicken flocks reared on reused litter in Japan. DSCC was often detected at slaughter from April 2007 to March 2009, especially in June and July 2007. No DSCC was observed in the broiler chickens on the farms. Twelve 11-wk-old brown chickens with DSCC were investigated pathologically and microbiologically. Various degrees of crater-like skin lesions were found on the back, waist, neck, legs, abdomen, and wings of the carcasses. The feather follicles were enlarged. The feather follicular epithelial cells proliferated, and the squamous cells proliferated neoplastically in association with collagen fibers and fibroblasts in the dermis under the feather follicular epithelium. "Keratin pearl" structures were often seen in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the keratin antigen was positive in the neoplastically proliferated squamous cells in the dermis. Avian leukosis virus antigens could not be found in the neoplastic squamous cells in the dermis. Ultrastructurally, no viral agents could be detected in the skin with DSCC. Virologically, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions of the skin with DSCC for fowlpox virus and avian leukosis virus were negative. No viruses could be isolated from the skin with DSCC. This study suggests that the chicken breed, reused litter, and season may be associated with the incidence of DSCC in brown chickens. PMID:20945801

  6. Double Power: English Literacy and Indigenous Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wignell, Peter, Ed.

    The collection of essays on the relationship between English literacy and indigenous education, particularly in the Australian context, includes: "Double Power" (Mandawuy Yunupingu); "History, Cultural Diversity & English Language Teaching" (Martin Nakata); "Scaffolding Reading and Writing for Indigenous Children in School" (David Rose, Brian…

  7. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  8. Science, Metaphoric Meaning, and Indigenous Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Western cultural approaches to teaching science have excluded Indigenous knowledges and culturally favored many non-Aboriginal science students. By asking the question "What connections exist between Western science and Indigenous knowledge?" elements of epistemological (how do we determine what is real?) and ontological (what is real?)…

  9. Self-Publishing Indigenous Language Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Robert N.; Busch, John; Webb, B. Joanne

    Indigenous language programs that have a literacy component require reading materials. Recent advances in computer technology and certain legal changes in the publishing industry have made self-publishing such materials an easier task. This paper describes some of the steps necessary to self-publish indigenous language materials. Suggestions are…

  10. Positive Educational Responses to Indigenous Student Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Angela; Lynch, Andrea; Dalley-Trim, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    Engaging positively with the mobility of Indigenous students has been the centre of a 5-year action research project in Queensland, Australia. Drawing on responses developed for other marginalised mobile populations, and with consideration for the extent of mobility amongst many Indigenous people in Australia, this paper focuses on the…

  11. Discovering Indigenous Science: Implications for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

    This paper explores different aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the…

  12. Indigenous studies speaks to environmental management.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Laurie; Middleton, Beth Rose; Gilmer, Robert; Grossman, Zoltán; Janis, Terry; Lucero, Stephanie; Morgan, Tukoroirangi; Watson, Annette

    2013-11-01

    This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors' hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices. PMID:24142201

  13. Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

  14. Indigenous Studies Speaks to Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Laurie; Middleton, Beth Rose; Gilmer, Robert; Grossman, Zoltán; Janis, Terry; Lucero, Stephanie; Morgan, Tukoroirangi; Watson, Annette

    2013-11-01

    This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors’ hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices.

  15. An Indigenous View of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Winona

    1998-01-01

    Uses stories of U.S. and Canadian indigenous individuals who defended their lands against uranium mining and hydroelectric development to contrast the thinking of indigenous people (natural law as pre-eminent, spiritual practice, intergenerational residency in the same place) with industrial thinking (man's dominion over nature, linear thinking,…

  16. Development of Indigenous Science Instructional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to develop an indigenous science instructional model. The samples were divided into two groups. Firstly, 24 experts for designing an indigenous science instructional model using Delphi Technique. Secondly, three classrooms of Mathayomsuksa 3 students for developing an instructional model. The findings revealed that Delphi technique…

  17. Indigenizing Teacher Education: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Raynor, Marg

    2013-01-01

    This action research report focuses on a new elective course entitled "Indigenizing Education: Education for/about Aboriginal Peoples" that was developed and taught by two teacher educators--one Euro-Canadian and the other Metis. The purpose of the course was to increase understanding of Indigenous peoples and of the impact of…

  18. Rethinking Majors in Australian Indigenous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Martin; Nakata, Vicky; Keech, Sarah; Bolt, Reuben

    2014-01-01

    The challenges of finding more productive ways of teaching and learning in Australian Indigenous Studies have been a key focal point for the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network. This article contributes to this discussion by drawing attention to new possibilities for teaching and learning practices amid the priority being…

  19. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  20. Indigenous child health: are we making progress?

    PubMed

    Brewster, David R; Morris, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    We identified 244 relevant articles pertinent to indigenous health (4% of the total) with a steady increase in number since 1995. Most Australian publications in the journal (with a small Indigenous population) have focussed on conditions such as malnutrition, diarrhoeal disease, iron deficiency, rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and respiratory and ear infections, and in settings where nearly all affected children are Indigenous. In contrast, New Zealand publications (with a large Maori and Pacific Islander population) have addressed important health issues affecting all children but emphasised the over-representation of Maori and Pacific Islanders. Publications in the journal are largely descriptive studies with relatively few systematic reviews and randomised trials. Our review attempts to cover the important Indigenous health issues in our region as represented by articles published in the Journal. The studies do document definite improvements in indigenous child health over the last 50 years. PMID:25534334

  1. Studies on the role of chicken blood groups A and B in the induction of anemia in chicks

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Lewis Warren

    1956-01-01

    STUDIES ON THE ROLE OF CHICKEN BLOOD GROUPS A AND B IN THE INDUCTION OF ANEMIA IN CHICKS A Dissertation by Lewis Warren Johnson Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY January, 1956 Major Subject - Genetics (Animal Breeding) L I B R A R Y i L I B R A A Y i Y RX * Y W L C STUDIES ON THE ROLE OF CHICKEN BLOOD GROUPS A AND B IN THE INDUCTION OF ANEMIA IN CHICKS A...

  2. The immunologists' debt to the chicken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Davison

    2003-01-01

    1. The immune system of the chicken is an invaluable model for studying basic immunology and has made seminal contributions to fundamental immunological principles. Graft versus host responses and the key role of lymphocytes in adaptive immunity were first described in work with chicken embryos and chickens. 2. Most notably, the bursa of Fabricius provided the first substantive evidence that

  3. Chicken Pot Pie Yeild: 6 servings

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Chicken Pot Pie Yeild: 6 servings 1box refrigerated rolled pie crust, softened as directed on box 1 (10.75 ounce) can condensed Low Fat, Low Sodium Cream of Chicken Soup 1 (10 ounce) package frozen mixed vegetables 1 cup cubed cooked rotisserie chicken ¼ cup cooked diced onion 1. Preheat

  4. Hop Cultivars and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in hops varies among cultivars. Historically, the primary objective of hop breeding programs has been to increase the yield or characteristics associated with either bittering (high alpha-acids) or aroma (unique volatile oil profiles) cultivars. Other factors consid...

  5. Raspberry Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the origin, speciation, and history of improvement of the raspberries, Rubus section idaeobatus. The world industry in North America, Australasia, China, Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America and the breeding objectives of programs in those areas are discussed. Ger...

  6. BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

  7. Wheat Breeding Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

  8. Plant Breeding Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a traditional breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

  9. Animal breeding systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Reynolds

    1996-01-01

    The study of breeding systems explores relationships between mating behaviour and parental care. Recent findings have shown that in many birds, fishes, anurans, and insects, females play a more active role than previously thought, by engaging in mate choice, mating with more than one male, and selecting genetic partners separately from social partners. Theoretical advances have improved our understanding of

  10. Livestock Breeds Teaching Series

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Shorthorn This is a "dual purpose" breed. Its cows give enough milk to be considered dairy animals- rolled in livestock projects are encouraged to learn about Beef, Dairy, Dairy Goat, Sheep and Swine These large black and white dairy cattle originated in the northern part of The Netherlands in the prov- inces

  11. Stabilizer state breeding Erik Hostens,

    E-print Network

    #12;#12;Stabilizer state breeding Erik Hostens, Jeroen Dehaene, and Bart De Moor ESAT-SCD, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium We present a breeding protocol that distills pure copies to asymptotic (hashing/breeding) [12­17] versus recurrence-like schemes [13­24], to whether they take noise

  12. Where is conifer breeding at

    E-print Network

    Where is conifer breeding at today? What are the options for the future? By: Steve Lee, Forest and established breeding populations for Sitka spruce Scots pine Corsican pine Hybrid Larch Improved planting improvement at the moment. We cost about £700k per year #12;The objective has always been to breed timber

  13. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  14. Genome-Wide Characterization of Insertion and Deletion Variation in Chicken Using Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yiyuan; Yi, Guoqiang; Sun, Congjiao; Qu, Lujiang; Yang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Insertion and deletion (INDEL) is one of the main events contributing to genetic and phenotypic diversity, which receives less attention than SNP and large structural variation. To gain a better knowledge of INDEL variation in chicken genome, we applied next generation sequencing on 12 diverse chicken breeds at an average effective depth of 8.6. Over 1.3 million non-redundant short INDELs (1–49 bp) were obtained, the vast majority (92.48%) of which were novel. Follow-up validation assays confirmed that most (88.00%) of the randomly selected INDELs represent true variations. The majority (95.76%) of INDELs were less than 10 bp. Both the detected number and affected bases were larger for deletions than insertions. In total, INDELs covered 3.8 Mbp, corresponding to 0.36% of the chicken genome. The average genomic INDEL density was estimated as 0.49 per kb. INDELs were ubiquitous and distributed in a non-uniform fashion across chromosomes, with lower INDEL density in micro-chromosomes than in others, and some functional regions like exons and UTRs were prone to less INDELs than introns and intergenic regions. Nearly 620,253 INDELs fell in genic regions, 1,765 (0.28%) of which located in exons, spanning 1,358 (7.56%) unique Ensembl genes. Many of them are associated with economically important traits and some are the homologues of human disease-related genes. We demonstrate that sequencing multiple individuals at a medium depth offers a promising way for reliable identification of INDELs. The coding INDELs are valuable candidates for further elucidation of the association between genotypes and phenotypes. The chicken INDELs revealed by our study can be useful for future studies, including development of INDEL markers, construction of high density linkage map, INDEL arrays design, and hopefully, molecular breeding programs in chicken. PMID:25133774

  15. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  16. Causality between Openness and Indigenous Factors among World Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Zhou; Kui-Wai Li

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the causality relationship between economic openness and indigenous factors. The construction of the Openness Index and the Indigenous Index provides a measure on the extent of openness and indigenous development among world economies. The two indices are used to study their causality. The empirical findings show that there are bi-directional dynamic causality relationships between openness and indigenous

  17. Beyond Justice: What Makes an Indigenous Justice Organization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Marianne O.; Brown, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The data from a longitudinal study of seven indigenous justice service organizations in four colonized countries were analyzed to identify the characteristics that made them "indigenous." Although nine common organizational characteristics emerged, of these, four are essential and specific to indigenous organizations (dependency on indigenous

  18. Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

  19. Are happy chickens safer chickens? Poultry welfare and disease susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Humphrey

    2006-01-01

    1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis.2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic

  20. The wisdom of indigenous healers.

    PubMed

    Day, Dorene; Silva, Dane Kaohelani; Monroe, Amshatar Ololodi

    2014-01-01

    The wisdom of indigenous peoples is manifest in ways of knowing, seeing, and thinking that are passed down orally from generation to generation. This article takes the reader on a journey through three distinct ways of knowing, specifically as they relate to healing and health. The authors are a Midewanniquay, or Water Woman, of the Ojibway-Anishinabe people of the upper Midwest in the United States and Canada; a Iomilomi healer from Hawaii; and an initiated Priest in the Yoruba tradition of West Africa. The philosophies of all three cultures emphasize the importance of spirituality to health and wellbeing (or healing process), but each has unique ways in which it nurtures relationship with the Creator, the earth, and humankind through sacred rituals and healing practices. PMID:24730191

  1. Research ethics and indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Allyson; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie; Belcourt, Cheryl; Belcourt, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Institutional review boards (IRBs) function to regulate research for the protection of human participants. We share lessons learned from the development of an intertribal IRB in the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains Tribal region of the United States. We describe the process through which a consortium of Tribes collaboratively developed an intertribal board to promote community-level protection and participation in the research process. In addition, we examine the challenges of research regulation from a Tribal perspective and explore the future of Tribally regulated research that honors indigenous knowledge and promotes community accountability and transparency. We offer recommendations for researchers, funding agencies, and Tribal communities to consider in the review and regulation of research. PMID:24134372

  2. [Nutritional status in telarche and menarche in indigenous and non indigenous Chilean adolescents].

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Costa Machado, Thais; Bustos, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    A compensatory effect of chronic malnutrition that influences excess of weight has been reported. This effect would be more evident in indigenous populations. The aim of this study was to find out the association between ethnic group (mapuche) and body composition in the telarche and menarche of indigenous and non indigenous adolescents. This was a cross sectional design. At the beginning, a screening of 10,121 girls from 168 schools in the Araucania Region, Chile was done. 230 adolescent in telarche (grade II of the development of the mammary gland): 112 indigenous and 118 non indigenous and 239 in menarche (113 indigenous and 126 non indigenous) were identified. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were evaluated. BMI, WC and LM were higher in the indigenous adolescent in telarche. For those with menarche, the differences decreased, reaching with higher values for indigenous girls only in BMI and FM (p=0,04 and 0,02, respectively). Belonging to the indigenous group increased the BMI in 0.37 z scores in telarche (95% CI: 0,17-0,58) and 0,44 in menarche (95% CI:0,18-0,70). Being mapuche was also associated to higher WC: 3.33 cm (CI 1,67 - 4,99) in telarche and 3,17 cm (CI 0,73-5,60) in menarche and to higher lean mass only for those adolescents with telarche (1,3 CI: 0,11-2,43) and to fat mass only for those with menarche (2,4 CI: 1,02-3,77). The body composition indicators in indigenous adolescents are of concern and underscores the importance of programs to promote healthy lifestyles that take into account resources from the indigenous communities. PMID:19886510

  3. 2013 Recipes Goldilocks Porridge (White Bean Chicken Chili)

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    2013 Recipes 5 8 10 11 13 16 19 21 24 26 Goldilocks Porridge (White Bean Chicken Chili) Pork Fried Rice Honey Miso Chicken Gai Oob Thai Chicken Turkey & Bean Chili Asparagus Risotto Honey Mustard Chicken Chicken Pasta Salad Oatmeal Coconut Raspberry Bar Crispy Shrimp Cakes Laura Coon Leonore Miller

  4. Study on Analysis of Variance on the indigenous wild and cultivated rice species of Manipur Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhabati, K.; Rohinikumar, M.; Rajiv Das, K.; Henary, Ch.; Dikash, Th.

    2012-10-01

    The analysis of variance revealed considerable variation among the cultivars and the wild species for yield and other quantitative characters in both the years of investigation. The highly significant differences among the cultivars in year wise and pooled analysis of variance for all the 12 characters reveal that there are enough genetic variabilities for all the characters studied. The existence of genetic variability is of paramount importance for starting a judicious plant breeding programme. Since introduced high yielding rice cultivars usually do not perform well. Improvement of indigenous cultivars is a clear choice for increase of rice production. The genetic variability of 37 rice germplasms in 12 agronomic characters estimated in the present study can be used in breeding programme

  5. Complications of otitis media in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tony E; Perry, Christopher F; Lannigan, Francis J

    2009-11-01

    In Australia, three to five children die each year because of otitis media complications, and 15 children will suffer permanent hearing loss each year as a result of otitis media. Extracranial complications occur most commonly, and include mastoiditis, cholesteatoma and otitis media with perforation. Intracranial complications are less common, and include meningitis, brain abscess and lateral sinus thrombosis. In Australia, approximately 60% of extracranial and intracranial complications of otitis media occur in children. The contrasting rates of childhood otitis media among Indigenous and non-Indigenous children have implications for the frequency and types of complications occurring in both groups. Otitis media with effusion and acute otitis media predominate among non-Indigenous children, whereas chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) occurs most commonly among Indigenous children. The incidence of mastoiditis in Australia is low by international standards (2/100,000 children), but cholesteatoma rates among Indigenous children in Australia are higher than previously estimated (up to 10% in CSOM). A high rate of chronic tympanic membrane perforation occurs among Indigenous children, estimated to be as high as 80%. Intracranial complications of otitis media are uncommon, but are potentially life-threatening and are more likely to occur among Indigenous than non-Indigenous children. Reduced access to medical care, lower socioeconomic status and remote living conditions mean that levels of early childhood hearing loss among Indigenous children are likely to be underestimated. This has implications for early childhood speech and language development and education. PMID:19883359

  6. Breeding by Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan D. Peleman; Jeroen Rouppe van der Voort

    2003-01-01

    Breeding by Design™ is a concept that aims to control all allelic variation for all genes of agronomic importance. This concept can be achieved through a combination of precise genetic mapping, high-resolution chromosome haplotyping and extensive phenotyping. Thanks to marker technology, software tools and the know-how available today, this goal can now be achieved. Depending on the crop-specific generation time,

  7. The Chicken: Contributions to Genetic

    E-print Network

    by technological changes ­ the incubator, computer, PCR, amino acid analyzer, microscope. #12;Natural Selection of natural selection #12;Homeostasis · Developmental · Genetic #12;Bilateral Assymmetries Developmental axes crosses: 2.18 #12;Charles Darwin (1809 ­ 1882) #12;#12;Photo by Vincent Musi #12;1950 and current chickens

  8. IMMUNOCOMPETENT CELLS OF THE CHICKEN

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, W. P.; Chapman, J.; Thorbecke, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Specific antisera to chicken thymus and to bursa of Fabricius were obtained in rabbits. After appropriate absorption and dilution all four anti-thymus sera, in the presence of guinea pig C', killed >90% of thymus and ?12% of bursa cells. They were cytotoxic for approximately 50% of spleen cells and did not affect antibody-forming cells. The surface antigen detected by these antisera was named chicken T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA). Two of four anti-bursa sera, under similar conditions, killed >90% of bursa cells and ?10% of thymus cells. These antisera were cytotoxc for a large percentage of antibody-forming cells and killed approximately 30% of spleen cells The other two anti-bursa sera were somewhat less potent but showed similar specificity. The surface antigen detected by these antisera was named chicken bursa-derived lymphocyte antigen (CBuLA). Rabbit antisera to chicken immunoglobulin were cytotoxic for bursa but not for thymus cells and killed a similar percentage of spleen cells as did anti-bursa sera. They were also cytotoxic for antibody-forming cells. PMID:4938447

  9. Campylobacter species in broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Neill; J. N. Campbell; Joan A. Greene

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens in Northern Ireland was determined by examining three groups of birds. These included: (1)12 flocks of broilers monitored at regular intervals from their introduction into commercial units until the time of slaughter; (2) 21 batches of unsolicited birds submitted to the laboratory for postmortem examination; and (3) 13 batches of chicks under

  10. Identification of genes related to beak deformity of chickens using digital gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hao; Zhu, Jing; Sun, Yanyan; Liu, Ranran; Liu, Nian; Li, Dongli; Wen, Jie; Chen, Jilan

    2014-01-01

    Frequencies of up to 3% of beak deformity (normally a crossed beak) occur in some indigenous chickens in China, such as and Beijing-You. Chickens with deformed beaks have reduced feed intake, growth rate, and abnormal behaviors. Beak deformity represents an economic as well as an animal welfare problem in the poultry industry. Because the genetic basis of beak deformity remains incompletely understood, the present study sought to identify important genes and metabolic pathways involved in this phenotype. Digital gene expression analysis was performed on deformed and normal beaks collected from Beijing-You chickens to detect global gene expression differences. A total of >11 million cDNA tags were sequenced, and 5,864,499 and 5,648,877 clean tags were obtained in the libraries of deformed and normal beaks, respectively. In total, 1,156 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified in the deformed beak with 409 being up-regulated and 747 down-regulated in the deformed beaks. qRT-PCR using eight genes was performed to verify the results of DGE profiling. Gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes of the keratin family on GGA25 were abundant among the DEGs. Pathway analysis showed that many DEGs were linked to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and glycerolipid metabolism. Combining the analyses, 11 genes (MUC, LOC426217, BMP4, ACAA1, LPL, ALDH7A1, GLA, RETSAT, SDR16C5, WWOX, and MOGAT1) were highlighted as potential candidate genes for beak deformity in chickens. Some of these genes have been identified previously, while others have unknown function with respect to thus phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide study to investigate the transcriptome differences in the deformed and normal beaks of chickens. The DEGs identified here are worthy of further functional characterization. PMID:25198128

  11. Biodiversity of 52 chicken populations assessed by microsatellite typing of DNA pools

    PubMed Central

    Hillel, Jossi; Groenen, Martien AM; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Korol, Abraham B; David, Lior; Kirzhner, Valery M; Burke, Terry; Barre-Dirie, Asili; Crooijmans, Richard PMA; Elo, Kari; Feldman, Marcus W; Freidlin, Paul J; Mäki-Tanila, Asko; Oortwijn, Marian; Thomson, Pippa; Vignal, Alain; Wimmers, Klaus; Weigend, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    In a project on the biodiversity of chickens funded by the European Commission (EC), eight laboratories collaborated to assess the genetic variation within and between 52 populations from a wide range of chicken types. Twenty-two di-nucleotide microsatellite markers were used to genotype DNA pools of 50 birds from each population. The polymorphism measures for the average, the least polymorphic population (inbred C line) and the most polymorphic population (Gallus gallus spadiceus) were, respectively, as follows: number of alleles per locus, per population: 3.5, 1.3 and 5.2; average gene diversity across markers: 0.47, 0.05 and 0.64; and proportion of polymorphic markers: 0.91, 0.25 and 1.0. These were in good agreement with the breeding history of the populations. For instance, unselected populations were found to be more polymorphic than selected breeds such as layers. Thus DNA pools are effective in the preliminary assessment of genetic variation of populations and markers. Mean genetic distance indicates the extent to which a given population shares its genetic diversity with that of the whole tested gene pool and is a useful criterion for conservation of diversity. The distribution of population-specific (private) alleles and the amount of genetic variation shared among populations supports the hypothesis that the red jungle fowl is the main progenitor of the domesticated chicken. PMID:12939204

  12. Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Carter; Greg Hill

    2007-01-01

    The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians’ involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) of Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, E Z; Tesfamaryam, G; Yunus, H A; Duguma, R; Tilahun, G; DI Marco, V; Vitale, M

    2015-02-01

    We performed a seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from October 2012 to May 2013. We used cross-sectional two-stage cluster sampling to collect blood samples from wing veins of 601 chickens from central Ethiopia. T. gondii-specific antibodies were assayed by modified agglutination test (MAT). We collected information about risk factors by questionnaire and used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to assess risk factors. An overall seroprevalence of 30·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26·27-34·14] and 54·2% (95% CI 47·06-61·36) was found at animal- and flock-level, respectively. The MAT end titre of seropositive chickens (n = 183) were 1 : 60 in 46, 1 : 180 in 28, 1 : 540 in 29, ?1 : 1620 in 48, 1 : 6000 in 22, 1 : 18,000 in five, 1 : 54,000 in one, and ?1 : 162,000 in four. Animal-level risk factors identified using multivariable logistic regression model were: midland altitude [odds ratio (OR) 2·53, 95% CI 1·12-5·72], cross and exotic breeds (OR 3·17, 95% CI 1·39-7·23), increased age of chickens (OR 2·32, 95% CI 1·19-4·49), extensive management (OR 6·92, 95% CI 1·34-35·86) and the presence of cats (OR 2·08, 95% CI 1·20-3·61). Similarly, flock-level risk factors were midland altitude (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·31-9·99) and the presence of cats (OR 1·19-4·94). The knowledge of the local people about the health risk of cats to humans and animals is poor. Housing and management of cats and chickens are also poor. The widespread presence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens of Central Ethiopia provides suggestive evidence for the high level of contamination of the living environment of people with T. gondii oocysts. Meat from free-range chickens might be an important source of infection for humans. Altitude, breed, age, management and presence of cats are independent predictors of seropositivity. Education of farmers about toxoplasmosis and further studies to elucidate the burden of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans warrants consideration. PMID:24763135

  14. A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. Results A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (P<0.01), respectively. A number of genes in the significant core regions, including RB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens. Conclusions We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress. PMID:23241142

  15. Leadership as a Personal Journey: An Indigenous Perspective.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Kerrie; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous Australians have higher levels of mental illness, self-harm, suicide and substance abuse than non-Indigenous Australians, as well as more frequent contact with the criminal justice system. These indices point to the need for strong leadership to support Close the Gap programmes that have now been implemented across Australia. This article considers leadership as a journey of learning for Australian Indigenous leaders. Through the use of story, it is suggested that a situational leadership approach, incorporating the principles of mindfulness, provides the most appropriate framework for Indigenous leaders who work with Indigenous communities. Flexible approaches are needed to meet the needs of diverse Indigenous populations, and address the complex challenges involved, including lateral violence. Such flexibility will enable Indigenous leaders and communities to work together to achieve improvements in the health outcomes, not only for Indigenous Australians, but also for Indigenous populations worldwide. PMID:26091079

  16. Research on indigenous elders: from positivistic to decolonizing methodologies.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kathryn L; Browne, Colette V; Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Kim, Bum Jung; Mokuau, Noreen

    2014-02-01

    Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders. PMID:23841952

  17. The origin of Indonesian cattle and conservation genetics of the Bali cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, K; Olsson, M; Andersson, G; Purwantara, B; van Tol, H T A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Colenbrander, B; Lenstra, J A

    2012-01-01

    Both Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos javanicus (banteng) contribute to the Indonesian indigenous livestock, which is supposedly of a mixed species origin, not by direct breeding but by secondary cross-breeding. Here, the analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds with East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle having higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. There was no evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. PMID:22212207

  18. Community-based livestock breeding programmes: essentials and examples.

    PubMed

    Mueller, J P; Rischkowsky, B; Haile, A; Philipsson, J; Mwai, O; Besbes, B; Valle Zárate, A; Tibbo, M; Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2015-04-01

    Breeding programmes described as community-based (CBBP) typically relate to low-input systems with farmers having a common interest to improve and share their genetic resources. CBBPs are more frequent with keepers of small ruminants, in particular smallholders of local breeds, than with cattle, pigs or chickens with which farmers may have easier access to alternative programmes. Constraints that limit the adoption of conventional breeding technologies in low-input systems cover a range of organizational and technical aspects. The analysis of 8 CBBPs located in countries of Latin-America, Africa and Asia highlights the importance of bottom-up approaches and involvement of local institutions in the planning and implementation stages. The analysis also reveals a high dependence of these programmes on organizational, technical and financial support. Completely self-sustained CBBPs seem to be difficult to realize. There is a need to implement and document formal socio-economic evaluations of CBBPs to provide governments and other development agencies with the information necessary for creating sustainable CBBPs at larger scales. PMID:25823840

  19. Heritable genome-wide variation of gene expression and promoter methylation between wild and domesticated chickens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Variations in gene expression, mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, may cause broad phenotypic effects in animals. However, it has been debated to what extent expression variation and epigenetic modifications, such as patterns of DNA methylation, are transferred across generations, and therefore it is uncertain what role epigenetic variation may play in adaptation. Results In Red Junglefowl, ancestor of domestic chickens, gene expression and methylation profiles in thalamus/hypothalamus differed substantially from that of a domesticated egg laying breed. Expression as well as methylation differences were largely maintained in the offspring, demonstrating reliable inheritance of epigenetic variation. Some of the inherited methylation differences were tissue-specific, and the differential methylation at specific loci were little changed after eight generations of intercrossing between Red Junglefowl and domesticated laying hens. There was an over-representation of differentially expressed and methylated genes in selective sweep regions associated with chicken domestication. Conclusions Our results show that epigenetic variation is inherited in chickens, and we suggest that selection of favourable epigenomes, either by selection of genotypes affecting epigenetic states, or by selection of methylation states which are inherited independently of sequence differences, may have been an important aspect of chicken domestication. PMID:22305654

  20. Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas (WBBA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Initiated in 1995, the Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas (WBBA) is an on-going project to document all bird species breeding in the state of Wisconsin. A project of the Wisconsin Society for Ornithology, WBBA documents the presence and breeding status of bird species detected within a selected 5km x 5km area, as well as (optionally) the estimated abundance of the species and the type of habitat in which it was detected. The results of this ambitious initiative are now available in the form of online Species Distribution Maps and multiple species summaries. While not all maps have been error-checked, these color maps offer detailed images showing confirmed and probable breeding locations for Wisconsin's several hundred species of breeding birds. In addition to the maps, the site provides a section on WBBA methods, numerous bird identification images, and a Casual Observation Form. A select list of links (to other states's Breeding Bird Atlas projects) rounds out the site.

  1. [Eating characteristics of Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls].

    PubMed

    Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods. PMID:21090273

  2. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  3. Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Shenderov, Boris Arkadievich

    2012-01-01

    This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled us first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low-molecular-weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that are responsible for the mammalian genome reprograming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance caused by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The authors substantiate the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics investigations as well as in disease prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although the discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies. PMID:23990811

  4. Materials for breeding blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified.

  5. Breeding management practices

    E-print Network

    Walker, Laura Lea

    1984-01-01

    in pregnancy rates between treated and control 19 mares were observed. However, the overall fertility of the three cycles was enhanced due to this one injection of hCG. During this internship the effects of hCG were studied when given in doses of two ml IV... time for insemination. The mare was then inseminated every other day excluding weekends until ovulation occurred. 411 mares were pregnancy checked on day 18 by rectal palpation. In previous years the breeding program had been run by a local...

  6. Associations between polymorphisms of the GFI1B gene and growth traits of indigenous Chinese goats.

    PubMed

    Cai, H F; Chen, Z; Luo, W X

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate polymorphisms of the eighth exon in the GFI1B gene among three indigenous Chinese goat breeds (QianBei Ma goats, GuiZhou white goats, and GuiZhou black goats). Furthermore, association analysis was conducted between these polymorphisms and growth traits. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), direct DNA sequencing, and PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were applied to detect polymorphism sites, and a general linear model was used to analyze their association with growth traits. We found two consistent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the eighth exon of the GFI1B gene among the three breeds: 263 bp G?T and 340 bp G?A. The fixed effects model used to analyze growth traits revealed significant differences in body weight, body length, chest depth, and chest breadth between genotypes CD, CC, and DD (P < 0.01). The 340(G/C) polymorphic sites identified here will provide a basis to further study associations between the GFI1B gene and growth traits, as well as establish a theoretical foundation to develop better feeding and genetic resources of indigenous goats. PMID:24615051

  7. Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be addressed in the science classroom. We conclude by presenting instructional strategies that can help all science learners negotiate border crossings between Western modern science and indigenous science.

  8. A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, G K; Hillier, L; Brandstrom, M; Croojmans, R; Ovcharenko, I; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L; Lucas, S; Glavina, T; Kaiser, P; Gunnarsson, U; Webber, C; Overton, I

    2005-02-20

    We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a comparison of the sequences of 3 domestic chickens (broiler, layer, Silkie) to their wild ancestor Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about 5 SNP/kb for almost every possible comparison between RJF and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--contrary to the idea that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated prior to domestication, and there is little to no evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales of greater than 100 kb.

  9. Tender Texas Chicken: The Natural Light Meat. 

    E-print Network

    Denton, J.H.; Gardner, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    System College Station, Texas [ "TENDER TEXRS ?] CHICKEN ? Th f\\1a:U1Jwl Light Moot . c ., J. H. Denton and F. A. Gardner? Chicken offers consumers the ultimate meat in nutrient density at an affordable price. Chicken, a tremendously versatile.... Perhaps the greatest benefit of all is the fact that chicken broiler meat (raw), containing 119 calories per 100 grams of edible portion (breast meat contains only 110 calories per 100 gr~ms), offers th consumer a very good product for use in weight...

  10. Flesh colour dominates consumer preference for chicken.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Orla B; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Mitchell, Peter C; Thurnham, David I

    2005-04-01

    Existing research investigating interactions between visual and oral sensory cues has tended to use model food systems. In contrast, this study compared product quality assessments of corn-fed and wheat-fed chicken products among persons recruited in Northern Ireland. Three approaches have been adopted to investigate the effect of colour upon consumer choice of chicken: sensory assessment under normal lighting; focus group discussion; and sensory assessment under controlled lighting conditions. Initial consumer sensory assessment indicated that wheat-fed chicken was perceived to be tenderer and to have a more intense flavour than that which was corn-fed. Qualitative enquiry discerned that this was because consumers perceived the yellow colour of corn-fed chicken negatively. Yellow-coloured corn-fed chicken was therefore again compared with wheat-fed chicken in terms of flavour, texture and overall liking with the flesh colour disguised by means of controlled lighting. Quality ratings for corn-fed chicken were more positive when the yellow flesh colour was disguised, with corn-fed chicken judged to be tenderer than wheat-fed chicken and more flavoursome. This study illustrates the importance of using a combination of methods to gain insight into interactions between different sensory modalities in consumer quality judgements and adds to previous research on the importance of colour upon consumer choice of real foods. PMID:15808892

  11. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  12. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  13. [Major chemical components of poultry and livestock manures under intensive breeding].

    PubMed

    Yao, Lixian; Li, Guoliang; Dang, Zhi

    2006-10-01

    Owing to the wide use of feed additives in modern intensive poultry and livestock production, the major components and their concentrations of domestic animal manures may be greatly changed, as compared with those in traditional breeding. An investigation on the 61 samples of chicken, pig and pigeon manures from the intensive poultry and livestock farms of Guangdong Province showed that the concentrations of total N, P and K in chicken and pig manures were obviously higher than those of traditional breeding, and the P/N ratio of three test manures was greater than that of common crops. The concentrations of total soluble salts (TSS) of test manures averaged 49.0, 20.6 and 60.3 g x kg(-1) , respectively, which were mainly composed of the sulfate and chloride of potassium and sodium. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn and As reached 107.5, 366.6 and 21.6 mg x kg (-1) in chicken manure, 765.1, 1128.0 and 89.3 mg x kg(-1) in pig manure, and 56.1, 210.9 and 2.9 mg x kg(-1) in pigeon manure, respectively. These manures were low in Pb, Cd and Cr contents, from non-detectable to 12.0 mg x kg(-1). According to the limiting criteria of heavy metals in fertilizers, the Cu, Zn and As in the three manures were the major elements exceeding the limits, especially for Zn. PMID:17209406

  14. Breed differences in canine aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Duffy; Yuying Hsu; James A. Serpell

    2008-01-01

    Canine aggression poses serious public health and animal welfare concerns. Most of what is understood about breed differences in aggression comes from reports based on bite statistics, behavior clinic caseloads, and experts’ opinions. Information on breed-specific aggressiveness derived from such sources may be misleading due to biases attributable to a disproportionate risk of injury associated with larger and\\/or more physically

  15. Texas Show Steer Breed Classification

    E-print Network

    Cleere, Jason; Mazurkiewicz, Jim; Hammack, Stephen P.

    2008-02-28

    /foot? Tend to be not heavy-boned ? Tend to be fl at boned ? Tend to be not big-footed ? Tail set? Can have a forward tail set ? Can drop from hooks to pins ? Acceptable Breed Characteristics Must physically exhibit breed ? characteristics of a 50% purebred...

  16. THE USDA PECAN BREEDING PROGRAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper outlines how the USDA Pecan Breeding Program is operated to produce superior new cultivars that are given names of Native American peoples, and released for planting in new pecan orchards. The USDA conducts the largest pecan breeding and genetics program in the world. The program is div...

  17. The breeding of crop ideotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Donald

    1968-01-01

    Most plant breeding is based on “defect elimination” or “selection for yield”. A valuable additional approach is available through the breeding of crop ideotypes, plants with model characteristics known to influence photosynthesis, growth and (in cereals) grain production. Some instances of the successful use of model characters of this kind are quoted.

  18. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human. PMID:24163965

  19. New computational resources for indigenous and minority languages

    E-print Network

    Scannell, Kevin Patrick

    to join; good support for Unicode; users can post from their computer or cell phone; popular among young people #12;Indigenous Tweets Web site that tracks everyone using Twitter in an indigenous or minority

  20. Maximum bite force in elderly indigenous and non-indigenous denture wearers.

    PubMed

    Borie, Eduardo; Orsi, Iara A; Fuentes, Ramón; Beltrán, Víctor; Navarro, Pablo; Pareja, Felipe; Raimundo, Lariça B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the measures of maximum bite force (MBF) in elderly edentulous indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous individuals with new complete dentures at two different measuring times. A sample of 100 elderly subjects was divided into two groups: 50 indigenous and 50 non-indigenous, each including 25 females and 25 males. All individuals were totally edentulous, with new maxillary and mandibular removable complete dentures. Measurements were taken at the time of new prosthesis placement and after 1 month of use. Subjects were asked to perform with maximum effort three bites per side at maximum intercuspidation, with a rest time of 2 minutes in between. Statistics were analyzed with Student 's t-test. The MBF values were significantly higher in indigenous than non-indigenous subjects. Force after 1 month of wearing the new prosthesis was significantly higher than at the time of new prosthesis placement. No significant difference was found between sides. Elderly indigenous complete denture wearers had the greatest MBF values. Denture wearers were observed to undergo an adaptation process to the new prosthesis, with MBF increasing considerably after one month of use. PMID:25560689

  1. Characterizing neutral genomic diversity and selection signatures in indigenous populations of Moroccan goats (Capra hircus) using WGS data.

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, Badr; Alberto, Florian J; Streeter, Ian; Boyer, Frédéric; Coissac, Eric; Stucki, Sylvie; BenBati, Mohammed; Ibnelbachyr, Mustapha; Chentouf, Mouad; Bechchari, Abdelmajid; Leempoel, Kevin; Alberti, Adriana; Engelen, Stefan; Chikhi, Abdelkader; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Joost, Stéphane; Taberlet, Pierre; Pompanon, François

    2015-01-01

    Since the time of their domestication, goats (Capra hircus) have evolved in a large variety of locally adapted populations in response to different human and environmental pressures. In the present era, many indigenous populations are threatened with extinction due to their substitution by cosmopolitan breeds, while they might represent highly valuable genomic resources. It is thus crucial to characterize the neutral and adaptive genetic diversity of indigenous populations. A fine characterization of whole genome variation in farm animals is now possible by using new sequencing technologies. We sequenced the complete genome at 12× coverage of 44 goats geographically representative of the three phenotypically distinct indigenous populations in Morocco. The study of mitochondrial genomes showed a high diversity exclusively restricted to the haplogroup A. The 44 nuclear genomes showed a very high diversity (24 million variants) associated with low linkage disequilibrium. The overall genetic diversity was weakly structured according to geography and phenotypes. When looking for signals of positive selection in each population we identified many candidate genes, several of which gave insights into the metabolic pathways or biological processes involved in the adaptation to local conditions (e.g., panting in warm/desert conditions). This study highlights the interest of WGS data to characterize livestock genomic diversity. It illustrates the valuable genetic richness present in indigenous populations that have to be sustainably managed and may represent valuable genetic resources for the long-term preservation of the species. PMID:25904931

  2. Indigenous Australia: The Role of Storytelling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A collaborative effort between Australia's Cultural Network and the Australian Museum, this site showcases some fine examples of Indigenous Australian stories. Collected from all over Australia, the stories (currently 20) are offered in text, audio, and video formats, with brief introductions and a glossary of indigenous words. Short descriptions of the role of storytelling, custodianship, "Dreaming," and secret/ sacred stories are also provided. Users should note that RealPlayer G2 is required to view the video presentations, and that, at time of review, video playback quality was rather poor. The text and audio formats, however, were quite acceptable, making this site worthwhile for anyone interested in Indigenous Australian culture or storytelling in general.

  3. Farming practices and genetic characterization of Nicobari pig, an indigenous pig germplasm of Nicobar group of islands, India.

    PubMed

    De, Arun Kumar; Jeyakumar, S; Kundu, Madhu Sudan; Kundu, Anandamoy; Sunder, Jai; Ramachandran, M

    2014-04-01

    The Nicobari pig, locally known as Ha-un, is an indigenous pig germplasm located only in the Nicobar group of islands, India. The present study documents the Nicobari pig-rearing practices of the tribal farmers and genetically characterizes them using 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years (2010-2012) in Car Nicobar, India. A total of 225 farmers were surveyed (15 farmers per village of 15 villages). Information on herd statistics, husbandry practices, and constraints faced by the farmers in pig production were collected. The pigs were reared in a free-range system. Mean pig herd size per house hold was 8.9, and main feed for pigs was coconut and some indigenous feed materials such as pandanus, bread fruit, and Nicobari alu. The main constraints faced by the farmers were lack of feed after the tsunami, different disease conditions, piglet mortality, and predator attack. The Nicobari pigs were genotyped by 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The mean observed number of alleles for all 23 loci in Nicobari pigs was 6.96 ± 0.31. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.66 ± 0.02 and 0.75 ± 0.01, respectively. It was found that the genetic diversity of this pig breed was very high compared to Large White Yorkshire and other European pig breeds. This genetic characterization of the pig breed will be helpful in their conservation effort. PMID:24595559

  4. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  5. Isolation of chicken follicular dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Del Cacho; Margarita Gallego; Fernando López-Bernard; Caridad Sánchez-Acedo; Hyun S. Lillehoj

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which had been infected with Eimeria tenella. CD45? dendritic cells were selected using the specific monoclonal antibody against

  6. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-12-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken interleukin-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous study chicken interleukin -17 (chIL-17) gene was cloned from the expressed sequence tag (EST) cDNA library and initially analyzed. To further investigate biological properties of chicken IL-17, six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against bacterially expressed protein were produced and c...

  8. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  9. Educational Leadership and Indigeneity: Doing Things the Same, Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohepa, Margie Kahukura (Ngapuhi)

    2013-01-01

    Educational leadership, it is argued, must play a critical role in improving student outcomes, especially those of minoritized and Indigenous students. In the process of improving education and schooling for Indigenous students, Indigenous educational leadership needs to be considered alongside educational leadership more generally. This article…

  10. Indigenous Education 1991-2000: Documents, Outcomes and Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunstone, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    There is often a disparity in Indigenous Affairs between many documents, such as policies, reports and legislation, and outcomes. This article explores this difference through analysing the policy area of Indigenous education during the period of 1991 to 2000. I examine three key documents relating to Indigenous education. These are the "National…

  11. Indigenous Knowledge and Library Work in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargbo, John Abdul

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is vital information that is sadly diminishing at an alarming rate in Sierra Leone. There is, therefore, an urgent need to collect it before much of it is completely lost. This article explores the concept of indigenous knowledge and indigenous knowledge systems with a particular focus on Sierra Leone. Definitions and…

  12. From Montana to Brazil: Sparking an International Indigenous Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarlott, David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    As president of Little Big Horn College, David Yarlott writes that he had the good fortune to be involved in several events with Indigenous peoples from other countries. He has participated in several World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium (WINHEC) conferences and also a World Indigenous Peoples Conference on Education (WIPCE). The…

  13. Thinking Place: Animating the Indigenous Humanities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood

    2005-01-01

    Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of…

  14. The Work-Study Experience of Indigenous Undergraduates in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large number of universities in Taiwan and the increased availability of scholarships for disadvantaged students, the number of college students from indigenous families has been on the rise in recent years. However, many indigenous students still find it necessary to work part-time. In this study, indigenous students were interviewed…

  15. Career Decision-Making: What Matters to Indigenous Australians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helme, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This article brings together and discusses three research projects that examined the vocational education and career-decision making of Indigenous Australians. These studies focused on the experiences of Indigenous people themselves, in order to provide an Indigenous perspective on vocational and career development. Four main barriers that limit…

  16. Indigenous Digital Storytelling in Video: Witnessing with Alma Desjarlais

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke, Judy M.

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous digital storytelling in video is a way of witnessing the stories of Indigenous communities and Elders, including what has happened and is happening in the lives and work of Indigenous peoples. Witnessing includes acts of remembrance in which we look back to reinterpret and recreate our relationship to the past in order to understand the…

  17. Situating Indigenous Student Mobility within the Global Education Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, Sarah; Hill, Angela

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, as in other global contexts, Indigenous student education outcomes are well below those of their non-Indigenous counterparts. A more robust understanding of, and responsiveness to, Indigenous temporary mobilities is a critical step to redressing such educational inequalities. This paper draws together learnings from the papers in…

  18. Cancellation of Indigenous Australians from the Apprenticeship Training Contract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, John; Trendle, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The vocational education and training (VET) sector is a major pathway to post-school education for indigenous students, yet questions are being raised about the capacity of the VET system to provide successful outcomes for the indigenous apprentices and trainees it attracts. Within a system plagued by high cancellation rates in general, indigenous

  19. Potential Factors Influencing Indigenous Education Participation and Achievement. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Nicholas; Cameron, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This report examines two sets of issues, the first being whether Indigenous Australians obtain a lower return on investment in education and training than other Australians. If they do, then this would partly explain why, in general, Indigenous participation in education and training is relatively low. The second issue is whether Indigenous

  20. Polymorphisms in the Perilipin Gene May Affect Carcass Traits of Chinese Meat-type Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Yiping; Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Li, Diyan; Yin, Huadong; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zhiqin; Wang, Zhen; Yuan, Yuncong; Zhao, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    Improved meat quality and greater muscle yield are highly sought after in high-quality chicken breeding programs. Past studies indicated that polymorphisms of the Perilipin gene (PLIN1) are highly associated with adiposity in mammals and are potential molecular markers for improving meat quality and carcass traits in chickens. In the present study, we screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all exons of the PLIN1 gene with a direct sequencing method in six populations with different genetic backgrounds (total 240 individuals). We evaluated the association between the polymorphisms and carcass and meat quality traits. We identified three SNPs, located on the 5? flanking region and exon 1 of PLIN1 on chromosome 10 (rs315831750, rs313726543, and rs80724063, respectively). Eight main haplotypes were constructed based on these SNPs. We calculated the allelic and genotypic frequencies, and genetic diversity parameters of the three SNPs. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.2768 to 0.3750, which reflected an intermediate genetic diversity for all chickens. The CC, CT, and TT genotypes influenced the percentage of breast muscle (PBM), percentage of leg muscle (PLM) and percentage of abdominal fat at rs315831750 (p<0.05). Diplotypes (haplotype pairs) affected the percentage of eviscerated weight (PEW) and PBM (p<0.05). Compared with chickens carrying other diplotypes, H3H7 had the greatest PEW and H2H2 had the greatest PBM, and those with diplotype H7H7 had the smallest PEW and PBM. We conclude that PLIN1 gene polymorphisms may affect broiler carcass and breast muscle yields, and diplotypes H3H7 and H2H2 could be positive molecular markers to enhance PEW and PBM in chickens. PMID:25925053

  1. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, S C; Islam, K M; Neogy, P K; Islam, M; Speelman, P; Huq, M I

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro strain were more likely to develop C. jejuni-induced diarrhea than were White Leghorn chickens. Diarrhea was defined on the basis of amounts of gut fluid in 288 chicks fed with live C. jejuni versus 183 saline-fed control as an accumulation greater than or equal to 0.4 ml of fluid in the guts (excluding ceca) of chickens. Twenty-five percent of the chickens developed diarrhea on day 2, 49% on day 4, and 81% on day 5. The intestines, including ceca, were distended with watery fluid. The majority of the strains, irrespective of whether they were isolated from watery or bloody mucoid enteritis patients, caused watery diarrhea in chickens, and a few caused mucoid diarrhea. No correlation was observed between the source of a strain and the outcome in the experimental model. Bloody diarrhea was never observed in chickens. The peak incidence of diarrhea on day 5 coincided with the mean of maximum fluid accumulation. The organisms multiplied by 3 to 4 logs in all parts of the intestine, with a steady increase in number until day 5. Systemic invasion occurred frequently: C. jejuni could be recovered from the spleen in 47% of the chickens on day 5, in 25% from the liver on day 6, and in 11% from heart blood on day 4. Histopathological examination of gut tissue of the chickens having watery diarrhea did not reveal any abnormality except slight submucosal edema. However, in chickens with mucoid diarrhea, the organisms were found to adhere to brush borders and penetrate into the epithelial cells with formation of a breach in continuity of the brush border lining. The electrolyte composition of the intestinal fluid from chickens infected with C. jejuni and from saline-fed controls did not show significant differences, except for depletion of K+ in the test group. The results obtained in this highly reproducible chicken diarrhea model indicate that (i) most chickens develop nonexudative watery diarrhea 2 to 5 days after oral feeding of 10(3) to 10(6) live cells of C. jejuni; (ii) the organism multiples in all parts of a chicken intestine, (iii) systemic invasion is common, and (iv) local invasion is sometimes observed. Images PMID:6698612

  2. Impact of route of exposure and challenge dose on the pathogenesis of H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L; Kapczynski, Darrell R

    2015-03-01

    H7N9 influenza A first caused human infections in early 2013 in China. Virus genetics, histories of patient exposures to poultry, and previous experimental studies suggest the source of the virus is a domestic avian species, such as chickens. In order to better understand the ecology of this H7N9 in chickens, we evaluated the infectious dose and pathogenesis of A/Anhui/1/2013 H7N9 in two common breeds of chickens, White Leghorns (table-egg layers) and White Plymouth Rocks (meat chickens). No morbidity or mortality were observed with doses of 10(6) or 10(8)EID50/bird when administered by the upper-respiratory route, and the mean infectious dose (10(6) EID50) was higher than expected, suggesting that the virus is poorly adapted to chickens. Virus was shed at higher titers and spread to the kidneys in chickens inoculated by the intravenous route. Challenge experiments with three other human-origin H7N9 viruses showed a similar pattern of virus replication. PMID:25662310

  3. CPI-17-deficient smooth muscle of chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Toshio; Polzin, Atsuko N; Eto, Masumi

    2004-01-01

    Ca2+ sensitivity of arterial contractility is governed by regulating myosin phosphatase activity in response to agonist stimuli. CPI-17, a myosin phosphatase inhibitor phosphoprotein, is phosphorylated concomitantly with agonist-induced contractile Ca2+ sensitization in mammalian artery. CPI-17 has not been detected in chicken artery, but is readily detectable in pigeon artery. To evaluate a role of CPI-17, we compared contractility of the arteries of ‘CPI-17-deficient’ chicken with those of CPI-17-rich rabbit and pigeon, and studied the effect of CPI-17-reconstitution in chicken artery. Other major regulatory/contractile proteins for Ca2+ sensitization are expressed in both chicken and rabbit arteries. Agonists, such as an ?1-agonist and endothelin-1, produced significant contraction in arteries of all species under physiological Ca2+-containing conditions. Depletion of Ca2+ abolished these contractions in chicken but partially inhibited them in rabbit and pigeon arteries. Unlike CPI-17-rich tissues, chicken arteries exerted little Ca2+ sensitization in response to ?1-agonist or endothelin-1. GTP?S produced a slight Ca2+ sensitizing effect in chicken artery, but this was significantly smaller compared with CPI-17-rich tissues. A PKC activator (PDBu) did not generate but rather reduced a contraction in both intact and ?-toxin-permeabilized chicken artery in contrast to a large contraction in CPI-17-rich arteries. Myosin light chain phosphorylation was reduced by PDBu in chicken but elevated in rabbit artery. Addition of recombinant CPI-17 into ?-escin-permeabilized chicken artery restored PDBu-induced and enhanced GTP?S-induced Ca2+ sensitization. Thus, CPI-17 is essential for G protein/PKC-mediated Ca2+ sensitization in smooth muscle. PMID:15090608

  4. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Norway. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Svein

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Norway was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Norway's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

  5. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  6. Mutation breeding by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

    1991-07-01

    Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

  7. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output. PMID:24878317

  8. Morphological and genetic characterization of an emerging Azorean horse breed: the Terceira Pony

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Maria S.; Mendonça, Duarte; Rojer, Horst; Cabral, Verónica; Bettencourt, Sílvia X.; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The Terceira Pony is a horse indigenous to Terceira Island in the Azores. These horses were very important during the colonization of the island. Due to their very balanced proportions and correct gaits, and with an average withers height of 1.28 m, the Terceira Pony is often confused with a miniature pure-bred Lusitano. This population was officially recognized as the fourth Portuguese equine breed by the national authorities in January, 2014. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and the genetic diversity by means of microsatellite markers of this emerging horse breed. The biometric data consisted of 28 body measurements and nine angles from 30 animals (11 sires, 19 dams). The Terceira Pony is now a recognized horse breed and is gaining in popularity amongst breeders and the younger riding classes. The information obtained from this study will be very useful for conservation and management purposes, including maximizing the breed’s genetic diversity, and solidifying the desirable phenotypic traits. PMID:25774165

  9. Policy and Indigenous Languages in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The use of Indigenous languages has been declining over the period of non-Aboriginal settlement in Australia as a result of repressive policies, both explicit and implicit. The National Policy on Languages (Lo Bianco, 1987) was the high point of language policy in Australia, given its national scope and status and its attempt to encompass all…

  10. Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg

    2007-12-01

    The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources. PMID:17175093

  11. Considering Indigenous Knowledges and Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterenberg, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    Across Canada, significant program changes in school mathematics have been made that encourage teachers to consider Aboriginal perspectives. In this article, I investigate one Aboriginal teacher's approaches to integrating Indigenous knowledges and the mandated mathematics curriculum in a Blackfoot First Nation school. Using a framework that…

  12. An Indigenous Community Doing Mathematics Curriculum Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamsin Meaney

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes part of a research project in which an indigenous school community began to develop a mathematics curriculum with the help of the author. Although the community used a document designed by the author as a starting point for their discussions, many of the dilemmas that they raised were not mentioned in it. This community used curriculum meetings

  13. A Conversation about Indigenous Methodologies Margaret Kovach

    E-print Network

    Argerami, Martin

    (videoconference): Education Building, Room 137, Screening Room C. What are Indigenous methodologies and why do. She is an Assistant Professor with the College of Education, University of Saskatchewan where she holds a joint appointment with Educational Foundations and Educational Administration. She received

  14. Indigenous Youth Migration and Language Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Leisy T.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies ethnographically detail how Indigenous young people's mobility intersects with sociolinguistic transformation in an interconnected world. Drawing on a decade-long study of youth and language contact, I analyze Yup'ik young people's migration in relation to emerging language ideologies and patterns of language use in "Piniq,"…

  15. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  16. Indigenous algae for local bioresource production: Phycoprospecting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann C. Wilkie; Scott J. Edmundson; James G. Duncan

    Photosynthetic algae represent a large and diverse group of organisms that have only a limited history of characterization and exploitation. The application of resource production from algae is relatively untapped, with the potential to produce fuels, food, fibers and nutraceuticals on a large scale. Methods to screen for indigenous species of algae have improved and can allow communities to prospect

  17. Indigenous tourism development in the arctic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Notzke

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores current trends in indigenous (aboriginal) tourism development in Canadas western Arctic region. Its operational environment is characterized by the presence of mixed local community economies and a co-management framework for lands and resources. In the North, aboriginal tourism is a resource-based industry, traditionally in the form of big game hunting, and in a more modern context, evolving

  18. Is there an indigenous European social psychology?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter B. Smith

    2005-01-01

    European social psychology does not fit readily into the characterisations of indigenization that can be applied in other parts of the world. This is partly because Europe has provided the earliest origins of the academic study of psychology, and partly because of the great historical and linguistic diversity of the continent. It is shown that both before and after the

  19. Choosing an Indigenous Official Language for Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Charles C.

    A discussion of the choice of official languages in Nigeria first gives an overview of the current language situation in Nigeria, particularly of indigenous language usage, sketches the history of English, French, and Anglo-Nigerian Pidgin (ANP) both before and after independence, outlines the main proposals for language planning, and draws some…

  20. Indigenous Metissage: A Decolonizing Research Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report on the theoretical origins of a decolonizing research sensibility called Indigenous Metissage. This research praxis emerged parallel to personal and ongoing inquiries into historic and current relations connecting Aboriginal peoples and Canadians in the place now called Canada. I frame the colonial frontier origins of these…

  1. Aboriginal Connections: An Indigenous Peoples Web Directory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Rob Wesley, this Web directory indexes sites related to Canadian aboriginal, Native American, and international indigenous peoples and cultures. The annotated links are organized by topic, including First Nations, Education, Government, History, and Organizations, among others. What's new, a top 100 listing, and an internal search engine are also provided. Visitors are welcome to submit additional sites for inclusion.

  2. Applied Indigenous Studies at Northern Arizona University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosper, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    The Applied Indigenous Studies program at Northern Arizona University aims to prepare American Indian students to assume tribal leadership roles. Its location in the College of Ecosystem Science and Management emphasizes its land-oriented and applied focus. The program's development, core courses, and academic requirements for bachelors degrees…

  3. Englishes and Literacies: Indigenous Australian Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripcony, Penny

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are not achieving the levels of English literacy required for satisfactory completion of Australia's school system. A national strategy has been launched to help Indigenous students achieve English literacy. However, there continues to be little recognition of the language and cultural needs of the…

  4. Contrasting colonist and indigenous impacts on amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Lu, Flora; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E; Mena, Carlos F; Erlien, Christine M; Bremner, Jason; Barbieri, Alisson; Walsh, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups. PMID:20337669

  5. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF BEEF BREED UTILIZATION STRATEGIES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Fisheries, Ruakura Animal Research Station, Private bag Hamilton N.Z. Breed utilization methods, D. CROSTON, J. M. ELSEN* J. C. FLAMANT* Dept of Animal Breeding Uitiv. A gr. Sci. Uppsala, Sweden FOR IN SHEEP BREEDING E. D. EIKJE Dept of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Agricultural University of Norway .4s

  6. COMMENTS ON OPTIMIZATION OF CATTLE BREEDING SCHEMES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REVIEW COMMENTS ON OPTIMIZATION OF CATTLE BREEDING SCHEMES : BEEF BREEDS FOR SUCKLING HERDS (1 zootechniques, I. N. R. A., 78350 Jouy en Josas (France) SUMMARY Optimization of selection of beef breeds objectives. We have distinguished between 3 types of populations : specialized beef breed herds, hardy herds

  7. Texas Show Steer Breed Classification 

    E-print Network

    Cleere, Jason; Mazurkiewicz, Jim; Hammack, Stephen P.

    2008-02-28

    . This publication lists the visual characteristics of Angus, Hereford, Polled Hereford, Red Angus, Shorthorn, American Breeds Cross, Brahman, Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Simbrah, Charolais, Chianina, Limousin, Maine Anjou and Simmental steers....

  8. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

  9. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

  10. Canine Hip Dysplasia: Breed Effects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S. W.; Kirby, K.; Pennock, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a refinement of previous studies in that only suitably radiographed dogs were included in the data base. The rate of hip dysplasia varied widely by breed from five percent in siberian huskies to eighty-three percent in english bulldogs. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dysplasia within at least two breeds; golden retrievers and old english sheepdogs. Physical size per se did not appear to be an important determinant of hip dysplasia. PMID:7459792

  11. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  12. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  13. POPULATION ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER The effects of sex, age and breeding success on breeding dispersal

    E-print Network

    Laaksonen, Toni

    POPULATION ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER The effects of sex, age and breeding success on breeding-Verlag 2008 Abstract We modelled breeding dispersal of an insec- tivorous bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula, breeding success and environmental pollution on breeding dispersal distances of F. hypoleuca females

  14. Breeding in an urbanizing world: Reproductive adjustments of seasonally breeding birds to urban areas

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Breeding in an urbanizing world: Reproductive adjustments of seasonally breeding birds to urban. For seasonally breeding birds, the timing of breeding (phenology) is a crucial adaptation to local environmental conditions 1. We used a meta-analytical approach to compare the timing of seasonal breeding of urban bird

  15. Consumer Attitudes and Preferences Regarding Chicken

    E-print Network

    Branson, Robert E.; Mountney, George J.

    1958-01-01

    as the meat for special-occasion meals. More promotions and advertising built around the pieces of chicken preferred by consumers. THE COVER PICTURE The color transparency on the front cover is used through the courtesy of the Poultry and Egg National... SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS WHAT IS FOUND '? Chicken is the first-choice meat of only 17 percent of the families in Houstoii,: Texas. Most of the families who bought chicken at the chain food stores included in the survey did not consider...

  16. Administration of TLR7 agonist, resiquimod, in different types of chicken induces a mixed Th1 and Th2 response in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Sachan, Swati; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Anand Kumar, B S; Kumar, Vimal; Badasara, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Saravanan, B C; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the variation in immune response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of broiler, White Leghorn (WL) and Kadaknath breeds of chicken following administration of TLR7 agonist, resiquimod (R-848). Expression of different immune related genes viz., interferon-? (IFN-?), IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-4, TLR7 and iNOS was assessed by quantitative real time PCR over a period of 24?h. The results indicated that there was a significant up-regulation in the relative expression of immune response genes post R-848 administration (P?breeds of birds after the administration of R-848. Overall, R-848 induced a mixed Th1 and Th2 response in PBMCs of chicken origin ex vivo. PMID:25935758

  17. Mixed ancestry and admixture in Kauai's feral chickens: invasion of domestic genes into ancient Red Junglefowl reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gering, E; Johnsson, M; Willis, P; Getty, T; Wright, D

    2015-05-01

    A major goal of invasion genetics is to determine how establishment histories shape non-native organisms' genotypes and phenotypes. While domesticated species commonly escape cultivation to invade feral habitats, few studies have examined how this process shapes feral gene pools and traits. We collected genomic and phenotypic data from feral chickens (Gallus gallus) on the Hawaiian island of Kauai to (i) ascertain their origins and (ii) measure standing variation in feral genomes, morphology and behaviour. Mitochondrial phylogenies (D-loop & whole Mt genome) revealed two divergent clades within our samples. The rare clade also contains sequences from Red Junglefowl (the domestic chicken's progenitor) and ancient DNA sequences from Kauai that predate European contact. This lineage appears to have been dispersed into the east Pacific by ancient Polynesian colonists. The more prevalent MtDNA clade occurs worldwide and includes domesticated breeds developed recently in Europe that are farmed within Hawaii. We hypothesize this lineage originates from recently feralized livestock and found supporting evidence for increased G. gallus density on Kauai within the last few decades. SNPs obtained from whole-genome sequencing were consistent with historic admixture between Kauai's divergent (G. gallus) lineages. Additionally, analyses of plumage, skin colour and vocalizations revealed that Kauai birds' behaviours and morphologies overlap with those of domestic chickens and Red Junglefowl, suggesting hybrid origins. Together, our data support the hypotheses that (i) Kauai's feral G. gallus descend from recent invasion(s) of domestic chickens into an ancient Red Junglefowl reservoir and (ii) feral chickens exhibit greater phenotypic diversity than candidate source populations. These findings complicate management objectives for Pacific feral chickens, while highlighting the potential of this and other feral systems for evolutionary studies of invasions. PMID:25655399

  18. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

    2004-04-01

    Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719

  19. Genome Scan for Selection in Structured Layer Chicken Populations Exploiting Linkage Disequilibrium Information

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mahmood; Reimer, Christian; Erbe, Malena; Preisinger, Rudolf; Weigend, Annett; Weigend, Steffen; Servin, Bertrand; Simianer, Henner

    2015-01-01

    An increasing interest is being placed in the detection of genes, or genomic regions, that have been targeted by selection because identifying signatures of selection can lead to a better understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships. A common strategy for the detection of selection signatures is to compare samples from distinct populations and to search for genomic regions with outstanding genetic differentiation. The aim of this study was to detect selective signatures in layer chicken populations using a recently proposed approach, hapFLK, which exploits linkage disequilibrium information while accounting appropriately for the hierarchical structure of populations. We performed the analysis on 70 individuals from three commercial layer breeds (White Leghorn, White Rock and Rhode Island Red), genotyped for approximately 1 million SNPs. We found a total of 41 and 107 regions with outstanding differentiation or similarity using hapFLK and its single SNP counterpart FLK respectively. Annotation of selection signature regions revealed various genes and QTL corresponding to productions traits, for which layer breeds were selected. A number of the detected genes were associated with growth and carcass traits, including IGF-1R, AGRP and STAT5B. We also annotated an interesting gene associated with the dark brown feather color mutational phenotype in chickens (SOX10). We compared FST, FLK and hapFLK and demonstrated that exploiting linkage disequilibrium information and accounting for hierarchical population structure decreased the false detection rate. PMID:26151449

  20. Genetic Effects of Polymorphisms in Myogenic Regulatory Factors on Chicken Muscle Fiber Traits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi-Qin; Qing, Ying; Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Yan; Li, Di-Yan; Liu, Yi-Ping; Yin, Hua-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The myogenic regulatory factors is a family of transcription factors that play a key role in the development of skeletal muscle fibers, which are the main factors to affect the meat taste and texture. In the present study, we performed candidate gene analysis to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the MyoD, Myf5, MyoG, and Mrf4 genes using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism in 360 Erlang Mountain Chickens from three different housing systems (cage, pen, and free-range). The general linear model procedure was used to estimate the statistical significance of association between combined genotypes and muscle fiber traits of chickens. Two polymorphisms (g.39928301T>G and g.11579368C>T) were detected in the Mrf4 and MyoD gene, respectively. The diameters of thigh and pectoralis muscle fibers were higher in birds with the combined genotypes of GG-TT and TT-CT (p<0.05). Moreover, the interaction between housing system and combined genotypes has no significant effect on the traits of muscle fiber (p>0.05). Our findings suggest that the combined genotypes of TT-CT and GG-TT might be advantageous for muscle fiber traits, and could be the potential genetic markers for breeding program in Erlang Mountain Chickens. PMID:25925055

  1. Indigenous Knowledge and Sea Ice Science: What Can We Learn from Indigenous Ice Users?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.

    2010-12-01

    Drawing on examples mostly from Iñupiaq and Yup’ik sea-ice expertise in coastal Alaska, this contribution examines how local, indigenous knowledge (LIK) can inform and guide geophysical and biological sea-ice research. Part of the relevance of LIK derives from its linkage to sea-ice use and the services coastal communities derive from the ice cover. As a result, indigenous experts keep track of a broad range of sea-ice variables at a particular location. These observations are embedded into a broader worldview that speaks to both long-term variability or change and to the system of values associated with ice use. The contribution examines eight different contexts in which LIK in study site selection and assessment of a sampling campaign in the context of inter annual variability, the identification of rare or inconspicuous phenomena or events, the contribution by indigenous experts to hazard assessment and emergency response, the record of past and present climate embedded in LIK, and the value of holistic sea-ice knowledge in detecting subtle, intertwined patterns of environmental change. The relevance of local, indigenous sea-ice expertise in helping advance adaptation and responses to climate change as well as its potential role in guiding research questions and hypotheses are also examined. The challenges that may have to be overcome in creating an interface for exchange between indigenous experts and seaice researchers are considered. Promising approaches to overcome these challenges include cross-cultural, interdisciplinary education, and the fostering of Communities of Practice.

  2. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs.

  3. North American Indigenous Adolescent Substance Use*

    PubMed Central

    Hartshorn, Kelley Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate growth in problem drinking and monthly marijuana use among North American Indigenous adolescents from the upper Midwest and Canada. Methods Panel data from a community-based participatory research project includes responses from 619 adolescents residing on or near 7 different reservations/reserves. All respondents were members of the same Indigenous cultural group. Results Rates of problem drinking and monthly marijuana use increased steadily across the adolescent years, with fastest growth occurring in early adolescence (before age 15). In general, female participants reported higher rates of substance use prior to age 15; however, male reports of use surpassed those of females in later adolescence. Conclusions Results of this study highlight the importance of early adolescent substance use prevention efforts and the possible utility of gender responsive programming. PMID:23434599

  4. Early childhood caries in Indigenous communities

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, JD; Holve, S; Krol, D; Schroth, R

    2011-01-01

    The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) and the United States (American Indian and Alaska Native) is a major child health issue. This is exemplified by the high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) with resulting adverse health effects, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. The present statement includes recommendations for oral health preventive and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial. PMID:22654547

  5. Protein-gossypol relationships in chickens 

    E-print Network

    Narain, Ram

    1957-01-01

    K CCCCCCCC N Chapter II Effect of Protein Level of the Diet on Free Gossypol Tolerance by Chicks .................. 6 Chapter III Paper Electrophoresis and Albumin/Globulin Ratios of the Serum of Normal Chickens and Chickens Fed Free Gossypol... in the Diet . . . . . 16 Chapter IV Effect of Increased Protein Level in the Hen Diet on the Transfer of Gossypol-Cephalin to the Egg ............... . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Chapter V High Levels of Free Gossypol in Hen Diets: Effects on Body Weight...

  6. Acute monensin toxicosis in broiler chickens

    E-print Network

    Hanrahan, Lynn Allen

    1979-01-01

    Acute Monensin Toxicosis in Broiler Chickens. (December 1979) Lynn Allen Hanrahan, B. S. , D. V. M. , Purdue University Chairman of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Donald E. Carrier The toxic effects of monensin were studied in 3 groups of broiler chickens... in fatty degeneration of aerobic striated muscle and coagulative necrosis in the aerobic (red) skeletal rmscle. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author is sincerely appreciative of the guidance and counsel of Dr. D. E. Corrier of the Department of Veterinary...

  7. Tender Texas Chicken: The Natural Light Meat.

    E-print Network

    Denton, J.H.; Gardner, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    ,. I. Chicken Fajitas I tablespoon oil or liquid margarine 4 chicken breast or thigh filets 1 bell pepper, cut in julienne strips 1 onion, cut in julienne strips Guacamole 1 avocado 1f2 teaspoon lime juice (approx.) 2 sprigs fresh parsley... Sour cream flour tortillas Pico de Gallo 1 tomato V2 bunch green onions 1 jalapeno pepper 1 bunch cilantro Coarsely chop tomato, green onions, cilantro and pepper. Combine. Sprinkle fajita seasoning liberally on both sides of breast or thigh...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CHICKEN LYMPHOID SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Sung; Good, Robert A.

    1972-01-01

    Synthesis and secretion of Ig by chicken lymphoid cells was studied. Both spleen and bursa cells synthesize and secrete IgM and IgG whereas Ig was not detected in thymus cells. In contrast to the spleen cells which synthesize H and L chains in balanced quantities, the bursa cells synthesize and secrete free L chains. In addition to the lymphoid cells which secrete IgM or IgG, the bursa appears to contain a cell population which synthesizes nonsecretory Ig. The structure of this Ig was studied by specific serological precipitation and by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The H chains of this nonsecretory Ig are serologically related to µ-chains and exhibit a smaller molecular weight (i.e., ?50,000) in SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis than H chains of IgG and IgM synthesized by the spleen cells (i.e., ?70,000). PMID:5022177

  9. Call For Native Genius and Indigenous Intellectualism

    E-print Network

    Fixico, Donald L.

    2000-03-01

    . Nonetheless, it can be safely observed that all cultures and communities possess extraordinary "thinking" individuals. The Indigenous People of this earth in the Americas were great thinkers and continue to be, although the mainstream culture does.... Scientific thought permeated American society at the beginning of this next one hundred years. As the United States entered the twentieth century, a popular trend called Progressivism depicted this modernization of America. Theodore Roosevelt championed...

  10. Indigenous Plants Reported for Hypoglycemic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Shipra; Agrawal, Venu

    2001-01-01

    Plants are the only source of a well established traditional and modern drugs and phytochemicals. Many plant species are known in folk medicine of different cultures to be used for their hypoglycemic properties and therefore used for treatment of diabetes. The evaluation of these plants and of their active natural principles is logic way of searching for new drugs to treat this disease. The present paper deals with the uses of indigenous plants for curing diabetes. PMID:22557024

  11. Mouse Breeding and Colony Management.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Abdelkader; Ferrand, Gisèle; Cruz, Isabelle Goncalves da; Warot, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The possibility to genetically modify the mouse genome has enabled the creation of numerous lines of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs). As a result, the demand for housing space in research facilities is increasing. Knowledge of the basis of mouse reproduction and of the methods to handle colonies of GEMMs is therefore mandatory to efficiently populate facilities. The mouse has a short generation period, produces large progenies, and can breed all year round. However, environmental parameters (bedding, diet, cage type, temperature, hygrometry, light, noise, and sanitary status) strongly influence the breeding efficiency and experimental data, and must be tightly controlled. Efficient GEMM colony management requires adequate recording of breeding and proper identification and genotyping of animals. Various mating types and breeding schemes can be used, depending on the type of studies conducted. The recent development of assisted reproduction methods helps circumvent some of the issues faced with those lines especially difficult to breed. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:239-264. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26068995

  12. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Methods Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. Results With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Conclusions Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained molecular breeding values had similar accuracies. The benefit of adding data from other breeds to a within-breed training population is the ability to produce molecular breeding values that are more robust across breeds and these can be utilized until enough training data has been accumulated to allow for a within-breed training set. PMID:23953034

  13. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ?10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  14. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ? 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  15. Chickens 

    E-print Network

    2009-01-01

    ?os usan un colador o una bolsa de nylon, la cual se debe remover e inspeccionar peri?dicamente para cerciorarse de que no hayan agujeros peque?os. Las v?lvulas de lavado controlan el lavado del filtro de malla. Estas pueden operar manual o autom... bacterial en el manganeso se observa de negro. Estas bacterias oxi- dan el hierro y el manganeso del agua de riego. En la parte occidental de Texas, estas bacterias se encuentran frecuentemente en el agua de pozo. Tenga mucho cuidado cuando inyecte cloro en...

  16. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C

    2014-01-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands. PMID:24687096

  17. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-04-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

  18. PATHOGENESIS OF CHICKEN-PASSAGED NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES ISOLATED FROM CHICKENS, WILD, AND EXOTIC BIRDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens and wild (anhinga) and exotic (yellow nape parrot, pheasant, and dove isolate) birds was examined after four passages of the isolates in domestic chickens. Groups of four-week-old specific-pathogen-free White Legh...

  19. Narratives of race and indigeneity in the Genographic Project.

    PubMed

    TallBear, Kim

    2007-01-01

    In its quest to sample 100,000 "indigenous and traditional peoples," the Genographic Project deploys five problematic narratives: (1) that "we are all African"; (2) that "genetic science can end racism"; (3) that "indigenous peoples are vanishing"; (4) that "we are all related"; and (5) that Genographic "collaborates" with indigenous peoples. In so doing, Genographic perpetuates much critiqued, yet longstanding notions of race and colonial scientific practice. PMID:17714251

  20. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    PubMed

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  1. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  2. Breed assignment test in four Italian beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Dalvit, C; De Marchi, M; Dal Zotto, R; Gervaso, M; Meuwissen, T; Cassandro, M

    2008-10-01

    The assessment of a method able to assign individuals to the breed of origin is needed to certify origin and quality of livestock products. A set of 21 microsatellites was tested for breed identification in four native Italian beef breeds: Chianina, Marchigiana, Romagnola, and Piemontese. Two statistical approaches, based on maximum likelihood and on a Bayesian method, were evaluated. Different marker sets, chosen in order of the highest gene diversity and F(ST) estimates were also tested. The Bayesian method performed better, achieving a correct assignment rate of about 90% even with six microsatellites. The marker sets with the highest gene diversity were shown to perform best. Considering a threshold probability of 90%, only 52.5% of the genotypes were correctly allocated. Such results are mainly due to the low genetic differentiation estimates among breeds (F(ST)=0.049). These findings suggest that markers with high gene diversity and the presence of private alleles should be investigated and the Bayesian method used. PMID:22063344

  3. 75 FR 25883 - China: Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation Policies, and Frameworks for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation Policies, and Frameworks for Measuring...Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation Policies, and Frameworks for Measuring...China; Describe China's indigenous innovation policies; and Outline...

  4. The infection of turkeys and chickens by reassortants derived from pandemic H1N1 2009 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Honglei; Kong, Weili; Liu, Litao; Qu, Yi; Li, Chong; Shen, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Yu; Wu, Sizhe; Pu, Juan; Liu, Jinhua; Sun, Yipeng

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) in turkeys have been reported in several countries. Co-infection of pH1N1 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses in turkeys provide the opportunity for their reassortment, and novel reassortant viruses might further be transmitted to other avian species. However, virulence and transmission of those reassortant viruses in poultry remain unclear. In the present study, we generated 16 single-gene reassortant influenza viruses including eight reassortants on the pH1N1 background by individual replacement with a corresponding gene segment from H9N2 and eight reassortants on the H9N2 background replaced individually with corresponding gene from pH1N1, and characterized reassortants viruses in turkeys and chickens. We found that the pH1N1 virus dramatically increased its infectivity and transmissibility in turkeys and chickens after introducing any gene (except for PB2) from H9N2 virus, and H9N2 virus acquired single gene (except for HA) of pH1N1 almost did not influence its replication and transmission in turkeys and chickens. Additionally, 13 reassortant viruses transmitted from turkeys to chickens. Our results indicate that turkeys and chickens are susceptible to pH1N1-H9N2 reassortant viruses, and mixing breeding of different avian species would facilitate the transmission of these reassortant viruses. PMID:26030097

  5. Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous

  6. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Irma; Sánchez, Elda E.; Girón, María E.; Estrella, Amalid; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodriguez-Acosta, F. Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY). The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50) (ED50= 477 mg/kg). Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds. PMID:24553610

  7. Coral snake antivenom produced in chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Irma; Sánchez, Elda E; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodriguez-Acosta, F Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze-thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY). The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50) (ED50= 477 mg/kg). Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds. PMID:24553610

  8. Localization and quantification of the chicken gonadotropins using monoclonal antibodies 

    E-print Network

    Puebla, Nahum Osorio

    2000-01-01

    Specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) have been used to develop novel tools for the study of the chicken gonadotropins. Earlier studies have identified separate LH...

  9. 3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

  10. 1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Chicken House, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  11. The strong selective sweep candidate gene ADRA2C does not explain domestication related changes in the stress response of chickens.

    PubMed

    Elfwing, Magnus; Fallahshahroudi, Amir; Lindgren, Isa; Jensen, Per; Altimiras, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of selective sweeps to pinpoint causative genomic regions involved in chicken domestication has revealed a strong selective sweep on chromosome 4 in layer chickens. The autoregulatory ?-adrenergic receptor 2C (ADRA2C) gene is the closest to the selective sweep and was proposed as an important gene in the domestication of layer chickens. The ADRA2C promoter region was also hypermethylated in comparison to the non-selected ancestor of all domesticated chicken breeds, the Red Junglefowl, further supporting its relevance. In mice the receptor is involved in the fight-or-flight response as it modulates epinephrine release from the adrenals. To investigate the involvement of ADRA2C in chicken domestication, we measured gene expression in the adrenals and radiolabeled receptor ligand in three brain regions comparing the domestic White Leghorn strain with the wild ancestor Red Junglefowl. In adrenals ADRA2C was twofold greater expressed than the related receptor gene ADRA2A, indicating that ADRA2C is the predominant modulator of epinephrine release but no strain differences were measured. In hypothalamus and amygdala, regions associated with the stress response, and in striatum, receptor binding pIC50 values ranged between 8.1-8.4, and the level was not influenced by the genotyped allele. Because chicken strains differ in morphology, physiology and behavior, differences attributed to a single gene may be lost in the noise caused by the heterogeneous genetic background. Therefore an F10 advanced intercross strain between White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl was used to investigate effects of ADRA2C alleles on fear related behaviors and fecundity. We did not find compelling genotype effects in open field, tonic immobility, aerial predator, associative learning or fecundity. Therefore we conclude that ADRA2C is probably not involved in the domestication of the stress response in chicken, and the strong selective sweep is probably caused by selection of some unknown genetic element in the vicinity of the gene. PMID:25111139

  12. The Strong Selective Sweep Candidate Gene ADRA2C Does Not Explain Domestication Related Changes In The Stress Response Of Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Elfwing, Magnus; Fallahshahroudi, Amir; Lindgren, Isa; Jensen, Per; Altimiras, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of selective sweeps to pinpoint causative genomic regions involved in chicken domestication has revealed a strong selective sweep on chromosome 4 in layer chickens. The autoregulatory ?-adrenergic receptor 2C (ADRA2C) gene is the closest to the selective sweep and was proposed as an important gene in the domestication of layer chickens. The ADRA2C promoter region was also hypermethylated in comparison to the non-selected ancestor of all domesticated chicken breeds, the Red Junglefowl, further supporting its relevance. In mice the receptor is involved in the fight-or-flight response as it modulates epinephrine release from the adrenals. To investigate the involvement of ADRA2C in chicken domestication, we measured gene expression in the adrenals and radiolabeled receptor ligand in three brain regions comparing the domestic White Leghorn strain with the wild ancestor Red Junglefowl. In adrenals ADRA2C was twofold greater expressed than the related receptor gene ADRA2A, indicating that ADRA2C is the predominant modulator of epinephrine release but no strain differences were measured. In hypothalamus and amygdala, regions associated with the stress response, and in striatum, receptor binding pIC50 values ranged between 8.1–8.4, and the level was not influenced by the genotyped allele. Because chicken strains differ in morphology, physiology and behavior, differences attributed to a single gene may be lost in the noise caused by the heterogeneous genetic background. Therefore an F10 advanced intercross strain between White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl was used to investigate effects of ADRA2C alleles on fear related behaviors and fecundity. We did not find compelling genotype effects in open field, tonic immobility, aerial predator, associative learning or fecundity. Therefore we conclude that ADRA2C is probably not involved in the domestication of the stress response in chicken, and the strong selective sweep is probably caused by selection of some unknown genetic element in the vicinity of the gene. PMID:25111139

  13. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  14. An EAV-HP Insertion in 5? Flanking Region of SLCO1B3 Causes Blue Eggshell in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaolin; Li, Guangqi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Junying; Wang, Xiaotong; Bai, Jirong; Xu, Guiyun; Deng, Xuemei; Yang, Ning; Wu, Changxin

    2013-01-01

    The genetic determination of eggshell coloration has not been determined in birds. Here we report that the blue eggshell is caused by an EAV-HP insertion that promotes the expression of SLCO1B3 gene in the uterus (shell gland) of the oviduct in chicken. In this study, the genetic map location of the blue eggshell gene was refined by linkage analysis in an F2 chicken population, and four candidate genes within the refined interval were subsequently tested for their expression levels in the shell gland of the uterus from blue-shelled and non-blue-shelled hens. SLCO1B3 gene was found to be the only one expressed in the uterus of blue-shelled hens but not in that of non-blue-shelled hens. Results from a pyrosequencing analysis showed that only the allele of SLCO1B3 from blue-shelled chickens was expressed in the uterus of heterozygous hens (O*LC/O*N). SLCO1B3 gene belongs to the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family; and the OATPs, functioning as membrane transporters, have been reported for the transportation of amphipathic organic compounds, including bile salt in mammals. We subsequently resequenced the whole genomic region of SLCO1B3 and discovered an EAV-HP insertion in the 5? flanking region of SLCO1B3. The EAV-HP insertion was found closely associated with blue eggshell phenotype following complete Mendelian segregation. In situ hybridization also demonstrated that the blue eggshell is associated with ectopic expression of SLCO1B3 in shell glands of uterus. Our finding strongly suggests that the EAV-HP insertion is the causative mutation for the blue eggshell phenotype. The insertion was also found in another Chinese blue-shelled breed and an American blue-shelled breed. In addition, we found that the insertion site in the blue-shelled chickens from Araucana is different from that in Chinese breeds, which implied independent integration events in the blue-shelled chickens from the two continents, providing a parallel evolutionary example at the molecular level. PMID:23359636

  15. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Burócziová; J. ?íha

    2009-01-01

    Genetic relationships and population structure of 8 horse breeds in the Czech and Slovak Republics were investigated using\\u000a classification methods for breed discrimination. To demonstrate genetic differences among these breeds, we used genetic information\\u000a — genotype data of microsatellite markers and classification algorithms — to perform a probabilistic prediction of an individual’s\\u000a breed. In total, 932 unrelated animals were genotyped

  16. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vries de D. P; L. A. M. Dubois

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation available among current progenitors to ascertain the vitality and productivity of future cultivars

  17. USE OF ANIMAL BREEDS AND BREEDING TO OVERCOME THE INCIDENCE OF GRASS TETANY: A REVIEW 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Greene; J. F. Baker; P. F. Hardt

    British breeds of cattle are not so effective as Zebu in extracting nutrients from low- quality roughages, and these breeds differ in their nutrient metabolism and animal physiology. Breeds of cattle may differ in their requirements for Mg. Brahman cows are less susceptible to death from disease and metabolic disorders than are British breeds of cattle, whereas cows with 50%

  18. Challenges in Applying Indigenous Evaluation Practices in Mainstream Grant Programs to Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Jane Gray

    2008-01-01

    How can indigenous evaluators implement culturally competent models in First Nations communities while ensuring that government grant evaluation requirements are met? Through describing the challenges in one tribal community in the United States, this article will discuss how American Indian/Alaska Native substance abuse prevention programs are…

  19. Working Divides between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous: Disruptions of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, Jane

    2004-01-01

    It is impossible to teach well or conduct good research without some personal sense of involvement. Without attending to these apparently extraneous emotional aspects our work is impoverished. At the same time it is the needs of indigenous peoples as subjects in research and teaching which are paramount. The author touches on the relevance of…

  20. The State versus Indigenous Peoples: The Impact of Hydraulic Projects on Indigenous Peoples of Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thi Dieu, Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…

  1. A computational approach to animal breeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya Y. Berger-Wolf; Cristopher Moore; Jared Saia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a computational model of mating strategies for controlled animal breeding programs. A mating strategy in a controlled breeding program is a heuristic with some optimization criteria as a goal. Thus, it is appropriate to use the computational tools available for analysis of optimization heuristics. In this paper, we propose the first discrete model of the controlled animal breeding

  2. Rose Breeding Program MOORE ROSE COLLECTION

    E-print Network

    Rose Breeding Program MOORE ROSE COLLECTION The father of the miniature rose, Ralph Moore, has donated all of his breeding stock, nursery business, and plant inventory to Texas AgriLife Research unreleased varieties that are used for breeding stock. Few of the commercially released rose varieties have

  3. Breeding Soundness Examinations of Rams and Bucks

    E-print Network

    Breeding Soundness Examinations of Rams and Bucks Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student, Purdue the ability to settle a large portion of females early in the breeding season and sire offspring of settling females, producers can perform breeding soundness examinations (BSEs). Up to 10 to 15 percent

  4. Perennial Grass Breeding Program BIOENERGY PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Perennial Grass Breeding Program BIOENERGY PROGRAM One Texas AgriLife Research initiative for bioenergy is the perennial grass breeding program. Results are outlined here. Pearl Millet-Napiergrass P (clonal, true-breeding hybrid seed). Giant Miscanthus Miscanthus × giganteus Giant Miscanthus (M × g

  5. Problem 1. In a barn with chickens and dogs there are 5 heads and 14 legs. How many chickens are there? (A chicken has 2 legs and a dog has 4.)

    E-print Network

    Smith, Roy

    Problem 1. In a barn with chickens and dogs there are 5 heads and 14 legs. How many chickens are there? (A chicken has 2 legs and a dog has 4.) Problem 1. In a barn with chickens and dogs there are 5 heads and 14 legs. How many chickens are there? (A chicken has 2 legs and a dog has 4.) #12;Problem 2

  6. Visualizing axon guidance phenotypes induced by RNAi in chicken embryos

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Visualizing axon guidance phenotypes induced by RNAi in chicken embryos The ability to turn off the chicken embryo has been a classical model system for developmental studies in vertebrates because of its RNAi, the chicken embryo has once again re-emerged as an excellent vertebrate model system. To study

  7. Fate of nitrogen during composting of chicken litter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M Tiquia; N. F. Y Tam

    2000-01-01

    Chicken litter (a mixture of chicken manure, wood shavings, waste feed, and feathers) was composted in forced-aeration piles to understand the changes and losses of nitrogen (N) during composting. During the composting process, the chemical [different N fractions, organic matter (OM), organic carbon (C), and C:N ratio], physical, and microbial properties of the chicken litter were examined. Cumulative losses and

  8. Nutrient values for Australian and overseas chicken meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmine Probst

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarise analysed nutrient data for Australian chicken meat and compare analysed data for Australian chicken meat with overseas data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Analysed nutrient data for Australian chicken meat was compared with publicly available English language databases from overseas countries. Where similar cuts were available, ratio plots were developed to determine similarities

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of tannery fleshings using chicken intestine proteases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Annapurna Raju; C. Rose; N. Muralidhara Rao

    1997-01-01

    Chicken intestine and tannery fleshings, the major wastes from poultry and tannery industries posing wide disposal problems, are used in this study for the recovery of proteins through biodegradation. Chicken intestines have been investigated as a source of proteolytic and autolytic enzymes for the hydrolysis of tannery fleshings. A combination of tannery fleshings and chicken intestines at acidic pH, when

  10. A Comprehensive Collection of Chicken cDNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E Boardman; Juan Sanz-Ezquerro; Ian M Overton; David W Burt; Elizabeth Bosch; Willy T Fong; Cheryll Tickle; William R. A Brown; Stuart A Wilson; Simon J Hubbard

    2002-01-01

    Birds have played a central role in many biological disciplines, particularly ecology, evolution, and behavior. The chicken, as a model vertebrate, also represents an important experimental system for developmental biologists, immunologists, cell biologists, and geneticists. However, genomic resources for the chicken have lagged behind those for other model organisms, with only 1845 nonredundant full-length chicken cDNA sequences currently deposited in

  11. Chicken Ghrelin: Purification, cDNA Cloning, and Biological Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROYUKI KAIYA; SERGE VAN DER GEYTEN; MASAYASU KOJIMA; HIROSHI HOSODA; YASUO KITAJIMA; MASARU MATSUMOTO; SOFIE GEELISSEN; VEERLE M. DARRAS; KENJI KANGAWA

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we report the purification, cDNA cloning, and characterization of the novel growth hormone-releasing pep- tide, ghrelin, in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Chicken ghrelin is composed of 26 amino acids (GSSFLSPTYKNIQQQK- DTRKPTARLH) and possesses 54% sequence identity with hu- man ghrelin. The serine residue at position 3 (Ser3 )i s con - served between the chicken and mammalian

  12. OPERATIONAL NOTE SENTINEL CHICKEN COOP MODIFICATION FOR CANOPY-LEVEL

    E-print Network

    OPERATIONAL NOTE SENTINEL CHICKEN COOP MODIFICATION FOR CANOPY-LEVEL ARBOVIRUS DISEASE SURVEILLANCE Jones Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 ABSTRACT. A pulley-block system for elevating sentinel chicken-level captive sentinel systems. KEY WORDS Sentinel chicken, canopy surveillance, vector control program

  13. Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase in chicken skeletal muscles

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase in chicken skeletal muscles of Histo%gy and Embryo%gy Academy of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. Summary. Chicken muscles offer several of molecular forms of chicken muscle acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and likewise of pseudocholinesterase (1/t

  14. Population Ecology Demography of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    E-print Network

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    Population Ecology Demography of Greater Prairie-Chickens: Regional Variation in Vital Rates that is an indicator species for tallgrass prairie, the greater prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido), during a 4-year survival, and annual adult female survival for 3 populations of prairie-chickens across an ecological

  15. Original article Serum sensitivity and apathogenicity for chickens

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Serum sensitivity and apathogenicity for chickens and chick embryos of Escherichia coli J5 strain was assessed for its serum resistance and pathogenicity for both chickens and chick embryos. Pathogenicity for chickens was assessed by intravenous inoculation into three-week-old broiler

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Segregation distortion in chicken and the

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Segregation distortion in chicken and the evolutionary consequences of female distortion, we also investigate the transmission of B9000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 197 chicken support to the hypothesis that centromeres and telomeres drive during female meioses in chicken. Heredity

  17. Fried Chicken Bucket Processes Mary McGlohon

    E-print Network

    Fried Chicken Bucket Processes Mary McGlohon Machine Learning Department Carnegie Mellon University that may not be appropriate for modeling some phenomena. Therefore, we introduce fried chicken bucket chicken bucket process, and presents spork notation, a useful rep- resentation for FCBP's and other

  18. Statistical flaws undermine pre-Columbian chicken debate

    E-print Network

    Bryant, David

    LETTER Statistical flaws undermine pre-Columbian chicken debate Thomson et al. (1) recently used analyses of modern and ancient chicken DNA in an at- tempt to overturn evidence of Polynesian dis- persal of chickens to pre-Columbian South America. There are, however, significant methodological and statistical

  19. Embryonic chicken gizzard: immunolocalization of collagen and smooth muscle myosin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke R. Paul; Truc Linh Vo; Andreas Meyer; Ute Gröschel-Stewart

    1992-01-01

    Antibodies to chicken gizzard myosin and to chicken skin collagen type I allow the myofibrillar and connective tissue development in the embryonic chicken gizzard to be followed. Fibroblasts are assumed to synthesize collagen prior to the onset of smooth muscle cell development in the muscle primordium (day 5); they are presumably also responsible for collagen synthesis close to the presumptive

  20. Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens.

    PubMed

    Kameka, Amber M; Haddadi, Siamak; Jamaldeen, Fathima Jesreen; Moinul, Prima; He, Xiao T; Nawazdeen, Fathima Hafsa P; Bonfield, Stephan; Sharif, Shayan; van Rooijen, Nico; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2014-10-01

    Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that a single administration of clodronate liposomes to chickens results in a significant depletion of macrophages within the spleen and lungs of chickens up to 4 d post-treatment. This finding suggests that, in order to obtain depletion of macrophages in chickens for greater than 5 d, it is necessary to administer clodronate liposomes 4 d apart. The study also showed that 2 treatments of clodronate liposomes at 4-day intervals resulted in the depletion of macrophages for up to 10 d. The findings of the present study will encourage more precise studies to be done on the potential roles of macrophages in immune responses and in the pathogenesis of microbial infections in chickens. PMID:25355996

  1. Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kameka, Amber M.; Haddadi, Siamak; Jamaldeen, Fathima Jesreen; Moinul, Prima; He, Xiao T.; Nawazdeen, Fathima Hafsa P.; Bonfield, Stephan; Sharif, Shayan; van Rooijen, Nico; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that a single administration of clodronate liposomes to chickens results in a significant depletion of macrophages within the spleen and lungs of chickens up to 4 d post-treatment. This finding suggests that, in order to obtain depletion of macrophages in chickens for greater than 5 d, it is necessary to administer clodronate liposomes 4 d apart. The study also showed that 2 treatments of clodronate liposomes at 4-day intervals resulted in the depletion of macrophages for up to 10 d. The findings of the present study will encourage more precise studies to be done on the potential roles of macrophages in immune responses and in the pathogenesis of microbial infections in chickens. PMID:25355996

  2. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    PubMed

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-06-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-? production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens. PMID:25549222

  3. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-? production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3-Ia+ B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens. PMID:25549222

  4. Probabilistic cognition in two indigenous Mayan groups.

    PubMed

    Fontanari, Laura; Gonzalez, Michel; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Girotto, Vittorio

    2014-12-01

    Is there a sense of chance shared by all individuals, regardless of their schooling or culture? To test whether the ability to make correct probabilistic evaluations depends on educational and cultural guidance, we investigated probabilistic cognition in preliterate and prenumerate Kaqchikel and K'iche', two indigenous Mayan groups, living in remote areas of Guatemala. Although the tested individuals had no formal education, they performed correctly in tasks in which they had to consider prior and posterior information, proportions and combinations of possibilities. Their performance was indistinguishable from that of Mayan school children and Western controls. Our results provide evidence for the universal nature of probabilistic cognition. PMID:25368160

  5. Probabilistic cognition in two indigenous Mayan groups

    PubMed Central

    Fontanari, Laura; Gonzalez, Michel; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Girotto, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Is there a sense of chance shared by all individuals, regardless of their schooling or culture? To test whether the ability to make correct probabilistic evaluations depends on educational and cultural guidance, we investigated probabilistic cognition in preliterate and prenumerate Kaqchikel and K’iche’, two indigenous Mayan groups, living in remote areas of Guatemala. Although the tested individuals had no formal education, they performed correctly in tasks in which they had to consider prior and posterior information, proportions and combinations of possibilities. Their performance was indistinguishable from that of Mayan school children and Western controls. Our results provide evidence for the universal nature of probabilistic cognition. PMID:25368160

  6. Low rates of postpartum glucose screening among indigenous and non-indigenous women in Australia with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Catherine; McLean, Anna; Oats, Jeremy; Oldenburg, Brian; Eades, Sandra; Sinha, Ashim; Wolfe, Rory

    2015-03-01

    Women with gestational diabetes have a high risk of type 2 diabetes postpartum, with Indigenous women particularly affected. This study reports postpartum diabetes screening rates among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women with gestational diabetes, in Far North Queensland, Australia. Retrospective study including 1,012 women with gestational diabetes giving birth at a regional hospital from 1/1/2004 to 31/12/2010. Data were linked between hospital records, midwives perinatal data, and laboratory results, then analysed using survival analysis and logistic regression. Indigenous women had significantly longer times to first oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) [hazards ratio (HR) 0.62, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.79, p < 0.0001) and 'any' postpartum glucose test (HR 0.81, 95 % CI 0.67-0.98, p = 0.03], compared to non-Indigenous women. Postpartum screening rates among all women were low. However, early OGTT screening rates (<6 months) were significantly lower among Indigenous women (13.6 vs. 28.3 %, p < 0.0001), leading to a persistent gap in cumulative postpartum screening rates. By 3 years postpartum, cumulative rates of receiving an OGTT, were 24.6 % (95 % CI 19.9-30.2 %) and 34.1 % (95 % CI 30.6-38.0 %) among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Excluding OGTTs in previous periods, few women received OGTTs at 6-24 months (7.8 vs. 6.7 %) or 2-4 years (5.2 vs. 6.5 %), among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Low rates of postpartum diabetes screening demonstrate that essential 'ongoing management' and 'equity' criteria for population-based screening for gestational diabetes are not being met; particularly among Indigenous women, for whom recent guideline changes have specific implications. Strategies to improve postpartum screening after gestational diabetes are urgently needed. PMID:24981736

  7. Quest of Visual Literacy: Deconstructing Visual Images of Indigenous People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semali, Ladislaus

    This paper introduces five concepts that guide teachers' and students' critical inquiry in the understanding of media and visual representation. In a step-by-step process, the paper illustrates how these five concepts can become a tool with which to critique and examine film images of indigenous people. The Sani are indigenous people of the…

  8. Language Negotiations Indigenous Students Navigate when Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigeza, Philemon

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on implications of a research study with a group of 44 Indigenous middle school students learning the science concepts of energy and force. We found the concepts of energy and force need to be taught in English as we failed to find common comparable abstract concepts in the students' diverse Indigenous languages. Three…

  9. Capacity-Building Partnerships Between Indigenous Youth and Elders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Cook

    1999-01-01

    Various strategies are discussed for creating intergenerational research opportunities that support the rights of indigenous children and youth. These strategies were developed during an international workshop that brought together indigenous elders and youth from 20 nations to discuss a global intergenerational action plan. Specific workshop goals were to (a) explore traditional values and teachings that nurture children, and (b) identify

  10. Exploring Multiple Pathways for Indigenous Students. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. Young Indigenous Australians are disproportionately represented among young people who do not successfully negotiate the transition from school to independence and employment. This paper focuses on issues of…

  11. Mathematics Registers in Indigenous Languages: Experiences from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Through reporting on an initiative in South Africa that aimed to provide epistemological access to teachers and learners of mathematics (and science) through translating mathematical concepts into two indigenous languages, this paper argues for the urgent development of mathematical registers in indigenous languages for mathematics and …

  12. Indigenous Knowledge and Education: Sites of Struggle, Strength, and Survivance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Malia, Ed.; Neugebauer, Sabina Rak, Ed.; Venegas, Kerry R., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book brings together essays that explore Indigenous ways of knowing and that consider how such knowledge can inform educational practices and institutions. Indigenous Knowledge is resiliently local in character and thus poses a distinct contrast to the international, more impersonal system of knowledge prevalent in Western educational…

  13. For a Sustainable Future: Indigenous Transborder Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quijada, Adrian; Cassadore, Edison; Perry, Gaye Bumsted; Geronimo, Ronald; Lund, Kimberley; Miguel, Phillip; Montes-Helu, Mario; Newberry, Teresa; Robertson, Paul; Thornbrugh, Casey

    2015-01-01

    The U.S.-Mexico border region of the Sonoran Desert is home to 30 Native nations in the United States, and about 15 Indigenous communities in Mexico. Imposed on Indigenous peoples' ancestral lands, the border is an artificial line created in 1848, following the war between the U.S. and Mexico. Tohono O'odham Community College (TOCC) seeks to…

  14. Indigenous Peoples and Education in the Circumpolar North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmert, William G., Jr., Ed.

    This collection of papers represents an attempt to define better the purposes and content of education among the indigenous peoples of the circumpolar north. All the papers, except one on the Soviet Union, were written by members of indigenous groups in the far north. They are professionally involved in the field of Native education in their…

  15. Growth and Empowerment for Indigenous Australians in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Stacey L.; Crowe, T. P.; Deane, F. P.; Billingham, M.; Bhagerutty, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes psychosocial outcomes of an Indigenous residential substance abuse rehabilitation centre in Australia, examines the sensitivity to change of the new Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), and explores the degree to which service users value cultural components of the treatment program. Participants were 57 Indigenous and 46…

  16. Independent Correlates of Reported Gambling Problems amongst Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Matthew; Young, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To identify independent correlates of reported gambling problems amongst the Indigenous population of Australia. A cross-sectional design was applied to a nationally representative sample of the Indigenous population. Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented by remoteness and jurisdiction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to…

  17. Closing the Gap: Using Graduate Attributes to Improve Indigenous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Peter J.; Atkinson, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Peter J. Anderson and Bernadette Atkinson teach Indigenous and Traditionally Education in a Global World as a fourth year unit in the Faculty of Education at Monash University, Clayton. This paper is a self reflective piece of work where they discuss the use of graduate attributes relating to Indigenous Education, put forward by the Australian…

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis By Daniel The knowledge of medicinal plant use by indigenous populations constitutes the most understudied medical the medicinal plants for antibiotic properties. The groups focused on were the Shipibo Indians of the Peruvian

  19. SHANGWE INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: AN ETHNOMETROLOGICAL AND ETHNOMUSICOLOGICAL EXPLICATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renias Ngara; Jerry Rutsate; Remigios V. Mangizvo

    2014-01-01

    Scientifically, climate change is the present concern and metrologists are technologically advancing in studying weather patterns. Zimbabwe indigenes, particularly those living in the rural areas such as the Shangwe in Gokwe District, generally relied on the indigenous knowledge systems on rainmaking adopted from their forefathers. The transmission of knowledge on ritual music still is passed on from generation to generation.

  20. The Importance of Place in Indigenous Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education, Mack and colleagues (Mack et al. "2011") seek to identify the necessary components of science education in Indigenous settings. Using a review of current research in informal science education in Indigenous settings, along with personal interviews with American educators engaged in these…

  1. Globalization and Science Education: The Implications for Indigenous Knowledge Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie

    2009-01-01

    Much of the current diversity literature in science education does not address the complexity of the issues of indigenous learners in their postcolonial environments and calls for a "one size fits all" instructional approach (Lee, 2001). Indigenous knowledge needs to be promoted and supported. There is currently a global initiative of…

  2. Indigenous Knowledge and Science in a Globalized Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Jagadish; Fleming, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This forum explores and expands on Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's article titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how indigenous knowledge is appropriated in science classrooms; how students from indigenous students'…

  3. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

  4. Experiencing Indigenous Knowledge Online as a Community Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutay, Cat; Mooney, Janet; Riley, Lynette; Howard-Wagner, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a project at the Koori Centre, University of Sydney, funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) in 2011, titled "Indigenous On-Line Cultural Teaching and Sharing". One of the team members (Kutay) was also a project team member on the ALTC-funded project "Exploring PBL in Indigenous Australian Studies",…

  5. Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

  6. Indigenous Youth and Bilingualism--Theory, Research, Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Wyman, Leisy T.

    2009-01-01

    In this introduction, we situate the theme issue within a growing body of research on Indigenous youth language practices, communicative repertoires, and ideologies, articulating points of intersection in scholarship on Indigenous and immigrant youth bilingualism. Our geographic focus is North America. Ethnographic studies from the Far North to…

  7. Free Software for Indigenous Languages Kevin P. Scannell

    E-print Network

    Scannell, Kevin Patrick

    with Ireland's rural, impoverished past, with "old-fashioned" culture, and is generally viewed as "useless (sometimes referred to as "Irish Gaelic"), the indigenous language of Ireland. Like most other indigenous that the language is taught in schools throughout Ireland and receives support from the government as a result

  8. Culture and Wellbeing: The Case of Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred Michael

    2010-01-01

    A recurring theme in Indigenous affairs in Australia is a tension between maintenance of Indigenous culture and achievement of socio-economic "equity": essentially "self-determination" versus "assimilation". Implicit in this tension is the view that attachment to traditional cultures and lifestyles is a hindrance to achieving "mainstream" economic…

  9. Classroom Discourse of an Experienced Teacher of Indigenous Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thwaite, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This paper will examine the discourse of one experienced teacher of Indigenous children in lessons observed as part of the Conductive Hearing Loss (CHL) project conducted by Edith Cowan University in Perth. In the classroom observed, all the children were Indigenous and the teacher was aware that some children were suffering from CHL. This…

  10. Alternative VET Pathways to Indigenous Development. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Bob

    Recent research and policy documents on indigenous Australians' development needs and aspirations were reviewed to determine their impact on current developments in vocational education and training (VET) research and policy. Special attention was paid to the work of indigenous community-controlled organizations in areas such the following: land;…

  11. A serological survey of chickens, Japanese quail, pigeons, ducks and crows for antibodies to chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Farkas; K. Maeda; H. Sugiura; K. Kai; K. Hirai; K. Otsuki; T. Hayashi

    1998-01-01

    The chicken has been considered as the natural host for chicken anaemia virus (CAV). To examine the prevalence of CAV in domestic and wild birds in Japan, we analyzed serum samples collected from 211 chickens, 168 Japanese quail, 105 pigeons, 113 ducks and 116 crows for the presence of antibodies to CAV by a micro?scale virus neutralization (VN) test. Nine

  12. Confined housing system increased abdominal and subcutaneous fat deposition and gene expressions of carbohydrate response element-binding protein and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Zhao, X L; Gilbert, E R; Liu, Y P; Wang, Y; Qiu, M H; Zhu, Q

    2015-01-01

    Free-range production system is increasingly being used in poultry breeding and feed production in many countries. The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effects of different raising systems on fat-related traits and mRNA levels of liver lipogenesis genes in Erlang Mountainous chicken. Each of 10 birds (91 day old) from caged, indoor-floor housed, and free-range housing systems was slaughtered, and fat-related traits, live body weight (BW), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), abdominal fat weight (AFW), abdominal fat percentage (AFP), and intramuscular fat content were determined. The mRNA levels of liver X receptor ?, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1), and fatty acid synthase were detected. The caged chicken exhibited significantly higher BW, SFT, and AFW than those of free-ranged chicken (P < 0.05). All the 4 genes had a similar expression pattern, and they showed the highest level in caged chicken, while the lowest level was found in free-ranged chicken. Association analysis indicated that there were significant (P < 0.05) or highly significant (P < 0.01) positive correlations between the mRNA levels of ChREBP, SREBP1, and fat traits of SFT, AFW, and AFP. Thus, we deduced that increased fat deposition in caged chicken was probably induced by increased gene expression of ChREBP and SREBP1 in the liver. PMID:25730060

  13. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of chicken litter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Soo; Agblevor, Foster A

    2007-01-01

    Chicken litter generally consists of a mixture of bedding, manure, feathers and spilled food. Flock of birds litter (flock) is a litter consisting of hardwood shavings, feed, feathers and manure; and broiler litter (broiler) is a cake of chicken litter. A kinetic investigation of the pyrolysis of chicken litter (flock and broiler) was carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at heating rates of 5 degrees C/min, 10 degrees C/min and 20 degrees C/min. Most of the materials decomposed between 270 degrees C and 590 degrees C at each heating rate. The region of decomposition of flock and broiler was slightly lower than that of the wood chips. Wood chips (bedding material) decomposed in two stages, while flock and broiler decomposed in three stages. Apparent activation energies increased from 99 to 484 kJ/mol for the three samples when the pyrolytic conversion increased from 5% to 95%. PMID:16540303

  14. Quantitative trait loci mapping of sexual maturity traits applied to chicken breeding 

    E-print Network

    Podisi, Baitsi Kingsley

    2011-07-05

    Many phenotypes are controlled by factors which include the genes, the environment, interactions between genes and interaction between the genotypes and the environment. Great strides have been made to understand how ...

  15. A population study on indigenous hospitalisations for interpersonal violence.

    PubMed

    Meuleners, Lynn B; Lee, Andy H; Hendrie, Delia; Fraser, Michelle

    2010-03-01

    Indigenous people experience a disproportionately high burden of interpersonal violence. This paper compares the demographic characteristics and injury circumstances of male and female Indigenous Australians hospitalised due to interpersonal violence in Western Australia over a 15-year period. A population-based, retrospective study of all hospitalisations due to interpersonal violence for Indigenous people in WA was undertaken using the linked 1990-2004 data from the WA Mortality Database and the Hospital Morbidity Data System. The majority of Indigenous hospitalisations were for females (56.3%). Female victims were more likely to be admitted due to maltreatment and rape (11.9%). Age profiles, residential location and length of hospital stay were similar between both sexes. The results indicate higher rates of hospitalisation and readmissions for interpersonal violence in WA among Indigenous females than males. There may potentially be different risk factors for each sex and further investigation will have public health benefits. PMID:20334768

  16. Enhancing Genome-Wide Copy Number Variation Identification by High Density Array CGH Using Diverse Resources of Pig Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiying; Jiang, Jicai; Wang, Haifei; Kang, Huimin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are important forms of genomic variation, and have attracted extensive attentions in humans as well as domestic animals. In the study, using a custom-designed 2.1 M array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), genome-wide CNVs were identified among 12 individuals from diverse pig breeds, including one Asian wild population, six Chinese indigenous breeds and two modern commercial breeds (Yorkshire and Landrace), with one individual of the other modern commercial breed, Duroc, as the reference. A total of 1,344 CNV regions (CNVRs) were identified, covering 47.79 Mb (?1.70%) of the pig genome. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 3.37 Kb to 1,319.0 Kb with a mean of 35.56 Kb and a median of 11.11 Kb. Compared with similar studies reported, most of the CNVRs (74.18%) were firstly identified in present study. In order to confirm these CNVRs, 21 CNVRs were randomly chosen to be validated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and a high rate (85.71%) of confirmation was obtained. Functional annotation of CNVRs suggested that the identified CNVRs have important function, and may play an important role in phenotypic and production traits difference among various breeds. Our results are essential complementary to the CNV map in the pig genome, which will provide abundant genetic markers to investigate association studies between various phenotypes and CNVs in pigs. PMID:24475311

  17. Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.

    PubMed

    Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. PMID:24528101

  18. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    PubMed

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility. PMID:25241484

  19. Monoclonal antibodies against chicken interleukin-6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Scott; H. S. Lillehoj

    2006-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced against a recombinant (r) chicken interleukin-6 (IL-6). Eight mAbs produced were tested for isotype; ability to inhibit recombinant forms of chicken (ch), human (h) and murine (m) IL-6; and recognition of rchIL-6 by Western immunoblotting. The mAb isotypes were represented by IgG1 (one), IgG2a (six) and IgG2b (one). In a mouse B9 hybridoma cell bioassay

  20. 8.F Chicken and Steak, Variation 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: You have \\$100 to spend on a barbeque where you want to serve chicken and steak. Chicken costs \\$1.29 per pound and steak costs \\$3.49 per pound. Find ...

  1. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    PubMed Central

    Laval, Guillaume; Iannuccelli, Nathalie; Legault, Christian; Milan, Denis; Groenen, Martien AM; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Andersson, Leif; Nissen, Peter H; Jørgensen, Claus B; Beeckmann, Petra; Geldermann, Hermann; Foulley, Jean-Louis; Chevalet, Claude; Ollivier, Louis

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27), and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity. PMID:14736401

  2. Cowgame: animal breeding simulation software 

    E-print Network

    Kleibrink, Kevin Michael

    1997-01-01

    extraneous factors. It is important not to waste time on unsuccessful breeding programs (Willham, 1970). This program was originally written in FORTRAN to be run on a mainframe computer. It included traits such as yearling weight and carcass yield. In 1983..., it did not calculate across-herd EPDs and the use of BASIC limited its scope of use because of compilation procedures (Buchanan et al. , 1988). Simulation Willham (1970) utilized a method that incorporated the random number generator in FORTRAN...

  3. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    E-print Network

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  4. Profiling histidine dipeptides in plasma and urine after ingesting beef, chicken or chicken broth in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung-Jin Yeum; Marica Orioli; Luca Regazzoni; Marina Carini; Helen Rasmussen; Robert M. Russell; Giancarlo Aldini

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro metabolic stability of histidine-dipeptides (HD), carnosine (CAR) and anserine (ANS), in human serum, and their\\u000a absorption kinetics after ingesting pure carnosine or HD rich foods in humans have been investigated. Healthy women (n = 4) went through four phases of taking one dose of either 450 mg of pure carnosine, 150 g beef (B), 150 g chicken (C), or\\u000a chicken broth (CB)

  5. Language, Authenticity and Identity: Indigenous Fijian Students and Language Use in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carmen M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines indigenous language use in schools in Fiji, where English is the language of instruction in secondary schools but where indigenous Fijian has a strong presence. Explores attitudes of indigenous Fijian secondary school students on English-language usage among peers and suggests that an indigenous group can define group authenticity…

  6. Mending baskets: The process of using indigenous epistemology to reinterpret Sacagawea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selene G Phillips

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation is an interdisciplinary study that applies indigenous epistemology to a study of Sacagawea, the Shoshone woman who traveled with the Lewis and Clark expedition. The research addresses the problem of misrepresentation of Sacagawea and other Indigenous Peoples. It incorporates indigenous epistemology toward alternative social action, language and rationality. This study refined seven categories that describe an indigenous epistemology

  7. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  8. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous

  9. Sources of Satisfaction and Stress among Indigenous Academic Teachers: Findings from a National Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmar, Christine; Page, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Academics of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander descent are few in number but play a vital role in Australian university teaching. In addition to teaching both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students, they interact with academic colleagues in a context where pressures to "Indigenize" Australian curricula and increase Indigenous enrolments are…

  10. Academic Staff Perceptions of Factors Underlying Program Completion by Australian Indigenous Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…

  11. Success Stories from an Indigenous Immersion Primary Teaching Experience in New South Wales Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Ingrid; Brasche, Inga

    2011-01-01

    A federal report released by the Department of Families and Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA, 2009), entitled "Closing the Gap on Indigenous Disadvantage: The Challenge for Australia", highlighted the inequality that exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students based on a restricted access to resources, issues…

  12. Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Adam A.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Faulkner, James A.; Tarrant, Michael A.; Poudevigne, Melanie; Williams, Michelle A.; Stoner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori), and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives) that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for M?ori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. PMID:24649368

  13. Modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors among indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Adam A; Lambrick, Danielle M; Faulkner, James A; Fryer, Simon; Tarrant, Michael A; Poudevigne, Melanie; Williams, Michelle A; Stoner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori), and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives) that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for M?ori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. PMID:24649368

  14. EFFECTS OF HUMIC ACID ON BROILER CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In view of the alleged effect of humic acid (HA) on growth plate arthrosis in humans, we sought to find if poultry tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is caused by HA that can occur as ground water contaminant. In two separate trials, broiler chickens were fed different concentrations of HA added to their...

  15. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  16. Experimental infections with fowl pox in chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Howell; R. Hunter

    1978-01-01

    Seven groups of chickens were challenged with a field isolate of fowl pox virus at 18 weeks old. The birds in the groups that had been vaccinated 3 weeks previously with fowl pox vaccinates showed no signs of disease. Birds which had not been vaccinated against fowl pox developed upper respiratory disease after challenge, and some birds had diphtheritic tracheitis

  17. CONCENTRATION OF NUCLEI IN CHICKEN MUSCLE FIBRE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CONCENTRATION OF NUCLEI IN CHICKEN MUSCLE FIBRE IN RELATION TO THE INTENSITY OF GROWTH Helena KNÍ concentration on a constant length segment of muscle fibre released by maceration has been investigated of the muscle tissue are in approximate agreement with these observations. In the course of the investigated

  18. Chicken, Broccoli, and Brown Rice Dinner Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken, Broccoli, and Brown Rice Dinner Ingredients: 1 onion 1 teaspoon vegetable oil 3 cups water of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one side to the other, then lay the slices on their side

  19. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Fresh Chicken Breast Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract The dielectric properties of fresh chicken breast meat were measured at temperatures from 5 to 85 degrees °C over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz by dielectric spectroscopy techniques with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer. Samples were cut from ...

  20. CHICKEN FEATHER FIBERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of Findings (Outputs/Outcomes): A Sievert’s apparatus for measuring the H2 storage capacities of adsorbents was built. The nitrogen adsorption and H2 storage test performed on the pyrolyzed chicken feather fibers (PCFF) prepared by a p...

  1. Ovalbumin gene is split in chicken DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Breathnach; J. L. Mandel; P. Chambon

    1977-01-01

    The ovalbumin gene is split in chicken DNA. Two interruptions in the sequences coding for ovalbumin mRNA have been detected, at least one of them lying in the protein coding sequence. The unexpected gene organisation is present both in oviduct cells highly specialised in ovalbumin synthesis and in erythrocytes.

  2. Habitat management considerations for prairie chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, L.M.

    1974-01-01

    Lack of nesting and brood rearing habitat appears to be the universal limiting factor for prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) throughout their range. Grasslands are essential to prairie chickens, but vary widely in quality and thus in their ability to support prairie chickens. High-quality habitat is grassland providing residual vegetation averaging about 20 inches in height in spring and sufficiently dense to completely conceal a nesting prairie chicken. Annually grazed, annually hayed, or long-term (10 years or more) idled habitats are undesirable. The most successful method for maintaining high-quality nest-brood habitat is prescribed burning at 3- to 5-year intervals; such habitat may be established by seeding grass or grass-legume mixtures. Seeded habitat may be maintained by prescribed burning at 3- to 5-year intervals. Management units should contain at least 2 square miles of high-quality habitat within an area not to exceed 8 square miles. High-quality habitat blocks should be at least 160 acres with a minimum width of one-half mile. Based on available evidence, funding to provide winter food or cover is not recommended.

  3. Barriers in education of indigenous nursing students: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Foxall, Donna

    2013-11-01

    The poor health status of indigenous people has been identified internationally as a critical issue. It is now commonly accepted that the ability to address this concern is hindered, in part, by the disproportionately low number of indigenous health professionals, including nurses. This paper reports the findings of a review of literature that aimed to identify key barriers in the education of the indigenous undergraduate nursing students in the tertiary sector, to identify strategies to overcome these, and discuss these elements within the New Zealand context. A number of health-related databases were searched and a total of 16 peer-reviewed articles from Canada, U.S.A., Australia and New Zealand were reviewed. Key barriers to recruitment and retention and strategies to overcome these are presented. Barriers to recruitment included: academic unpreparedness; poor understanding of cultural needs; and conflicting obligations, and financial constraints. Barriers to retention included lack of cultural and academic support, family obligations and financial hardship. Strategies to address recruitment barriers included: addressing pre-entry education requirements; targeted promotion of nursing programmes; indigenous role models in the recruitment process; and streamlining enrolment processes to make programmes attractive and attainable for indigenous students. Strategies to address retention barriers included: cultural relevance within the curriculum; identifying and supporting cultural needs of indigenous students with active participation of indigenous staff; engaging communities and funding support. The crucial development of partnerships between academic institutes and indigenous communities to ensure the provision of a culturally safe, supportive environment for the students was stressed. In New Zealand, while government-level policy exists to promote the success of MBori nursing students, the translation of what is known about the recruitment and retention of indigenous students is an area for development. PMID:24575608

  4. Rodents on pig and chicken farms – a potential threat to human and animal health

    PubMed Central

    Backhans, Annette; Fellström, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited. PMID:22957130

  5. Globalization, states, and the health of indigenous peoples.

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, S J

    2000-01-01

    The consequences of globalization are mixed, and for the indigenous peoples of poor countries globalization has potentially important benefits. These are the result not of participation in the global economy but of participation in global networks of other indigenous peoples, environmental activists, and nongovernmental organizations. Since World War II, nonstate actors such as these have gained standing in international forums. It is indigenous peoples' growing visibility and ability to mobilize international support against the policies of their own national governments that has contributed in some important instances to their improved chances of survival. PMID:11029984

  6. Characterization and Expression of Chicken Selenoprotein U.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun-Yun; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Lin, Gao-Chao; Guo, Hui-Yuan; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Zhang, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Selenoprotein U (SelU) may regulate a myriad of biological processes through its redox function. In chicks, neither the nucleotide sequence nor the amino acid sequence is known. The main objectives of this study were to clone and characterize the chicken Selu gene and investigate Selu messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in chicken tissues. The coding sequence (CDS) of Selu contained 387 bases with a typical mammalian selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) located in the 3'-untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of chicken SelU contains 224 amino acids with UAA as the stop codon. Like all SelU genes identified in different species, chicken SelU contains one well-conserved selenocysteine (Sec) at the 85th position encoded by the UGA codon. The SECIS element was with the conserved denosine (--AAA--) rather than the motif cytidine (--CC--) motif. Moreover, the expression pattern of Selu mRNA in muscle, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lung, testis, and brain was analyzed with real-time quantitative PCR in young male chickens fed a Se-deficient corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0.0 and 0.3 mg Se/kg in the form of sodium selenite. We found that the abundance of Selu mRNA in muscle, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and lung was downregulated (P < 0.05) by Se deficiency. However, it was not affected by dietary Se concentrations in testis and brain. Furthermore, protein abundance of SelU in these seven tissues was consistent with the mRNA abundance. Hence, we suggest that Selu might play an important role in the biochemical function of Se in birds. PMID:25876085

  7. Genetic and Non-Genetic Inheritance of Natural Antibodies Binding Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin in a Purebred Layer Chicken Line

    PubMed Central

    Berghof, T. V. L.; van der Klein, S. A. S.; Arts, J. A. J.; Parmentier, H. K.; van der Poel, J. J.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Natural antibodies (NAb) are defined as antibodies present in individuals without known antigenic challenge. Levels of NAb binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in chickens were earlier shown to be heritable, and to be associated with survival. Selective breeding may thus provide a strategy to improve natural disease resistance. We phenotyped 3,689 white purebred laying chickens for KLH binding NAb of different isotypes around 16 weeks of age. Heritabilities of 0.12 for the titers of total antibodies (IgT), 0.14 for IgM, 0.10 for IgA, and 0.07 for IgG were estimated. We also estimated high, positive genetic, and moderate to high, positive phenotypic correlations of IgT, IgM, IgA, and IgG, suggesting that selective breeding for NAb can be done on all antibody isotypes simultaneously. In addition, a relatively substantial non-genetic maternal environmental effect of 0.06 was detected for IgM, which may reflect a transgenerational effect. This suggests that not only the genes of the mother, but also the maternal environment affects the immune system of the offspring. Breaking strength and early eggshell whiteness of the mother’s eggs were predictive for IgM levels in the offspring, and partly explained the observed maternal environmental effects. The present results confirm that NAb are heritable, however maternal effects should be taken into account. PMID:26114750

  8. [Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

    2013-02-01

    The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out. PMID:23713267

  9. Improved Detection and Characterization of Copy Number Variations Among Diverse Pig Breeds by Array CGH

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiying; Jiang, Jicai; Wang, Haifei; Kang, Huimin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2015-01-01

    As a major component of genomic variation, copy number variations (CNVs) are considered as promising markers for some phenotypic and economically important traits in domestic animals. Using a custom-designed 1M array CGH (aCGH), we performed CNV discovery in 12 pig samples from one Asian wild boar population, six Chinese indigenous breeds, and two European commercial breeds. In total, we identified 758 CNV regions (CNVRs), covering 47.43 Mb of the pig genome sequence. Of the total porcine genes, 1295 genes were completely or partially overlapped with the identified CNVRs, which enriched in the terms related to sensory perception of the environment, neurodevelopmental processes, response to external stimuli, and immunity. Further probing the potential functions of these genes, we also found a suite of genes related important traits, which make them a promising resource for exploring the genetic basis of phenotype differences among diverse pig breeds. Compared with previous relevant studies, the current study highlights that different platforms can complement each other, and the combined implementation of different platforms is beneficial to achieve the most comprehensive CNV calls. CNVs detected in diverse populations herein are essentially complementary to the CNV map in the pig genome, which would be helpful for understanding the pig genome variants and investigating the associations between various phenotypes and CNVs. PMID:25908567

  10. Miniaturized GPS Tags Identify Non-breeding Territories of a Small Breeding Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Hallworth, Michael T.; Marra, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we use a small archival global positioning system (GPS) tag to identify and characterize non-breeding territories, quantify migratory connectivity, and identify population boundaries of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), a small migratory songbird, captured at two widely separated breeding locations. We recovered 15 (31%) GPS tags with data and located the non-breeding territories of breeding Ovenbirds from Maryland and New Hampshire, USA (0.50?±?0.15 ha, mean?±?SE). All non-breeding territories had similar environmental attributes despite being distributed across parts of Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola. New Hampshire and Maryland breeding populations had non-overlapping non-breeding population boundaries that encompassed 114,803 and 169,233?km2, respectively. Archival GPS tags provided unprecedented pinpoint locations and associated environmental information of tropical non-breeding territories. This technology is an important step forward in understanding seasonal interactions and ultimately population dynamics of populations throughout the annual cycle. PMID:26057892

  11. Miniaturized GPS Tags Identify Non-breeding Territories of a Small Breeding Migratory Songbird.

    PubMed

    Hallworth, Michael T; Marra, Peter P

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we use a small archival global positioning system (GPS) tag to identify and characterize non-breeding territories, quantify migratory connectivity, and identify population boundaries of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), a small migratory songbird, captured at two widely separated breeding locations. We recovered 15 (31%) GPS tags with data and located the non-breeding territories of breeding Ovenbirds from Maryland and New Hampshire, USA (0.50?±?0.15 ha, mean?±?SE). All non-breeding territories had similar environmental attributes despite being distributed across parts of Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola. New Hampshire and Maryland breeding populations had non-overlapping non-breeding population boundaries that encompassed 114,803 and 169,233?km(2), respectively. Archival GPS tags provided unprecedented pinpoint locations and associated environmental information of tropical non-breeding territories. This technology is an important step forward in understanding seasonal interactions and ultimately population dynamics of populations throughout the annual cycle. PMID:26057892

  12. Animal Planet: Dog Breed Directory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Are you considering bringing a canine into the family, and wondering which type of dog would be the best fit? This website from Animal Planet provides potential dog owners with information about a variety of breeds. The site directory lists dogs under such categories as Hound, Sporting, Terrier, Working, Herding, and more. Site visitors can view profiles for many different types of dogs including the Bernese Mountain Dog, Irish Setter, Old English Sheepdog, and Tibetan Spaniel. Dog profiles contain a photograph, Rating of Characteristics; and concise sections addressing History, Temperament, Form and Function, Upkeep, and Health. Profiles also include a hyperlinked list of related dogs.

  13. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. 113.37 Section... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. The test for...at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1) Twenty embryos, 9 to 11...

  14. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. 113.37 Section... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. The test for...at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1) Twenty embryos, 9 to 11...

  15. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. 113.37 Section... Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test. The test for...at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1) Twenty embryos, 9 to 11...

  16. Maturation of the angiotensin II cardiovascular response in the embryonic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus)

    E-print Network

    Crossley, Dane A.; Jonker, Sonnet S.; Hicks, James W.; Thornburg, Kent L.

    2010-01-01

    CAMs, and b hearts from embryonic chickens at 13, 17, 19,Embryonic chickens of the White Leghorn strain lack neural-mediated regulation of heartembryonic chickens. These traces illustrate the arterial pressure (P A ) and heart

  17. Unique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer,

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    Unique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer adiponectin levels in chickens, which are naturally hyperglycemic relative to mammals. Using gel filtration conditions, adiponectin in chicken plasma, and adipose tissue is predominantly a multimeric HMW isoform

  18. Assessment of Canine Temperament in Relation to Breed Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scot E. Dowd

    Breed specific legislations (BSL), are laws that discriminate against dogs of specific breeds and breed groups. BSL similar to human racial profiling is based upon the premise that certain breed types are more dangerous to humans because of genetic temperament predispositions. The American Pit Bull Terrier and the American Staffordshire Terrier are the breeds most targeted by BSL. In the

  19. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  20. [Forum: health and indigenous peoples in Brazil. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Welch, James R

    2014-04-01

    This Forum on Health and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil explores contemporary challenges to indigenous health and health politics in Brazil. The short collection of articles that follow are based on presentations, originally given at the Indigenous Health Working Group panel at the 10th Brazilian Public Health Conference in Rio Grande do Sul State, by professors Carlos E. A. Coimbra Jr. (Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), Marina Denise Cardoso (Universidade Federal de São Carlos) and Eliana E. Diehl (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina) with Marcos A. Pellegrini (Universidade Federal de Roraima). In this short Introduction, I introduce these contributions, taking as a point of reference a local example of healthcare inequity derived from a presentation at the same panel by Paulo F. Supretaprã, indigenous community leader from Etênhiritipá village, Mato Grosso State. PMID:24896059

  1. INACTIVATION OF INDIGENOUS VIRUSES IN RAW SLUDGE BY AIR DRYING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air drying of raw sludge caused inactivation of indigenous viruses. A gradual loss of infectivity occurred with the loss of water until the solids content reached about 80%. A more rapid decline of viral infectivity occurred with further dewatering....

  2. Talking Past Each Other: Genetic Testing and Indigenous Populations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ikechi Mgbeoji (University of British Columbia; )

    2007-09-01

    The peer-reviewed resource portrays how an ethical approach to genetic testing of indigenous populations requires protection from racial discrimination, preservation of human rights, prior informed consent of individuals, and retention of a population's cultural self-determination.

  3. Indigenous Nations Journal, Volume 3, Number 2 (Fall, 2002)

    E-print Network

    2002-09-01

    Scott Schrager); "Choctaws in a Revolutionary Age, 1750-1830" Greg O'Brien (Clara Sue Kidwell); "Native Americans: The Indigenous People of North America" edited by Colin F. Taylor and William C. Sturtevant (Antonie Dvorakova); "The American Indian...

  4. Environmental Popular Education and Indigenous Social Movements in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2003-01-01

    Environmental popular education helps shape indigenous social movements in India through a continual process of reflection and action that connects concerns about ecological degradation, subsistence, and marginalization. (Contains 56 references.) (SK)

  5. Social Gradients in the Health of Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianghong; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The pattern of association between socioeconomic factors and health outcomes has primarily depicted better health for those who are higher in the social hierarchy. Although this is a ubiquitous finding in the health literature, little is known about the interplay between these factors among indigenous populations. We begin to bridge this knowledge gap by assessing evidence on social gradients in indigenous health in Australia. We reveal a less universal and less consistent socioeconomic status patterning in health among Indigenous Australians, and discuss the plausibility of unique historical circumstances and social and cultural characteristics in explaining these patterns. A more robust evidence base in this field is fundamental to processes that aim to reduce the pervasive disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous population health. PMID:22095336

  6. Draft 18/10/2011 Indigeneity in the

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    : Film, Festivals and Social Justice in Indigenous Colombia Eric Waddell Jean-Marie Tjibaou and Mélanésia of Beautiful Country : un film documentaire aborigène pour une meilleure communication entre les communautés du

  7. The Psychology of Engagement with Indigenous Identities: A Cultural Perspective

    E-print Network

    Adams, Glenn E.; Fryberg, Stephaine A.; Garcia, Donna M.; Delgado-Torres, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A questionnaire study among 124 students at Haskell Indian Nations University investigated the hypothesis that engagement with Indigenous identity—assessed along 3 dimensions including degree (identification scale), content ...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology in relation to breeding

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology in relation to breeding season climate-Gesellschaft e.V. 2013 Abstract Winter weather has a strong influence on Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology season place constraints on Barn Owl reproduction. Keywords Climate Á Reproduction Á Tyto alba Á Weather

  9. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized ...

  10. Onset of plural cooperative breeding in common marmoset families following replacement of the breeding male

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Onset of plural cooperative breeding in common marmoset families following replacement of the breeding male WENDY SALTZMAN*, REBECCA R. PICK, ORRIE J. SALPER, KIMBER J. LIEDL & DAVID H. ABBOTT two females breeding concurrently when an unrelated male joins their group. We tested the hypothesis

  11. Facing the Future: Encouraging Critical Cartographic Literacies In Indigenous Communities

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jay T.; Louis, Renee Pualani; Pramono, Albertus Hadi

    2005-01-01

    /transformed within both historical and current ‘contact zones’(Pratt, 1992) of the colonial projects of the West. To engage the technologies of Western cartography is to involve our communities and their knowledge systems with a science implicated...-Journal for Critical Geographies, 4 (1), 80-98 86 involved in employing Western cartographic techniques while also accepting, embracing and welcoming non-Western cartographies. Critical literacies, Western Cartography and Indigenous agency “More indigenous...

  12. Indigenous Hip-hop: overcoming marginality, encountering constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Warren; Rob Evitt

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the creative and contemporary performances of young Indigenous hip-hoppers in two seemingly disparate places (Nowra, NSW, and Torres Strait Islands, QLD). Visiting two Indigenous hip-hop groups from these places—and drawing on interviews and participant observation—we explore the way in which emerging technologies, festivals, programs and online networking have helped enable unique forms of music making. In contrast

  13. DOMESTICATING INDIGENOUS FRUIT TREES AS A CONTRIBUTION TO POVERTY REDUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. SCHRECKENBERG; A. AWONO; A. DEGRANDE; C. MBOSSO; O. NDOYE; Z. TCHOUNDJEU

    2006-01-01

    The contribution that domesticated indigenous fruit trees make to many farmers' livelihoods is often not acknowledged in either national- or international-level poverty reduction strategies. Current agricultural data tend to be restricted to a narrow range of exotic fruit (e.g. mango, avocado, citrus). Existing data on indigenous fruit are often not presented in the kinds of income-related terms used in the

  14. Integrating genomics into Eucalyptus breeding.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, Dario

    2004-01-01

    The advent of high throughput genomic technologies has opened new perspectives in the speed, scale and detail with which one can investigate genes, genomes and complex traits in Eucalyptus species. A genomic approach to a more detailed understanding of important metabolic and physiological processes, which affect tree growth and stress resistance, and the identification of genes and their allelic variants, which determine the major chemical and physical features of wood properties, should eventually lead to new opportunities for directed genetic modifications of far-reaching economic impact in forest industry. It should be kept in mind, however, that basic breeding strategies, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods, breeder's experience and breeder's intuition, will continue to generate significant genetic gains and have a clear measurable impact on production forestry. Even with a much more global view of genetic processes, genomics will only succeed in contributing to the development of improved industrial forests if it is strongly interconnected with intensive fieldwork and creative breeding. Integrated genomic projects involving multi-species expressed sequence tag sequencing and quantitative trait locus detection, single nucleotide polymorphism discovery for association mapping, and the development of a gene-rich physical map for the Eucalyptus genome will quickly move toward linking phenotypes to genes that control the wood formation processes that define industrial-level traits. Exploiting the full power of the superior natural phenotypic variation in wood properties found in Eucalyptus genetic resources will undoubtedly be a key factor to reach this goal. PMID:15614728

  15. Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians?

    PubMed

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking. PMID:25315647

  16. Trainability and boldness traits differ between dog breed clusters based on conventional breed categories and genetic relatedness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Borbála Turcsán; Enik? Kubinyi; Ádám Miklósi

    2011-01-01

    Modern dog breeding has given rise to more than 400 breeds differing both in morphology and behaviour. Traditionally, kennel clubs have utilized an artificial category system based on the morphological similarity and historical function of each dog breed. Behavioural comparisons at the breed-group level produced ambiguous results as to whether the historical function still has an influence on the breed-typical

  17. Indigenous well-being in four countries: An application of the UNDP'S Human Development Index to Indigenous Peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Cooke; Francis Mitrou; David Lawrence; Eric Guimond; Dan Beavon

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI) rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in

  18. Build It and They Will Come: Building the Capacity of Indigenous Units in Universities to Provide Better Support for Indigenous Australian Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudgett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous participation rates in higher education are significantly lower than the rates reported for non-Indigenous people in Australia--with the greatest disparity evident in the area of postgraduate studies. This problem needs to be addressed by providing culturally appropriate support mechanisms to Indigenous postgraduate students. This…

  19. In-silico identification of chicken immune-related genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Smith; David Speed; Andrew S. Law; Elizabeth J. Glass; David W. Burt

    2004-01-01

    In order to increase the resources available in chicken, a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) project was recently undertaken, resulting in the addition of more than 330,000 sequences to the databases. With the sequencing of further EST collections, there are now more than 460,000 chicken EST sequences publicly available (http:\\/\\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\\/). Previous analyses of the EST data estimate that the chicken

  20. In vitro comparison of rat and chicken brain neurotoxic esterase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Novak; S. Padilla

    1986-01-01

    A systematic comparison was undertaken to characterize neurotoxic esterase (NTE) from rat and chicken brain in terms of inhibitor sensitivities, pH optima, and molecular weights. Paraoxon titration of phenyl valerate (PV)-hydrolyzing carboxylesterases showed that rat esterases were more sensitive than chicken to paraoxon inhibition at concentrations less than or equal to microM and superimposable with chicken esterases at concentrations of