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1

Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*  

PubMed Central

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

2013-01-01

2

Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB  

PubMed Central

Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:25178289

Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

2014-01-01

3

Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.  

PubMed

Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:25178289

Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

2014-10-01

4

Comparative ability to tolerate heat between thai indigenous chickens, thai indigenous chickens crossbred and broilers by using heterophil/lymphocyte ratio.  

PubMed

The effects of high environmental temperature on the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were determined for a comparison of the ability to tolerate heat between Thai indigenous chickens, crossbred Thai indigenous chickens and broilers. One kilogram of the representative males and females of each of the three breeds were maintained in an environmental temperature range of 26 +/- 2 and 38 +/- 2 degrees C. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was investigated on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experimental period. The results revealed the following information: For those chickens maintained in an environmental temperature at 38 +/- 2 degrees C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was higher than that of chickens at 26 +/- 2 degrees C. With the environmental temperature at 38 +/- 2 degrees C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the broilers was significantly higher than that of the Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds and Thai indigenous chickens (p < 0.05), respectively. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the chickens for the environmental temperature of 38 +/- 2 degrees C was significantly increased on day 7 and then significantly decreased to day 14 and 21 of experimental period (p < 0.05). This finding indicated that when chickens were maintained in high environmental temperatures, they were under heat stress. Chickens could adapt to high environmental temperatures. Finally, Thai indigenous chickens and Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds tolerated higher environmental temperatures than the broilers. PMID:19086547

Aengwanich, W

2007-06-01

5

Genetic variation and relationships of eighteen Chinese indigenous pig breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese indigenous pig breeds are recognized as an invaluable component of the world's pig genetic resources and are divided traditionally into six types. Twenty-six microsatellite markers recommended by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and ISAG (International Society of Animal Genetics) were employed to analyze the genetic diversity of 18 Chinese indigenous pig breeds with 1001 individuals representing five types,

Shu-Lin Yang; Zhi-Gang Wang; Bang Liu; Gui-Xiang Zhang; Shu-Hong Zhao; Mei Yu; Bin Fan; Meng-Hua Li; Tong-An Xiong; Kui Li

2003-01-01

6

Genetic dissection of growth traits in a Chinese indigenous × commercial broiler chicken cross  

PubMed Central

Background In China, consumers often prefer indigenous broiler chickens over commercial breeds, as they have characteristic meat qualities requested within traditional culinary customs. However, the growth-rate of these indigenous breeds is slower than that of the commercial broilers, which means they have not yet reached their full economic value. Therefore, combining the valuable meat quality of the native chickens with the efficiency of the commercial broilers is of interest. In this study, we generated an F2 intercross between the slow growing native broiler breed, Huiyang Beard chicken, and the fast growing commercial broiler breed, High Quality chicken Line A, and used it to map loci explaining the difference in growth rate between these breeds. Results A genome scan to identify main-effect loci affecting 24 growth-related traits revealed nine distinct QTL on six chromosomes. Many QTL were pleiotropic and conformed to the correlation patterns observed between phenotypes. Most of the mapped QTL were found in locations where growth QTL have been reported in other populations, although the effects were greater in this population. A genome scan for pairs of interacting loci identified a number of additional QTL in 10 other genomic regions. The epistatic pairs explained 6–8% of the residual phenotypic variance. Seven of the 10 epistatic QTL mapped in regions containing candidate genes in the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathway, suggesting the importance of this pathway in the regulation of growth in this chicken population. Conclusions The main-effect QTL detected using a standard one-dimensional genome scan accounted for a significant fraction of the observed phenotypic variance in this population. Furthermore, genes in known pathways present interesting candidates for further exploration. This study has thus located several QTL regions as promising candidates for further study, which will increase our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying growth-related traits in chickens. PMID:23497136

2013-01-01

7

The influence of genetic background versus commercial breeding programs on chicken immunocompetence.  

PubMed

Immunocompetence of livestock plays an important role in farm profitability because it directly affects health maintenance. Genetics significantly influences the immune system, and the genotypic structure of modern fast-growing chickens has been changed, particularly after decades of breeding for higher production. Therefore, this study was designed to help determine if intensive breeding programs have adversely affected immunocompetence or whether the immune response profiles are controlled to greater extent by genetic background. Thus, 3 indigenous chicken populations from different genetic backgrounds and 2 globally available modern broiler strains, Ross 308 and Cobb 500, were evaluated for various aspects of immune response. These included antibody responses against sheep red blood cells and Brucella abortus antigen, as well as some aspects of cell-mediated immunocompetence by toe web swelling test and in vitro blood mononuclear cell proliferation. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in antibody responses to both antigens and cellular proliferation were observed among populations but not consistently between modern commercial strains versus the indigenous populations. In fact, the immune response profiles of Cobb 500 were similar to the indigenous populations, but varied compared with the other commercial strain. In addition, considerable variation was recorded between indigenous populations for all responses measured in this study. The results of this study suggest that the variation observed in immune responses between these strains of chickens is most likely due to differences in the genetic background between each strain of chicken rather than by commercial selection programs for high production. PMID:24570426

Emam, Mehdi; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Barjesteh, Neda; Nikbakht, Gholamreza; Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Charkhkar, Saeid; Mallard, Bonnie

2014-01-01

8

Evolutionary relationships of Red Jungle Fowl and chicken breeds  

PubMed Central

Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world. PMID:12927074

Moiseyeva, Irina G; Romanov, Michael N; Nikiforov, Andrey A; Sevastyanova, Antonina A; Semyenova, Serafima K

2003-01-01

9

Effects of high environmental temperatures on the electrolyte status of Thai indigenous, Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of high environmental temperatures on the electrolyte status of three breeds of chickens: Thai Indigenous Chickens (TIC), Thai Indigenous Crossbred Chickens (TICC) and Broiler Chickens (BC). Male and female TIC, TICC and BC were maintained at the environmental temperature ranges of 26+/-2 degrees C and cyclic 38+/-2 degrees C. Sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl(-)) and potassium (K+) were investigated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experimental period. The results revealed the following information: On day 7, plasma Na+ of male BC at 38+/-2 degrees C was significantly higher than that of male BC at 26+/-2 degrees C (p<0.05). On day 14, plasma Na+ of male TIC and BC at 26+/-2 degrees C was significantly higher than that of male TIC and BC at 38+/-2 degrees C (p<0.05). On day 28, plasma Cl(-) of male TIC and BC at 38+/-2 degrees C was significantly higher than that of male TIC and BC at 26+/-2 degrees C (p<0.05). On day 28, at 38+/-2 degrees C, plasma Cl(-) of male TIC was significantly higher than male TICC and male and female BC (p<0.05). On days 1, plasma K+ of TIC, TICC and BC at 38+/-2 degrees C was significantly higher than that ofTIC, TICC and BC at 26+/-2 degrees C (p<0.05). On day 7, plasma K+ of TIC and TICC at 38+/-2 degrees C was significantly higher than that of TIC and TICC at 26+/-2 degrees C (p<0.05). On day 14, plasma K+ of male BC at 38+/-2 degrees C was significantly lower than that of male BC at 26+/-2 degrees C (p<0.05). On days 21, plasma K+ of female TICC at 38+/-2 degrees C was higher than female TICC at 26+/-2 degrees C (p<0.05). On day 28, plasma K+ of male TIC and TICC at 38+/-2 degrees C was significantly higher than that of TIC and TICC at 26+/-2 degrees C (p<0.05). This experiment showed that time, breeding and environmental temperature have an influence on the electrolyte status of TIC, TICC and BC. Under heat stress, TIC preserved the electrolyte in their body better than the TICC and BC, respectively. PMID:19070093

Aengwanich, W

2007-08-15

10

Husbandry and trade of indigenous chickens in Myanmar--results of a participatory rural appraisal in the Yangon and the Mandalay divisions.  

PubMed

There is a variety of professions working with village chickens in developing countries, including farmers, veterinarians and chicken traders. People from all these occupations were involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country, in the Yangon and in the Mandalay divisions. The breeding and training of fighting cocks was practised only in the Mandalay division, with well-trained birds sold for very high prices. Apart from this, chickens were raised in both regions mainly for small disposable income and were generally sold when money was needed, in particular during religious festivals. Chicken traders on bicycles, often called 'middle men', usually purchase birds from farmers in about 10 villages per day. Several 'middle men' supply birds to wealthier chicken merchants, who sell these birds at larger chicken markets. There is in general limited knowledge among farmers about the prevention of Newcastle disease via vaccination. Commercial indigenous chicken production is practised in Myanmar, but family poultry farming dominates indigenous chicken production in the country. PMID:17265778

Henning, J; Khin, A; Hla, T; Meers, J

2006-01-01

11

Comparison of production systems for efficient use of indigenous pig breeds in developing countries.  

PubMed

Conserving pig genetic resources and improving their productivity is important to increase returns over investment in developing countries. The purebred, first-cross, rotational cross and backcross matings representing production systems based on pig breeds indigenous to the country and exotic pig breeds were investigated. The number of pigs in the nucleus and commercial herds necessary to produce a defined quantity of pork was considered. The amount of heterosis between the indigenous and exotic breeds, superiority in meat production, and degree of inferiority in reproductive performance of the exotic breed compared with that of the indigenous breed were investigated. The number of breeding pigs in the whole system was in the following order: pure breeding (PB) > first-cross (F1) > rotational cross (RC) > backcross (BC) systems. The number of breeding pigs in the nucleus herds of the RC and BC systems was smaller than that in the nucleus herds of the PB and F1 systems. The degree of inferiority in reproductive performance of the exotic breed compared with that of the indigenous breed affected the efficiency of the production system. PMID:23480699

Furukawa, Tsutomu; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Ishii, Kazuo; Thuy, Le T; Satoh, Masahiro

2013-03-01

12

A genome-wide scan for signatures of selection in Chinese indigenous and commercial pig breeds  

PubMed Central

Background Modern breeding and artificial selection play critical roles in pig domestication and shape the genetic variation of different breeds. China has many indigenous pig breeds with various characteristics in morphology and production performance that differ from those of foreign commercial pig breeds. However, the signatures of selection on genes implying for economic traits between Chinese indigenous and commercial pigs have been poorly understood. Results We identified footprints of positive selection at the whole genome level, comprising 44,652 SNPs genotyped in six Chinese indigenous pig breeds, one developed breed and two commercial breeds. An empirical genome-wide distribution of Fst (F-statistics) was constructed based on estimations of Fst for each SNP across these nine breeds. We detected selection at the genome level using the High-Fst outlier method and found that 81 candidate genes show high evidence of positive selection. Furthermore, the results of network analyses showed that the genes that displayed evidence of positive selection were mainly involved in the development of tissues and organs, and the immune response. In addition, we calculated the pairwise Fst between Chinese indigenous and commercial breeds (CHN VS EURO) and between Northern and Southern Chinese indigenous breeds (Northern VS Southern). The IGF1R and ESR1 genes showed evidence of positive selection in the CHN VS EURO and Northern VS Southern groups, respectively. Conclusions In this study, we first identified the genomic regions that showed evidences of selection between Chinese indigenous and commercial pig breeds using the High-Fst outlier method. These regions were found to be involved in the development of tissues and organs, the immune response, growth and litter size. The results of this study provide new insights into understanding the genetic variation and domestication in pigs. PMID:24422716

2014-01-01

13

Study on Carcass Characteristics of Chicken Breeds Raised under the Intensive Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Anka and Rugao chicken breed were reared under the same environment and management. During 12 weeks age the growth rate of Anka breed was found better than Rugao, and similarly within breeds Males were grow faster than females. The results shows that (live weight, carcass weight, dressing out percentage, semi-eviscerated weight, eviscerated weight, breast muscle weight, leg muscle

2006-01-01

14

Characterization of the genetic diversity, structure and admixture of British chicken breeds.  

PubMed

The characterization of livestock genetic diversity can inform breed conservation initiatives. The genetic diversity and genetic structure were assessed in 685 individual genotypes sampled from 24 British chicken breeds. A total of 239 alleles were found across 30 microsatellite loci with a mean number of 7.97 alleles per locus. The breeds were highly differentiated, with an average F(ST) of 0.25, similar to that of European chicken breeds. The genetic diversity in British chicken breeds was comparable to that found in European chicken breeds, with an average number of alleles per locus of 3.59, ranging from 2.00 in Spanish to 4.40 in Maran, and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.49, ranging from 0.20 in Spanish to 0.62 in Araucana. However, the majority of breeds were not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, as indicated by heterozygote deficiency in the majority of breeds (average F(IS) of 0.20), with an average observed heterozygote frequency of 0.39, ranging from 0.15 in Spanish to 0.49 in Cochin. Individual-based clustering analyses revealed that most individuals clustered to breed origin. However, genetic subdivisions occurred in several breeds, and this was predominantly associated with flock supplier and occasionally by morphological type. The deficit of heterozygotes was likely owing to a Wahlund effect caused by sampling from different flocks, implying structure within breeds. It is proposed that gene flow amongst flocks within breeds should be enhanced to maintain the current levels of genetic diversity. Additionally, certain breeds had low levels of both genetic diversity and uniqueness. Consideration is required for the conservation and preservation of these potentially vulnerable breeds. PMID:22497565

Wilkinson, S; Wiener, P; Teverson, D; Haley, C S; Hocking, P M

2012-10-01

15

FASN gene polymorphism in indigenous cattle breeds of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the variants of the thioesterase (TE) beta-ketoacyl reductase (KR) domains of the Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) gene, in the East Anatolian Red (EAR) and South Anatolian Red (SAR) cattle breeds. It has been suggested that the FASN gene is effective on fatty acid composition of meat in cattle. In this study, the genotype and allele frequencies of g.17924 A>G, g.18440 G>A and g.16024 G>A, g.16039 T>C in TE and KR domains, respectively, were detected by using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The g.18663 T>C polymorphism of the TE domain was determined by direct sequencing. The GG genotype of the g.17924 A>G polymorphism, which affects unsaturated fatty acid composition positively, has a high frequency in EAR and SAR breeds. The frequencies of the two haplotypes g.16024 G>A and g.16039 T>C in the KR domain were found to be significantly high in both breeds. These haplotypes also have positive effects on unsaturated fatty acid composition. The AA genotype of the g. 18440 G>A polymorphism, which is suggested to be absent in Bos taurus breeds, was detected in SAR and EAR breeds with frequencies close to those in Bos indicus breeds. In conclusion, we suggest that SAR and EAR cattle breeds have an advantage in terms of genotype and haplotype distribution of the polymorphisms in TE and KR domains of the FASN gene. Additionally g.18440 G>A polymorphism might be a potential marker for breed discrimination. PMID:24745147

Oztabak, Kemal; Gursel, Feraye Esen; Akis, Iraz; Ates, Atila; Yardibi, Hasret; Turkay, Gulhan

2014-01-01

16

Introduction of various vietnamese indigenous pig breeds and their conservation by using assisted reproductive techniques.  

PubMed

Pigs are one of the most important domesticated animals in Vietnam. They are the main source of meat for the Vietnamese. According to FAO statistics, Vietnam is among the top 5 countries raising pigs in the world, with nearly 27 million hogs. This review article introduces the distribution, morphology, growth potential, meat-producing ability and reproductive efficiency of six Vietnamese indigenous pig breeds: I, Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Soc, Meo and Co. The collected data showed that these Vietnamese pigs are less effective in comparison with Western pigs in terms of reproductive and meat-producing ability as well as weight growth. However, these Vietnamese indigenous breeds have some special characteristics, such as very early sexual maturity, and good adaptability to harsh raising conditions or poor feeding. Moreover, recent genetic research has shown that Vietnamese pigs are genetically diverse. Thus, conservation of these pig breeds using assisted reproductive techniques is urgent and important. PMID:20203433

Dang-Nguyen, Thanh Quang; Tich, Nguyen Khac; Nguyen, Bui Xuan; Ozawa, Manabu; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Manabe, Noboru; Ratky, Jozsef; Kanai, Yukio; Nagai, Takashi

2010-02-01

17

Comparison of growth performance, carcass components, and meat quality between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line slaughtered at 10 months.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to make a full study of the meat from Mos-breed roosters (Spanish indigenous chicken). To achieve this purpose, the type of breed (Mos vs. a hybrid line, Sasso T-44) and the effect of finishing treatment in the last month (corn vs. commercial fodder) on growth performance, carcass and meat quality (physicochemical and textural traits), fatty and amino acid profile, and sensorial description were studied. The finishing feeding effect did not modify the growth, but the differences between genotypes were statistically significant (P < 0.05), in where Sasso T-44 was the genotype that generated the best growths and associated parameters. With regard to carcass characteristics, no significant influences of finishing feeding treatment (P > 0.05) were found, and carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. Drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in Mos breed than in Sasso T-44 birds, whereas breast (15.2%), that is the most highly valued piece of the chicken, was similar for both genotypes. Significant differences in pH, protein, and ash content between genotypes have been found, whereas finishing feeding treatment had an effect on myoglobin and redness index (P < 0.01), showing meat from roosters fed with corn had a higher luminosity. Despite the fact of the slaughtered age of birds, values of shear force were slightly higher than 2 kg (2.11 kg) for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Mos breed showed a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (25.90 vs. 22.74; P < 0.001) and a lower percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (35.14 vs. 38.95; P < 0.001) than Sasso T-44 chicken muscles. Surprisingly, birds finishing with the corn diet (2 times higher in linolenic acid than fodder) did not increase their polyunsaturated fatty acid level in the breast, obtaining in the Mos breed a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.69. The amino acid profile of the indigenous-breed breast was not similar to that of the commercial-strain breast; besides, finishing feeding treatment had more of an effect on amino acid profile, affecting the majority of amino acids, with the exception of phenylalanine and threonine. PMID:22499883

Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Lorenzo, J M

2012-05-01

18

Genetic Diversity and Relationships of Korean Chicken Breeds Based on 30 Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

The effective management of endangered animal genetic resources is one of the most important concerns of modern breeding. Evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship of local breeds is an important factor towards the identification of unique and valuable genetic resources. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of six Korean native chicken breeds (n = 300), which were compared with three imported breeds in Korea (n = 150). For the analysis of genetic diversity, 30 microsatellite markers from FAO/ISAG recommended diversity panel or previously reported microsatellite markers were used. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15 per locus, with a mean of 8.13. The average observed heterozygosity within native breeds varied between 0.46 and 0.59. The overall heterozygote deficiency (FIT) in native chicken was 0.234±0.025. Over 30.7% of FIT was contributed by within-population deficiency (FIS). Bayesian clustering analysis, using the STRUCTURE software suggested 9 clusters. This study may provide the background for future studies to identify the genetic uniqueness of the Korean native chicken breeds PMID:25178290

Suh, Sangwon; Sharma, Aditi; Lee, Seunghwan; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Hyun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Yeon, Seong-Hum; Kim, Dong-Hun; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu

2014-01-01

19

Genetic diversity and relationships of korean chicken breeds based on 30 microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The effective management of endangered animal genetic resources is one of the most important concerns of modern breeding. Evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship of local breeds is an important factor towards the identification of unique and valuable genetic resources. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of six Korean native chicken breeds (n = 300), which were compared with three imported breeds in Korea (n = 150). For the analysis of genetic diversity, 30 microsatellite markers from FAO/ISAG recommended diversity panel or previously reported microsatellite markers were used. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15 per locus, with a mean of 8.13. The average observed heterozygosity within native breeds varied between 0.46 and 0.59. The overall heterozygote deficiency (F IT) in native chicken was 0.234±0.025. Over 30.7% of F IT was contributed by within-population deficiency (F IS). Bayesian clustering analysis, using the STRUCTURE software suggested 9 clusters. This study may provide the background for future studies to identify the genetic uniqueness of the Korean native chicken breeds. PMID:25178290

Suh, Sangwon; Sharma, Aditi; Lee, Seunghwan; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Hyun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Yeon, Seong-Hum; Kim, Dong-Hun; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu

2014-10-01

20

The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens  

E-print Network

The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler artificial selection has led to the production of the modern broiler chicken, which over the last few decades in 50 birds, including the Giant Junglefowl, a commercial strain broiler and four pureline commercial

Hutchinson, John

21

Breeding and Non-Breeding Survival of Lesser Prairie-Chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus in Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus have declined throughout their range because of loss or fragmen- tation of habitat from conversion of native prairie to agricultural cropland, exacerbated by overgrazing and drought. We used data from radio-marked lesser prairie-chickens to determine whether differences in survival ex- isted between populations occurring in two areas dominated by different vegetation types (sand sagebrush Artemisia filifolia

Eddie K. Lyons; Bret A. Collier; Nova J. Silvy; Roel R. Lopez; Benjamin E. Toole; Ryan S. Jones; Stephen J. DeMaso

2009-01-01

22

Characterization of the GHR gene genetic variation in Chinese indigenous goat breeds.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene exon 10, characterize the genetic variation in three Chinese indigenous goat breeds, and search for its potential association with cashmere traits. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) protocol has been developed for rapid genotyping of the GHR gene in goats. One hundred seventy-eight goats from Liaoning Cashmere (96), Inner Mongolia White Cashmere (40), and Chengdu Grey (42) breeds in China were genotyped at GHR locus using the protocol developed. In all goat breeds investigated, a SNP in exon 10 of GHR gene has been identified by analyzing genomic DNA. The polymorphism consists of a single nucleotide substitution A ? G, resulting in two alleles named, respectively, A and G based on the nucleotide at the position. The allele A was found to be more common in the animals investigated, and seems to be more consistent with cattle and zebu at this polymorphic site found in goats. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of genotype distributions of GHR locus was verified in Liaoning Cashmere, and Inner Mongolia White Cashmere breeds. According to the classification of polymorphism information content (PIC), Chengdu Grey was less polymorphic than Liaoning Cashmere and Inner Mongolia White Cashmere breeds at this locus. The phylogenetic tree of different species based on the nucleotide sequences of GHR gene exon 10 is generally in agreement with the known species relationship. No significant association was found between the polymorphism revealed and the cashmere traits analyzed in present work. PMID:20364329

Bai, W L; Zhou, C Y; Ren, Y; Yin, R H; Jiang, W Q; Zhao, S J; Zhang, S C; Zhang, B L; Luo, G B; Zhao, Z H

2011-01-01

23

Genetic diversity and population structure of 10 Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds assessed by microsatellite polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure and diversity of 10 Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds were investigated using 29 microsatellite\\u000a markers. The total number of animals examined were 569, on average 57 animals per breed were selected. The microsatellite\\u000a marker set analysed provided 177 alleles (mean 6.1 alleles per locus, ranging from 3 to 10). All populations showed high levels\\u000a of heterozygosity with

Hui-Fang Li; Wei-Tao Song; Jing-Ting Shu; Kuan-Wei Chen; Wen-Qi Zhu; Wei Han; Wen-Juan Xu

2010-01-01

24

Breed effect between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line and finishing feed effect of commercial fodder or corn.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the Mos rooster breed growth performance, carcass, and meat quality. The breed effect (Mos vs. Sasso T-44) and finishing feed in the last month (fodder vs. corn) on animal growth, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty and amino acid profiles were studied using a randomized block design with initial weight as covariance. In total, 80 roosters (n = 30 of Sasso T-44 line and n = 50 of Mos breed) were used. They were separated by breed and allocated to 2 feeding treatment groups (concentrate and corn). Each feeding treatment group consisted of 15 and 25 roosters, for Sasso T-44 line and Mos breed, respectively. Finishing feeding did not affect growth parameters in the 2 genotypes of rooster tested (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the comparison between both types of roosters led to significant differences in growth parameters (P < 0.05). Regarding carcass characteristics, no significant influences of finishing feeding treatment (P > 0.05) were found, and as expected, carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. However, drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in the Mos breed than in the hybrid line. In color instrumental traits, roosters feeding with corn showed breast meat with significantly (P < 0.001) higher a* and b* values than those of cocks feeding with commercial fodder. Values of shear force were less than 2 kg for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Finishing with corn significantly increased (P < 0.001) the polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast; the Mos breed had a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.73. The amino acid profile of the indigenous breed was not similar to that of the commercial strain. Finishing feeding treatment had a greater influence than breed effect on amino acid profile. PMID:22252364

Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Purriños, L; González, R; Lorenzo, J M

2012-02-01

25

Differential expression of Toll-like receptor mRNA in White Leghorn and indigenous chicken of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present experiment, the expression profile of Toll-like receptor mRNA in indigenous and pure line chickens was studied.\\u000a The expression of TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR7 were quantified in heterophils of Aseel, Kadaknath, Naked neck, Dwarf and White\\u000a Leghorn lines by Quantitative Real-time PCR. White Leghorns expressed significantly (P?

Kannaki T. Ramasamy; Maddula R. Reddy; Dhanutha N. Raveendranathan; Shanmugam Murugesan; Rudra N. Chatterjee; Rajkumar Ullengala; Santosh Haunshi

2010-01-01

26

Using molecular markers and multivariate methods to study the genetic diversity of local European and Asian chicken breeds.  

PubMed

French and Asian subsets of chicken breeds were first analysed using 22 microsatellites and then compared to the AVIANDIV European set using 14 loci. Positive correlations were observed between F(IT) or F(ST) and typological values or variance of markers using the multivariate analysis mcoa. The first axis of the multivariate representation separated Asian from European breeds, revealing breeds with Asian ancestor. Using all or 14 loci, correct assignation rate was always higher than 93%. The Weitzman index and the aggregate diversity D were calculated using 22 loci within French and Asian breeds. The French breed Coucou de Rennes and the Hua-Tung breed seemed to contribute the most to the global diversity of each subset. This approach on French-only breeds and then on French with AVIANDIV domestic breeds (14 loci) showed that the Marans breed contributed the most. The AVIANDIV framework could be useful to evaluate the genetic diversity of local breeds and to help in connecting national and regional conservation policies. PMID:18366475

Berthouly, C; Bed'Hom, B; Tixier-Boichard, M; Chen, C F; Lee, Y P; Laloë, D; Legros, H; Verrier, E; Rognon, X

2008-04-01

27

Hawks and Baby Chickens: Cultivating the Sources of Indigenous Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper on indigenous knowledge (IK) and science teaching in South Africa, I seek to broaden the debate by setting the enterprise of integrating IK into science education in its cultural and socio-political context. I begin by exploring the multiple meanings of indigenous knowledge in Africa, next consider…

Easton, Peter B.

2011-01-01

28

The genome-wide structure of two economically important indigenous Sicilian cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, provided background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals. The aim of this work was to investigate the genetic structure, the genome-wide estimates of inbreeding, coancestry, effective population size (Ne), and the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 2 economically important Sicilian local cattle breeds, Cinisara (CIN) and Modicana (MOD), using the Illumina Bovine SNP50K v2 BeadChip. To understand the genetic relationship and to place both Sicilian breeds in a global context, genotypes from 134 other domesticated bovid breeds were used. Principal component analysis showed that the Sicilian cattle breeds were closer to individuals of Bos taurus taurus from Eurasia and formed nonoverlapping clusters with other breeds. Between the Sicilian cattle breeds, MOD was the most differentiated, whereas the animals belonging to the CIN breed showed a lower value of assignment, the presence of substructure, and genetic links with the MOD breed. The average molecular inbreeding and coancestry coefficients were moderately high, and the current estimates of Ne were low in both breeds. These values indicated a low genetic variability. Considering levels of LD between adjacent markers, the average r(2) in the MOD breed was comparable to those reported for others cattle breeds, whereas CIN showed a lower value. Therefore, these results support the need of more dense SNP arrays for a high-power association mapping and genomic selection efficiency, particularly for the CIN cattle breed. Controlling molecular inbreeding and coancestry would restrict inbreeding depression, the probability of losing beneficial rare alleles, and therefore the risk of extinction. The results generated from this study have important implications for the development of conservation and/or selection breeding programs in these 2 local cattle breeds. PMID:25253807

Mastrangelo, S; Saura, M; Tolone, M; Salces-Ortiz, J; Di Gerlando, R; Bertolini, F; Fontanesi, L; Sardina, M T; Serrano, M; Portolano, B

2014-11-01

29

Different immune responses to three different vaccines following H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge in Taiwanese local chicken breeds  

E-print Network

investigates immune responses to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds. Methods Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University, namely Hsin-Yi, Ju...

2011-06-03

30

Differences in protection between heavy and light breeds of chickens following vaccination with Newcastle disease vaccines—a survey of data, 1971 to 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained over 20 years of Newcastle disease vaccine testing were statistically analyzed. The protection afforded heavy and light breeds of chickens was compared following challenge (efficacy) after vaccination with live and inactivated vaccines produced from different virus strains. Standard challenge virus was used throughout the period.The data show that the heavy breeds were significantly inferior in their protectability when

I. Samina; J. Brenner; B. A. Peleg

1992-01-01

31

Productivity and Egg Quality Characteristics of Free Range Naked Neck and Normal Feathered Nigerian Indigenous Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: A study was conducted in Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to determine the productivity and egg quality traits of free range naked neck and full-feathered chickens. A total of one hundred and two smallholder farmers were randomly selected. Information was obtained on average eggs per clutch, hatchability and mortality, while hen's body weight was measured directly on the

A. Yakubu; D. M. Ogah; R. E. Barde

2008-01-01

32

Valuing indigenous cattle breeds in Kenya: an empirical comparison of stated and revealed preference value estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compare revealed and stated-preference approaches to value traits of cattle in Kenya. The premise is that much can be learnt about non-market values of indigenous animal genetic resources (AnGR) from the use of multi-attribute stated-preference methods, if these compare well with revealed-preference results. The objective is to investigate the performance of choice experiments (CEs) in Maasai

Riccardo Scarpa; Eric S. K. Ruto; Patti Kristjanson; Maren Radeny; Adam G. Drucker; John E. O. Rege

2003-01-01

33

Valuing Indigenous Cattle Breeds in Kenya: An Empirical Comparison of Stated and Revealed Preference Value Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compare revealed and stated-preference approaches to value traits of cattle in Kenya. The premise is that much can be learnt about non-market values of indigenous animal genetic resources (AnGRs) from the use of multi-attribute stated-preference methods, if these compare well with revealed-preference results. The objective is to investigate the performance of choice experiments (CEs) in Maasai

Riccardo Scarpa; Eric S. K. Ruto; Patti Kristjanson; Maren Radeny; Adam G. Drucker; John E. O. Rege

2002-01-01

34

Influence of breed, age and body weight on organ weight in the chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body, liver, heart and spleen weights were measured in 3 different breeds and 2 breed crosses over an age range of 0–8 weeks. Correlation coefficients, linear regression equations, standard deviations of observations around regression lines, and the standard errors of the slopes were calculated to study the effects of age, breed, and body weight on organ weight. The principal findings

N. J. Daghir; P. L. Pellett

1967-01-01

35

Local Feed Resources and Indigenous Breeds: Fundamental Issues in Integrated Farming Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropics present great opportunities for sustainable development thanks to the enormous cultural and biological riches of these regions. The rational exploitation of local feeds and local breeds of livestock will support much more sustainable production systems in the medium and long term. These have received insufficient attention in the past and have not been considered seriously because of the

T. R. Preston

36

Breeding and Genetics Symposium: a systems biology definition for chicken semen quality.  

PubMed

Rooster semen is an effluent from paired reproductive tracts. Each tract includes a testis, epididymis, and deferent duct. Upon ejaculation, efficacy of sperm propulsion varies among roosters. This phenotype is sperm mobility, that is, the movement of sperm against resistance at body temperature. The present work 1) compares reproductive tract throughput between lines of chickens selected for low and high sperm mobility, 2) demonstrates how semen quality can be defined in terms of an interaction between reproductive tract throughput and the proportion of mobile sperm ejaculated, 3) confirms that phenotype can be linked to genomewide differences in SNPlotype, and 4) shows how breeding can affect semen quality. Sperm mobility phenotype distributions were based on the average of duplicate observations per male (n = 241 and 262 roosters for low and high lines, respectively). Distributions were skewed and normal for low and high lines, respectively. Subsequent analyses used these base populations as sources for test subjects. In the first analysis, 10 males were selected from the mode of each distribution, and sperm mobility data were evaluated by nested ANOVA. Variation was observed between lines (P < 0.0001) but not among males within lines (P = 0.980). Sperm mobility data along with data from paired reproductive tracts were used to estimate combined reproductive tract throughput. Whereas testicular output was 1.2-fold greater in the low line (P = 0.037), the output of mobile sperm per day was 10.5-fold greater in the high line (P < 0.0001). Deferent duct transit differed between tails of the low line (P < 0.0001) but not between the tails of the high line (P = 0.514). Males from the mode and upper tail of the low line were SNPlotyped using a 60k chip by DNA Landmarks. These test subjects were used to associate phenotype with SNPlotype because founder effects and genetic drift could be discounted. Loci of interest were found on multiple chromosomes. Loci on chromosome Z were of particular interest because roosters are homozygous for this sex chromosome and a pronounced maternal effect was observed in a prior heritability study. Midrange phenotypes were produced by crossing low and high sperm mobility lines. Our experimental outcomes demonstrate that genes affect reproductive tract function as well as sperm cell attributes and thereby make semen quality subject to genetic selection. PMID:23100593

Froman, D P; Rhoads, D D

2013-02-01

37

Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers  

PubMed Central

In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations – Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) – were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ?0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ?0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (FST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, FST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed. PMID:23518904

Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk

2013-01-01

38

Analysis of genome-wide copy number variations in chinese indigenous and Western pig breeds by 60 k SNP genotyping arrays.  

PubMed

Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a substantial source of structural variants in mammals and contribute to both normal phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. Although low-resolution CNV maps are produced in many domestic animals, and several reports have been published about the CNVs of porcine genome, the differences between Chinese and western pigs still remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used Porcine SNP60 BeadChip and PennCNV algorithm to perform a genome-wide CNV detection in 302 individuals from six Chinese indigenous breeds (Tongcheng, Laiwu, Luchuan, Bama, Wuzhishan and Ningxiang pigs), three western breeds (Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc) and one hybrid (Tongcheng×Duroc). A total of 348 CNV Regions (CNVRs) across genome were identified, covering 150.49 Mb of the pig genome or 6.14% of the autosomal genome sequence. In these CNVRs, 213 CNVRs were found to exist only in the six Chinese indigenous breeds, and 60 CNVRs only in the three western breeds. The characters of CNVs in four Chinese normal size breeds (Luchuan, Tongcheng and Laiwu pigs) and two minipig breeds (Bama and Wuzhishan pigs) were also analyzed in this study. Functional annotation suggested that these CNVRs possess a great variety of molecular function and may play important roles in phenotypic and production traits between Chinese and western breeds. Our results are important complementary to the CNV map in pig genome, which provide new information about the diversity of Chinese and western pig breeds, and facilitate further research on porcine genome CNVs. PMID:25198154

Wang, Yanan; Tang, Zhonglin; Sun, Yaqi; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, Chao; Yu, Shaobo; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Bin; Li, Kui; Liu, Bang

2014-01-01

39

The association of SNPs in Hsp90? gene 5' flanking region with thermo tolerance traits and tissue mRNA expression in two chicken breeds.  

PubMed

Thermo stress induces heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression and HSP90 family is one of them that has been reported to involve in cellular protection against heat stress. But whether there is any association of genetic variation in the Hsp90? gene in chicken with thermo tolerance is still unknown. Direct sequencing was used to detect possible SNPs in Hsp90? gene 5' flanking region in 3 chicken breeds (n = 663). Six mutations, among which 2 SNPs were chosen and genotypes were analyzed with PCR-RFLP method, were found in Hsp90? gene in these 3 chicken breeds. Association analysis indicated that SNP of C.-141G>A in the 5' flanking region of the Hsp90? gene in chicken had some effect on thermo tolerance traits, which may be a potential molecular marker of thermo tolerance, and the genotype GG was the thermo tolerance genotype. Hsp90? gene mRNA expression in different tissues detected by quantitative real-time PCR assay were demonstrated to be tissue dependent, implying that different tissues have distinct sensibilities to thermo stress. Besides, it was shown time specific and varieties differences. The expression of Hsp90? mRNA in Lingshan chickens in some tissues including heart, liver, brain and spleen were significantly higher or lower than that of White Recessive Rock (WRR). In this study, we presume that these mutations could be used in marker assisted selection for anti-heat stress chickens in our breeding program, and WRR were vulnerable to tropical thermo stress whereas Lingshan chickens were well adapted. PMID:23793829

Chen, Zhuo-Yu; Gan, Jian-Kang; Xiao, Xiong; Jiang, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xi-Quan; Luo, Qing-Bin

2013-09-01

40

Is Aboriginal Food Less Allergenic? Comparing IgE-Reactivity of Eggs from Modern and Ancient Chicken Breeds in a Cohort of Allergic Children  

PubMed Central

Background Hen's egg allergy ranks among the most frequent primary food allergies in children. We aimed to investigate sensitization profiles of egg allergic patients and compare in vitro IgE reactivities of eggs from ancient chicken breeds (Araucana and Maran) with those from conventional laying hen hybrids. Methodology Egg allergic children (n?=?25) were subjected to skin prick test, double blind placebo controlled food challenge, and sensitization profiles to Gal d 1–5 were determined by allergen microarray. IgE binding and biological activity of eggs from different chicken breeds were investigated by immunoblot, ELISA, and mediator release assays. Principal Findings We found that Gal d 1 and Gal d 2 are generally major egg allergens, whereas Gal d 3–5 displayed high sensitization prevalence only in patients reacting to both, egg white and yolk. It seems that the onset of egg allergy is mediated by egg white allergens expanding to yolk sensitization in later stages of disease. Of note, egg white/yolk weight ratios were reduced in eggs from Auraucana and Maran chicken. As determined in IgE immunoblots and mass analysis, eggs from ancient chicken breeds did not differ in their protein composition. Similar IgE-binding was observed for all egg white preparations, while an elevated allergenicity was detected in egg yolk from Araucana chicken. Conclusion/Significance Our results on allergenicity and biological activity do not confirm the common assumption that aboriginal food might be less allergenic. Comprehensive diagnosis of egg allergy should distinguish between reactivity to hen's egg white and yolk fractions to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions to improve life quality of the allergic child and its family. PMID:21552565

Egger, Matthias; Alessandri, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Briza, Peter; Zennaro, Danila; Mari, Adriano; Ferreira, Fatima; Gadermaier, Gabriele

2011-01-01

41

Estimation of genetic and environmental parameters of six broiler traits in two breeds of chickens and their reciprocal crosses by a series of diallel mating  

E-print Network

indices of Leghorns and New Hampshires and their reciprocal crosses .......................................... 53 14. Sex differentials of six broiler traits in four hatches ... 5T 15. Sex differentials of six broiler traits in four mating types... in all combinations two breeds of chickens, namely, the White Leghorn and the New Hampshire. The experiment was carried out with the following objectives in mind: (1) To measure the degree of heritability of body weight and certain linear body...

Kan, Jimmy Hung-Kei

2013-10-04

42

Genomic sequence analysis and biological characteristics of a rescued clone of avian leukosis virus strain JS11C1, isolated from indigenous chickens.  

PubMed

The strain JS11C1, a member of a putative new subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV) that is different from all six known subgroups from chickens based on Gp85 amino acid sequence comparison, was isolated from Chinese native chicken breeds in 2012. In order to further study the genome structure, biological characteristics, and the evolutionary relationship of the virus with others of known subgroups from infected chickens, we determined the complete genome sequence, constructed an infectious clone of ALV strain JS11C1, and performed comparative analysis using the whole genome sequence or elements with that of other ALVs available in GenBank. The results showed that the full-length sequence of the JS11C1 DNA provirus genome was 7707 bp, which is consistent with a genetic organization typical of a replication-competent type C retrovirus lacking viral oncogenes. The rescued infectious clone of JS11C1 showed similar growth rate and biological characteristics to its original virus. All the comparison analyses based on whole genomes support the opinion that the new isolates are relatively distantly related to any known subgroups of ALVs and might be classified as a new subgroup. PMID:25009192

Cui, Ning; Su, Shuai; Chen, Zimeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cui, Zhizhong

2014-11-01

43

Evaluation of the Chinese indigenous pig breed Dahe and crossbred Dawu for growth and carcass characteristics, organ weight, meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid and amino acid composition.  

PubMed

The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate growth and carcass characteristics, organ weight, meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid (FA) and amino acid composition between the Chinese indigenous pig breed Dahe and the crossbred Dawu. The Dahe pigs had lower average daily gain (P < 0.001) and a higher feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001) compared with the Dawu pigs. The Dahe pigs contained less lean meat percentage (P < 0.001) and more carcass fat percentage (P < 0.001) compared with the Dawu pigs. For organ weight, the Dahe pigs had lower relative heart weight and small intestine weight, respectively, compared with that of the Dawu pigs (P < 0.001). In addition, the Dahe pigs showed higher pH values (at 45 min and 24 h, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), higher Marbling score (P < 0.05), lower Minolta L values (at 45 min and 24 h, P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) and lower muscle fiber area (P < 0.05) than did the Dawu pigs. C18:1, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:2 were the main FAs and nine essential amino acids were found in the Longissimus dorsi of the two breeds. PMID:22440295

Jiang, Y Z; Zhu, L; Li, X W; Si, T

2011-08-01

44

Similar rates of chromosomal aberrant secondary oocytes in two indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) breeds as determined by dual-color FISH.  

PubMed

In vitro-matured metaphase II (MII) oocytes with corresponding first polar bodies (I pb) from two indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) breeds have been investigated to provide specific data upon the incidence of aneuploidy. A total of 165 and 140 in vitro-matured MII oocytes of the Podolian (PO) and Maremmana (MA) breeds, respectively, were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using Xcen and five chromosome-specific painting probes. Oocytes with unreduced chromosome number were 13.3% and 6.4% in the two breeds, respectively, averaging 10.2%. In the PO, out of 100 MII oocytes + I pb analyzed, two oocytes were nullisomic for chromosome 5 (2.0%) and one disomic for the same chromosome (1.0%). In the MA, out of 100 MII oocytes + I pb, one oocyte was found nullisomic for chromosome 5 (1.0%) and one was disomic for the X chromosome (1.0%). Out of 200 MII oocytes + I pb, the mean rate of aneuploidy (nullisomy + disomy) for the two chromosomes scored was 2.5%, of which 1.5% was due to nullisomy and 1.0% due to disomy. By averaging these data with those previously reported on dairy cattle, the overall incidence of aneuploidy in cattle, as a species, was 2.25%, of which 1.25% was due to nullisomy and 1.0% due to disomy. The results so far achieved indicate similar rates of aneuploidy among the four cattle breeds investigated. Interspecific comparison between cattle (Xcen-5 probes) and pig (Sus scrofa domestica) (1-10 probes) also reveal similar rates. Further studies are needed that use more probes to investigate the interchromosomal effect. Establishing a baseline level of aneuploidy for each species/breed could also be useful for improving the in vitro production of embryos destined to the embryo transfer industry as well as for monitoring future trends of the reproductive health of domestic animals in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID:22056011

Pauciullo, A; Nicodemo, D; Cosenza, G; Peretti, V; Iannuzzi, A; Di Meo, G P; Ramunno, L; Iannuzzi, L; Rubes, J; Di Berardino, D

2012-02-01

45

Different immune responses to three different vaccines following H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge in Taiwanese local chicken breeds  

PubMed Central

Background H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) are frequently isolated in Taiwan and lead to significant economic losses, either directly or indirectly through association with other infectious diseases. This study investigates immune responses to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds. Methods Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University, namely Hsin-Yi, Ju-Chi, Hua-Tung (Taiwan), Quemoy (Quemoy Island), Shek-Ki (China), Nagoya (Japan) and a specific pathogen free (SPF) White Leghorn line. A total number of 338 chickens have been distributed between a control and a challenge group, H6N1 challenge was performed at 7 weeks of age; vaccination against Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) was performed at 11 weeks. The anti-H6N1 LPAIV antibody titers were measured by ELISA at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after challenge, and the anti-ND, anti-IBD and anti-IB antibody titers were measured by inhibition of hemagglutination test and ELISA at days 0, 14, 28 after vaccination. Results There was no effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge at 7 weeks of age on the subsequent responses to ND and IBD vaccine at 11 weeks of age, but, surprisingly, the H6N1 LPAIV challenge significantly affected antibody levels to IB vaccine in some breeds, since IB0 and IB14 antibody titers were lower in the challenge groups. However, there was no significant difference in IB28 antibody titers among the experimental groups. Conclusions Local breeds have different immune response to H6N1 LPAIV challenge and subsequent vaccines. Differences dealt mainly with kinetics of response and with peak values. Quemoy exhibited higher antibody levels to H6N1, ND and IBD. The negative effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge on IB vaccine response may be related to the fact that both viruses target the lung tissues, and the type of local immune response induced by LPAIV challenge may not be favourable for birds to make optimum IB-specific antibody response. PMID:21645314

2011-01-01

46

Campylobacter colonization and proliferation in the broiler chicken upon natural field challenge is not affected by the bird growth rate or breed.  

PubMed

The zoonotic association between Campylobacter bacteria in poultry and humans has been characterized by decades of research which has attempted to elucidate the epidemiology of this complex relationship and to reduce carriage within poultry. While much work has focused on the mechanisms facilitating its success in contaminating chicken flocks (and other animal hosts), it remains difficult to consistently exclude Campylobacter under field conditions. Within the United Kingdom poultry industry, various bird genotypes with widely varying growth rates are available to meet market needs and consumer preferences. However, little is known about whether any differences in Campylobacter carriage exist across this modern broiler range. The aim of this study was to establish if a relationship exists between growth rate or breed and cecal Campylobacter concentration after natural commercial flock Campylobacter challenge. In one investigation, four pure line genotypes of various growth rates were grown together, while in the second, eight different commercial broiler genotypes were grown individually. In both studies, the Campylobacter concentration was measured in the ceca at 42 days of age, revealing no significant difference in cecal load between birds of different genotypes both in mixed- and single-genotype pens. This is important from a public health perspective and suggests that other underlying reasons beyond genotype are likely to control and affect Campylobacter colonization within chickens. Further studies to gain a better understanding of colonization dynamics and subsequent proliferation are needed, as are novel approaches to reduce the burden in poultry. PMID:25172857

Gormley, Fraser J; Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; McAdam, Jim; Avendaño, Santiago; Stanley, William A; Koerhuis, Alfons N M

2014-11-01

47

Immune responses of breeding chickens to trivalent oil emulsion vaccines: responses to Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bivalent Newcastle disease (ND)\\/infectious bursal disease (IBD) and trivalent ND\\/IBD\\/infectious bronchitis (IB) inactivated oil emulsion vaccines were prepared in the laboratory and evaluated under field conditions. Broiler breeder parent chickens previously vaccinated with live vaccines were inoculated with commercial monovalent ND and experimental bivalent or trivalent oil emulsion vaccines. The commercial vaccine induced a higher initial ND haemagglutination inhibition (HI)

PJ Wyeth; RE Gough; GA Cullen

1981-01-01

48

Influence of dietary nicotinic acid supplementation on lipid metabolism and related gene expression in two distinct broiler breeds of female chickens.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of supplemental dietary nicotinic acid (NA) on lipid metabolism and hepatic expression of related genes in female chickens of two distinct broiler strains [Arbor Acres (AA) and Beijing-You (BJY)]. The treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial in a completely randomized design. Day-old females (n = 384) were allocated to four treatments with six cages per treatment and fed diets (basal contained approximately 25 mg NA/kg) supplemented with 0, 30, 60 and 120 mg NA/kg. A sample of 72 birds from each breed was slaughtered and sampled at their different market times (8 week for AA and 16 week for BJY). Arbor Acres broilers had thickness of subcutaneous fat plus the skin (SFS), and plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and lower percentage of abdominal fat (PAF), plasma concentrations of TG, NEFA and adiponectin than the BJY line. The hepatic transcription of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoproteinB (ApoB), and adiponectin was significantly higher in AA broilers than in BJY broilers. In both breeds, BW, PAF, SFS, NEFA and TG were increased with increasing supplementation from 0 to 60 mg NA/kg, but then decreased slightly with 120 mg added NA/kg. With increasing supplementation, hepatic expression and plasma concentrations of adiponectin decreased from 0 to 60 mg added NA/kg and then increased with 120 mg added NA/kg. The expression of ApoA-I and ApoB mRNA showed linear response to dietary supplementation with NA. These findings indicate that: (i) supplementation of NA influenced the lipid metabolism and related gene expression; (ii) when supplemented with 120 mg NA/kg, some pharmacologic actions on lipid metabolism appeared; and (iii) changes in BW and fat deposition appeared to be associated with hepatic expression of adiponectin. PMID:25356484

Jiang, R R; Zhao, G P; Zhao, J P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Liu, R R; Wen, J

2014-10-01

49

Effect of free-range days on a local chicken breed: growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 1,000 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were raised for 21 d. On d 21, 720 birds with similar BW (536 ± 36 g) were selected and randomly assigned to free-range treatment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 21, 14, 7, and 0 d, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 5 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (180 birds per treatment). All the birds were raised in indoor floor pens measuring 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses before free-range treatment. In the free-range treatment, the chickens were raised in indoor floor houses measuring 3 × 5 m (15 m(2), 2.4 birds/m(2)). In addition, they also had an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The BW of birds after being assigned to free-range treatment for 7 d decreased significantly compared with that in the conventional treatment (P < 0.05). However, there was no effect of the free-range days on the BW at 42 d of age (P > 0.05). The daily weight gain, feed per gain, daily feed intake, and mortality from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by free-range days (P > 0.05). At 42 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), whereas the thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields decreased linearly (P < 0.05). The lung yield showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). The water-holding capacity of the thigh muscle decreased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in the meat color, shear force, and muscle pH (P > 0.05). The absolute thymus weight and thymus:BW ratio showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that increasing free-range days advantageously affects breast yield, but decreases thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields as well as the water-holding capacity of thigh. No evidence was found that increasing free-range days caused changes in growth performance, meat quality, and lymphoid organs except for changes in water-holding capacity and thymus. PMID:24931968

Tong, H B; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Chang, L L; Fu, S Y

2014-08-01

50

Genotype-Environment Interaction in Relation to Heat Tolerance in Chickens 2. Variation in Juvenile Growth of Warm Regions` Oriented Breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to assess the variation in growth patterns of the warm region breeds in response to the intermittent prolonged heat stress conditions. Three warm region breeds (Fayoumi, Sinai Bedouin and White Baladi) and a commercial broiler strain were brooded for 8 wks in two thermal (heating and non- heating) treatments. The target ambient temperature in the heating treatment

Essam A. El-Gendy; Mostafa K. Nassar; Ahmed Mostageer

2007-01-01

51

The breeding animals used to produce the germ-free chicken are of a White Leghorn strain, (Orthoxenic PA 12), created at our Station.  

E-print Network

MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM IN CHICKENS Z. ZOLLI M. GUG* ABBOTT Laboratories, North Chicago (Illinois) * C. E. V induced airsacculitis associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (V248). The antibiotics were administered with a broth culture of M. gallisepticum (V 2q8). The experiments were terminated when the chicks reached4weeks

Boyer, Edmond

52

Development of a controlled release formulation of an indigenous insect growth regulator, DPE-28, a substituted diphenylether, for controlling the breeding of Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: DPE-28, a substituted diphenyl ether (2,6-ditertiarybutyl phenyl-2’,4’-dinitro phenyl ether) was reported to exhibit promising insect growth regulating activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis. A controlled release formulation (CRF) of DPE-28 has been developed to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in its breeding habitats. Toxicity of DPE-28, safety to non-target mosquito predators and the release profile of the CRF of DPE-28 are studied and discussed. Methods: The acute oral and dermal toxicity was tested in male and female Wistar rats as per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 425 and 402 respectively. The toxicity of DPE-28 to non-target predators was tested as per the reported procedure from this laboratory. The CRF of DPE-28 was prepared by following the reported procedure developed at this laboratory earlier. The concentration of DPE-28 released from the CRF was monitored by HPLC by constructing a calibration graph by plotting the peak area in the Y-axis and the concentration of DPE-28 in the X-axis. Results: DPE-28 has been tested for acute oral toxicity and found to be moderately toxic with LD50 value of 1098 mg/kg body weight (b.w). The results of the acute dermal toxicity and skin irritation studies reveal that DPE-28 is safe and non-irritant. DPE-28 when tested at 0.4 mg/litre against non-target mosquito predators did not produce any mortality. The release profile of the active ingredient DPE-28 from the CRF by HPLC technique showed that the average daily release (ADR) of DPE-28 ranged from 0.07 to 5.0 mg/litre during first four weeks. Thereafter the matrix started eroding and the ADR ranged from 5 to 11 mg/litre during the remaining 5 wk. The cumulative release of active ingredient showed that > 90 per cent of the active ingredient was released from the matrix. Interpretation & conclusions: The controlled release matrix of DPE-28 was thus found to inhibit the adult emergence (>80%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus for a period of nine weeks. The CRF of DPE-28 may play a useful role in field and may be recommended for mosquito control programme after evaluating the same under field conditions. PMID:21727665

Kalyanasundaram, M.; Mathew, Nisha; Elango, A.; Padmanabhan, V.

2011-01-01

53

Chicken Feet  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: American chicken feet are no longer welcome on Chinese soil. A possible congressional ban on the import of Chinese chicken for safety reasons has made China madder than a wet hen. And, though officially China is saying...

Hacker, Randi

2009-09-02

54

Phylogeography and origin of Chinese domestic chicken.  

PubMed

The loss of local chicken breeds as result of replacement with cosmopolitan breeds indicates the need for conservation measures to protect the future of local genetic stocks. The aim of this study is to describe the patterns of polymorphism of the hypervariable control region of mitochondrial DNA (HVR1) in domestic chicken in China's Jiangxi province to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure and phylo-dynamics. To this end, we sequenced the mtDNA HVR1 in 231 chickens including 22 individuals which belonged to previously published sequences. A neighbor-joining tree revealed that these samples clustered into five lineages (Lineages A, B, C, E and G). The highest haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were both found in Anyi tile-liked gray breed. We estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the local chicken existed approximately 16 million years ago. The mismatch distribution analysis showed two major peaks at positions 4 and 9, while the neutrality test (Tajima's D =?-2.19, p < 0.05) and Fu's F-statistics (-8.59, p < 0.05) revealed a significant departure from the neutrality assumption. These results support the idea that domestication of chickens facilitated population increases. Results of a global AMOVA indicated that there was no obvious geographic structure among the local chicken breeds analyzed in this study. The data obtained in this study will assist future conservation management of local breeds and also reveals intriguing implications for the history of human population movements and commerce. PMID:23617370

Wu, Y P; Huo, J H; Xie, J F; Liu, L X; Wei, Q P; Xie, M G; Kang, Z F; Ji, H Y; Ma, Y H

2014-04-01

55

A decrease of circulating CD4? T cells in Attwater's prairie chickens infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus.  

E-print Network

??A problem encountered by captive breeding facilities attempting to save the Attwater's prairie chicken (APC; Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) from extinction is infection with reticuloendotheliosis virus… (more)

Ferro, Pamela Joyce Bloomer

2012-01-01

56

Indigenous Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Indigenous Australia Website, presented in affiliation with the Australian Museum and the Australia's Cultural Network, combines two Websites -- Dreaming Online and Stories of the Dreaming (see the July 16, 1999 Scout Report) -- into one comprehensive resource. An engaging introduction to the 60,000-year-old cultural heritage of Australia's Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, the site is divided into four main sections: Background Info, Stories of the Dreaming, For Kids, and For Teachers. The Background section provides users with a nice overview, accompanied by images, of art and dress, spiritual and family life, the relationship of indigenous peoples to the land, and their interactions with British colonists, as well as a fairly detailed timeline. Stories of the Dreaming offers short movies of people reciting the tales from their ancestors about the land, sea, and animals. These were filmed in the rugged backdrop of Australia and are available as low or high quality videos (RealPlayer) or as audio or text only. The Teachers and Kids pages supply additional resources including links, a glossary, a FAQ, and advice on teaching lessons in indigenous studies.

57

Hatching Chickens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, from Science NetLinks, is intended to help students realize that they can learn a lot about chickens -and animals in general - through close observation. Students begin the lesson by expressing what they know about chickens in general and then are encouraged to think and talk about how eggs hatch into chicks and the kinds of special things that are needed to care for eggs/chicks.

Science Netlinks;

2003-11-20

58

[Genetic diversity in goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis].  

PubMed

Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301

Xu, Limei; Liu, Chousheng; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Zhigang; Han, Xu; Li, Xiaoxia; Chang, Shuang

2010-05-01

59

Indigenous Research Institute Membership List  

E-print Network

; corporate/Indigenous partnerships; sustainable development; corporate social responsibility. E-mail: raa28 3 business development; corporate/Indigenous partnerships; sustainable development; corporate social responsibility. Current project: Indigenous peoples economic development; Indigenous peoples business development

60

Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…

Despagne, Colette

2013-01-01

61

Indigenous human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous Human Rights is an edited selection of proceedings of the Australian Indigenous Human Rights Conference, organised by members of Southern Cross University in February 2000. The collection covers a range of issues relating to Indigenous human rights including: racial discrimination and 'special measures'; removal of children; law and order; access to the United Nations; and prospects for the use

Sam Boris Garkawe; Loretta Kelly; Warwick Fisher

2001-01-01

62

Dog Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online Flash game gets learners thinking like geneticists in order to breed a border collie puppy with select traits, including coat color, coat length, and ear length. Progressive levels of play encourage learners as they move from novice to master breeders. Learners can click on the Why button to learn more about genes and dog breeding.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

63

Heterosis and combining ability for body weight in a diallel cross of three chicken genotypes.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate heterotic and combining ability effects for growth in nine chicken genotypes. A 3 × 3 complete diallel mating system involving two indigenous breeds named Venda (V) and Naked Neck (N) and one commercial broiler breed named Ross 308 (R) were used. The nine genetic groups of crosses were reared up from hatch to 13 weeks of age in deep litter open house. Body weights of 180 chicks (20 chicks per genetic group), recorded at 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 weeks of age, were used to estimate heterosis, general combining ability (GCA), and specific combining ability (SCA). Results showed that the Ross 308 had the heaviest body weight at all weeks of measurement except for hatch. With respect to crosses, the V × R and its reciprocal cross, R × V had the heaviest body weights at 13 weeks. Heterosis estimates for body weight were higher in the Venda male × Ross 308 female and Venda male and Naked Neck female crosses. GCA was significant (P ? 0.01) for body weight from hatch to 13 weeks of age while SCA and reciprocal effects were both significant (P ? 0.05) for body weight at all ages of measurement except for hatch. The Ross 308 gave the highest positive effect of GCA for body weight except for hatch. V × N gave the highest and positive effects of SCA for body weight. PMID:23151822

Siwendu, Njedbo A; Norris, David; Ngambi, Jones W; Shimelis, Hussein A; Benyi, Kow

2013-04-01

64

Teaching Indigenous Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a wealth of materials relating to the anthropological, educational, and political issues involved with the teaching of Indigenous Languages. The best feature is the online full-texts of recently published scholarly studies and collections devoted to the subject. These texts include Revitalizing Indigenous Languages (1999), Teaching Indigenous Languages (1997), and Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (1996). The site also offers reprints of scholarly articles on such topics as American Indian language policy, models for teaching and maintaining indigenous languages, selected columns (1990-1999) from NABE (National Association for Bilingual Education) News, and quite a bit more. Many of the texts feature hyperlinks, and a site search engine is provided. Finally, an extensive, occasionally annotated list of links to Bilingual, American Indian, Indigenous Languages, and Literacy/ Reading sites is also posted. Jon Reyhner, an associate professor of bilingual and multicultural education at Northern Arizona University, maintains the site.

65

Enhancing Indigenous content through service learning with Indigenous communities  

E-print Network

Enhancing Indigenous content through service learning with Indigenous communities The Indigenous service learning opportunity for Humanities students and staff. Together on the project, visit our facebook page: www.facebook.com/CommunityServiceLearning Support

66

Global diversity and genetic contributions of chicken populations from African, Asian and European regions.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and population structure of 113 chicken populations from Africa, Asia and Europe were studied using 29 microsatellite markers. Among these, three populations of wild chickens and nine commercial purebreds were used as reference populations for comparison. Compared to commercial lines and chickens sampled from the European region, high mean numbers of alleles and a high degree of heterozygosity were found in Asian and African chickens as well as in Red Junglefowl. Population differentiation (FST ) was higher among European breeds and commercial lines than among African, Asian and Red Junglefowl populations. Neighbour-Net genetic clustering and structure analysis revealed two main groups of Asian and north-west European breeds, whereas African populations overlap with other breeds from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean region. Broilers and brown egg layers were situated between the Asian and north-west European clusters. structure analysis confirmed a lower degree of population stratification in African and Asian chickens than in European breeds. High genetic differentiation and low genetic contributions to global diversity have been observed for single European breeds. Populations with low genetic variability have also shown a low genetic contribution to a core set of diversity in attaining maximum genetic variation present from the total populations. This may indicate that conservation measures in Europe should pay special attention to preserving as many single chicken breeds as possible to maintain maximum genetic diversity given that higher genetic variations come from differentiation between breeds. PMID:25315897

Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Eding, H; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

2014-12-01

67

Seasonal variation in semen quality of Gorno Altai cashmere goats and South African indigenous goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal effects on semen quality of Gorno Altai cashmere goats and South African indigenous goats were studied in this experiment. A definite breeding season for the two breeds was determined. Semen quality parameters that were quantified include semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, percentage live sperm, dead sperm and scrotal circumference. Scrotal circumference, semen volume, concentration and sperm concentration of

E. C. Webb; M. H. Dombo; M. Roets

68

Genetic diversity and population structure among six cattle breeds in South Africa using a whole genome SNP panel  

PubMed Central

Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA) including Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), Bonsmara (n = 44), Angus (n = 31), and Holstein (n = 29). Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR), expected heterozygosity (He) and inbreeding coefficient (f). Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei's genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE). Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner) to 1.73 (Nguni). Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He = 0.24) and the Drakensberger cattle (He = 0.30) had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of SA cattle breeds.

Makina, Sithembile O.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.; van Marle-Koster, Este; MacNeil, Michael D.; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi

2014-01-01

69

Genetic diversity and population structure among six cattle breeds in South Africa using a whole genome SNP panel.  

PubMed

Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA) including Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), Bonsmara (n = 44), Angus (n = 31), and Holstein (n = 29). Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR), expected heterozygosity (He) and inbreeding coefficient (f). Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei's genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE). Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner) to 1.73 (Nguni). Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He = 0.24) and the Drakensberger cattle (He = 0.30) had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of SA cattle breeds. PMID:25295053

Makina, Sithembile O; Muchadeyi, Farai C; van Marle-Köster, Este; MacNeil, Michael D; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi

2014-01-01

70

Charles Darwin University Indigenous Australian  

E-print Network

and Training (VET) ACCESS PARTICIPATION SUCCESS Secondary Schools Conferences Community Events Indigenous and Tennant Creek Sponsored Material Costs Attainment Engagement Academic Support Indigenous Alternative Entry

71

Dog Breeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

;

2004-07-05

72

Simulated Breeding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

Unemi, Tatsuo

73

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...animals, and other mammals. However, it does not include poultry, chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, other birds, fish, frogs, reptiles, etc. (b)(1) Whether or not livestock is held by the taxpayer for draft, breeding,...

2012-04-01

74

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...animals, and other mammals. However, it does not include poultry, chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, other birds, fish, frogs, reptiles, etc. (b)(1) Whether or not livestock is held by the taxpayer for draft, breeding,...

2011-04-01

75

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

...animals, and other mammals. However, it does not include poultry, chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, other birds, fish, frogs, reptiles, etc. (b)(1) Whether or not livestock is held by the taxpayer for draft, breeding,...

2014-04-01

76

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...animals, and other mammals. However, it does not include poultry, chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, other birds, fish, frogs, reptiles, etc. (b)(1) Whether or not livestock is held by the taxpayer for draft, breeding,...

2010-04-01

77

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...animals, and other mammals. However, it does not include poultry, chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, other birds, fish, frogs, reptiles, etc. (b)(1) Whether or not livestock is held by the taxpayer for draft, breeding,...

2013-04-01

78

Uses and flock management practices of scavenging chickens in Wolaita Zone of southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Rearing of scavenging chickens is among the most commonly practiced farm activities in Ethiopia. This system is dominated by indigenous chickens. Output from indigenous chickens is low due to poor management and absence of intense selection that is intended to improve economically important traits. This showed that village chickens are rather evolved for adaptation traits. However, the level of risk is low, and this has made rearing of scavenging chickens a choice of farm activity for smallholder farmers. The objective of this study was to characterize the scavenging chickens' production system in Wolaita Zone. Single-visit survey involving individual interview of 119 farmers and 6 focus group discussions was used to collect the data. Our results showed that rearing of scavenging chickens was constrained especially by disease and predation problems. However, farmers proposed a set of solutions to minimize the effect of these problems. Rearing of scavenging chickens fulfils the multi-functional need of the society. This system has special features because it can sustain in its own without the need for modern commercial chicken farming facilities. However, farmers also reported the drawbacks of rearing of scavenging chickens and these mainly include uproot of garden crops and tiresomeness of the night watching. Selection of chickens was mainly depending on physically observed traits like body size and plumage colour. The initial foundation flock was mainly obtained from the local market. The ideal place for scavenging chickens production is the one that has intermediate weather condition and has some trees that can be used as shade; however, it was substantiated that it has to be free from bush and shrubs, weeds and wet lands. Therefore, these pieces of knowledge embedded among smallholder farmers need to be well documented and synthesized to design an appropriate type of technology packages that can be communicated back to farmers to improve productivity of the scavenging chickens. PMID:21800214

Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli

2012-03-01

79

Campylobacter jejuni Is Not Merely a Commensal in Commercial Broiler Chickens and Affects Bird Welfare  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. PMID:24987092

Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom

2014-01-01

80

Reclaiming Indigenous Representations and Knowledges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores contemporary Indigenous artists', activists', and scholars' use of the Internet to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, culture, art, history, and worldview; critique the political realities of dominant discourse; and address the genocidal history and ongoing repression of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Internet examples include…

Iseke-Barnes, Judy; Danard, Deborah

2007-01-01

81

Indigenous Continuance: Collaboration and Syncretism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this keynote address, the author talks about Indigenous peoples who are presently in a dynamic circumstance of constant change that they are facing courageously with creative collaboration and syncretism. In the address, the author speaks "of" an Indigenous consciousness and he speaks "with" an Indigenous consciousness so that Indigenous…

Ortiz, Simon J.

2011-01-01

82

Indigenous Community-Based Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a long history as a tool of forced assimilation of indigenous populations, education is now a key arena in which indigenous peoples can reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures and thereby improve the academic success of indigenous students. Community-based education offers a means by which indigenous peoples can regain a measure of…

May, Stephen, Ed.

83

Finding the Indigenous in Indigenous Studies  

E-print Network

reason that Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection (1859) is so controversial in the modern world is that Darwin placed humans within nature, rather than separate from nature, where the Western philosophical tradition assumed humans... be longed (Pierotti and Wildcat 2000). The recognition that changes in the environment can lead to changes in the form of beings, along with their non-human centered worldviews, can also be seen in the creation myths of indigenous peoples. A major...

Pierotti, Raymond; Wildcat, Daniel R.

2000-03-01

84

SPRING PRECIPITATION AND FLUCTUATIONS IN ATTWATER'S PRAIRIE-CHICKEN NUMBERS: HYPOTHESES REVISITED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two related hypotheses argue that greater than normal precipitation during May alone or spring (Mar-Jun) leads to decreased Attwater's ~rairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) breeding success, whereas less than normal precipitation during these periods leads to increased breeding success. These hypotheses have been accepted by wildlife managers and, seemingly because of observer expectancy bias, have been used to explain annual variation

MARKUS J. PETERSON; NOVA J. SILVY

85

A Consensus Linkage Map of the Chicken Genome  

PubMed Central

A consensus linkage map has been developed in the chicken that combines all of the genotyping data from the three available chicken mapping populations. Genotyping data were contributed by the laboratories that have been using the East Lansing and Compton reference populations and from the Animal Breeding and Genetics Group of the Wageningen University using the Wageningen/Euribrid population. The resulting linkage map of the chicken genome contains 1889 loci. A framework map is presented that contains 480 loci ordered on 50 linkage groups. Framework loci are defined as loci whose order relative to one another is supported by odds greater then 3. The possible positions of the remaining 1409 loci are indicated relative to these framework loci. The total map spans 3800 cM, which is considerably larger than previous estimates for the chicken genome. Furthermore, although the physical size of the chicken genome is threefold smaller then that of mammals, its genetic map is comparable in size to that of most mammals. The map contains 350 markers within expressed sequences, 235 of which represent identified genes or sequences that have significant sequence identity to known genes. This improves the contribution of the chicken linkage map to comparative gene mapping considerably and clearly shows the conservation of large syntenic regions between the human and chicken genomes. The compact physical size of the chicken genome, combined with the large size of its genetic map and the observed degree of conserved synteny, makes the chicken a valuable model organism in the genomics as well as the postgenomics era. The linkage maps, the two-point lod scores, and additional information about the loci are available at web sites in Wageningen (http://www.zod.wau.nl/vf/research/chicken/frame_chicken.html) and East Lansing (http://poultry.mph.msu.edu/). PMID:10645958

Groenen, Martien A.M.; Cheng, Hans H.; Bumstead, Nat; Benkel, Bernard F.; Briles, W. Elwood; Burke, Terry; Burt, Dave W.; Crittenden, Lyman B.; Dodgson, Jerry; Hillel, Jossi; Lamont, Sue; de Leon, Abel Ponce; Soller, Morris; Takahashi, Hideaki; Vignal, Alain

2000-01-01

86

Evolutionary pets: offspring numbers reveal speciation process in domesticated chickens.  

PubMed

Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059). Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75% ± 7.10%, M ± SE) hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75% ± 15.32%, M ± SE). These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal. PMID:22879889

Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

2012-01-01

87

Evolutionary Pets: Offspring Numbers Reveal Speciation Process in Domesticated Chickens  

PubMed Central

Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059). Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75%±7.10%, M±SE) hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75%±15.32%, M±SE). These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal. PMID:22879889

Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

2012-01-01

88

Effect of age on hepatic cytochrome P450 of Ross 708 broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Age has significant impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) systems in animals. Ross 708 broiler chicken is a breed of chicken with fast growth characteristics. Cytochrome P450 in the livers of Ross 708 broiler chicken of different ages has been investigated. The birds were raised under standard husbandry conditions. A certain number of chickens was randomly sampled weekly for liver collection from d 1 to 56 posthatch. The chicken body and liver weights were recorded. The chicken livers were processed for liver microsomes though a multiple-step procedure at low temperature. Total CYP450 content in chicken liver homogenates and liver microsomes was measured using a UV/visible spectroscopic method. The enzymatic activities of CYP450 in the chicken liver microsomes were determined through incubation of CYP450 isoform substrates followed by measurement of formation of their metabolites. The chicken showed an opposite age pattern in hepatic CYP450 content and activities compared with most mammals. The hepatic CYP450 content and activities of chicken at d 1 posthatch were higher than at other ages. The total hepatic CYP450 content in chickens at d 1 posthatch was more than twice the average hepatic value of the chickens at d 7 to 28. This high CYP450 fell quickly in the first week posthatch and slightly rose from d 28 to 56. Hepatic CYP450 activities of CYP1A, 3A, 2C, 2D, and 2H were much higher in the chicken at d 1 posthatch. The differences of these enzymatic activities between d 1 and other ages of chicken were CYP450 isoform dependent. This result suggests that embryonic development of chicken livers has a significant impact on the age profile of hepatic CYP450 content and activities of posthatch chickens. PMID:23571338

Hu, S X

2013-05-01

89

Teaching Indigenous Children: Listening To And Learning From Indigenous Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on the findings of a qualitative case study that examined the professional experiences and career pathways of fifty current and former Australian Indigenous teachers. Here, we draw on data obtained from semi-structured interviews with the teachers to highlight their knowledge in three key areas: ‘Indigenous ways of knowing’, ‘Indigenous learners’ lives beyond the classroom’ and ‘Building

Ninetta Santoro; Jo-Anne Reid; Laurie Crawford; Lee Simpson

2011-01-01

90

Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat. PMID:25049967

Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.

2014-01-01

91

Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++,

Dale A Sandercock; Zoe E Barker; Malcolm A Mitchell; Paul M Hocking

2009-01-01

92

Australian Indigenous Knowledge and Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and academics…

Nakata, Martin, Ed.; Langton, Marcia, Ed.

2005-01-01

93

Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

Indigenous Affairs, 1998

1998-01-01

94

MAPPING INDIGENOUS LANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping of indigenous lands to secure tenure, manage natural resources, and strengthen cultures is a recent phenomenon, having begun in Canada and Alaska in the 1960s and in other regions during the last decade and a half. A variety of methodologies have made their appearance, ranging from highly participatory approaches involving village sketch maps to more technical efforts with

Mac Chapin; Zachary Lamb; Bill Threlkeld

2005-01-01

95

Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

2012-01-01

96

Mathematics in Indigenous Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1999-2005, the Mathematics in Indigenous Contexts (MIC) project was implemented by the Board of Studies, New South Wales (NSW), in conjunction with the NSW Department of Education and Training, and academics from two universities. MIC project members worked with schools and communities at two sites: a primary school in an urban community in…

Perry, Bob; Howard Peter

2008-01-01

97

Australian Indigenous mental health.  

PubMed

Understanding the complexity of another culture's health concerns is fraught with difficulty, yet 'ways forward' abound. Many researchers, including Indigenous people, have recorded cultural understandings of health, and made recommendations that have influenced the planning of Indigenous peoples' mental health care. Indeed, there is anticipation with vision for the future. Australian Indigenous people have suffered many losses, which have resulted in much social unrest, and mental and spiritual sorrow. The difficulty of belonging and adjusting to two different cultural contexts has led to particular physical health and mental health concerns for some. Health for Indigenous people is viewed within a holistic and community lifestyle framework, which is related to both past and present issues, and it is not necessarily individualized or compartmentalized. A closer liaison between the health traditions of both cultures, working together with education, good will and understanding of each other's health business, and working together within mainstream health services may assist with healing, reconciliation and improved Aboriginal holistic health. PMID:11421971

Brown, R

2001-03-01

98

Campylobacter jejuni is not merely a commensal in commercial broiler chickens and affects bird welfare.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. Importance: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of food-borne bacterial diarrheal disease in the developed world. Chicken is the most common source of infection. C. jejuni infection of chickens had previously not been considered to cause disease, and it was thought that C. jejuni was part of the normal microbiota of birds. In this work, we show that modern rapidly growing chicken breeds used in intensive production systems have a strong inflammatory response to C. jejuni infection that can lead to diarrhea, which, in turn, leads to damage to the feet and legs on the birds due to standing on wet litter. The response and level of disease varied between breeds and is related to regulation of the inflammatory immune response. These findings challenge the paradigm that C. jejuni is a harmless commensal of chickens and that C. jejuni infection may have substantial impact on animal health and welfare in intensive poultry production: PMID:24987092

Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom; Wigley, Paul

2014-01-01

99

Efficacy of myrrh in controlling coccidioses in chickens.  

PubMed

Myrrh was used for controlling the infection with Eimeria species in chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old native breed chickens bought from commercial hatchery were used in the experiment. Birds were feed on starter balanced ration free from anticoccidial drugs. At age of 2 weeks the chickens were divided into 4 groups (1-4), 30 chicks each. Chickens of first group were inoculated by 50,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed local field isolated Eimneria species and served as infected non treated control group. Birds of the second group were infected similarly and received simultaneously 10 mg Myrrh / bird by oral route. Birds of group 3 was supplied with Myrrh 10 mg / bird one day before infection by coccidia (50000 oocyst/bird). Last chicken group was left as non infected non treated control group. Measurements to evaluate the efficacy of Myrrh as anticoccidial drug included; mortality percentage; lesion score at 5 day post infection and the total oocyst output/gm of fecal dropping. The results showed that the mortality rate reached 10% and 3.33% in groups 2&3 respectively, while it reached 26.66% in infected non treated control group. High lesion score was recorded in infected non treated group followed by infected treated chicken groups regardless the time of treatment. The feed conversion rates reached 3.14 in infected non treated chicken group against 2.47 & 2.21 in treated chickens groups, 2&3 respectively. Mean oocyst count per gram faecal dropping (OPG) was reduced significantly in group 3 when compared with other infected treated or infected non treated chicken groups. PMID:21268542

Massoud, Ahmed; El Khateeb, Rabab M; Kutkat, Mohamed A

2010-12-01

100

Genetic analysis of local Vietnamese chickens provides evidence of gene flow from wild to domestic populations  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies suggested that multiple domestication events in South and South-East Asia (Yunnan and surrounding areas) and India have led to the genesis of modern domestic chickens. Ha Giang province is a northern Vietnamese region, where local chickens, such as the H'mong breed, and wild junglefowl coexist. The assumption was made that hybridisation between wild junglefowl and Ha Giang chickens may have occurred and led to the high genetic diversity previously observed. The objectives of this study were i) to clarify the genetic structure of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province and ii) to give evidence of admixture with G. gallus. A large survey of the molecular polymorphism for 18 microsatellite markers was conducted on 1082 chickens from 30 communes of the Ha Giang province (HG chickens). This dataset was combined with a previous dataset of Asian breeds, commercial lines and samples of Red junglefowl from Thailand and Vietnam (Ha Noï). Measurements of genetic diversity were estimated both within-population and between populations, and a step-by-step Bayesian approach was performed on the global data set. Results The highest value for expected heterozygosity (> 0.60) was found in HG chickens and in the wild junglefowl populations from Thailand. HG chickens exhibited the highest allelic richness (mean A = 2.9). No significant genetic subdivisions of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province were found. As compared to other breeds, HG chickens clustered with wild populations. Furthermore, the neighbornet tree and the Bayesian clustering analysis showed that chickens from 4 communes were closely related to the wild ones and showed an admixture pattern. Conclusion In the absence of any population structuring within the province, the H'mong chicken, identified from its black phenotype, shared a common gene pool with other chickens from the Ha Giang population. The large number of alleles shared exclusively between Ha Giang chickens and junglefowl, as well as the results of a Bayesian clustering analysis, suggest that gene flow has been taking place from junglefowl to Ha Giang chickens. PMID:19133138

Berthouly, C; Leroy, G; Van, T Nhu; Thanh, H Hoang; Bed'Hom, B; Nguyen, B Trong; Chi, C Vu; Monicat, F; Tixier-Boichard, M; Verrier, E; Maillard, J-C; Rognon, X

2009-01-01

101

Survey of small-enterprise chicken operations in the United States.  

PubMed

The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Small-Enterprise Chicken study was conducted to better understand bird movement and biosecurity practices of commercial poultry operations having fewer than 20,000 chickens. A stratified random sample of 2511 operations having 1000-19,999 chickens was selected from a list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), based primarily upon data from the 2002 Census of Agriculture; 1789 (72.1%) operations participated in the study. Over one-half of operations were contract operations with breeding birds, and one-fourth were contract operations without breeding birds. Only 17% of operations were independent (noncontract) operations. Independent operations were primarily table-egg producers and to a lesser extent, growers. Independent operations were more likely to have birds other than chickens, to allow outdoor access to birds, and had less stringent biosecurity requirements compared to contract operations. PMID:19501925

Garber, L; Forde-Folle, K; Beam, A; Hill, G

2009-08-01

102

Indigenous knowledge and science revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a guided tour through three diverse cultural ways of understanding nature: an Indigenous way (with a\\u000a focus on Indigenous nations in North America), a neo-indigenous way (a concept proposed to recognize many Asian nations’ unique\\u000a ways of knowing nature; in this case, Japan), and a Euro-American scientific way. An exploration of these three ways of knowing\\u000a unfolds

Glen S. Aikenhead; Masakata Ogawa

2007-01-01

103

Genome-Wide Patterns of Genetic Variation in Two Domestic Chickens  

PubMed Central

Domestic chickens are excellent models for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity, as numerous phenotypic changes in physiology, morphology, and behavior in chickens have been artificially selected. Genomic study is required to study genome-wide patterns of DNA variation for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We sequenced the genomes of the Silkie and the Taiwanese native chicken L2 at ?23- and 25-fold average coverage depth, respectively, using Illumina sequencing. The reads were mapped onto the chicken reference genome (including 5.1% Ns) to 92.32% genome coverage for the two breeds. Using a stringent filter, we identified ?7.6 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8,839 copy number variations (CNVs) in the mapped regions; 42% of the SNPs have not found in other chickens before. Among the 68,906 SNPs annotated in the chicken sequence assembly, 27,852 were nonsynonymous SNPs located in 13,537 genes. We also identified hundreds of shared and divergent structural and copy number variants in intronic and intergenic regions and in coding regions in the two breeds. Functional enrichments of identified genetic variants were discussed. Radical nsSNP-containing immunity genes were enriched in the QTL regions associated with some economic traits for both breeds. Moreover, genetic changes involved in selective sweeps were detected. From the selective sweeps identified in our two breeds, several genes associated with growth, appetite, and metabolic regulation were identified. Our study provides a framework for genetic and genomic research of domestic chickens and facilitates the domestic chicken as an avian model for genomic, biomedical, and evolutionary studies. PMID:23814129

Fan, Wen-Lang; Ng, Chen Siang; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Chen, Yu-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Jung; Wu, Siao-Man; Chen, Chih-Kuan; Chen, Jiun-Jie; Mao, Chi-Tang; Lai, Yu-Ting; Lo, Wen-Sui; Chang, Wei-Hua; Li, Wen-Hsiung

2013-01-01

104

Reproductive performance of South African indigenous goats following oestrous synchronisation and AI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive performance following oestrous synchronisation and artificial insemination (AI) was evaluated during the natural breeding season (autumn) in 90 indigenous (Boer and Nguni) South African goats. All does were synchronised for 16 days with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) followed by an IM injection of 300IU PMSG at progestagen withdrawal. Cervical inseminations were performed at a fixed time (48h and 60h)

K. C. Lehloenya; J. P. C. Greyling; L. M. J. Schwalbach

2005-01-01

105

Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation  

E-print Network

Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L). I. Lolium perenne = perennial ryegrass / ploidy/ cutting frequency/ leaf morphogenesis/ genetic progress productivité pour un rythme de coupe donné. Lolium perenne = ray-grass anglais / ploïdie / fréquence de coupe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation  

E-print Network

Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L). II the genetic parameters of growth compo- nents in Lolium perenne. These parameters might be taken into account be an alternative approach that should be investigated. Lolium perenne = perennial ryegrass / heritability / leaf

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Molecular genetic diversity and genetic structure of Vietnamese indigenous pig populations.  

PubMed

The study characterized genetic diversity and genetic structure of five indigenous pig populations (Ha Lang, Muong Te, Mong Cai, Lung and Lung Pu), two wild pig populations (Vietnamese and Thai wild pigs) and an exotic pig breed (Yorkshire) using FAO/ISAG recommended 16 microsatellite markers in 236 samples. All estimated loci were very polymorphic indicated by high values of polymorphism information content (from 0.76 in S0225 to 0.92 in Sw2410). Indigenous populations had very high level of genetic diversity (mean He = 0.75); of all indigenous breeds, Lung Pu showed highest mean number of alleles (MNA = 10.1), gene diversity (He = 0.82), allele richness (5.33) and number of private alleles (10). Thirteen percentage of the total genetic variation observed was due to differences among populations. The neighbour-joining dendrogram obtained from Nei's standard genetic distance differentiated eight populations into four groups including Yorkshire, two wild populations, Mong Cai population and a group of four other indigenous populations. The Bayesian clustering with the admixture model implemented in Structure 2.1 indicated seven possible homogenous clusters among eight populations. From 79% (Ha Lang) to 98% (Mong Cai). individuals in indigenous pigs were assigned to their own populations. The results confirmed high level of genetic diversity and shed a new light on genetic structure of Vietnam indigenous pig populations. PMID:24373066

Pham, L D; Do, D N; Nam, L Q; Van Ba, N; Minh, L T A; Hoan, T X; Cuong, V C; Kadarmideen, H N

2014-10-01

108

Advanced Backcross Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is a detailed explanation of the backcross breeding process. Variations based on whether backcrossing is performed with dominant, recessive, or multiple traits are discussed. Calculations associated with backcross breeding are explained.

109

Indigenous Intelligence: Have We Lost Our Indigenous Mind?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eurocentric intelligence is restricted to rational, linear, competitive, and hierarchical thinking. Indigenous intelligence encompasses the body, mind, heart, and experience in total responsiveness and total relationship to the whole environment, which includes the seven generations past and future. Implementation of major changes to indigenous…

Dumont, Jim

2002-01-01

110

Comparative gastric morphometry of Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs.  

PubMed

It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastric glands. Interestingly, the stomach mass correlated well with live body weight in both breeds apart from possessing similar histomorphometry of the gastric gland regions. On the other hand, the thicker (P < 0.05) submucosa in the Vietnamese wild pig is attributed to the presence of numerous loose connective tissues, abundant blood vessels, adipose tissues and nerve plexus. The appearance of lymphoid follicles underneath the tubular gastric glands in the Vietnamese wild pig exceeded that of Muong indigenous pigs. This finding suggested that the difference in feeding behavior as well as immunity. In conclusion, adaptations found in the Vietnamese wild pig indicated that this breed is equipped with a bigger and effectively functional stomach to suit its digestive physiology and immunity in the wild. PMID:23093914

Trang, Pham Hong; Ooi, Peck Toung; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

2012-01-01

111

Salmonella profile in chickens determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and bacteriology from years 2000 to 2003 in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

From years 2000 to 2003, Salmonella was investigated from a total of 1785 samples comprised of chicken intestinal samples, cloacal swabs, drag swabs, litter samples and chick dust samples collected from 191 poultry breeding flocks belonging to 15 different chicken breeding stock companies in the Marmara region, Turkey by a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (SGBRT-PCR), by a probe-specific

Aysegul Eyigor; Gulsen Goncagul; Elcin Gunaydin; K. Tayfun Carli

2005-01-01

112

Indian indigenous healers.  

PubMed

Indian perceptions of the practices of their indigenous healers and of doctors were investigated by interviewing 86 outpatients or their accompanying family member from a local psychiatric hospital's outpatient unit. Among the findings were: that relatively more healers than doctors revealed their diagnoses to the patient; and that the healers, when they did diagnose, did so in terms of 'trick' and 'evil' and treatment was largely with ashes, amulets and holy water. Surprisingly, relatively more patients appear to believe in the effectiveness of the doctors' treatment rather than the healers'. The results are discussed within the framework of the Indian concept of health and illness and further research possibilities are suggested. PMID:3738660

Bhana, K

1986-08-16

113

Information Technology and Indigenous People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…

Dyson, Laurel, Ed.; Hendriks, Max, Ed.; Grant, Stephen, Ed.

2007-01-01

114

Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

Indigenous Affairs, 1996

1996-01-01

115

Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…

Enn, Rosa

2012-01-01

116

Commentary: Indigenous Health Special Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…

Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy

2010-01-01

117

Indigenous Contributions to Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the course of the Fourth International Polar Year(s), indigenous peoples have assumed a prominent role as significant partners in the pursuit of a broader and deeper understanding of the multifaceted dimensions of the human role in the Arctic region. Most salient in this partnership has been the substantial underlying differences in perspective, some political, some ideological, but most fundamental and intractable are the differences in world views, between those of the relative newcomers to the area (i.e. the miners, loggers, oil field workers, commercial fishermen, tourists, and even the occasional scientist), and the Native people with roots in the land that go back millennia. But no longer can these differences be cast in simplistic either/or terms, implying some kind of inherent dichotomy between those who live off the land vs. those tied to the cash economy, or traditional vs. modern technologies, or anecdotal vs. scientific evidence. These lines have been blurred with the realities that indigenous cultures are not static, and western structures are no longer dominant. Instead, we now have a much more fluid and dynamic situation in which once competing views of the world are striving toward reconciliation through new structures and frameworks that foster co-existence rather than domination and exploitation.

Barnhardt, R.

2010-12-01

118

Selected indigenous teaching materials.  

PubMed

In the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) project in Nepal in 1974-75 and Afghanistan in 1975-76, indigenous teaching material production played a key role. 2 main categories of teaching materials were produced. 1) Project histories briefly described a project and the problems encountered in its initiation, implementation, and maintenance. 2) Situational materials briefly described incidents that required a decision that occurred in real work situations. They were used as guides in showing how to handle similar situations and to enable examination of the elements of the situation and its handling. The selection of materials was made by the course participants in connection with the MTS team. Criteria were: connection with curriculum, showing of ways to solve a specific problem, whether it would stimulate discussion to help conceptualize causes of a problem, how well it teaches assessment of factors, and cultural values important for progress. Even incidents of failure were instructive. In producing the indigenous teaching materials, teachers and learners solved problems together in collaboration, rather than seeing experts as owning or storing knowledge. An incident from Nepal showing culture conflict is presented along with teaching notes on usage, such as discussion of one's own cultural values. A second incident from Afghanistan illustrates the need for collaboration with local influentials and the need for identifying phases of a campaign. PMID:12265560

Kaikobad, N F

1977-01-01

119

Molecular characterization and identification of a novel polymorphism of 200 bp indel associated with age at first egg of the promoter region in chicken follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene.  

PubMed

Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) plays an important role in animal follicular development. Polymorphisms in FSHR promoter region likely impact transcription and follicle growth and maturation. In this study, a fragment of ~1.9 kb of cFSHR promoter for Zang, Xianju, Lohmann Brown, Jining Bairi and Wenchang breeds (line) was obtained. Totally 49 variations were revealed, of which 39 are single nucleotide substitutions, one is nucleotide substitution of (TTG) to (CAC) and nine are indels. Polymorphism at -874 site (a 200 bp indel mutation) was identified, and their effects on egg production traits as well as gene expression were analyzed. At this site, allele I(+) was dominant in Lohmann Brown and Xinyang Brown (a synthetic egg-laying line) lines, but very rare in three Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, namely Jining Bairi, Wenchang, Zang and one synthetic boiler line (Luqin). In Xinyang Brown population, the polymorphism was associated with age at first egg (AFE) (P < 0.05) and its effect on egg number at 37 weeks of age (E37) and egg number at 57 weeks of age (E57) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The cFSHR mRNA level was not significantly different between three genotypes in small white and small yellow follicles of Xinyang Brown hens, however, allele I(+) tends to increase cFSHR transcription. PMID:21678054

Kang, Li; Zhang, Ningbo; Zhang, Yujie; Yan, Huaxiang; Tang, Hui; Yang, Changsuo; Wang, Hui; Jiang, Yunliang

2012-03-01

120

Polymorphism of dopamine receptor D4 exon I corresponding region in chicken.  

PubMed

In stockbreeding, there are indications that behavioral traits of livestock have an effect on breeding and production. If the variation in individual behavior is related to that in neurotransmitter-related genes such as in humans, it would be possible to breed pedigrees composed of individuals having behavioral traits that are useful to production and breeding using selection based on genotypes. In this study, we investigated the exon I region of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), in which variation is related to psychiatric disorder in humans, in major poultry species namely Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), chicken (Gallus gallus), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). Furthermore, we investigated Japanese cormorant (Phalacrocorax capillatus) and Japanese jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) as an out-group. In these species of birds, the repeat of proline was identified in the region corresponding to the human polymorphic region. The repeat number was 9 in Japanese quail, ring-necked pheasant and Japanese cormorant; 12 in helmeted guinea fowl; and 3 in Japanese jungle crow. However, no polymorphism was found in these species. In contrast, polymorphism was observed in chicken and two alleles with 8 and 9 repeats were identified. Although 9 repeats (allele 9) were predominant in most chicken breeds, Black Minorca had only 8 repeats (allele 8). Intra-breed polymorphism was found in 6 out of 12 breeds, and two alleles (alleles 8 and 9) were detected in these breeds. This polymorphism, which is the first to be reported on a neurotransmitter-related gene in birds, would contribute significant information for elucidation of differences in behavioral traits in chicken breeds. PMID:15459452

Sugiyama, Akinori; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Miwa, Mitsuru; Ohashi, Riyako; Kayang, Boniface Baboreka; Mizutani, Makoto; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Odai, Masaharu; Minezawa, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Shigeru; Ito, Shin'ichi

2004-09-01

121

Effect of diets on growth, digestibility, carcass and meat quality characteristics of four rabbit breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was conducted to evaluate three diets using four rabbit breeds. A total of 320 male weaned rabbits representing four breeds named V-line, Saudi-1, Saudi-2 and Saudi-3 were randomly distributed into three comparable dietary treatments. Three levels of indigenous feedstuffs (IFS) of 42.5%, 65% or 87.5% (alfalfa hay, barley and wheat bran) were substituted for the same levels

S. N. Al-Dobaib

2010-01-01

122

Indigenous Nations' Responses to Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On August 1st, 2007, Indigenous nations from within the United States, Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa (New Zealand) signed a treaty to found the United League of Indigenous Nations. The Treaty of Indigenous Nations offers a historic opportunity for sovereign Indigenous governments to build intertribal cooperation outside the framework of the…

Grossman, Zoltan

2008-01-01

123

More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…

Bunten, Alexis Celeste

2010-01-01

124

Genetic variation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene (PPARA) in chickens bred for different purposes.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) is involved in fatty acid oxidation by upregulating the expression of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase. In this study, PPARA gene variations in four chicken breeds (Guyuan, Wenchang, Tibetan, and Hisex) were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. The results indicated six genotypes (AA-EF). When compared with the PPARA reference sequence (GenBank accession no. AF163809), the nucleotide sequences of genotypes AA, BB, AB, and CC revealed silent mutations in the three Chinese breeds. The nucleotide sequences of genotypes DD and EF in Hisex showed several frame-shift mutations, implying variations involving five alleles of the PPARA gene in chicken breeds. In addition, the distribution of genotype frequency within the PPARA gene was significantly different in the four breeds studied, implying that this locus would probably be an effective marker in marker-assisted selection for layer, meat-and-egg, and broiler breeds. PMID:20087658

Zhang, J Q; Chen, H; Sun, Z J; Liu, X L; Qiang-Ba, Y Z; Gu, Y L

2010-06-01

125

Cyber-Indigeneity: Urban Indigenous Identity on Facebook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.

Lumby, Bronwyn

2010-01-01

126

Multiple maternal origins of chickens: out of the Asian jungles.  

PubMed

Domestic chickens have long been important to human societies for food, religion, entertainment, and decorative uses, yet the origins and phylogeography of chickens through Eurasia remain uncertain. Here, we assessed their origins and phylogeographic history by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) for 834 domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Eurasia as well as 66 wild red jungle fowls (Gallus gallus) from Southeast Asia and China. Phylogenetic analyses revealed nine highly divergent mtDNA clades (A-I) in which seven clades contained both the red jungle fowls and domestic chickens. There was no breed-specific clade in the chickens. The clades A, B, and E are distributed ubiquitously in Eurasia, while the other clades were restricted to South and Southeast Asia. Clade C was mainly distributed in Japan and Southeast China, while clades F and G were exclusive to Yunnan, China. The geographic distribution of clade D was closely related to the distribution of the pastime of cock fighting. Statistical tests detect population expansion within each subclade. These distinct distribution patterns and expansion signatures suggest that different clades may originate from different regions, such as Yunnan, South and Southwest China and/or surrounding areas (i.e., Vietnam, Burma, and Thailand), and the Indian subcontinent, respectively, which support the theory of multiple origins in South and Southeast Asia. PMID:16275023

Liu, Yi-Ping; Wu, Gui-Sheng; Yao, Yong-Gang; Miao, Yong-Wang; Luikart, Gordon; Baig, Mumtaz; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Ding, Zhao-Li; Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2006-01-01

127

Towards conservation of omani local chicken: phenotypic characteristics, management practices and performance traits.  

PubMed

Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05). A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05), being 1.3±0.65 kg and 1.1±0.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 22±7.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.3±2.85 and annual production 64.5±2.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 88±6.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 16±1.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations. PMID:25050013

Al-Qamashoui, B; Mahgoub, O; Kadim, I; Schlecht, E

2014-06-01

128

Optimizing the use of breed types in developing country livestock production systems: a neglected research area.  

PubMed

Developing country livestock production systems are diverse and dynamic, and include those where existing indigenous breeds are currently optimal and likely to remain so, those where non-indigenous breed types are already in common use, and systems that are changing, such as by intensification, where the introduction of new breed types represents significant opportunities. These include opportunities to improve the livelihood of the world's poor, increase food and nutrition security and enhance environmental sustainability. At present, very little research has focused on this issue, such that significant knowledge gaps in relation to breed-change interventions remain. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of this issue and suggests strategic research areas to begin filling these knowledge gaps. Such strategic research would include (i) assessing the impact of differing breed types in developing country livestock productions systems, from a range of viewpoints including intrahousehold livelihood benefit, food and nutrition security at different scales, and environmental sustainability; (ii) identification of specific livestock production systems within developing countries, and the type of livestock keepers within these system, that are most likely to benefit from new breed types; and (iii) identification of new breed types as candidates for in-situ testing within these systems, such as through the use of spatial analysis to identify similar production environments combined with community acceptance studies. Results of these studies would primarily assist stakeholders in agriculture, including both policy makers and livestock keepers, to make informed decisions on the potential use of new breed types. PMID:24467512

Marshall, K

2014-10-01

129

Indigenous knowledge and science revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides a guided tour through three diverse cultural ways of understanding nature: an Indigenous way (with a focus on Indigenous nations in North America), a neo-indigenous way (a concept proposed to recognize many Asian nations' unique ways of knowing nature; in this case, Japan), and a Euro-American scientific way. An exploration of these three ways of knowing unfolds in a developmental way such that some key terms change to become more authentic terms that better represent each culture's collective, yet heterogeneous, worldview, metaphysics, epistemology, and values. For example, the three ways of understanding nature are eventually described as Indigenous ways of living in nature, a Japanese way of knowing seigyo-shizen, and Eurocentric sciences (plural). Characteristics of a postcolonial or anti-hegemonic discourse are suggested for science education, but some inherent difficulties with this discourse are also noted.

Aikenhead, Glen S.; Ogawa, Masakata

2007-07-01

130

Brazilian goat breeding programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, several goat breeds and types have been introduced into Brazil with the intention of increasing goat production efficiency. Selection and multiplication of genotypes appropriate to several production systems found in the country have been important to the development of the goat sector in Brazil. Until 2002 there were no formal breeding programs for goats in the country. Attempts for

R. N. Braga Lôbo; O. Facó; A. M. Bezerra Oliveira Lôbo; L. C. Vasques Villela

2010-01-01

131

Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To view additional success stories click on the link in the left menu Please click here to report your plant breeding success stories.  Click on TCAP logo to see the Economic impact of USDA-NIFA small grains CAPsThe Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee (SCC 080) is the USDA-sponsored advisory group of representatives from land grant universities.  The Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee represents national plant breeding with a focus on education in the broader sense, including providing information to the public and administrators, and encouraging the development of formal educational opportunities, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Mission: To provide a forum for leadership on issues and opportunities of strategic importance to national core competency in plant breeding research and education Membership: The PBCC members will consist of the representatives of the SCC-080 committee and others by request. 

132

Polymorphism of avian leukosis virus subgroup e Loci showing selective footprints in chicken.  

PubMed

Avian leukosis virus subgroup E (ALVE) is a family of endogenous retroviruses in the chicken genome. To investigate the genetic consequences of chicken domestication, we analyzed 18 ALVE loci in red jungle fowls, layers, broilers, and Chinese indigenous chickens. None of the ALVE loci tested were found in red jungle fowls, but 12 were present in domestic chickens. ALVE1 and ALVE16 are found in regions of the genome that harbor quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting egg production traits. ALVE1 was fixed and ALVE16 was detected only in layers. By contrast, ALVE-b1, ALVE-b5, ALVE-b6, and ALVE-b8 integrated into regions of the genome that harbor QTL affecting meat production traits. Carrier frequencies of these four ALVE loci were high in broilers and low in Chinese local chickens; the loci were not found in the layers. This study demonstrated that insertionally polymorphic ALVE loci can illustrate the selective footprints in the chicken genome. PMID:25007752

Chen, Weiguo; Qu, Hao; Li, Chunyu; Luo, Chenglong; Wang, Jie; Yang, Chunfen; Shu, Dingming

2014-12-01

133

Indigenous health and climate change.  

PubMed

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

Ford, James D

2012-07-01

134

Expression pattern of heme oxygenase 1 gene and hypoxic adaptation in chicken embryos.  

PubMed

Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a rate-limiting enzyme of heme catabolism, has a crucial role of cytoprotective functions under hypoxia. The objective of the present study was to investigate potential differences in protective effect of HO-1 gene on chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo lung during late incubation. At embryonic day (D) D16, D18, D19, and D20 of incubation, the expression of HO-1 in the lungs of chicken embryos (Tibet and Shouguang chickens) incubated in normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (13% O2) conditions was measured. SNPs were screened within 5'-flanking region and coding regions with PCR-sequencing and the genotype of the SNPs was determined with PCR-RFLP in Tibet, Chahua and Shouguang chicken populations. In conclusion, the Tibet chicken had higher HO-1 expression on D19 under hypoxic incubation and had two SNPs with different frequency distributions from other chicken breeds, which might be a way that the Tibet chicken had hereditary adaptation to hypoxia during embryonic development. PMID:24947210

Gou, Wenyu; Peng, Junfei; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Changxin

2014-08-01

135

Indigenous lunar construction materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary design of the lunar shelter showed us that joining is a critical technology needed for building a structure from large segments. The problem of joining is important to the design of any structure that is not completely prefabricated. It is especially important when the structure is subjected to tensile loading by an internal pressure. For a lunar shelter constructed from large segments the joints between these large segments must be strong, and they must permit automated construction. With a cast basalt building material which is brittle, there is the additional problem of connecting the joint with the material and avoiding stress concentration that would cause failure. Thus, a well-defined project which we intend to pursue during this coming year is the design of joints for cast basalt structural elements.

Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

1991-01-01

136

Indigenous Health and Socioeconomic Status in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSystematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities.Methods and FindingsCross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998–1999 Indian

S. V. Subramanian; George Davey Smith; Malavika Subramanyam

2006-01-01

137

Estimating cognitive gaps between Indigenous and non?Indigenous Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving cognitive skills of young children has been suggested as a possible strategy for equalising opportunities across racial groups. Using data on four and five year olds in the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children, we focus on two cognitive tests: the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the ‘Who Am I?’ test. We estimate the test score gap between Indigenous and

Andrew Leigh; Xiaodong Gong

2009-01-01

138

A Pan-Indigenous Vision of Indigenous Studies  

E-print Network

and borrow cultural products at whim. We suspect the conflicts among these groups have caused the disappointing results of existing indigenous studies programs. Elizabeth Cook-Lynn in her paper W/zo Stole Native American Studies? (WicazoSa Review, Spring...

Masaquiza, Martina (Salaska Kechwa); B'alam, Pakal (Kaqchikel Mayan)

2000-03-01

139

Detection of differentially expressed genes in the longissimus dorsi of Northeastern Indigenous and Large White pigs.  

PubMed

Recent attention in pig breeding programs has focused on the improvement of pork quality in response to increasing consumer demands. Compared to the fatty-type Northeastern Indigenous (Chinese) breed of pigs, the lean-type Large White has lower intramuscular fat and inferior eating quality from the perspective of the Chinese consumer. In order to investigate the molecular basis of differences in pork quality in Chinese indigenous and Western breeds, longissimus dorsi samples were collected from three adult Northeastern Indigenous and three adult Large White pigs. The RNAs were extracted and hybridized to the porcine Affymetrix GeneChip. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of 1134 genes of which 401 have a known function. One hundred and thirty-six genes were up-regulated and 998 down-regulated in Northeastern Indigenous breed compared to Large White pigs. We screened 10 genes as candidate genes associated with pork quality. We investigated a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' regulatory region of the gene FABP4 in 65 Songliao black swine, using PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism. We found this polymorphism to be highly significantly associated with marbling and intra-muscular fat content (P ? 0.01). Genotype BB had higher marbling than AB and AA, but there was no significant difference between AB and AA. Genotype BB and AB had higher intra-muscular fat content than AA, but there was no significant difference between BB and AB. These results help to elucidate the genetic mechanisms behind differences in pork quality and provide a theoretical basis for selection and genetic improvement of meat quality traits in pigs. PMID:21563072

Gao, Y; Zhang, Y H; Jiang, H; Xiao, S Q; Wang, S; Ma, Q; Sun, G J; Li, F J; Deng, Q; Dai, L S; Zhao, Z H; Cui, X S; Zhang, S M; Liu, D F; Zhang, J B

2011-01-01

140

Indigenous Studies and the Politics of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language use changes over time. In Indigenous contexts, language alters to suit the shifting nature of cultural expression as this might fit with Indigenous peoples' preference or as a consequence of changes to outdated and colonial modes of expression. For students studying in the discipline of Indigenous Studies, learning to use appropriate…

McGloin, Colleen; Carlson, Bronwyn L.

2013-01-01

141

Indigenous Environmental Perspectives: A North American Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a brief overview of the nature of indigenous sustainable subsistence economies, and the present underdevelopment and dependency of North American indigenous economies resulting from colonialism and marginalization. Describes environmental and personal contamination on indigenous lands from uranium and coal mining, toxic and nuclear waste,…

LaDuke, Winona

1992-01-01

142

Indigenous Knowledge for Development: Opportunities and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous knowledge is a critical factor for sustainable development. Empowerment of local communities is a prerequisite for the integration of indigenous knowledge in the development process. The integration of appropriate indigenous knowledge systems into development programs has already contributed to efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainable…

Gorjestani, Nicolas

143

Indigenous Development: Poverty, Democracy and Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions included in this volume reflect both the challenges and opportunities of an incipient process of reflection and dialogue between indigenous peoples, governments and development agencies on a subject of vital importance for the approximately 40 million indigenous people of the hemisphere. In addition to the critical issues of poverty reduction, self-development, indigenous rights and secured access to land

Diego Iturralde; Esteban Krotz; Víctor Cárdenas; Rodolfo Stavenhagen; Waldemar Wirsig; Marcial Fabricano; Xavier Albó; Shelton Davis; William Partridge; Luis Felipe Duchicela; Demetrio Cojtí Cuxil; José Del Val; Héctor Velásquez Sagua; Ramiro Molina R; Gladys Jimeno; Valerio Grefa U; Nicanor González

1996-01-01

144

Biculturalism among Indigenous College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Indigenous" college students in both Canada and the United States have the lowest rates of obtaining postsecondary degrees, and their postsecondary dropout rates are higher than for any other minority (Freeman & Fox, 2005; Mendelson, 2004; Reddy, 1993). There has been very little research done to uncover possible reasons for such low academic…

Miller, Colton D.

2011-01-01

145

Introduction: accounting and indigenous peoples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper draws attention to the potential of some strands of postmodern and related work for stimulating and furthering research into accounting and indigenous cultures and peoples. We overview some key areas of interest, showing their interface with accounting in general and with the papers published in this special issue in particular. We end our elaborations with suggestions for further

Sonja Gallhofer; Andrew Chew

2000-01-01

146

Reconciling Indigenous and Western Knowing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being able to consider the full range of social and economic issues from different cultural perspectives while maintaining respect and an open mind is a difficult task. The similarities between the latest thinking of Western cosmology and theoretical physics and Indigenous understandings of the bush and its components are striking and provide a…

Hooley, Neil

147

Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

Indigenous Affairs, 2000

2000-01-01

148

Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…

Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

2008-01-01

149

Providing Space for Indigenous Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colonial influences have generally failed to respect indigenous knowledge, languages, and cultures. Determination to reclaim First Nations identity is visible in many jurisdictions. First Nations Peoples continue to call on governments to facilitate changes needed to revitalize their economic, social, cultural, and spiritual well-being. This…

Tangihaere, Tracey Mihinoa; Twiname, Linda

2011-01-01

150

Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. PMID:24069494

Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Ângelo P.

2013-01-01

151

Chicken Caesar Salad $8 Caesar salad, grilled chicken breast, herb  

E-print Network

olives, sweet onions, red wine vinaigrette EXPLORER PIZZA Cheese Pizza $6 Pepperoni Pizza $6.25 Vegetable Pizza $6.5 AMERICAN GRILL 100% Angus Ground Beef with Cheese $8 Toasted roll, iceberg, tomato, red onionSALAD Chicken Caesar Salad $8 Caesar salad, grilled chicken breast, herb croutons, Parmesan cheese

Patterson, Bruce D.

152

Carnosine, anserine, creatine, and inosine 5'-monophosphate contents in breast and thigh meats from 5 lines of Korean native chicken.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chicken line on the contents of endogenous compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, and inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), in breast and thigh meats from 5 lines of Korean native chicken for the development of high-quality meat breeds. Additionally, the effects of sex (male or female) and meat type (breast or thigh meat) were examined. In total, 595 F1 progeny [black: 90 (male: 45, female: 45); gray-brown: 110 (male: 52, female: 58); red-brown: 136 (male: 68, female: 68); white: 126 (male: 63, female: 63); and yellow-brown: 133 (male: 62, female: 71)] from 70 full-sib families were used. The male chicken from the red-brown line and the female chicken from the black line showed the highest BW among the 5 lines. Carnosine content was higher in female chicken and breast meat than in male chicken and thigh meat, respectively. Breast meat contained higher anserine content compared with thigh meat. The sex effect on anserine was not consistent between breast and thigh meat. Creatine content was not consistently influenced by sex between breast and thigh meat, and no meat type effect was observed. The IMP contents were higher in female chicken and breast meat compared with male chicken and thigh meat, respectively. In addition, we clearly observed line effects by the comparison of the contents of carnosine, anserine, creatine, and IMP for each meat type according to each sex. These data are useful for selection and development of high-quality, meat-type chicken breeds. PMID:24235239

Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Lee, Jun Heon; Park, Hee Bok; Heo, Kang Nyung; Jo, Cheorun

2013-12-01

153

The effects of polymorphisms in 7 candidate genes on resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in native chickens.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection is a common concern in poultry production for its negative effects on growth as well as food safety for humans. Identification of molecular markers that are linked to resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis may lead to appropriate solutions to control Salmonella infection in chickens. This study investigated the association of candidate genes with resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in young chickens. Two native breeds of Malaysian chickens, namely, Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl, were evaluated for bacterial colonization after Salmonella Enteritidis inoculation. Seven candidate genes were selected on the basis of their physiological role in immune response, as determined by prior studies in other genetic lines: natural resistance-associated protein 1 (NRAMP1), transforming growth factor ?3 (TGF?3), transforming growth factor ?4 (TGF?4), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (IAP1), caspase 1 (CASP1), lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? factor (LITAF), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Polymerase chain reaction-RFLP was used to identify polymorphisms in the candidate genes; all genes exhibited polymorphisms in at least one breed. The NRAMP1-SacI polymorphism correlated with the differences in Salmonella Enteritidis load in the cecum (P = 0.002) and spleen (P = 0.01) of Village Chickens. Polymorphisms in the restriction sites of TGF?3-BsrI, TGF?4-MboII, and TRAIL-StyI were associated with Salmonella Enteritidis burden in the cecum, spleen, and liver of Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the NRAMP1, TGF?3, TGF?4, and TRAIL genes are potential candidates for use in selection programs for increasing genetic resistance against Salmonella Enteritidis in native Malaysian chickens. PMID:23472012

Tohidi, R; Idris, I B; Malar Panandam, J; Hair Bejo, M

2013-04-01

154

Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?breeds (DA?=?0.184) while WAD and Balami are the farthest apart breeds (DA?=?0.665), which is coincident with distance based on morphological analysis and population structure assessed by STRUCTURE. Conclusions These results suggest that within-breed genetic variation in Nigerian sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep. PMID:23176051

2012-01-01

155

Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken…

Dwyer, Edward J.

156

The cost of conserving livestock diversity? Incentive measures and conservation options for maintaining indigenous Pelón pigs in Yucatan, Mexico.  

PubMed

In the Mexican state of Yucatan the Pel6n pig breed has been identified as being endangered. The gradual disappearance of this indigenous breed that is able to survive well in an extreme environment and under low-input conditions undermines food and livestock security for Yucatan's rural poor. This study uses contingent valuation to identify those backyard pig producers who require least compensation to conserve the Pel6n breed. Understanding the conditions under which livestock keepers most committed to the use of the indigenous breed would be willing to participate in different conservation scenarios allows for a comparative analysis of alternate conservation schemes, in terms of cost and breed population growth. The findings suggest that establishing a community-based conservation scheme could be sufficient to ensure that the Pel6n pig reaches a 'not at risk' extinction status. Alternatively, establishing open-nucleus breeding schemes would result in a higher effective population size, but at relatively greater cost. We conclude that for the specific case of the Pel6n pig in Yucatan, Mexico, if effectively designed, the cost of conservation and sustainable use strategies may be little more than the cost of facilitating access to the animal genetic resource for those most reliant upon it. PMID:17944304

Pattison, J; Drucker, A G; Anderson, S

2007-06-01

157

Genetic Differentiation of Chinese Indigenous Meat Goats Ascertained Using Microsatellite Information  

PubMed Central

To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats. PMID:25049548

Ling, Y. H.; Zhang, X. D.; Yao, N.; Ding, J. P.; Chen, H. Q.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ren, C. H.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhang, X. R.

2012-01-01

158

1980 breeding bird censuses  

SciTech Connect

As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and the surrounding region, the two breeding bird censuses originated in 1977 were continued in 1980. Coverage was below that of previous years due to illness and travel of some participants, but 11 trips were made to the BNL plot and 8 to the Westhampton plot. Each was censused by separate teams of three volunteer observers. The number of breeding species and number of territorial males on the BNL plot have progressively declined since 1977 but little change has taken place in either number of territories or species composition on the Westhampton plot.

Raynor, G.S.

1980-09-01

159

Inheritance of body weight and breast length at 8 weeks of age in meat type strains of chickens  

E-print Network

Inheritance of body weight and breast length at 8 weeks of age in meat type strains of chickens H in a cross breeding programme. Heterotic effect on body weight was present and confirmed the theory of homogenetic heterosis. Performances and heritabilities of body weight at 8 weeks of age and breast length

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

160

Salmonella penetration through eggshells of chickens of different genetic backgrounds.  

PubMed

Eggs have been identified as a source of salmonellosis, making the transmission of Salmonella to eggs of great concern to the poultry industry. The goal of this experiment was to determine the ability of Salmonella to penetrate the eggshell of 5 different breeds of noncommercial chicken, Barred Plymouth Rock, White Leghorn, Brown Leghorn, Fayoumi, and Light Sussex, and 1 commercial Lohmann LSL-Lite. Egg weight, breaking force, shell weight, and shell thickness measurements were taken for 30 eggs per breed. A 1 cm in diameter hole was cut out from the narrow end of 30 additional eggs per breed. The shells were filled with plate count agar containing tetracycline and 0.1% 2,3,5-triphenyl terazolium chloride and sealed with paraffin wax. Agar-filled eggs were submerged for 1 min in an overnight culture of tetracycline-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg and incubated at 37°C for 40 h. Eggs were candled and visual colonies were counted and reported as cfu per egg and cfu per gram of shell. The SAS mixed model was used to evaluate differences between breeds for egg quality characteristics and the number of cfu per egg and per gram of shell. Commercial layers (62.6 g) and Barred Plymouth Rock (61.5 g) produced the largest eggs, whereas Fayoumi (47.1 g) produced the smallest (P < 0.05). Force to break the shell was lowest (P < 0.05) for Barred Plymouth Rock (3.6 kg) and greatest for the commercial (4.4 kg), White Leghorn (4.4 kg), and Fayoumi (4.2 kg). Bacteria penetrating the shell was lowest (P < 0.05) for Barred Plymouth Rock (10.7 cfu/g) and highest for Light Sussex (27.7 cfu/g) and Brown Leghorn (27.2 cfu/g), with other breeds intermediate. These results indicate that there are breed-specific influences on the ability of an egg to resist Salmonella, which cannot be explained by shell quality measurements. Further investigations are warranted to determine the contributing factors to shell penetration by bacteria. This study highlights the value in maintaining heritage chicken breeds as a genetic resource for the future. PMID:23960130

Rathgeber, Bruce M; McCarron, Paige; Budgell, Krista L

2013-09-01

161

Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.  

PubMed

European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia. PMID:18663216

Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

2008-07-29

162

Allele-specific PCR typing and sequencing of the mitochondrial D-loop region in four layer breeds.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the ability of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes in chicken mtDNA for presumption of the origins of chicken meat. We typed five SNPs of the D-loop region in mtDNA by allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) in 556 hens, that is 233 White Leghorn (WL), 50 Dekalb-TX35 (D-TX), 140 Barred Plymouth Rock (BPR) and 133 Rhode Island Red (RIR) kept in the National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science (NILGS, Tsukuba, Japan). Five haplotypes were observed among those chickens by AS-PCR. WL, D-TX, BPR and RIR displayed three, two, one and four SNP haplotypes, respectively. By a combination of the haplotypes by AS-PCR and the breeds, these chickens were classified into 10 groups. After the D-loop was sequenced in two chickens from every group (20 individuals), 15 SNP sites (including one insertion) and eight sequence haplotypes were observed. In conclusion, haplotype variation was observed in and among the layer breeds of the NILGS. This study demonstrates that SNP haplotypes in mtDNA should be appropriate for the presumption of the origins of chicken meat. PMID:21729199

Harumi, Takashi; Sano, Akiko; Minematsu, Takeo; Naito, Mitsuru

2011-04-01

163

Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

2006-01-09

164

Winning essay on Indigenous health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A winning essay on Indigenous health by medical student, Todd Cruikshank, of The University of Notre Dame Australia, has won him the opportunity to attend the General Practice Education and Training (GPET) Convention in Alice Springs, on 8-9 September 2010.\\u000aThe General Practice Students Network (GPSN) competition, supported by GPET, Northern Territory General Practice Education (NTGPE) and Victorian Aboriginal Community

Andrea Barnard

2010-01-01

165

Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.  

PubMed

Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated. PMID:24287655

Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

2013-11-01

166

Sarus Crane Breeding Success  

E-print Network

21 Sarus Crane Breeding Success in Uttar Pradesh K. S. Gopi Sundar A t nearly six feet, the Sarus crane is the tallest flying bird in the world. It nests in wetlands, is strongly territorial, is a slow a wetland species, Sarus cranes have been increasingly seen to nest in flooded rice paddies, a crop field

Weiblen, George D

167

Plant Breeding Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a traditional breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

168

Wheat Breeding Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

169

Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

Marchand, Dawn Marie

2011-01-01

170

Indigenous health: a special moral imperative.  

PubMed

The provision of health services to Indigenous people is not perceived by many Australians to be a moral issue. Indigenous health, however, is not only a moral issue, it is a moral issue that deserves special consideration. In many sectors of society, the correct moral path is unclear, but the circumstances of Indigenous health warrant special consideration which policy makers and health care administrators are uniquely placed to render. The setting of Australia was at the expense of Indigenous flourishing. There is little doubt that many of the current poor health outcomes of Indigenous Australians result from their past impoverishment. We argue that each member of Australian society has inherited a collective moral responsibility, along with the social assets accrued at the expense of Indigenous Australians, irrespective of their personal complicity. Government, as representatives of the people, has a responsibility to repay some of this society's accrued moral debt through the allocation of resources independent of issues of equity. PMID:9848974

Morgan, D L; Allen, R J

1998-10-01

171

Sustainable indigenous futures in remote Indigenous areas: relationships, processes and failed state approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many Indigenous territories, continuing processes of primitive accumulation driven by governments’ claims to resources\\u000a and territory simultaneously deny Indigenous rights and insist on market forces as the foundation for economic and social\\u000a futures in Indigenous domains. Drawing on research in North Australia, this paper identifies the erasure of Indigenous governance,\\u000a the development of wickedly complex administrative systems, continuing structural

Richard Howitt

172

Indigenous Education, Mainstream Education, and Native Studies: Some Considerations when Incorporating Indigenous Pedagogy into Native Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A person coming to know for him or herself while respecting differences characterizes the author's experience of Indigenous education. Based on his experience with Indigenous education, he has found that what constitutes validity is very different than mainstream education. In this article, the author presents characteristics of Indigenous…

Lambe, Jeff

2003-01-01

173

Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa.  

PubMed

Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems. PMID:22639035

Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael; Zander, Kerstin K; Dzama, Kennedy

2012-12-01

174

Evaluation of quality characteristics of chicken meat emulsion/nuggets prepared by using different equipment.  

PubMed

Chicken meat emulsions prepared using food processor (FP), an indigenous meat cutter (MC) and bowl chopper (BC) were evaluated for physicochemical, texture and electron microscopic studies (SEM). Product yield, emulsion stability, hydration properties and gel strength (N) were significantly (P?indigenously developed meat cutter found suitable for producing a stable chicken meat emulsion required for indigenous meat products. PMID:24587526

Devatkal, Suresh K; Manjunatha, M; Narsaiah, K; Patil, R T

2014-03-01

175

Genetic characterization and conservation priorities of chicken lines.  

PubMed

Molecular markers are a useful tool for evaluating genetic diversity of chicken genetic resources. Seven chicken lines derived from the Plymouth Rock breed were genotyped using 40 microsatellite markers to quantify genetic differentiation and assess conservation priorities for the lines. Genetic differentiation between pairs of the lines (pairwise FST) ranged from 0.201 to 0.422. A neighbor-joining tree of individuals, based on the proportion of shared alleles, formed clearly defined clusters corresponding to the origins of the lines. In Bayesian model-based clustering, most individuals were clearly assigned to single clusters according to line origin and showed no admixture. These results indicated that a substantial degree of genetic differentiation exists among the lines. To decide priorities for conservation, the contribution of each line to the genetic diversity was estimated. The result indicated that a loss of 4 of the 7 lines would lead to a loss from 1.14 to 3.44% of total genetic diversity. The most preferred line for conservation purposes was identified based on multilocus microsatellite analysis. Our results confirmed that characterization by means of molecular markers is helpful for establishing a plan for conservation of chicken genetic resources. PMID:24135588

Tadano, R; Nagasaka, N; Goto, N; Rikimaru, K; Tsudzuki, M

2013-11-01

176

Ultrastructural changes in the developing chicken cornea following caffeine administration.  

PubMed

Caffeine is one of the most frequently consumed psychoactive substances. It has been known for many years that caffeine at high concentrations exerts harmful effects on both women's and laboratory animals' fertility, moreover it may impair normal development of many organs in the prenatal period. So far there have been few studies performed that demonstrate teratogenic effects of caffeine on structures of the developing eye, particularly the cornea. The aim of the study was to show ultrastructural changes in the developing cornea, as the effect of caffeine administration to chicken embryos. The experimental materials were 26 chicken embryos from incubated breeding eggs. Eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30) in which Ringer liquid was administrated, and experimental (n=30) in which teratogenic dose of caffeine 3.5mg/egg was given. In 36th hour of incubation solutions were given with cannula through hole in an egg shell directly onto amniotic membrane. After closing the hole with a glass plate and paraffine, eggs were put back to incubator. In 10th and 19th day of incubation corneas were taken for morphological analysis with a use of electron microscopy. Administration of caffeine during chicken development causes changes of collagen fibers of Bowman's membrane patterns and of the corneal stroma but it also changes proportion of amount of collagen fibers and of the stromal cells. PMID:21071341

Monika, Kujawa-Hadry?; Dariusz, Tosik; Hieronim, Bartel

2010-09-30

177

Factors affecting mortality of crossbred and exotic chickens kept under backyard systems in Yucatan, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Chicken mortality was studied in 24 randomly selected smallholder flocks in one village in Yucatan, Mexico between July and\\u000a December 1993. Each family received a package of 10 to 12 chicks of 3 weeks of age. Approximately half of the chicks were\\u000a purebred and the remainder were crosses produced by mating exotic with local breeds. All smallholders were visited twice

J. C. Rodriguez; J. C. Segura; A. Alzina; M. A. Gutierrez

1997-01-01

178

Plant breeding and biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

Crop improvement by traditional breeding versus biotechnology is analysed here. Since new technologies can truncate time and space and increase precision, plant improvement could become more factory like, creating a world where agriculture depends on industry. Private sector funding for research in biotechnology is increasing giving rise to a conflict of interests. Seed companies rather than farmers stand to benefit most, and marketing and advertising of seeds and chemicals will play an increasingly important role in the future. 42 references.

Hansen, M.; Busch, L.; Burkhardt, J.; Lacy, W.B.; Lacy, L.R.

1986-01-01

179

Effect of Hybridization on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Erlang Mountainous Chickens  

PubMed Central

Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05). Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05) compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken. PMID:25049734

Yin, H. D.; Gilbert, E. R.; Chen, S. Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Z. C.; Zhao, X. L.; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Q.

2013-01-01

180

Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place  

E-print Network

acces- sible from the water, and thus it is always viewed from this angle, which looks toward shore. The fixed, seasonless, and timeless space of the map was addressed through a focus on the dimension of lighting. With the viewing angle in Fi g u r e.... Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place 111 that they emphasize experienced space, or place, as opposed to the Western convention of depicting space as universal, homogenized, and devoid of human experience. 13 Despite these differences, many communities have...

Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

2008-11-01

181

Single nucleotide polymorphism variants within tva and tvb receptor genes in Chinese chickens.  

PubMed

Avian leukosis is an immunosuppressive neoplastic disease caused by avian leukosis viruses (ALV), which causes tremendous economic losses in the worldwide poultry industry. The susceptibility or resistance of chicken cells to subgroup A ALV and subgroup B, D, and E ALV are determined by the receptor genes tumor virus locus A (tva) and tumor virus locus B (tvb), respectively. Four genetic resistant loci (tva(r1), tva(r2), tva(r3), and tva(r4)) in tva receptor gene and a genetic resistant locus tvb(r) in the tvb receptor gene have been identified in inbred lines of White Leghorn. To evaluate the genetic resistance to subgroup A, B, D, and E ALV, genetic variations within resistant loci in tva and tvb genes were screened in Chinese local chicken breeds and commercial broiler lines. Here, the heterozygote tva(s1/r1) and the resistant genotype tva(r2/r2), tva(r3/r3), and tva(r4/r4) were detected in Chinese chickens by direct sequencing. The heterozygote tva(s1/r1) was detected in Huiyang Bearded chicken (HYBC), Rizhaoma chicken, and commercial broiler line 13 to 15 (CB13 to CB15), with the frequencies at 0.08, 0.18, 0.17, 0.25, and 0.15, respectively. The resistant genotype tva(r2/r2) was detected in Jiningbairi chicken (JNBRC), HYBC, and CB15, with the frequencies at 0.03, 0.08, and 0.06, respectively, whereas tva(r3/r3) and tva(r4/r4) were detected in 19 and 17 of the 25 Chinese chickens tested, with the average frequencies at 0.13 and 0.20, respectively. Furthermore, the resistant genotype tvb(r/r) was detected in JNBRC, CB07, CB12, CB14, and CB15 by pyrosequencing assay, with the frequencies at 0.03, 0.03, 0.11, 0.09, and 0.15, respectively. These results demonstrated that the potential for genetic improvement of resistance to subgroup A, B, D, and E ALV were great both in Chinese local chickens and commercial broilers. This study provides valuable insight into the selective breeding for chickens genetically resistant to ALV. PMID:25125563

Liao, C T; Chen, S Y; Chen, W G; Liu, Y; Sun, B L; Li, H X; Zhang, H M; Qu, H; Wang, J; Shu, D M; Xie, Q M

2014-10-01

182

Positive Educational Responses to Indigenous Student Mobility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging positively with the mobility of Indigenous students has been the centre of a 5-year action research project in Queensland, Australia. Drawing on responses developed for other marginalised mobile populations, and with consideration for the extent of mobility amongst many Indigenous people in Australia, this paper focuses on the…

Hill, Angela; Lynch, Andrea; Dalley-Trim, Leanne

2012-01-01

183

Reframing Evaluation: Defining an Indigenous Evaluation Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), comprising 34 American Indian tribally controlled colleges and universities, has undertaken a comprehensive effort to develop an "Indigenous Framework for Evaluation" that synthesizes Indigenous ways of knowing and Western evaluation practice. To ground the framework, AIHEC engaged in an…

LaFrance, Joan; Nichols, Richard

2008-01-01

184

Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

Bevan-Brown, Jill

2013-01-01

185

An Indigenous View of North America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses stories of U.S. and Canadian indigenous individuals who defended their lands against uranium mining and hydroelectric development to contrast the thinking of indigenous people (natural law as pre-eminent, spiritual practice, intergenerational residency in the same place) with industrial thinking (man's dominion over nature, linear thinking,…

LaDuke, Winona

1998-01-01

186

Development of Indigenous Science Instructional Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to develop an indigenous science instructional model. The samples were divided into two groups. Firstly, 24 experts for designing an indigenous science instructional model using Delphi Technique. Secondly, three classrooms of Mathayomsuksa 3 students for developing an instructional model. The findings revealed that Delphi technique…

Nuangchalerm, Prasart

2007-01-01

187

Embedding Indigenous Perspectives in Teaching School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some Indigenous students are at risk of academic failure and science teachers have a role in salvaging these equally able students. This article firstly elucidates the research entailed in Indigenous science education in Australia and beyond. Secondly, it reviews the cultural and language barriers when learning science, faced by middle and senior…

Appanna, Subhashni Devi

2011-01-01

188

Post-Secondary Education for Indigenous Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous populations throughout the world have been deprived of opportunities for advanced education, thus limiting their ability to participate fully in their societies. For 25 years, "Access programs" in Manitoba (Canada) have promoted high postsecondary success rates among people, largely from indigenous populations, with poor histories of…

Alcorn, William; Levin, Benjamin

189

Double Power: English Literacy and Indigenous Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of essays on the relationship between English literacy and indigenous education, particularly in the Australian context, includes: "Double Power" (Mandawuy Yunupingu); "History, Cultural Diversity & English Language Teaching" (Martin Nakata); "Scaffolding Reading and Writing for Indigenous Children in School" (David Rose, Brian…

Wignell, Peter, Ed.

190

Indigenous people and sustainable development in Amazonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous populations have lived for many generations in a sustainable fashion, developing knowledge about how to live in harmony with the environment. However, the sustainability of their life styles, their quality of life and the maintenance of intact ecosystems are threatened by a series of changes, including incorporation into the general fabric of society, conflict with non-indigenous migrants, expansion of

Carlos E. C. Freitas; James R. Kahn; Alexandre A. F. Rivas

2004-01-01

191

Report of MCEETYA Taskforce on Indigenous Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 1999, the (Australian) Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs established a taskforce on making educational equality for Indigenous peoples a national priority; enhancing the performance and monitoring framework for the National Indigenous Education Strategic Initiatives Programme (IESIP); and developing…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

192

Advocacy and Indigenous Methods of Healing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most counselors have had very little experience with indigenous methods of healing. Indigenous healing can be defined as helping beliefs and practices that originate over extended time within a culture that are not transported from other regions, and that are designed for treating the inhabitants of a given group. Most counselors would find great…

Sue, Derald Wing

193

Personal Thoughts on Indigenous Language Stabilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents personal reflections on factors in the preservation and stabilization of North American indigenous languages. All indigenous languages in North America are in danger of being lost. Linguistic and cultural minority communities must control the institutions that affect their lives if there is to be significant and sustainable…

Burnaby, Barbara

194

Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis  

PubMed Central

Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome. PMID:19811618

Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

2009-01-01

195

The Contribution of Geography to Disparities in Preventable Hospitalisations between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Main outcome measures Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. Results PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Conclusions Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity. PMID:24859265

Harrold, Timothy C.; Randall, Deborah A.; Falster, Michael O.; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R.

2014-01-01

196

Atrial fibrillation in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardiac structural characteristics in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study linking clinical, echocardiography and administrative databases over a 10-year period. Setting A tertiary, university teaching hospital in Adelaide, Australia. Participants Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Main outcome measures AF prevalence and echocardiographic characteristics. Results Indigenous Australians with AF were significantly younger compared to non-Indigenous Australians (55±13 vs 75±13?years, p<0.001). As a result, racial differences in AF prevalence and left atrial diameter varied according to age. In those under 60?years of age, Indigenous Australians had a significantly greater AF prevalence (2.57 vs1.73%, p<0.001) and left atrial diameters (39±7 vs 37±7?mm, p<0.001) compared to non-Indigenous Australians. In those aged 60?years and above, however, non-Indigenous Australians had significantly greater AF prevalence (9.26 vs 4.61%, p<0.001) and left atrial diameters (39±7 vs 37±7?mm, p<0.001). Left ventricular ejection fractions were less in Indigenous Australians under 60?years of age (49±14 vs 55±11%, p<0.001) and not statistically different in those aged 60?years and above (47±11 vs 52±13, p=0.074) compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Despite their younger age, Indigenous Australians with AF had similar or greater rates of cardiovascular comorbidities than non-Indigenous Australians with AF. Conclusions Young Indigenous Australians have a significantly greater prevalence of AF than their non-Indigenous counterparts. In contrast, older non-Indigenous Australians have a greater prevalence of AF compared to their Indigenous counterparts. These observations may be mediated by age-based differences in comorbid cardiovascular conditions, left atrial diameter and left ventricular ejection fraction. Our findings suggest that AF is likely to be contributing to the greater burden of morbidity and mortality experienced by young Indigenous Australians. Further study is required to elucidate whether strategies to prevent and better manage AF in Indigenous Australians may reduce this burden. PMID:25344486

Wong, Christopher X; Brooks, Anthony G; Cheng, Yi-Han; Lau, Dennis H; Rangnekar, Geetanjali; Roberts-Thomson, Kurt C; Kalman, Jonathan M; Brown, Alex; Sanders, Prashanthan

2014-01-01

197

Materials for breeding blankets  

SciTech Connect

There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified.

Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

1995-09-01

198

Texas Show Steer Breed Classification  

E-print Network

breed type structure ? and head Bumps where horns would be on a ? horned animal Birthmarks or white hair in the ? switch should be reviewed for the skin color (black skin color is acceptable; white or pink skin is a disqualifi cation) Bos taurus...). American Breeds Cross Acceptable Breed Characteristics Any color or color pattern? Progression of importance to ? include Bos indicus head; eye; and ear of moderate length, slightly drooping and opening down and forward Crest or slick neck? Sheath...

Cleere, Jason; Mazurkiewicz, Jim; Hammack, Stephen P.

2008-02-28

199

Plant Breeding Graduate Student Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Growing the FutureWith the loss of plant breeding positions in the public sector, there has been a loss of the infrastructure that supports plant breeding training, including a reduction in professors with plant breeding expertise, a critical mass of students often too low to provide a stimulating learning environment, and the inability to offer courses with sufficient audience. Although studies support the positive impact of a strong community on learning, currently, students are often trained in isolation.  The PBTN has been established to mitigate isolation barriers that currently limit plant breeding education at most institutions and in most plant breeding work places around the world.  PBTN supports online course sharing (See list of courses).  The PBTN online graduate student community  is a place for students around the world to make contact with other plant breeding students, providing an opportunity  to exchange ideas, develop interpersonal skills (such as communication and collaboration) and build a plant breeding student community.If you have questions about the community, graduate work in plant breeding, or career oportunities, please contact us. Jamie ShermanDirector-TCAP graduate community and PBTNjsherman@montana.edu Mary BrakkeDirector-TCAP undergraduate communitybrakk001@umn.edu Deana Namuth-CovertDirector-Plant Breeding Training Network (PBTN)dcovert2@unl.edu  This community is funded by the Triticeae CAP project. 

200

Studies on the role of chicken blood groups A and B in the induction of anemia in chicks  

E-print Network

STUDIES ON THE ROLE OF CHICKEN BLOOD GROUPS A AND B IN THE INDUCTION OF ANEMIA IN CHICKS A Dissertation by Lewis Warren Johnson Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY January, 1956 Major Subject - Genetics (Animal Breeding) L I B R A R Y i L I B R A A Y i Y RX * Y W L C STUDIES ON THE ROLE OF CHICKEN BLOOD GROUPS A AND B IN THE INDUCTION OF ANEMIA IN CHICKS A...

Johnson, Lewis Warren

2013-10-04

201

Reactivation of chicken erythrocyte nuclei in heterokaryons results in expression of adult chicken globin genes.  

PubMed

Activation of chicken globin gene transcription has been demonstrated in chicken erythrocyte--rat L6 myoblast heterokaryons. The globin mRNA is polyadenylylated and is translated into adult chicken alpha A-, alpha D-, and beta-globin polypeptides. No fetal globin mRNA or globin polypeptides were detected. Heterokaryons between chicken erythrocytes and mouse neuroblastoma cells or hamster BHK cells also synthesized adult chicken globins. PMID:6796958

Linder, S; Zuckerman, S H; Ringertz, N R

1981-10-01

202

Towards an indigenous science curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of a national science curriculum in M?ori opened up space to contest whose knowledge and whose ways of knowing are included. This paper outlines the background to the curriculum development work in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous M?ori people and science education. Concern is expressed about the fitting of one cultural framework into another and questions are raised about the approach used in the development of the science curriculum. Further research in the area of language, culture and science education is discussed along with how M?ori might move forward in the endeavour of developing a curriculum that reflects M?ori culture and language.

McKinley, Elizabeth

1996-06-01

203

Research Ethics and Indigenous Communities  

PubMed Central

Institutional review boards (IRBs) function to regulate research for the protection of human participants. We share lessons learned from the development of an intertribal IRB in the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains Tribal region of the United States. We describe the process through which a consortium of Tribes collaboratively developed an intertribal board to promote community-level protection and participation in the research process. In addition, we examine the challenges of research regulation from a Tribal perspective and explore the future of Tribally regulated research that honors indigenous knowledge and promotes community accountability and transparency. We offer recommendations for researchers, funding agencies, and Tribal communities to consider in the review and regulation of research. PMID:24134372

Kelley, Allyson; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie

2013-01-01

204

Beyond Justice: What Makes an Indigenous Justice Organization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data from a longitudinal study of seven indigenous justice service organizations in four colonized countries were analyzed to identify the characteristics that made them "indigenous." Although nine common organizational characteristics emerged, of these, four are essential and specific to indigenous organizations (dependency on indigenous…

Nielsen, Marianne O.; Brown, Samantha

2012-01-01

205

Building Bridges: Literacy Development in Young Indigenous Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting the need to support Western teachers in Australia in their quest to work with indigenous children in more culturally appropriate ways to close the literacy gap between indigenous and non-indigenous children, the Building Bridges project aimed to identify and record the key features of growing up as an indigenous child in Australia today.…

Fleer, Marilyn; Williams-Kennedy, Denise

206

Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

2012-01-01

207

Conservation Alliances with Indigenous Peoples of the Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing alliances between indigenous peoples and conservation organizations in the Brazilian Amazon have helped achieve the official recognition of ?1 million km2 of indigenous lands. The future of Amazonian indigenous reserves is of strategic importance for the fate of biodiversity in the region. We exam- ined the legislation governing resource use on indigenous lands and summarize the history of the

STEPHAN SCHWARTZMAN; BARBARA ZIMMERMAN

2005-01-01

208

for Indigenous students Our Commitment to Reconciliation 1  

E-print Network

issues 9 Indigenous Student Services: off-campus facilities 10 UniSA College, UniSA's own pathway to your goals. My advice to other Indigenous students, `Come on now you mob, don't be shame, be game and give2013 Guide for Indigenous students #12;2 Contents Our Commitment to Reconciliation 1 Indigenous

Li, Jiuyong "John"

209

[Infectious laryngotracheitis in chickens, peacocks and pheasants and means and limitations for its control with attenuated live vaccines].  

PubMed

All hitherto examined gallinaceous birds (Phasianiformes) are susceptible for the virus of infectious laryngotracheits, an avian alpha-herpesvirus. Degree and duration of the disease are highly variable. Chickens of all breeds, peacocks and some of the numerous species of pheasants (diamont, blue and white ear, impeyanus, Reeve's, Elliott and argus pheasant) suffer from severe haemorrhagic or fibrinous laryngotracheitis. The ring-necked pheasant displays a distinct conjunctivitis and sinusitis following natural exposure. An attenuated live virus vaccine is sofar developed, tested and registered only for the chicken. The vaccine is usually administered in the conjunctival sac (eye drop method). All vaccinated chickens are to be kept separately from unvaccinated chickens for four weeks post vaccinationem. Separation is also necessary for peacocks and pheasants because these birds may suffer from infection of vaccinal virus. The attenuated live virus vaccine should only be administered to chickens in areas in which ILT is endemic. Chickens less than four weeks of age as well as any of the peacock and pheasant species must not be vaccinated. Turkeys do normally not contract the disease and therefore need no protection by vaccination. PMID:9451766

Kaleta, E F; Redmann, T

1997-11-01

210

Cereal Breeding and Varietal Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the influence of cereal breeding on yield increase. Suggests that future breeding programmes should be based on both financial information and yield. Summarizes the results of a first attempt to include financial and yield data for the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) leaflet Recommended Varieties of Cereals. Discusses implications for breeders and farmers. Suggests that evaluation by financial

Stuart M. Meikle; David H. Scarisbrick

1994-01-01

211

Breeding for Intelligence in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEEING the results that have been attained by breeding for special qualities in dogs, why should not systematic efforts be made to breed for general intelligence? The correspondents who have from time to time furnished you with illustrations of canine sagacity must be sufficiently numerous to form an Association to promote the interbreeding of intelligent dogs, and the distribution of

H. Rayner

1887-01-01

212

The origin of Indonesian cattle and conservation genetics of the Bali cattle breed.  

PubMed

Both Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos javanicus (banteng) contribute to the Indonesian indigenous livestock, which is supposedly of a mixed species origin, not by direct breeding but by secondary cross-breeding. Here, the analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds with East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle having higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. There was no evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. PMID:22212207

Mohamad, K; Olsson, M; Andersson, G; Purwantara, B; van Tol, H T A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Colenbrander, B; Lenstra, J A

2012-01-01

213

Recruiting and retaining indigenous farmworker participants.  

PubMed

There is limited information on the specific practices used to successfully recruit and retain indigenous and Latino farmworkers in research studies. This article describes the strategies used in a community-based participatory research project with indigenous agricultural workers. Participants were recruited through consulting with indigenous relatives and friends, identifying and meeting with indigenous leaders from hometown associations in countries of origin, and asking current participants to recruit fellow farmworkers. Adjustments were initiated to the second year protocol to enhance recruitment and retention. The difference in attrition rates between years one and two was statistically significant, a difference partially attributed to modifications to recruitment and retention protocol. Findings confirmed that active recruitment techniques and word-of-mouth recruitment were more effective than passive methods. Trust among academic, organization, and community partners, and shared language and culture between those doing the recruitment and the participants, contributed to sustained farmworker participation. PMID:23733354

Farquhar, Stephanie; de Jesus Gonzalez, Carmen; Hall, Jennifer; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Shadbeh, Nargess

2014-10-01

214

Immunisation issues for Indigenous Australian children.  

PubMed

Vaccination has provided major benefits to the health of indigenous children in the face of continuing poorer socioe-conomic conditions but several issues have been identified for improvement. While indigenous children are vaccinated at high rates for the standard schedule vaccines, vaccination is more commonly delayed. Coverage for 'targeted' vaccines is substantially lower, and data on coverage for indigenous adolescents is non-existent. Improved identification of indigenous clients by immunisation providers and the expansion of the childhood register are required. The progressive removal of early-acting Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines from schedules for indigenous children because of an international shortage raises the risk of disease re-emergence and highlights the need for vigilant surveillance including carriage. The expanded use of existing vaccines (influenza) and early adoption of new vaccines (higher valency pneumococcal conjugates) are needed to maximise benefits, in particular the potential to impact on non-invasive disease such as otitis media and non-bacteraemic pneumonia that are so prevalent in indigenous children. PMID:21564384

Menzies, Robert; Andrews, Ross

2014-10-01

215

RNA Interference in Chicken Embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chicken has played an important role in biological discoveries since the 17th century (Stern, 2005). Many investigations into vertebrate development have utilized the chicken due to the accessibility of the chick embryo and its ease of manipulation (Brown et al., 2003). However, the lack of genetic resources has often handicapped these studies and so the chick is frequently overlooked as a model organism for the analysis of vertebrate gene function in favor of mice or zebrafish. In the past six years this situation has altered dramatically with the generation of over half a million expressed sequence tags and >20,000 fully sequenced chicken cDNAs (Boardman et al. 2002; Caldwell et al., 2005; Hubbard et al., 2005) together with a 6X coverage genome sequence (Hillier et al., 2004). These resources have created a comprehensive catalogue of chicken genes with readily accessible cDNA and EST resources available via ARK-GENOMICS (www.ark-genomics.org) for the functional analysis of vertebrate gene function.

van Hateren, Nick J.; Jones, Rachel S.; Wilson, Stuart A.

216

Visuospatial selective attention in chickens  

PubMed Central

Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d?) increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an “indecision” model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens—a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies—as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L.; Schwarz, Jason S.; Knudsen, Eric I.

2014-01-01

217

Campylobacter species in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens in Northern Ireland was determined by examining three groups of birds. These included: (1)12 flocks of broilers monitored at regular intervals from their introduction into commercial units until the time of slaughter; (2) 21 batches of unsolicited birds submitted to the laboratory for postmortem examination; and (3) 13 batches of chicks under

S. D. Neill; J. N. Campbell; Joan A. Greene

1984-01-01

218

Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.  

PubMed

Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

2014-05-13

219

Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples

Ozgur Dogan Uluozlu; Mustafa Tuzen; Durali Mendil; Mustafa Soylak

2009-01-01

220

Historical demographic profiles and genetic variation of the East African Butana and Kenana indigenous dairy zebu cattle.  

PubMed

Butana and Kenana breeds from Sudan are part of the East African zebu Bos indicus type of cattle. Unlike other indigenous zebu cattle in Africa, they are unique due to their reputation for high milk production and are regarded as dairy cattle, the only ones of their kind on the African continent. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop of 70 animals to understand the maternal genetic variation, demographic profiles and history of the two breeds in relation to the history of cattle pastoralism on the African continent. Only taurine mtDNA sequences were identified. We found very high mtDNA diversity but low level of maternal genetic structure within and between the two breeds. Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed different historical and demographic profiles for the two breeds, with an earlier population expansion in the Butana vis a vis the Kenana. The maternal ancestral populations of the two breeds may have diverged prior to their introduction into the African continent, with first the arrival of the ancestral Butana population. We also reveal distinct demographic history between the two breeds with the Butana showing a decline in its effective population size (Ne ) in the recent past ~590 years. Our results provide new insights on the early history of cattle pastoralism in Sudan indicative of a large ancient effective population size. PMID:25308478

Salim, Bashir; Taha, Khalid M; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwacharo, Joram M

2014-12-01

221

Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics  

PubMed Central

This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled us first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low-molecular-weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that are responsible for the mammalian genome reprograming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance caused by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The authors substantiate the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics investigations as well as in disease prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although the discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies. PMID:23990811

Shenderov, Boris Arkadievich

2012-01-01

222

Nitrofuran Production Efficiency In Chickens  

PubMed Central

Two nitrofuran feed additives, 0.011% nihydrazone and a combination of 0.0055% nitrofurazone and 0.0008% furazolidone, improved weight gains and feed conversions in chickens with “air sac infection.” Both nitrofurans caused a significant reduction in the total chickens condemned at the dressing plant from this disease, but nihydrazone gave the best results. Nihydrazone*, a new nitrofuran feed additive for chickens, was found by Wolfgang et al. (1) to be effective against coccidiosis due to Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix. In chickens nihydrazone was shown by Edgar et al. (2) to result in fewer chickens condemned from “air sac infection” than with any other drug used. Rosenberg et al. (3) found nihydrazone caused significant reduction in condemnations due to this disease. Cosgrove (4) showed that nihydrazone prevented an outbreak of cecal coccidiosis, reduced the incidence of “air sac infection,” improved weight gains, feed conversions and livability. Bierer (5) found nihydrazone active against fowl typhoid. Harwood et al. (6) reported bifuran** effective against E. tenella and E. necatrix coccidiosis and it has been used commercially for this purpose. Bierer (5) (7) found Bifuran*** active in prevention of pullorum disease and fowl typhoid in chicks. The mode of action of nihydrazone and nitrofurazone against E. tenella coccidiosis was shown by Johnson and Van Ryzin (8). This production efficiency study was undertaken to evaluate nihydrazone and bifuran in the presence of “air sac infection” and concomitant diseases under field conditions. Camden (9) states that the only satisfactory test of a drug is the performance it gives under field conditions. Nihydrazone (1) (5) and Bifuran (5) (6) have both antibacterial and antiprotozoal activity and under field conditions, normal densities of bacterial and other parasitic organisms are encountered (9). Thus a coccidiostat having antibacterial and antiprotozoal properties is desirable (7). PMID:17649352

Lott, Robert L.

1962-01-01

223

Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial\\/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures

Hugo Amigo; Patricia Bustos; Jay S Kaufman

2010-01-01

224

Indigenous Teaching Programs: The Benefits of Teaching Indigenous Australian Studies in a Cross-Cultural Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Australian national survey of 10,019 primary and secondary teachers suggested that preparation in Indigenous Australian studies held the lowest ranking of national priority items. In addition, a national qualitative study identified inadequacies in teacher preparation for teaching Indigenous Australian studies, especially in secondary schools.…

Malezer, Barry; Sim, Cheryl

225

Tjabal Indigenous Higher Education Centre Indigenous Tutorial Assistance Scheme (ITAS) Tjabal  

E-print Network

Tjabal Indigenous Higher Education Centre Indigenous Tutorial Assistance Scheme (ITAS) Tjabal 2010 Strait Islander 3. Contact Details: Home Phone: Mobile: Work Phone: Email: Postal Address: 4. Tuition completed You have attached an educational assessment You have provided full details for each course listed

226

[Eating characteristics of Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls].  

PubMed

During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods. PMID:21090273

Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

2010-03-01

227

Indigenous Elementary Students' Science Instruction in Taiwan: Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students'…

Lee, Huei; Yen, Chiung-Fen; Aikenhead, Glen S.

2012-01-01

228

Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

Sakellariou, Chris

2008-01-01

229

[Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].  

PubMed

Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits. PMID:22372054

Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

2012-01-01

230

Dietary lysine affects chickens from local Chinese pure lines and their reciprocal crosses.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine concentration on meat quality and carcass traits in 2 chicken lines, SD02 and SD03, and their crosses, both originating from a Chinese native breed, the Erlang Mountainous chicken. The lines were selected for 4 generations by Sichuan Agricultural University (Ya'an, China); for the present study, chickens from the 2 lines and their crosses were randomly assigned at hatch to 1 of 2 dietary groups. One group was offered diets containing 1, 0.85, and 0.70% total lysine, whereas the other was offered diets with 1.15, 1, and 0.85% total lysine from d 1 to 28, d 29 to 49, and d 50 to 70, respectively. In total, 252 chickens were commercially processed at 70 d old. Traits measured included live BW, subcutaneous fat thickness, weight of carcass, eviscerated carcass, semi-eviscerated carcass, breast muscle (left pectoralis major and minor), leg muscle (boneless left drum plus thigh), heart, gizzard, proventriculus, spleen, liver, comb, and abdominal fat, color parameters lightness, redness, or yellowness (L*, a*, and b*), pH, and breast muscle intramuscular fat content. The results indicated that, although dietary lysine concentration did not affect subcutaneous fat thickness, color parameters, pH, intramuscular fat content, and organ weights, there were effects on feed conversion and muscle and BW (P < 0.05). Males and females displayed major differences in feed conversion, BW, muscle growth, and organ weight. The Line SD02 chickens grew faster and displayed less fat deposition and superior feed conversion compared with Line SD03 and the reciprocal crosses. In conclusion, performance of the chicken stocks evaluated in this study differs substantially in muscle weight and carcass weight. PMID:23687167

Li, Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yuan, Yun-Cong; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Qing

2013-06-01

231

The impact of domestication on the chicken optical apparatus.  

PubMed

Domestication processes tend to release animals from natural selection and favour traits desired by humans, such as food-production and co-operative behaviour. A side effect of such selective breeding is the alteration of unintended traits. In this paper, we investigate how active selection for egg production in chickens has affected the visual system, in particular the optical sensitivity that relates to the ability of chickens to see in dim light. We measured eye dimensions as well as the pupil diameter at different light intensities (the steady state pupil dynamics), in adult male and female White Leghorns and the closest relatives to their ancestor, the Red Junglefowls. With this information, we calculated the focal length and optical sensitivity (f-number) of the eyes. Males have larger eyes than females in both breeds and White Leghorn eyes are larger than those of Red Junglefowls in both sexes. The steady state pupil dynamics is less variable, however, the combination of pupil dynamics and eye size gives a higher optical sensitivity in Red Junglefowl eyes than in White Leghorns at light intensities below approximately 10 cd/m(2). While eye size and focal length match the larger body size in White Leghorns compared to Red Junglefowls, the steady state pupil dynamics do not. The reason for this is likely to be that eye morphology and the neuro-muscular control of the pupil have been affected differently by the strong selection for egg production and the simultaneous release of the selection pressure for high performing vision. This study is the first description of how optical sensitivity has changed in a domesticated species and our results demonstrate important considerations regarding domestication processes and sensory ability. PMID:23776492

Roth, Lina S V; Lind, Olle

2013-01-01

232

The Impact of Domestication on the Chicken Optical Apparatus  

PubMed Central

Domestication processes tend to release animals from natural selection and favour traits desired by humans, such as food-production and co-operative behaviour. A side effect of such selective breeding is the alteration of unintended traits. In this paper, we investigate how active selection for egg production in chickens has affected the visual system, in particular the optical sensitivity that relates to the ability of chickens to see in dim light. We measured eye dimensions as well as the pupil diameter at different light intensities (the steady state pupil dynamics), in adult male and female White Leghorns and the closest relatives to their ancestor, the Red Junglefowls. With this information, we calculated the focal length and optical sensitivity (f-number) of the eyes. Males have larger eyes than females in both breeds and White Leghorn eyes are larger than those of Red Junglefowls in both sexes. The steady state pupil dynamics is less variable, however, the combination of pupil dynamics and eye size gives a higher optical sensitivity in Red Junglefowl eyes than in White Leghorns at light intensities below approximately 10 cd/m2. While eye size and focal length match the larger body size in White Leghorns compared to Red Junglefowls, the steady state pupil dynamics do not. The reason for this is likely to be that eye morphology and the neuro-muscular control of the pupil have been affected differently by the strong selection for egg production and the simultaneous release of the selection pressure for high performing vision. This study is the first description of how optical sensitivity has changed in a domesticated species and our results demonstrate important considerations regarding domestication processes and sensory ability. PMID:23776492

2013-01-01

233

Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be addressed in the science classroom. We conclude by presenting instructional strategies that can help all science learners negotiate border crossings between Western modern science and indigenous science.

Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

2001-01-01

234

[Major chemical components of poultry and livestock manures under intensive breeding].  

PubMed

Owing to the wide use of feed additives in modern intensive poultry and livestock production, the major components and their concentrations of domestic animal manures may be greatly changed, as compared with those in traditional breeding. An investigation on the 61 samples of chicken, pig and pigeon manures from the intensive poultry and livestock farms of Guangdong Province showed that the concentrations of total N, P and K in chicken and pig manures were obviously higher than those of traditional breeding, and the P/N ratio of three test manures was greater than that of common crops. The concentrations of total soluble salts (TSS) of test manures averaged 49.0, 20.6 and 60.3 g x kg(-1) , respectively, which were mainly composed of the sulfate and chloride of potassium and sodium. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn and As reached 107.5, 366.6 and 21.6 mg x kg (-1) in chicken manure, 765.1, 1128.0 and 89.3 mg x kg(-1) in pig manure, and 56.1, 210.9 and 2.9 mg x kg(-1) in pigeon manure, respectively. These manures were low in Pb, Cd and Cr contents, from non-detectable to 12.0 mg x kg(-1). According to the limiting criteria of heavy metals in fertilizers, the Cu, Zn and As in the three manures were the major elements exceeding the limits, especially for Zn. PMID:17209406

Yao, Lixian; Li, Guoliang; Dang, Zhi

2006-10-01

235

Analysis of caprine pituitary specific transcription factor-1 gene polymorphism in indigenous Chinese goats.  

PubMed

Since mutations on POU1F1 gene possibly resulted in deficiency of GH, PRL, TSH and POU1F1, this study revealed the polymorphism of goat POU1F1-AluI locus and analyzed the distribution of alleles on 13 indigenous Chinese goat breeds. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed the predominance of TT genotype and the frequencies of allele T varied from 0.757 to 0.976 in the analyzed populations (SBWC, Bo, XH and HM). Further study, distributions of genotypic and allelic frequencies at this locus were found to be significantly different among populations based on a chi(2)-test (P < 0.001), suggesting that the breed factor significantly affected the molecular genetic character of POU1F1 gene. The genetic diversity analysis revealed that Chinese indigenous populations had a wide spectrum of genetic diversity in goat POU1F1-AluI locus. However, the ANOVA analysis revealed no significant differences for gene homozygosty, gene heterozygosty, effective allele numbers and PIC (polymorphism information content) among meat, dairy and cashmere utility types (P > 0.05), suggesting that goat utility types had no significant effect on the spectrum of genetic diversity. PMID:18357513

Lan, X Y; Li, M J; Chen, H; Zhang, L Z; Jing, Y J; Wei, T B; Ren, G; Wang, X; Fang, X T; Zhang, C L; Lei, C Z

2009-04-01

236

Screening of indigenous goats for prolificacy associated DNA markers of sheep.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to explore the genetic basis of caprine prolificacy and to screen indigenous goats for prolificacy associated markers of sheep in BMPR1B, GDF9 and BMP15 genes. To detect the associated mutations and identify novel allelic variants in the candidate genes, representative samples were collected from the breeding tract of indigenous goat breeds varying in prolificacy and geographic distribution. DNA was extracted and PCR amplification was done using primers designed or available in literature for the coding DNA sequence of candidate genes. Direct sequencing was done to identify the genetic variations. Mutations in the candidate genes associated with fecundity in sheep were not detected in Indian goats. Three non-synonymous SNPs (C818T, A959C and G1189A) were identified in exon 2 of GDF9 gene out of which mutation A959C has been associated with prolificacy in exotic goats. Two novel SNPs (G735A and C808G) were observed in exon 2 of BMP15 gene. PMID:23299026

Ahlawat, Sonika; Sharma, Rekha; Maitra, A

2013-03-15

237

A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. Results A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (P<0.01), respectively. A number of genes in the significant core regions, including RB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens. Conclusions We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress. PMID:23241142

2012-01-01

238

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

Arnold, Jonathan

239

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

Arnold, Jonathan

240

Heritable genome-wide variation of gene expression and promoter methylation between wild and domesticated chickens  

PubMed Central

Background Variations in gene expression, mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, may cause broad phenotypic effects in animals. However, it has been debated to what extent expression variation and epigenetic modifications, such as patterns of DNA methylation, are transferred across generations, and therefore it is uncertain what role epigenetic variation may play in adaptation. Results In Red Junglefowl, ancestor of domestic chickens, gene expression and methylation profiles in thalamus/hypothalamus differed substantially from that of a domesticated egg laying breed. Expression as well as methylation differences were largely maintained in the offspring, demonstrating reliable inheritance of epigenetic variation. Some of the inherited methylation differences were tissue-specific, and the differential methylation at specific loci were little changed after eight generations of intercrossing between Red Junglefowl and domesticated laying hens. There was an over-representation of differentially expressed and methylated genes in selective sweep regions associated with chicken domestication. Conclusions Our results show that epigenetic variation is inherited in chickens, and we suggest that selection of favourable epigenomes, either by selection of genotypes affecting epigenetic states, or by selection of methylation states which are inherited independently of sequence differences, may have been an important aspect of chicken domestication. PMID:22305654

2012-01-01

241

Cytokine gene polymorphism among Indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

The health profile of Indigenous Australians is characterised by high rates of classic 'lifestyle' diseases. Potential roles of inflammation in pathophysiology of these diseases requires investigation. It is not clear if genetic regulation of inflammation in Indigenous Australians is similar to other populations. This study characterised frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for eight cytokine genes for 100 individuals from a remote Indigenous Australian community and assessed novel genetic variants in four cytokine genes. We used a commercially-available allelic discrimination assay for SNP genotyping; re-sequencing was undertaken by standard Sanger sequencing methodologies for 26 samples. Frequencies of cytokine gene SNPs differed significantly from the Caucasian population (P?Indigenous Australians did not consistently resemble reported HapMap frequencies in Northern and Western European populations, Yoruba Nigerian or Han Chinese. Our findings indicate Indigenous Australians might have an inherited propensity for strong inflammatory responses. Preliminary evidence of novel genetic variants highlights the need to catalogue the extent of genetic variation in specific population groups. Improved understanding of differences in genetic variation between specific population groups could assist in assessment of risk for lifestyle diseases. PMID:23940076

Cox, Amanda J; Moscovis, Sophia M; Blackwell, C Caroline; Scott, Rodney J

2014-05-01

242

Plant Breeding Program COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL  

E-print Network

Plant Breeding Program COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Office of the Dean CerealNFormatioN CeNters 100 years of breeding #12;2 UC Davis Plant Breeding Program Summarizing 100 years of history Breeding Program 51 Acknowlegements 51 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Office

Bradford, Kent

243

Genetic evidence for the introgression of Western NR6A1 haplotype into Chinese Licha breed associated with increased vertebral number.  

PubMed

There is evidence that NR6A1 is a strong candidate for being a causal gene underlying vertebral number in pigs. The Licha Black is one of the leanest Chinese indigenous pig breeds, having an average vertebral number of 21.5. The introgression of Western germplasm into Licha Black, resulting in increased vertebral number, has been assumed but is not confirmed. This study detected allele frequencies of the NR6A1 causative mutation (c.575T>C) in 519 pigs from three Western and seven Chinese breeds including Licha Black, and evaluated the genetic variation in a 650-kb region containing NR6A1 in the 10 breeds. Allele T for increased vertebral number was fixed in Western breeds. In contrast, this allele was very rare in most of the Chinese native breeds. Notably, the T allele was present in the Licha Black at a rather higher frequency (0.585) and in the Laiwu at lower frequency (0.250). As expected, selection pressure has wiped out the genetic variability in the 650 kb region in Western breeds. Conversely, Chinese indigenous breeds showed a high degree of genetic variability in this region. However, the Licha Black displayed dramatically reduced heterozygosity at the loci proximal to the causative mutation. Moreover, a high proportion (45.9%) of Licha Black pigs and a small number (21%) of Laiwu pigs had the Western NR6A1 haplotype, and the two breeds showed closer relationships with Western commercial breeds than other Chinese breeds in the phylogenic tree. When the results are taken together, this study supports the assumption that the Western NR6A1 haplotypes were introduced into Licha Black and possibly Laiwu and are associated with increased vertebral number. PMID:19220230

Yang, G; Ren, J; Zhang, Z; Huang, L

2009-04-01

244

Chipotle Chicken Bites or Chicken Tenders (4) Fries........................................................$2.25  

E-print Network

)..........................................$4.50 Cheddar Cheese Curds...............................$4.25 Spicy Cheese Curds).......................................$2.50 PIZZA: 7" / 12" Pepperoni Sausage Supreme Meat Lovers $4.00 / $9.95 Veggie BBQ Chicken Bacon Chicken Ranch Buffalo Chicken Cheese...................................$3.75/ $9.00 Breadsticks

245

Flesh colour dominates consumer preference for chicken.  

PubMed

Existing research investigating interactions between visual and oral sensory cues has tended to use model food systems. In contrast, this study compared product quality assessments of corn-fed and wheat-fed chicken products among persons recruited in Northern Ireland. Three approaches have been adopted to investigate the effect of colour upon consumer choice of chicken: sensory assessment under normal lighting; focus group discussion; and sensory assessment under controlled lighting conditions. Initial consumer sensory assessment indicated that wheat-fed chicken was perceived to be tenderer and to have a more intense flavour than that which was corn-fed. Qualitative enquiry discerned that this was because consumers perceived the yellow colour of corn-fed chicken negatively. Yellow-coloured corn-fed chicken was therefore again compared with wheat-fed chicken in terms of flavour, texture and overall liking with the flesh colour disguised by means of controlled lighting. Quality ratings for corn-fed chicken were more positive when the yellow flesh colour was disguised, with corn-fed chicken judged to be tenderer than wheat-fed chicken and more flavoursome. This study illustrates the importance of using a combination of methods to gain insight into interactions between different sensory modalities in consumer quality judgements and adds to previous research on the importance of colour upon consumer choice of real foods. PMID:15808892

Kennedy, Orla B; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Mitchell, Peter C; Thurnham, David I

2005-04-01

246

Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens.  

E-print Network

??This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion… (more)

Elmusharaf, M.A.

2007-01-01

247

Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus  

E-print Network

Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis By Daniel, temperate zone of Chile. The collected plants were then tested for antimicrobial activity in a laboratory. #12;Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis Introduction

Firestone, Jeremy

248

Third Indigenous Higher Education Advisory Council (IHEAC) TERMS OF REFERENCE  

E-print Network

enhancing participation and outcomes for Indigenous students and staff in study, research, research training and employment in higher education. 2) Functions IHEAC will provide policy advice to the relevant Ministers on: 2.1 Facilitating closing the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians by identifying and developing strategies to improve Indigenous participation and outcomes in all areas of the higher education sector. 2.2 Promoting social inclusion through Indigenous involvement in higher education by building relationships within the higher education sector, with relevant organisations and communities. 2.3 Reviewing the effectiveness of measures to improve access and outcomes for Indigenous people in higher education. 2.4 Broadening and strengthening Indigenous traditional knowledge and practices including cultural competency in higher education. 2.5 Identifying and developing ways to improve Indigenous student outcomes by:

unknown authors

249

Constantine, Babel, and Yankee Doodling: Whose Indigeneity? Whose Psychology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay addresses the issue of indigeneity in terms of local cultures. The authors do so in conversation with Kim, Yang,\\u000a and Hwang’s recent book, Indigenous and Cultural Psychology: Understanding People in Context. The life and work of Virgilio Enriquez is reviewed briefly as an exemplary indigenous psychologist. He illustrates the possibility\\u000a of an indigenous psychology with a local, regulative

Alvin Dueck; Sing-Kiat Ting; Renee Cutiongco

2007-01-01

250

Genetic variation and phylogenetics of Lanyu and exotic pig breeds in Taiwan analyzed by nineteen microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The Lanyu pig is an indigenous miniature pig breed on Lanyu Islet near Taiwan, with a mitochondrial DNA genetic lineage remote from Asian and European pig breeds. The unknown population genetic structure and increased inbreeding among the small population of conserved Lanyu pigs is now of great conservation concern. Additionally, the presence for more than a century of exotic pig breeds in Taiwan has made gene introgression from exotic pig breeds into Lanyu pigs very possible. The present study thus aimed to investigate nuclear genetic variation within the conserved Lanyu pigs and the phylogenetic relationship and possible genetic introgression between Lanyu and exotic pig breeds by determining the polymorphism of 19 microsatellite loci. In the neighbor-joining tree constructed from 7 pig breeds based on Cavalli-Sforza and Edward chord genetic distances, 3 major clades were recognized, in which the Asian and European breeds were separately clustered into 2 clades with a 93.0 and 99.9% bootstrap confidence value, respectively. All individuals of the Lanyu breed formed a unique subclade within the Asian clade based on the distance of the proportion of shared alleles, -ln(ps), suggesting that the Lanyu breed possesses a unique nuclear genetic structure and that no nuclear gene introgression from exotic breeds into the conserved Lanyu pigs has occurred in recent history. Fifteen of 19 microsatellite loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (by Wright's statistic), suggesting a significant loss of heterozygosity in the conserved population. The valuable nuclear genetic structure and phylogenetic information should assist future conservation and population management of Lanyu pigs. PMID:18708610

Chang, W H; Chu, H P; Jiang, Y N; Li, S H; Wang, Y; Chen, C H; Chen, K J; Lin, C Y; Ju, Y T

2009-01-01

251

NATIVE AMERICAN & INDIGENOUS STUDIES ASSOCIATION CALL FOR PAPERS  

E-print Network

NATIVE AMERICAN & INDIGENOUS STUDIES ASSOCIATION NAISA CALL FOR PAPERS for the FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING scholars working in Native American and Indigenous Studies to submit proposals for: Individual papers, panel sessions, roundtables, or film screenings. All persons working in Native American and Indigenous

Hitchcock, Adam P.

252

Indigenous Digital Storytelling in Video: Witnessing with Alma Desjarlais  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous digital storytelling in video is a way of witnessing the stories of Indigenous communities and Elders, including what has happened and is happening in the lives and work of Indigenous peoples. Witnessing includes acts of remembrance in which we look back to reinterpret and recreate our relationship to the past in order to understand the…

Iseke, Judy M.

2011-01-01

253

Thinking Place: Animating the Indigenous Humanities in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of…

Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood

2005-01-01

254

New Digital Technologies: Educational Opportunities for Australian Indigenous Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a number of possibilities that digital technologies can offer to increase access for Indigenous people to higher education in Australia. Such technologies can assist Indigenous high school students acquire the knowledge and skills they require to be accepted into higher education courses. They can also assist Indigenous…

Watson, Shalini

2013-01-01

255

Indigenous Representation and Alternative Schooling: Prioritising an Epistemology of Relationality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on a case study of a small alternative Indigenous school in Queensland, Australia. From the perspective of several of the school's Indigenous Elders, the paper foregrounds the significance of group differentiation at the school on the basis of Indigenous representation. However, it also considers how such…

Keddie, Amanda

2014-01-01

256

The Determinants of Labour force Status Among Indigenous Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that Indigenous Australians are heavily over-represented among Australia’s most disadvantaged citizens. An important component of this disadvantage is the limited and often unsuccessful engagement of Indigenous people with the labour market. To better understand this reality, the present paper explores the forces which influence the labour market status of Indigenous people. For this purpose, multinomial logit

Benjamin J. Stephens

2010-01-01

257

The Determinants of Labour Force Status among Indigenous Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that Indigenous Australians are heavily over-represented among Australia’s most disadvantaged citizens. An important component of this disadvantage is the limited and often unsuccessful engagement of Indigenous people with the labour market. To better understand this reality, the present paper explores the forces which influence the labour market status of Indigenous people. For this purpose, multinomial logit

Benjamin J. Stephens

2010-01-01

258

Empowering Identity Reconstruction of Indigenous College Students through Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the interplay between identity reconstruction of indigenous college students and the effects of transformative learning on their self-development and collective action. Seventeen indigenous college students were interviewed for this study. The findings showed that most indigenous college students developed stigmatized identity…

Chen, Peiying

2012-01-01

259

Reflecting Visions. New Perspectives on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 14 papers: "Indigenous Peoples and Adult Education: A Growing Challenge" (Rodolfo Stavenhagen); "Indigenous Peoples: Progress in the International Recognition of Human Rights and the Role of Education" (Julian Burger); "Adult Learning in the Context of Indigenous Societies" (Linda King); "Linguistic Rights and the Role of…

King, Linda, Ed.

260

The Work-Study Experience of Indigenous Undergraduates in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the large number of universities in Taiwan and the increased availability of scholarships for disadvantaged students, the number of college students from indigenous families has been on the rise in recent years. However, many indigenous students still find it necessary to work part-time. In this study, indigenous students were interviewed…

Chen, Shan-Hua

2014-01-01

261

Developing a Collaborative Approach to Standpoint in Indigenous Australian Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of Indigenous epistemologies and "ways of knowing" continues to be undervalued within various academic disciplines, particularly those who continue to draw upon "scientific" approaches that colonise Indigenous peoples today. This paper will examine the politics of contested knowledge from the perspective of three Indigenous researchers…

Tur, Simone Ulalka; Blanch, Faye Rosas; Wilson, Christopher

2010-01-01

262

"I Give You Back": Indigenous Women Writing to Survive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article corrects the assumption that "indigenous women and feminist issues remain undertheorized," by demonstrating that they do theorize their lives, but that they theorize differently, meaning, indigenous women do not rely solely on Western tools, worldviews, or epistemologies as methods of interpretation. One tool indigenous women use to…

Archuleta, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

263

Learn in Beauty: Indigenous Education for a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume compiles 11 papers indicative of the new directions that indigenous education is taking in North America. Three sections focus on language, culture, and teaching; indigenous perspectives on indigenous education; and issues surrounding teaching methods. The papers are: (1) "Teaching Dine Language and Culture in Navajo Schools: Voices…

Reyhner, Jon, Ed.; Martin, Joseph, Ed.; Lockard, Louise, Ed.; Gilbert, W. Sakiestewa, Ed.

264

Reclaiming Education: Knowledge Practices and Indigenous Communities. Essay Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews four books that explain modern schooling's irrelevance for many indigenous communities and that represent indigenous knowledge practices with respect: "What Is Indigenous Knowledge? Voices from the Academy"; "Escaping Education: Living as Learning within Grassroots Cultures"; "Intercultural Education and Literacy: An Ethnographic Study of…

McGovern, Seana M.

2000-01-01

265

Eagle and the Condor: Indigenous Alliances for Youth Leadership Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This narrative describes the growth of an alliance between two indigenous organizations in North and South America, illustrating how a shared indigenous vision of cultural survival and connection to the land led to the creation of an ongoing collaboration for indigenous youth leadership development, which has extended to encompass collaboration…

Wihak, Christine; Hately, Lynne; Allicock, Sydney; Lickers, Michael

2007-01-01

266

Locating Empowerment in the Context of Indigenous Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empowerment provides a potentially useful framework for social work practice with Indigenous Australians. However, there is little systematic research on what empowerment actually means in this context. This study sought to examine the concept of empowerment for Indigenous Australians through a grounded theory analysis of the stories of people who experienced empowerment, having participated in the Indigenous developed Family Wellbeing

Mary Whiteside; Komla Tsey; Wendy Earles

2011-01-01

267

Australian Directions in Indigenous Education 2005-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational outcomes of Indigenous Australians have improved over recent decades. This is evident across a range of indicators on the enrolment, participation and achievement of Indigenous students in the early childhood education and school sectors. There has also been increased representation of Indigenous students in New Apprenticeships and…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

268

Identification of smallholder farmers and pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits: choice model approach.  

PubMed

Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly homogeneous preferences were investigated. In the pastoral production system, attention was given to coat color of both breeding rams and ewes, favoring brown and white colors over black. Ram libido influenced producers' decisions in Bonga, Horro and Menz areas. The influence of milk yield and twinning on respondents' decision making was high in Afar and Horro, respectively. Breeders in all areas attempt to combine production and reproduction traits as well as they can in order to maximize benefits from their sheep. The elicited measurable objective traits were used to design alternative community-based sheep breeding plans for the four indigenous sheep breeds in their production environments that have been implemented since. PMID:22440475

Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

2011-12-01

269

Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic arsenic, we then applied the estimates to national chicken consumption data to calculate inorganic, organic, and total arsenic ingested by eating chicken. The mean concentration of total arsenic in young chickens was 0.39 ppm, 3- to 4-fold higher than in other poultry and meat. At mean levels of chicken consumption (60 g/person/day), people may ingest 1.38-5.24 microg/day of inorganic arsenic from chicken alone. At the 99th percentile of chicken consumption (350 g chicken/day), people may ingest 21.13-30.59 microg inorganic arsenic/day and 32.50-47.07 microg total arsenic/day from chicken. These concentrations are higher than previously recognized in chicken, which may necessitate adjustments to estimates of arsenic ingested through diet and may need to be considered when estimating overall exposure to arsenic. PMID:14698925

Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K

2004-01-01

270

Diet of canvasbacks during breeding  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

1990-01-01

271

Surgery for otitis media among Indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

Otitis media with effusion and recurrent acute otitis media are ubiquitous among Indigenous children. Otitis media causes conductive hearing loss that may persist throughout early childhood and adversely affect social interactions, language acquisition and learning. Control of otitis media usually restores hearing to adequate levels. Surgery is to be considered when otitis media has not responded to medical treatment. In non-Indigenous populations, tympanostomy tubes ("grommets"), with or without adenoidectomy, can control otitis media; how these findings relate to Indigenous Australians is not known. Tympanic membrane perforation is a frequent sequela of early childhood otitis media among Indigenous children. It occurs as early as 12 months of age and causes conductive hearing loss. Perforation is associated with recurrent aural discharge, particularly in the tropics and in desert regions. Medical and public health management is required until a child is old enough to undergo surgical closure of the perforation, usually by an age of 7-10 years. Surgical closure of the tympanic membrane stops the aural discharge and improves the hearing sufficiently to avoid the need for hearing aids in most cases. The success rate of surgery conducted in rural and remote Australia is below urban benchmarks; improving this will probably require funding for community-based follow-up. PMID:19883360

O'Leary, Stephen J; Triolo, Ross D

2009-11-01

272

Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

2006-01-01

273

Aboriginal Connections: An Indigenous Peoples Web Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Rob Wesley, this Web directory indexes sites related to Canadian aboriginal, Native American, and international indigenous peoples and cultures. The annotated links are organized by topic, including First Nations, Education, Government, History, and Organizations, among others. What's new, a top 100 listing, and an internal search engine are also provided. Visitors are welcome to submit additional sites for inclusion.

1997-01-01

274

Indigenous Educational Research: Can It Be Psychometric?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational research among indigenous peoples has often been flawed. Many studies on achievement motivation, cognitive development, and learning styles have failed to establish that the behaviors and responses being measured were functionally, conceptually, or metrically equivalent to those from which norms for comparison were drawn, and that the…

McInerney, Dennis

275

Indigenous Youth Migration and Language Contact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies ethnographically detail how Indigenous young people's mobility intersects with sociolinguistic transformation in an interconnected world. Drawing on a decade-long study of youth and language contact, I analyze Yup'ik young people's migration in relation to emerging language ideologies and patterns of language use in "Piniq,"…

Wyman, Leisy T.

2013-01-01

276

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

SciTech Connect

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

2003-02-11

277

Indigenous Ways--Fruits of Our Ancestors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the human-nature relationship is recognized as a major field of interest and a platform of ideas linked with it is explored. A "new" source to inform an alternative paradigm for outdoor education is proposed; it is millennia old, has roots all over the globe and is a living, breathing, and evolving tradition--indigenous ways. While…

Cohn, Itamar

2011-01-01

278

Indigenous People: Emancipatory Possibilities in Curriculum Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I argue that emancipatory possibilities for Maori, the Indigenous people of New Zealand, rely on structural changes that enable them to have control over resources, decision making, and meaning, and that emancipation is a journey traveled by oppressed groups as they exercise their collective agency. The 1990s development of…

McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

2008-01-01

279

Barriers to Effective Teaching of Indigenous Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of the classroom practice of an elementary school teacher of Aboriginal students in Western Australia demonstrates the way in which teacher intentions are hindered by the sociopolitical context of the school. The teacher had been identified by the school as a successful teacher of Indigenous students and was accepted by Aboriginal…

Partington, Gary; Richer, Kaye; Godfrey, John; Harslett, Mort; Harrison, Bernard

280

Globalization and indigenous cultures: Homogenization or differentiation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much debate about whether with globalization human society will become culturally homogenized or further differentiated. Intercultural researchers have yet to contribute to this dialogue, and in this paper these issues are examined in light of the need for and value of indigenous research. A model of knowledge creation from cultural insights is presented as a methodology for pursuing

Dharm P. S. Bhawuk

2008-01-01

281

Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

2011-01-01

282

Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Methods Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. Results With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Conclusions Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained molecular breeding values had similar accuracies. The benefit of adding data from other breeds to a within-breed training population is the ability to produce molecular breeding values that are more robust across breeds and these can be utilized until enough training data has been accumulated to allow for a within-breed training set. PMID:23953034

2013-01-01

283

Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

Garigliano, Leonard J.

1975-01-01

284

Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis and Association Study Identifies Loci for Polydactyly in Chickens  

PubMed Central

Polydactyly occurs in some chicken breeds, but the molecular mechanism remains incompletely understood. Combined genome-wide linkage analysis and association study (GWAS) for chicken polydactyly helps identify loci or candidate genes for the trait and potentially provides further mechanistic understanding of this phenotype in chickens and perhaps other species. The linkage analysis and GWAS for polydactyly was conducted using an F2 population derived from Beijing-You chickens and commercial broilers. The results identified two QTLs through linkage analysis and seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) through GWAS, associated with the polydactyly trait. One QTL located at 35 cM on the GGA2 was significant at the 1% genome-wise level and another QTL at the 1% chromosome-wide significance level was detected at 39 cM on GGA19. A total of seven SNPs, four of 5% genome-wide significance (P < 2.98 × 10?6) and three of suggestive significance (5.96 × 10?5) were identified, including two SNPs (GGaluGA132178 and Gga_rs14135036) in the QTL on GGA2. Of the identified SNPs, the eight nearest genes were sonic hedgehog (SHH), limb region 1 homolog (mouse) (LMBR1), dipeptidyl-peptidase 6, transcript variant 3 (DPP6), thyroid-stimulating hormone, beta (TSHB), sal-like 4 (Drosophila) (SALL4), par-6 partitioning defective 6 homolog beta (Caenorhabditis elegans) (PARD6B), coenzyme Q5 (COQ5), and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, etapolypeptide (YWHAH). The GWAS supports earlier reports of the importance of SHH and LMBR1 as regulating genes for polydactyly in chickens and other species, and identified others, most of which have not previously been associated with limb development. The genes and associated SNPs revealed here provide detailed information for further exploring the molecular and developmental mechanisms underlying polydactyly. PMID:24752238

Sun, Yanfa; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Guiping; Zheng, Maiqing; Sun, Yan; Yu, Xiaoqiong; Li, Peng; Wen, Jie

2014-01-01

285

Germ cells and transgenesis in chickens.  

PubMed

Chickens have proven to be useful organisms for transgenic research. This work provides enormous benefits in advancing animal biotechnology and aids in the development of unique technologies for bioreactor production and experimental model development. The various advantages of chicken transgenesis are derived from the genetic and physiological characteristics of this organism, although several physiological properties have impeded the development of an efficient transgenic system. We have developed embryo-mediated and testis-mediated transgenic systems using chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) from embryos and testicular cells from adult males. These methods are efficient and involve minimal technical effort. Here, we review previous transgenic research using PGCs and testicular cells from chickens. Furthermore, we have summarized the development of the chicken model system in biomedical science and biotechnology and our recent achievements in this field. PMID:18249442

Han, Jae Yong

2009-03-01

286

Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge  

E-print Network

Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. We aim to develop innovative ways of capturing, managing, and disseminating Indigenous astronomical knowledge for Indigenous communities and the general public for the future. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project involving experts in the higher education, library, and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a cult...

Nakata, N M; Warren, J; Byrne, A; Pagnucco, M; Harley, R; Venugopal, S; Thorpe, K; Neville, R; Bolt, R

2014-01-01

287

Contrasting colonist and indigenous impacts on amazonian forests.  

PubMed

To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups. PMID:20337669

Lu, Flora; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E; Mena, Carlos F; Erlien, Christine M; Bremner, Jason; Barbieri, Alisson; Walsh, Stephen J

2010-06-01

288

Effect of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme with reference to biocontrol strategies.  

PubMed

A study was carried out at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, to assess the impact of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding and identify indigenous biocontrol agents with potential for controlling mosquito breeding in the scheme. The study established a close relationship between the schedule of the farming practices (particularly the flooding phase) and mosquito breeding. Two groups of agents, entomopathogenic bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) and larvivorous fish, were identified. Laboratory evaluation of the agents produced encouraging results. The bacterial isolates showed broad-spectrum larvicidal potency against Anopheles, Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae and 2 of the fish species, Tilapia zilli and Oreochromis niloticus, demonstrated a strong predation for a mosquito larval diet. To facilitate their use in effective biocontrol strategies, the agents would require further evaluation under field conditions. PMID:8096871

Asimeng, E J; Mutinga, M J

1993-03-01

289

Breeding Bunnies and Flashy Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will see how evolution works with a simulated breeding bunnies lab using red and white beans, one representing dominant alleles and the other recessive alleles. This lesson can be used in sixth grade with some minor modifications of the directions and the data being recorded.

Pbs

2011-10-22

290

Where is conifer breeding at  

E-print Network

spruce seed orchards and half-sib family mixtures. Diameter Stem Str. Wood Den Seed Orchard 15-20% 2 and established breeding populations for Sitka spruce Scots pine Corsican pine Hybrid Larch Improved planting stock from seed orchards exists for all these species. Veg. prop. material is available for Sitka spruce

291

Hevea gene pool for breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation and utilization of allied gene resources is vital for the improvement of crop species. Rubber has been an undeniably beneficial commodity for the past 100 years. Progress in yield improvement over 70 years resulted in primary and hybrid clones with exceptional yielding abilities. The extension of Hevea to marginal areas necessitated breeding of new clones with resistance to

P. M. Priyadarshan; P. de S. Goncalves

2003-01-01

292

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens  

PubMed Central

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-01-01

293

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-10-12

294

Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model for "science for all".

Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

2011-09-01

295

Early childhood caries in Indigenous communities  

PubMed Central

The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) and the United States (American Indian and Alaska Native) is a major child health issue. This is exemplified by the high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) with resulting adverse health effects, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. The present statement includes recommendations for oral health preventive and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial. PMID:22654547

Irvine, JD; Holve, S; Krol, D; Schroth, R

2011-01-01

296

North American Indigenous Adolescent Substance Use*  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate growth in problem drinking and monthly marijuana use among North American Indigenous adolescents from the upper Midwest and Canada. Methods Panel data from a community-based participatory research project includes responses from 619 adolescents residing on or near 7 different reservations/reserves. All respondents were members of the same Indigenous cultural group. Results Rates of problem drinking and monthly marijuana use increased steadily across the adolescent years, with fastest growth occurring in early adolescence (before age 15). In general, female participants reported higher rates of substance use prior to age 15; however, male reports of use surpassed those of females in later adolescence. Conclusions Results of this study highlight the importance of early adolescent substance use prevention efforts and the possible utility of gender responsive programming. PMID:23434599

Hartshorn, Kelley Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B.

2013-01-01

297

Nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel NIMF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 1960's, Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engines were developed and ground tested capable of yielding isp of up to 900 s at thrusts up to 250 klb. Numerous trade studies have shown that such traditional hydrogen fueled NTR engines can reduce the inertial mass low earth orbit (IMLEO) of lunar missions by 35 percent and Mars missions by 50 to 65 percent. The same personnel and facilities used to revive the hydrogen NTR can also be used to develop NTR engines capable of using indigenous Martian volatiles as propellant. By putting this capacity of the NTR to work in a Mars descent/acent vehicle, the Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel (NIMF) can greatly reduce the IMLEO of a manned Mars mission, while giving the mission unlimited planetwide mobility.

Zubrin, Robert

1991-01-01

298

Are supernovae recorded in indigenous astronomical traditions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the skywatching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in indigenous oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral traditions and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Aboriginal Australian traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Aboriginal traditions, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous Australian oral or material traditions.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2014-07-01

299

Improvement of chicken frankfurters through the substitution of pork fat for chicken fat  

E-print Network

4. Fatty Acids Profile 5. TBA Analysis SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES AP P EN DI CE S VITA 25 29 30 41 v)n LIST OF FIGURES Page FIGURE i. Relationship between cooked frankfurter moisture content and treatment blend in i. he... formulation of chicken frankfurters with different proportions of added pork fat and chicken fat at two total fat levels. I IGURE 2. Relal. ionship between cooked frankfurter protein content and treatment blend in the formulation of chicken frankfurters...

Diez Arce, Francisco Nemesio

2012-06-07

300

Indigenous Knowledge and Sea Ice Science: What Can We Learn from Indigenous Ice Users?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drawing on examples mostly from Iñupiaq and Yup’ik sea-ice expertise in coastal Alaska, this contribution examines how local, indigenous knowledge (LIK) can inform and guide geophysical and biological sea-ice research. Part of the relevance of LIK derives from its linkage to sea-ice use and the services coastal communities derive from the ice cover. As a result, indigenous experts keep track of a broad range of sea-ice variables at a particular location. These observations are embedded into a broader worldview that speaks to both long-term variability or change and to the system of values associated with ice use. The contribution examines eight different contexts in which LIK in study site selection and assessment of a sampling campaign in the context of inter annual variability, the identification of rare or inconspicuous phenomena or events, the contribution by indigenous experts to hazard assessment and emergency response, the record of past and present climate embedded in LIK, and the value of holistic sea-ice knowledge in detecting subtle, intertwined patterns of environmental change. The relevance of local, indigenous sea-ice expertise in helping advance adaptation and responses to climate change as well as its potential role in guiding research questions and hypotheses are also examined. The challenges that may have to be overcome in creating an interface for exchange between indigenous experts and seaice researchers are considered. Promising approaches to overcome these challenges include cross-cultural, interdisciplinary education, and the fostering of Communities of Practice.

Eicken, H.

2010-12-01

301

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

SciTech Connect

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

2003-02-11

302

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

SciTech Connect

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

2003-02-11

303

Adipogenic differentiation of chicken epithelial oviduct cells using only chicken serum.  

PubMed

Chicken epithelial oviduct cells (COCs) are part of important supportive tissues in chicken reproductive organs responsible for secretion of the majority of chicken egg protein. In chickens, the biological process of adipocyte differentiation has been extensively studied in vitro using a number of cell types including a preadipocyte precursor cell line, a number of other undifferentiated cell lines, and chicken embryonic fibroblasts. On the contrary, adipogenic differentiation in epithelial cells has not yet been achieved. In our study, we induced COCs to differentiate into adipocytes using chicken serum at concentrations of 5% and 10%. After a 24-h culture period at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO(2) atmosphere, oviduct cell morphology changed dramatically through formation of lipid droplets, observed by Oil Red O staining. Also, chicken serum strongly induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell differentiation into adipocyte. In addition, mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha were significantly increased 48 h after induction. These results suggest that COCs can be induced to differentiate into adipocyte-like cells. Moreover, through this study, we confirmed that chicken serum is an effective adipocyte differentiation-inducing agent. Our findings may provide a unique model for studying and applying chicken transdifferentiation and adipocyte differentiation. PMID:21938588

Khuong, Tran Thi Thanh; Jeong, Dong Kee

2011-10-01

304

Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits) and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's

Solomon Gizaw; Hans Komen; Jack J. WINDIG; Olivier Hanotte; Johan AM van Arendonk

2008-01-01

305

Changes in thickness of each layer of developing chicken cornea after administration of caffeine.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was the presentation of changes in thickness of each layer of a developing cornea, that came into being under an influence of caffeine which was administered to chicken embryos. Research materials were 26 chicken embryos from breeding eggs that had been incubated. Breeding eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30) in which Ringer liquid was given, and experimental (n=30) in which teratogenic dose of caffeine was administrated - 3.5 mg/egg. In 36th hour of incubation solutions were given with cannula through a hole in an egg shell directly onto amniotic membrane. After closing the hole with paraffin, eggs were put back into incubator. On 10th and 19th day of incubation corneas were taken for morphometric and morphological analysis. In experimental groups reduction of corneal thickness, thickening of corneal epithelium and corneal endothelium as well as Bowman's and Descemet's membranes, decrease of thickness of corneal stroma in comparison with the control group have been observed. Caffeine causes thickness changes of all layers and decreases the total thickness of a developing cornea. PMID:20675285

Kujawa-Hadry?, Monika; Tosik, Dariusz; Bartel, Hieronim

2010-01-01

306

Hypoxia-Induced miR-15a Promotes Mesenchymal Ablation and Adaptation to Hypoxia during Lung Development in Chicken  

PubMed Central

The lungs undergo changes that are adaptive for high elevation in certain animal species. In chickens, animals bred at high elevations (e.g., Tibet chickens) are better able to hatch and survive under high-altitude conditions. In addition, lowland chicken breeds undergo physiological effects and suffer greater mortality when they are exposed to hypoxic conditions during embryonic development. Although these physiological effects have been noted, the mechanisms that are responsible for hypoxia-induced changes in lung development and function are not known. Here we have examined the role of a particular microRNA (miRNA) in the regulation of lung development under hypoxic conditions. When chicks were incubated in low oxygen (hypoxia), miR-15a was significantly increased in embryonic lung tissue. The expression level of miR-15a in hypoxic Tibet chicken embryos increased and remained relatively high at embryonic day (E)16–20, whereas in normal chickens, expression increased and peaked at E19–20, at which time the cross-current gas exchange system (CCGS) is developing. Bcl-2 was a translationally repressed target of miR-15a in these chickens. miR-16, a cluster and family member of miR-15a, was detected but did not participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of bcl-2. Around E19, the hypoxia-induced decrease in Bcl-2 protein resulted in apoptosis in the mesenchyme around the migrating tubes, which led to an expansion and migration of the tubes that would become the air capillary network and the CCGS. Thus, interfering with miR-15a expression in lung tissue may be a novel therapeutic strategy for hypoxia insults and altitude adaptation. PMID:24887070

Hao, Rui; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Changxin; Li, Ning

2014-01-01

307

Assessment of genetic diversity and conservation priority of Omani local chickens using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Designing strategies for conservation and improvement livestock should be based on assessment of genetic characteristics of populations under consideration. In Oman, conservation programs for local livestock breeds have been started. The current study assessed the genetic diversity and conservation potential of local chickens from Oman. Twenty-nine microsatellite markers were analyzed in 158 birds from six agro-ecological zones: Batinah, Dhofar, North Hajar, East Hajar, Musandam, and East Coast. Overall, a total of 217 alleles were observed. Across populations, the average number of alleles per locus was 7.48 and ranged from 2 (MCW98 and MCW103) to 20 (LEI094). The mean expected heterozygosity (H E) was 0.62. Average fixation index among populations (F ST) was 0.034, indicating low population differentiation, while the mean global deficit of heterozygotes across populations (F IT) was 0.159. Based on Nei's genetic distance, a neighbor-joining tree was constructed for the populations, which clearly identified the Dhofar population as the most distant one of the Omani chicken populations. The analysis of conservation priorities identified Dhofar and Musandam populations as the ones that largely contribute to the maximal genetic diversity of the Omani chicken gene pool. PMID:24590534

Al-Qamashoui, Badar; Simianer, Henner; Kadim, Isam; Weigend, Steffen

2014-06-01

308

Productive and reproductive performance of crossbred and indigenous dairy cows under smallholder farming system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to investigate productive and reproductive performances of crossbreds and Indigenous dairy cows. A total of 400 dairy cows each are equal number of Friesian x indigenous (FI), Sahiwal x indigenous (SaI), Sindhi x indigenous (SiI) and indigenous (I) were selected from eight thanas in Jessore district. The study found that the daily milk yield from

M. Rokonuzzaman; M. R. Hassan; S. Islam; S. Sultana

2009-01-01

309

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

2014-04-01

310

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America.  

PubMed

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands. PMID:24687096

Hamilton, Marcus J; Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C

2014-01-01

311

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America  

PubMed Central

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands. PMID:24687096

Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

2014-01-01

312

Migratory double breeding in Neotropical migrant birds  

PubMed Central

Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers south in midsummer to breed a second time during the same summer in coastal west Mexico or Baja California Sur. They then migrate further south to their final wintering areas in the Neotropics. Our discovery of dual breeding ranges in Neotropical migrants reveals a hitherto unrealized flexibility in life-history strategies for these species and underscores that demographic models and conservation plans must consider dual breeding for these migrants. PMID:19858484

Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.

2009-01-01

313

Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04) years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys) completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day), over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI)), calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)), folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls), and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL)). Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods. PMID:22304829

2012-01-01

314

Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions  

E-print Network

Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

Wenander, F J C

2013-01-01

315

Establishing the validity of domestication genes using DNA from ancient chickens.  

PubMed

Modern domestic plants and animals are subject to human-driven selection for desired phenotypic traits and behavior. Large-scale genetic studies of modern domestic populations and their wild relatives have revealed not only the genetic mechanisms underlying specific phenotypic traits, but also allowed for the identification of candidate domestication genes. Our understanding of the importance of these genes during the initial stages of the domestication process traditionally rests on the assumption that robust inferences about the past can be made on the basis of modern genetic datasets. A growing body of evidence from ancient DNA studies, however, has revealed that ancient and even historic populations often bear little resemblance to their modern counterparts. Here, we test the temporal context of selection on specific genetic loci known to differentiate modern domestic chickens from their extant wild ancestors. We extracted DNA from 80 ancient chickens excavated from 12 European archaeological sites, dated from ? 280 B.C. to the 18th century A.D. We targeted three unlinked genetic loci: the mitochondrial control region, a gene associated with yellow skin color (?-carotene dioxygenase 2), and a putative domestication gene thought to be linked to photoperiod and reproduction (thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, TSHR). Our results reveal significant variability in both nuclear genes, suggesting that the commonality of yellow skin in Western breeds and the near fixation of TSHR in all modern chickens took place only in the past 500 y. In addition, mitochondrial variation has increased as a result of recent admixture with exotic breeds. We conclude by emphasizing the perils of inferring the past from modern genetic data alone. PMID:24753608

Girdland Flink, Linus; Allen, Richard; Barnett, Ross; Malmström, Helena; Peters, Joris; Eriksson, Jonas; Andersson, Leif; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

2014-04-29

316

Design concepts for pressurized lunar shelters utilizing indigenous materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to design a pressurized shelter build of indigenous lunar material. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar conditions which impact design; secondary factors; review of previously proposed concepts; cross section of assembly facility; rationale for indigenous materials; indigenous material choices; cast basalt properties; design variables; design 1, cylindrical segments; construction sequence; design 2, arch-slabs with post-tensioned ring girders; and future research.

Happel, John Amin; Willam, Kaspar; Shing, Benson

1991-01-01

317

A Swazi nursing perspective on the role of indigenous healers.  

PubMed

Nurses are potential collaborators with local, indigenous healers in Swaziland. This study, using the ethnographic method, examines Swazi nurses' knowledge of indigenous healers including the roles of healers and their utilization. Results indicate that nurses are aware of particular indigenous healing practices and may have themselves frequented healers. However, not all nurses agree with these practices and have expressed their individual views to patients accordingly. PMID:7663896

Upvall, M J

1995-01-01

318

Just Add Water? Taking Indigenous Protected Areas into Sea Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Indigenous Protected Areas (IPAs) wa s developed by the Australian Government in collaboration with Indigen ous land-holders over ten years ago. Twenty-five IPAs have been declared on Indigen ous-owned land in all Australian jurisdictions except the Australian Capital Territo ry. IPAs now contribute over twenty percent of the total terrestrial protected-area est ate in Australia. IPAs are

Dermot Smyth

319

Consumer Attitudes and Preferences Regarding Chicken.  

E-print Network

Attitudes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Family Meat Preferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Ideas Associated with Chicken. . . . . . . . 4 Principal Reasons for Buying. . . . . . . . . . 6 Reasons for Not Serving More Often. . . 6 Reasons... families families (0-$2,999) ($3,000-5,999) ($6,000 a over) Figure 1. Meat preference, according to family income, of those buying chicken in selected Houston chain stores. Since this survey was conducted only among poultry purchasers contacted in a...

Branson, Robert E.; Mountney, George J.

1958-01-01

320

Pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin in broiler chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. 1. The pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin in broiler chicken was investigated following a single intravenous dose of 10?mg\\/kg and a single oral dose of 20?mg\\/kg. The pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0?24 or Cmax) were integrated with the pharmacodynamic parameter (MIC90) to optimize sparfloxacin dosage in chicken.2. 2. The apparent volume of distribution, total body clearance, mean residence time and elimination half-life following

D. Sriranjani; L. Kalaiselvi; S. Ramesh; L. N. Mathuram; P. Sriram

2006-01-01

321

Injuries by chicken bills: characteristic wound morphology.  

PubMed

A 90-year-old woman, hampered in walking, was found dangerously wounded in a farm next to a chicken yard. On the occasion of forensic clinical investigation in hospital we found hematomas and many peculiar injuries of the epidermis and some defects even reaching the extremities of the subcutis and fascia. After experimental investigations we could show that these injuries were caused by the bills of chickens. PMID:1783335

Roll, P; Rous, F

1991-12-01

322

The magnetic compass of domestic chickens  

PubMed Central

In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident. PMID:24753787

Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

323

A genome-wide detection of copy number variation using SNP genotyping arrays in Beijing-You chickens.  

PubMed

Copy number variation (CNV) has been recently examined in many species and is recognized as being a source of genetic variability, especially for disease-related phenotypes. In this study, the PennCNV software, a genome-wide CNV detection system based on the 60 K SNP BeadChip was used on a total sample size of 1,310 Beijing-You chickens (a Chinese local breed). After quality control, 137 high confidence CNVRs covering 27.31 Mb of the chicken genome and corresponding to 2.61 % of the whole chicken genome. Within these regions, 131 known genes or coding sequences were involved. Q-PCR was applied to verify some of the genes related to disease development. Results showed that copy number of genes such as, phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase II alpha, PHD finger protein 14, RHACD8 (a CD8?- like messenger RNA), MHC B-G, zinc finger protein, sarcosine dehydrogenase and ficolin 2 varied between individual chickens, which also supports the reliability of chip-detection of the CNVs. As one source of genomic variation, CNVs may provide new insight into the relationship between the genome and phenotypic characteristics. PMID:25214021

Zhou, Wei; Liu, Ranran; Zhang, Jingjing; Zheng, Maiqing; Li, Peng; Chang, Guobin; Wen, Jie; Zhao, Guiping

2014-10-01

324

The ghostly experiences of non-Indigenous Australians.  

E-print Network

??Masters Research - Master of Philosophy (MPhil) This thesis demonstrates the need for an interdisciplinary approach to research concerning non-Indigenous Australian ghostly phenomena. An analytical… (more)

Dyne, Rosalyn Maida

2010-01-01

325

Virulence of Francisella spp. in Chicken Embryos  

PubMed Central

We examined the utility of infecting chicken embryos as a means of evaluating the virulence of different Francisella sp. strains and mutants. Infection of 7-day-old chicken embryos with a low dose of F. novicida or F. tularensis subsp. holarctica live vaccine strain (LVS) resulted in sustained growth for 6 days. Different doses of these two organisms were used to inoculate chicken embryos to determine the time to death. These experiments showed that wild-type F. novicida was at least 10,000-fold more virulent than the LVS strain. We also examined the virulence of several attenuated mutants of F. novicida, and they were found to have a wide range of virulence in chicken embryos. Fluorescent microscopic examination of infected chicken embryo organs revealed that F. tularensis grew in scattered foci of infections, and in all cases the F. tularensis appeared to be growing intracellularly. These results demonstrate that infection of 7-day-old chicken embryos can be used to evaluate the virulence of attenuated F. tularensis strains. PMID:16861669

Nix, Eli B.; Cheung, Karen K. M.; Wang, Diana; Zhang, Na; Burke, Robert D.; Nano, Francis E.

2006-01-01

326

Breeding without Breeding: Is a Complete Pedigree Necessary for Efficient Breeding?  

PubMed Central

Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called “Breeding without Breeding” (BwB) that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS) and incomplete (half-sib: HS) analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors), growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP) or complete (FS) pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB. PMID:21991342

El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Cappa, Eduardo P.; Liewlaksaneeyanawin, Cherdsak; Klápšt?, Jaroslav; Lstib?rek, Milan

2011-01-01

327

Mean Total Arsenic Concentrations in Chicken 1989-2000 and Estimated Exposures for Consumers of Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in

Tamar Lasky; Wenyu Sun; Abdel Kadry; Michael K. Hoffman

2003-01-01

328

75 FR 25883 - China: Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation Policies, and Frameworks for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation Policies, and Frameworks for Measuring...Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation Policies, and Frameworks for Measuring...China; Describe China's indigenous innovation policies; and Outline...

2010-05-10

329

The State versus Indigenous Peoples: The Impact of Hydraulic Projects on Indigenous Peoples of Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…

Thi Dieu, Nguyen

1996-01-01

330

Pacific walruses, indigenous hunters, and climate change: Bridging scientific and indigenous knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and evaluates two perspectives on changing climate–walrus–human relationships in the Beringian region, from the viewpoints of marine biology and ecology, and from that of indigenous hunters. Bridging these types of knowledge is vital in order to grasp the complexity of the processes involved and for advancing understanding of subarctic marine ecosystems that are currently experiencing rapid ecological

Igor Krupnik; G. Carleton Ray

2007-01-01

331

Indigenizing Student-Centred Learning: A Western Approach in an Indigenous Educational Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the alignment of the teaching and learning practices with a student-centred learning approach in an indigenous educational institution. The findings indicated that when a western concept is applied in the classroom, it is vital for it to be culturally relevant and appropriate to the cultural beliefs and values of the…

Kennedy, Chona Pineda

2013-01-01

332

Enhancing genome-wide copy number variation identification by high density array CGH using diverse resources of pig breeds.  

PubMed

Copy number variations (CNVs) are important forms of genomic variation, and have attracted extensive attentions in humans as well as domestic animals. In the study, using a custom-designed 2.1 M array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), genome-wide CNVs were identified among 12 individuals from diverse pig breeds, including one Asian wild population, six Chinese indigenous breeds and two modern commercial breeds (Yorkshire and Landrace), with one individual of the other modern commercial breed, Duroc, as the reference. A total of 1,344 CNV regions (CNVRs) were identified, covering 47.79 Mb (?1.70%) of the pig genome. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 3.37 Kb to 1,319.0 Kb with a mean of 35.56 Kb and a median of 11.11 Kb. Compared with similar studies reported, most of the CNVRs (74.18%) were firstly identified in present study. In order to confirm these CNVRs, 21 CNVRs were randomly chosen to be validated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and a high rate (85.71%) of confirmation was obtained. Functional annotation of CNVRs suggested that the identified CNVRs have important function, and may play an important role in phenotypic and production traits difference among various breeds. Our results are essential complementary to the CNV map in the pig genome, which will provide abundant genetic markers to investigate association studies between various phenotypes and CNVs in pigs. PMID:24475311

Wang, Jiying; Jiang, Jicai; Wang, Haifei; Kang, Huimin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

2014-01-01

333

Enhancing Genome-Wide Copy Number Variation Identification by High Density Array CGH Using Diverse Resources of Pig Breeds  

PubMed Central

Copy number variations (CNVs) are important forms of genomic variation, and have attracted extensive attentions in humans as well as domestic animals. In the study, using a custom-designed 2.1 M array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), genome-wide CNVs were identified among 12 individuals from diverse pig breeds, including one Asian wild population, six Chinese indigenous breeds and two modern commercial breeds (Yorkshire and Landrace), with one individual of the other modern commercial breed, Duroc, as the reference. A total of 1,344 CNV regions (CNVRs) were identified, covering 47.79 Mb (?1.70%) of the pig genome. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 3.37 Kb to 1,319.0 Kb with a mean of 35.56 Kb and a median of 11.11 Kb. Compared with similar studies reported, most of the CNVRs (74.18%) were firstly identified in present study. In order to confirm these CNVRs, 21 CNVRs were randomly chosen to be validated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and a high rate (85.71%) of confirmation was obtained. Functional annotation of CNVRs suggested that the identified CNVRs have important function, and may play an important role in phenotypic and production traits difference among various breeds. Our results are essential complementary to the CNV map in the pig genome, which will provide abundant genetic markers to investigate association studies between various phenotypes and CNVs in pigs. PMID:24475311

Wang, Jiying; Jiang, Jicai; Wang, Haifei; Kang, Huimin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

2014-01-01

334

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

SciTech Connect

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

2003-02-11

335

Survival of Cold-Stressed Campylobacter jejuni on Ground Chicken and Chicken Skin during Frozen Storage  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni is prevalent in poultry, but the effect of combined refrigerated and frozen storage on its survival, conditions relevant to poultry processing and storage, has not been evaluated. Therefore, the effects of refrigeration at 4°C, freezing at ?20°C, and a combination of refrigeration and freezing on the survival of C. jejuni in ground chicken and on chicken skin were examined. Samples were enumerated using tryptic soy agar containing sheep's blood and modified cefoperazone charcoal deoxycholate agar. Refrigerated storage alone for 3 to 7 days produced a reduction in cell counts of 0.34 to 0.81 log10 CFU/g in ground chicken and a reduction in cell counts of 0.31 to 0.63 log10 CFU/g on chicken skin. Declines were comparable for each sample type using either plating medium. Frozen storage, alone and with prerefrigeration, produced a reduction in cell counts of 0.56 to 1.57 log10 CFU/g in ground chicken and a reduction in cell counts of 1.38 to 3.39 log10 CFU/g on chicken skin over a 2-week period. The recovery of C. jejuni following freezing was similar on both plating media. The survival following frozen storage was greater in ground chicken than on chicken skin with or without prerefrigeration. Cell counts after freezing were lower on chicken skin samples that had been prerefrigerated for 7 days than in those that had been prerefrigerated for 0, 1, or 3 days. This was not observed for ground chicken samples, possibly due to their composition. C. jejuni survived storage at 4 and ?20°C with either sample type. This study indicates that, individually or in combination, refrigeration and freezing are not a substitute for safe handling and proper cooking of poultry. PMID:15574906

Bhaduri, Saumya; Cottrell, Bryan

2004-01-01

336

CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus)  

PubMed Central

The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY). The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50) (ED50= 477 mg/kg). Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds. PMID:24553610

Aguilar, Irma; Sánchez, Elda E.; Girón, María E.; Estrella, Amalid; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodriguez-Acosta, F. Alexis

2014-01-01

337

Coral snake antivenom produced in chickens (Gallus domesticus).  

PubMed

The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze-thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY). The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50) (ED50= 477 mg/kg). Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds. PMID:24553610

Aguilar, Irma; Sánchez, Elda E; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodriguez-Acosta, F Alexis

2014-01-01

338

Price determination for breeding bulls  

E-print Network

of Oammittee) Ra A. ietrzch C. J ~) Daru. I (Heai of August l987 Price Detezlainatian for Breeding Bulls. (August 1987) Jerry Carl Namkan, B. S. , Texas A&M University; Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Donald E. Ferris A study using two different data... differentiated products. Sales are often associated with considerable advertising and promotion zelated to the special attributes of individual, groups, and/or bloodlines of b~ catt1e. Because of perceived wide differancm in value, the price of individual b...

Namken, Jerry Carl

2012-06-07

339

Animal Planet: Dog Breed Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you considering bringing a canine into the family, and wondering which type of dog would be the best fit? This website from Animal Planet provides potential dog owners with information about a variety of breeds. The site directory lists dogs under such categories as Hound, Sporting, Terrier, Working, Herding, and more. Site visitors can view profiles for many different types of dogs including the Bernese Mountain Dog, Irish Setter, Old English Sheepdog, and Tibetan Spaniel. Dog profiles contain a photograph, Rating of Characteristics; and concise sections addressing History, Temperament, Form and Function, Upkeep, and Health. Profiles also include a hyperlinked list of related dogs.

340

Survival disparities in Australia: an analysis of patterns of care and comorbidities among indigenous and non-indigenous cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous Australians have lower overall cancer survival which has not yet been fully explained. To address this knowledge deficit, we investigated the associations between comorbidities, cancer treatment and survival in Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Queensland, Australia. Methods A cohort study of 956 Indigenous and 869 non-Indigenous patients diagnosed with cancer during 1998–2004, frequency-matched on age, sex, remoteness of residence and cancer type, and treated in Queensland public hospitals. Survival after cancer diagnosis, and effect of stage, treatment, and comorbidities on survival were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall Indigenous people had more advanced cancer stage (p?=?0.03), more comorbidities (p?Indigenous patients compared to non-Indigenous patients. For those who received treatment, time to commencement, duration and dose of treatment were comparable. Unadjusted cancer survival (HR?=?1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.48) and non-cancer survival (HR?=?2.39, 95% CI 1.57-3.63) were lower in the Indigenous relative to non-Indigenous patients over the follow-up period. When adjusted for clinical factors, there was no difference in cancer-specific survival between the groups (HR?=?1.10, 95% CI 0.96-1.27). One-year survival was lower for Indigenous people for all-causes of death (adjusted HR?=?1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.83). Conclusion In this study, Indigenous Australians received less cancer treatment, had more comorbidities and had more advanced cancer stage at diagnosis, factors which contribute to poorer cancer survival. Moreover, for patients with a more favourable distribution of such prognostic factors, Indigenous patients received less treatment overall relative to non-Indigenous patients. Personalised cancer care, which addresses the clinical, social and overall health requirements of Indigenous patients, may improve their cancer outcomes. PMID:25037075

2014-01-01

341

Biopiracy and Native Knowledge: Indigenous Rights on the Last Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past few years, transnational corporations and university researchers received patents for traditional medicines and for food and textile plants used by indigenous peoples without returning any benefits to those peoples. In light of U.S. and Canadian government claims that traditional knowledge is not intellectual property, indigenous…

Benjamin, Craig

1997-01-01

342

Interrogating the Ethics of Literacy Intervention in Indigenous Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognising that literacy is fundamental to the educational success of Indigenous students, this essay reviews current literacy intervention programs from a social justice perspective. It reveals the tension between policies and initiatives that have addressed the two key rights of Indigenous people--the right to access mainstream knowledge and…

Kostogriz, Alex

2011-01-01

343

Indigenous Fermented Foods of the Himalayas: Microbiology and Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different ethnic people in the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China (Tibet) use indigenous fermented food products to provide basic components of diet with diverse characteristics of nutrition, flavour, palatability and texture. For many centuries, the people of these regions prepared and consumed more than forty varieties of common as well as lesser-known indigenous fermented foods and beverages.

Jyoti Prakash TAMANG

344

Indigenous Knowledges and the Story of the Bean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy and Emma Maughn explore epistemic tensions within an Indigenous teacher preparation program where students question Western systems for creating, producing, reproducing, and valuing knowledge. Grounding their argument in a rich understanding of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, the authors advocate for an…

Brayboy, Bryan McKinley Jones; Maughn, Emma

2009-01-01

345

Illuminating the Lived Experiences of Research with Indigenous Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical exploitation experienced by indigenous people in the United States has left a number of negative legacies, including distrust toward research. This distrust poses a barrier to progress made through culturally sensitive research. Given the complex history of research with indigenous groups, the purpose of this descriptive…

Burnette, Catherine E.; Sanders, Sara; Butcher, Howard K.; Salois, Emily Matt

2011-01-01

346

Indigenous Youth Bilingualism from a Yup'ik Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing distance between heritage languages and youth has become a constant point of discourse between Elders in Indigenous communities and those who could listen. Since Western contact, the pursuit for a "better life" through formal schooling has institutionalized Indigenous youth, separating them from their homelands and broadening a space…

Charles, Walkie

2009-01-01

347

Preparing Indigenous Language Advocates, Teachers, and Researchers in Western Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the context of indigenous language education in western Canada, the hope of language revitalization, and the role of the Canadian Indigenous Languages and Literacy Development Institute (CILLDI) in reclaiming and stabilizing these languages. CILLDI was established in 1999 by a collective of language advocates and educators who…

Blair, Heather A.; Paskemin, Donna; Laderoute, Barbara

348

Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

Robertson, Carmen

2012-01-01

349

Indigenous Vocational Education and Training. At a Glance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents the results of a comprehensive research program on Indigenous Australians in vocational education and training (VET), along with feedback from over 200 people who attended the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) Research Forum on Indigenous VET in August 2005. The planning and implementation of the…

O'Callaghan, Katy

2005-01-01

350

The Importance of Place in Indigenous Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education, Mack and colleagues (Mack et al. "2011") seek to identify the necessary components of science education in Indigenous settings. Using a review of current research in informal science education in Indigenous settings, along with personal interviews with American educators engaged in these…

Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

2012-01-01

351

Voice of the Drum: Indigenous Education and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is based on an 11-day international gathering of Indigenous Elders and educators in 1998. The readings are organized within four areas of Indigenous education and culture: worldview, curriculum change, governance and policies, and spiritual reflections. The entries are: "Circular Vision: Through Native Eyes" (Marie Eshkibok-Trudeau);…

Neil, Roger, Ed.

352

The Necklace around the Arctic Arctic indigenous peoples  

E-print Network

Lecture 15 The Necklace around the Arctic Arctic indigenous peoples and ANWR in Alaska Islands (Scotland) Labrador Sea (see fig.19) Alaska, ANWR 10K-20 years ago 4500 years ago AD 500://www.unis.no/ #12;ANWR and Arctic indigenous peoples Arctic Refuge is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2010

353

Methodological Metissage: An Interpretive Indigenous Approach to Environmental Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the development of a methodological metissage that combined Indigenous and interpretive traditions. This metissage was developed during a doctoral study conducted with Canadian environmental educators who incorporate Western and Indigenous knowledge and philosophy into their ecological identities and pedagogical praxis. It…

Lowan-Trudeau, Greg

2012-01-01

354

Indigenous Models of Therapy in Traditional Asian Societies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of some indigenous ways of understanding and dealing with psychological disorders in the traditional societies of Asia. Indigenous approaches to healing and psychotherapy existing in India, China, and Japan are included. Models of healing in these three societies are classified as folk traditions, mystical traditions, and…

Das, Ajit K.

1987-01-01

355

Indigenous Knowledge and Education: Sites of Struggle, Strength, and Survivance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book brings together essays that explore Indigenous ways of knowing and that consider how such knowledge can inform educational practices and institutions. Indigenous Knowledge is resiliently local in character and thus poses a distinct contrast to the international, more impersonal system of knowledge prevalent in Western educational…

Villegas, Malia, Ed.; Neugebauer, Sabina Rak, Ed.; Venegas, Kerry R., Ed.

2008-01-01

356

Australian indigenous tourism policy: practical and sustainable policies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of Australia's policies for indigenous tourism and analyses those policies for their sustainable tourism content. It notes that in Australia, tourism is increasingly seen as an instrument for sustaining indigenous communities, many of whom look to tourism for a better future. Growing intervention from Australian federal and, more recently, State\\/Territory governments has sought to create

Michelle M. Whitford; Lisa M. Ruhanen

2010-01-01

357

Across the Colonial Divide: Conversations about Evaluation in Indigenous Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay engages questions of evaluator role and indigenous peoples participation in evaluation within colonial and decolonization contexts. Specifically, I critique the Western emphasis on cultural competence and contrast the utility of "mainstream" evaluation approaches alongside three indigenous inquiry models (Te Kotahitanga,…

Cavino, Hayley Marama

2013-01-01

358

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil  

E-print Network

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil Hundreds of indigenous. According to MAR data, several violent incidents against landowners, miners and others have been observed groups worldwide #12;MAR Background Report About the Minorities at Risk Project The Minorities at Risk

Milchberg, Howard

359

Modifying Photovoice for community-based participatory Indigenous research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific research occurs within a set of socio-political conditions, and in Canada research involving Indigenous communities has a historical association with colonialism. Consequently, Indigenous peoples have been justifiably sceptical and reluctant to become the subjects of academic research. Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is an attempt to develop culturally relevant research models that address issues of injustice, inequality, and exploitation. The

Heather Castleden; Theresa Garvin; Huu-ay-aht First Nation

2008-01-01

360

Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

Schmelkes, Sylvia

2011-01-01

361

Experiencing and Writing Indigeneity, Rurality and Gender: Australian Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…

Ramzan, Bebe; Pini, Barbara; Bryant, Lia

2009-01-01

362

Indigenous Healing Practices among Rural Elderly African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elderly African Americans residing in rural areas have practiced and continue to practice indigenous healing practices for various reasons. In addition to the belief in the value of such practices, many of these individuals practice indigenous healing because it is cost effective. In this article information is presented on the history of research…

Harley, Debra A.

2006-01-01

363

On the creation of indigenous subjects in the Russian Federation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many of Russia's poorest people, and especially for the officially recognized ‘indigenous small-numbered peoples’, neoliberal reforms following the collapse of the Soviet Union represented a major retrenchment in ‘social citizenship’ as defined by T.H. Marshall. However, some reforms also promised increased civil, political and cultural citizenship rights, which Russia's indigenous peoples have sought to realize through new legislation and

Brian Donahoe

2011-01-01

364

The Science of Storytelling: Indigenous Perspective in Environmental Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2-hour workshop was devoted to sharing indigenous approaches to understanding and communicating the environment around us. Topics focused on weather and climate change. Two indigenous peoples from the Tohono O'odham and Pueblo of Laguna Nations immersed participants in their perspectives of knowing through storytelling.

Walker, C. E.; Low, R.; Zepeda, O.; Valdez, S.

2013-04-01

365

Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

2012-01-01

366

Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

2013-01-01

367

The Languages of Indigenous Peoples in Chukotka and the Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the first half of the 20th century, the social functions of the indigenous languages in Chukotka, in northeast Asia, increased due to the development of written languages, local press, and broadcasting on radio and television. From 1933 to 1989, the local press of indigenous peoples in Chukotka was used for Communist Party propaganda. However,…

Diatchkova, Galina

368

Growth and Empowerment for Indigenous Australians in Substance Abuse Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes psychosocial outcomes of an Indigenous residential substance abuse rehabilitation centre in Australia, examines the sensitivity to change of the new Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), and explores the degree to which service users value cultural components of the treatment program. Participants were 57 Indigenous and 46…

Berry, Stacey L.; Crowe, T. P.; Deane, F. P.; Billingham, M.; Bhagerutty, Y.

2012-01-01

369

The Strong Selective Sweep Candidate Gene ADRA2C Does Not Explain Domestication Related Changes In The Stress Response Of Chickens  

PubMed Central

Analysis of selective sweeps to pinpoint causative genomic regions involved in chicken domestication has revealed a strong selective sweep on chromosome 4 in layer chickens. The autoregulatory ?-adrenergic receptor 2C (ADRA2C) gene is the closest to the selective sweep and was proposed as an important gene in the domestication of layer chickens. The ADRA2C promoter region was also hypermethylated in comparison to the non-selected ancestor of all domesticated chicken breeds, the Red Junglefowl, further supporting its relevance. In mice the receptor is involved in the fight-or-flight response as it modulates epinephrine release from the adrenals. To investigate the involvement of ADRA2C in chicken domestication, we measured gene expression in the adrenals and radiolabeled receptor ligand in three brain regions comparing the domestic White Leghorn strain with the wild ancestor Red Junglefowl. In adrenals ADRA2C was twofold greater expressed than the related receptor gene ADRA2A, indicating that ADRA2C is the predominant modulator of epinephrine release but no strain differences were measured. In hypothalamus and amygdala, regions associated with the stress response, and in striatum, receptor binding pIC50 values ranged between 8.1–8.4, and the level was not influenced by the genotyped allele. Because chicken strains differ in morphology, physiology and behavior, differences attributed to a single gene may be lost in the noise caused by the heterogeneous genetic background. Therefore an F10 advanced intercross strain between White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl was used to investigate effects of ADRA2C alleles on fear related behaviors and fecundity. We did not find compelling genotype effects in open field, tonic immobility, aerial predator, associative learning or fecundity. Therefore we conclude that ADRA2C is probably not involved in the domestication of the stress response in chicken, and the strong selective sweep is probably caused by selection of some unknown genetic element in the vicinity of the gene. PMID:25111139

Elfwing, Magnus; Fallahshahroudi, Amir; Lindgren, Isa; Jensen, Per; Altimiras, Jordi

2014-01-01

370

The strong selective sweep candidate gene ADRA2C does not explain domestication related changes in the stress response of chickens.  

PubMed

Analysis of selective sweeps to pinpoint causative genomic regions involved in chicken domestication has revealed a strong selective sweep on chromosome 4 in layer chickens. The autoregulatory ?-adrenergic receptor 2C (ADRA2C) gene is the closest to the selective sweep and was proposed as an important gene in the domestication of layer chickens. The ADRA2C promoter region was also hypermethylated in comparison to the non-selected ancestor of all domesticated chicken breeds, the Red Junglefowl, further supporting its relevance. In mice the receptor is involved in the fight-or-flight response as it modulates epinephrine release from the adrenals. To investigate the involvement of ADRA2C in chicken domestication, we measured gene expression in the adrenals and radiolabeled receptor ligand in three brain regions comparing the domestic White Leghorn strain with the wild ancestor Red Junglefowl. In adrenals ADRA2C was twofold greater expressed than the related receptor gene ADRA2A, indicating that ADRA2C is the predominant modulator of epinephrine release but no strain differences were measured. In hypothalamus and amygdala, regions associated with the stress response, and in striatum, receptor binding pIC50 values ranged between 8.1-8.4, and the level was not influenced by the genotyped allele. Because chicken strains differ in morphology, physiology and behavior, differences attributed to a single gene may be lost in the noise caused by the heterogeneous genetic background. Therefore an F10 advanced intercross strain between White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl was used to investigate effects of ADRA2C alleles on fear related behaviors and fecundity. We did not find compelling genotype effects in open field, tonic immobility, aerial predator, associative learning or fecundity. Therefore we conclude that ADRA2C is probably not involved in the domestication of the stress response in chicken, and the strong selective sweep is probably caused by selection of some unknown genetic element in the vicinity of the gene. PMID:25111139

Elfwing, Magnus; Fallahshahroudi, Amir; Lindgren, Isa; Jensen, Per; Altimiras, Jordi

2014-01-01

371

Fatty acid and transcriptome profiling of longissimus dorsi muscles between pig breeds differing in meat quality.  

PubMed

Fat and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in meat quality characteristics including the fatty acid composition of muscle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. This study compared meat quality traits between Lantang (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Landrace (a typical lean breed). The Lantang pigs showed higher L* values and intramuscular fat content, lower pH(45min), pH(24h) and shear force in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle than Landrace (P < 0.05). Fatty acid analysis demonstrated the lower monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage in Lantang LD than that in Landrace LD (P < 0.05). To further identify candidate genes for fatty acid composition, the transcriptome of LD muscle from the two breeds were measured by microarrays. There were 586 transcripts differentially expressed, of which 267 transcripts were highly expressed in Lantang pigs. After the validation by real-time quantitative PCR, 13 genes were determined as candidate genes for fatty acid composition of muscle, including Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Then, a SCD over-expression plasmid was transfected into C2C12 cells to reveal the effect of SCD on the fatty acid composition in vitro. The results showed that SCD over-expression significantly increased PUFA proportion, while reduced that of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in C2C12 cells (P < 0.05). In summary, this study compared the differences of fatty acid composition and transcriptome in two breeds differing in meat quality, and further identified the novel role of SCD in the regulation of PUFA deposition. PMID:23355796

Yu, Kaifan; Shu, Gang; Yuan, Fangfang; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Wang, Songbo; Wang, Lina; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Shouquan; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Yan; Wu, Tongshan; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Qingyan

2013-01-01

372

Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.  

PubMed

When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. PMID:24528101

Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

2014-06-01

373

Adapting Western research methods to indigenous ways of knowing.  

PubMed

Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid. PMID:23678897

Simonds, Vanessa W; Christopher, Suzanne

2013-12-01

374

Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project emerging between experts in the higher education, library, archive and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a culturally sensitive manner.

Nakata, Martin; Hamacher, Duane W.; Warren, John; Byrne, Alex; Pagnucco, Maurice; Harley, Ross; Venugopal, Srikumar; Thorpe, Kirsten; Neville, Richard; Bolt, Reuben

2014-06-01

375

The importance of place in indigenous science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education, Mack and colleagues (Mack et al. 2011) seek to identify the necessary components of science education in Indigenous settings. Using a review of current research in informal science education in Indigenous settings, along with personal interviews with American educators engaged in these programs, the authors suggest some effective practices to use Indigenous ways of knowing to strengthen science programming. For the past 4 years, we have been interested in the importance of place in culturally relevant science education. We have explored the role of place and have used Gruenewald's critical pedagogy of place (2003) to examine the importance of place in a variety of Indigenous contexts. In response to Mack and colleagues, in this paper we explore the importance of place as a means to reinhabituate Indigenous youth who live in urban, First Nation, and rural Costa Rican contexts.

Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

2012-03-01

376

Minority aspirations and the revival of indigenous peoples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing world-wide sensitivity to the aspirations of indigenous peoples is to be welcomed. However, there is still a tendency which should be avoided: to lump the claims of indigenous peoples with those of minorities. Indigenous peoples are the heirs of long-established political, social and cultural communities which have been oppressed for centuries or victimized by policies of genocide or forced assimilation into the approved language and religion of the dominating community. These forms of destruction can only be truly ended by returning to indigenous peoples a degree of autonomy which will ensure that they have real control over their future. Indigenous peoples should be able to create institutions, including schools, where their languages, religions and cultures are permitted to flourish without interference.

de Varennes, Fernand

1996-07-01

377

Behavioral and demographic changes following the loss of the breeding female in cooperatively breeding marmosets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent models of the evolution and dynamics of family structure in cooperatively breeding vertebrates predict that the opening\\u000a of breeding vacancies in cooperatively breeding groups will result in (1) dispersal movements to fill the reproductive position,\\u000a and (2) within-group conflict over access to reproduction. We describe the behavioral and demographic changes that followed\\u000a the creation of breeding vacancies in three

C. Lazaro-Perea; C. S. S. Castro; R. Harrison; A. Araujo; M. F. Arruda; C. T. Snowdon

2000-01-01

378

The chicken model of spontaneous ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

The chicken is a unique experimental model for studying the spontaneous onset and progression of ovarian cancer (OVC). The prevalence of OVC in chickens can range from 5 to 35% depending on age, genetic strain, reproductive history, and diet. Furthermore, the chicken presents epidemiological, morphological, and molecular traits that are similar to human OVC making it a relevant experimental model for translation research. Similarities to humans include associated increased risk of OVC with the number of ovulations, common histopathological subtypes including high-grade serous, and molecular-level markers or pathways such as CA-125 expression and p53 mutation frequency.  Collectively, the similarities between chicken and human OVC combined with a tightly controlled genetic background and predictable onset window provides an outstanding experimental model for studying the early events and progression of spontaneous OVC tumors under controlled environmental conditions. This review will cover the existing literature on OVC in the chicken and highlight potential opportunities for further exploitation (e.g. biomarkers, prevention, treatment, and genomics). PMID:25130871

Hawkridge, Adam M

2014-10-01

379

Sandwiches Chicken Bacon Ranch Flatbread .............................3.99  

E-print Network

.85 Our classic fries coated in your choice of ranch, fiery garlic, Parmesan-garlic or chili seasoning lettuce, chicken, Caesar dressing, Parmesan cheese, garlic croutons and tomatoes Fried Chicken Salad............................................3.69 Chicken, garlic croutons, Parmesan cheese, romaine lettuce and Caesar dressing in a soft flour

380

Salmonella prevalence in free-range and certified organic chickens.  

PubMed

Many consumers assume that broiler chickens grownunder traditional commercial conditions will have more Salmonella than free-range or organic chickens, which usually are less crowded, have access to outside spaces during grow out, and are fed special diets. Despite these perceptions, there is a lack of published information about the microbiological status of free-range and organic chickens. A total of 135 processed free-range chickens from four different commercial free-range chicken producers were sampled in 14 different lots for the presence of Salmonella. Overall, 9 (64%) of 14 lots and 42 (31%) of 135 of the carcasses were positive for Salmonella. No Salmonella were detected in 5 of the 14 lots, and in one lot 100% of the chickens were positive for Salmonella. An additional 53 all-natural (no meat or poultry meal or antibiotics in the feed) processed chickens from eight lots were tested; 25% ofthe individual chickens from 37% of these lots tested positive for Salmonella. Three lots of chickens from a single organicfree-range producer were tested, and all three of the lots and 60% of the individual chickens were positive for Salmonella.The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service reported that commercial chickens processed from 2000 to 2003 had a Salmonella prevalence rate of 9.1 to 12.8%. Consumers should not assume that free-range or organicconditions will have anything to do with the Salmonella status of the chicken. PMID:16300088

Bailey, J S; Cosby, D E

2005-11-01

381

Variation in gestation length as breeding season advances in Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle breed  

E-print Network

Note Variation in gestation length as breeding season advances in Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle was investigated in the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle breed. A total of 359 gestations belonging to five breeding length / beef cattle / Bruna dels Pirineus Résumé -- Variation de la durée de gestation selon l'avance de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology in relation to breeding  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology in relation to breeding season climate-Gesellschaft e.V. 2013 Abstract Winter weather has a strong influence on Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology season place constraints on Barn Owl reproduction. Keywords Climate Á Reproduction Á Tyto alba Á Weather

Alvarez, Nadir

383

POPULATION ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER The effects of sex, age and breeding success on breeding dispersal  

E-print Network

POPULATION ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER The effects of sex, age and breeding success on breeding processes in population dynamics (Clobert et al. 2001). The breeding dispersal rates may vary according by environmental conditions, such as food availability, habitat quality, or population density (Ims and Hjermann

Laaksonen, Toni

384

Winter male plumage coloration correlates with breeding status in a cooperative breeding species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of colored ornaments is usually related to the signaling of individual quality in intra- and intersexual interactions. In cooperative breeding species, where only a fraction of the male population access the breeding status and the other fraction has the option to help breeding pairs, colored traits might provide the females with a reliable information on the quality of

Elena Solis; Jesus M. Aviles; C. De La Cruz; J. Valencia; G. Sorci

2007-01-01

385

Problem 1. In a barn with chickens and dogs there are 5 heads and 14 legs. How many chickens are there? (A chicken has 2 legs and a dog has 4.)  

E-print Network

Problem 1. In a barn with chickens and dogs there are 5 heads and 14 legs. How many chickens are there? (A chicken has 2 legs and a dog has 4.) Problem 1. In a barn with chickens and dogs there are 5 heads and 14 legs. How many chickens are there? (A chicken has 2 legs and a dog has 4.) #12;Problem 2

Smith, Roy

386

Distribution of Escherichia coli F4 adhesion phenotypes in pigs of 15 Chinese and Western breeds and a White DurocxErhualian intercross.  

PubMed

Diarrhoea in newborn and weaned piglets is mainly caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) with fimbriae F4. To investigate the prevalence of resistance to three fimbrial strains, F4ab, F4ac and F4ad, among Chinese indigenous pigs and Western commercial pigs introduced into China, we determined the ETEC F4 adhesion phenotypes in 292 pure-bred piglets from three Western commercial breeds and 12 Chinese indigenous breeds, and a total of 1093 adult pigs in a White DurocxErhualian intercross, by an in vitro microscopic adhesion assay. All the Tibet and Lantang pigs and a majority of the Erhualian and Rongchang pigs were resistant (nonadherent) to ETEC F4 whereas all the Laiwu pigs and most of the Jiangquhai and Tongcheng pigs were susceptible (adhesive) to at least one of the F4 strains. Yushan Black pigs were uniformly resistant to F4ab, and Jinhua pigs were predominantly resistant to F4ac. Susceptible and resistant animals were observed in the other breeds, indicating that diarrhoea caused by ETEC F4 could be prevalent in these breeds. This study confirmed the existence of eight previously reported F4 adhesion patterns, and supported the assumption that the three F4 receptors are encoded by distinct loci. Expression of the weakly adherent phenotype was observed in six pure-bred piglets and 90 adult F(2)/F(3) animals, and the inheritance of this phenotype and its correlation with susceptibility to disease are still not known. PMID:19574416

Yan, Xueming; Huang, Xiang; Ren, Jun; Zou, Zhengzhi; Yang, Shujin; Ouyang, Jing; Zeng, Weihong; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Shijun; Huang, Lusheng

2009-08-01

387

Adjuvant effect of ginsenoside-based nanoparticles (ginsomes) on the recombinant vaccine against Eimeria tenella in chickens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to study the adjuvant effect of ginsomes on the recombinant profilin in coccidian-infected breeding birds. Three-day-old chickens were vaccinated with Eimeria tenella recombinant profilin antigen (10, 50, and 100 ?g per chicken) with or without 50 ?g ginsomes per chicken. The boost vaccination was carried out 14 days later. Two weeks after the booster, the chickens were challenged with 1.5?×?10(4) homologous sporulated oocysts. The specific antibody response, lymphocyte proliferation, and IL-1 release from lymphocyte were measured at 1-42 days after boost vaccination. Seven days post-challenge, the rate of survival, body weight gains (BWG) were examined then all chickens were sacrificed and lesion scores and oocysts per gram were monitored to evaluate the protective effects of the vaccination after challenge. Compared with the group of vaccinating with profilin only, groups of 50 and 100 ?g antigen plus ginsomes significantly enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and IL-1 secretion. The profilin specific antibody level in the four vaccinated groups was significantly higher than in the control group and in groups vaccinated with profilin containing ginsomes than profilin only. In the groups vaccinated with profilin plus ginsomes, the BWG was significantly higher than that of group of profilin only, but there was no significant difference between profilin plus adjuvant ginsomes, diclazuril medicated and uninfected-unmedicated-unvaccinated control groups. The lesion scores in groups immunized with profilin plus ginsomes was significantly lower than that both of groups unimmunized-challenged-unmedicated control and group vaccinated with profilin only. Oocyst excretion in groups vaccinated with 50 or 100 ?g profilin plus ginsomes was lower than that of groups vaccinated with profilin only. These results demonstrate that the adjuvant ginsomes can promote subunit vaccine to induce a strong immune response and protective effects. PMID:22215190

Zhang, De-Fu; Xu, Hui; Sun, Bing-Bing; Li, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Qian-Jin; Zhang, Hong-Li; Du, Ai-Fang

2012-06-01

388

Indigenous knowledge on the nutritional quality of urban and peri-urban livestock feed resources in Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

This study identified the indigenous criteria used by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala to assess the nutritional quality of available feed resources. Focus group discussions and questionnaire interviews (with a total of 120 livestock farming households) were conducted. The findings showed that banana peels, leftover food and own-mixed feeds were the most commonly used feed resources for cattle, pigs and chickens, respectively. Farmers use several indigenous criteria to judge the nutritional quality of the available feed resources. These included perceived effects on disease resistance, feed intake, growth/body condition, hair coat appearance, faecal output, faecal texture and level of production, among others. According to farmers, animals offered with a feed resource of good nutritional quality are more resistant to diseases, ingest much of the feed, gain weight with well-filled bodies, have smooth hair coats, produce large quantities of faeces that are not too firm or watery and exhibit good performance (lactating cows produce more milk, sows produce piglets of good body size, hens lay more eggs of normal size, etc.). Although this indigenous knowledge exists, farmers put more importance on availability and cost as opposed to nutritional quality when choosing feed resources. This explains why banana peels were among the feed resources perceived to be of low nutritional quality but, at the same time, were found to be the most commonly used. Hence, there is a need to sensitise farmers on the importance of nutritional quality in ensuring better and efficient utilisation of the available feed resources. PMID:23568618

Lumu, Richard; Katongole, Constantine Bakyusa; Nambi-Kasozi, Justine; Bareeba, Felix; Presto, Magdalena; Ivarsson, Emma; Lindberg, Jan Erik

2013-10-01

389

AA amyloidosis in vaccinated growing chickens.  

PubMed

Systemic amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in birds occurs most frequently in waterfowl such as Pekin ducks. In chickens, AA amyloidosis is observed as amyloid arthropathy. Outbreaks of systemic amyloidosis in flocks of layers are known to be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as those resulting from multiple vaccinations with oil-emulsified bacterins. Outbreaks of fatal AA amyloidosis were observed in growing chickens in a large scale poultry farm within 3 weeks of vaccination with multiple co-administered vaccines. This study documents the histopathological changes in tissues from these birds. Amyloid deposits were also observed at a high rate in the tissues of apparently healthy chickens. Vaccination should therefore be considered as a potential risk factor for the development of AA amyloidosis in poultry. PMID:23570943

Murakami, T; Inoshima, Y; Sakamoto, E; Fukushi, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T; Ishiguro, N

2013-01-01

390

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF BEEF BREED UTILIZATION STRATEGIES  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF BEEF BREED UTILIZATION STRATEGIES A. M. CARTER Ministry of Agriculture are discussed in relation to New Zealand pastoral beef production and to provisional results from a large crosses are superior for reproductive performance, the continental beef breeds for carcass weight

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Breed-specific dog-dandruff allergens.  

PubMed

Fifty-one patients with clinical history of dog allergy were skin prick tested with eight individual standardized dog breed-allergen preparations, one mixed breed-allergen preparation (Poodle/Alsatian), dog-serum albumin, and histamine hydrochloride, 1 mg/ml. All extracts were characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis with a pool of sera from patients clinically sensitive to dog. The dog-breed extracts contained common antigens/allergens, as well as components represented only in one or two dog-breed extracts. The concentration corresponding 1000 BU/ml varied from 16 to 100 micrograms of protein per milliliter. The sensitivity of skin prick test was 67% to 88% for the various dog breed-allergen preparations, but only 18% for dog-serum albumin. Significant difference between the skin test response to different dog breed-allergen preparations indicating dog breed-specific allergens was obtained in 15% of the patients. There was no significant correlation between skin prick test results and symptoms related to a specific dog breed. PMID:2457041

Lindgren, S; Belin, L; Dreborg, S; Einarsson, R; Påhlman, I

1988-08-01

392

BREEDING DISPLAYS OF THE LOUISIANA HERON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the breeding behavior of herons is for the most part not sufficiently detailed to permit comparative analysis. However, as a conse- quence of modern ethological research methods and theory (see, for example, Lorenz 1950, Tinbergen 1952, Hinde 1970), the behavioral patterns of nu- merous species of ardeids are now better understood. Meyerriecks (1960), while concentrating on the breeding

JAMES A. RODGERS

393

Breeding population fluctuations in some raptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated differences in annual breeding population stability and its relationship to diversity in food habits for several species of raptors. Chi-square tests showed no significant differences between observed and expected (based on logistic growth equation) breeding population sizes for Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) during recovery from pesticide induced declines in 4 Alaskan populations. This indicates that no major Peregrine

D. P. Mindell; J. L. B. Albuquerque; C. M. White

1987-01-01

394

Genomic Analyses of Modern Dog Breeds  

PubMed Central

A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized world-wide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other. PMID:22231497

Parker, Heidi G.

2013-01-01

395

BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE BOREAL CHICKADEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology of some species of North American chickadees (Paridae) is well-known (Odum 1941a, 1941b; Bent 1946; Brewer 1961) ; however there have been no detailed studies of the breeding behavior of the Boreal Chickadee (Parus hudsonicus), a species of the northern coniferous forests. This paper presents both quantitative and qualitative information about the breeding behavior of the Boreal

MARGARET A. MCLAREN

1975-01-01

396

Multilocus minisatellite DNA fingerprinting and cooperative breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

McRae and Amos (1999) make the valuable point that, when incest has occurred in cooperatively breeding birds, multilocus minisatellite DNA fingerprinting is limited in its ability to resolve parentage. Their general point is a good one, and one that they rightly point out has not been fully appreciated in studies of cooperative breeding. We nonetheless feel that they have overemphasized

Patricia G. Parker; Thomas C. Jones; Joseph Haydock; Janis L. Dickinson; Bradley D. Worden

1999-01-01

397

Greg A Breed Banting Postdoctoral Fellow  

E-print Network

) Behavioralsignatureofintraspecificcompetitionanddensity-dependence in colony breeding marine predators. Ecology and Evolution. Published online: 12 Sept availability, competition, and reproductive status drive foraging behaviour in a top marine predator. Advisors. Ferguson and G. A. Breed. (2014) Age- and sex-related differences in spatial behaviour of ringed seals

Breed, Greg A.

398

Endothelin Receptor B2 (EDNRB2) Is Responsible for the Tyrosinase-Independent Recessive White (mow) and Mottled (mo) Plumage Phenotypes in the Chicken  

PubMed Central

A mutation that confers white plumage with black eyes was identified in the Minohiki breed of Japanese native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The white plumage, with a few partially pigmented feathers, was not associated with the tyrosinase gene, and displayed an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance against the pigmented phenotype. All F1 offspring derived from crosses with mottled chickens (mo/mo), which show characteristic pigmented feathers with white tips, had plumage with a mottled-like pattern. This result indicates that the white plumage mutation is a novel allele at the mo locus; we propose the gene symbol mow for this mutant allele. Furthermore, the F1 hybrid between the mow/mow chicken and the panda (s/s) mutant of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), whose causative gene is the endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2) gene, showed a mow/mow chicken-like plumage, suggesting the possibility that the mutations in parental species are alleles of the same gene, EDNRB2. Nucleotide sequencing of the entire coding region of EDNRB2 revealed a non-synonymous G1008T substitution, which causes Cys244Phe amino acid substitution in exon 5 (which is part of the extracellular loop between the putative fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of EDNRB2) in the mutant chicken. This Cys244Phe mutation was also present in individuals of four Japanese breeds with white plumage. We also identified a non-synonymous substitution leading to Arg332His substitution that was responsible for the mottled (mo/mo) plumage phenotype. These results suggest that the EDN3 (endothelin 3)–EDNRB2 signaling is essential for normal pigmentation in birds, and that the mutations of EDNRB2 may cause defective binding of the protein with endothelins, which interferes with melanocyte differentiation, proliferation, and migration. PMID:24466053

Kinoshita, Keiji; Akiyama, Toyoko; Mizutani, Makoto; Shinomiya, Ai; Ishikawa, Akira; Younis, Hassan Hassan; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Namikawa, Takao; Matsuda, Yoichi

2014-01-01

399

Indigenous youth participatory action research: re-visioning social justice for social work with indigenous youths.  

PubMed

The NASW Code of Ethics identifies social justice as one of six foundational values of the social work profession. Indigenous communities have long questioned the authenticity of this commitment and rightly so, given the historical activities of social work and social workers. Still, the commitment persists as an inspiration for an imperfect, yet determined, profession. This article presents a theoretical discussion of questions pertinent for social justice in social work practice in Native American communities: Whose definition of social justice should prevail in work with and in Indigenous communities? What can a revisioning of social justice mean to the development of Native communities and for Native youths in particular? What methods or processes of social work are most appropriate for this social justice work? This article presents a case for the practice of youth participatory action research as one method to work for social justice in Native communities. PMID:24450018

Johnston-Goodstar, Katie

2013-10-01

400

Tender Texas Chicken: The Natural Light Meat.  

E-print Network

cheese 4 ounces mushrooms, sliced 1V2 cups grated mozzarella cheese 3 rounds of pita (pocket) bread, cut in half Salt and pepper to taste Melt butter or margarine in skillet. Heat garlic in butter to release flavor. Add onions and saute untii... translucent. Add chicken and cook until chicken is white, about 10 minutes. Add mushrooms, oregano, parsley, thyme, parmesan cheese and tomato sauce. Cook an additional 5 to 10 minutes. Place a small amount of cheese in each ? :1 , ~ r' ')cket, spoon one...

Denton, J.H.; Gardner, F.A.

1987-01-01

401

Molecular cloning of chicken aggrecan. Structural analyses.  

PubMed Central

The large, aggregating chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan of cartilage, aggrecan, has served as a generic model of proteoglycan structure. Molecular cloning of aggrecans has further defined their amino acid sequences and domain structures. In this study, we have obtained the complete coding sequence of chicken sternal cartilage aggrecan by a combination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequencing. The composite sequence is 6117 bp in length, encoding 1951 amino acids. Comparison of chicken aggrecan protein primary structure with rat, human and bovine aggrecans has disclosed both similarities and differences. The domains which are most highly conserved at 70-80% identity are the N-terminal domains G1 and G2 and the C-terminal domain G3. The chondroitin sulphate domain of chicken aggrecan is smaller than that of rat and human aggrecans and has very distinctive repeat sequences. It has two separate sections, one comprising 12 consecutive Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 20 amino acids each, adjacent to the other which has 23 discontinuous Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 10 amino acids each; this latter region, N-terminal to the former one, appears to be unique to chicken aggrecan. The two regions contain a total of 94 potential chondroitin sulphate attachment sites. Genomic comparison shows that, although chicken exons 11-14 are identical in size to the rat and human exons, chicken exon 10 is the smallest of the three species. This is also reflected in the size of its chondroitin sulphate coding region and in the total number of Ser-Gly pairs. The putative keratan sulphate domain shows 31-45% identity with the other species and lacks the repetitive sequences seen in the others. In summary, while the linear arrangement of specific domains of chicken aggrecan is identical to that in the aggrecans of other species, and while there is considerable identity of three separate domains, chicken aggrecan demonstrates unique features, notably in its chondroitin sulphate domain and its keratan sulphate domain. Thus different variants of chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate domains may have evolved separately to fulfil specific biochemical and physiological functions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1339285

Chandrasekaran, L; Tanzer, M L

1992-01-01

402

A 6-bp deletion in the TYRP1 gene causes the brown colouration phenotype in Chinese indigenous pigs.  

PubMed

Brown coat colour has been described in Chinese-Tibetan, Kele, and Dahe pigs. Here, we report the identification of a causal mutation underlying the brown colouration. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on Tibetan and Kele pigs, and found that brown colours in Chinese breeds are controlled by a single locus on pig chromosome 1. By using a haplotype-sharing analysis, we refined the critical region to a 1.5-Mb interval that encompasses only one pigmentation gene: tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1). Mutation screens of sequence variants in the coding region of TYRP1 revealed a strong candidate causative mutation (c.1484_1489del). The protein-altering deletion showed complete association with the brown colouration across Chinese-Tibetan, Kele, and Dahe breeds by occurring exclusively in brown pigs (n=121) and lacking in all non-brown-coated pigs (n=745) from 27 different breeds. The findings provide the compelling evidence that brown colours in Chinese indigenous pigs are caused by the same ancestral mutation in TYRP1. To our knowledge, this study gives the first description of GWAS identifying causal mutation for a monogenic trait in the domestic pig. PMID:20978532

Ren, J; Mao, H; Zhang, Z; Xiao, S; Ding, N; Huang, L

2011-05-01

403

Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori), and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives) that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for M?ori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. PMID:24649368

Lucero, Adam A.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Faulkner, James A.; Tarrant, Michael A.; Poudevigne, Melanie; Williams, Michelle A.; Stoner, Lee

2014-01-01

404

Modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors among indigenous populations.  

PubMed

Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori), and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives) that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for M?ori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. PMID:24649368

Lucero, Adam A; Lambrick, Danielle M; Faulkner, James A; Fryer, Simon; Tarrant, Michael A; Poudevigne, Melanie; Williams, Michelle A; Stoner, Lee

2014-01-01

405

Initial contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to acquire data on contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and to acquire data on cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation. Whole raw chickens (n = 31) were obtained from local retail stores and cut into two wings, two breasts without skin or bones, two thighs, and two drumsticks. Data for cross-contamination were obtained by cutting up a sterile, cooked chicken breast with the same board and knife used to cut up the raw chicken. The board, knife, and latex gloves used by the food handler were not rinsed or washed before cutting up the sterile, cooked chicken breast, thus providing a worst-case scenario for cross-contamination. Standard curves for the concentration of Salmonella bacteria in 400 ml of buffered peptone water after 6 h of incubation of chicken parts as a function of the initial log number of Salmonella bacteria inoculated onto chicken parts were developed and used to enumerate Salmonella bacteria. Standard curves were not affected by the type of chicken part but did differ (P < 0.05) among the five isolates of Salmonella examined. Consequently, Salmonella bacteria were enumerated on naturally contaminated chicken parts using a standard curve developed with the serotype of Salmonella that was isolated from the original sample. The prevalence of contamination was 3 % (4 of 132), whereas the incidence of cross-contamination was 1.8 % (1 of 57). The positive chicken parts were a thigh from chicken 4, which contained 3 CFU of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky, and both wings, one thigh, and one cooked breast portion from chicken 15, which all contained 1 CFU of serotype 8,20:-:z(6). These results indicated that the poultry industry is providing consumers in the studied area with chicken that has a low prevalence and low number of Salmonella bacteria at retail and that has a low incidence and low level of cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation under a worst-case scenario. PMID:23317854

Oscar, T P

2013-01-01

406

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

SciTech Connect

This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

2003-03-31

407

Post-conception reproductive competition in cooperatively breeding common marmosets  

E-print Network

with one another. No significant differences were found among singly breeding mothers, plurally breeding mothers, and plurally breeding daughters in urinary chorionic gonadotropin or estradiol sulfate concentrations during pregnancy, fetal biparietal diameter, frequency of spontaneous abortion, frequency

Saltzman, Wendy

408

Effect of immunological stress to neuroendocrine and gene expression in different swine breeds.  

PubMed

Immunological stress is the status of animal in active immune when they are challenged by bacterial, virus and endocrine. It is associated with immunological, neurological, and endocrinological response. An immunological stress model was established in this study using Chinese indigenous breed (Laiwu), crossbred (Lulai), and exotic breed (Yorkshire), to explore the capacity of immunological stress resistance among different breeds. The study was also to reveal the effect of chromium yeast to immunological stress. 48 post-weaning piglets were taken from three breeds, 16 piglets of each breed from Laiwu, Lulai and Yorkshire. The experiment was designed as 2 × 2 factors, immunological stress (Saline, LPS) and Chromium (with Cr, without Cr). There were four treatments: control, LPS, Cr, and Cr+LPS. Blood parameters related to immunological stress, such as IL-1?, TNF-?, GH, and cortisol, were examined after blood sample were taken at 0, 2, 5, and 7 h of post-injection. The results showed that IL-1?, TNF-?, and cortisol increased in group of LPS treatment while GH declined at 2 h of post-injection in comparison to the control (p < 0.01). However, IL-1?, TNF-?, and cortisol in group of Cr+LPS were lower than that in group of LPS while GH were higher (p < 0.05). Total RNA was extractedfrom blood lymphocytes separation samples at 2 h of post-injection. Q-PCR was applied to determine the gene expression of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?. The results showed that LPS injection increased the gene expression of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?. Among three breeds, the expression of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in Yorkshire were significantly higher than in Laiwu and Lulai (p < 0.05), but there was no difference between Laiwu and Lulai. Among four treatments, the expression of three genes in group of LPS was the highest, compared to the group of Cr+LPS (p < 0.05) and control (p < 0.01). This study concluded that Laiwu had stronger capacity of immunological stress resistance and next was Lulai among three breeds. Chromium yeast helped piglets relieve immunological stress. PMID:24515387

Song, Chunyang; Jiang, Jianyang; Han, Xianjie; Yu, Guanghui; Pang, Yonggang

2014-06-01

409

Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

2011-01-01

410

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

Breen, Helen M.

2012-01-01

411

Academic Staff Perceptions of Factors Underlying Program Completion by Australian Indigenous Nursing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…

West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee

2014-01-01

412

The Age at Which Indigenous Australians Undertake Qualifications: A Descriptive Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reducing disparities in education outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is one of the main ways in which the relative disadvantage Indigenous Australians face will be overcome. Relative and absolute participation rates in all forms of education have improved, however they are still unacceptably low. Those Indigenous…

Biddle, Nicholas

2006-01-01

413

Globalization, states, and the health of indigenous peoples.  

PubMed Central

The consequences of globalization are mixed, and for the indigenous peoples of poor countries globalization has potentially important benefits. These are the result not of participation in the global economy but of participation in global networks of other indigenous peoples, environmental activists, and nongovernmental organizations. Since World War II, nonstate actors such as these have gained standing in international forums. It is indigenous peoples' growing visibility and ability to mobilize international support against the policies of their own national governments that has contributed in some important instances to their improved chances of survival. PMID:11029984

Kunitz, S J

2000-01-01

414

Isolation of chicken embryonic stem cell and preparation of chicken chimeric model.  

PubMed

Chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were separated from blastoderms at stage-X and cultured in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase activity and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 staining was conducted to detect ESCs. Then, chicken ESCs were transfected with linearized plasmid pEGFP-N1 in order to produce chimeric chicken. Firstly, the optimal electrotransfection condition was compared; the results showed the highest transfection efficiency was obtained when the field strength and pulse duration was 280 V and 75 ?s, respectively. Secondly, the hatchability of shedding methods, drilling a window at the blunt end of egg and drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg was compared, the results showed that the hatchability was the highest for drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg. Thirdly, the hatchability of microinjection (ESCs was microinjected into chick embryo cavity) was compared too, the results showed there were significant difference between the injection group transfected with ESCs and that of other two groups. In addition, five chimeric chickens were obtained in this study and EGFP gene was expressed in some organs, but only two chimeric chicken expressed EGFP gene in the gonad, indicating that the chimeric chicken could be obtained through chick embryo cavity injection by drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg. PMID:23192613

Zhang, Yani; Yang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhentao; Shi, Qingqing; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Mengmeng; Li, Bichun; Song, Jiuzhou

2013-03-01

415

CHICKEN FEATHER FIBERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Summary of Findings (Outputs/Outcomes): A Sievert’s apparatus for measuring the H2 storage capacities of adsorbents was built. The nitrogen adsorption and H2 storage test performed on the pyrolyzed chicken feather fibers (PCFF) prepared by a p...

416

Evaluation of anticoccidial drugs in chicken embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections ofEimeria tenella in chicken embryos were used to compare the anticoccidial activity of ten drugs. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal toxic concentration (MTC) were affected by the time of inoculation into the embryos and by the chemical nature of the compounds. Some compounds (nicarbazin, amprolium) had no effect on the development of coccidia when they were injected

M. Q. Xie; T. Fukata; J. M. Gilbert; L. R. McDougald

1991-01-01

417

Chicken Embryonic Stem Cells and Transgenic Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of transgenic birds is an important goal for both fundamental and applied biology. Different methods have been employed to generate transgenic chickens, including microinjection, use of retroviruses and transfection of primordial germ or embryonic germ cells. In this review we will briefly describe these techniques and our efforts to obtain genetically modified avian embryonic stem (ES) cells using

B. Pain; P. Chenevier; J. Samarut

1999-01-01

418

Ecology and Greater Prairie-Chicken  

E-print Network

Ecology and Management of the Greater Prairie-Chicken Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University E-969E-969E-969 Ecology, Editor Professor and Extension Specialist Rangeland Ecology and Management Department of Plant and Soil

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

419

Development of chicken intrafusal muscle fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first sign of developing intrafusal fibers in chicken leg muscles appeared on embryonic day (E) 13 when sensory axons contacted undifferentiated myotubes. In sections incubated with monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chains (MHC) diverse immunostaining was observed within the developing intrafusal fiber bundle. Large primary intrafusal myotubes immunostained moderately to strongly for embryonic and neonatal MHC, but they were

Alfred Maier

1993-01-01

420

Central Wisconsin Prairie Chicken Survey 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

There was a 26% decrease (based on the mean count) in the number of male Greater Prairie- Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) counted on booming grounds in central Wisconsin in the spring of 2008 compared to the spring of 2007. This decrease follows a 26% population increase (based on the maximum count) between the spring of 2006 and 2007. A mean

Lesa Kardash

421

Central Wisconsin Prairie Chicken Census 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

There was a 26% increase (based on the maximum count) in the number of male Greater Prairie- Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) counted on booming grounds in central Wisconsin in the spring of 2007 compared to the spring of 2006. This increase follows a 10% population increase between the spring of 2005 and 2006. A mean of 569 (range 520-616) male

Lesa Skuldt

422

Gene finding in the chicken genome  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the continuous production of genome sequence for a number of organisms, reliable, comprehensive, and cost effective gene prediction remains problematic. This is particularly true for genomes for which there is not a large collection of known gene sequences, such as the recently published chicken genome. We used the chicken sequence to test comparative and homology-based gene-finding methods followed by experimental validation as an effective genome annotation method. Results We performed experimental evaluation by RT-PCR of three different computational gene finders, Ensembl, SGP2 and TWINSCAN, applied to the chicken genome. A Venn diagram was computed and each component of it was evaluated. The results showed that de novo comparative methods can identify up to about 700 chicken genes with no previous evidence of expression, and can correctly extend about 40% of homology-based predictions at the 5' end. Conclusions De novo comparative gene prediction followed by experimental verification is effective at enhancing the annotation of the newly sequenced genomes provided by standard homology-based methods. PMID:15924626

Eyras, Eduardo; Reymond, Alexandre; Castelo, Robert; Bye, Jacqueline M; Camara, Francisco; Flicek, Paul; Huckle, Elizabeth J; Parra, Genis; Shteynberg, David D; Wyss, Carine; Rogers, Jane; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Birney, Ewan; Guigo, Roderic; Brent, Michael R

2005-01-01

423

Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Mössbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

2004-12-01

424

Identification of differentially expressed genes and pathways for intramuscular fat deposition in pectoralis major tissues of fast-and slow-growing chickens  

PubMed Central

Background Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the important factors influencing meat quality, however, for chickens, the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying this trait have not yet been determined. In this study, a systematic identification of candidate genes and new pathways related to IMF deposition in chicken breast tissue has been made using gene expression profiles of two distinct breeds: Beijing-you (BJY), a slow-growing Chinese breed possessing high meat quality and Arbor Acres (AA), a commercial fast-growing broiler line. Results Agilent cDNA microarray analyses were conducted to determine gene expression profiles of breast muscle sampled at different developmental stages of BJY and AA chickens. Relative to d 1 when there is no detectable IMF, breast muscle at d 21, d 42, d 90 and d 120 (only for BJY) contained 1310 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in BJY and 1080 DEGs in AA. Of these, 34–70 DEGs related to lipid metabolism or muscle development processes were examined further in each breed based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. The expression of several DEGs was correlated, positively or negatively, with the changing patterns of lipid content or breast weight across the ages sampled, indicating that those genes may play key roles in these developmental processes. In addition, based on KEGG pathway analysis of DEGs in both BJY and AA chickens, it was found that in addition to pathways affecting lipid metabolism (pathways for MAPK & PPAR signaling), cell junction-related pathways (tight junction, ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton), which play a prominent role in maintaining the integrity of tissues, could contribute to the IMF deposition. Conclusion The results of this study identified potential candidate genes associated with chicken IMF deposition and imply that IMF deposition in chicken breast muscle is regulated and mediated not only by genes and pathways related to lipid metabolism and muscle development, but also by others involved in cell junctions. These findings establish the groundwork and provide new clues for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying IMF deposition in poultry. Further studies at the translational and posttranslational level are now required to validate the genes and pathways identified here. PMID:22646994

2012-01-01

425

A review of engagement of Indigenous Australians within mental health and substance abuse services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance misuse is a significant issue in Australia, and a large proportion of individuals with substance misuse disorders have co-existing mental health disorders. There is evidence that Indigenous Australians are more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to experience the adverse effects of alcohol consumption, and that mental health disorders are more prevalent in Indigenous communities than non-Indigenous communities. Indigenous Australians currently

Stacey L Berry; Trevor P Crowe

2009-01-01

426

Unravelling the Structure and Measurement of Indigenous Students' Self-Concepts and Aspirations (R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to critically analyse Indigenous students' self-concepts and schooling, further education, and employment aspirations. A total of 1686 secondary students (517 Indigenous and 1151 non-Indigenous) from urban and rural regions from 3 Australian States completed a questionnaire. Significantly more Indigenous students in comparison to non-Indigenous students aspired to: leave school early, go to Technical and

Rhonda G. Craven; Herbert W. Marsh

427

Development of the Polypay breed of sheep.  

PubMed

Development of the Polypay breed was undertaken to combine into a composite breed the potential for greatly increased reproductive capacity along with desirable growth rate and carcass quality. Four breeds were selected for the foundation of the new breed--the Rambouillet and the Targhee for hardiness, large body size, long breeding season, herding instinct and fleece characteristics; the Dorset for carcass quality, milking ability and long breeding season and the Finnsheep for early puberty, early postpartum fertility and high lambing rate. Dorset X Targhee and Finnsheep X Rambouillet matings were first made in 1968, and reciprocal Dorset-Targhee X Finn-Rambouillet matings were initiated in 1969. Beginning in 1970, the respective two-breed crosses and the four-breed cross (Polypay) were each mated inter se and selected, along with straightbred Rambouillets and Targhees, for lamb production when given two opportunities to lamb/year. Initial comparisons among straightbreds and inter se mated groups showed few important differences in meat-type body conformation, body condition or growth rate, but superior annual reproductive performance by Polypays. Fertility of Polypays at 1 yr of age was high and comparable to that of the Finn-Rambouillets. Response of Polypays to twice-a-year lambing was superior to responses of Rambouillets. Targhees, Dorset-Targhees or Finn-Rambouillets. The 1974 to 1975 annual production of young Polypays was about 13% more lambs weaned than from Finn-Rambouillets and 18% more weight of lamb weaned than from Dorset-Targhees, the best of the other groups for these traits. The current (1979 to 1981) reproductive performance of Polypay ewes selected for high once-a-year lambing rate under typical range management conditions is very competitive with that of 1/2 Finn crossbreds. Annual production of mature Polypays on the twice-a-year lambing schedule was 1.78 lambs weaned and 58.6 kg of lamb weaned/ewe put into fall breeding. PMID:6698896

Hulet, C V; Ercanbrack, S K; Knight, A D

1984-01-01

428

Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.  

PubMed

Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to constrain increases in YW. Changes in EPD for MM or fleece traits generally had smaller effects on profitability than changes in PLC, WW, and YW. Two indexes designed to address current rangeland production conditions (low forage costs and discounting of heavy feeder lambs) or more intensive and integrated production with retained ownership and value-based marketing of lambs (higher forage costs and no discounting of heavy lambs) were anticipated to meet the needs of most Targhee producers. PMID:17609470

Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

2007-11-01

429

Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.

1966-01-01

430

Free Software for Indigenous Languages Kevin P. Scannell  

E-print Network

Free Software for Indigenous Languages Kevin P. Scannell Department of Mathematics and Computer of the political situation in neighboring Tibet (Dzongkha and Tibetan are closely related languages and share

Scannell, Kevin Patrick

431

OBSERVATION OF INDIGENOUS POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN `GIANT' CARBONACEOUS ANTARCTIC  

E-print Network

. No evidence of contamination whilst in the Antarctic environment could be found. The dramatic variationOBSERVATION OF INDIGENOUS POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN `GIANT' CARBONACEOUS ANTARCTIC aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fragments of fifteen `giant' (200 m) carbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorites

Zare, Richard N.

432

1. Introduction The massive invasion by non-indigenous  

E-print Network

1. Introduction The massive invasion by non-indigenous species into freshwater ecosystems is often of Lake Garda D. villosus inter- acts with Echinogammarus stammeri (S. Kara- man, 1931), one of the other

Casellato, Sandra

433

[Forum: health and indigenous peoples in Brazil. Introduction].  

PubMed

This Forum on Health and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil explores contemporary challenges to indigenous health and health politics in Brazil. The short collection of articles that follow are based on presentations, originally given at the Indigenous Health Working Group panel at the 10th Brazilian Public Health Conference in Rio Grande do Sul State, by professors Carlos E. A. Coimbra Jr. (Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), Marina Denise Cardoso (Universidade Federal de São Carlos) and Eliana E. Diehl (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina) with Marcos A. Pellegrini (Universidade Federal de Roraima). In this short Introduction, I introduce these contributions, taking as a point of reference a local example of healthcare inequity derived from a presentation at the same panel by Paulo F. Supretaprã, indigenous community leader from Etênhiritipá village, Mato Grosso State. PMID:24896059

Welch, James R

2014-04-01

434

Social Gradients in the Health of Indigenous Australians  

PubMed Central

The pattern of association between socioeconomic factors and health outcomes has primarily depicted better health for those who are higher in the social hierarchy. Although this is a ubiquitous finding in the health literature, little is known about the interplay between these factors among indigenous populations. We begin to bridge this knowledge gap by assessing evidence on social gradients in indigenous health in Australia. We reveal a less universal and less consistent socioeconomic status patterning in health among Indigenous Australians, and discuss the plausibility of unique historical circumstances and social and cultural characteristics in explaining these patterns. A more robust evidence base in this field is fundamental to processes that aim to reduce the pervasive disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous population health. PMID:22095336

Li, Jianghong; Zubrick, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

435

International approaches to Indigenous dental care: what can we learn?  

PubMed

Indigenous populations around the world have significantly poorer oral health and inequalities in access to dental care largely attribute to the social determinants of health. Reviewing international literature offers an opportunity to better understand appropriate approaches for policy and practice in Australia. This article is a descriptive narrative review based on primary research literature discussing informative international approaches to Indigenous dental care. Approaches identified in the literature included integration of dentistry with primary health care and traditional practice, training and use of oral health professionals and approaches used at different stages of life, particularly in the management of early childhood caries. The international literature provides a range of approaches to Indigenous oral health. Tailored, culturally appropriate family and community based initiatives that address the multidisciplinary issues confronting Indigenous communities were most highly regarded. PMID:25159709

Patel, J; Hearn, L; Gibson, B; Slack-Smith, Lm

2014-12-01

436

INACTIVATION OF INDIGENOUS VIRUSES IN RAW SLUDGE BY AIR DRYING  

EPA Science Inventory

Air drying of raw sludge caused inactivation of indigenous viruses. A gradual loss of infectivity occurred with the loss of water until the solids content reached about 80%. A more rapid decline of viral infectivity occurred with further dewatering....

437

1. SOUTH FACADE. CONSTRUCTED (ca. 1895) OF INDIGENOUS LIMESTONE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SOUTH FACADE. CONSTRUCTED (ca. 1895) OF INDIGENOUS LIMESTONE AND USED AS LOCKPORTS CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL FOR MORE THAN SIXTY YEARS. - Lockport Historic District, Central High School, Lockport, Will County, IL

438

Mutual obligation, shared responsibility agreements & indigenous health strategy  

PubMed Central

Since 2004 the Howard Coalition government has implemented a new policy framework and administrative arrangements as part of its program of reform in Indigenous affairs. In this paper I will describe both the parameters of this reform program and review the processes established to support the implementation of national Indigenous health strategy. In particular, I will consider both the shift from a policy framework based on 'self-determination' to one based on 'mutual obligation', and the implementation of Shared Responsibility Agreements (SRAs) that are based on the latter principle. I will use the example of the Mulan SRA to illustrate the difficulties in articulating the 'new arrangements' with current approaches to Indigenous health planning and strategy implementation. I conclude that 'new arrangements' pose a number of problems for Indigenous health planning and strategy that need to be addressed. PMID:16999873

Anderson, Ian PS

2006-01-01

439

Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

2010-01-01

440

Genetic diversity and differentiation of 12 eastern Adriatic and western Dinaric native sheep breeds using microsatellites.  

PubMed

Nuclear genetic diversity and differentiation of 341 sheep belonging to 12 sheep breeds from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina were examined. The aim of the study was to provide the understanding of the genetic structure and variability of the analysed pramenka sheep populations, and to give indications for conservation strategies based on the population diversity and structure information. The genetic variation of the sheep populations, examined at the nuclear level using 27 microsatellite loci, revealed considerable levels of genetic diversity, similar to the diversity found in other European indigenous low-production sheep breeds. Population-specific alleles were detected at most loci and in breeds analysed. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.643 (in Lika pramenka) to 0.743 (in Vlasic pramenka), and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.646 (in Lika pramenka) to 0.756 (in Dalmatian pramenka). Significant inbreeding coefficients were found for half of the populations studied and ranged from 0.040 (Pag island sheep) to 0.091 (Kupres pramenka). Moderate genetic differentiation was found between the studied sheep populations. The total genetic variability observed between different populations was 5.29%, whereas 94.71% of the variation was found within populations. Cres island sheep, Lika pramenka and Istrian sheep were identified as the most distinct populations, which was confirmed by the factorial analysis of correspondence and supported through a bootstrapping adjustment to correct for the difference in the sample sizes. The population structure analysis distinguished 12 clusters for the 12 sheep breeds analysed. However, the cluster differentiation was low for Dalmatian, Vlasic, Stolac and Krk pramenka. This systematic study identified Lika pramenka and Rab island sheep as those with the lowest diversity, whereas Istrian sheep and Pag island sheep had the highest. Conservation actions are proposed for Istrian, Rab and Cres island sheep, Lika and Kupres pramenka because of high estimated coefficients of inbreeding. PMID:24433957

Salamon, D; Gutierrez-Gil, B; Arranz, J J; Barreta, J; Batinic, V; Dzidic, A

2014-02-01

441

Changes in protein expression in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.  

PubMed

Heat stress causes a decrease of fertility in roosters. Yet, the way acute heat stress affects protein expression remains poorly understood. This study investigated differential protein expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chickens following acute heat stress. Twelve 45-week-old roosters were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2 hours of recovery, and with 6 hours of recovery. Testis samples were collected for morphologic assay and protein analysis. Some of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Abnormal and apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed at 2 hours of recovery after acute heat stress, especially among the spermatocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that 119 protein spots were differentially expressed in chicken testes following heat stress, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that these spots contained 92 distinct proteins. In the heat-stressed samples, the heat shock proteins, chaperonin containing t-complex, and proteasome subunits were downregulated, and glutathione S-transferase, transgelin, and DJ-1 were upregulated. Our results demonstrate that acute heat stress impairs the processes of translation, protein folding, and protein degradation, and thus results in apoptosis and interferes with spermatogenesis. On the other hand, the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione S-transferase and DJ-1, may attenuate heat-induced damage. These findings may have implications for breeding chickens that can tolerate more extreme conditions. PMID:24725420

Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

2014-07-01

442

Kitchen Table Discourse: Negotiating the “Tricky Ground” of Indigenous Research  

E-print Network

.g., renee Pualani louis, “Indigenous Hawaiian Cartographer: In 8. Search of Common Ground,” Cartographic Perspectives 48 (Spring 2004): 7–23. Patricia Grace, 9. Cousins (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1998), 235. Janice radway, “mail-order Culture...AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURE AND RESEARCH JOURNAL 32:3 (2008) 127–137 127 Kitchen Table Discourse: Negotiating the “Tricky Ground” of Indigenous Research JAY T. JOHNSON using aboriginal knowledges protocols and practices rather than western ones is seen...

Johnson, Jay T.

2008-01-01

443

Non-indigenous invasive bivalves as ecosystem engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several non-indigenous bivalve species have been colonising aquatic ecosystems worldwide, in some cases with great ecological\\u000a and economic impacts. In this paper, we focus on the ecosystem engineering attributes of non-indigenous invasive bivalves\\u000a (i.e., the capacities of these organisms to directly or indirectly affect the availability of resources to other species by\\u000a physically modifying the environment). By reviewing the ecology

Ronaldo Sousa; Jorge L. Gutiérrez; David C. Aldridge

2009-01-01

444

DOMESTICATING INDIGENOUS FRUIT TREES AS A CONTRIBUTION TO POVERTY REDUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution that domesticated indigenous fruit trees make to many farmers' livelihoods is often not acknowledged in either national- or international-level poverty reduction strategies. Current agricultural data tend to be restricted to a narrow range of exotic fruit (e.g. mango, avocado, citrus). Existing data on indigenous fruit are often not presented in the kinds of income-related terms used in the

K. SCHRECKENBERG; A. AWONO; A. DEGRANDE; C. MBOSSO; O. NDOYE; Z. TCHOUNDJEU

2006-01-01

445

Building community involvement in cross-cultural Indigenous health programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To gain preliminary knowledge about issues identified by Native health investigators who would encourage greater community involvement in Indigenous health programs and research in Canada, Pacific Rim, and the United States. Design. A pilot\\/feasibility study, August 2001-April 2002. Setting. Indigenous health agencies and institutions in New Zealand, Aust