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1

Breeding objectives for indigenous chicken: model development and application to different production systems.  

PubMed

A bio-economic model was developed to evaluate the utilisation of indigenous chickens (IC) under different production systems accounting for the risk attitude of the farmers. The model classified the production systems into three categories based on the level of management: free-range system (FRS), where chickens were left to scavenge for feed resources with no supplementation and healthcare; intensive system (IS), where the chickens were permanently confined and supplied with rationed feed and healthcare; and semi-intensive system (SIS), a hybrid of FRS and IS, where the chickens were partially confined, supplemented with rationed feeds, provided with healthcare and allowed to scavenge within the homestead or in runs. The model allows prediction of the live weights and feed intake at different stages in the life cycle of the IC and can compute the profitability of each production system using both traditional and risk-rated profit models. The input parameters used in the model represent a typical IC production system in developing countries but are flexible and therefore can be modified to suit specific situations and simulate profitability and costs of other poultry species production systems. The model has the capability to derive the economic values as changes in the genetic merit of the biological parameter results in marginal changes in profitability and costs of the production systems. The results suggested that utilisation of IC in their current genetic merit and production environment is more profitable under FRS and SIS but not economically viable under IS. PMID:22644732

Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

2013-01-01

2

Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources  

PubMed Central

To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers’ choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers’ selection practices. The participatory farmers’ discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective “traits” and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and “traits” identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers’ ratings of indigenous chickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenous chickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production environment was the most important attribute of chickens in all the study areas. The high significance attributed to reproduction traits indicates the need for maintaining broody behavior and high level of hatchability while breeding for improved productivity of indigenous chickens for village conditions. The market price of chickens is primarily dictated by weight, but farmers rated growth (males) and number of eggs followed by growth (females) as the production traits they would like the most to be improved. Therefore, the ultimate breeding goal should be to develop a dual-purpose breed based on indigenous chicken genetic resources with any of the comb types other than single for all the regions studied having the most preferred white body plumage for farmers in the Amhara region and red body plumage for those in Oromia, Benshangul-Gumuz, and Southern regions. PMID:20512411

van der Waaij, Liesbeth H.; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A. M.

2010-01-01

3

Application of risk-rated profit model functions in estimation of economic values for indigenous chicken breeding.  

PubMed

The economic values for productive (egg number, average daily gain, live weight, and mature weight) and functional (fertility, hatchability, broodiness, survival rate, feed intake, and egg weight) traits were derived for three production systems utilizing indigenous chicken in Kenya. The production systems considered were free-range, semi-intensive, and intensive system and were evaluated based on fixed flock size and fixed feed resource production circumstances. A bio-economic model that combined potential performances, feeding strategies, optimum culling strategies, farmer's preferences and accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and economic dynamics was employed to derive risk-rated economic values. The economic values for all the traits were highest in free-range system under the two production circumstances and decreased with level of intensification. The economic values for egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate were positive while those for mature weight, broodiness, egg weight, and feed intake were negative. Generally, the economic values estimated under fixed feed resource production circumstances were higher than those derived under fixed flock size. The difference between economic values estimated using simple (traditional) and risk-rated profit model functions ranged from -47.26% to +67.11% indicating that inclusion of risks in estimation of economic values is important. The results of this study suggest that improvement targeting egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate would have a positive impact on profitability of indigenous chicken production in Kenya. PMID:22246574

Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

2012-08-01

4

Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB  

PubMed Central

Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:25178289

Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

2014-01-01

5

Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.  

PubMed

Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:25178289

Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

2014-10-01

6

Genetic dissection of growth traits in a Chinese indigenous × commercial broiler chicken cross  

PubMed Central

Background In China, consumers often prefer indigenous broiler chickens over commercial breeds, as they have characteristic meat qualities requested within traditional culinary customs. However, the growth-rate of these indigenous breeds is slower than that of the commercial broilers, which means they have not yet reached their full economic value. Therefore, combining the valuable meat quality of the native chickens with the efficiency of the commercial broilers is of interest. In this study, we generated an F2 intercross between the slow growing native broiler breed, Huiyang Beard chicken, and the fast growing commercial broiler breed, High Quality chicken Line A, and used it to map loci explaining the difference in growth rate between these breeds. Results A genome scan to identify main-effect loci affecting 24 growth-related traits revealed nine distinct QTL on six chromosomes. Many QTL were pleiotropic and conformed to the correlation patterns observed between phenotypes. Most of the mapped QTL were found in locations where growth QTL have been reported in other populations, although the effects were greater in this population. A genome scan for pairs of interacting loci identified a number of additional QTL in 10 other genomic regions. The epistatic pairs explained 6–8% of the residual phenotypic variance. Seven of the 10 epistatic QTL mapped in regions containing candidate genes in the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathway, suggesting the importance of this pathway in the regulation of growth in this chicken population. Conclusions The main-effect QTL detected using a standard one-dimensional genome scan accounted for a significant fraction of the observed phenotypic variance in this population. Furthermore, genes in known pathways present interesting candidates for further exploration. This study has thus located several QTL regions as promising candidates for further study, which will increase our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying growth-related traits in chickens. PMID:23497136

2013-01-01

7

Polymorphisms of Chicken TLR3 and 7 in Different Breeds  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate immune responses via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), thus playing important roles in host defense. Among the chicken (Ch) TLR family, ChTLR3 and 7 have been shown to recognize viral RNA. In our earlier studies, we have reported polymorphisms of TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 15 and 21. In the present study, we amplified TLR3 and 7 genes from different chicken breeds and analyzed their sequences. We identified 7 amino acid polymorphism sites in ChTLR3 with 6 outer part sites and 1 inner part site, and 4 amino acid polymorphism sites in ChTLR7 with 3 outer part sites and 1 inner part site. These results demonstrate that ChTLR genes are polymorphic among different chicken breeds, suggesting a varied resistance across numerous chicken breeds. This information might help improve chicken health by breeding and vaccination. PMID:25781886

Ruan, Wenke; An, Jian; Wu, Yanhua

2015-01-01

8

Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Kenya.  

PubMed

Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The production system practised was mainly low-input and small-scale free range, with mean flock size of 22.40 chickens per household. The mean effective population size was 16.02, translating to high levels of inbreeding (3.12%). Provision for food and cash income were the main reasons for raising IC, whilst high mortality due to diseases, poor nutrition, housing and marketing channels were the major constraints faced by farmers. Management strategies targeting improved healthcare, nutrition and housing require urgent mitigation measures, whilst rural access road network needs to be developed for ease of market accessibility. Sustainable genetic improvement programmes that account for farmers' multiple objectives, market requirements and the production circumstances should be developed for a full realization of IC productivity. PMID:21805308

Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

2012-03-01

9

Proteome Changes in Thai Indigenous Chicken Muscle during Growth Period  

PubMed Central

Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1), heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25) and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3). These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i) the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05), (ii) the expression levels of APOA1 and FABP3 proteins were negatively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05) and (iii) the expression levels of the HSP25 protein were up- and down-regulated during growth period. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the FABP3 and HSP25 genes were significantly decreased in muscle during the growth period (p<0.05), whereas no significant changes of the PGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period. PMID:19893640

Teltathum, Tawatchai; Mekchay, Supamit

2009-01-01

10

Edinburgh Research Explorer Large scale variation in DNA copy number in chicken breeds  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Large scale variation in DNA copy number in chicken breeds Citation & Groenen, MA 2013, 'Large scale variation in DNA copy number in chicken breeds' BMC Genomics, vol 14, no. 1 in chicken breeds Richard PMA Crooijmans1* , Mark S Fife2 , Tomas W Fitzgerald3 , Shurnevia Strickland5

Millar, Andrew J.

11

Breeding of tomorrow's chickens to improve well-being.  

PubMed

Chickens, as well as other animals, have the ability to change their behavior (behavioral plasticity) and physiology (physiological plasticity) based on the costs and benefits to fit their environment (adaptation). Through natural selection, the population preserves and accumulates traits that are beneficial and rejects those that are detrimental in their prevailing environments. The surviving populations are able to contribute more genes associated with beneficial traits for increased fitness to subsequent generations. Natural selection is slow but constant; working over multiple generations, the changes to the population often appear silent or undetectable at a given point in history. Chickens were domesticated from the wild red jungle fowl. The principle of domestication of chickens, as well as other farm animals, by humans is similar to that of natural selection: selecting the best animals with the highest survivability and reproducibility (artificial selection). Compared with natural selection, the process of artificial selection is motivated by human needs and acts more rapidly with more visible results over a short time period. This process has been further accelerated following the development of current breeding programs and the emergence of specialized breeding companies. A laying hen, for example, produces more than 300 hundred eggs a year, whereas a jungle fowl lays 4 to 6 eggs in a year. During the domestication process, chickens retained their capability to adapt to their housing environments, which is usually achieved by genetic changes occurring with each subsequent generation. Genes control the behavioral, physiological, immunological, and psychological responses of animals to stressors, including environmental stimulations. With advances in understanding of genetic mediation of animal physiology and behavior and the discovery of the genome sequences of many species, animal production breeding programs can be improved in both speed and efficiency. Modern chicken breeding programs have the potential to be operated successfully in the breeding of tomorrow's chickens with high production efficiency and optimal welfare, resulting from resistance to stress, disease, or both. PMID:20308415

Cheng, H-W

2010-04-01

12

Husbandry and trade of indigenous chickens in Myanmar--results of a participatory rural appraisal in the Yangon and the Mandalay divisions.  

PubMed

There is a variety of professions working with village chickens in developing countries, including farmers, veterinarians and chicken traders. People from all these occupations were involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country, in the Yangon and in the Mandalay divisions. The breeding and training of fighting cocks was practised only in the Mandalay division, with well-trained birds sold for very high prices. Apart from this, chickens were raised in both regions mainly for small disposable income and were generally sold when money was needed, in particular during religious festivals. Chicken traders on bicycles, often called 'middle men', usually purchase birds from farmers in about 10 villages per day. Several 'middle men' supply birds to wealthier chicken merchants, who sell these birds at larger chicken markets. There is in general limited knowledge among farmers about the prevention of Newcastle disease via vaccination. Commercial indigenous chicken production is practised in Myanmar, but family poultry farming dominates indigenous chicken production in the country. PMID:17265778

Henning, J; Khin, A; Hla, T; Meers, J

2006-01-01

13

Chicken Chicken Chicken: Chicken Chicken Doug Zongker  

E-print Network

Chicken Chicken Chicken: Chicken Chicken Doug Zongker University of Washington Chicken Chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken. Chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken. Chicken, chicken

Gousie, Michael B.

14

Differences in resistance to Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum infection among indigenous local chicken ecotypes in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the disease resistance potential in 105 chickens of six indigenous local chicken ecotypes in Tanzania by orally challenging 1-week-old chicks with 2.5×10 colony-forming units of virulent S. Gallinarum. For 14 days post infection, clinical signs, necropsy findings, antibody titres, packed cell volume, leukocyte population count, and viable bacterial cell counts in the liver and

P. L. M. Msoffe; U. M. Minga; M. M. A. Mtambo; P. S. Gwakisa; J. E. Olsen

2006-01-01

15

A genome-wide scan for signatures of selection in Chinese indigenous and commercial pig breeds  

PubMed Central

Background Modern breeding and artificial selection play critical roles in pig domestication and shape the genetic variation of different breeds. China has many indigenous pig breeds with various characteristics in morphology and production performance that differ from those of foreign commercial pig breeds. However, the signatures of selection on genes implying for economic traits between Chinese indigenous and commercial pigs have been poorly understood. Results We identified footprints of positive selection at the whole genome level, comprising 44,652 SNPs genotyped in six Chinese indigenous pig breeds, one developed breed and two commercial breeds. An empirical genome-wide distribution of Fst (F-statistics) was constructed based on estimations of Fst for each SNP across these nine breeds. We detected selection at the genome level using the High-Fst outlier method and found that 81 candidate genes show high evidence of positive selection. Furthermore, the results of network analyses showed that the genes that displayed evidence of positive selection were mainly involved in the development of tissues and organs, and the immune response. In addition, we calculated the pairwise Fst between Chinese indigenous and commercial breeds (CHN VS EURO) and between Northern and Southern Chinese indigenous breeds (Northern VS Southern). The IGF1R and ESR1 genes showed evidence of positive selection in the CHN VS EURO and Northern VS Southern groups, respectively. Conclusions In this study, we first identified the genomic regions that showed evidences of selection between Chinese indigenous and commercial pig breeds using the High-Fst outlier method. These regions were found to be involved in the development of tissues and organs, the immune response, growth and litter size. The results of this study provide new insights into understanding the genetic variation and domestication in pigs. PMID:24422716

2014-01-01

16

In vitro inhibition of Eimeria tenella invasion by indigenous chicken Lactobacillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indigenous chicken Lactobacillus species isolates from different parts of the gastrointestinal tract on Eimeria tenella invasion in vitro and to characterise the nature of inhibition, if any. The effects of competitive exclusion, steric interference and bacterial extracellular factors on E. tenella invasion were examined in an MDBK cell model.

J Tierney; H Gowing; D Van Sinderen; S Flynn; N McHardy; S Hallahan; G Mulcahy

2004-01-01

17

Meat quality of designated South African indigenous goat and sheep breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcass composition, proximate meat composition, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of two breeds of goats, Indigenous (n=12) and Boer goats (n=12), and two breeds of sheep, Damara (n=12) and Dorper (n=12), on extensive pasture-grazing, were analysed. The right side of each carcass was processed into wholesale cuts and dissected into subcutaneous fat, meat and bone. Meat and fat were

P. A Tshabalala; P. E Strydom; E. C Webb; H. L de Kock

2003-01-01

18

Empirical Evaluation of genetic clustering methods using multilocus genotypes from 20 chicken breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the utility of genetic cluster analysis in ascertaining population structure of a large data set for which population structure was previously known. Each of 600 individuals representing 20 distinct chicken breeds was genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci, and individual multilocus genotypes were used to infer genetic clusters. Individuals from each breed were inferred to belong mostly to the

Noah A. Rosenberg; Terry Burke; Kari Elo; Marcus W. Feldman; P. J. Friedlin; Martien A. M. Groenen; Jossi Hillel; Asko Maki-Tanila; Michele Tixier-Boichard; Alain Vignal; Klaus Wimmers

2001-01-01

19

Genetic Diversity of Five Local Swedish Chicken Breeds Detected by Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

This study aimed at investigating the genetic diversity, relationship and population structure of 110 local Swedish chickens derived from five breeds (Gotlandshöna, Hedemorahöna, Öländsk dvärghöna, Skånsk blommehöna, and Bohuslän- Dals svarthöna, in the rest of the paper the shorter name Svarthöna is used) using 24 microsatellite markers. In total, one hundred thirteen alleles were detected in all populations, with a mean of 4.7 alleles per locus. For the five chicken breeds, the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.225 to 0.408 and from 0.231 to 0.515, with the lowest scores for the Svarthöna and the highest scores for the Skånsk blommehöna breeds, respectively. Similarly, the average within breed molecular kinship varied from 0.496 to 0.745, showing high coancestry, with Skånsk blommehöna having the lowest and Svarthöna the highest coancestry. Furthermore, all breeds showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Across the five breeds, the global heterozygosity deficit (FIT) was 0.545, population differentiation index (FST) was 0.440, and the global inbreeding of individuals within breed (FIS) was 0.187. The phylogenetic relationships of chickens were examined using neighbor-joining trees constructed at the level of breeds and individual samples. The neighbor-joining tree constructed at breed level revealed two main clusters, with Hedemorahöna and Öländsk dvärghöna breeds in one cluster, and Gotlandshöna and Svarthöna breeds in the second cluster leaving the Skånsk blommehöna in the middle. Based on the results of the STRUCTURE analysis, the most likely number of clustering of the five breeds was at K = 4, with Hedemorahöna, Gotlandshöna and Svarthöna breeds forming their own distinct clusters, while Öländsk dvärghöna and Skånsk blommehöna breeds clustered together. Losses in the overall genetic diversity of local Swedish chickens due to breeds extinction varied from -1.46% to -6.723%. The results of the current study can be used as baseline genetic information for genetic conservation program, for instance, to control inbreeding and to implement further genetic studies in local Swedish chickens. PMID:25855978

Abebe, Abiye Shenkut; Mikko, Sofia; Johansson, Anna M.

2015-01-01

20

Comparison of growth performance, carcass components, and meat quality between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line slaughtered at 10 months.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to make a full study of the meat from Mos-breed roosters (Spanish indigenous chicken). To achieve this purpose, the type of breed (Mos vs. a hybrid line, Sasso T-44) and the effect of finishing treatment in the last month (corn vs. commercial fodder) on growth performance, carcass and meat quality (physicochemical and textural traits), fatty and amino acid profile, and sensorial description were studied. The finishing feeding effect did not modify the growth, but the differences between genotypes were statistically significant (P < 0.05), in where Sasso T-44 was the genotype that generated the best growths and associated parameters. With regard to carcass characteristics, no significant influences of finishing feeding treatment (P > 0.05) were found, and carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. Drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in Mos breed than in Sasso T-44 birds, whereas breast (15.2%), that is the most highly valued piece of the chicken, was similar for both genotypes. Significant differences in pH, protein, and ash content between genotypes have been found, whereas finishing feeding treatment had an effect on myoglobin and redness index (P < 0.01), showing meat from roosters fed with corn had a higher luminosity. Despite the fact of the slaughtered age of birds, values of shear force were slightly higher than 2 kg (2.11 kg) for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Mos breed showed a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (25.90 vs. 22.74; P < 0.001) and a lower percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (35.14 vs. 38.95; P < 0.001) than Sasso T-44 chicken muscles. Surprisingly, birds finishing with the corn diet (2 times higher in linolenic acid than fodder) did not increase their polyunsaturated fatty acid level in the breast, obtaining in the Mos breed a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.69. The amino acid profile of the indigenous-breed breast was not similar to that of the commercial-strain breast; besides, finishing feeding treatment had more of an effect on amino acid profile, affecting the majority of amino acids, with the exception of phenylalanine and threonine. PMID:22499883

Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Lorenzo, J M

2012-05-01

21

Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600?bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens can be grouped into two clades, IV and IIIa only. Median joining networks analysis showed that haplotype LBB49 has the highest frequency. The hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variation within the population was 88.6% and the differentiation among the population was 11.4%. When the populations was redefined into two geographical zones, rich and poor Savanna, the results were fractioned into three genetic variations: between individuals within population 95.5%, between populations within the group 0.75%, and genetic variation between groups 3.75%. The pair wise Fst showed high genetic difference between Betwil populations and the rest with Fst ranging from 0.1492 to 0.2447. We found that there is large number of gene exchanges within the Sudanese indigenous chicken (Nm = 4.622). PMID:25535590

Wani, Charles E.; Yousif, Ibrahim A.; Ibrahim, Muntasir E.; Musa, Hassan H.

2014-01-01

22

Genetic diversity and relationships of korean chicken breeds based on 30 microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The effective management of endangered animal genetic resources is one of the most important concerns of modern breeding. Evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship of local breeds is an important factor towards the identification of unique and valuable genetic resources. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of six Korean native chicken breeds (n = 300), which were compared with three imported breeds in Korea (n = 150). For the analysis of genetic diversity, 30 microsatellite markers from FAO/ISAG recommended diversity panel or previously reported microsatellite markers were used. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15 per locus, with a mean of 8.13. The average observed heterozygosity within native breeds varied between 0.46 and 0.59. The overall heterozygote deficiency (F IT) in native chicken was 0.234±0.025. Over 30.7% of F IT was contributed by within-population deficiency (F IS). Bayesian clustering analysis, using the STRUCTURE software suggested 9 clusters. This study may provide the background for future studies to identify the genetic uniqueness of the Korean native chicken breeds. PMID:25178290

Suh, Sangwon; Sharma, Aditi; Lee, Seunghwan; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Hyun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Yeon, Seong-Hum; Kim, Dong-Hun; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu

2014-10-01

23

Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 ± 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens. PMID:25495676

Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

2015-06-01

24

Characterization of genetic diversity and gene mapping in two Swedish local chicken breeds  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to study genetic diversity in the two Swedish local chicken breeds Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and Hedemorahöna. The now living birds of both of these breeds (about 500 for Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and 2600 for Hedemorahöna) originate from small relicts of earlier larger populations. An additional aim was to make an attempt to map loci associated with a trait that are segregating in both these breeds. The 60k SNP chip was used to genotype 12 Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and 22 Hedemorahöna. The mean inbreeding coefficient was considerably larger in the samples from Hedemorahöna than in the samples from Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna. Also the proportion of homozygous SNPs in individuals was larger in Hedemorahöna. In contrast, on the breed level, the number of segregating SNPs were much larger in Hedemorahöna than in Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna. A multidimensional scaling plot shows that the two breeds form clusters well-separated from each other. Both these breeds segregate for the dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype. In Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna most animals have dark skin, but some individuals with lighter skin exists (most easily detected by their red comb). An earlier study of the Fm locus showed that this breed has the same complex rearrangement involving the EDN3 gene as Silkie chicken and two other studied Asian breeds. In the breed Hedemorahöna, most individuals have normal skin pigmentation (and red comb), but there are some birds with darker skin and dark comb. In this study the involvement of the EDN3 gene is confirmed also in Hedemorahöna. In addition we identify a region on chromosome 21 that is significantly associated with the trait. PMID:25741364

Johansson, Anna M.; Nelson, Ronald M.

2015-01-01

25

Characterization of genetic diversity and gene mapping in two Swedish local chicken breeds.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to study genetic diversity in the two Swedish local chicken breeds Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and Hedemorahöna. The now living birds of both of these breeds (about 500 for Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and 2600 for Hedemorahöna) originate from small relicts of earlier larger populations. An additional aim was to make an attempt to map loci associated with a trait that are segregating in both these breeds. The 60k SNP chip was used to genotype 12 Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and 22 Hedemorahöna. The mean inbreeding coefficient was considerably larger in the samples from Hedemorahöna than in the samples from Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna. Also the proportion of homozygous SNPs in individuals was larger in Hedemorahöna. In contrast, on the breed level, the number of segregating SNPs were much larger in Hedemorahöna than in Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna. A multidimensional scaling plot shows that the two breeds form clusters well-separated from each other. Both these breeds segregate for the dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype. In Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna most animals have dark skin, but some individuals with lighter skin exists (most easily detected by their red comb). An earlier study of the Fm locus showed that this breed has the same complex rearrangement involving the EDN3 gene as Silkie chicken and two other studied Asian breeds. In the breed Hedemorahöna, most individuals have normal skin pigmentation (and red comb), but there are some birds with darker skin and dark comb. In this study the involvement of the EDN3 gene is confirmed also in Hedemorahöna. In addition we identify a region on chromosome 21 that is significantly associated with the trait. PMID:25741364

Johansson, Anna M; Nelson, Ronald M

2015-01-01

26

Breeding and Non-Breeding Survival of Lesser Prairie-Chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus in Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus have declined throughout their range because of loss or fragmen- tation of habitat from conversion of native prairie to agricultural cropland, exacerbated by overgrazing and drought. We used data from radio-marked lesser prairie-chickens to determine whether differences in survival ex- isted between populations occurring in two areas dominated by different vegetation types (sand sagebrush Artemisia filifolia

Eddie K. Lyons; Bret A. Collier; Nova J. Silvy; Roel R. Lopez; Benjamin E. Toole; Ryan S. Jones; Stephen J. DeMaso

2009-01-01

27

Hematobiochemical and pathological alterations due to chronic chlorpyrifos intoxication in indigenous chicken  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in indigenous chicken. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two groups I and II. Group I served as control and group II was treated with CPF (0.36 mg/kg) orally daily up to 12 weeks. Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein and uric acid. Representative pieces of tissues from liver and kidney were collected weekly for histopathological examination. Results: A significant (P < 0.01) increase of Hb, TEC, TLC, and heterophil percent and decrease of lymphocyte percent was observed. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly and CHE values decreased significantly in CPF treated birds. The protein level remained similar. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group. The results indicate that chronic CPF intoxication produces hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in treated birds. PMID:25878384

Begum, Shameem Ara; Upadhyaya, Tirtha Nath; Rahman, Taibur; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Sarma, Kavita; Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Bora, R. S.

2015-01-01

28

The gait dynamics of the modern broiler chicken: a cautionary tale of selective breeding.  

PubMed

One of the most extraordinary results of selective breeding is the modern broiler chicken, whose phenotypic attributes reflect its genetic success. Unfortunately, leg health issues and poor walking ability are prevalent in the broiler population, with the exact aetiopathogenesis unknown. Here we present a biomechanical analysis of the gait dynamics of the modern broiler and its two pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (A and B) in order to clarify how changes in basic morphology are associated with the way these chickens walk. We collected force plate and kinematic data from 25 chickens (market age), over a range of walking speeds, to quantify the three-dimensional dynamics of the centre of mass (CoM) and determine how these birds modulate the force and mechanical work of locomotion. Common features of their gait include extremely slow walking speeds, a wide base of support and large lateral motions of the CoM, which primarily reflect changes to cope with their apparent instability and large body mass. These features allowed the chickens to keep their peak vertical forces low, but resulted in high mediolateral forces, which exceeded fore-aft forces. Gait differences directly related to morphological characteristics also exist. This was particularly evident in Pureline B birds, which have a more crouched limb posture. Mechanical costs of transport were still similar across all lines and were not exceptional when compared with more wild-type ground-running birds. Broiler chickens seem to have an awkward gait, but some aspects of their dynamics show rather surprising similarities to other avian bipeds. PMID:23685968

Paxton, Heather; Daley, Monica A; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

2013-09-01

29

The hypostatic genotype of the recessive white prat breed of chickens.  

PubMed

The genetics of the plumage color of the White Prat breed of chicken was studied. Results of crosses between the White Prat breed and Recessive Wheaten (ey/ey) tester line, and Buff Prat (eWh/eWh Co/Co) or Castellana (E/E) breeds, suggested that the former carries the buttercup allele (ebc) at the E-locus, the columbian restriction gene (Co), and the autosomal recessive white (c) gene. Heterozygous Co/co+ in the presence of ebc resulted in a modified stripe pattern in the chick down. The ground color was very dark tan, whereas the light back stripes and the broken head stripe were similar to those of buttercup chicks. Adults were typical buff columbian with considerable black markings on the feathers. The homozygous ebc/ebc Co/Co produced chicks with a black back and a brown head, similar to those previously described for the interaction between Co and the brown (eb) allele. The presence of the recessive white gene masked unexpected genetic variation at the E-locus in the Prat breed, the Buff variety carrying the dominant wheaten (eWh) instead of the buttercup allele. The sex-linked gold (s+) allele was the most frequent in the White Prat variety. The silver (S), sex-linked barring (B), blue (Bl), and possibly dominant white (I) alleles also were present at low frequencies. PMID:9068040

Campo, J L

1997-03-01

30

Empirical evaluation of genetic clustering methods using multilocus genotypes from 20 chicken breeds.  

PubMed Central

We tested the utility of genetic cluster analysis in ascertaining population structure of a large data set for which population structure was previously known. Each of 600 individuals representing 20 distinct chicken breeds was genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci, and individual multilocus genotypes were used to infer genetic clusters. Individuals from each breed were inferred to belong mostly to the same cluster. The clustering success rate, measuring the fraction of individuals that were properly inferred to belong to their correct breeds, was consistently approximately 98%. When markers of highest expected heterozygosity were used, genotypes that included at least 8-10 highly variable markers from among the 27 markers genotyped also achieved >95% clustering success. When 12-15 highly variable markers and only 15-20 of the 30 individuals per breed were used, clustering success was at least 90%. We suggest that in species for which population structure is of interest, databases of multilocus genotypes at highly variable markers should be compiled. These genotypes could then be used as training samples for genetic cluster analysis and to facilitate assignments of individuals of unknown origin to populations. The clustering algorithm has potential applications in defining the within-species genetic units that are useful in problems of conservation. PMID:11606545

Rosenberg, N A; Burke, T; Elo, K; Feldman, M W; Freidlin, P J; Groenen, M A; Hillel, J; Mäki-Tanila, A; Tixier-Boichard, M; Vignal, A; Wimmers, K; Weigend, S

2001-01-01

31

Breed-specific companions--inter-individual distances reflect isolating mechanisms within domesticated chickens (Gallus gallus f.d.).  

PubMed

White Crested Polish (WCP) chickens are an interesting breed because of skull anatomy (crest), brain size and composition. This makes them attractive to investigate processes of selection that could parallel a step towards speciation in terms of ethological isolation. Lohmann Brown Classic (BL) and Red Leghorn (RL) were selected as comparative breeds to detect whether WCPs flock together as shown by shorter inter-individual distances within WCP than across breeds. WCP and BL were observed in the first year whereas RL served as comparative breed to WCP in the second year. Eggs of both breeds of each year were incubated at the same time, and chicks hatched and were raised together. Three young hens of each breed were randomly chosen and observed weekly in an open field situation for 20 min between the first and 31st week of life. Intra-breed distances differed significantly from those distances measured across breeds. Results demonstrate breed-specific flocking within observed breeds. This flocking behaviour may reflect breed-specific social and sexual preferences. Our observations indicate that domestic breeds may represent an ethological entity. Selective processes controlled by human intervention as given in domestication may therefore to be set in parallel to evolutionary processes. PMID:18498945

Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

2008-06-15

32

The effects of polymorphisms in IL-2, IFN-?, TGF-?2, IgL, TLR-4, MD-2, and iNOS genes on resistance to Salmonella enteritidis in indigenous chickens.  

PubMed

Salmonella Enteritidis is a major cause of food poisoning worldwide, and poultry products are the main source of S. Enteritidis contamination for humans. Among the numerous strategies for disease control, improving genetic resistance to S. Enteritidis has been the most effective approach. We investigated the association between S. Enteritidis burden in the caecum, spleen, and liver of young indigenous chickens and seven candidate genes, selected on the basis of their critical roles in immunological functions. The genes included those encoding interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon-? (IFN-?), transforming growth factor ?2 (TGF-?2), immunoglobulin light chain (IgL), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Two Malaysian indigenous chicken breeds were used as sustainable genetic sources of alleles that are resistant to salmonellosis. The polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism technique was used to genotype the candidate genes. Three different genotypes were observed in all of the candidate genes, except for MD-2. All of the candidate genes showed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the two populations. The IL-2-MnlI polymorphism was associated with S. Enteritidis burden in the caecum and spleen. The TGF-?2-RsaI, TLR-4-Sau 96I, and iNOS-AluI polymorphisms were associated with the caecum S. Enteritidis load. The other candidate genes were not associated with S. Enteritidis load in any organ. The results indicate that the IL-2, TGF-?2, TLR-4, and iNOS genes are potential candidates for use in selection programmes for increasing genetic resistance against S. Enteritidis in Malaysian indigenous chickens. PMID:23237374

Tohidi, Reza; Idris, Ismail Bin; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Bejo, Mohd Hair

2012-12-01

33

Evaluation of two Indian native chicken breeds for reproduction traits and heritability of juvenile growth traits.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate two Indian native chicken breeds, namely, Aseel and Kadaknath for fertility, hatchability, genetic parameters of juvenile growth traits, and semen quality traits at the onset of sexual maturity. The fertility was similar in Aseel (86.96%) and Kadaknath (85.15%); however, a relatively higher hatchability was observed in Kadaknath (77.94%) than Aseel (70.74%). Heritability estimates of body weights at 4 weeks of age were almost similar in Aseel (0.37) and Kadaknath (0.39), while the estimate of body weight at 6 weeks of age was higher in Aseel (0.42) than Kadaknath (0.31). The heritability estimate of shank length at 6 weeks of age was lower in Aseel (0.16) compared to Kadaknath (0.35). The age at first egg in the flock was comparable in Aseel (148 days) and Kadaknath (150 days). Aseel breed with significantly (P ? 0.001) higher body weight, absolute and relative testes weights had significantly higher semen volume (P ? 0.05) and sperm motility (P ? 0.01) but had lower seminal plasma cholesterol level (P ? 0.05) as compared to Kadaknath. It can be concluded that there is a scope for genetic improvement of these two native breeds for juvenile growth traits since heritability estimates of these traits were relatively high. PMID:22068634

Haunshi, Santosh; Shanmugam, Murugesan; Padhi, Mahendra Kumar; Niranjan, Matam; Rajkumar, Ullengala; Reddy, Maddula Ramakoti; Panda, Arun Kumar

2012-06-01

34

Myxosarcomas associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup A infection in fancy breed chickens.  

PubMed

Formalin-fixed suspect tumors were submitted to the Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center at the University of Georgia (Athens, GA) for diagnosis. Samples were from fancy breed chickens with a history of increased tumor prevalence in both hens and roosters. Microscopically, in all the samples, there were neoplastic proliferations of spindle-shaped cells. The matrix surrounding tumor cells stained positively with Alcian blue at pH 2.5, but neoplastic cells did not stain with periodic acid-Schiff. Immunohistochemistry stains were positive for vimentin and neuron-specific enolase and negative for desmin, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. Tumors were determined to be myxosarcomas. All samples were positive for PCR targeting the gp85 avian leukosis virus (ALV) envelope protein. However, analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences in the envelope gene from three separate samples showed high similarity between them and to ALV subgroup A. PMID:21313858

Williams, Susan M; Barbosa, Taylor; Hafner, Scott; Zavala, Guillermo

2010-12-01

35

Estimation of genetic and environmental parameters of six broiler traits in two breeds of chickens and their reciprocal crosses by a series of diallel mating  

E-print Network

LIBRARY A & M COLLEGE OF ESTIMATION OF GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS OF SIX BROILER TRAITS IN TWO BREEDS OF CHICKENS AND THEIR RECIPROCAL CROSSES BY A SERIES OF DIALLEL MATING A Dissertation by Jimmy Hung-Kei Kan Submitted... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS OF SIX BROILER TRAITS IN TWO BREEDS OF CHICKENS AND THEIR RECIPROCAL CROSSES BY A SERIES OF DIALLEL MATING A Dissertation by Jimmy Hung-Kei Kan Approved as to style and content by (Chairman of/dommittee) ?(Head of Department...

Kan, Jimmy Hung-Kei

1958-01-01

36

The genome-wide structure of two economically important indigenous Sicilian cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping based on SNP arrays, provided background information concerning genome structure in domestic animals. The aim of this work was to investigate the genetic structure, the genome-wide estimates of inbreeding, coancestry, effective population size (Ne), and the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 2 economically important Sicilian local cattle breeds, Cinisara (CIN) and Modicana (MOD), using the Illumina Bovine SNP50K v2 BeadChip. To understand the genetic relationship and to place both Sicilian breeds in a global context, genotypes from 134 other domesticated bovid breeds were used. Principal component analysis showed that the Sicilian cattle breeds were closer to individuals of Bos taurus taurus from Eurasia and formed nonoverlapping clusters with other breeds. Between the Sicilian cattle breeds, MOD was the most differentiated, whereas the animals belonging to the CIN breed showed a lower value of assignment, the presence of substructure, and genetic links with the MOD breed. The average molecular inbreeding and coancestry coefficients were moderately high, and the current estimates of Ne were low in both breeds. These values indicated a low genetic variability. Considering levels of LD between adjacent markers, the average r(2) in the MOD breed was comparable to those reported for others cattle breeds, whereas CIN showed a lower value. Therefore, these results support the need of more dense SNP arrays for a high-power association mapping and genomic selection efficiency, particularly for the CIN cattle breed. Controlling molecular inbreeding and coancestry would restrict inbreeding depression, the probability of losing beneficial rare alleles, and therefore the risk of extinction. The results generated from this study have important implications for the development of conservation and/or selection breeding programs in these 2 local cattle breeds. PMID:25253807

Mastrangelo, S; Saura, M; Tolone, M; Salces-Ortiz, J; Di Gerlando, R; Bertolini, F; Fontanesi, L; Sardina, M T; Serrano, M; Portolano, B

2014-11-01

37

THE West African Dwarf (WAD) goat is the indigenous breed in the humid and sub-humid zones of West Africa. It is of  

E-print Network

THE West African Dwarf (WAD) goat is the indigenous breed in the humid and sub-humid zones of West Africa. It is of major economic importance to rural communities, where the vast majority of the goat population in these zones is to be found. In Eastern Nigeria, WAD goat production is essentially a subsidiary

Nottingham, University of

38

Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers.  

PubMed

In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations - Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) - were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ?0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ?0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (F ST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, F ST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (F ST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed. PMID:23518904

Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk

2013-01-01

39

Analysis of Genome-Wide Copy Number Variations in Chinese Indigenous and Western Pig Breeds by 60 K SNP Genotyping Arrays  

PubMed Central

Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a substantial source of structural variants in mammals and contribute to both normal phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. Although low-resolution CNV maps are produced in many domestic animals, and several reports have been published about the CNVs of porcine genome, the differences between Chinese and western pigs still remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used Porcine SNP60 BeadChip and PennCNV algorithm to perform a genome-wide CNV detection in 302 individuals from six Chinese indigenous breeds (Tongcheng, Laiwu, Luchuan, Bama, Wuzhishan and Ningxiang pigs), three western breeds (Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc) and one hybrid (Tongcheng×Duroc). A total of 348 CNV Regions (CNVRs) across genome were identified, covering 150.49 Mb of the pig genome or 6.14% of the autosomal genome sequence. In these CNVRs, 213 CNVRs were found to exist only in the six Chinese indigenous breeds, and 60 CNVRs only in the three western breeds. The characters of CNVs in four Chinese normal size breeds (Luchuan, Tongcheng and Laiwu pigs) and two minipig breeds (Bama and Wuzhishan pigs) were also analyzed in this study. Functional annotation suggested that these CNVRs possess a great variety of molecular function and may play important roles in phenotypic and production traits between Chinese and western breeds. Our results are important complementary to the CNV map in pig genome, which provide new information about the diversity of Chinese and western pig breeds, and facilitate further research on porcine genome CNVs. PMID:25198154

Sun, Yaqi; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, Chao; Yu, Shaobo; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Bin; Li, Kui; Liu, Bang

2014-01-01

40

The breeding animals used to produce the germ-free chicken are of a White Leghorn strain, (Orthoxenic PA 12), created at our Station.  

E-print Network

The breeding animals used to produce the germ-free chicken are of a White Leghorn strain induced airsacculitis associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (V248). The antibiotics were administered at 0.67 g/gal activity. Under the very severe experimental infection induced in this trial results

Boyer, Edmond

41

Immune responses of breeding chickens to trivalent oil emulsion vaccines: responses to infectious bronchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three similar flocks of broiler breeder parent chickens that had been given live infections bronchitis (IB) vaccines during rearing were injected at 20 weeks of age with three different oil emulsion vaccines: a commercial monovalent Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine (flock A); an experimental bivalent vaccine containing ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD) components (flock B); and an experimental trivalent vaccine

RE Gough; PJ Wyeth; CD Bracewell

1981-01-01

42

Housing, breeding and selecting chickens of the Obese strain (OS) with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A management programme is described for a small colony of Obese strain (OS) chickens afflicted with spontaneous hereditary thyroiditis. Animals of this White Leghorn line are used as an animal model for Hashimoto's thyroiditis of man to study possible mechanisms of autoimmunity in general and organ-specific autoimmune diseases in particular. Due to the severe mononuclear cell infiltration of the

H. M. Dietrich

1989-01-01

43

Reproductive parameters of the Italian local chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global use of highly productive breeds has been coupled to a loss of genetic diversity in most species of farm animals. A considerable porti on of avian genetic stocks has disappeared in the last decades and the relevance to establish pol icies toward conservation and sustainable use of animal genetic resources is widely recognised. O ur aim was to

L. ZANIBONI; M. G. MANGIAGALLI; S. TONA; S. CEROLINI

44

Is Aboriginal Food Less Allergenic? Comparing IgE-Reactivity of Eggs from Modern and Ancient Chicken Breeds in a Cohort of Allergic Children  

PubMed Central

Background Hen's egg allergy ranks among the most frequent primary food allergies in children. We aimed to investigate sensitization profiles of egg allergic patients and compare in vitro IgE reactivities of eggs from ancient chicken breeds (Araucana and Maran) with those from conventional laying hen hybrids. Methodology Egg allergic children (n?=?25) were subjected to skin prick test, double blind placebo controlled food challenge, and sensitization profiles to Gal d 1–5 were determined by allergen microarray. IgE binding and biological activity of eggs from different chicken breeds were investigated by immunoblot, ELISA, and mediator release assays. Principal Findings We found that Gal d 1 and Gal d 2 are generally major egg allergens, whereas Gal d 3–5 displayed high sensitization prevalence only in patients reacting to both, egg white and yolk. It seems that the onset of egg allergy is mediated by egg white allergens expanding to yolk sensitization in later stages of disease. Of note, egg white/yolk weight ratios were reduced in eggs from Auraucana and Maran chicken. As determined in IgE immunoblots and mass analysis, eggs from ancient chicken breeds did not differ in their protein composition. Similar IgE-binding was observed for all egg white preparations, while an elevated allergenicity was detected in egg yolk from Araucana chicken. Conclusion/Significance Our results on allergenicity and biological activity do not confirm the common assumption that aboriginal food might be less allergenic. Comprehensive diagnosis of egg allergy should distinguish between reactivity to hen's egg white and yolk fractions to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions to improve life quality of the allergic child and its family. PMID:21552565

Egger, Matthias; Alessandri, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Briza, Peter; Zennaro, Danila; Mari, Adriano; Ferreira, Fatima; Gadermaier, Gabriele

2011-01-01

45

Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass yield, and immune status of a local chicken breed.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of stocking density on growth performance, carcass yield, and immune status of a local chicken breed. In total, 840 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were placed into 4-m(2) cages in groups of 50 (low), 70 (medium), or 90 (high) birds. Each treatment was represented by 4 replicates (cages). The cages measured 2.84 × 1.42 m; half of the area of the cage (2 m(2)) was used from 1 to 28 d and the whole cage was used from 29 to 42 d. Stocking densities were 25, 35, and 45 birds/m(2) from 1 to 28 d and 12.5, 17.5, and 22.5 birds/m(2) from 29 to 42 d (low, medium, and high, respectively). Final production (live bird mass after fasting) per unit area was 14.46, 19.46, and 24.23 kg/m(2), respectively, at 42 d of age. Several immune parameters were evaluated, and the growth performance, carcass yield, and meat quality were determined. Body weight at 28 and 42 d of age was significantly reduced as the stocking density increased (P < 0.05). A depression in daily weight gain was noticed from 1 to 28 d and 1 to 42 d of age, and daily feed intake decreased significantly in each period as density increased (P < 0.05). The feed/gain from 29 to 42 d and from 1 to 42 d of age decreased as density increased (P < 0.05). At 42 d, there was no effect of the stocking density on carcass, eviscerated carcass, breast, and abdominal fat yields (P > 0.05). The thigh yield of chickens in the medium-density group improved significantly (P < 0.05) compared with those of the other 2 groups. The water-loss rate, shear force, and meat color of the muscle were unaffected (P > 0.05) by the stocking density, but pH values increased slightly as density increased. No significant difference was noted in the immunological parameters, but the blood total protein and potassium were significantly affected by stocking density (P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that increasing the stocking density advantageously affected feed/gain and decreased the final BW, whereas no evidence was found that stocking density caused changes in any of the measured immune parameters. PMID:22334742

Tong, H B; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Wang, Q; Shi, S R

2012-03-01

46

Preliminary result of a genetic polymorphism of ?-lactoglobulin gene and the phylogenetic study of ten balkan and central european indigenous sheep breeds.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphism at the ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG) loci in indigenous sheep breeds (Tsigai, Racka, Pramenka) was determined. Altogether 904 sheep were genotyped for the presence of the A, B and C alleles of ?-lactoglobulin by PCR-RFLP. The AB genotype was the most common and the ?-lactoglobulin A was the most frequent in the Cokanski Tsigai (54%), while the B allele was the most common in the Rusty and the Zomborski Tsigai (59%, 60%). The C allele was found only in one individual from Serbian Cokanski flock. These results differ from those that refer to other native sheep breeds. In the Cokanski Tsigai, deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected. Genetic relationship based on ?-lactoglobulin polymorphism was the closest between the Rusty and the Cokanski Tsigai among the studied populations and between sheep and goat among the other ruminants. Part of the promoter region (254 bp) of ?-LG in studied sheep breeds were sequenced in order to identify polymorphisms, analyze haplotypes, and phylogenetic relationship among them. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences showed one haplotype. Analysis of more samples and longer parts of the promoter region of ?-LG are needed to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree. PMID:25730209

Kusza, Szilvia; Sziszkosz, Nikolett; Nagy, Krisztina; Masala, Amela; Kukovics, Sándor; András, Jávor

2015-01-01

47

Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard\\u000a chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard\\u000a pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois

C. Lans; K. Georges; G. Brown

2007-01-01

48

Identification of spontaneous mutations within the long-range limb-specific Sonic Hedgehog enhancer (ZRS) that alter Sonic Hedgehog expression in the chicken limb mutants oligozeugodactly and Silkie Breed  

PubMed Central

The evolutionarily conserved, non-coding ~800 base-pair zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) regulatory sequence (ZRS) controls Shh expression in the posterior limb. We report that the chicken mutant oligozeugodactly (ozd), which lacks limb Shh expression, has a large deletion within the ZRS. Furthermore, the preaxial polydactylous, Silkie Breed chicken, which develops ectopic anterior limb Shh expression, has a single base-pair change within the ZRS. Using an in vivo reporter assay to examine enhancer function in the chick limb, we demonstrate that the wild-type ZRS drives ?-galactosidase reporter expression in the ZPA of both wild-type and ozd limbs. The Silkie ZRS drives ?-galactosidase in both posterior and anterior Shh domains in wild-type limb buds. These results support the hypothesis that the ZRS integrates positive and negative prepatterned regulatory inputs in the chicken model system and demonstrate the utility of the chicken limb as an efficient genetic system for gene regulatory studies. PMID:21509895

Maas, Sarah A.; Suzuki, Takayuki; Fallon, John F.

2011-01-01

49

Campylobacter colonization and proliferation in the broiler chicken upon natural field challenge is not affected by the bird growth rate or breed.  

PubMed

The zoonotic association between Campylobacter bacteria in poultry and humans has been characterized by decades of research which has attempted to elucidate the epidemiology of this complex relationship and to reduce carriage within poultry. While much work has focused on the mechanisms facilitating its success in contaminating chicken flocks (and other animal hosts), it remains difficult to consistently exclude Campylobacter under field conditions. Within the United Kingdom poultry industry, various bird genotypes with widely varying growth rates are available to meet market needs and consumer preferences. However, little is known about whether any differences in Campylobacter carriage exist across this modern broiler range. The aim of this study was to establish if a relationship exists between growth rate or breed and cecal Campylobacter concentration after natural commercial flock Campylobacter challenge. In one investigation, four pure line genotypes of various growth rates were grown together, while in the second, eight different commercial broiler genotypes were grown individually. In both studies, the Campylobacter concentration was measured in the ceca at 42 days of age, revealing no significant difference in cecal load between birds of different genotypes both in mixed- and single-genotype pens. This is important from a public health perspective and suggests that other underlying reasons beyond genotype are likely to control and affect Campylobacter colonization within chickens. Further studies to gain a better understanding of colonization dynamics and subsequent proliferation are needed, as are novel approaches to reduce the burden in poultry. PMID:25172857

Gormley, Fraser J; Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; McAdam, Jim; Avendaño, Santiago; Stanley, William A; Koerhuis, Alfons N M

2014-11-01

50

Immune responses of breeding chickens to trivalent oil emulsion vaccines: responses to Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bivalent Newcastle disease (ND)\\/infectious bursal disease (IBD) and trivalent ND\\/IBD\\/infectious bronchitis (IB) inactivated oil emulsion vaccines were prepared in the laboratory and evaluated under field conditions. Broiler breeder parent chickens previously vaccinated with live vaccines were inoculated with commercial monovalent ND and experimental bivalent or trivalent oil emulsion vaccines. The commercial vaccine induced a higher initial ND haemagglutination inhibition (HI)

PJ Wyeth; RE Gough; GA Cullen

1981-01-01

51

Chicken major histocompatibility complex polymorphism and its association with production traits.  

PubMed

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the best characterized genetic region controlling disease resistance and immune responses in chicken. MHC genes are also involved in various non-immune functions such as productive traits and reproductive success. The genetic diversity of MHC in an Iranian indigenous chicken (Khorasan) was studied, and association of the MHC alleles with production traits was determined. The MHC polymorphism was ascertained by genotyping the LEI0258 microsatellite locus by PCR-based fragment analysis. LEI0258 microsatellite marker is a genetic indicator for MHC, which is located on microchromosome 16 and strongly associated with serologically defined MHC haplotypes. A total of 25 different LEI0258 alleles (185-493 bp) and 76 genotypes were identified in 313 chickens. An allele of 361 bp had the highest frequency (26.44 %), and alleles of 207 and 262 bp had the lowest (0.16 %). High level of heterozygosity (87 %) and good genotype frequency fit to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in this population (P?=?0.238). The association study also revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on body weight, egg weight, egg laying intensity, and weight of sexual maturity in Khorasan population (P?chicken. These data would be applicable in designing breeding and genetic resource conservation for indigenous chicken populations. PMID:25737311

Nikbakht, Gholamreza; Esmailnejad, Atefeh

2015-04-01

52

India`s first solar chicken brooder  

SciTech Connect

A 1,200 bird solar chicken brooder was indigenously designed and operated by the Indian scientists for the first time in the country as a Project under funding by the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources to the All India Women`s Conference. This multi disciplinary project was taken up on the International Sun Day, May 3, 1993 and completed on May, 1994. Data has been collected for the first nine months of operation. Its successful operation has justified multi disciplinary approach. The solar chicken brooder incorporates modern poultry concepts of breeding under controlled temperatures. In view of the mixed climate of Delhi, provision was made for heating and cooling both to take care of the 24 hour cycle. Comfort conditions have been identified and maintained (as is done in the their genetic characteristics) at different temperatures for a period of 8--10 weeks to grow them to a uniform weight of 2.0 kg. Growing them under controlled temperature for the first 4 weeks and then at room temperature was another new concept to grow hard stock. This development has opened avenues for new food industry based on processing of chicken utilizing internationally available technologies.

Chaturvedi, P.; Naryanaswamy, T.S.; Kumar, A.; Choudhary, U. [Indian Association for the Advancement of Science, New Delhi (India); Sharma, S.K. [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India). Energy Research Centre

1995-12-31

53

Effect of free-range days on a local chicken breed: growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 1,000 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were raised for 21 d. On d 21, 720 birds with similar BW (536 ± 36 g) were selected and randomly assigned to free-range treatment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 21, 14, 7, and 0 d, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 5 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (180 birds per treatment). All the birds were raised in indoor floor pens measuring 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses before free-range treatment. In the free-range treatment, the chickens were raised in indoor floor houses measuring 3 × 5 m (15 m(2), 2.4 birds/m(2)). In addition, they also had an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The BW of birds after being assigned to free-range treatment for 7 d decreased significantly compared with that in the conventional treatment (P < 0.05). However, there was no effect of the free-range days on the BW at 42 d of age (P > 0.05). The daily weight gain, feed per gain, daily feed intake, and mortality from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by free-range days (P > 0.05). At 42 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), whereas the thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields decreased linearly (P < 0.05). The lung yield showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). The water-holding capacity of the thigh muscle decreased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in the meat color, shear force, and muscle pH (P > 0.05). The absolute thymus weight and thymus:BW ratio showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that increasing free-range days advantageously affects breast yield, but decreases thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields as well as the water-holding capacity of thigh. No evidence was found that increasing free-range days caused changes in growth performance, meat quality, and lymphoid organs except for changes in water-holding capacity and thymus. PMID:24931968

Tong, H B; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Chang, L L; Fu, S Y

2014-08-01

54

The USDA Feed the Future Initiative for genetic improvement of African goats: an update on genomic resources and genetic characterization of indigenous breeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food production systems in Africa depend heavily on the use of locally adapted animals such as goats which are critical to small-scale farmers as they are easier to acquire, maintain, and act as scavengers in sparse pasture and marginal crop regions. Indigenous goat ecotypes have undergone generatio...

55

Indigenous Labor and Indigenous History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article was originally a response to a call from the Western History Association for papers by Indigenous academics. The call aimed to showcase Indigenous scholarship on certain terms: that it delves into some of the opportunities, challenges, and obstacles involved with "working from home" or doing research that bridges a space called "home"…

McCallum, Mary Jane Logan

2009-01-01

56

Milk protein polymorphisms in cattle (Bos indicus), mithun (Bos frontalis) and yak (Bos grunniens) breeds and their hybrids indigenous to Bhutan.  

PubMed

In the current study, milk protein variation was examined in cattle (Bos indicus), mithun (Bos frontalis), yak (Bos grunniens) and their hybrid populations in Bhutan to estimate genetic variability, conduct genetic characterization and assess the possibility of gene flow between mithun and cattle. Isoelectric focusing of 372 milk samples from 11 populations detected four molecular types of ?-lactoglobulin (A, B, E and M), five molecular types of ?(S1) -casein (A, B, C, E and X) and three molecular types of k-casein (A, B and X). Mithun and yak shared alleles but were found to exhibit different allele frequencies for the proteins studied. The degree of genetic variability within populations was measured by average heterozygosity and ranged from 24-40% in cattle, 26% for yak and 33% for mithun. We also resolved the traditional mithun and cattle hybridization system via principal component analysis. Our results suggested secondary introgression of mithun genes to the village Thrabum population, and a close genetic relationship between Bhutanese indigenous cattle and Indian cattle. PMID:20887304

Dorji, Tashi; Namikawa, Takao; Mannen, Hideyuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi

2010-10-01

57

Development of a controlled release formulation of an indigenous insect growth regulator, DPE-28, a substituted diphenylether, for controlling the breeding of Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: DPE-28, a substituted diphenyl ether (2,6-ditertiarybutyl phenyl-2’,4’-dinitro phenyl ether) was reported to exhibit promising insect growth regulating activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis. A controlled release formulation (CRF) of DPE-28 has been developed to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in its breeding habitats. Toxicity of DPE-28, safety to non-target mosquito predators and the release profile of the CRF of DPE-28 are studied and discussed. Methods: The acute oral and dermal toxicity was tested in male and female Wistar rats as per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 425 and 402 respectively. The toxicity of DPE-28 to non-target predators was tested as per the reported procedure from this laboratory. The CRF of DPE-28 was prepared by following the reported procedure developed at this laboratory earlier. The concentration of DPE-28 released from the CRF was monitored by HPLC by constructing a calibration graph by plotting the peak area in the Y-axis and the concentration of DPE-28 in the X-axis. Results: DPE-28 has been tested for acute oral toxicity and found to be moderately toxic with LD50 value of 1098 mg/kg body weight (b.w). The results of the acute dermal toxicity and skin irritation studies reveal that DPE-28 is safe and non-irritant. DPE-28 when tested at 0.4 mg/litre against non-target mosquito predators did not produce any mortality. The release profile of the active ingredient DPE-28 from the CRF by HPLC technique showed that the average daily release (ADR) of DPE-28 ranged from 0.07 to 5.0 mg/litre during first four weeks. Thereafter the matrix started eroding and the ADR ranged from 5 to 11 mg/litre during the remaining 5 wk. The cumulative release of active ingredient showed that > 90 per cent of the active ingredient was released from the matrix. Interpretation & conclusions: The controlled release matrix of DPE-28 was thus found to inhibit the adult emergence (>80%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus for a period of nine weeks. The CRF of DPE-28 may play a useful role in field and may be recommended for mosquito control programme after evaluating the same under field conditions. PMID:21727665

Kalyanasundaram, M.; Mathew, Nisha; Elango, A.; Padmanabhan, V.

2011-01-01

58

Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland  

SciTech Connect

Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

1981-10-01

59

Indigenous Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Indigenous Australia Website, presented in affiliation with the Australian Museum and the Australia's Cultural Network, combines two Websites -- Dreaming Online and Stories of the Dreaming (see the July 16, 1999 Scout Report) -- into one comprehensive resource. An engaging introduction to the 60,000-year-old cultural heritage of Australia's Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, the site is divided into four main sections: Background Info, Stories of the Dreaming, For Kids, and For Teachers. The Background section provides users with a nice overview, accompanied by images, of art and dress, spiritual and family life, the relationship of indigenous peoples to the land, and their interactions with British colonists, as well as a fairly detailed timeline. Stories of the Dreaming offers short movies of people reciting the tales from their ancestors about the land, sea, and animals. These were filmed in the rugged backdrop of Australia and are available as low or high quality videos (RealPlayer) or as audio or text only. The Teachers and Kids pages supply additional resources including links, a glossary, a FAQ, and advice on teaching lessons in indigenous studies.

60

Changes in endogenous bioactive compounds of Korean native chicken meat at different ages and during cooking.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P < 0.05). The KNC meat lost significant amounts of all bioactive compounds during cooking (P < 0.05). Leg meat had high retention percentages of carnosine and anserine after cooking, whereas breast meat showed almost complete retention of betaine and carnitine. The results of this study provide useful and rare information regarding the presence, amounts, and determinants of endogenous bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenous chicken meat. PMID:24812230

Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Soo Kee; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

2014-07-01

61

Combined effect of mutations in ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART genes on IMP content in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ADSL gene, GARS-AIRS-GART gene and their combination genotype on inosine monophosphate content (IMP) in chicken.2.?The chicken breeds used for this study were Recessive White chicken (RW, Jiang-13 strain of white Plymouth Rock) and preserved population of 4 Chinese native chicken breeds, including Silkies, Baier, Tibetan and Xiaoshan.3.?The primers for

J. T. Shu; W. B. Bao; X. Y. Zhang; C. J. Ji; W. Han; K. W. Chen

2009-01-01

62

THE GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST REACTION IN CHICKENS: DETERMINATION OF SOME PARAMETERS  

E-print Network

expressed by the enlargement of the spleen (Simonsen, 1957) may be induced in the chick embryo in closed breeding; GVHR has been measured by splenomegaly. 2. The reactivity of these chickens against chickens came from the White Leghorn flock PA!2,raised in closed breeding since 1968 (Aycardi

Boyer, Edmond

63

Genetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens  

E-print Network

Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics Uppsala Doctoral thesis Swedish of the genetic regulation of diseases and metabolic traits. Chickens and other farm animals have long been used to experimental data from two outbred chicken crosses to investigate the genetic architecture and regulation

64

Age-related expression profile of the SLC27A1 gene in chicken tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solute carrier family 27 (SLC27, also known as fatty acid transport proteins [FATPs]) plays important biological roles\\u000a in cells. However, there is no report about the expression profile of SLC27 member in chicken. In this study, we quantified\\u000a the expression of SLC27A1 (FATP1) mRNA in a mountainous black-boned chicken breed (MB) and a commercial meat type chicken breed (S01),

Yan Wang; Qing Zhu; Xiao-Ling Zhao; Yong-Gang Yao; Yi-Ping Liu

65

[Generation of Chicken Germ-line Chimeras by Transferring PGCs and Their Identification by AFLP.].  

PubMed

PGCs (Primordial germ cells) were isolated from the blood of 51~56 h hatching Shiqiza chicken embryos by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. The PGCs were injected into 2.5 d hatching embryos of H breed chicken to produce germ-line chimeras. AFLP checking method was established to identify chicken germline chimeras. Eight germ-line H-S chimera embryos were identified among 20 developing H breed embryos. PMID:15985398

Hu, Xiao-Fen; Xie, Bei; Yu, Rui-Song; Huang, Qi-Zhong; Zhang, De-Fu; Huang, Lu-Sheng; Li, Zhen

2005-05-01

66

Pineapple Chicken Ingredients  

E-print Network

Pineapple Chicken Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1 chicken bouillon. Cut chicken into small pieces, removing fat and skin, add to skillet and cook until no longer pink. Be sure to wash hands and all surfaces after handling chicken. 2. Dissolve chicken bouillon cube in 1 cup

Liskiewicz, Maciej

67

Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…

Despagne, Colette

2013-01-01

68

Indigenous Methodologies Margaret Kovach,  

E-print Network

They Are Not, Where they Fit within Qualitative Research 2 Discussion Points for Today #12;3 Why do Indigenous Indigenous Methodologies Matter Characteristics ­ A Brief Review Indigenous Methodologies What They Are, What Methodologies Matter? Research impacts practice Research is not value neutral Inherent in methodologies

Argerami, Martin

69

Efficient system for preservation and regeneration of genetic resources in chicken: concurrent storage of primordial germ cells and live animals from early embryos of a rare indigenous fowl (Gifujidori).  

PubMed

The unique accessibility of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) during early development provides the opportunity to combine the reproduction of live animals with genetic conservation. Male and female Gifujidori fowl (GJ) PGCs were collected from the blood of early embryos, and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen for >6 months until transfer. Manipulated GJ embryos were cultured until hatching; fertility tests indicated that they had normal reproductive abilities. Embryos from two lines of White Leghorn (24HS, ST) were used as recipients for chimera production following blood removal. The concentration of PGCs in the early embryonic blood of 24HS was significantly higher than in ST (P < 0.05). Frozen-thawed GJ PGCs were microinjected into the bloodstream of same-sex recipients. Offspring originating from GJ PGCs in ST recipients were obtained with a higher efficiency than those originating from GJ PGCs in 24HS recipients (23.3% v. 3.1%). Additionally, GJ progeny were successfully regenerated by crossing germline chimeras of the ST group. In conclusion, the cryogenic preservation of PGCs from early chicken embryos was combined with the conservation of live animals. PMID:20883649

Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Usui, Fumitake; Miyahara, Daichi; Mori, Takafumi; Ono, Tamao; Takeda, Kumiko; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

2010-01-01

70

Chicken domestication: from archeology to genomics.  

PubMed

Current knowledge on chicken domestication is reviewed on the basis of archaeological, historical and molecular data. Several domestication centres have been identified in South and South-East Asia. Gallus gallus is the major ancestor species, but Gallus sonneratii has also contributed to the genetic make-up of the domestic chicken. Genetic diversity is now distributed among traditional populations, standardized breeds and highly selected lines. Knowing the genome sequence has accelerated the identification of causal mutations determining major morphological differences between wild Gallus and domestic breeds. Comparative genome resequencing between Gallus and domestic chickens has identified 21 selective sweeps, one involving a non-synonymous mutation in the TSHR gene, which functional consequences remain to be explored. The resequencing approach could also identify candidate genes responsible of quantitative traits loci (QTL) effects in selected lines. Genomics is opening new ways to understand major switches that took place during domestication and subsequent selection. PMID:21377614

Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Rognon, Xavier

2011-03-01

71

Chicken Feet  

E-print Network

that imports are NOT blocked, according to US exporters, Beijing has launched a preemptive poultry strike and halted imports of US chicken. The feet, which are called Golden Phoenix Claws at dim sum establishments are popular in stews and snacks and, we’re told...

Hacker, Randi

2009-09-02

72

Chicken skeleton  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The long neck and beak allow the chicken to peck at food to eat it. The large breastbone of birds is indicative a large, volumous chest that fills with air while flying. Thin legs makes the animal lighter in weight, which also aids in flight.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-09-01

73

Backcross Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the conventional breeding method of backcross breeding is done.This is the seventh of a series of seven animations that detail theprocess of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Gun.)

74

Dog Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online Flash game gets learners thinking like geneticists in order to breed a border collie puppy with select traits, including coat color, coat length, and ear length. Progressive levels of play encourage learners as they move from novice to master breeders. Learners can click on the Why button to learn more about genes and dog breeding.

2012-06-26

75

The Ascent of Cat Breeds: Genetic Evaluations of Breeds and Worldwide Random Bred Populations  

PubMed Central

The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing seventeen random bred populations from five continents and twenty-two breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese Bobtail were more aligned with European/American than Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity, however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age. PMID:18060738

Lipinski, Monika J.; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C.; Billings, Nicholas C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Levy, Alon M.; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Lyons, Leslie A.

2008-01-01

76

The ascent of cat breeds: genetic evaluations of breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.  

PubMed

The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing 17 random-bred populations from five continents and 22 breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese bobtail were more aligned with European/American than with Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity; however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age. PMID:18060738

Lipinski, Monika J; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C; Billings, Nicholas C; Leutenegger, Christian M; Levy, Alon M; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R; Pedersen, Niels C; Lyons, Leslie A

2008-01-01

77

Seasonal variation in semen quality of Gorno Altai cashmere goats and South African indigenous goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal effects on semen quality of Gorno Altai cashmere goats and South African indigenous goats were studied in this experiment. A definite breeding season for the two breeds was determined. Semen quality parameters that were quantified include semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, percentage live sperm, dead sperm and scrotal circumference. Scrotal circumference, semen volume, concentration and sperm concentration of

E. C. Webb; M. H. Dombo; M. Roets

78

Global diversity and genetic contributions of chicken populations from African, Asian and European regions.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and population structure of 113 chicken populations from Africa, Asia and Europe were studied using 29 microsatellite markers. Among these, three populations of wild chickens and nine commercial purebreds were used as reference populations for comparison. Compared to commercial lines and chickens sampled from the European region, high mean numbers of alleles and a high degree of heterozygosity were found in Asian and African chickens as well as in Red Junglefowl. Population differentiation (FST ) was higher among European breeds and commercial lines than among African, Asian and Red Junglefowl populations. Neighbour-Net genetic clustering and structure analysis revealed two main groups of Asian and north-west European breeds, whereas African populations overlap with other breeds from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean region. Broilers and brown egg layers were situated between the Asian and north-west European clusters. structure analysis confirmed a lower degree of population stratification in African and Asian chickens than in European breeds. High genetic differentiation and low genetic contributions to global diversity have been observed for single European breeds. Populations with low genetic variability have also shown a low genetic contribution to a core set of diversity in attaining maximum genetic variation present from the total populations. This may indicate that conservation measures in Europe should pay special attention to preserving as many single chicken breeds as possible to maintain maximum genetic diversity given that higher genetic variations come from differentiation between breeds. PMID:25315897

Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Eding, H; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

2014-12-01

79

Indigenous tropical ecology.  

PubMed

Two major works on the ecology of Sumatra and Sulawesi two of the world's great tropical islands, have appeared relatively recently. These volumes represent the rarest of genres in tropical ecology: works of indigenous origin with an indigenous audience in mind. An examination of these exciting books prompts us to examine a wider literature on tropical ecology. PMID:21227324

Kitching, R; Clarke, C

1989-03-01

80

Chicken Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Chicken Salad Ingredients: 2 1/2 cups boneless skinless chicken breasts, cooked and diced 1/2 onion cooked chicken breasts and add to bowl. 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Add to bowl. 4. Refrigerate until ready to serve. Chicken salad does not freeze well. Equipment

Liskiewicz, Maciej

81

Chicken Noodle Soup Ingredients  

E-print Network

Chicken Noodle Soup Ingredients: 3 pound chicken 1 onion 2 stalks celery 3 large carrots 1 Directions 1. Remove skin and place chicken in large pot. Cover completely with water. Cover, bring to boil, reduce heat, and simmer until chicken falls off bones, about 1 hour. 2. Remove pot from stove and remove

Liskiewicz, Maciej

82

Chicken Burritos Ingredients  

E-print Network

Chicken Burritos Ingredients: 1 cup skinless, boneless chicken breasts, skinless (two breasts in foil. Bake for 10 minutes. 2. Meanwhile, dice the chicken into small pieces. Chop the tomato and grate cheese. 3. Put the chicken, corn and salsa in a large skillet. Cook over medium heat until mixture

Liskiewicz, Maciej

83

Genetic diversity and population structure among six cattle breeds in South Africa using a whole genome SNP panel  

PubMed Central

Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA) including Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), Bonsmara (n = 44), Angus (n = 31), and Holstein (n = 29). Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR), expected heterozygosity (He) and inbreeding coefficient (f). Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei's genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE). Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner) to 1.73 (Nguni). Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He = 0.24) and the Drakensberger cattle (He = 0.30) had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of SA cattle breeds. PMID:25295053

Makina, Sithembile O.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.; van Marle-Köster, Este; MacNeil, Michael D.; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi

2014-01-01

84

Genetic diversity and population structure among six cattle breeds in South Africa using a whole genome SNP panel.  

PubMed

Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA) including Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), Bonsmara (n = 44), Angus (n = 31), and Holstein (n = 29). Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR), expected heterozygosity (He) and inbreeding coefficient (f). Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei's genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE). Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner) to 1.73 (Nguni). Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He = 0.24) and the Drakensberger cattle (He = 0.30) had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of SA cattle breeds. PMID:25295053

Makina, Sithembile O; Muchadeyi, Farai C; van Marle-Köster, Este; MacNeil, Michael D; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi

2014-01-01

85

Tracing the genetic roots of the indigenous White Park Cattle.  

PubMed

The White Park Cattle (WPC) is an indigenous ancient breed from the British Isles which has a long-standing history in heroic sagas and documents. The WPC has retained many primitive traits, especially in their grazing behaviour and preferences. Altogether, the aura of this breed has led to much speculation surrounding its origin. In this study, we sequenced the mitogenomes from 27 WPC and three intronic fragments of genes from the Y chromosome of three bulls. We observed six novel mitogenomic lineages that have not been found in any other cattle breed so far. We found no evidence that the WPC is a descendant of a particular North or West European branch of aurochs. The WPC mitogenomes are grouped in the T3 cluster together with most other domestic breeds. Nevertheless, both molecular markers support the primitive position of the WPC within the taurine breeds. PMID:23350719

Ludwig, A; Alderson, L; Fandrey, E; Lieckfeldt, D; Soederlund, T K; Froelich, K

2013-08-01

86

Uses and flock management practices of scavenging chickens in Wolaita Zone of southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Rearing of scavenging chickens is among the most commonly practiced farm activities in Ethiopia. This system is dominated by indigenous chickens. Output from indigenous chickens is low due to poor management and absence of intense selection that is intended to improve economically important traits. This showed that village chickens are rather evolved for adaptation traits. However, the level of risk is low, and this has made rearing of scavenging chickens a choice of farm activity for smallholder farmers. The objective of this study was to characterize the scavenging chickens' production system in Wolaita Zone. Single-visit survey involving individual interview of 119 farmers and 6 focus group discussions was used to collect the data. Our results showed that rearing of scavenging chickens was constrained especially by disease and predation problems. However, farmers proposed a set of solutions to minimize the effect of these problems. Rearing of scavenging chickens fulfils the multi-functional need of the society. This system has special features because it can sustain in its own without the need for modern commercial chicken farming facilities. However, farmers also reported the drawbacks of rearing of scavenging chickens and these mainly include uproot of garden crops and tiresomeness of the night watching. Selection of chickens was mainly depending on physically observed traits like body size and plumage colour. The initial foundation flock was mainly obtained from the local market. The ideal place for scavenging chickens production is the one that has intermediate weather condition and has some trees that can be used as shade; however, it was substantiated that it has to be free from bush and shrubs, weeds and wet lands. Therefore, these pieces of knowledge embedded among smallholder farmers need to be well documented and synthesized to design an appropriate type of technology packages that can be communicated back to farmers to improve productivity of the scavenging chickens. PMID:21800214

Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli

2012-03-01

87

Reclaiming Indigenous Representations and Knowledges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores contemporary Indigenous artists', activists', and scholars' use of the Internet to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, culture, art, history, and worldview; critique the political realities of dominant discourse; and address the genocidal history and ongoing repression of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Internet examples include…

Iseke-Barnes, Judy; Danard, Deborah

2007-01-01

88

Production of transgenic chickens using an avian retroviral vector  

SciTech Connect

The authors efforts to insert genes into the chicken germ line are dependent upon the ability of exogenous avian retroviruses to infect chicken germ cells. They have used a transformation defective Schmidt Ruppin A strain of Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV-SRA) in their initial experiments. The general protocol involved generating RSV-SRA viremic female chickens (Go), which shed exogenous virus via the oviduct. As the fertilized egg passes through the oviduct, embryonic cells are exposed to the virus. If the germ cell precursors are infected by the virus, offspring (G1) should be generated which are capable of passing the viral DNA to the next generation (G2). Fifteen viremic G1 males were selected for breeding and progeny testing. Since male chickens do not congenitally pass retroviruses through semen, production of viremic G2 offspring indicates germ line DNA transmission. This is confirmed by DNA analysis of the experimental chickens. Using a specific probe for exogenous retrovirus, they have detected the presence of RSV-SRA DNA in viremic chickens. Southern DNA analysis revealed junction fragments for RSV-SRA DNA in viremic G2 chickens, but not in non-viremic siblings. Furthermore, DNA isolated from various tissues of a viremic G2 chicken showed an identical DNA junction fragment pattern, indicating all tissues were derived from the same embryonic cell which contained integrated provirus. To date they have generated 50 transgenic chickens.

Kopchick, J.; Mills, E.; Rosenblum C.; Taylor, J.; Kelder, B.; Smith, J.; Chen, H.

1987-05-01

89

The action of the sex linked barring gene on Spanish chickens with gold plumage  

E-print Network

of Spanish chickens breeds and study of the action of the sex-linked barring gene observed in gold plumage of the sex-linked barring gene with respect to that topic and it seeks to study its effect in presenceThe action of the sex linked barring gene on Spanish chickens with gold plumage J. L. CAMPO F

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

The development and characterization of a 60K SNP chip for chicken  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In livestock species like the chicken, high throughput SNP genotyping assays are increasingly being used for whole genome association studies and as a tool in breeding (referred to as genomic selection). We describe the design of a moderate density (60K) Illumina SNP BeadChip in chicken consisting o...

91

Identification of specific long noncoding RNA profiles in chicken with different susceptibility to Marek's disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease (MD) is an avian herpesvirus-induced lymphoma in chicken, which causes more than $1 billion economic loss in poultry industry worldwide. Breeding of genetically resistant chickens has become an important measure in MD control to augment vaccination. Evidently, a better understanding ...

92

Campylobacter jejuni Is Not Merely a Commensal in Commercial Broiler Chickens and Affects Bird Welfare  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. PMID:24987092

Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom

2014-01-01

93

Why Indigenous Nations Studies?  

E-print Network

Why Indigenous Nations Studies? Robert B. Porter Michael J. Yellow Bird One of the first of several committee assignments we received after joining the faculty as new untenured professors was an appointment to a university task force charged... statement says what it says and why we decided to call the program "Indigenous Nations Studies." 71 72 Robert B. Porter and Michael J. Yellow Bird The Program Mission Statement Organizational mission statements are quite often so ambitious...

Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael

2000-03-01

94

Dog Breeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

2004-07-05

95

Chicken soup and sickness  

MedlinePLUS

Chicken soup, a popular home remedy for the common cold since at least the 12th century, may really ... chicken soup reduce the inflammation associated with the common cold, thus providing some relief of symptoms. Although researchers ...

96

SPRING PRECIPITATION AND FLUCTUATIONS IN ATTWATER'S PRAIRIE-CHICKEN NUMBERS: HYPOTHESES REVISITED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two related hypotheses argue that greater than normal precipitation during May alone or spring (Mar-Jun) leads to decreased Attwater's ~rairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) breeding success, whereas less than normal precipitation during these periods leads to increased breeding success. These hypotheses have been accepted by wildlife managers and, seemingly because of observer expectancy bias, have been used to explain annual variation

MARKUS J. PETERSON; NOVA J. SILVY

97

Effect of age on hepatic cytochrome P450 of Ross 708 broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Age has significant impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) systems in animals. Ross 708 broiler chicken is a breed of chicken with fast growth characteristics. Cytochrome P450 in the livers of Ross 708 broiler chicken of different ages has been investigated. The birds were raised under standard husbandry conditions. A certain number of chickens was randomly sampled weekly for liver collection from d 1 to 56 posthatch. The chicken body and liver weights were recorded. The chicken livers were processed for liver microsomes though a multiple-step procedure at low temperature. Total CYP450 content in chicken liver homogenates and liver microsomes was measured using a UV/visible spectroscopic method. The enzymatic activities of CYP450 in the chicken liver microsomes were determined through incubation of CYP450 isoform substrates followed by measurement of formation of their metabolites. The chicken showed an opposite age pattern in hepatic CYP450 content and activities compared with most mammals. The hepatic CYP450 content and activities of chicken at d 1 posthatch were higher than at other ages. The total hepatic CYP450 content in chickens at d 1 posthatch was more than twice the average hepatic value of the chickens at d 7 to 28. This high CYP450 fell quickly in the first week posthatch and slightly rose from d 28 to 56. Hepatic CYP450 activities of CYP1A, 3A, 2C, 2D, and 2H were much higher in the chicken at d 1 posthatch. The differences of these enzymatic activities between d 1 and other ages of chicken were CYP450 isoform dependent. This result suggests that embryonic development of chicken livers has a significant impact on the age profile of hepatic CYP450 content and activities of posthatch chickens. PMID:23571338

Hu, S X

2013-05-01

98

Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients  

E-print Network

Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients: 4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1/3 cup flour 1/3 cup honey 1/4 cup lemon juice Directions 1. Preheat oven to 375ºF. Spray a cooking sheet with non stick cooking. 5. Meanwhile, mix together honey and lemon juice in a small bowl. 6. Remove chicken from oven

Liskiewicz, Maciej

99

Evolutionary Pets: Offspring Numbers Reveal Speciation Process in Domesticated Chickens  

PubMed Central

Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059). Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75%±7.10%, M±SE) hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75%±15.32%, M±SE). These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal. PMID:22879889

Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

2012-01-01

100

Finding the Indigenous in Indigenous Studies  

E-print Network

into non- human waters, e.g., comparative psychological studies using rats or pigeons as subjects, or the inclusion of primate studies within the field of anthropology. Yet these approaches assume that the non-human study subjects are little more than... simple models for the more complex behavior of humans. In fact, one criticism of anthropology by indigenous peoples in many parts of the world is that those who practice anthropology often treat their study subjects (humans) as if they were less than...

Pierotti, Raymond; Wildcat, Daniel R.

2000-03-01

101

Thoughts on an Indigenous Research Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews writings of Indigenous scholars concerning the need for and nature of an Indigenous research methodology. Discusses why an Indigenous research methodology is needed; the importance of relational accountability in such a methodology; why Indigenous people must conduct Indigenous research; Indigenous knowledge and ways of knowing (including…

Steinhauer, Evelyn

2002-01-01

102

Indigenous Weather Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.

103

Australian Indigenous Knowledge and Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and academics…

Nakata, Martin, Ed.; Langton, Marcia, Ed.

2005-01-01

104

Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous

Indigenous Affairs, 1998

1998-01-01

105

Molecular markers in the Portuguese Bísaro pig: screening for breed specific microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - A large number of autochthonous breeds of domestic animals are endangered. The Portuguese indigenous pig breed Bísaro is reduced to a small number of animals mostly restricted to the Trás-os-Montes province. In order to prevent its extinction and preserve genetic variability fast measures are needed. Among molecular markers to assess the genetic variability microsatellites are the most widely

M. C. Guerreiro-Pereira; J. Matos; A. M. Ramos; F. Simões; A. Clemente; T. Rangel-Figueiredo

106

Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat. PMID:25049967

Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.

2014-01-01

107

Chicken Pineapple Orange Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Chicken Pineapple Orange Salad Ingredients: 4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 2 stalks celery 1 of water to a boil, and add chicken breasts, cook until done, about 30 minutes. Remove chicken and allow. Save juice for other uses. Add pineapple and oranges to bowl. Sprinkle with pepper. 5. When chicken

Liskiewicz, Maciej

108

Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

2012-01-01

109

A comparison of formal and participatory breeding approaches using selection theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress from plant breeding has been slow in some marginal environments. Conventional or formal plant breeding (FPB) programs\\u000a conducted by international agricultural research centres or national programs in developing countries have been criticized\\u000a for ignoring indigenous germplasm, failing to breed for conditions facing poor farmers, and emphasizing selection for broad\\u000a versus local adaptation. A suite of techniques, referred to as

G. N. Atlin; M. Cooper; Å Bjørnstad

2001-01-01

110

Investigation of MC1R SNPs and Their Relationships with Plumage Colors in Korean Native Chicken  

PubMed Central

The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene is related to the plumage color variations in chicken. Initially, the MC1R gene from 30 individuals was sequenced and nine polymorphisms were obtained. Of these, three and six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were confirmed as synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations, respectively. Among these, three selected SNPs were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method in 150 individuals from five chicken breeds, which identified the plumage color responding alleles. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree using MC1R gene sequences indicated three well-differentiated different plumage pigmentations (eumelanin, pheomelanin and albino). Also, the genotype analyses indicated that the TT, AA and GG genotypes corresponded to the eumelanin, pheomelanin and albino plumage pigmentations at nucleotide positions 69, 376 and 427, respectively. In contrast, high allele frequencies with T, A and G alleles corresponded to black, red/yellow and white plumage color in 69, 376 and 427 nucleotide positions, respectively. Also, amino acids changes at position Asn23Asn, Val126Ile and Thr143Ala were observed in melanin synthesis with identified possible alleles, respectively. In addition, high haplotype frequencies in TGA, CGG and CAA haplotypes were well discriminated based on the plumage pigmentation in chicken breeds. The results obtained in this study can be used for designing proper breeding and conservation strategies for the Korean native chicken breeds, as well as for the developing breed identification markers in chicken. PMID:25049831

Hoque, M. R.; Jin, S.; Heo, K. N.; Kang, B. S.; Jo, C.; Lee, J. H.

2013-01-01

111

Touring the Indigenous or Transforming Consciousness? Reflections on Teaching Indigenous Tourism at University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of the non-Indigenous educator and researcher in education on Indigenous issues is becoming the subject of critical scrutiny. Indigenous academics are successfully turning the gaze on non-Indigenous peers and practices. This paper narrates some of the experiences of a non-Indigenous educator teaching an undergraduate elective Indigenous

Higgins-Desbiolles, Freya

2007-01-01

112

Genetic analysis of local Vietnamese chickens provides evidence of gene flow from wild to domestic populations  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies suggested that multiple domestication events in South and South-East Asia (Yunnan and surrounding areas) and India have led to the genesis of modern domestic chickens. Ha Giang province is a northern Vietnamese region, where local chickens, such as the H'mong breed, and wild junglefowl coexist. The assumption was made that hybridisation between wild junglefowl and Ha Giang chickens may have occurred and led to the high genetic diversity previously observed. The objectives of this study were i) to clarify the genetic structure of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province and ii) to give evidence of admixture with G. gallus. A large survey of the molecular polymorphism for 18 microsatellite markers was conducted on 1082 chickens from 30 communes of the Ha Giang province (HG chickens). This dataset was combined with a previous dataset of Asian breeds, commercial lines and samples of Red junglefowl from Thailand and Vietnam (Ha Noï). Measurements of genetic diversity were estimated both within-population and between populations, and a step-by-step Bayesian approach was performed on the global data set. Results The highest value for expected heterozygosity (> 0.60) was found in HG chickens and in the wild junglefowl populations from Thailand. HG chickens exhibited the highest allelic richness (mean A = 2.9). No significant genetic subdivisions of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province were found. As compared to other breeds, HG chickens clustered with wild populations. Furthermore, the neighbornet tree and the Bayesian clustering analysis showed that chickens from 4 communes were closely related to the wild ones and showed an admixture pattern. Conclusion In the absence of any population structuring within the province, the H'mong chicken, identified from its black phenotype, shared a common gene pool with other chickens from the Ha Giang population. The large number of alleles shared exclusively between Ha Giang chickens and junglefowl, as well as the results of a Bayesian clustering analysis, suggest that gene flow has been taking place from junglefowl to Ha Giang chickens. PMID:19133138

Berthouly, C; Leroy, G; Van, T Nhu; Thanh, H Hoang; Bed'Hom, B; Nguyen, B Trong; Chi, C Vu; Monicat, F; Tixier-Boichard, M; Verrier, E; Maillard, J-C; Rognon, X

2009-01-01

113

Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation  

E-print Network

Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L). II, Station d'Amélioration des Plantes Fourragères, F86600 Lusignan, France (Received 15 November 1993 in breeding for yield under a given manage- ment. From 58 half-sib families derived from a single polycross

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Lung disease in indigenous children.  

PubMed

Children in indigenous populations have substantially higher respiratory morbidity than non-indigenous children. Indigenous children have more frequent respiratory infections that are, more severe and, associated with long-term sequelae. Post-infectious sequelae such as chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis are especially prevalent among indigenous groups and have lifelong impact on lung function. Also, although estimates of asthma prevalence among indigenous children are similar to non-indigenous groups the morbidity of asthma is higher in indigenous children. To reduce the morbidity of respiratory illness, best-practice medicine is essential in addition to improving socio-economic factors, (eg household crowding), tobacco smoke exposure, and access to health care and illness prevention programs that likely contribute to these issues. Although each indigenous group may have unique health beliefs and interfaces with modern health care, a culturally sensitive and community-based comprehensive care system of preventive and long term care can improve outcomes for all these conditions. This article focuses on common respiratory conditions encountered by indigenous children living in affluent countries where data is available. PMID:24958089

Chang, A B; Brown, N; Toombs, M; Marsh, R L; Redding, G J

2014-12-01

115

CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

116

Reproductive performance of South African indigenous goats following oestrous synchronisation and AI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive performance following oestrous synchronisation and artificial insemination (AI) was evaluated during the natural breeding season (autumn) in 90 indigenous (Boer and Nguni) South African goats. All does were synchronised for 16 days with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) followed by an IM injection of 300IU PMSG at progestagen withdrawal. Cervical inseminations were performed at a fixed time (48h and 60h)

K. C. Lehloenya; J. P. C. Greyling; L. M. J. Schwalbach

2005-01-01

117

Blood biochemical profiles of thai indigenous and Simmental x Brahman crossbred cattle in the Central Thailand.  

PubMed

Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds. PMID:17305967

Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

2007-03-01

118

Molecular genetic diversity and genetic structure of Vietnamese indigenous pig populations.  

PubMed

The study characterized genetic diversity and genetic structure of five indigenous pig populations (Ha Lang, Muong Te, Mong Cai, Lung and Lung Pu), two wild pig populations (Vietnamese and Thai wild pigs) and an exotic pig breed (Yorkshire) using FAO/ISAG recommended 16 microsatellite markers in 236 samples. All estimated loci were very polymorphic indicated by high values of polymorphism information content (from 0.76 in S0225 to 0.92 in Sw2410). Indigenous populations had very high level of genetic diversity (mean He = 0.75); of all indigenous breeds, Lung Pu showed highest mean number of alleles (MNA = 10.1), gene diversity (He = 0.82), allele richness (5.33) and number of private alleles (10). Thirteen percentage of the total genetic variation observed was due to differences among populations. The neighbour-joining dendrogram obtained from Nei's standard genetic distance differentiated eight populations into four groups including Yorkshire, two wild populations, Mong Cai population and a group of four other indigenous populations. The Bayesian clustering with the admixture model implemented in Structure 2.1 indicated seven possible homogenous clusters among eight populations. From 79% (Ha Lang) to 98% (Mong Cai). individuals in indigenous pigs were assigned to their own populations. The results confirmed high level of genetic diversity and shed a new light on genetic structure of Vietnam indigenous pig populations. PMID:24373066

Pham, L D; Do, D N; Nam, L Q; Van Ba, N; Minh, L T A; Hoan, T X; Cuong, V C; Kadarmideen, H N

2014-10-01

119

Chicken Wing Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore cooked chicken wings and identify the various parts including: bones (radius, ulna, humerus, shoulder joint, elbow joint), tendons, and cartilage. Learners observe the relationships between bones, tendons, and cartilage and identify how a chicken wing is similar to a human arm.

2014-08-07

120

Chicken life cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A female chicken is called a hen and a male chicken is called a rooster. Hens lay eggs as a way to reproduce. The egg then hatches into a baby chick and the chick matures into an adult hen or rooster.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

121

Genome-wide Mapping Reveals Conservation of Promoter DNA Methylation Following Chicken Domestication  

PubMed Central

It is well-known that environment influences DNA methylation, however, the extent of heritable DNA methylation variation following animal domestication remains largely unknown. Using meDIP-chip we mapped the promoter methylomes for 23,316 genes in muscle tissues of ancestral and domestic chickens. We systematically examined the variation of promoter DNA methylation in terms of different breeds, differentially expressed genes, SNPs and genes undergo genetic selection sweeps. While considerable changes in DNA sequence and gene expression programs were prevalent, we found that the inter-strain DNA methylation patterns were highly conserved in promoter region between the wild and domestic chicken breeds. Our data suggests a global preservation of DNA methylation between the wild and domestic chicken breeds in either a genome-wide or locus-specific scale in chick muscle tissues. PMID:25735894

Li, Qinghe; Wang, Yuanyuan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Ning

2015-01-01

122

Genome-wide Mapping Reveals Conservation of Promoter DNA Methylation Following Chicken Domestication.  

PubMed

It is well-known that environment influences DNA methylation, however, the extent of heritable DNA methylation variation following animal domestication remains largely unknown. Using meDIP-chip we mapped the promoter methylomes for 23,316 genes in muscle tissues of ancestral and domestic chickens. We systematically examined the variation of promoter DNA methylation in terms of different breeds, differentially expressed genes, SNPs and genes undergo genetic selection sweeps. While considerable changes in DNA sequence and gene expression programs were prevalent, we found that the inter-strain DNA methylation patterns were highly conserved in promoter region between the wild and domestic chicken breeds. Our data suggests a global preservation of DNA methylation between the wild and domestic chicken breeds in either a genome-wide or locus-specific scale in chick muscle tissues. PMID:25735894

Li, Qinghe; Wang, Yuanyuan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Ning

2015-01-01

123

Analysis of genome-wide structure, diversity and fine mapping of Mendelian traits in traditional and village chickens.  

PubMed

Extensive phenotypic variation is a common feature among village chickens found throughout much of the developing world, and in traditional chicken breeds that have been artificially selected for traits such as plumage variety. We present here an assessment of traditional and village chicken populations, for fine mapping of Mendelian traits using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping while providing information on their genetic structure and diversity. Bayesian clustering analysis reveals two main genetic backgrounds in traditional breeds, Kenyan, Ethiopian and Chilean village chickens. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) reveals useful LD (r(2) ? 0.3) in both traditional and village chickens at pairwise marker distances of ~10 Kb; while haplotype block analysis indicates a median block size of 11-12 Kb. Association mapping yielded refined mapping intervals for duplex comb (Gga 2:38.55-38.89 Mb) and rose comb (Gga 7:18.41-22.09 Mb) phenotypes in traditional breeds. Combined mapping information from traditional breeds and Chilean village chicken allows the oocyan phenotype to be fine mapped to two small regions (Gga 1:67.25-67.28 Mb, Gga 1:67.28-67.32 Mb) totalling ~75 Kb. Mapping the unmapped earlobe pigmentation phenotype supports previous findings that the trait is sex-linked and polygenic. A critical assessment of the number of SNPs required to map simple traits indicate that between 90 and 110K SNPs are required for full genome-wide analysis of haplotype block structure/ancestry, and for association mapping in both traditional and village chickens. Our results demonstrate the importance and uniqueness of phenotypic diversity and genetic structure of traditional chicken breeds for fine-scale mapping of Mendelian traits in the species, with village chicken populations providing further opportunities to enhance mapping resolutions. PMID:22395157

Wragg, D; Mwacharo, J M; Alcalde, J A; Hocking, P M; Hanotte, O

2012-07-01

124

Comparative Gastric Morphometry of Muong Indigenous and Vietnamese Wild Pigs  

PubMed Central

It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastric glands. Interestingly, the stomach mass correlated well with live body weight in both breeds apart from possessing similar histomorphometry of the gastric gland regions. On the other hand, the thicker (P < 0.05) submucosa in the Vietnamese wild pig is attributed to the presence of numerous loose connective tissues, abundant blood vessels, adipose tissues and nerve plexus. The appearance of lymphoid follicles underneath the tubular gastric glands in the Vietnamese wild pig exceeded that of Muong indigenous pigs. This finding suggested that the difference in feeding behavior as well as immunity. In conclusion, adaptations found in the Vietnamese wild pig indicated that this breed is equipped with a bigger and effectively functional stomach to suit its digestive physiology and immunity in the wild. PMID:23093914

Trang, Pham Hong; Ooi, Peck Toung; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

2012-01-01

125

High Diversity of the Chicken Growth Hormone Gene and Effects on Growth and Carcass Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chicken growth hormone (cGH) gene plays a crucial role in controlling growth and metabolism, leading to potential correlations between cGH polymorphisms and economic traits. In this study, DNA from four divergent chicken breeds were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the cGH gene using denaturing high-performance liquid chroma- tography and sequencing. A total of 46 SNPs were identified,

Q. Nie; B. SUN; D. ZHANG; C. LUO; N. A. ISHAG; M. LEI; G. YANG; X. ZHANG

2005-01-01

126

BREEDING OBJECTIVES FOR ANGUS AND CHAROLAIS SPECIALIZED SIRE LINES FOR USE IN THE EMERGING SECTOR OF SOUTH AFRICAN BEEF PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to develop breeding objectives for Angus and Charolais bulls intended for breeding indigenous cows to facilitate calves produced in the emerging sector better meeting requirements of the feedlots. An aggregated simulation model that is reliant on user inputs for th...

127

Information Technology and Indigenous People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…

Dyson, Laurel, Ed.; Hendriks, Max, Ed.; Grant, Stephen, Ed.

2007-01-01

128

Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

Indigenous Affairs, 1996

1996-01-01

129

Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

Indigenous Affairs, 1997

1997-01-01

130

Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…

Enn, Rosa

2012-01-01

131

Indigenous Language Codification: Cultural Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As indigenous communities begin to develop language revitalization programs, they inevitably must face the decision of whether to incorporate written forms of their historically oral languages into their efforts. This paper argues that as indigenous people go about the decision-making process, they must be aware of the implications of relying on a…

Bielenberg, Brian

132

Commentary: Indigenous Health Special Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…

Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy

2010-01-01

133

Reclaiming Indigenous Voice and Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book springs from a 1996 International Summer Institute, held at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, on the cultural restoration of oppressed Indigenous peoples. Essays draw on many perspectives and experiences to seek ways of healing and rebuilding nations, peoples, and communities by restoring Indigenous ecologies, consciousnesses,…

Battiste, Marie, Ed.

134

A Complex Genomic Rearrangement Involving the Endothelin 3 Locus Causes Dermal Hyperpigmentation in the Chicken  

PubMed Central

Dermal hyperpigmentation or Fibromelanosis (FM) is one of the few examples of skin pigmentation phenotypes in the chicken, where most other pigmentation variants influence feather color and patterning. The Silkie chicken is the most widespread and well-studied breed displaying this phenotype. The presence of the dominant FM allele results in extensive pigmentation of the dermal layer of skin and the majority of internal connective tissue. Here we identify the causal mutation of FM as an inverted duplication and junction of two genomic regions separated by more than 400 kb in wild-type individuals. One of these duplicated regions contains endothelin 3 (EDN3), a gene with a known role in promoting melanoblast proliferation. We show that EDN3 expression is increased in the developing Silkie embryo during the time in which melanoblasts are migrating, and elevated levels of expression are maintained in the adult skin tissue. We have examined four different chicken breeds from both Asia and Europe displaying dermal hyperpigmentation and conclude that the same structural variant underlies this phenotype in all chicken breeds. This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals. PMID:22216010

Dorshorst, Ben; Molin, Anna-Maja; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Johansson, Anna M.; Strömstedt, Lina; Pham, Manh-Hung; Chen, Chih-Feng; Hallböök, Finn; Ashwell, Chris; Andersson, Leif

2011-01-01

135

Salmonella profile in chickens determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and bacteriology from years 2000 to 2003 in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

From years 2000 to 2003, Salmonella was investigated from a total of 1785 samples comprised of chicken intestinal samples, cloacal swabs, drag swabs, litter samples and chick dust samples collected from 191 poultry breeding flocks belonging to 15 different chicken breeding stock companies in the Marmara region, Turkey by a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (SGBRT-PCR), by a probe-specific

Aysegul Eyigor; Gulsen Goncagul; Elcin Gunaydin; K. Tayfun Carli

2005-01-01

136

Indigenous Nations' Responses to Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On August 1st, 2007, Indigenous nations from within the United States, Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa (New Zealand) signed a treaty to found the United League of Indigenous Nations. The Treaty of Indigenous Nations offers a historic opportunity for sovereign Indigenous governments to build intertribal cooperation outside the framework of the…

Grossman, Zoltan

2008-01-01

137

More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous

Bunten, Alexis Celeste

2010-01-01

138

Salsa Baked Chicken Ingredients  

E-print Network

. Preheat oven to 400ºF. 2. Place chicken breasts in a medium bowl. Add salsa an allow to marinate for 20 basis protected by law. An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Issued in furtherance

Liskiewicz, Maciej

139

Chicken Pozole Soup Ingredients  

E-print Network

, canned 1 onion 15 ounces low sodium tomatoes, canned 1/4 teaspoon pepper 2 tablespoons chili powder 1 chicken, chopped onion, tomatoes, hominy, pepper, chili powder, and oregano to pot. 6. Cover and simmer

Liskiewicz, Maciej

140

Bioactivities of chicken essence.  

PubMed

The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. PMID:22432477

Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H

2012-04-01

141

Characterisation of chicken viperin.  

PubMed

The identification of immune pathways that protect against pathogens may lead to novel molecular therapies for both livestock and human health. Interferon (IFN) is a major response pathway that stimulates multiple genes targeted towards reducing virus. Viperin is one such interferon stimulated gene (ISG) that helps protect mammals from virus and may be critical to protecting chickens in the same way. In chickens, ISGs are not generally well characterised and viperin, in concert with other ISGs, may be important in protecting against virus. Here we identify chicken viperin (ch-viperin) and show that ch-viperin is upregulated in response to viral signature molecules. We further show that viperin is upregulated in response to virus infection in vivo. This data will benefit investigators targeting the antiviral pathways in the chicken. PMID:25311379

Goossens, Kate E; Karpala, Adam J; Rohringer, Andreas; Ward, Alistair; Bean, Andrew G D

2015-02-01

142

Cyber-Indigeneity: Urban Indigenous Identity on Facebook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.

Lumby, Bronwyn

2010-01-01

143

Advanced Backcross Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is a detailed explanation of the backcross breeding process. Variations based on whether backcrossing is performed with dominant, recessive, or multiple traits are discussed. Calculations associated with backcross breeding are explained.

144

Cattle Breed Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How many of you all grew up on a cattle farm? This is a diagram that we will use to tell some advantages and disadvantages about beef cattle as we study different beef breeds. Diagram Advantages and Disadvantages of beef cattle breeds The first website that we will look at for the identification of beef cattle breeds is The Beef Site. Choose three breeds and look for some advantages ...

Mr. Harbour

2012-04-04

145

Towards Conservation of Omani Local Chicken: Phenotypic Characteristics, Management Practices and Performance Traits  

PubMed Central

Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05). A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05), being 1.3±0.65 kg and 1.1±0.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 22±7.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.3±2.85 and annual production 64.5±2.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 88±6.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 16±1.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations. PMID:25050013

Al-Qamashoui, B.; Mahgoub, O.; Kadim, I.; Schlecht, E.

2014-01-01

146

Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients  

E-print Network

Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds chicken breast, skinless, boneless 1 onion tomatoes, canned 6 ounces tomato paste 1/3 cup balsamic vinegar 1 teaspoon basil 1 teaspoon oregano 1 pink. 5. Once chicken is cooked, add garlic powder, diced tomatoes, tomato paste, balsamic vinegar

Liskiewicz, Maciej

147

Chicken and Fruit Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Chicken and Fruit Salad Ingredients: 2 stalks celery, chopped 1 cup seedless grapes 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice, drained well 11 ounces mandarin orange, drained 3 cups boneless, skinless chicken for other uses. Add pineapple and oranges to bowl. Sprinkle with pepper. 4. Add cooked chicken and half

Liskiewicz, Maciej

148

Large scale variation in DNA copy number in chicken breeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background Detecting genetic variation is a critical step in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic diversity. Until recently, such detection has mostly focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) because of the ease in screening complete genomes. Another type of variant, c...

149

Effect of Insulin on the Secretion and Content of Triglyceride in the Chicken Liver Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglyceride (TG) secretion from liver and its storage in abdominal cavity of the broiler affects the net meat yield. So agents that affect the hepatic TG secretion may be important for poultry breeders. At present study, we have shown short term effects of insulin on the chicken liver TG secretion at the first, third, fifth and seventh weeks of breeding.

2005-01-01

150

Cytokine gene expression profile in Fayoumi chicken after Eimeria maxima infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry causing substantial economic losses. This study was conducted to investigate the cytokines related with the resistance against coccidiosis. Two breeding lines of Fayoumi chicken were evaluated for the expression of 9 cytokine genes: IFN-gamma, IFN...

151

Cloning, Expression and Biological Analysis of Recombinant Chicken IFN-gamma Expressed in Escherichia coli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The interferon-gamma (CHIFN-') derived from the spleen cells of White Leghorns chicken, a local Chinese breeding species was amplified by RT-PCR. The gene encoding CHIFN-' with the deletion of the N-terminal signal peptide was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET30a, resulting in a recombin...

152

RESTORATION OF SPERMATOGENESIS AND MALE FERTILITY BY TRANSPLANTATION OF DISPERSED TESTICULAR CELLS IN THE CHICKEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transplantation of male germ cells into sterilized recipients has been widely used in mammals for conventional breeding as well as for transgenesis. This study presents a workable approach for germ cell transplantation between chicken males. Testicular cells from adult and pre-pubertal donors were ...

153

Weaving Indigenous science, protocols and sustainability science  

E-print Network

, the authors describe cases of Indigenous protocols in action in relation to scientific inquiry in two Indigenous-led sustainability initiatives in the Great Lakes/Midwest North American region. We claim that each case expresses concepts of stewardship...

Whyte, Kyle Powys; Brewer II, Joseph P.; Johnson, Jay T.

2015-04-02

154

Indigenous Health and Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global–local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

2012-01-01

155

THE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND THE WORLD INDIGENOUS MOVEMENT  

E-print Network

document, equivalent to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and able to protect indigenous collectiveTHE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND THE WORLD INDIGENOUS MOVEMENT Irène Bellier* Over the last decade, under the auspices of the Commission on Human Rights, indigenous peoples have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

Chicken Quesadillas Ingredients  

E-print Network

-cooked and shredded 2 tablespoons chunky salsa 1/4 onion, chopped 1/4 cup green bell pepper, chopped 1/2 cup Monterey with cooking spray and heat to medium. 2. Mix chicken, salsa, onion, and green pepper (optional). 3. Place 1

Liskiewicz, Maciej

157

Indigenous lunar construction materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary design of the lunar shelter showed us that joining is a critical technology needed for building a structure from large segments. The problem of joining is important to the design of any structure that is not completely prefabricated. It is especially important when the structure is subjected to tensile loading by an internal pressure. For a lunar shelter constructed from large segments the joints between these large segments must be strong, and they must permit automated construction. With a cast basalt building material which is brittle, there is the additional problem of connecting the joint with the material and avoiding stress concentration that would cause failure. Thus, a well-defined project which we intend to pursue during this coming year is the design of joints for cast basalt structural elements.

Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

1991-01-01

158

Indigenous Knowledge for Development: Opportunities and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous knowledge is a critical factor for sustainable development. Empowerment of local communities is a prerequisite for the integration of indigenous knowledge in the development process. The integration of appropriate indigenous knowledge systems into development programs has already contributed to efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainable…

Gorjestani, Nicolas

159

Indigenous Environmental Perspectives: A North American Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a brief overview of the nature of indigenous sustainable subsistence economies, and the present underdevelopment and dependency of North American indigenous economies resulting from colonialism and marginalization. Describes environmental and personal contamination on indigenous lands from uranium and coal mining, toxic and nuclear waste,…

LaDuke, Winona

1992-01-01

160

Indigenous Education and Empowerment: International Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous people have often been confronted with education systems that ignore their cultural and historical perspectives. This insightful volume contributes to the understanding of indigenous empowerment through education, and creates a new foundation for implementing specialized indigenous/minority education worldwide, engaging the simultaneous…

Abu-Saad, Ismael, Ed.; Champagne, Duane, Ed.

2005-01-01

161

From Our Eyes: Learning from Indigenous Peoples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the conference and this book is to begin to establish the parameters of a new period of interaction between indigenous and non-Native peoples of North America through their experiences in university and academic practices and settings. The book exposes academic communities to indigenous learning and indigenous knowledge with the…

O'Meara, Sylvia, Ed.; West, Douglas A., Ed.

162

Indigenous Violence as a 'Mediated Public Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between Indigenous Australians and violence remains a persistent backdrop to public discussion of issues of race in Australia. This paper reports on initial analysis of a survey of newspaper reporting of 'Indigenous violence' in seven Australian newspapers from January 2000 to June 2006. From a 'high point' in the reporting of Indigenous affairs in the year 2000, reporting

Kerry McCallum

163

Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form and function of these particles in indigenous languages. Based on an

Lourdes Torres

2006-01-01

164

Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts to gain…

Indigenous Affairs, 1995

1995-01-01

165

Tritium breeding in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements.

Abdou, M.A.

1982-10-01

166

[Cholesterol content in chicken meat and chicken products].  

PubMed

High cholesterol saturated lipids ingestion has been linked to the increment of coronary diseases, particularly atherosclerosis. In this study, samples of viscera and chicken meat, as well as manufactured chicken products are characterized from the point of view of their sterol content, specially cholesterol, with the purpose to determine their nutritional quality and to contribute with the development of Venezuelan food composition tables. Gas-liquid chromatography was the method chosen for the separation and quantification of cholesterol and fitosterols eventually present. The method involves lipids extraction, direct saponification, extraction of the unsaponifiable matter and its injection in the gas chromatograph. The average cholesterol values in mg/100 g. wet sample were: 31.13 (manufactured chicken breast); 57,35 (ham like type of product made with chicken); 69.02 (chicken sausages); 60.46 (chicken "bologna"). PMID:9429649

Rincón, A M; Carrillo de Padilla, F; Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

1997-03-01

167

Two-eyed seeing: a framework for understanding indigenous and non-indigenous approaches to indigenous health research.  

PubMed

This article presents two-eyed seeing as a theoretical framework that embraces the contributions of both Indigenous and Western "ways of knowing" (world-views). It presents key characteristics and principles of these different perspectives and suggests ways in which they might be used together to answer our most pressing questions about the health of Indigenous people and communities. Presenting a critique of positivism, which has historically undermined and/or dismissed Indigenous ways of knowing as "unscientific," it discusses the origins of both Western and Indigenous approaches to understanding health; the importance of giving equal consideration to diverse Indigenous and non-Indigenous worldviews such that one worldview does not dominate or undermine the contributions of others; and how balanced consideration of contributions from diverse worldviews, embraced within a two-eyed seeing framework, can reshape the nature of the questions we ask in the realm of Indigenous health research. PMID:22894005

Martin, Debbie H

2012-06-01

168

The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples. PMID:23338830

Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

2014-06-01

169

Biculturalism among Indigenous College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Indigenous" college students in both Canada and the United States have the lowest rates of obtaining postsecondary degrees, and their postsecondary dropout rates are higher than for any other minority (Freeman & Fox, 2005; Mendelson, 2004; Reddy, 1993). There has been very little research done to uncover possible reasons for such low academic…

Miller, Colton D.

2011-01-01

170

Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

Indigenous Affairs, 2000

2000-01-01

171

Providing Space for Indigenous Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colonial influences have generally failed to respect indigenous knowledge, languages, and cultures. Determination to reclaim First Nations identity is visible in many jurisdictions. First Nations Peoples continue to call on governments to facilitate changes needed to revitalize their economic, social, cultural, and spiritual well-being. This…

Tangihaere, Tracey Mihinoa; Twiname, Linda

2011-01-01

172

Indigenous mortality (revealed): the invisible illuminated.  

PubMed

Inaccuracies in the identification of Indigenous status and the collection of and access to vital statistics data impede the strategic implementation of evidence-based public health initiatives to reduce avoidable deaths. The impact of colonization and subsequent government initiatives has been commonly observed among the Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The quality of Indigenous data that informs mortality statistics are similarly connected to these distal processes, which began with colonization. We discuss the methodological and technical challenges in measuring mortality for Indigenous populations within a historical and political context, and identify strategies for the accurate ascertainment and inclusion of Indigenous people in mortality statistics. PMID:25211754

Freemantle, Jane; Ring, Ian; Arambula Solomon, Teshia G; Gachupin, Francine C; Smylie, Janet; Cutler, Tessa Louise; Waldon, John A

2015-04-01

173

Pathogenesis of histomonosis in experimentally infected specific-pathogen-free (SPF) layer-type chickens and SPF meat-type chickens.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown differences in the course of histomonosis, the infection with the trichomonad parasite Histomonas meleagridis, in different chicken breeds. In the present study, 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) layer-type (LT) chickens and twelve SPF meat-type (MT) chickens were infected intracloacally with 200,000 H. meleagridis trophozoites. One and two weeks postinfection (p.i.), three birds of each group were euthanatized. The remaining birds were euthanatized 3 wk p.i. Infected birds showed severe gross lesions typical for histomonosis in ceca at the first and second week p.i., while livers showed necrotic foci at 2 and 3 wk p.i., but only very rarely at 1 wk p.i. Differences between groups in the severity of lesions were statistically insignificant. In histopathology, LT chickens showed a significantly more-severe necrosis and ablation of the cecal epithelium 1 wk p.i. Parasites without inflammation were also found in most investigated spleens and lungs but only in a few kidneys. Investigation of these organs for histomonal DNA by real-time PCR confirmed these results. In addition, the humoral immune response against histomonal actinin 1 and 3 was measured by an ELISA. The humoral immune response against actinin 1 started sooner and was significantly higher in LT chickens than in MT chickens. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the genetic background of the birds influences the reaction to infection with H. meleagridis. PMID:25518438

Lotfi, Abdulrahman; Hauck, Rüdiger; Olias, Philipp; Hafez, Hafez M

2014-09-01

174

Tritium breeding materials  

SciTech Connect

Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.

Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

1984-03-01

175

CGIAR Integrated Breeding Platform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Integrated Breeding Platform is a development being led by the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP), a part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) which has a mission to bring scientists from different horizons and with different skills to work together, bridging the gap between upstream and applied research, so that biotechnology could have greater impact on plant breeding efficiency in developing countries.The Integrated Breeding Platform functions as a one-stop-shop to provide information, tools, services and training.  Furthermore IBP hopes to provide developing countries with access to modern breeding technologies, breeding materials, and related information to facilitate their adoption of molecular breeding approaches and improve their plant breeding efficiency.This site provides educational and training opportunities to help people be able to better utilize the tools at the Integrated Breeding Platform, as well as to provide an online community area for webinars and discussion forums. In order to access the self-paced courses found at the left, you will need to click on the "Join Now" button found in the upper right corner of this page.  Right now the courses are under development and not ready for participants.  While you wait, you can view any materials found under the "lessons" or "animations/video" buttons.

176

Corn Breeding: Mass Selection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the fourth in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.

177

Sexual Reproduction and Breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

178

Can non-breeding be a cost of breeding dispersal?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Breeding habitat selection and dispersal are crucial processes that affect many components of fitness. Breeding dispersal entails costs, one of which has been neglected: dispersing animals may miss breeding opportunities because breeding dispersal requires finding a new nesting site and mate, two time- and energy-consuming activities. Dispersers are expected to be prone to non-breeding. We used the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) to test whether breeding dispersal influences breeding probability. Breeding probability was associated with dispersal, in that both were negatively influenced by private information (previous individual reproductive success) and public information (average reproductive success of conspecifics) about patch quality. Furthermore, the probability of skipping breeding was 1.7 times higher in birds that settled in a new patch relative to those that remained on the same patch. Finally, non-breeders that resumed breeding were 4.4 times more likely to disperse than birds that bred in successive years. Although private information may influence breeding probability directly, the link between breeding probability and public information may be indirect, through the influence of public information on breeding dispersal, non-breeding thus being a cost of dispersal. These results support the hypothesis that dispersal may result in not being able to breed. More generally, non-breeding (which can be interpreted as an extreme form of breeding failure) may reveal costs of various previous activities. Because monitoring the non-breeding portion of a population is difficult, non-breeders have been neglected in many studies of reproduction trade-offs.

Danchin, E.; Cam, E.

2002-01-01

179

Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To view additional success stories click on the link in the left menu Please click here to report your plant breeding success stories.  Click on TCAP logo to see the Economic impact of USDA-NIFA small grains CAPsThe Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee (SCC 080) is the USDA-sponsored advisory group of representatives from land grant universities.  The Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee represents national plant breeding with a focus on education in the broader sense, including providing information to the public and administrators, and encouraging the development of formal educational opportunities, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Mission: To provide a forum for leadership on issues and opportunities of strategic importance to national core competency in plant breeding research and education Membership: The PBCC members will consist of the representatives of the SCC-080 committee and others by request. 

180

Extensive female-mediated gene flow and low phylogeography among seventeen goat breeds in southwest China.  

PubMed

Indigenous Chinese goat mtDNA is highly diverse but lacks geographic specificity; however, whether gene flow or gene exchange contributed to this remains unknown. We reanalyzed a consensus fragment of 481 bp in the D-loop region from 339 individuals. The network and neighbor-joining tree revealed three divergent maternal haplogroups (A, B1, and B2) in 17 local breeds. Although high polymorphism resulting in 198 different haplotypes was observed (h = 0.984 ± 0.002; ? = 0.0336 ± 0.0008), neither the distribution of haplotypes nor PCA analysis revealed any obvious geographic structure in the local breeds. Extensive gene flow was widely detected among breeds from southwest China. High levels of gene exchange were detected between Qianbei Brown goats and the other breeds, indicating either more contribution or introgression to their gene pools. This study will be helpful in understanding the phylogeography and gene flow among the goat breeds of southwest China. PMID:24777493

Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Lin Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hong Ping

2014-08-01

181

Mapping and genotypic analysis of the NK-lysin gene in chicken  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are important elements of the first line of defence against pathogens in animals. NK-lysin is a cationic AMP that plays a critical role in innate immunity. The chicken NK-lysin gene has been cloned and its antimicrobial and anticancer activity has been described but its location in the chicken genome remains unknown. Here, we mapped the NK-lysin gene and examined the distribution of a functionally significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) among different chicken inbred lines and heritage breeds. Results A 6000 rad radiation hybrid panel (ChickRH6) was used to map the NK-lysin gene to the distal end of chromosome 22. Two additional genes, the adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1-like gene (AEBP1) and the DNA polymerase delta subunit 2-like (POLD2) gene, are located in the same NW_003779909 contig as NK-lysin, and were thus indirectly mapped to chromosome 22 as well. Previously, we reported a functionally significant SNP at position 271 of the NK-lysin coding sequence in two different chicken breeds. Here, we examined this SNP and found that the A allele appears to be more common than the G allele in these heritage breeds and inbred lines. Conclusions The chicken NK-lysin gene mapped to the distal end of chromosome 22. Two additional genes, AEBP1 and POLD2, were indirectly mapped to chromosome 22 also. SNP analyses revealed that the A allele, which encodes a peptide with a higher antimicrobial activity, is more common than the G allele in our tested inbred lines and heritage breeds. PMID:25001618

2014-01-01

182

Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?breeds (DA?=?0.184) while WAD and Balami are the farthest apart breeds (DA?=?0.665), which is coincident with distance based on morphological analysis and population structure assessed by STRUCTURE. Conclusions These results suggest that within-breed genetic variation in Nigerian sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep. PMID:23176051

2012-01-01

183

The cost of conserving livestock diversity? Incentive measures and conservation options for maintaining indigenous Pelón pigs in Yucatan, Mexico.  

PubMed

In the Mexican state of Yucatan the Pel6n pig breed has been identified as being endangered. The gradual disappearance of this indigenous breed that is able to survive well in an extreme environment and under low-input conditions undermines food and livestock security for Yucatan's rural poor. This study uses contingent valuation to identify those backyard pig producers who require least compensation to conserve the Pel6n breed. Understanding the conditions under which livestock keepers most committed to the use of the indigenous breed would be willing to participate in different conservation scenarios allows for a comparative analysis of alternate conservation schemes, in terms of cost and breed population growth. The findings suggest that establishing a community-based conservation scheme could be sufficient to ensure that the Pel6n pig reaches a 'not at risk' extinction status. Alternatively, establishing open-nucleus breeding schemes would result in a higher effective population size, but at relatively greater cost. We conclude that for the specific case of the Pel6n pig in Yucatan, Mexico, if effectively designed, the cost of conservation and sustainable use strategies may be little more than the cost of facilitating access to the animal genetic resource for those most reliant upon it. PMID:17944304

Pattison, J; Drucker, A G; Anderson, S

2007-06-01

184

Genetic differentiation of chinese indigenous meat goats ascertained using microsatellite information.  

PubMed

To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats. PMID:25049548

Ling, Y H; Zhang, X D; Yao, N; Ding, J P; Chen, H Q; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Y H; Ren, C H; Ma, Y H; Zhang, X R

2012-02-01

185

Carnosine, anserine, creatine, and inosine 5'-monophosphate contents in breast and thigh meats from 5 lines of Korean native chicken.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chicken line on the contents of endogenous compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, and inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), in breast and thigh meats from 5 lines of Korean native chicken for the development of high-quality meat breeds. Additionally, the effects of sex (male or female) and meat type (breast or thigh meat) were examined. In total, 595 F1 progeny [black: 90 (male: 45, female: 45); gray-brown: 110 (male: 52, female: 58); red-brown: 136 (male: 68, female: 68); white: 126 (male: 63, female: 63); and yellow-brown: 133 (male: 62, female: 71)] from 70 full-sib families were used. The male chicken from the red-brown line and the female chicken from the black line showed the highest BW among the 5 lines. Carnosine content was higher in female chicken and breast meat than in male chicken and thigh meat, respectively. Breast meat contained higher anserine content compared with thigh meat. The sex effect on anserine was not consistent between breast and thigh meat. Creatine content was not consistently influenced by sex between breast and thigh meat, and no meat type effect was observed. The IMP contents were higher in female chicken and breast meat compared with male chicken and thigh meat, respectively. In addition, we clearly observed line effects by the comparison of the contents of carnosine, anserine, creatine, and IMP for each meat type according to each sex. These data are useful for selection and development of high-quality, meat-type chicken breeds. PMID:24235239

Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Lee, Jun Heon; Park, Hee Bok; Heo, Kang Nyung; Jo, Cheorun

2013-12-01

186

Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. PMID:24069494

Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Ângelo P.

2013-01-01

187

Pharmacokinetics and tissue depletion of florfenicol in Leghorn and Taiwan Native chickens.  

PubMed

Florfenicol (Ff) is a synthetic antibiotic with a broad antibacterial spectrum and high therapeutic effectiveness that was specifically developed for veterinary use. In the present study, tissue residual levels and the pharmacokinetics of Ff after oral administration of 30 mg/kg to Leghorn and Taiwan Native chicken were studied. Furthermore, differential pharmacokinetics between leg and breast muscles were compared using samples collected from an optimized microdialysis model designed for avian species. Significant differences in C(max) were detected between the plasma and muscle microdialysates, and between the breast and leg microdialysates of the Leghorn chickens by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. After a single oral dose of Ff at 30 mg/kg, the drug was quickly absorbed and widely distributed with tissue penetration factors significantly different between leg and breast muscles. The serum protein binding of Ff was estimated to be 16.8 ± 1.2%. Significant breed differences in tissue depletion were noted and characterized by higher Ff concentration in the brain, lung, kidney and at least 12 h longer resident times in kidney, heart and spleen for Taiwan Native chicken. Results from this investigation demonstrate the practicality of using in vivo microdialysis in chickens for pharmacokinetic studies and reveal significant time-dependent differences in the free concentrations of Ff in leg and breast muscles. The tissue depletion study signified breed differences in tissue residue concentration and detection times between Leghorn and Taiwan Native chickens. Therefore, currently used withdrawal times for Ff in chickens can not be assumed safe for Taiwan Native chickens. PMID:20840391

Chang, S K; Davis, J L; Cheng, C N; Shien, R H; Hsieh, M K; Koh, B W; Chou, C C

2010-10-01

188

The effects of polymorphisms in 7 candidate genes on resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in native chickens.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection is a common concern in poultry production for its negative effects on growth as well as food safety for humans. Identification of molecular markers that are linked to resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis may lead to appropriate solutions to control Salmonella infection in chickens. This study investigated the association of candidate genes with resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in young chickens. Two native breeds of Malaysian chickens, namely, Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl, were evaluated for bacterial colonization after Salmonella Enteritidis inoculation. Seven candidate genes were selected on the basis of their physiological role in immune response, as determined by prior studies in other genetic lines: natural resistance-associated protein 1 (NRAMP1), transforming growth factor ?3 (TGF?3), transforming growth factor ?4 (TGF?4), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (IAP1), caspase 1 (CASP1), lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? factor (LITAF), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Polymerase chain reaction-RFLP was used to identify polymorphisms in the candidate genes; all genes exhibited polymorphisms in at least one breed. The NRAMP1-SacI polymorphism correlated with the differences in Salmonella Enteritidis load in the cecum (P = 0.002) and spleen (P = 0.01) of Village Chickens. Polymorphisms in the restriction sites of TGF?3-BsrI, TGF?4-MboII, and TRAIL-StyI were associated with Salmonella Enteritidis burden in the cecum, spleen, and liver of Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the NRAMP1, TGF?3, TGF?4, and TRAIL genes are potential candidates for use in selection programs for increasing genetic resistance against Salmonella Enteritidis in native Malaysian chickens. PMID:23472012

Tohidi, R; Idris, I B; Malar Panandam, J; Hair Bejo, M

2013-04-01

189

Plant breeding Fields of efficiency of breeding methods  

E-print Network

Plant breeding Fields of efficiency of breeding methods for per se value or combining ability in plant breeding A Gallais1 1 INRA-UPS, Station de Génétique Végétale, ferme du Moulon, F91190 Gif value or general combining ability, the fields of efficiency of 6 breeding methods (mass selection, half

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

USDA animal genomics program: the view from the chicken coop  

PubMed Central

In 2007, the USDA Animal Genomics Strategic Planning Task Force prepared a Blueprint to direct national needs for future research, education, and extension efforts in agricultural animal genomics. This plan is entitled "Blueprint for USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics 2008–2017". The Blueprint is reviewed from the perspective of a molecular biologist working within the poultry breeding industry. The diverse species used in animal agriculture require different tools, resources and technologies for their improvement. The specific requirements for chickens are described in this report. PMID:19607651

2009-01-01

191

Asian Chicken & Orange Packets Ingredients  

E-print Network

broccoli 1 onion 2 carrots 2 cups instant brown rice 1/2 teaspoon black pepper 1/4 cup low sodium teriyaki/6 of sliced chicken on rice. Season with pepper. Evenly share vegetables on top of chicken among packets. 7

Liskiewicz, Maciej

192

Market trials of irradiated chicken  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided.

Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.

1998-06-01

193

Chicken anaemia agent: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken anaemia agent (CAA) is a small, unclassified, icosahedral DNA virus with a single?stranded, circular genome. It seems to have a worldwide distribution. Only one serotype of CAA has been found, and all isolates investigated so far are pathogenic for young chicks.CAA causes a syndrome in chickens characterised by increased mortality, anaemia associated with atrophy of the haematopoietic tissues in

M. S. McNulty

1991-01-01

194

Chicken Skeleton - Gliding Joint (Skull)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The chicken uses its beak to pick up small pieces of food from the ground. The gliding joint at the base of the skull allows the chicken to move its head in different directions. It can also defend itself by pecking.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-28

195

Chicken leptin: properties and actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken leptin cDNA shows a high homology to mammalian homologous, with an expression localized in the liver and adipose tissue. It is noteworthy, that the hepatic expression is most likely associated with the primary role that this organ plays in lipogenic activity in avian species. As in mammals, chicken leptin expression is regulated by hormonal and nutritional status. This regulation

M Taouis; S Dridi; S Cassy; Y Benomar; N Raver; N Rideau; M Picard; J Williams; A Gertler

2001-01-01

196

Welfare in horse breeding.  

PubMed

Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, P

2015-04-25

197

Assisted Breeding in Sugar Beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molecular insight and methods applied to plant breeding and germplasm enhancement is the goal of assisted breeding, also known as marker assisted breeding, marker assisted selection, molecular plant breeding, or genome-wide selection, among others. The basic idea is that most, if not all, heritable ...

198

Commonality Among Unique Indigenous Communities: An Introduction to Climate Change and Its Impacts on Indigenous Peoples  

E-print Network

This book (Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples: The Search for Legal Remedies) explores how climate change affects the rights of indigenous peoples. Climate change is a global environmental problem caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Although...

Abate, Randall S.; Kronk, Elizabeth Ann

2013-01-01

199

Commonality Among Unique Indigenous Communities: An Introduction to Climate Change and Its Impacts on Indigenous Peoples  

E-print Network

This article is part of a special issue of the Tulane Environmental Law Journal exploring how climate change affects the rights of indigenous peoples. Climate change is a global environmental problem caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Indigenous...

Abate, Randall S.; Kronk, Elizabeth Ann

2013-01-01

200

Indigenous health: a special moral imperative.  

PubMed

The provision of health services to Indigenous people is not perceived by many Australians to be a moral issue. Indigenous health, however, is not only a moral issue, it is a moral issue that deserves special consideration. In many sectors of society, the correct moral path is unclear, but the circumstances of Indigenous health warrant special consideration which policy makers and health care administrators are uniquely placed to render. The setting of Australia was at the expense of Indigenous flourishing. There is little doubt that many of the current poor health outcomes of Indigenous Australians result from their past impoverishment. We argue that each member of Australian society has inherited a collective moral responsibility, along with the social assets accrued at the expense of Indigenous Australians, irrespective of their personal complicity. Government, as representatives of the people, has a responsibility to repay some of this society's accrued moral debt through the allocation of resources independent of issues of equity. PMID:9848974

Morgan, D L; Allen, R J

1998-10-01

201

Call For Native Genius and Indigenous Intellectualism  

E-print Network

Call for Native Genius and Indigenous Intellectualism Donald L. Fixico Genius and intellectualism have existed and still exist among American Indians and other Indigenous Peoples. Perhaps, only in Indigenous Nations Studies can this fact... be fully appreciated due to the ethnocentricism of the western scientific mind. Historically such genius and native intellectualism has not been viewed as relevant to mainstream thought and according to literature written "about" American Indians...

Fixico, Donald L.

2000-03-01

202

Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

2006-01-09

203

Broiler Chicken Deboning.  

E-print Network

). The wishbone piece can then be rotated gently until it is dislocated from this joint. Poultry Nutrition Tip Boneless chicken meat contains 21.4 percent protein. To remove the shoulder blade (above the ribs), place the thumb against the collar bone near... in publications L-1798 and L-1799, available from your county Extension office. The family style cut yields 13 pieces which are usually smaller than the commercial style and are considered ideal for frying because all pieces are of similar size. The commercial...

Denton, J.H.; Mellor, D.B.

1988-01-01

204

Digital Library for Indigenous Science Resources (DLISR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Indigenous Science Resources is a collection of online text, video, audio, and image files of Indigenous science that includes knowledge about the natural world and ways of teaching and learning about it. All resources are authored and/or produced by Indigenous persons or organizations or approved for inclusion in the collection by an elder or other Indigenous person with the expertise to assess the resource. It is intended for users of all cultures, but can be a particularly important resource for teachers and students in Native Studies programs and in tribal schools and colleges. The current sets of resources are primarily from SnowChange, Tribal College Journal and Winds of Change.

205

Leading the Way: Indigenous Knowledge and Collaboration at The Woolyungah Indigenous Centre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper derives from collaborative research undertaken by staff at the Woolyungah Indigenous Centre, into our own teaching practice. It articulates a particular strand of inquiry emanating from the research: the importance of Indigenous knowledges as this is taught at Woolyungah in the discipline of Indigenous Studies. The paper is a reflection…

McGloin, Colleen; Marshall, Anne; Adams, Michael

2009-01-01

206

Indigenous Education, Mainstream Education, and Native Studies: Some Considerations when Incorporating Indigenous Pedagogy into Native Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A person coming to know for him or herself while respecting differences characterizes the author's experience of Indigenous education. Based on his experience with Indigenous education, he has found that what constitutes validity is very different than mainstream education. In this article, the author presents characteristics of Indigenous

Lambe, Jeff

2003-01-01

207

The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous education.…

Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

2012-01-01

208

Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States were characterized using ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluoresence (IFA) assays. This study included five REV isolates from Prairie chickens in Texas, two ...

209

Evaluation of quality characteristics of chicken meat emulsion/nuggets prepared by using different equipment.  

PubMed

Chicken meat emulsions prepared using food processor (FP), an indigenous meat cutter (MC) and bowl chopper (BC) were evaluated for physicochemical, texture and electron microscopic studies (SEM). Product yield, emulsion stability, hydration properties and gel strength (N) were significantly (P?indigenously developed meat cutter found suitable for producing a stable chicken meat emulsion required for indigenous meat products. PMID:24587526

Devatkal, Suresh K; Manjunatha, M; Narsaiah, K; Patil, R T

2014-03-01

210

Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa  

PubMed Central

Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective population sizes particularly in the conservation flocks. The utility and limitations of the iselect chicken SNP60K in village chicken populations is discussed. PMID:25691890

Khanyile, Khulekani S.; Dzomba, Edgar F.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.

2015-01-01

211

Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa.  

PubMed

Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective population sizes particularly in the conservation flocks. The utility and limitations of the iselect chicken SNP60K in village chicken populations is discussed. PMID:25691890

Khanyile, Khulekani S; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

2015-01-01

212

The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.  

PubMed

The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

2014-11-01

213

Application of functional genomic information to develop efficient EST-SSRs for the chicken (Gallus gallus).  

PubMed

Many years of domestication and breeding have given rise to the wide range of chicken breeds that exist today; however, an increasing number of local chicken breeds are under threat of extinction. A comprehensive characterization of chicken markers (especially type I markers) is needed to monitor and conserve genetic diversity in this species. The explosion of genomics and functional genomics information in recent years has opened new possibilities for the generation of molecular markers. We analyzed a large number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to test the possibility of using EST-derived microsatellite markers for investigating the Gallus gallus genome. Chromosomal locations for the majority of these SSRs were predicted. Of the 31,576 unigenes assembled from the 544,150 redundant EST sequences, 1757 SSR markers were discovered on 1544 ESTs, using the SSRLocator software, with an average density of 28.7 kb per SSR. The dimer motifs were the most frequent (46.38%), followed by trimeric (38.58%), tetrameric (10.19%), pentameric (4.5%), and hexameric (<1%) markers. Different from the case for cattle and sheep, AT/TA was the most abundant dimeric repeat, accounting for 41.71% of all dimeric repeats in the chicken ESTs. The EST-SSR distribution was not uniform among the chromosomes; the majority of the EST-SSRs were located on chromosomes GGA2 and GGA10. We found that most of the EST-SSRs are involved in positive regulation of cellular and metabolic processes. This is the first time that EST sequences have been mined to find chicken microsatellites. On average, 3.8% of the G. gallus UniGene sequences could be exploited for development of EST-SSRs, indicating a good source for molecular markers as well as for functional genome analysis. PMID:22653605

Bakhtiarizadeh, M R; Arefnejad, B; Ebrahimie, E; Ebrahimi, M

2012-01-01

214

Ultrastructural changes in the developing chicken cornea following caffeine administration.  

PubMed

Caffeine is one of the most frequently consumed psychoactive substances. It has been known for many years that caffeine at high concentrations exerts harmful effects on both women's and laboratory animals' fertility, moreover it may impair normal development of many organs in the prenatal period. So far there have been few studies performed that demonstrate teratogenic effects of caffeine on structures of the developing eye, particularly the cornea. The aim of the study was to show ultrastructural changes in the developing cornea, as the effect of caffeine administration to chicken embryos. The experimental materials were 26 chicken embryos from incubated breeding eggs. Eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30) in which Ringer liquid was administrated, and experimental (n=30) in which teratogenic dose of caffeine 3.5mg/egg was given. In 36th hour of incubation solutions were given with cannula through hole in an egg shell directly onto amniotic membrane. After closing the hole with a glass plate and paraffine, eggs were put back to incubator. In 10th and 19th day of incubation corneas were taken for morphological analysis with a use of electron microscopy. Administration of caffeine during chicken development causes changes of collagen fibers of Bowman's membrane patterns and of the corneal stroma but it also changes proportion of amount of collagen fibers and of the stromal cells. PMID:21071341

Monika, Kujawa-Hadry?; Dariusz, Tosik; Hieronim, Bartel

2010-09-30

215

Edinburgh Research Explorer Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens Citation for published version: Mc and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens' BMC

Millar, Andrew J.

216

Positive Educational Responses to Indigenous Student Mobility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging positively with the mobility of Indigenous students has been the centre of a 5-year action research project in Queensland, Australia. Drawing on responses developed for other marginalised mobile populations, and with consideration for the extent of mobility amongst many Indigenous people in Australia, this paper focuses on the…

Hill, Angela; Lynch, Andrea; Dalley-Trim, Leanne

2012-01-01

217

Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

Bevan-Brown, Jill

2013-01-01

218

An Indigenous View of North America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses stories of U.S. and Canadian indigenous individuals who defended their lands against uranium mining and hydroelectric development to contrast the thinking of indigenous people (natural law as pre-eminent, spiritual practice, intergenerational residency in the same place) with industrial thinking (man's dominion over nature, linear thinking,…

LaDuke, Winona

1998-01-01

219

Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

White, Rob

2009-01-01

220

Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

Torres, Lourdes

2006-01-01

221

Indigenous Mobilization in Oaxaca, Mexico: Towards Indianismo?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that indigenous mobilization in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico has been based on a pragmatic, fluid and flexible identity that is strategically adapted to the particular circumstances. The principle concerns of the indigenous movements discussed here are resource access and control in the context of Mexican capitalist modernization. Further, it is argued that Indian organizing in

Geralyn Pye; David Jolley

2011-01-01

222

Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

2014-01-01

223

Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

Dyall, Lorna

2010-01-01

224

Indigenization of Management Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid growth of MBA education in China in recent years is accompanied with an increasing criticism, pointing at the adoption and implementation of Western models without taking care of the indigenous needs. Although the way and the extent to which Chinese business schools should adapt to indigenous needs have been discussed frequently, there…

Li, Liangliang; van Baalen, Peter

2007-01-01

225

Double Power: English Literacy and Indigenous Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of essays on the relationship between English literacy and indigenous education, particularly in the Australian context, includes: "Double Power" (Mandawuy Yunupingu); "History, Cultural Diversity & English Language Teaching" (Martin Nakata); "Scaffolding Reading and Writing for Indigenous Children in School" (David Rose, Brian…

Wignell, Peter, Ed.

226

Indigenous Studies Speaks to Environmental Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors’ hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices.

Richmond, Laurie; Middleton, Beth Rose; Gilmer, Robert; Grossman, Zoltán; Janis, Terry; Lucero, Stephanie; Morgan, Tukoroirangi; Watson, Annette

2013-11-01

227

Rethinking Majors in Australian Indigenous Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenges of finding more productive ways of teaching and learning in Australian Indigenous Studies have been a key focal point for the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network. This article contributes to this discussion by drawing attention to new possibilities for teaching and learning practices amid the priority being…

Nakata, Martin; Nakata, Vicky; Keech, Sarah; Bolt, Reuben

2014-01-01

228

Science, Metaphoric Meaning, and Indigenous Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western cultural approaches to teaching science have excluded Indigenous knowledges and culturally favored many non-Aboriginal science students. By asking the question "What connections exist between Western science and Indigenous knowledge?" elements of epistemological (how do we determine what is real?) and ontological (what is real?)…

Elliott, Frank

2009-01-01

229

Advocacy and Indigenous Methods of Healing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most counselors have had very little experience with indigenous methods of healing. Indigenous healing can be defined as helping beliefs and practices that originate over extended time within a culture that are not transported from other regions, and that are designed for treating the inhabitants of a given group. Most counselors would find great…

Sue, Derald Wing

230

A genetic analysis of taoyuan pig and its phylogenetic relationship to eurasian pig breeds.  

PubMed

Taoyuan pig is a native Taiwan breed. According to the historical record, the breed was first introduced to Taiwan from Guangdong province, Southern China, around 1877. The breed played an important role in Taiwan's early swine industry. It was classified as an indigenous breed in 1986. After 1987, a conserved population of Taoyuan pig was collected and reared in isolation. In this study, mitochondrial DNA sequences and 18 microsatellite markers were used to investigate maternal lineage and genetic diversity within the Taoyuan pig population. Population differentiation among Taoyuan, Asian type, and European type pig breeds was also evaluated using differentiation indices. Only one D-loop haplotype of the Taoyuan pig was found. It clustered with Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China Type pig breeds. Based on the polymorphism of microsatellite markers, a positive fixation index value (FIS) indicates that the conserved Taoyuan population suffers from inbreeding. In addition, high FST values (>0.2105) were obtained, revealing high differentiation among these breeds. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed a clear geometric structure among 7 breeds. Together these results indicate that maternally Taoyuan pig originated in the Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China; however, since being introduced to Taiwan differentiation has occurred. In addition, Taoyuan pig has lost genetic diversity in both its mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25656199

Li, Kuan-Yi; Li, Kuang-Ti; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hsuan; Hung, Chien-Yi; Ju, Yu-Ten

2015-04-01

231

A Genetic Analysis of Taoyuan Pig and Its Phylogenetic Relationship to Eurasian Pig Breeds  

PubMed Central

Taoyuan pig is a native Taiwan breed. According to the historical record, the breed was first introduced to Taiwan from Guangdong province, Southern China, around 1877. The breed played an important role in Taiwan’s early swine industry. It was classified as an indigenous breed in 1986. After 1987, a conserved population of Taoyuan pig was collected and reared in isolation. In this study, mitochondrial DNA sequences and 18 microsatellite markers were used to investigate maternal lineage and genetic diversity within the Taoyuan pig population. Population differentiation among Taoyuan, Asian type, and European type pig breeds was also evaluated using differentiation indices. Only one D-loop haplotype of the Taoyuan pig was found. It clustered with Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China Type pig breeds. Based on the polymorphism of microsatellite markers, a positive fixation index value (FIS) indicates that the conserved Taoyuan population suffers from inbreeding. In addition, high FST values (>0.2105) were obtained, revealing high differentiation among these breeds. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed a clear geometric structure among 7 breeds. Together these results indicate that maternally Taoyuan pig originated in the Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China; however, since being introduced to Taiwan differentiation has occurred. In addition, Taoyuan pig has lost genetic diversity in both its mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25656199

Li, Kuan-Yi; Li, Kuang-Ti; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hsuan; Hung, Chien-Yi; Ju, Yu-Ten

2015-01-01

232

Tissue-specific expression of the chicken adipose differentiation-related protein (ADP) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipose differentiation-related protein gene (ADP) plays an important role in controlling lipid accumulation in mammals. It may also affect lipid deposition in birds. However,\\u000a the molecular mechanism of its actions in birds remains unknown. In the present study, the coding sequence of ADP cDNA for Chinese native breed Sichuan Mountainous Black-bone chicken (MB) was first cloned from abdominal fat using

Xiaoling Zhao; Qing Zhu; Yan Wang; Zhiqing Yang; Yiping Liu

2010-01-01

233

The Contribution of Geography to Disparities in Preventable Hospitalisations between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Main outcome measures Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. Results PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Conclusions Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity. PMID:24859265

Harrold, Timothy C.; Randall, Deborah A.; Falster, Michael O.; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R.

2014-01-01

234

1980 breeding bird censuses  

SciTech Connect

As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and the surrounding region, the two breeding bird censuses originated in 1977 were continued in 1980. Coverage was below that of previous years due to illness and travel of some participants, but 11 trips were made to the BNL plot and 8 to the Westhampton plot. Each was censused by separate teams of three volunteer observers. The number of breeding species and number of territorial males on the BNL plot have progressively declined since 1977 but little change has taken place in either number of territories or species composition on the Westhampton plot.

Raynor, G.S.

1980-09-01

235

Differential gene expression of phosphoglyceric kinase (PGK) and hypoxic adaptation in chicken.  

PubMed

Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the Phosphoglyceric Kinase (PGK) gene were discovered based on comparison of the sequences from an altiplano chicken breed (Tibetan chicken) and two lowland breeds (White Leghorn and Shouguang chicken). Gel-shift results indicate that one of these SNPs, an A-->G mutation at position 59 in exon10, is able to bind hypoxia-induced factor-l (HIF-1), functioning as a hypoxia response element (HRE). The mutant gene results in M-->T mutation at position 379 amino acid. The combined activity of this HRE and HIF-1 could increase correspondingly under a hypoxic stimulus. Hypoxia leads to increased death rates of chicken embryos; while the M-->T mutation described herein is prevalent in healthy embryos grown under hypoxic conditions, thus it may represent an adaptation to hypoxia. Fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription PCR results revealed that HIF-1 upregulates the transcript level of the glycolytic enzyme PGK in the brain and skeletal muscle of animals subjected to hypoxia. Thus, a large amount of ATP is produced by increased glycolysis, allowing the organism to meet energy metabolism demands. As such, we believe this SNP to be an adaptation to the external anoxic environment. PMID:17609890

Wang, CunFang; Yuan, CunZhong; Zhang, Lao; Wu, ChangXin; Li, Ning

2007-06-01

236

Indigenous child health: are we making progress?  

PubMed

We identified 244 relevant articles pertinent to indigenous health (4% of the total) with a steady increase in number since 1995. Most Australian publications in the journal (with a small Indigenous population) have focussed on conditions such as malnutrition, diarrhoeal disease, iron deficiency, rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and respiratory and ear infections, and in settings where nearly all affected children are Indigenous. In contrast, New Zealand publications (with a large Maori and Pacific Islander population) have addressed important health issues affecting all children but emphasised the over-representation of Maori and Pacific Islanders. Publications in the journal are largely descriptive studies with relatively few systematic reviews and randomised trials. Our review attempts to cover the important Indigenous health issues in our region as represented by articles published in the Journal. The studies do document definite improvements in indigenous child health over the last 50 years. PMID:25534334

Brewster, David R; Morris, Peter S

2015-01-01

237

Indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous embedded microbial filaments, bacterial cells and other microfossils were found in the Orgueil, Ivuna (CI1), Murchison, and Bells (CM2) carbonaceous meteorites. Biominerals, biofilms, framboids, magnetite platelets, and curious elemental iron ovoids covered with minute fibrils and carbon sheaths were also found. The S-4100 Hitachi Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) were used for in situ investigations of freshly fractured interior meteorite surfaces. EDAX x-ray spectra shows the microfossils bear signatures of the meteorite matrix and possess elemental ratios indicating they are indigenous and not recent microbial contaminants. Many of the well-preserved biogenic remains in the meteorites are encased within carbon-rich, sometimes electron transparent, sheaths. Their size, morphology and ultra microstructure are comparable to microfossils known from the phosphorites of Khubsughul, Mongolia and to some of the living cyanobacteria and other sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria known from the halophilic Microcoleus mats of Sivash Lagoon, Crimea and from Mono Lake in California.

Hoover, Richard B.; Jerman, Gregory; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Sipiera, Paul P.

2004-11-01

238

Chicken Consensus Linkage Map 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the race to map animal and human genomes, the chicken genome mapping project is also underway. Most details are provided at this Consensus Map page, featuring a linkage map comprised of "all the genotyping data from the three available chicken mapping populations (East Lansing, Compton and Wageningen)," containing 1889 loci. A reference table and reference list may also be downloaded as Excel files from the site.

2000-01-01

239

Hepatic lipogenesis in broiler chickens with different fat deposition during embryonic development.  

PubMed

In order to identify the genes involved in the fatness variability, we studied the expression of several genes implicated in the hepatic lipid metabolism of broiler chickens with different fat deposition patterns during embryonic development. The mRNA expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME) and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) genes were determined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Samples of livers were collected from Arbor Acres (AA) and Sanhuang (SH) chickens on day 9, 14 and 19 of embryonic development as well as at hatching. This study showed that hepatic triglyceride (TG) level was found to increase suddenly during day 14 of embryonic development, to gradually increase thereafter, and to remain relatively constant at hatching. FAS gene expression in AA and SH broilers occurred prior to hatching and at hatching. The gene was expressed more in the former breed. ACC gene expression was observed beginning at the earlier development stage of days 9. No breed difference was observed in ME and apoB gene expression. This study indicated that the expression of lipogenic enzyme genes of the liver in broiler chickens exhibited scheduling during embryogenesis. The ACC gene started to express earlier than the FAS gene during embryonic development. This suggested that embryonic liver synthesized fatty acid, and breed difference was noticed prior to hatching. PMID:17359447

Zhao, S; Ma, H; Zou, S; Chen, W; Zhao, R

2007-02-01

240

Wheat Breeding Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

241

Plant Breeding Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a traditional breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

242

BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

243

Red Clover Breeding Progress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

244

Sarus Crane Breeding Success  

E-print Network

on their breeding success. K.S.GopiSundar/iCF #12;22 A Sarus Crane adds material to its nest from a wetland that borders a rice field K. S. Gopi Sundar / iCF Following the fates of Sarus crane nests at this site over, despite the considerable crop damage wrought by the birds ­ nesting cranes use rice stalks to build

Weiblen, George D

245

Raspberry Breeding and Genetics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the origin, speciation, and history of improvement of the raspberries, Rubus section idaeobatus. The world industry in North America, Australasia, China, Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America and the breeding objectives of programs in those areas are discussed. Ger...

246

Genomic selection needs to be carefully assessed to meet specific requirements in livestock breeding programs  

PubMed Central

Genomic selection is a promising development in agriculture, aiming improved production by exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. It opens opportunities for research, as novel algorithms and lab methodologies are developed. Genomic selection can be applied in many breeds and species. Further research on the implementation of genomic selection (GS) in breeding programs is highly desirable not only for the common good, but also the private sector (breeding companies). It has been projected that this approach will improve selection routines, especially in species with long reproduction cycles, late or sex-limited or expensive trait recording and for complex traits. The task of integrating GS into existing breeding programs is, however, not straightforward. Despite successful integration into breeding programs for dairy cattle, it has yet to be shown how much emphasis can be given to the genomic information and how much additional phenotypic information is needed from new selection candidates. Genomic selection is already part of future planning in many breeding companies of pigs and beef cattle among others, but further research is needed to fully estimate how effective the use of genomic information will be for the prediction of the performance of future breeding stock. Genomic prediction of production in crossbreeding and across-breed schemes, costs and choice of individuals for genotyping are reasons for a reluctance to fully rely on genomic information for selection decisions. Breeding objectives are highly dependent on the industry and the additional gain when using genomic information has to be considered carefully. This review synthesizes some of the suggested approaches in selected livestock species including cattle, pig, chicken, and fish. It outlines tasks to help understanding possible consequences when applying genomic information in breeding scenarios.

Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

2015-01-01

247

Combined effect of mutations in ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART genes on IMP content in chickens.  

PubMed

1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ADSL gene, GARS-AIRS-GART gene and their combination genotype on inosine monophosphate content (IMP) in chicken. 2. The chicken breeds used for this study were Recessive White chicken (RW, Jiang-13 strain of white Plymouth Rock) and preserved population of 4 Chinese native chicken breeds, including Silkies, Baier, Tibetan and Xiaoshan. 3. The primers for exon 2 in ADSL gene and 5'UTR region in GARS-AIRS-GART gene were designed and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. 4. Two SNPs were detected, C/T substitution at position 3484 in exon 2 of ADSL gene, which was a silent mutation, and C/T point mutation at position -179 in 5'UTR region of GARS-AIRS-GART gene. In ADSL gene, individuals with TT genotype had significantly higher IMP content than CT and CC genotype individuals. No significant difference was observed between CT and CC genotypes. Similar results were obtained for GARS-AIRS-GART gene. The combination of genotypes ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART genes also had a significant effect on IMP content. Individuals with TTTT genotype had the highest muscle IMP content, while individuals with CCCT genotype had the lowest. 4. We putatively drew the conclusion that the SNPs in these two genes, as well as the combination genotypes, could be used as potential molecular markers for meat quality in chicken. PMID:19946821

Shu, J T; Bao, W B; Zhang, X Y; Ji, C J; Han, W; Chen, K W

2009-11-01

248

BREEDING BEHAVIOR OF THE GOLDFINCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIS paper presents aspects of the breeding behavior of the American Gold- finch (Spinus t&is) with emphasis on pair formation, establishment of territories, and breeding success. The study was made on 24 acres of park and marshland in Madison, Wisconsin, during the summers of 1944, 1946, and 1947. The area offered the advantages of high breeding densities and nests placed

ALLEN W. STOKES

249

GREEN CHICKEN EXAM -NOVEMBER 2012 GREEN CHICKEN AND STEVEN J. MILLER  

E-print Network

are the problems and solutions. Question 1: The Green Chicken is planning a surprise party for his grandfatherGREEN CHICKEN EXAM - NOVEMBER 2012 GREEN CHICKEN AND STEVEN J. MILLER Question 1: The Green Chicken is planning a surprise party for his grandfather and grandmother. The sum of the ages of the grandmother

Stoiciu, Mihai

250

GREEN CHICKEN PROBLEMS -OCTOBER 2010 J. ATWATER, G. CHICKEN, E. FITCH AND S. J. MILLER  

E-print Network

GREEN CHICKEN PROBLEMS - OCTOBER 2010 J. ATWATER, G. CHICKEN, E. FITCH AND S. J. MILLER Question 1 Chicken by playing the following game. Consider the first one million positive integers. Player A's goal diverges. Question 6: Let be a positive integer. Prove 1 #12;2 J. ATWATER, G. CHICKEN, E. FITCH AND S. J

Stoiciu, Mihai

251

Beyond Justice: What Makes an Indigenous Justice Organization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data from a longitudinal study of seven indigenous justice service organizations in four colonized countries were analyzed to identify the characteristics that made them "indigenous." Although nine common organizational characteristics emerged, of these, four are essential and specific to indigenous organizations (dependency on indigenous

Nielsen, Marianne O.; Brown, Samantha

2012-01-01

252

Strategies for Improving Indigenous Financial Literacy in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indigenous Australian population is not only considerably younger than the non-Indigenous population but is also on the rise. The challenge for many is to provide the kind of education that equips young Indigenous Australians with the necessary skills for managing their money. This challenge is further compounded, as the adult Indigenous

Bin-Sallik, MaryAnn; Adams, Isabella; Vemuri, Siva Ram

2004-01-01

253

The wisdom of indigenous healers.  

PubMed

The wisdom of indigenous peoples is manifest in ways of knowing, seeing, and thinking that are passed down orally from generation to generation. This article takes the reader on a journey through three distinct ways of knowing, specifically as they relate to healing and health. The authors are a Midewanniquay, or Water Woman, of the Ojibway-Anishinabe people of the upper Midwest in the United States and Canada; a Iomilomi healer from Hawaii; and an initiated Priest in the Yoruba tradition of West Africa. The philosophies of all three cultures emphasize the importance of spirituality to health and wellbeing (or healing process), but each has unique ways in which it nurtures relationship with the Creator, the earth, and humankind through sacred rituals and healing practices. PMID:24730191

Day, Dorene; Silva, Dane Kaohelani; Monroe, Amshatar Ololodi

2014-01-01

254

Towards an indigenous science curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of a national science curriculum in M?ori opened up space to contest whose knowledge and whose ways of knowing are included. This paper outlines the background to the curriculum development work in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous M?ori people and science education. Concern is expressed about the fitting of one cultural framework into another and questions are raised about the approach used in the development of the science curriculum. Further research in the area of language, culture and science education is discussed along with how M?ori might move forward in the endeavour of developing a curriculum that reflects M?ori culture and language.

McKinley, Elizabeth

1996-06-01

255

Research Ethics and Indigenous Communities  

PubMed Central

Institutional review boards (IRBs) function to regulate research for the protection of human participants. We share lessons learned from the development of an intertribal IRB in the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains Tribal region of the United States. We describe the process through which a consortium of Tribes collaboratively developed an intertribal board to promote community-level protection and participation in the research process. In addition, we examine the challenges of research regulation from a Tribal perspective and explore the future of Tribally regulated research that honors indigenous knowledge and promotes community accountability and transparency. We offer recommendations for researchers, funding agencies, and Tribal communities to consider in the review and regulation of research. PMID:24134372

Kelley, Allyson; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie

2013-01-01

256

Research ethics and indigenous communities.  

PubMed

Institutional review boards (IRBs) function to regulate research for the protection of human participants. We share lessons learned from the development of an intertribal IRB in the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains Tribal region of the United States. We describe the process through which a consortium of Tribes collaboratively developed an intertribal board to promote community-level protection and participation in the research process. In addition, we examine the challenges of research regulation from a Tribal perspective and explore the future of Tribally regulated research that honors indigenous knowledge and promotes community accountability and transparency. We offer recommendations for researchers, funding agencies, and Tribal communities to consider in the review and regulation of research. PMID:24134372

Kelley, Allyson; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie; Belcourt, Cheryl; Belcourt, Gordon

2013-12-01

257

Planetary surface reactor shielding using indigenous materials  

SciTech Connect

The exploration and development of Mars will require abundant surface power. Nuclear reactors are a low-cost, low-mass means of providing that power. A significant fraction of the nuclear power system mass is radiation shielding necessary for protecting humans and/or equipment from radiation emitted by the reactor. For planetary surface missions, it may be desirable to provide some or all of the required shielding from indigenous materials. This paper examines shielding options that utilize either purely indigenous materials or a combination of indigenous and nonindigenous materials.

Houts, Michael G.; Poston, David I.; Trellue, Holly R. [Nuclear Systems Design and Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Baca, Justin A.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Nuclear Technology and Research, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1146 (United States)

1999-01-22

258

Planetary surface reactor shielding using indigenous materials  

SciTech Connect

The exploration and development of Mars will require abundant surface power. Nuclear reactors are a low-cost, low-mass means of providing that power. A significant fraction of the nuclear power system mass is radiation shielding necessary for protecting humans and/or equipment from radiation emitted by the reactor. For planetary surface missions, it may be desirable to provide some or all of the required shielding from indigenous materials. This paper examines shielding options that utilize either purely indigenous materials or a combination of indigenous and nonindigenous materials. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Houts, Michael G.; Poston, David I.; Trellue, Holly R. [Nuclear Systems Design and Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lipinski, Ronald J. [Nuclear Technology and Research, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1146 (United States)

1999-01-01

259

Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

260

Not all semantics: Similarities and differences in reminiscing function and content between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

This study explored why and how Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remember the past. Indigenous Australians traditionally share a strong oral tradition in which customs, personal and cultural histories, and other narratives are passed across groups and between generations by word of mouth. Drawing on this tradition, in which inherent value is placed on sharing knowledge and maintaining connectedness with others, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would be more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to report reminiscing to fulfil social functions (but not self or directive functions). Furthermore, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would recall personal past experiences more elaborately than would non-Indigenous Australians. In Study 1, 33 Indigenous Australians and 76 non-Indigenous Australians completed Webster's Reminiscence Functions Scale. As predicted, Indigenous participants reported higher scores on subscales related to social functions than did non-Indigenous Australians: particularly "Teach/Inform" and "Intimacy Maintenance". They also scored higher on the "Identity" subscale. In Study 2, 15 Indigenous and 14 non-Indigenous Australians shared three memories from the distant and recent past. While Indigenous and non-Indigenous narratives did not differ in either emotion or elaboration, Indigenous Australians provided more memory context and detail by including a greater proportion of semantic memory content. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in both why and how Australians remember. PMID:24999815

Nile, Emma; Van Bergen, Penny

2015-01-01

261

[Nutritional status in telarche and menarche in indigenous and non indigenous Chilean adolescents].  

PubMed

A compensatory effect of chronic malnutrition that influences excess of weight has been reported. This effect would be more evident in indigenous populations. The aim of this study was to find out the association between ethnic group (mapuche) and body composition in the telarche and menarche of indigenous and non indigenous adolescents. This was a cross sectional design. At the beginning, a screening of 10,121 girls from 168 schools in the Araucania Region, Chile was done. 230 adolescent in telarche (grade II of the development of the mammary gland): 112 indigenous and 118 non indigenous and 239 in menarche (113 indigenous and 126 non indigenous) were identified. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were evaluated. BMI, WC and LM were higher in the indigenous adolescent in telarche. For those with menarche, the differences decreased, reaching with higher values for indigenous girls only in BMI and FM (p=0,04 and 0,02, respectively). Belonging to the indigenous group increased the BMI in 0.37 z scores in telarche (95% CI: 0,17-0,58) and 0,44 in menarche (95% CI:0,18-0,70). Being mapuche was also associated to higher WC: 3.33 cm (CI 1,67 - 4,99) in telarche and 3,17 cm (CI 0,73-5,60) in menarche and to higher lean mass only for those adolescents with telarche (1,3 CI: 0,11-2,43) and to fat mass only for those with menarche (2,4 CI: 1,02-3,77). The body composition indicators in indigenous adolescents are of concern and underscores the importance of programs to promote healthy lifestyles that take into account resources from the indigenous communities. PMID:19886510

Amigo, Hugo; Costa Machado, Thais; Bustos, Patricia

2009-09-01

262

Reactivation of Chicken Erythrocyte Nuclei in Heterokaryons Results in Expression of Adult Chicken Globin Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of chicken globin gene transcription has been demonstrated in chicken erythrocyte-rat L6 myoblast heterokaryons. The globin mRNA is polyadenylylated and is translated into adult chicken alpha A-, alpha D-, and beta -globin polypeptides. No fetal globin mRNA or globin polypeptides were detected. Heterokaryons between chicken erythrocytes and mouse neuroblastoma cells or hamster BHK cells also synthesized adult chicken globins.

Stig Linder; Steven H. Zuckerman; Nils R. Ringertz

1981-01-01

263

Evaluation of genetic diversity and population structure of West-Central Indian cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Evaluations of genetic diversity in domestic livestock populations are necessary to implement region-specific conservation measures. We determined the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among eight geographically and phenotypically diverse cattle breeds indigenous to west-central India by genotyping these animals for 22 microsatellite loci. A total of 326 alleles were detected, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.614 (Kenkatha) to 0.701 (Dangi). The mean number of alleles among the cattle breeds ranged from 7.182 (Khillar) to 9.409 (Gaolao). There were abundant genetic variations displayed within breeds, and the genetic differentiation was also high between the Indian cattle breeds, which displayed 15.9% of the total genetic differentiation among the different breeds. The genetic differentiation (pairwise FST ) among the eight Indian breeds varied from 0.0126 for the Kankrej-Malvi pair to 0.2667 for Khillar-Kenkatha pair. The phylogeny, principal components analysis, and structure analysis further supported close grouping of Kankrej, Malvi, Nimari and Gir; Gaolao and Kenkatha, whereas Dangi and Khillar remained at distance from other breeds. PMID:23216283

Shah, Tejas M; Patel, Jaina S; Bhong, Chandrakant D; Doiphode, Aakash; Umrikar, Uday D; Parmar, Shivnandan S; Rank, Dharamshibhai N; Solanki, Jitendra V; Joshi, Chaitanya G

2013-08-01

264

Chicken Pot Pie Yeild: 6 servings  

E-print Network

Chicken Pot Pie Yeild: 6 servings 1box refrigerated rolled pie crust, softened as directed on box 1 (10.75 ounce) can condensed Low Fat, Low Sodium Cream of Chicken Soup 1 (10 ounce) package frozen mixed vegetables 1 cup cubed cooked rotisserie chicken ¼ cup cooked diced onion 1. Preheat

Jawitz, James W.

265

The immunologists' debt to the chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The immune system of the chicken is an invaluable model for studying basic immunology and has made seminal contributions to fundamental immunological principles. Graft versus host responses and the key role of lymphocytes in adaptive immunity were first described in work with chicken embryos and chickens. 2. Most notably, the bursa of Fabricius provided the first substantive evidence that

T. F. Davison

2003-01-01

266

Recruiting and retaining indigenous farmworker participants.  

PubMed

There is limited information on the specific practices used to successfully recruit and retain indigenous and Latino farmworkers in research studies. This article describes the strategies used in a community-based participatory research project with indigenous agricultural workers. Participants were recruited through consulting with indigenous relatives and friends, identifying and meeting with indigenous leaders from hometown associations in countries of origin, and asking current participants to recruit fellow farmworkers. Adjustments were initiated to the second year protocol to enhance recruitment and retention. The difference in attrition rates between years one and two was statistically significant, a difference partially attributed to modifications to recruitment and retention protocol. Findings confirmed that active recruitment techniques and word-of-mouth recruitment were more effective than passive methods. Trust among academic, organization, and community partners, and shared language and culture between those doing the recruitment and the participants, contributed to sustained farmworker participation. PMID:23733354

Farquhar, Stephanie; de Jesus Gonzalez, Carmen; Hall, Jennifer; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Shadbeh, Nargess

2014-10-01

267

Study on Analysis of Variance on the indigenous wild and cultivated rice species of Manipur Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of variance revealed considerable variation among the cultivars and the wild species for yield and other quantitative characters in both the years of investigation. The highly significant differences among the cultivars in year wise and pooled analysis of variance for all the 12 characters reveal that there are enough genetic variabilities for all the characters studied. The existence of genetic variability is of paramount importance for starting a judicious plant breeding programme. Since introduced high yielding rice cultivars usually do not perform well. Improvement of indigenous cultivars is a clear choice for increase of rice production. The genetic variability of 37 rice germplasms in 12 agronomic characters estimated in the present study can be used in breeding programme

Medhabati, K.; Rohinikumar, M.; Rajiv Das, K.; Henary, Ch.; Dikash, Th.

2012-10-01

268

Including people with disabilities: an indigenous perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for M?ori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa\\/New Zealand. In particular, three research studies investigating M?ori perspectives of intellectual disability, blindness

Jill Bevan-Brown

2012-01-01

269

Digital Library of Indigenous Science Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Library of Indigenous Science Resources (DLISR) is a library collection of online text, video, audio, and image files of Indigenous science. According to the DLISR, Native or Indigenous Science "involves Native persons learning about and understanding the natural world (or non-Native persons learning about and understanding the natural world in the same ways Native people do)." The library includes knowledge about the natural world as well as methods of teaching and learning about the natural world. All the resources found in the DLISR are authored or produced by Indigenous persons or organizations, or are "approved for inclusion in the library collection by an elder or other Indigenous person with the expertise to assess the resource." Visitors will note that the National Science Foundation (NSF) is one of the supporters of this digital library, and they can find more information on Indigenous or Native Science by checking out the "Introduction" tab at the top of the page. The overarching categories available in the library are "Climate Change", "Education", "Law", "Sovereignty", "Traditional Knowledge" and "Traditional Foods". There are approximately two dozen subtopics for visitors to choose under the categories. For example, under the "Traditional Foods" category visitors will find five resources, including one entitled "Alaska Traditional Knowledge and Native Foods Database", which contains measurements of contaminants found in the animals harvested by Alaska Natives.

270

Immunisation issues for Indigenous Australian children.  

PubMed

Vaccination has provided major benefits to the health of indigenous children in the face of continuing poorer socioeconomic conditions but several issues have been identified for improvement. While indigenous children are vaccinated at high rates for the standard schedule vaccines, vaccination is more commonly delayed. Coverage for 'targeted' vaccines is substantially lower, and data on coverage for indigenous adolescents is non-existent. Improved identification of indigenous clients by immunisation providers and the expansion of the childhood register are required. The progressive removal of early-acting Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines from schedules for indigenous children because of an international shortage raises the risk of disease re-emergence and highlights the need for vigilant surveillance including carriage. The expanded use of existing vaccines (influenza) and early adoption of new vaccines (higher valency pneumococcal conjugates) are needed to maximise benefits, in particular the potential to impact on non-invasive disease such as otitis media and non-bacteraemic pneumonia that are so prevalent in indigenous children. PMID:21564384

Menzies, Robert; Andrews, Ross

2014-10-01

271

Genome-Wide Characterization of Insertion and Deletion Variation in Chicken Using Next Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Insertion and deletion (INDEL) is one of the main events contributing to genetic and phenotypic diversity, which receives less attention than SNP and large structural variation. To gain a better knowledge of INDEL variation in chicken genome, we applied next generation sequencing on 12 diverse chicken breeds at an average effective depth of 8.6. Over 1.3 million non-redundant short INDELs (1–49 bp) were obtained, the vast majority (92.48%) of which were novel. Follow-up validation assays confirmed that most (88.00%) of the randomly selected INDELs represent true variations. The majority (95.76%) of INDELs were less than 10 bp. Both the detected number and affected bases were larger for deletions than insertions. In total, INDELs covered 3.8 Mbp, corresponding to 0.36% of the chicken genome. The average genomic INDEL density was estimated as 0.49 per kb. INDELs were ubiquitous and distributed in a non-uniform fashion across chromosomes, with lower INDEL density in micro-chromosomes than in others, and some functional regions like exons and UTRs were prone to less INDELs than introns and intergenic regions. Nearly 620,253 INDELs fell in genic regions, 1,765 (0.28%) of which located in exons, spanning 1,358 (7.56%) unique Ensembl genes. Many of them are associated with economically important traits and some are the homologues of human disease-related genes. We demonstrate that sequencing multiple individuals at a medium depth offers a promising way for reliable identification of INDELs. The coding INDELs are valuable candidates for further elucidation of the association between genotypes and phenotypes. The chicken INDELs revealed by our study can be useful for future studies, including development of INDEL markers, construction of high density linkage map, INDEL arrays design, and hopefully, molecular breeding programs in chicken. PMID:25133774

Yan, Yiyuan; Yi, Guoqiang; Sun, Congjiao; Qu, Lujiang; Yang, Ning

2014-01-01

272

Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis  

PubMed Central

Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome. PMID:19811618

Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

2009-01-01

273

Time-course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12-week-old free-range chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immune-suppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322, and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS birds demonstrated much more severe signs of fowl cholera than IS birds. With few exceptions, signs recorded in IS and NIS birds were of

P. G. Mbuthia; L. W. Njagi; P. N. Nyaga; L. C. Bebora; U. Minga; J. P. Christensen; J. E. Olsen

2011-01-01

274

Time course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12 week-old free range chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve week old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immune-suppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322 and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS birds demonstrated much more severe signs of fowl cholera than IS birds. With few exceptions, signs recorded in IS and NIS birds

P. G. Mbuthia; L. W. Njagi; P. N. Nyaga; L. C. Bebora; U. Minga; Jens Peter Christensen; J. E. Olsen

2011-01-01

275

Research on indigenous elders: from positivistic to decolonizing methodologies.  

PubMed

Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders. PMID:23841952

Braun, Kathryn L; Browne, Colette V; Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Kim, Bum Jung; Mokuau, Noreen

2014-02-01

276

Research on Indigenous Elders: From Positivistic to Decolonizing Methodologies  

PubMed Central

Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders. PMID:23841952

Braun, Kathryn L.

2014-01-01

277

Chicken Caesar Salad $8 Caesar salad, grilled chicken breast, herb  

E-print Network

, Caesar dressing Farmers House Salad $6 Romaine, onions, tomato, cucumbers, olives, peppers, garbanzo beans Mediterranean Salad $8 Garam Masala spiced chicken, crisp chick peas, roasted red peppers, Greek Potato Fries $3 Fruit Salad $5 CHICAGO FAVORITES Chicago Red Chili 8oz. cup $4, 12oz. bowl $5 Toppings

Patterson, Bruce D.

278

Indigenous Elementary Students' Science Instruction in Taiwan: Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students'…

Lee, Huei; Yen, Chiung-Fen; Aikenhead, Glen S.

2012-01-01

279

Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

Kuokkanen, Rauna

2011-01-01

280

[Eating characteristics of Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls].  

PubMed

During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods. PMID:21090273

Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

2010-03-01

281

Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

Sakellariou, Chris

2008-01-01

282

Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas (WBBA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initiated in 1995, the Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas (WBBA) is an on-going project to document all bird species breeding in the state of Wisconsin. A project of the Wisconsin Society for Ornithology, WBBA documents the presence and breeding status of bird species detected within a selected 5km x 5km area, as well as (optionally) the estimated abundance of the species and the type of habitat in which it was detected. The results of this ambitious initiative are now available in the form of online Species Distribution Maps and multiple species summaries. While not all maps have been error-checked, these color maps offer detailed images showing confirmed and probable breeding locations for Wisconsin's several hundred species of breeding birds. In addition to the maps, the site provides a section on WBBA methods, numerous bird identification images, and a Casual Observation Form. A select list of links (to other states's Breeding Bird Atlas projects) rounds out the site.

283

Materials for breeding blankets  

SciTech Connect

There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified.

Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

1995-09-01

284

2013 Recipes Goldilocks Porridge (White Bean Chicken Chili)  

E-print Network

2013 Recipes 5 8 10 11 13 16 19 21 24 26 Goldilocks Porridge (White Bean Chicken Chili) Pork Fried Rice Honey Miso Chicken Gai Oob Thai Chicken Turkey & Bean Chili Asparagus Risotto Honey Mustard Chicken Chicken Pasta Salad Oatmeal Coconut Raspberry Bar Crispy Shrimp Cakes Laura Coon Leonore Miller

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

285

Community-based livestock breeding programmes: essentials and examples.  

PubMed

Breeding programmes described as community-based (CBBP) typically relate to low-input systems with farmers having a common interest to improve and share their genetic resources. CBBPs are more frequent with keepers of small ruminants, in particular smallholders of local breeds, than with cattle, pigs or chickens with which farmers may have easier access to alternative programmes. Constraints that limit the adoption of conventional breeding technologies in low-input systems cover a range of organizational and technical aspects. The analysis of 8 CBBPs located in countries of Latin-America, Africa and Asia highlights the importance of bottom-up approaches and involvement of local institutions in the planning and implementation stages. The analysis also reveals a high dependence of these programmes on organizational, technical and financial support. Completely self-sustained CBBPs seem to be difficult to realize. There is a need to implement and document formal socio-economic evaluations of CBBPs to provide governments and other development agencies with the information necessary for creating sustainable CBBPs at larger scales. PMID:25823840

Mueller, J P; Rischkowsky, B; Haile, A; Philipsson, J; Mwai, O; Besbes, B; Valle Zárate, A; Tibbo, M; Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

2015-04-01

286

Plant Breeding Graduate Student Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Growing the FutureWith the loss of plant breeding positions in the public sector, there has been a loss of the infrastructure that supports plant breeding training, including a reduction in professors with plant breeding expertise, a critical mass of students often too low to provide a stimulating learning environment, and the inability to offer courses with sufficient audience. Although studies support the positive impact of a strong community on learning, currently, students are often trained in isolation.  The PBTN has been established to mitigate isolation barriers that currently limit plant breeding education at most institutions and in most plant breeding work places around the world.  PBTN supports online course sharing (See list of courses).  The PBTN online graduate student community  is a place for students around the world to make contact with other plant breeding students, providing an opportunity  to exchange ideas, develop interpersonal skills (such as communication and collaboration) and build a plant breeding student community.If you have questions about the community, graduate work in plant breeding, or career oportunities, please contact us. Jamie ShermanDirector-TCAP graduate community and PBTNjsherman@montana.edu Mary BrakkeDirector-TCAP undergraduate communitybrakk001@umn.edu Deana Namuth-CovertDirector-Plant Breeding Training Network (PBTN)dcovert2@unl.edu  This community is funded by the Triticeae CAP project. 

287

Feeding ecology of indigenous and non-indigenous fish species within the family Sphyraenidae.  

PubMed

The feeding ecology of two common indigenous (Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena sphyraena) and one abundant non-indigenous sphyraenid species, Sphyraena chrysotaenia, of Indo-Pacific Ocean origin, was investigated in an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The stomach contents of 738 individuals of varying size, collected during the period December 2008 to August 2009, were examined. The dietary analyses revealed that all three species were specialized piscivores with a diet consisting of >90% fish, both by number and mass. Concurrent sampling of the fish assemblage made it possible to calculate selectivity as well as diet breadth and overlap of these strict piscivores. Even though several prey species were found in the stomachs of the three predators examined, selectivity towards Atherina boyeri was highly significant. For all species examined, >70% of the diet by mass was made up by three indigenous species of commercial value: Spicara smaris, Boops boops and A. boyeri. Diet breadth and size of prey increased with increasing body size for all predators. With increased body size, the diet overlap between indigenous and non-indigenous species decreased. This could be attributed to increased diet breadth and the specific life-history characteristics of indigenous species developing into larger individuals. During winter, the condition factor of the non-indigenous species was significantly lower than that of the indigenous, indicating that winter conditions in the Mediterranean Sea may limit its further expansion north and westward. With this study, the gap in knowledge of the feeding preferences of the most abundant piscivorous species found in coastal areas of the study region is filled. Additionally, the results indicate that non-indigenous species familial affiliation to indigenous ones does not facilitate invasion success. PMID:22650432

Kalogirou, S; Mittermayer, F; Pihl, L; Wennhage, H

2012-06-01

288

Identification of Genes Related to Beak Deformity of Chickens Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling  

PubMed Central

Frequencies of up to 3% of beak deformity (normally a crossed beak) occur in some indigenous chickens in China, such as and Beijing-You. Chickens with deformed beaks have reduced feed intake, growth rate, and abnormal behaviors. Beak deformity represents an economic as well as an animal welfare problem in the poultry industry. Because the genetic basis of beak deformity remains incompletely understood, the present study sought to identify important genes and metabolic pathways involved in this phenotype. Digital gene expression analysis was performed on deformed and normal beaks collected from Beijing-You chickens to detect global gene expression differences. A total of >11 million cDNA tags were sequenced, and 5,864,499 and 5,648,877 clean tags were obtained in the libraries of deformed and normal beaks, respectively. In total, 1,156 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified in the deformed beak with 409 being up-regulated and 747 down-regulated in the deformed beaks. qRT-PCR using eight genes was performed to verify the results of DGE profiling. Gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes of the keratin family on GGA25 were abundant among the DEGs. Pathway analysis showed that many DEGs were linked to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and glycerolipid metabolism. Combining the analyses, 11 genes (MUC, LOC426217, BMP4, ACAA1, LPL, ALDH7A1, GLA, RETSAT, SDR16C5, WWOX, and MOGAT1) were highlighted as potential candidate genes for beak deformity in chickens. Some of these genes have been identified previously, while others have unknown function with respect to thus phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide study to investigate the transcriptome differences in the deformed and normal beaks of chickens. The DEGs identified here are worthy of further functional characterization. PMID:25198128

Sun, Yanyan; Liu, Ranran; Liu, Nian; Li, Dongli; Wen, Jie; Chen, Jilan

2014-01-01

289

Experimental ochratoxicosis in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the toxicity signs that developed when the diet of male broiler chickens was artificially contaminated with different levels of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA). Chicks were assigned randomly to three groups of 80 chicks that were fed a diet containing 0 oarts per billion (ppb) (control, group 1), 400 ppb (group 2) or 800 ppb (group 3)

M. A. Elaroussi; F. R. Mohamed; E. M. El Barkouky; A. M. Atta; A. M. Abdou; M. H. Hatab

2006-01-01

290

Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

291

Check Out The Chicken Wing!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will examine a chicken wing to discover the different tissues and organs that make it up. They will relate this to the concept that cells make up tissues, which make up organs, which make up organ systems in the organism.

admin admin

2011-10-07

292

RNA Interference in Chicken Embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chicken has played an important role in biological discoveries since the 17th century (Stern, 2005). Many investigations into vertebrate development have utilized the chicken due to the accessibility of the chick embryo and its ease of manipulation (Brown et al., 2003). However, the lack of genetic resources has often handicapped these studies and so the chick is frequently overlooked as a model organism for the analysis of vertebrate gene function in favor of mice or zebrafish. In the past six years this situation has altered dramatically with the generation of over half a million expressed sequence tags and >20,000 fully sequenced chicken cDNAs (Boardman et al. 2002; Caldwell et al., 2005; Hubbard et al., 2005) together with a 6X coverage genome sequence (Hillier et al., 2004). These resources have created a comprehensive catalogue of chicken genes with readily accessible cDNA and EST resources available via ARK-GENOMICS (www.ark-genomics.org) for the functional analysis of vertebrate gene function.

van Hateren, Nick J.; Jones, Rachel S.; Wilson, Stuart A.

293

Uncovering Genomic Features and Maternal Origin of Korean Native Chicken by Whole Genome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The Korean Native Chicken (KNC) is an important endemic biological resource in Korea. While numerous studies have been conducted exploring this breed, none have used next-generation sequencing to identify its specific genomic features. We sequenced five strains of KNC and identified 10.9 million SNVs and 1.3 million InDels. Through the analysis, we found that the highly variable region common to all 5 strains had genes like PCHD15, CISD1, PIK3C2A, and NUCB2 that might be related to the phenotypic traits of the chicken such as auditory sense, growth rate and egg traits. In addition, we assembled unaligned reads that could not be mapped to the reference genome. By assembling the unaligned reads, we were able to present genomic sequences characteristic to the KNC. Based on this, we also identified genes related to the olfactory receptors and antigen that are common to all 5 strains. Finally, through the reconstructed mitochondrial genome sequences, we performed phylogenomic analysis and elucidated the maternal origin of the artificially restored KNC. Our results revealed that the KNC has multiple maternal origins which are in agreement with Korea's history of chicken breed imports. The results presented here provide a valuable basis for future research on genomic features of KNC and further understanding of KNC's origin. PMID:25501044

Oh, Jae-Don; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Lee, Jun-Heon; Lee, Woon Kyu; Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Hak-Kyo

2014-01-01

294

Biodiversity of 52 chicken populations assessed by microsatellite typing of DNA pools  

PubMed Central

In a project on the biodiversity of chickens funded by the European Commission (EC), eight laboratories collaborated to assess the genetic variation within and between 52 populations from a wide range of chicken types. Twenty-two di-nucleotide microsatellite markers were used to genotype DNA pools of 50 birds from each population. The polymorphism measures for the average, the least polymorphic population (inbred C line) and the most polymorphic population (Gallus gallus spadiceus) were, respectively, as follows: number of alleles per locus, per population: 3.5, 1.3 and 5.2; average gene diversity across markers: 0.47, 0.05 and 0.64; and proportion of polymorphic markers: 0.91, 0.25 and 1.0. These were in good agreement with the breeding history of the populations. For instance, unselected populations were found to be more polymorphic than selected breeds such as layers. Thus DNA pools are effective in the preliminary assessment of genetic variation of populations and markers. Mean genetic distance indicates the extent to which a given population shares its genetic diversity with that of the whole tested gene pool and is a useful criterion for conservation of diversity. The distribution of population-specific (private) alleles and the amount of genetic variation shared among populations supports the hypothesis that the red jungle fowl is the main progenitor of the domesticated chicken. PMID:12939204

Hillel, Jossi; Groenen, Martien AM; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Korol, Abraham B; David, Lior; Kirzhner, Valery M; Burke, Terry; Barre-Dirie, Asili; Crooijmans, Richard PMA; Elo, Kari; Feldman, Marcus W; Freidlin, Paul J; Mäki-Tanila, Asko; Oortwijn, Marian; Thomson, Pippa; Vignal, Alain; Wimmers, Klaus; Weigend, Steffen

2003-01-01

295

Differential gene expression of aldolase C (ALDOC) and hypoxic adaptation in chickens.  

PubMed

Two sequence variants of the aldolase C (ALDOC) gene were discovered based on comparison of the sequences from an altiplano chicken breed (Tibetan chicken) and two lowland breeds (White Leghorn and ShouGuang). Gel-shift results indicated that one of these variants, L25375:c.310-258G>A, was able to bind hypoxia-induced factor-l (HIF1A), therefore, functioning as a hypoxia response element (HRE). The combined activity of the HRE and HIF1A could increase under the influence of a hypoxic stimulus. Hypoxia leads to increased death rates of chicken embryos, while the L25375:c.310-258G>A described herein is prevalent in healthy embryos grown under hypoxic conditions. Fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that HIF1A upregulated the transcript level of the glycolytic enzyme ALDOC in the brain and skeletal muscle of animals subjected to hypoxia. Thus, a large amount of ATP is produced by increased glycolysis, allowing the organism to meet energy metabolism demands. As such, we believe this sequence variant is an adaptation to external anoxic environment. PMID:17539972

Wang, C F; Yuan, C Z; Wang, S H; Zhang, H; Hu, X X; Zhang, L; Wu, C; Li, N

2007-06-01

296

Single-tube real-time multiple allele-specific PCR for genotyping chicken Mx gene G2032A SNP.  

PubMed

1. A non-synonymous, single nucleotide polymorphism (G to A) at position 2032 (Ser 631 Asn) of the chicken Mx gene has been demonstrated to be related to resistance to antiviral activity. This study developed a new real-time PCR-based allelic discrimination assay for the rapid genotyping of the chicken Mx gene G2032A SNP. The distribution of the Mx gene G2032A SNP genotypes and the allele frequencies of A and G alleles among different chicken breed populations were screened with the use of this method. 2. We combined previously described allele-specific PCR and SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR melting curve analysis with a novel primer design strategy. A pair of outer nested primers was designed to amplify a fragment containing the SNP site, and two 3'-specific, allele-specific primers were combined with the outer primers to amplify SNP-specific fragments. Genotypes were identified based on the characteristic melting temperature of the SNP-specific fragments. 3. Genotyping assignments were successfully performed on samples from 8 chicken breeds, which were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis of the PCR products and compared with results obtained from the direct sequencing of the outer primer amplicon. Five native breeds from Southern China carried a relatively higher frequency of the resistant A allele than the three commercial chicken lines. 4. This single-tube real-time multiplex allele-specific PCR assay is rapid, reliable, sensitive and easy to perform. It is appropriate for high-throughput sample analysis in large population-based Mx SNP genotyping studies. PMID:20680871

Ye, X; Zhang, Y; Tan, Z; Li, K

2010-06-01

297

Genome-wide copy number profiling using high-density SNP array in chickens.  

PubMed

Phenotypic diversity is a direct consequence resulting mainly from the impact of underlying genetic variation, and recent studies have shown that copy number variation (CNV) is emerging as an important contributor to both phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. Herein, we performed a genome-wide CNV scan in 96 chickens from 12 diversified breeds, benefiting from the high-density Affymetrix 600 K SNP arrays. We identified a total of 231 autosomal CNV regions (CNVRs) encompassing 5.41 Mb of the chicken genome and corresponding to 0.59% of the autosomal sequence. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 2.6 to 586.2 kb with an average of 23.4 kb, including 130 gain, 93 loss and eight both gain and loss events. These CNVRs, especially deletions, had lower GC content and were located particularly in gene deserts. In particular, 102 CNVRs harbored 128 chicken genes, most of which were enriched in immune responses. We obtained 221 autosomal CNVRs after converting probe coordinates to Galgal3, and comparative analysis with previous studies illustrated that 153 of these CNVRs were regarded as novel events. Furthermore, qPCR assays were designed for 11 novel CNVRs, and eight (72.73%) were validated successfully. In this study, we demonstrated that the high-density 600 K SNP array can capture CNVs with higher efficiency and accuracy and highlighted the necessity of integrating multiple technologies and algorithms. Our findings provide a pioneering exploration of chicken CNVs based on a high-density SNP array, which contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of genetic variation in the chicken genome and is beneficial to unearthing potential CNVs underlying important traits of chickens. PMID:25662183

Yi, G; Qu, L; Chen, S; Xu, G; Yang, N

2015-04-01

298

Breeding for inducible resistance against insects - applied plant breeding aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the pre-requisites necessary for breeding plants with inducible resistance to pests are no different from breeding for constitutive resistance. In both cases it is necessary to have resistance genes giving high enough yield gains from pest protection, efficient selection methods and means of introducing resistance genes into agronomically acceptable plant material. In addition, resistance traits need to be

Inger Åhman

299

The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

Afonso, G. B.

2003-08-01

300

The Impact of Domestication on the Chicken Optical Apparatus  

PubMed Central

Domestication processes tend to release animals from natural selection and favour traits desired by humans, such as food-production and co-operative behaviour. A side effect of such selective breeding is the alteration of unintended traits. In this paper, we investigate how active selection for egg production in chickens has affected the visual system, in particular the optical sensitivity that relates to the ability of chickens to see in dim light. We measured eye dimensions as well as the pupil diameter at different light intensities (the steady state pupil dynamics), in adult male and female White Leghorns and the closest relatives to their ancestor, the Red Junglefowls. With this information, we calculated the focal length and optical sensitivity (f-number) of the eyes. Males have larger eyes than females in both breeds and White Leghorn eyes are larger than those of Red Junglefowls in both sexes. The steady state pupil dynamics is less variable, however, the combination of pupil dynamics and eye size gives a higher optical sensitivity in Red Junglefowl eyes than in White Leghorns at light intensities below approximately 10 cd/m2. While eye size and focal length match the larger body size in White Leghorns compared to Red Junglefowls, the steady state pupil dynamics do not. The reason for this is likely to be that eye morphology and the neuro-muscular control of the pupil have been affected differently by the strong selection for egg production and the simultaneous release of the selection pressure for high performing vision. This study is the first description of how optical sensitivity has changed in a domesticated species and our results demonstrate important considerations regarding domestication processes and sensory ability. PMID:23776492

2013-01-01

301

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) of Central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

We performed a seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from October 2012 to May 2013. We used cross-sectional two-stage cluster sampling to collect blood samples from wing veins of 601 chickens from central Ethiopia. T. gondii-specific antibodies were assayed by modified agglutination test (MAT). We collected information about risk factors by questionnaire and used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to assess risk factors. An overall seroprevalence of 30·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26·27-34·14] and 54·2% (95% CI 47·06-61·36) was found at animal- and flock-level, respectively. The MAT end titre of seropositive chickens (n = 183) were 1 : 60 in 46, 1 : 180 in 28, 1 : 540 in 29, ?1 : 1620 in 48, 1 : 6000 in 22, 1 : 18,000 in five, 1 : 54,000 in one, and ?1 : 162,000 in four. Animal-level risk factors identified using multivariable logistic regression model were: midland altitude [odds ratio (OR) 2·53, 95% CI 1·12-5·72], cross and exotic breeds (OR 3·17, 95% CI 1·39-7·23), increased age of chickens (OR 2·32, 95% CI 1·19-4·49), extensive management (OR 6·92, 95% CI 1·34-35·86) and the presence of cats (OR 2·08, 95% CI 1·20-3·61). Similarly, flock-level risk factors were midland altitude (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·31-9·99) and the presence of cats (OR 1·19-4·94). The knowledge of the local people about the health risk of cats to humans and animals is poor. Housing and management of cats and chickens are also poor. The widespread presence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens of Central Ethiopia provides suggestive evidence for the high level of contamination of the living environment of people with T. gondii oocysts. Meat from free-range chickens might be an important source of infection for humans. Altitude, breed, age, management and presence of cats are independent predictors of seropositivity. Education of farmers about toxoplasmosis and further studies to elucidate the burden of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans warrants consideration. PMID:24763135

Gebremedhin, E Z; Tesfamaryam, G; Yunus, H A; Duguma, R; Tilahun, G; DI Marco, V; Vitale, M

2015-02-01

302

Intestinal microbiota associated with differential feed conversion efficiency in chickens.  

PubMed

Analysis of model systems, for example in mice, has shown that the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract can play an important role in the efficiency of energy extraction from diets. The study reported here aimed to determine whether there are correlations between gastrointestinal tract microbiota population structure and energy use in chickens. Efficiency in converting food into muscle mass has a significant impact on the intensive animal production industries, where feed represents the major portion of production costs. Despite extensive breeding and selection efforts, there are still large differences in the growth performance of animals fed identical diets and reared under the same conditions. Variability in growth performance presents management difficulties and causes economic loss. An understanding of possible microbiota drivers of these differences has potentially important benefits for industry. In this study, differences in cecal and jejunal microbiota between broiler chickens with extreme feed conversion capabilities were analysed in order to identify candidate bacteria that may influence growth performance. The jejunal microbiota was largely dominated by lactobacilli (over 99% of jejunal sequences) and showed no difference between the birds with high and low feed conversion ratios. The cecal microbial community displayed higher diversity, and 24 unclassified bacterial species were found to be significantly (<0.05) differentially abundant between high and low performing birds. Such differentially abundant bacteria represent target populations that could potentially be modified with prebiotics and probiotics in order to improve animal growth performance. PMID:22249719

Stanley, Dragana; Denman, Stuart E; Hughes, Robert J; Geier, Mark S; Crowley, Tamsyn M; Chen, Honglei; Haring, Volker R; Moore, Robert J

2012-12-01

303

A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. Results A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (P<0.01), respectively. A number of genes in the significant core regions, including RB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens. Conclusions We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress. PMID:23241142

2012-01-01

304

Maximum bite force in elderly indigenous and non-indigenous denture wearers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the measures of maximum bite force (MBF) in elderly edentulous indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous individuals with new complete dentures at two different measuring times. A sample of 100 elderly subjects was divided into two groups: 50 indigenous and 50 non-indigenous, each including 25 females and 25 males. All individuals were totally edentulous, with new maxillary and mandibular removable complete dentures. Measurements were taken at the time of new prosthesis placement and after 1 month of use. Subjects were asked to perform with maximum effort three bites per side at maximum intercuspidation, with a rest time of 2 minutes in between. Statistics were analyzed with Student 's t-test. The MBF values were significantly higher in indigenous than non-indigenous subjects. Force after 1 month of wearing the new prosthesis was significantly higher than at the time of new prosthesis placement. No significant difference was found between sides. Elderly indigenous complete denture wearers had the greatest MBF values. Denture wearers were observed to undergo an adaptation process to the new prosthesis, with MBF increasing considerably after one month of use. PMID:25560689

Borie, Eduardo; Orsi, Iara A; Fuentes, Ramón; Beltrán, Víctor; Navarro, Pablo; Pareja, Felipe; Raimundo, Lariça B

2014-01-01

305

Corn Breeding: Types of Cultivars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the third in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.

306

Breeding, Genetics, and Cultivar Development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato breeding is a challenge due to the tetraploid nature of the potato, limited variability for economically important traits in adapted breeding clones, and a complex set of requirements necessary for the successful adoption of new cultivars. However, rich germplasm resources are readily availa...

307

THE USDA PECAN BREEDING PROGRAM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper outlines how the USDA Pecan Breeding Program is operated to produce superior new cultivars that are given names of Native American peoples, and released for planting in new pecan orchards. The USDA conducts the largest pecan breeding and genetics program in the world. The program is div...

308

Cereal Breeding and Varietal Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the influence of cereal breeding on yield increase. Suggests that future breeding programmes should be based on both financial information and yield. Summarizes the results of a first attempt to include financial and yield data for the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) leaflet Recommended Varieties of Cereals. Discusses implications for breeders and farmers. Suggests that evaluation by financial

Stuart M. Meikle; David H. Scarisbrick

1994-01-01

309

Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus  

E-print Network

Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis By Daniel setting against the antibiotic-resistant pathogen, Enterococcus faecalis. This was accomplished by first. #12;Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis Introduction

Firestone, Jeremy

310

Indigenous Australia: The Role of Storytelling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaborative effort between Australia's Cultural Network and the Australian Museum, this site showcases some fine examples of Indigenous Australian stories. Collected from all over Australia, the stories (currently 20) are offered in text, audio, and video formats, with brief introductions and a glossary of indigenous words. Short descriptions of the role of storytelling, custodianship, "Dreaming," and secret/ sacred stories are also provided. Users should note that RealPlayer G2 is required to view the video presentations, and that, at time of review, video playback quality was rather poor. The text and audio formats, however, were quite acceptable, making this site worthwhile for anyone interested in Indigenous Australian culture or storytelling in general.

311

Chicken anemia virus infection in broiler chickens in Shahrekord, Iran: serological, hematological, and histopathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken infectious anemia caused by a single-strand DNA circovirus is a disease in young chickens that is characterized by\\u000a aplastic anemia, generalized lymphoid atrophy, and immunosuppression. In the present study, the presence of chicken anemia\\u000a virus (CAV) infection and the hematologic and histopathologic changes in CAV seropositive broiler chickens in Shahrekord region,\\u000a center of Iran, were investigated. Blood and lymphoid

Iraj Karimi; Mohammadreza Mahzounieh; Shahab Bahadoran; Farhan Azad

2010-01-01

312

Occupational Conditions and Well-Being of Indigenous Farmworkers  

PubMed Central

Increasing numbers of indigenous farmworkers from Mexico and Guatemala have been arriving in the Pacific Northwest (indigenous people are not of Hispanic or Latino descent and migrate from regions with unique cultural and linguistic traditions). Multilingual project outreach workers administered surveys to 150 farmworkers in Oregon to assess health, occupational safety, and general living conditions. This study confirms the increasing presence of indigenous peoples in Oregon and characterizes differences between indigenous and Latino farmworkers' occupational and health needs. PMID:18799774

Shadbeh, Nargess; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Goff, Nancy

2008-01-01

313

ITER breeding blanket design  

SciTech Connect

A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.

Gohar, Y.; Cardella, A.; Ioki, K.; Lousteau, D.; Mohri, K.; Raffray, R.; Zolti, E. [ITER Joint Central Team, Garching (Germany)] [and others

1995-12-31

314

Characterizing neutral genomic diversity and selection signatures in indigenous populations of Moroccan goats (Capra hircus) using WGS data  

PubMed Central

Since the time of their domestication, goats (Capra hircus) have evolved in a large variety of locally adapted populations in response to different human and environmental pressures. In the present era, many indigenous populations are threatened with extinction due to their substitution by cosmopolitan breeds, while they might represent highly valuable genomic resources. It is thus crucial to characterize the neutral and adaptive genetic diversity of indigenous populations. A fine characterization of whole genome variation in farm animals is now possible by using new sequencing technologies. We sequenced the complete genome at 12× coverage of 44 goats geographically representative of the three phenotypically distinct indigenous populations in Morocco. The study of mitochondrial genomes showed a high diversity exclusively restricted to the haplogroup A. The 44 nuclear genomes showed a very high diversity (24 million variants) associated with low linkage disequilibrium. The overall genetic diversity was weakly structured according to geography and phenotypes. When looking for signals of positive selection in each population we identified many candidate genes, several of which gave insights into the metabolic pathways or biological processes involved in the adaptation to local conditions (e.g., panting in warm/desert conditions). This study highlights the interest of WGS data to characterize livestock genomic diversity. It illustrates the valuable genetic richness present in indigenous populations that have to be sustainably managed and may represent valuable genetic resources for the long-term preservation of the species.

Benjelloun, Badr; Alberto, Florian J.; Streeter, Ian; Boyer, Frédéric; Coissac, Eric; Stucki, Sylvie; BenBati, Mohammed; Ibnelbachyr, Mustapha; Chentouf, Mouad; Bechchari, Abdelmajid; Leempoel, Kevin; Alberti, Adriana; Engelen, Stefan; Chikhi, Abdelkader; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Joost, Stéphane; Taberlet, Pierre; Pompanon, François

2015-01-01

315

Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

316

EHS-Net Chicken Handling Study EHS-Net Chicken Handling Study Protocol  

E-print Network

). Studies have also indicated that most chicken produced in commercial plants is contaminated in restaurants. Specifically, we will collect data on: opportunities for cross contamination from raw chicken of chicken immediately after cooking (kill step), and opportunities for cross contamination from

317

Educational Leadership and Indigeneity: Doing Things the Same, Differently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational leadership, it is argued, must play a critical role in improving student outcomes, especially those of minoritized and Indigenous students. In the process of improving education and schooling for Indigenous students, Indigenous educational leadership needs to be considered alongside educational leadership more generally. This article…

Hohepa, Margie Kahukura (Ngapuhi)

2013-01-01

318

Indigeneity and Homeland: Land, History, Ceremony, and Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the relationship between Indigenous peoples and violent reactions to contemporary states? This research explores differing, culturally informed notions of attachment to land or place territory. Mechanistic ties and organic ties to land are linked to a key distinction between Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous peoples. Utilizing the…

Lerma, Michael

2012-01-01

319

Indigenous Studies in the Elementary Curriculum: A Cautionary Hawaiian Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses a Native Hawaiian example to raise difficult questions about the role and responsibility of non-Indigenous educators in teaching and supporting Indigenous studies. It challenges educators and educational researchers to think closely about how they might serve as allies in Indigenous struggles for self-determination.

Kaomea, Julie

2005-01-01

320

Indigenous Representation and Alternative Schooling: Prioritising an Epistemology of Relationality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on a case study of a small alternative Indigenous school in Queensland, Australia. From the perspective of several of the school's Indigenous Elders, the paper foregrounds the significance of group differentiation at the school on the basis of Indigenous representation. However, it also considers how such…

Keddie, Amanda

2014-01-01

321

Free Software for Indigenous Languages Kevin P. Scannell  

E-print Network

(sometimes referred to as "Irish Gaelic"), the indigenous language of Ireland. Like most other indigenousFree Software for Indigenous Languages Kevin P. Scannell Department of Mathematics and Computer languages in the world, Irish is dying out as a community language in the few remaining areas where

Scannell, Kevin Patrick

322

Australian Directions in Indigenous Education 2005-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational outcomes of Indigenous Australians have improved over recent decades. This is evident across a range of indicators on the enrolment, participation and achievement of Indigenous students in the early childhood education and school sectors. There has also been increased representation of Indigenous students in New Apprenticeships and…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

323

INDIGENOUS ADOPTION OF MOBILE PHONES AND ORAL CULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous people around the world are becoming more and more interested in ICT. The aural and graphical characteristics of mobile technology and multimedia, in particular, speak to strengths in Indigenous oral and graphical culture. Yet, despite many successful ICT implementations across the globe, there still remain many questions about Indigenous ICT access and adoption. In order to throw light on

FIONA BRADY; TINA ASELA

324

Reflecting Visions. New Perspectives on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 14 papers: "Indigenous Peoples and Adult Education: A Growing Challenge" (Rodolfo Stavenhagen); "Indigenous Peoples: Progress in the International Recognition of Human Rights and the Role of Education" (Julian Burger); "Adult Learning in the Context of Indigenous Societies" (Linda King); "Linguistic Rights and the Role of…

King, Linda, Ed.

325

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil  

E-print Network

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil Hundreds of indigenous people demonstrated at the National Congress in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, following the announcement in the 1990s in the midst of extensive protests in Brazil and around the world. On February 8, an indigenous

Milchberg, Howard

326

Thinking Place: Animating the Indigenous Humanities in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of…

Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood

2005-01-01

327

Eagle and the Condor: Indigenous Alliances for Youth Leadership Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This narrative describes the growth of an alliance between two indigenous organizations in North and South America, illustrating how a shared indigenous vision of cultural survival and connection to the land led to the creation of an ongoing collaboration for indigenous youth leadership development, which has extended to encompass collaboration…

Wihak, Christine; Hately, Lynne; Allicock, Sydney; Lickers, Michael

2007-01-01

328

Community-Based Indigenous Digital Storytelling with Elders and Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous digital storytelling and research are as much about the process of community relationships as they are about the development of digital products and research outcomes. Indigenous researchers, digital storytelling producers, and academics work in different communities with research collaborators who are indigenous community members,…

Iseke, Judy; Moore, Sylvia

2011-01-01

329

Indigenous Digital Storytelling in Video: Witnessing with Alma Desjarlais  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous digital storytelling in video is a way of witnessing the stories of Indigenous communities and Elders, including what has happened and is happening in the lives and work of Indigenous peoples. Witnessing includes acts of remembrance in which we look back to reinterpret and recreate our relationship to the past in order to understand the…

Iseke, Judy M.

2011-01-01

330

NATIVE AMERICAN & INDIGENOUS STUDIES ASSOCIATION CALL FOR PAPERS  

E-print Network

NATIVE AMERICAN & INDIGENOUS STUDIES ASSOCIATION NAISA CALL FOR PAPERS for the FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING scholars working in Native American and Indigenous Studies to submit proposals for: Individual papers, panel sessions, roundtables, or film screenings. All persons working in Native American and Indigenous

Hitchcock, Adam P.

331

Empowering Identity Reconstruction of Indigenous College Students through Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the interplay between identity reconstruction of indigenous college students and the effects of transformative learning on their self-development and collective action. Seventeen indigenous college students were interviewed for this study. The findings showed that most indigenous college students developed stigmatized identity…

Chen, Peiying

2012-01-01

332

Learn in Beauty: Indigenous Education for a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume compiles 11 papers indicative of the new directions that indigenous education is taking in North America. Three sections focus on language, culture, and teaching; indigenous perspectives on indigenous education; and issues surrounding teaching methods. The papers are: (1) "Teaching Dine Language and Culture in Navajo Schools: Voices…

Reyhner, Jon, Ed.; Martin, Joseph, Ed.; Lockard, Louise, Ed.; Gilbert, W. Sakiestewa, Ed.

333

Situating Indigenous Student Mobility within the Global Education Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Australia, as in other global contexts, Indigenous student education outcomes are well below those of their non-Indigenous counterparts. A more robust understanding of, and responsiveness to, Indigenous temporary mobilities is a critical step to redressing such educational inequalities. This paper draws together learnings from the papers in…

Prout, Sarah; Hill, Angela

2012-01-01

334

Partnership for Improving Outcomes in Indigenous Education: Relationship or Business?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the Australian government's Indigenous policy by interrogating the concept of partnership between governments and Indigenous communities through three examples. Increasingly, the Australian federal government is focusing attention on the poor literacy and numeracy outcomes for Indigenous children in remote and very remote…

Ma Rhea, Zane

2012-01-01

335

A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a comparison of the sequences of 3 domestic chickens (broiler, layer, Silkie) to their wild ancestor Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about 5 SNP/kb for almost every possible comparison between RJF and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--contrary to the idea that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated prior to domestication, and there is little to no evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales of greater than 100 kb.

Wong, G K; Hillier, L; Brandstrom, M; Croojmans, R; Ovcharenko, I; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L; Lucas, S; Glavina, T; Kaiser, P; Gunnarsson, U; Webber, C; Overton, I

2005-02-20

336

Detection of SNPs in the Cathepsin D Gene and Their Association with Yolk Traits in Chickens  

PubMed Central

CTSD (Cathepsin D) is a key enzyme in yolk formation, and it primarily affects egg yolk weight and egg weight. However, recent research has mostly focused on the genomic structure of the CTSD gene and the enzyme’s role in pathology, and less is known about the enzyme’s functions in chickens. In this paper, the correlations between CTSD polymorphisms and egg quality traits were analyzed in local Shandong chicken breeds. CTSD polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction single strand conformation polymorphism) and sequencing analysis. Two variants were found to be associated with egg quality traits. One variant (2614T>C), located in exon 3, was novel. Another variant (5274G>T), located in intron 4, was previously referred to as rs16469410. Overall, our results indicated that CTSD would be a useful candidate gene in selection programs for improving yolk traits. PMID:23431385

Zhou, Yan; Lei, Qiuxia; Han, Haixia; Li, Fuwei; Lu, Yan; Wang, Cunfang

2013-01-01

337

Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.  

PubMed

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post-mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks. PMID:21858730

Njagi, Lucy Wanjiru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Nyaga, Phillip Njeru; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Minga, Uswege M

2012-04-01

338

Genetic Diversity Among Turkish Native Chickens, Denizli and Gerze, Estimated by Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity of the Turkish native chicken breeds Denizli and Gerze was evaluated with 10 microsatellite markers. We genotyped a total of 125 individuals from five subpopulations. Among loci, the mean number of alleles was 7.5, expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.665, PIC value was 0.610, and Wright’s fixation index was 0.301. He was higher in the Denizli breed (0.656) than in the Gerze breed (0.475). The PIC values were 0.599 and 0.426 for Denizli and Gerze, respectively. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using genetic distance and the neighbor-joining method. Its topology reflects the general pattern of genetic differentiation among the Denizli and Gerze breeds. The present study suggests that Denizli and Gerze subpopulations have a rich genetic diversity. The information about Denizli and Gerze breeds estimated by microsatellite analysis may also be useful as an initial guide in defining objectives for designing future investigations of genetic variation and developing conservation strategies. PMID:18500550

Kaya, Muhammet

2008-01-01

339

Farming practices and genetic characterization of Nicobari pig, an indigenous pig germplasm of Nicobar group of islands, India.  

PubMed

The Nicobari pig, locally known as Ha-un, is an indigenous pig germplasm located only in the Nicobar group of islands, India. The present study documents the Nicobari pig-rearing practices of the tribal farmers and genetically characterizes them using 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years (2010-2012) in Car Nicobar, India. A total of 225 farmers were surveyed (15 farmers per village of 15 villages). Information on herd statistics, husbandry practices, and constraints faced by the farmers in pig production were collected. The pigs were reared in a free-range system. Mean pig herd size per house hold was 8.9, and main feed for pigs was coconut and some indigenous feed materials such as pandanus, bread fruit, and Nicobari alu. The main constraints faced by the farmers were lack of feed after the tsunami, different disease conditions, piglet mortality, and predator attack. The Nicobari pigs were genotyped by 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The mean observed number of alleles for all 23 loci in Nicobari pigs was 6.96 ± 0.31. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.66 ± 0.02 and 0.75 ± 0.01, respectively. It was found that the genetic diversity of this pig breed was very high compared to Large White Yorkshire and other European pig breeds. This genetic characterization of the pig breed will be helpful in their conservation effort. PMID:24595559

De, Arun Kumar; Jeyakumar, S; Kundu, Madhu Sudan; Kundu, Anandamoy; Sunder, Jai; Ramachandran, M

2014-04-01

340

Levamisole residues in chicken tissues and eggs.  

PubMed

Levamisole is currently being used to treat capillaria infection in chickens even though there is no published withdrawal information available for levamisole in chickens. Tissue residue withdrawal of levamisole in chickens was studied in 32 healthy broiler breeder chickens at the age of 32 wk (peak of egg production). Levamisole residues in chicken tissues, eggs, and plasma were determined by HPLC with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 225 nm. The highest level of residue and longest withdrawal after oral administration of 40 mg/kg levamisole to chickens was in the liver. On d 3 the level of levamisole were undetectable in the plasma. On d 9, levamisole residue in eggs was 0.096 microg/g and on d 18 it was 0.06 microg/g or less in all the analyzed chicken tissues. Those levels were lower than the recommended maximum residue limit (MRL). The withdrawal time for levamisole in chickens was longer than for other species tested, which is due in part to a larger dose of levamisole being recommended for chickens. In conclusion from this research, 9 d are needed for levamisole in eggs to be less than the MRL, and 18 d of withdrawal are needed before medicated birds are slaughtered if their tissues are to be safe for human consumption. PMID:15685936

El-Kholy, H; Kemppainen, B W

2005-01-01

341

Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone  

SciTech Connect

The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

1990-01-01

342

Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Canada. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education for indigenous peoples in Canada was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Canada's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

Richardson, Cathy; Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha

343

RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

344

Policy and Indigenous Languages in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of Indigenous languages has been declining over the period of non-Aboriginal settlement in Australia as a result of repressive policies, both explicit and implicit. The National Policy on Languages (Lo Bianco, 1987) was the high point of language policy in Australia, given its national scope and status and its attempt to encompass all…

McKay, Graham

2011-01-01

345

Indigenous Metissage: A Decolonizing Research Sensibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a report on the theoretical origins of a decolonizing research sensibility called Indigenous Metissage. This research praxis emerged parallel to personal and ongoing inquiries into historic and current relations connecting Aboriginal peoples and Canadians in the place now called Canada. I frame the colonial frontier origins of these…

Donald, Dwayne

2012-01-01

346

Indigenous Scholars versus the Status Quo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native American scholars committed to the long-term health and vitality of Indigenous peoples see decolonization and empowerment as central to their struggles. However, those who maintain the colonial power structure do not want to connect the past to the present or use Native perspectives or theories. Common examples of discriminatory practice…

Mihesuah, Devon A.; Wilson, Angela Cavender

2002-01-01

347

Control of indigenous pathogenic bacteria in seafood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined. These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology of disease, are used to place the various seafood products in risk categories and to identify

Hans Henrik Huss

1997-01-01

348

Indigenous People: Emancipatory Possibilities in Curriculum Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I argue that emancipatory possibilities for Maori, the Indigenous people of New Zealand, rely on structural changes that enable them to have control over resources, decision making, and meaning, and that emancipation is a journey traveled by oppressed groups as they exercise their collective agency. The 1990s development of…

McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

2008-01-01

349

Considering Indigenous Knowledges and Mathematics Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across Canada, significant program changes in school mathematics have been made that encourage teachers to consider Aboriginal perspectives. In this article, I investigate one Aboriginal teacher's approaches to integrating Indigenous knowledges and the mandated mathematics curriculum in a Blackfoot First Nation school. Using a framework that…

Sterenberg, Gladys

2013-01-01

350

Earthsongs: Indigenous Ways of Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Earthsongs" was the third in a series of courses designed and facilitated by Dr. Lorna Williams, Canada Research Chair in Aboriginal Education at the University of Victoria. Subtitled "Learning and teaching in an Indigenous world," these courses offer undergraduate and graduate students from the Faculty of Education and across the university,…

Kennedy, Mary Copland

2009-01-01

351

Indigenous tourism development in the arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores current trends in indigenous (aboriginal) tourism development in Canadas western Arctic region. Its operational environment is characterized by the presence of mixed local community economies and a co-management framework for lands and resources. In the North, aboriginal tourism is a resource-based industry, traditionally in the form of big game hunting, and in a more modern context, evolving

Claudia Notzke

1999-01-01

352

Indigenous Youth Migration and Language Contact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies ethnographically detail how Indigenous young people's mobility intersects with sociolinguistic transformation in an interconnected world. Drawing on a decade-long study of youth and language contact, I analyze Yup'ik young people's migration in relation to emerging language ideologies and patterns of language use in "Piniq,"…

Wyman, Leisy T.

2013-01-01

353

TRUDEAU SCHOLARSHIP Student of Indigenous law  

E-print Network

speed reading TRUDEAU SCHOLARSHIP Student of Indigenous law wins $150,000 award Andrée Boisselle. Story on page 4. NEW SCHOLARSHIPS Black gives back David Black, owner of Black Press, has established 37 new scholarships for BCom students from communities across the province. Black played a major role

Victoria, University of

354

Indigenous knowledge organization: An Indian scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic component of any country's knowledge system is its Indigenous Knowledge (IK). This paper presents an overview of IK by defining it as a local and tacit knowledge that is unique to a given culture or society and forms the basis for local-level decision; its characteristics and types; its impact on social development with successful IK initiatives in other

Siriginidi Subba Rao

2006-01-01

355

Globalization and indigenous cultures: Homogenization or differentiation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much debate about whether with globalization human society will become culturally homogenized or further differentiated. Intercultural researchers have yet to contribute to this dialogue, and in this paper these issues are examined in light of the need for and value of indigenous research. A model of knowledge creation from cultural insights is presented as a methodology for pursuing

Dharm P. S. Bhawuk

2008-01-01

356

Applied Indigenous Studies at Northern Arizona University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Applied Indigenous Studies program at Northern Arizona University aims to prepare American Indian students to assume tribal leadership roles. Its location in the College of Ecosystem Science and Management emphasizes its land-oriented and applied focus. The program's development, core courses, and academic requirements for bachelors degrees…

Trosper, Ronald L.

2001-01-01

357

INDIGENOUS (FIRST NATIONS) AND MTIS STUDENT SPONSORSHIP  

E-print Network

, student activity fee, recreation-athletics fee, U-Pass transit pass) Health and dental plan: student mayINDIGENOUS (FIRST NATIONS) AND MÉTIS STUDENT SPONSORSHIP AUTHORIZATION Student Accounts, Student Services, MBC 3200 Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC V5A 1S6 FAX 778.782.4263,TEL 778.782.6930 students

358

Aboriginal Connections: An Indigenous Peoples Web Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Rob Wesley, this Web directory indexes sites related to Canadian aboriginal, Native American, and international indigenous peoples and cultures. The annotated links are organized by topic, including First Nations, Education, Government, History, and Organizations, among others. What's new, a top 100 listing, and an internal search engine are also provided. Visitors are welcome to submit additional sites for inclusion.

359

Indigenous Ways--Fruits of Our Ancestors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the human-nature relationship is recognized as a major field of interest and a platform of ideas linked with it is explored. A "new" source to inform an alternative paradigm for outdoor education is proposed; it is millennia old, has roots all over the globe and is a living, breathing, and evolving tradition--indigenous ways. While…

Cohn, Itamar

2011-01-01

360

Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

2011-01-01

361

Mutation breeding by ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

1991-07-01

362

New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission  

E-print Network

malaria vector is vital for effective control and epidemicfor malaria control in the context of effective vectorvector species and concomitant distribution records are vital for effective malaria control.

Chen, Hong; Githeko, Andrew K.; Zhou, Guofa F.; Githure, John I.; Yan, Guiyun Y.

2006-01-01

363

Best of Breed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No team of engineers, no matter how much time they took or how many bottles of cabernet they consumed, would dream up an antenna that looked like a deer antler on steroids. Yet that's what a group at NASA Ames Research Center came up with-thanks to a little help from Darwin. NASA's Space Technology 5 nanosatellites, which are scheduled to start measuring Earth's magnetosphere in late 2004, requires an antenna that can receive a wide range of frequencies regardless of the spacecraft's orientation. Rather than leave such exacting requirements in the hands of a human, the engineers decided to breed a design using genetic algorithms and 32 Linux PCs. The computers generated small antenna-constructing programs (the genotypes) and executed them to produce designs (the phenotypes). Then the designs were evaluated using an antenna simulator. The team settled on the form pictured here. You won't find this kind of antenna in any textbook, design guide, or research paper. But its innovative structure meets a challenging set of specifications. If successfully deployed, it will be the first evolved antenna to make it out of the lab and the first piece of evolved hardware ever to fly in space.

Lohn, Jason

2004-01-01

364

Morphological and genetic characterization of an emerging Azorean horse breed: the Terceira Pony  

PubMed Central

The Terceira Pony is a horse indigenous to Terceira Island in the Azores. These horses were very important during the colonization of the island. Due to their very balanced proportions and correct gaits, and with an average withers height of 1.28 m, the Terceira Pony is often confused with a miniature pure-bred Lusitano. This population was officially recognized as the fourth Portuguese equine breed by the national authorities in January, 2014. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and the genetic diversity by means of microsatellite markers of this emerging horse breed. The biometric data consisted of 28 body measurements and nine angles from 30 animals (11 sires, 19 dams). The Terceira Pony is now a recognized horse breed and is gaining in popularity amongst breeders and the younger riding classes. The information obtained from this study will be very useful for conservation and management purposes, including maximizing the breed’s genetic diversity, and solidifying the desirable phenotypic traits.

Lopes, Maria S.; Mendonça, Duarte; Rojer, Horst; Cabral, Verónica; Bettencourt, Sílvia X.; da Câmara Machado, Artur

2015-01-01

365

The Kintamani dog: genetic profile of an emerging breed from Bali, Indonesia.  

PubMed

The Kintamani dog is an evolving breed indigenous to the Kintamani region of Bali. Kintamani dogs cohabitate with feral Bali street dogs, although folklore has the breed originating 600 years ago from a Chinese Chow Chow. The physical and personality characteristics of the Kintamani dog make it a popular pet for the Balinese, and efforts are currently under way to have the dog accepted by the Federation Cynologique Internationale as a recognized breed. To study the genetic background of the Kintamani dog, 31 highly polymorphic short tandem repeat markers were analyzed in Kintamani dogs, Bali street dogs, Australian dingoes, and nine American Kennel Club (AKC) recognized breeds of Asian or European origin. The Kintamani dog was identical to the Bali street dog at all but three loci. The Bali street dog and Kintamani dog were most closely aligned with the Australian dingo and distantly related to AKC recognized breeds of Asian but not European origin. Therefore, the Kintamani dog has evolved from Balinese feral dogs with little loss of genetic diversity. PMID:16014810

Puja, I K; Irion, D N; Schaffer, A L; Pedersen, N C

2005-01-01

366

Plant Breeding Program COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL  

E-print Network

Plant Breeding Program COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Office of the Dean Cereal Fiber Forage Fruit germplasm Nuts oilseed orNameNtal Vegetable plaNt breediNg aCademy researCh aNd iNFormatioN CeNters 100 years of breeding #12;2 UC Davis Plant Breeding Program Summarizing 100 years of history

Bradford, Kent

367

What's so special about chicken immunology?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

368

ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

369

Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

370

Control of Newcastle Disease in Village Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1983 and 1992, the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) invested A$3 million in research to find a vaccine that could provide protection from Newcastle disease in chickens and be applied in village environments in developing countries. A further $160 000 was invested in follow up projects which ended in 1996. Village chickens often provide the only source

1998-01-01

371

Monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken interleukin-17  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In our previous study chicken interleukin -17 (chIL-17) gene was cloned from the expressed sequence tag (EST) cDNA library and initially analyzed. To further investigate biological properties of chicken IL-17, six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against bacterially expressed protein were produced and c...

372

PCR Assay Specific for Chicken Feces.  

PubMed

Bacteroidales are fecal anaerobic bacteria that are common in the digestive systems and feces of warm-blooded animals. Some strains of Bacteroidales have been reported to be host-specific. In this study, Bacteroidales strains from chicken feces were examined for their potential use as indicators of chicken fecal contamination. Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from chicken feces were amplified, cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using these sequences and published Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from human and bovine feces. Primers were designed based on putative chicken feces-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences and the primer pairs were tested for specificity in PCR assays. One set of primers, chBact F1 and chBact R16, specifically amplified DNA from chicken feces in a PCR assay, but did not amplify wild turkey, cat, bovine, or deer fecal DNAs. In addition, DNA from feces contaminated straw-based chicken litter produced a product in the PCR assay. However, DNA from feces contaminated wood shavings-based chicken litter was not amplified. The PCR assay described here may prove a useful tool for the detection of chicken feces and for source tracking in watersheds with fecal contamination. PMID:24839330

Cisar, Cindy R; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Hatley, Jonathan; Arney, Lori; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Owen, Daniel

2010-01-01

373

Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor  

SciTech Connect

Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens.

Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

1987-12-01

374

Chicken Skeleton - Ball and Socket Joint (Limb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The chicken has wings modified for flight, although it spends much it its time on ground. The bones are very light and long with finger-like ends. The ball and socket joint and hinge joint allow the chicken to move its wing in different directions.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-28

375

Chicken Skeleton - Ball and Socket Joint (Wing)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The chicken has large feet because it spends so much of its time on the ground. The ball and socket joints and hinge joints allow the chicken to move its leg. It uses its sharp claws mainly for defense against predators.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-28

376

Inserting random and site-specific changes into the genome of chickens.  

PubMed

During the past decade, modifications to the chicken genome have evolved from random insertions of small transgenes using viral vectors to site-specific deletions using homologous recombination vectors and nontargeted insertions of large transgenes using phi-31 integrase. Primordial germ cells (PGC) and gonocytes are the germline-competent cell lines in which targeted modifications and large transgenes are inserted into the genome. After extended periods of in vitro culture, PGC retain their capacity to form functional gametes when reintroduced in vivo. Rates of stable germline modification vary from 1 × 10(-5) for nontargeted insertions to 1 × 10(-8) for targeted insertions. Following transfection, clonally derived cell lines are expanded, injected into Stage 13-15 Hamburger and Hamilton embryos, and putative chimeras are incubated to term in surrogate shells. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is incorporated into transgenes to reveal the presence of genetically modified PGC in culture and the extent of colonization of the gonad during the first week posthatch. If the extent of colonization is adequate, cohorts of putative chimeras are reared to sexual maturity. Semen is collected and the contribution from donor PGC is estimated by evaluating GFP expression using flow cytometry and PCR. The most promising candidates are selected for breeding to obtain G1 heterozygote offspring. To date, this protocol has been used to (1) knockout the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes and produce chickens lacking humoral immunity, (2) insert human V genes and arrays of pseudo V genes into the heavy and light immunoglobulin loci to produce chickens making antibodies with human V regions, (3) insert GFP into nontargeted locations within the genome to produce chickens expressing GFP, and (4) insert Cre recombinase into the genome to produce chickens that excise sequences of DNA flanked by loxP sites. PMID:25828572

Collarini, Ellen; Leighton, Philip; Pedersen, Darlene; Harriman, Bill; Jacob, Roy; Mettler-Izquierdo, Shelley; Yi, Henry; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile; Etches, Robert J

2015-04-01

377

Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis and Association Study Identifies Loci for Polydactyly in Chickens  

PubMed Central

Polydactyly occurs in some chicken breeds, but the molecular mechanism remains incompletely understood. Combined genome-wide linkage analysis and association study (GWAS) for chicken polydactyly helps identify loci or candidate genes for the trait and potentially provides further mechanistic understanding of this phenotype in chickens and perhaps other species. The linkage analysis and GWAS for polydactyly was conducted using an F2 population derived from Beijing-You chickens and commercial broilers. The results identified two QTLs through linkage analysis and seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) through GWAS, associated with the polydactyly trait. One QTL located at 35 cM on the GGA2 was significant at the 1% genome-wise level and another QTL at the 1% chromosome-wide significance level was detected at 39 cM on GGA19. A total of seven SNPs, four of 5% genome-wide significance (P < 2.98 × 10?6) and three of suggestive significance (5.96 × 10?5) were identified, including two SNPs (GGaluGA132178 and Gga_rs14135036) in the QTL on GGA2. Of the identified SNPs, the eight nearest genes were sonic hedgehog (SHH), limb region 1 homolog (mouse) (LMBR1), dipeptidyl-peptidase 6, transcript variant 3 (DPP6), thyroid-stimulating hormone, beta (TSHB), sal-like 4 (Drosophila) (SALL4), par-6 partitioning defective 6 homolog beta (Caenorhabditis elegans) (PARD6B), coenzyme Q5 (COQ5), and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, etapolypeptide (YWHAH). The GWAS supports earlier reports of the importance of SHH and LMBR1 as regulating genes for polydactyly in chickens and other species, and identified others, most of which have not previously been associated with limb development. The genes and associated SNPs revealed here provide detailed information for further exploring the molecular and developmental mechanisms underlying polydactyly. PMID:24752238

Sun, Yanfa; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Guiping; Zheng, Maiqing; Sun, Yan; Yu, Xiaoqiong; Li, Peng; Wen, Jie

2014-01-01

378

Identification of smallholder farmers and pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits: choice model approach.  

PubMed

Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly homogeneous preferences were investigated. In the pastoral production system, attention was given to coat color of both breeding rams and ewes, favoring brown and white colors over black. Ram libido influenced producers' decisions in Bonga, Horro and Menz areas. The influence of milk yield and twinning on respondents' decision making was high in Afar and Horro, respectively. Breeders in all areas attempt to combine production and reproduction traits as well as they can in order to maximize benefits from their sheep. The elicited measurable objective traits were used to design alternative community-based sheep breeding plans for the four indigenous sheep breeds in their production environments that have been implemented since. PMID:22440475

Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

2011-12-01

379

Syllabus Plant Breeding 11:776:406; and Advanced Plant Breeding 16:765:528  

E-print Network

Syllabus ­ Plant Breeding ­ 11:776:406; and Advanced Plant Breeding ­ 16:765:528 Monday/ Wednesday Breeding Hazlenuts ­ Field Trip to HFIII Molnar Mar. 4 Biotechnology, Molecular Markers in Plant Breeding Bonos 6,8 Mar. 6 Genomics in Plant Breeding Bonos 8 Mar. 11 Effect of Long Term Selection Bonos handout

Chen, Kuang-Yu

380

Breeding gravitational lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lenses are a spectacular astrophysical phenomenon, a cosmic mirage caused by the gravitational deflection of light in which multiple images of a same background object can be seen. Their beauty is only exceeded by their usefulness, as the gravitational lens effect is a direct probe of the total mass of the deflecting object. Furthermore, since the image configuration arising from the gravitational lens effect depends on the exact gravitational potential of the deflector, it even holds the promise of learning about the distribution of the mass. In this presentation, a method for extracting the information encoded in the images and reconstructing the mass distribution is presented. Being a non-parametric method, it avoids making a priori assumptions about the shape of the mass distribution. At the core of the procedure lies a genetic algorithm, an optimization strategy inspired by Darwin's principle of ``survival of the fittest''. One only needs to specify a criterion to decide if one particular trial solution is deemed better than another, and the genetic algorithm will ``breed'' appropriate solutions to the problem. In a similar way, one can create a multi-objective genetic algorithm, capable of optimizing several fitness criteria at the same time. This provides a very flexible way to incorporate all the available information in the gravitational lens system: not only the positions and shapes of the multiple images are used, but also the so-called ``null space'', i.e. the area in which no such images can be seen. The effectiveness of this approach is illustrated using simulated data, which allows one to compare the reconstruction to the true mass distribution.

Liesenborgs, J.; de Rijcke, S.; Dejonghe, H.; Bekaert, P.

2011-03-01

381

Impact of route of exposure and challenge dose on the pathogenesis of H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus in chickens.  

PubMed

H7N9 influenza A first caused human infections in early 2013 in China. Virus genetics, histories of patient exposures to poultry, and previous experimental studies suggest the source of the virus is a domestic avian species, such as chickens. In order to better understand the ecology of this H7N9 in chickens, we evaluated the infectious dose and pathogenesis of A/Anhui/1/2013 H7N9 in two common breeds of chickens, White Leghorns (table-egg layers) and White Plymouth Rocks (meat chickens). No morbidity or mortality were observed with doses of 10(6) or 10(8)EID50/bird when administered by the upper-respiratory route, and the mean infectious dose (10(6) EID50) was higher than expected, suggesting that the virus is poorly adapted to chickens. Virus was shed at higher titers and spread to the kidneys in chickens inoculated by the intravenous route. Challenge experiments with three other human-origin H7N9 viruses showed a similar pattern of virus replication. PMID:25662310

Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L; Kapczynski, Darrell R

2015-03-01

382

PRADEL et al. Experience and breeding probability Breeding experience might be a major determinant of breeding  

E-print Network

of breeding probability in long-lived species: the case of the greater flamingo2 Roger Pradel: corresponding histories of 14716 greater flamingos over 25 years, we get a detailed picture of the interplay24 of age

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Characterization and expression of chicken selenoprotein W.  

PubMed

As an essential trace element, selenium (Se) deficiency results in White Muscle Disease in livestock and Keshan disease in humans. The main objectives of this study were to clone and characterize the chicken selenoprotein W (SeW) gene and investigate SeW mRNA expression in chicken tissues. The deduced amino acid (AA) sequence of chicken SeW contains 85 AAs with UAG as the stop codon. Like all SeW genes identified in different species, chicken SeW contains one well-conserved selenocysteine (Sec) at the 13th position encoded by the UGA codon. The proposed glutathione (GSH)-binding site at the Cys(37) of SeW is not conserved in the chicken, but Cys(9) and Sec(13), with possible GSH binding, are conserved in SeWs identified from all species. There are 23-59% and 50-61% homology in cDNA and deduced AA sequences of SeW, respectively, between the chicken and other species. The predicted secondary structure of chicken SeW mRNA indicates that the selenocysteine insertion sequence element is type II with invariant adenosines within the apical bulge. The SeW mRNA expression is high in skeletal muscle followed by brain, but extremely low in other tissues from chickens fed a commercial maize-based diet. The SeW gene is ubiquitously expressed in heart, skeletal muscle, brain, testis, spleen, kidney, lung, liver, stomach and pancreas in chickens fed a commercial diet supplemented with sodium selenite. These results indicate that dietary selenium supplementation regulates SeW gene expression in the chicken and skeletal muscle is the most responsive tissue when dietary Se content is low. PMID:21207117

Ou, Bor-Rung; Jiang, Mei-Jung; Lin, Chao-Hsiang; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lee, Kuei-Jen; Yeh, Jan-Ying

2011-04-01

384

Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model for "science for all".

Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

2011-09-01

385

Nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel NIMF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 1960's, Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engines were developed and ground tested capable of yielding isp of up to 900 s at thrusts up to 250 klb. Numerous trade studies have shown that such traditional hydrogen fueled NTR engines can reduce the inertial mass low earth orbit (IMLEO) of lunar missions by 35 percent and Mars missions by 50 to 65 percent. The same personnel and facilities used to revive the hydrogen NTR can also be used to develop NTR engines capable of using indigenous Martian volatiles as propellant. By putting this capacity of the NTR to work in a Mars descent/acent vehicle, the Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel (NIMF) can greatly reduce the IMLEO of a manned Mars mission, while giving the mission unlimited planetwide mobility.

Zubrin, Robert

1991-01-01

386

Social networks among Indigenous peoples in Mexico.  

PubMed

We examine the extent to which social networks among indigenous peoples in Mexico have a significant effect on a variety of human capital investment and economic activities, such as school attendance and work among teenage boys and girls, and migration, welfare participation, employment status, occupation, and sector of employment among adult males and females. Using data from the 10 percent population sample of the 2000 Population and Housing Census of Mexico and the empirical strategy that Bertrand, Luttmer, and Mullainathan (2000) propose, which allows us to take into account the role of municipality and language group fixed effects, we confirm empirically that social network effects play an important role in the economic decisions of indigenous people, especially in rural areas. Our analysis also provides evidence that better access to basic services such as water and electricity increases the size and strength of network effects in rural areas. PMID:21188887

Skoufias, Emmanuel; Lunde, Trine; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

2010-01-01

387

Indigenous Soprano delivers annual Nulungu Reconciliation Lecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous soprano, actor and author of the internationally acclaimed play, White Baptist Abba Fan, Ms Deborah Cheetham, will deliver the 2009 Nulungu lecture for The University of Notre Dame Australia’s Broome Campus.\\u000aSince her international debut in 1997, Ms Cheetham has performed in theatres and concert halls around the world, including a performance with Spanish tenor José Carreras in 2003

Lyn Quince

2009-01-01

388

Indigenous Plants Reported for Hypoglycemic Activity  

PubMed Central

Plants are the only source of a well established traditional and modern drugs and phytochemicals. Many plant species are known in folk medicine of different cultures to be used for their hypoglycemic properties and therefore used for treatment of diabetes. The evaluation of these plants and of their active natural principles is logic way of searching for new drugs to treat this disease. The present paper deals with the uses of indigenous plants for curing diabetes. PMID:22557024

Roy, Shipra; Agrawal, Venu

2001-01-01

389

Indigenous Elementary Students' Science Instruction in Taiwan: Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students' non-Indigenous teacher played a central role in developing a science module `Measuring Time' that combined Amis knowledge and Western science knowledge. The study identified two cultural worldview perspectives on time; for example, the place-based cyclical time held by the Amis, and the universal rectilinear time presupposed by scientists. Students' pre-instructional fragmented concepts from both knowledge systems became more informed and refined through their engagement in `Measuring Time'. Students' increased interest and pride in their Amis culture were noted.

Lee, Huei; Yen, Chiung-Fen; Aikenhead, Glen S.

2012-12-01

390

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America.  

PubMed

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands. PMID:24687096

Hamilton, Marcus J; Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C

2014-01-01

391

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America  

PubMed Central

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands. PMID:24687096

Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

2014-01-01

392

Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Methods Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. Results With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Conclusions Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained molecular breeding values had similar accuracies. The benefit of adding data from other breeds to a within-breed training population is the ability to produce molecular breeding values that are more robust across breeds and these can be utilized until enough training data has been accumulated to allow for a within-breed training set. PMID:23953034

2013-01-01

393

When Indigenous and Modern Education Collide in the Global Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Indigenous education has been heralded as an effective pedagogical strategy for perpetuating and reinvigorating the history,\\u000a culture, and language of indigenous groups globally. In this chapter, we present the case that the specific goals and practices\\u000a of indigenous education, with an indispensable particularistic approach, find opposite hegemonic counterparts in national\\u000a systems of education, which end up diluting and weakening its

Alberto Arenas; Iliana Reyes; Leisy Wyman

394

Tender Texas Chicken: The Natural Light Meat.  

E-print Network

,. I. Chicken Fajitas I tablespoon oil or liquid margarine 4 chicken breast or thigh filets 1 bell pepper, cut in julienne strips 1 onion, cut in julienne strips Guacamole 1 avocado 1f2 teaspoon lime juice (approx.) 2 sprigs fresh parsley... the meat is white throughout the filet. When cooking in the kitchen, vegetables may be added to the skillet the last few minutes before the chicken is done. Add more oil if necessary and saute the onions and peppers until they are tender...

Denton, J.H.; Gardner, F.A.

1987-01-01

395

Diet of canvasbacks during breeding  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

1990-01-01

396

High-resolution melting curve analysis of the ADSL and LPL genes and their correlation with meat quality and blood parameters in chickens.  

PubMed

Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) are key enzymes in the metabolism of inosine monophosphate (IMP) and fat mass, which are important factors in meat quality evaluation. In this study, we selected 50 hens from the ISA B-line layers and Guangxi Yellow chickens, slaughtered the chickens at 120 days old, and analyzed polymorphisms in the ADSL and LPL genes using the high-resolution melting curve method. Blood lipid parameters, intramuscular fat (IMF), and IMP content were higher (P < 0.05) in Guangxi Yellow chickens than in ISA B-line layers, while LPL activity was lower (P < 0.05). In exon 2 of the ADSL gene, a C3484T mutation was identified. In both breeds, the CC genotype showed the highest IMP, and IMP was the lowest in the TT genotype. In the 5? regulatory region of the LPL gene, a C293T mutation was identified. In both breeds, the CC genotype showed the lowest LPL and IMF, while IMF was the highest in the TT genotype. The percentages of individuals with the TT type in the ADSL gene, which was associated with the lowest IMP, were 16.0 and 52.0% in Guangxi chickens and ISA layers, respectively. The percentages of individuals with the CC type of the LPL gene, which was associated with the lowest LPL and IMF, were 28.0 and 44.0%, respectively. The ADSL and LPL gene mutations are correlated with differences in meat quality in different chicken breeds, and high-resolution melting curve is an effective prediction technology for these mutations. PMID:25867349

Zhang, X D; Li, Q H; Lou, L F; Liu, J; Chen, X H; Zhang, C X; Wang, H H

2015-01-01

397

Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.  

PubMed

Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719

Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

2004-04-01

398

A longitudinal study of the incidence of major endemic and epidemic diseases affecting semi-scavenging chickens reared under the Participatory Livestock Development Project areas in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

A 17-month (from January 2002 to May 2003) longitudinal study was undertaken to elucidate the epidemiology of important endemic and epidemic diseases affecting semi-scavenging chickens reared in the Participatory Livestock Development Project area in Bangladesh. This project was implemented in 17 northern and north-central districts of Bangladesh, under which 361 839 rural poor people were assisted to undertake poultry-rearing activity as a tool of poverty reduction. Of the total beneficiaries 93% were "key rearers". A key rearer is defined as a beneficiary who generally rears 10 to 13 hens in a semi-scavenging system with little additional feed supply. Households of 650 key rearers and some chick rearers were observed. During the study period 1227 birds, which belonged to different age, breed and sex categories, were found dead as a result of disease occurrence. From every dead bird organ samples such as the liver, heart, spleen, brain lung, trachea and bursa of Fabricius were collected. The incidence rate of mortality was 0.01976 per bird-months at risk. Of the total deaths 58.44% had single or mixed type of infections. Newcastle disease had the highest proportional mortality rate (15.81%). The proportional mortality caused by fowlpox, fowl cholera, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, aspergillosis, infectious bursal disease, mixed infections and undiagnosed cases were 8.96%, 6.76%, 7.09%, 6.93%, 0.33%, 2.04%, 10.51% and 41.56%, respectively. Newcastle disease affected a significant higher proportion (18.81%) of birds older than 60 days of age (P=0.00). Younger birds (age < or = 60 days) had a higher proportional mortality due to fowlpox and infectious bursal disease than older birds (P=0.00). Sonali (male Rhode Island Red x female Fayoumi) birds reared under the semi-scavenging system had a higher infection rate with Newcastle disease virus compared with indigenous and Fayoumi birds (P=0.00). Fowlpox was more prevalent in Fayoumi birds compared with Sonali. Surprisingly, Newcastle disease was more common in the vaccinated birds rather than the unvaccinated birds. PMID:16147566

Biswas, P K; Biswas, D; Ahmed, S; Rahman, A; Debnath, N C

2005-08-01

399

Liver response to diet and estrogen in white Leghorn and Rhode Island Red chickens.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to compare the response of Rhode Island Reds (RIR) and White Leghorns (WL) to estradiol (E2) administration and diets of different composition. In growing chickens injected with E2 for 7 days, RIR accumulated significantly more hepatic lipid and had significantly less plasma lipid than WL. Both RIR and WL, injected for 4 days with E2, had lower hepatic lipids when fed a diet containing fish meal, alfalfa meal, and torula yeast (FAY) than when fed a corn-soybean meal diet (CS). Plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity was significantly lower for RIR. Feeding a FAY diet to laying hens significantly reduced hepatic lipids in WL but not in RIR. Implantation of tubes containing E2 in RIR-laying hens resulted in a significant body weight loss and 25% mortality, while a similar treatment in WL-laying hens caused no body weight loss or mortality. Injecting both RIR and WL-laying hens with E2 caused a marked body weight loss and high mortality in both breeds although WL were less severely affected. The results show that breeds of chickens respond differently to both E2 administration and changes in diet composition. PMID:4039822

Takahashi, K; Jensen, L S

1985-05-01

400

The journey between Western and indigenous research paradigms.  

PubMed

This article is an account of the author's journey as a White researcher preparing to do a community-based participatory action research study with Mi'kmaq men. In this article, a postcolonial approach is examined, interrogating the utility of this theoretical approach in research with Aboriginal people. Next, the foundations of an Indigenous worldview is identified, followed by a debate about the strengths and weaknesses of a critical social theory approach in light of an Indigenous worldview. Finally, lessons about an Indigenous research paradigm including the benefits of using a theoretical approach based on an Indigenous knowledge system are identified. PMID:19820173

Getty, Grace A

2010-01-01

401

Lead contamination of chicken eggs and tissues from a small farm flock.  

PubMed

Twenty mixed-breed adult laying hens from a small farm flock in Iowa were clinically normal but had been exposed to chips of lead-based paint in their environment. These chickens were brought to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Ames, Iowa, where the concentration of lead in blood, eggs (yolk, albumen, and shell), and tissues (liver, kidney, muscle, and ovary) from 5 selected chickens was determined over a period of 9 days. Blood lead levels ranged from less than 50 to 760 ppb. Lead contamination of the yolks varied from less than 20 to 400 ppb, and shells were found to contain up to 450 ppb lead. Albumen contained no detectable amount. Lead content of the egg yolks strongly correlated with blood lead levels. Deposition of lead in the shells did not correlate well with blood lead levels. Mean tissue lead accumulation was highest in kidneys (1,360 ppb), with livers ranking second (500 ppb) and ovarian tissue third (320 ppb). Muscle contained the lowest level of lead (280 ppb). Lead contamination of egg yolks and edible chicken tissues represents a potential public health hazard, especially to children repeatedly consuming eggs from contaminated family-owned flocks. PMID:14535540

Trampel, Darrell W; Imerman, Paula M; Carson, Thomas L; Kinker, Julie A; Ensley, Steve M

2003-09-01

402

Breeding monkeys for biomedical research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

1973-01-01

403

Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous

Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

2014-01-01

404

Analysis of the Early Immune Response to Infection by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Chickens Differing in Their Resistance to the Disease  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Chicken whole-genome gene expression arrays were used to analyze the host response to infection by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Spleen and bursal tissue were examined from control and infected birds at 2, 3, and 4 days postinfection from two lines that differ in their resistance to IBDV infection. The host response was evaluated over this period, and differences between susceptible and resistant chicken lines were examined. Antiviral genes, including IFNA, IFNG, MX1, IFITM1, IFITM3, and IFITM5, were upregulated in response to infection. Evaluation of this gene expression data allowed us to predict several genes as candidates for involvement in resistance to IBDV. IMPORTANCE Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is of economic importance to the poultry industry and thus is also important for food security. Vaccines are available, but field strains of the virus are of increasing virulence. There is thus an urgent need to explore new control solutions, one of which would be to breed birds with greater resistance to IBD. This goal is perhaps uniquely achievable with poultry, of all farm animal species, since the genetics of 85% of the 60 billion chickens produced worldwide each year is under the control of essentially two breeding companies. In a comprehensive study, we attempt here to identify global transcriptomic differences in the target organ of the virus between chicken lines that differ in resistance and to predict candidate resistance genes. PMID:25505077

Sadeyen, Jean-Remy; Butter, Colin; Kaiser, Pete; Burt, David W.

2014-01-01

405

Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Signaling Pathways Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition in Skeletal Muscle of Sex-Linked Dwarf Chickens  

PubMed Central

Intramuscular fat (IMF) plays an important role in meat quality. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying IMF deposition in skeletal muscle have not been addressed for the sex-linked dwarf (SLD) chicken. In this study, potential candidate genes and signaling pathways related to IMF deposition in chicken leg muscle tissue were characterized using gene expression profiling of both 7-week-old SLD and normal chickens. A total of 173 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the two breeds. Subsequently, 6 DEGs related to lipid metabolism or muscle development were verified in each breed based on gene ontology (GO) analysis. In addition, KEGG pathway analysis of DEGs indicated that some of them (GHR, SOCS3, and IGF2BP3) participate in adipocytokine and insulin signaling pathways. To investigate the role of the above signaling pathways in IMF deposition, the gene expression of pathway factors and other downstream genes were measured by using qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Collectively, the results identified potential candidate genes related to IMF deposition and suggested that IMF deposition in skeletal muscle of SLD chicken is regulated partially by pathways of adipocytokine and insulin and other downstream signaling pathways (TGF-?/SMAD3 and Wnt/catenin-? pathway). PMID:24757673

Ye, Yaqiong; Lin, Shumao; Mu, Heping; Tang, Xiaohong; Ou, Yangdan; Chen, Jian; Ma, Yongjiang; Li, Yugu

2014-01-01

406

CHICKEN DISEASE CHARACTERIZATION BY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize chicken carcass spectra. Spectral signatures of three different disease categories of poultry carcasses (airsacculitis, cadaver, and septicemia) were obtained from fluorescence emission measurements in the wavelength range of 360 to 600 nm with 330 ...

407

7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2013-01-01

408

7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2012-01-01

409

7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2014-01-01

410

7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2014-01-01

411

7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2012-01-01

412

7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...

2013-01-01

413

CHICKEN DISEASE CHARACTERIZATION BY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize chicken carcass diseases. Spectral signatures of three different disease categories of poultry carcasses, airsacculitis, cadaver and septicemia, were obtained from fluorescence emission measurements in the wavelength range of 360 to 600 nm with 330 ...

414

The immunologists' debt to the chicken.  

PubMed

The immune system of the chicken is an invaluable model for studying basic immunology and has made seminal contributions to fundamental immunological principles. Graft versus host responses and the key role of lymphocytes in adaptive immunity were first described in work with chicken embryos and chickens. 2. Most notably, the bursa of Fabricius provided the first substantive evidence that there are two major lineages of lymphocytes. Bursa-derived lymphocytes, or B cells, make antibodies while thymus-derived, or T cells, are involved in cell-mediated immune responses. 3. Gene conversion, the mechanism used by the chicken to produce its antibody repertoire, was first described in the chicken and requires the unique environment of the bursa. Subsequently it has been shown that some mammals also use gene conversion. 4. The chicken's Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), the first non-mammalian MHC to be sequenced, is minimal, compact and some 20-fold smaller than that of mammals. Uniquely, the chicken MHC is strongly associated with resistance to infectious diseases. 5. The first attenuated vaccine was developed by Louis Pasteur against a chicken pathogen, fowl cholera, and the first vaccine against a natural occurring cancer agent, Marek's disease virus, was developed for the chicken. 6. Vaccination of chick embryos on the 18th d of incubation, another breakthrough using chickens, provides protection early after hatching. In ovo vaccination now is widely practised by the poultry industry. 7. Evidence that widespread and intensive vaccination can lead to increased virulence with some pathogens, such as Marek's disease virus and infectious bursal disease virus, was first described with chicken populations. It warns of the need to develop mo resustainable vaccination strategies in future and provides useful lessons for other species, including in the human population. 8. Recombinant DNA technologies now provide the opportunity for the rational design of new vaccines. Such vaccines could contain the protective immunogenic elements from several pathogens and immunomodulatory molecules to direct and enhance immune responses so providing improved protection. The important thing will be to design vaccines that are sustainable and do not drive pathogens to ever-increasing virulence. PMID:12737220

Davison, T F

2003-03-01

415

Morphological and genetic characterization of an emerging Azorean horse breed: the Terceira Pony.  

PubMed

The Terceira Pony is a horse indigenous to Terceira Island in the Azores. These horses were very important during the colonization of the island. Due to their very balanced proportions and correct gaits, and with an average withers height of 1.28 m, the Terceira Pony is often confused with a miniature pure-bred Lusitano. This population was officially recognized as the fourth Portuguese equine breed by the national authorities in January, 2014. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and the genetic diversity by means of microsatellite markers of this emerging horse breed. The biometric data consisted of 28 body measurements and nine angles from 30 animals (11 sires, 19 dams). The Terceira Pony is now a recognized horse breed and is gaining in popularity amongst breeders and the younger riding classes. The information obtained from this study will be very useful for conservation and management purposes, including maximizing the breed's genetic diversity, and solidifying the desirable phenotypic traits. PMID:25774165

Lopes, Maria S; Mendonça, Duarte; Rojer, Horst; Cabral, Verónica; Bettencourt, Sílvia X; da Câmara Machado, Artur

2015-01-01

416

Genetic diversity and structure of livestock breeds   

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the genetic characterisation of livestock breeds, a key aspect of the long-term future breed preservation and, thus, of primary interest for animal breeders and management in the industry. First, ...

Wilkinson, Samantha

2012-06-30

417

The magnetic compass of domestic chickens.  

PubMed

In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident. PMID:24753787

Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2013-11-01

418

Acute monensin toxicosis in broiler chickens  

E-print Network

Acute Monensin Toxicosis in Broiler Chickens. (December 1979) Lynn Allen Hanrahan, B. S. , D. V. M. , Purdue University Chairman of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Donald E. Carrier The toxic effects of monensin were studied in 3 groups of broiler chickens... in fatty degeneration of aerobic striated muscle and coagulative necrosis in the aerobic (red) skeletal rmscle. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author is sincerely appreciative of the guidance and counsel of Dr. D. E. Corrier of the Department of Veterinary...

Hanrahan, Lynn Allen

1979-01-01

419

The magnetic compass of domestic chickens  

PubMed Central

In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident. PMID:24753787

Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

420

Family selection in plant breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeding programmes rarely take explicit practical account of the two sources of genetic variance, namely between and within full-sib families, even though existence of these two sources of variation has long been recognised. This paper refers to inbred and clonal crops, not to outbred, seed-propagated species. Theory suggests that the two variances should be of similar size, sometimes very

N. W. Simmonds

1996-01-01

421

Future status of radiation breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of artifical mutations by radiation and its utilization ; for radiation breeding are discussed. There are external and internal ; irradiation methods to induce mutations by radiation. The former method has the ; advantage of good reproducibility and occupies the main current. In the latter ; method, the rate of mutation per rate of dose unit is high

Tanaka

1973-01-01

422

Forage breeding and new varieties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the focus of the forage breeding program is to identify and develop novel germplasm and cultivars. The main objective is to produce cultivars with superior persistence, nutritive value and forage yield. This program also emphasizes two other objectives, namely:...

423

CAPTIVE BREEDING OF SOME RAPTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline of certain raptor species due to shooting, loss of nest sites, disturbances durinincubation, nest robbing, in- secticides, and in part due to unknown causes, which have posed Darticular threats to the Peregrine (Mebs, 1966; Beebe, 1967), has recently stimulated attemnts to save these birds from extirpation by captive breeding. This is already a successful recognized tech- nique For

Amlie Koehler; Freiburg Br

424

Stabilizer state breeding Erik Hostens,  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Stabilizer state breeding Erik Hostens, Jeroen Dehaene, and Bart De Moor ESAT-SCD, K of any stabilizer state from noisy copies and a pool of predistilled pure copies of the same state communication and quantum cryptography applications, requiring pure multipartite states that are shared by re

425

Plant breeding in crop improvement  

E-print Network

: what for? P Why genetic improvement or plant breeding? P Phases of genetic improvement P New plant 1980 1985 1990 Years 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Relativeyield(1930=100) Sorghum Corn Peanut Wheat Rice, not carotenes. High carotene carrots Enhancing the vitamin E content or modifying the balance of fatty acids

Gepts, Paul

426

Breeding Bunnies and Flashy Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will see how evolution works with a simulated breeding bunnies lab using red and white beans, one representing dominant alleles and the other recessive alleles. This lesson can be used in sixth grade with some minor modifications of the directions and the data being recorded.

PBS

2011-10-22

427

Breeding and propagating oakleaf hydrangeas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An oakleaf hydrangea breeding program at the U.S. National Arboretum’s worksite in McMinnville, Tenn. was started in 1996 for the purpose of developing attractive, compact oakleaf hydrangea cultivars suitable for use in small residential gardens. ‘Ruby Slippers’ and ‘Munchkin’ oakleaf hydrangeas we...

428

The State versus Indigenous Peoples: The Impact of Hydraulic Projects on Indigenous Peoples of Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…

Thi Dieu, Nguyen

1996-01-01

429

The Need for Learning Arenas: Non-Indigenous Teachers Working in Indigenous School Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work contexts shape conditions for work. Teachers working in Indigenous school contexts face conditions different from teachers working in mainstream schools. Challenging working conditions for these teachers result in high teacher turnover, making it even more difficult for already disadvantaged students to progress. From a social justice…

Parding, Karolina

2013-01-01

430

he reduced number of public breed-ing programs and breeders being  

E-print Network

. Although there are at least 47 Land Grant Universities offering plant breeding graduate programs are engaged in germplasm improvement or plant breeding research. Interest in the private sector in breeding been an increase in demand for plant breeding with attractive salaries ranging from $39

Bradford, Kent

431

Rose Breeding Program MOORE ROSE COLLECTION  

E-print Network

donated all of his breeding stock, nursery business, and plant inventory to Texas AgriLife ResearchRose Breeding Program MOORE ROSE COLLECTION The father of the miniature rose, Ralph Moore, has unreleased varieties that are used for breeding stock. Few of the commercially released rose varieties have

432

Robotics | Breeding Research | Nanotechnology GAME THEORY  

E-print Network

what comes next.This issue presents new plant breeding tools that will make an important contributionRobotics | Breeding Research | Nanotechnology GAME THEORY How We Make Decisions CLIMATE Where markers help in breeding disease-resistant and high-yield potato varieties. 32 Materials from the Cell

Falge, Eva

433

Biotechnology Provides New Tools for Plant Breeding  

E-print Network

Biotechnology Provides New Tools for Plant Breeding TREVOR V. SUSLOW, Cooperative Extension, or bread; composting organic materials; releasing parasitic wasps to control insect pests; breeding plants to understand how modern crop varieties have been developed using plant breeding supplemented by biotechnology

Bradford, Kent

434

Research Associate: Rice Breeding Rice Experiment Station  

E-print Network

qualifications and experience. Requirements: Job qualifications include a degree in plant breeding, agronomyResearch Associate: Rice Breeding Rice Experiment Station California Cooperative Rice Research a position to work with the RES Rice Breeding Program in screening and evaluating tolerance of rice germplasm

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

435

Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

436

Economic evaluation of genomic breeding programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare a con- ventional dairy cattle breeding program characterized by a progeny testing scheme with different scenarios of genomic breeding programs. The ultimate economic evaluation criterion was discounted profit reflecting discounted returns minus discounted costs per cow in a balanced breeding goal of production and function- ality. A deterministic approach mainly based on

S. König; H. Simianer; A. Willam

2009-01-01

437

PATHOGENESIS OF CHICKEN-PASSAGED NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES ISOLATED FROM CHICKENS, WILD, AND EXOTIC BIRDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens and wild (anhinga) and exotic (yellow nape parrot, pheasant, and dove isolate) birds was examined after four passages of the isolates in domestic chickens. Groups of four-week-old specific-pathogen-free White Legh...

438

SNP and INDEL detection in a QTL region on chicken chromosome 2 associated with muscle deposition.  

PubMed

Genetic improvement is important for the poultry industry, contributing to increased efficiency of meat production and quality. Because breast muscle is the most valuable part of the chicken carcass, knowledge of polymorphisms influencing this trait can help breeding programs. Therefore, the complete genome of 18 chickens from two different experimental lines (broiler and layer) from EMBRAPA was sequenced, and SNPs and INDELs were detected in a QTL region for breast muscle deposition on chicken chromosome 2 between microsatellite markers MCW0185 and MCW0264 (105 849-112 649 kb). Initially, 94 674 unique SNPs and 10 448 unique INDELs were identified in the target region. After quality filtration, 77% of the SNPs (85 765) and 60% of the INDELs (7828) were retained. The studied region contains 66 genes, and functional annotation of the filtered variants identified 517 SNPs and three INDELs in exonic regions. Of these, 357 SNPs were classified as synonymous, 153 as non-synonymous, three as stopgain, four INDELs as frameshift and three INDELs as non-frameshift. These exonic mutations were identified in 37 of the 66 genes from the target region, three of which are related to muscle development (DTNA, RB1CC1 and MOS). Fifteen non-tolerated SNPs were detected in several genes (MEP1B, PRKDC, NSMAF, TRAPPC8, SDR16C5, CHD7, ST18 and RB1CC1). These loss-of-function and exonic variants present in genes related to muscle development can be considered candidate variants for further studies in chickens. Further association studies should be performed with these candidate mutations as should validation in commercial populations to allow a better explanation of QTL effects. PMID:25690762

Godoy, T F; Moreira, G C M; Boschiero, C; Gheyas, A A; Gasparin, G; Paduan, M; Andrade, S C S; Montenegro, H; Burt, D W; Ledur, M C; Coutinho, L L

2015-04-01

439

Survival disparities in Australia: an analysis of patterns of care and comorbidities among indigenous and non-indigenous cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous Australians have lower overall cancer survival which has not yet been fully explained. To address this knowledge deficit, we investigated the associations between comorbidities, cancer treatment and survival in Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Queensland, Australia. Methods A cohort study of 956 Indigenous and 869 non-Indigenous patients diagnosed with cancer during 1998–2004, frequency-matched on age, sex, remoteness of residence and cancer type, and treated in Queensland public hospitals. Survival after cancer diagnosis, and effect of stage, treatment, and comorbidities on survival were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall Indigenous people had more advanced cancer stage (p?=?0.03), more comorbidities (p?Indigenous patients compared to non-Indigenous patients. For those who received treatment, time to commencement, duration and dose of treatment were comparable. Unadjusted cancer survival (HR?=?1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.48) and non-cancer survival (HR?=?2.39, 95% CI 1.57-3.63) were lower in the Indigenous relative to non-Indigenous patients over the follow-up period. When adjusted for clinical factors, there was no difference in cancer-specific survival between the groups (HR?=?1.10, 95% CI 0.96-1.27). One-year survival was lower for Indigenous people for all-causes of death (adjusted HR?=?1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.83). Conclusion In this study, Indigenous Australians received less cancer treatment, had more comorbidities and had more advanced cancer stage at diagnosis, factors which contribute to poorer cancer survival. Moreover, for patients with a more favourable distribution of such prognostic factors, Indigenous patients received less treatment overall relative to non-Indigenous patients. Personalised cancer care, which addresses the clinical, social and overall health requirements of Indigenous patients, may improve their cancer outcomes. PMID:25037075

2014-01-01

440

Low rates of postpartum glucose screening among indigenous and non-indigenous women in Australia with gestational diabetes.  

PubMed

Women with gestational diabetes have a high risk of type 2 diabetes postpartum, with Indigenous women particularly affected. This study reports postpartum diabetes screening rates among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women with gestational diabetes, in Far North Queensland, Australia. Retrospective study including 1,012 women with gestational diabetes giving birth at a regional hospital from 1/1/2004 to 31/12/2010. Data were linked between hospital records, midwives perinatal data, and laboratory results, then analysed using survival analysis and logistic regression. Indigenous women had significantly longer times to first oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) [hazards ratio (HR) 0.62, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.79, p < 0.0001) and 'any' postpartum glucose test (HR 0.81, 95 % CI 0.67-0.98, p = 0.03], compared to non-Indigenous women. Postpartum screening rates among all women were low. However, early OGTT screening rates (<6 months) were significantly lower among Indigenous women (13.6 vs. 28.3 %, p < 0.0001), leading to a persistent gap in cumulative postpartum screening rates. By 3 years postpartum, cumulative rates of receiving an OGTT, were 24.6 % (95 % CI 19.9-30.2 %) and 34.1 % (95 % CI 30.6-38.0 %) among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Excluding OGTTs in previous periods, few women received OGTTs at 6-24 months (7.8 vs. 6.7 %) or 2-4 years (5.2 vs. 6.5 %), among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Low rates of postpartum diabetes screening demonstrate that essential 'ongoing management' and 'equity' criteria for population-based screening for gestational diabetes are not being met; particularly among Indigenous women, for whom recent guideline changes have specific implications. Strategies to improve postpartum screening after gestational diabetes are urgently needed. PMID:24981736

Chamberlain, Catherine; McLean, Anna; Oats, Jeremy; Oldenburg, Brian; Eades, Sandra; Sinha, Ashim; Wolfe, Rory

2015-03-01

441

Comparative analysis of the distribution of segmented filamentous bacteria in humans, mice and chickens.  

PubMed

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are indigenous gut commensal bacteria. They are commonly detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Despite the significant role they have in the modulation of the development of host immune systems, little information exists regarding the presence of SFB in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and diversity of SFB in humans and to determine their phylogenetic relationships with their hosts. Gut contents from 251 humans, 92 mice and 72 chickens were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction and subjected to SFB 16S rRNA-specific PCR detection. The results showed SFB colonization to be age-dependent in humans, with the majority of individuals colonized within the first 2 years of life, but this colonization disappeared by the age of 3 years. Results of 16S rRNA sequencing showed that multiple operational taxonomic units of SFB could exist in the same individuals. Cross-species comparison among human, mouse and chicken samples demonstrated that each host possessed an exclusive predominant SFB sequence. In summary, our results showed that SFB display host specificity, and SFB colonization, which occurs early in human life, declines in an age-dependent manner. PMID:23151642

Yin, Yeshi; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Liying; Liu, Wei; Liao, Ningbo; Jiang, Mizu; Zhu, Baoli; Yu, Hongwei D; Xiang, Charlie; Wang, Xin

2013-03-01

442

Composite Indigenous Genre: Cheyenne Ledger Art as Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This author, a teacher of American Indian and Alaskan Native literature at an all-native school, contends that suppression of Indigenous literary texts is an aspect of colonization, and that reclamation of Indigenous American literature is a critical component of cultural sovereignty. In her classes, she emphasizes the hybrid nature of…

Low, Denise

2006-01-01

443

Samples of Indigenous Healing: The Path of Good Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I review five articles selected for this Special Issue of the "International Journal of Disability, Development and Education" on indigenous healing. I have considered the various traditions of indigenous healing, and I situate my analysis within the context of disability, development, and education. Such an analysis reflects the…

Levers, L. L.

2006-01-01

444

Closing the Gap: Using Graduate Attributes to Improve Indigenous Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peter J. Anderson and Bernadette Atkinson teach Indigenous and Traditionally Education in a Global World as a fourth year unit in the Faculty of Education at Monash University, Clayton. This paper is a self reflective piece of work where they discuss the use of graduate attributes relating to Indigenous Education, put forward by the Australian…

Anderson, Peter J.; Atkinson, Bernadette

2013-01-01

445

Testing Democracy's Promise: Indigenous Mobilization and the Chilean State  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1980s, following decades of authoritarianism and political violence, Latin America experienced a wave of transitions to democratic rule and social peace. Indigenous groups were prominent among the social sectors taking advan- tage of new spaces for political expression and dissent. By 1992, on the 500-year anniversary of the European conquest, indigenous organizations across the Ameri- cas had

Patricia Rodriguez; David Carruthers

2008-01-01

446

Indigenous Knowledge and Education: Sites of Struggle, Strength, and Survivance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book brings together essays that explore Indigenous ways of knowing and that consider how such knowledge can inform educational practices and institutions. Indigenous Knowledge is resiliently local in character and thus poses a distinct contrast to the international, more impersonal system of knowledge prevalent in Western educational…

Villegas, Malia, Ed.; Neugebauer, Sabina Rak, Ed.; Venegas, Kerry R., Ed.

2008-01-01

447

Indigenous Knowledge and Science in a Globalized Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This forum explores and expands on Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's article titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how indigenous knowledge is appropriated in science classrooms; how students from indigenous students'…

Regmi, Jagadish; Fleming, Michelle

2012-01-01

448

Towards Growing Indigenous Culturally Competent Legal Professionals in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Review of Australian Higher Education (Bradley Review, 2008) and the Review of Higher Education Access and Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People (Behrendt Review, 2012) identified the need for tertiary institutions to incorporate Indigenous knowledges into curriculum to improve educational outcomes for Indigenous

Burns, Marcelle

2013-01-01

449

Interrogating the Ethics of Literacy Intervention in Indigenous Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognising that literacy is fundamental to the educational success of Indigenous students, this essay reviews current literacy intervention programs from a social justice perspective. It reveals the tension between policies and initiatives that have addressed the two key rights of Indigenous people--the right to access mainstream knowledge and…

Kostogriz, Alex

2011-01-01

450

Methodological Metissage: An Interpretive Indigenous Approach to Environmental Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the development of a methodological metissage that combined Indigenous and interpretive traditions. This metissage was developed during a doctoral study conducted with Canadian environmental educators who incorporate Western and Indigenous knowledge and philosophy into their ecological identities and pedagogical praxis. It…

Lowan-Trudeau, Greg

2012-01-01

451

Experiencing Indigenous Knowledge Online as a Community Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a project at the Koori Centre, University of Sydney, funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) in 2011, titled "Indigenous On-Line Cultural Teaching and Sharing". One of the team members (Kutay) was also a project team member on the ALTC-funded project "Exploring PBL in Indigenous Australian Studies",…

Kutay, Cat; Mooney, Janet; Riley, Lynette; Howard-Wagner, Deirdre

2012-01-01

452

Indigenous Vocational Education and Training. At a Glance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents the results of a comprehensive research program on Indigenous Australians in vocational education and training (VET), along with feedback from over 200 people who attended the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) Research Forum on Indigenous VET in August 2005. The planning and implementation of the…

O'Callaghan, Katy

2005-01-01

453

Indigenous Employment and Enterprise Agreements in Australian Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considering the benefits that enterprise agreements (EAs) can bring to Indigenous employees, this paper considers the question of whether respectful cultural policies that are aligned with reconciliation and included in EAs can be achieved to Close the Gap on reducing Indigenous disadvantage. A document analysis of EAs at eight Australian…

Brown, Cath

2014-01-01

454

Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Vaccination Policy for Indigenous Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with nonindigenous people, indigenous people in first-world countries have experienced much higher rates of many vaccine preventable diseases. This systematic review of published scientific literature, government reports, and immunization guidelines from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States compares pre- and postvaccination disease rates and vaccination policy for indigenous people in these four countries. Nationally funded universal vaccination

Robert Menzies; Peter McIntyre

2006-01-01

455

Anticolonial Strategies for the Recovery and Maintenance of Indigenous Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Indigenous Knowledge (IK) systems must be recovered and promoted by academics, indigenous knowledge holders, and political leaders by dismantling colonialism and state government control. While Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) has received attention due to its focus on management of natural resources and conservation, non-native…

Simpson, Leanne R.

2004-01-01

456

Growth and Empowerment for Indigenous Australians in Substance Abuse Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes psychosocial outcomes of an Indigenous residential substance abuse rehabilitation centre in Australia, examines the sensitivity to change of the new Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), and explores the degree to which service users value cultural components of the treatment program. Participants were 57 Indigenous and 46…

Berry, Stacey L.; Crowe, T. P.; Deane, F. P.; Billingham, M.; Bhagerutty, Y.

2012-01-01

457

Experiencing and Writing Indigeneity, Rurality and Gender: Australian Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…

Ramzan, Bebe; Pini, Barbara; Bryant, Lia

2009-01-01

458

Independent Correlates of Reported Gambling Problems amongst Indigenous Australians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify independent correlates of reported gambling problems amongst the Indigenous population of Australia. A cross-sectional design was applied to a nationally representative sample of the Indigenous population. Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented by remoteness and jurisdiction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to…

Stevens, Matthew; Young, Martin

2010-01-01

459

Across the Colonial Divide: Conversations about Evaluation in Indigenous Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay engages questions of evaluator role and indigenous peoples participation in evaluation within colonial and decolonization contexts. Specifically, I critique the Western emphasis on cultural competence and contrast the utility of "mainstream" evaluation approaches alongside three indigenous inquiry models (Te Kotahitanga,…

Cavino, Hayley Marama

2013-01-01

460

Managing NZ's Indigenous Forested Lands for Timber; an Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades of the 20th century have seen major changes in the nature of the indigenous forestry industry in New Zealand. Government policy on the management of State forests for timber production, the passing of the Resource Management Act in 1991 and the Forests Amendment Act in 1993, have collectively changed the face of indigenous forest management. Not

Alan Griffiths

461

Workplace mentoring for indigenous Australians: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a case for the importance of mentoring programs in addressing the disadvantage of minority groups in the workforce. Also, to report on a workplace mentoring program conducted for indigenous Australians at the University of Newcastle, Australia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interviews with program participants. Findings – Indigenous Australians are marginalised in the

John Burgess; Sharlene Dyer

2009-01-01

462

Repatriating Indigenous Technologies in an Urban Indian Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous people are significantly underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). The solution to this problem requires a more robust lens than representation or access alone. Specifically, it will require careful consideration of the ecological contexts of Indigenous school age youth, of which more than 70%…

Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda; Faber, Lori; Suzukovich, Eli S., III

2013-01-01

463

Language Negotiations Indigenous Students Navigate when Learning Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on implications of a research study with a group of 44 Indigenous middle school students learning the science concepts of energy and force. We found the concepts of energy and force need to be taught in English as we failed to find common comparable abstract concepts in the students' diverse Indigenous languages. Three…

Chigeza, Philemon

2008-01-01

464

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND INDIGENOUS COPING STRATEGIES IN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I use the terms 'indigenous' and 'traditional' (and sometimes 'local') interchangeably to connote something which was created and preserved by previous generations, and has been inherited wholly or partially and further developed by successive generations over the years. Indigenous knowledge is constantly evolving, and involves both old and new ideas and beliefs. The rural people do not

WORKINEH KELBESSA

465

Biopiracy and Native Knowledge: Indigenous Rights on the Last Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past few years, transnational corporations and university researchers received patents for traditional medicines and for food and textile plants used by indigenous peoples without returning any benefits to those peoples. In light of U.S. and Canadian government claims that traditional knowledge is not intellectual property, indigenous

Benjamin, Craig

1997-01-01

466

Indigenous Wellbeing Frameworks in Australia and the Quest for Quantification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an emerging global recognition of the inadequacies of conventional socio-economic and demographic data in being able to reflect the relative wellbeing of Indigenous peoples. This paper emerges out of a recent desktop study commissioned by an Australian Indigenous organization who identified a need to enhance local literacies in data…

Prout, Sarah

2012-01-01

467

Indigenous Youth and Bilingualism--Theory, Research, Praxis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this introduction, we situate the theme issue within a growing body of research on Indigenous youth language practices, communicative repertoires, and ideologies, articulating points of intersection in scholarship on Indigenous and immigrant youth bilingualism. Our geographic focus is North America. Ethnographic studies from the Far North to…

McCarty, Teresa L.; Wyman, Leisy T.

2009-01-01

468

The Importance of Place in Indigenous Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education, Mack and colleagues (Mack et al. "2011") seek to identify the necessary components of science education in Indigenous settings. Using a review of current research in informal science education in Indigenous settings, along with personal interviews with American educators engaged in these…

Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

2012-01-01

469

Theoretical Passages and Boundaries: The Indigenous subject, colonialism, and governmentality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical paternalism and the convenience of working within 'accepted' frameworks have appropriated the Indigenous subject within the boundaries of colonial relations. The establishment of post-colonial theory as one of the only 'acceptable' frameworks for exploring the Indigenous subject has limited the subject's theoretical development within the binary of coloniser\\/colonised. Breaking from this tradition, the Foucauldian concepts of governmentality, ethics and

Claire Spivakovsky

470

Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

Robertson, Carmen

2012-01-01

471

Using Indigenous Languages for Teaching and Learning in Zimbabwe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues for the use of indigenous languages as languages of teaching and learning, focusing on Zimbabwe. It describes the language situation in Zimbabwe, which has three national languages (all of which enjoy some prominence under the current Education Act) and fourteen minority indigenous languages. English plays a central role in…

Thondhlana, Juliet

472

Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

2012-01-01

473

Indigenous Youth Bilingualism from a Yup'ik Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing distance between heritage languages and youth has become a constant point of discourse between Elders in Indigenous communities and those who could listen. Since Western contact, the pursuit for a "better life" through formal schooling has institutionalized Indigenous youth, separating them from their homelands and broadening a space…

Charles, Walkie

2009-01-01

474

Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intellectual property enables individuals to gain financially from sharing unique and useful knowledge. Compensating indigenous people for sharing their knowledge and resources might both validate and be an equitable reward for indigenous knowledge of biological resources, and might promote the conservation of those resources. This book contains…

Brush, Stephen B., Ed.; Stabinsky, Doreen, Ed.

475

Classroom Discourse of an Experienced Teacher of Indigenous Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will examine the discourse of one experienced teacher of Indigenous children in lessons observed as part of the Conductive Hearing Loss (CHL) project conducted by Edith Cowan University in Perth. In the classroom observed, all the children were Indigenous and the teacher was aware that some children were suffering from CHL. This…

Thwaite, Anne

2004-01-01

476

Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds  

PubMed Central

Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have historically created dog breeds are still ongoing, and create further subdivision within current dog breeds. PMID:18226210

2008-01-01

477

MOST: Database of Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Centre for International Research and Advisory Networks (CIRAN) in co-operation with UNESCO's Management of Social Transformations Programme (MOST) has established a new Database Of Best Practices On Indigenous Knowledge." The site includes a definition of indigenous knowledges, a discussion of criteria for selecting "best practices," and a Registry of Best Practices that gives numerous detailed summaries of projects in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America that have sought to improve conditions and alleviate poverty through the successful employment of indigenous knowledges. The site also links to CIRAN and MOST's joint publication entitled "Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge," which provides further details on indigenous knowledge and on the production phase of the database. For a review of MOST's home site and more about their projects worldwide, see the November 18, 1997 Scout Report for Social Sciences.

478

Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project emerging between experts in the higher education, library, archive and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a culturally sensitive manner.

Nakata, Martin; Hamacher, Duane W.; Warren, John; Byrne, Alex; Pagnucco, Maurice; Harley, Ross; Venugopal, Srikumar; Thorpe, Kirsten; Neville, Richard; Bolt, Reuben

2014-06-01

479

Adult education and indigenous peoples in Latin America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a potential way out of educational stagnation of indigenous adults, which is one of the challenges clearly formulated by UNESCO member states during CONFINTEA VI as a priority to be faced. The article concludes arguing the case for intercultural education, not only among indigenous peoples, but for the whole of the population, to be a guiding philosophy for education in general and adult education in particular in Latin American countries. It emphasises the fact that this cannot be achieved without the active participation of indigenous peoples themselves.

Schmelkes, Sylvia

2011-08-01

480

Non-infectious skin disease in Indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

The burden of non-infectious skin disease in the Indigenous Australian population has not been previously examined. This study considers the published data on the epidemiology and clinical features of a number of non-infectious skin diseases in Indigenous Australians. It also outlines hypotheses for the possible differences in the prevalence of such diseases in this group compared with the general Australian population. There is a paucity of literature on the topic but, from the material available, Indigenous Australians appear to have a reduced prevalence of psoriasis, type 1 hypersensitivity reactions and skin cancer but increased rates of lupus erythematosus, kava dermopathy and vitamin D deficiency when compared to the non-Indigenous Australian population. This article profiles the prevalence and presentation of non-infectious skin diseases in the Indigenous Australian population to synthesise our limited knowledge and highlight deficiencies in our understanding. PMID:25117159

Heyes, Christopher; Tait, Clare; Toholka, Ryan; Gebauer, Kurt

2014-08-01