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Background In recent years, Thai indigenouschickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenouschickenbreeds is required. Results Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenouschickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chickenbreeds, comprising four Thai indigenouschickenbreeds- Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken - the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chickenbreeds - the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenouschickenbreeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD= 0.341, LK= 0.357, DA=0.349 and CH= 0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The FST values among Thai indigenouschickenbreeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The FST values between the pairs of Thai indigenouschickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenouschickens and the two commercial chickenbreeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenouschickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenouschickenbreeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chickenbreeds share the same admixture pattern. Conclusion These results indicated that the Thai indigenouschickenbreeds may descend from the same ancestors. These indigenouschickenbreeds were more closely related to red jungle fowls than those of the commercial breeds. These findings showed that the proposed SNP panel can effectively be used to characterize the four Thai indigenouschickens.
Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenouschicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenouschickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenouschickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenouschickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenouschickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206
In Italy more than fifty different local breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus L.) are known to have been present in the past. The overall situation is now critical since most of these breeds are becoming extinct or threatened and only a few are subject of conservation plans. The use of molecular markers for the analysis of chicken populations could help in characterizing their genetic variation and preserving them from genetic erosion. valuable and irreplaceable sources of chicken germplasm from indigenous populations of the veneto region were analyzed by means of DNA fingerprinting with molecular markers designed on interspersed mini- and microsatellite repeats. The identification of either among-breed discriminant or breed-specific markers was based on the S-SAP and M-AFLP systems derived from the AFLP technology. Genomic DNA fingerprints were generated in 84 individuals belonging to six local breeds (Ermellinata, Padovana, Pépoi, Polverara, Robusta Lionata and Robusta Maculata) and one commercial line used as reference standard. A number of variation statistics were computed to assess the genetic variability within and relatedness among breeds: the effective number of alleles per locus (n(e)= 1.570), total and single-breed genetic diversity (H(T)= 0.366 and H(S)= 0.209, respectively) and the fixation index (G(ST)= 0.429). The mean genetic similarity coefficients within and between local breeds were 0.769 and 0.628, respectively. Markers useful for the genetic traceability of breeds revealed significant sequence similarities with either genic or intergenic regions of known chromosome position. Sequence tagged site primers were designed for the most discriminant markers in order to develop multiplex non-radioactive genomic PCR assays. Analysis of the population structure along with individual assignment tests successfully identified all breed clusters and subclusters. The vast majority of animals were correctly allocated to their breed of origin, demonstrating the suitability and reliability of the chosen AFLP-derived marker systems for detecting population structure and tracing individual breeds. The local breeds have been preliminarily identified according to sequence-specific SNPs and haplotypes and the polymorphism information content of genomic AFLP-derived markers is reported and critically discussed. PMID:19891738
Soattin, M; Barcaccia, Gianni; Dalvit, C; Cassandro, M; Bittante, G
1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenouschicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74?g average daily gain and 57·96?g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme. PMID:23444855
A bio-economic model was developed to evaluate the utilisation of indigenouschickens (IC) under different production systems accounting for the risk attitude of the farmers. The model classified the production systems into three categories based on the level of management: free-range system (FRS), where chickens were left to scavenge for feed resources with no supplementation and healthcare; intensive system (IS), where the chickens were permanently confined and supplied with rationed feed and healthcare; and semi-intensive system (SIS), a hybrid of FRS and IS, where the chickens were partially confined, supplemented with rationed feeds, provided with healthcare and allowed to scavenge within the homestead or in runs. The model allows prediction of the live weights and feed intake at different stages in the life cycle of the IC and can compute the profitability of each production system using both traditional and risk-rated profit models. The input parameters used in the model represent a typical IC production system in developing countries but are flexible and therefore can be modified to suit specific situations and simulate profitability and costs of other poultry species production systems. The model has the capability to derive the economic values as changes in the genetic merit of the biological parameter results in marginal changes in profitability and costs of the production systems. The results suggested that utilisation of IC in their current genetic merit and production environment is more profitable under FRS and SIS but not economically viable under IS. PMID:22644732
Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J
To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers' choice of chickenbreeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers' selection practices. The participatory farmers' discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective "traits" and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and "traits" identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers' ratings of indigenouschickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenouschickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production environment was the most important attribute of chickens in all the study areas. The high significance attributed to reproduction traits indicates the need for maintaining broody behavior and high level of hatchability while breeding for improved productivity of indigenouschickens for village conditions. The market price of chickens is primarily dictated by weight, but farmers rated growth (males) and number of eggs followed by growth (females) as the production traits they would like the most to be improved. Therefore, the ultimate breeding goal should be to develop a dual-purpose breed based on indigenouschicken genetic resources with any of the comb types other than single for all the regions studied having the most preferred white body plumage for farmers in the Amhara region and red body plumage for those in Oromia, Benshangul-Gumuz, and Southern regions. PMID:20512411
Dana, Nigussie; van der Waaij, Liesbeth H; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A M
We report the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) characterization of 77 indigenouschickens (fighting and meat birds) from Madagascar, using DNA sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the D-loop. Comparison with reference samples from the African continent and Asia revealed two mtDNA haplogroups, suggesting a dual geographic and genetic origin for the indigenous Malagasy chickens. The most common haplogroup was present in 65 individuals of the two types; it is likely of Indonesian origin. The second haplogroup was observed in 12 fighting birds and meat chickens; it could be of African continental origin and/or the result of recent introgression with commercial lines. We further studied a G/A single nucleotide polymorphism at nucleotide position 1892 bp of the coding sequence of the Mx gene that is reported to be one of the candidate susceptible/resistant genes to viral infection in chicken. Our results indicate the "susceptible" allele G is the most common with frequencies of 65% and 70% in Malagasy fighting and meat chickens, respectively. However, the allelic frequency difference between the two types of chickens is not significant (P > 0.05). These results are discussed in light of our current linguistic and archaeological knowledge on the origin of indigenous Malagasy chickens. PMID:19120178
Razafindraibe, Hanta; Mobegi, Victor A; Ommeh, Sheila C; Rakotondravao, M L; Bjørnstad, Gro; Hanotte, Olivier; Jianlin, Han
Background In China, consumers often prefer indigenous broiler chickens over commercial breeds, as they have characteristic meat qualities requested within traditional culinary customs. However, the growth-rate of these indigenousbreeds is slower than that of the commercial broilers, which means they have not yet reached their full economic value. Therefore, combining the valuable meat quality of the native chickens with the efficiency of the commercial broilers is of interest. In this study, we generated an F2 intercross between the slow growing native broiler breed, Huiyang Beard chicken, and the fast growing commercial broiler breed, High Quality chicken Line A, and used it to map loci explaining the difference in growth rate between these breeds. Results A genome scan to identify main-effect loci affecting 24 growth-related traits revealed nine distinct QTL on six chromosomes. Many QTL were pleiotropic and conformed to the correlation patterns observed between phenotypes. Most of the mapped QTL were found in locations where growth QTL have been reported in other populations, although the effects were greater in this population. A genome scan for pairs of interacting loci identified a number of additional QTL in 10 other genomic regions. The epistatic pairs explained 6–8% of the residual phenotypic variance. Seven of the 10 epistatic QTL mapped in regions containing candidate genes in the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathway, suggesting the importance of this pathway in the regulation of growth in this chicken population. Conclusions The main-effect QTL detected using a standard one-dimensional genome scan accounted for a significant fraction of the observed phenotypic variance in this population. Furthermore, genes in known pathways present interesting candidates for further exploration. This study has thus located several QTL regions as promising candidates for further study, which will increase our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying growth-related traits in chickens.
Yunnan is situated in the Southwest China and encompasses regions having high biodiversity, including habitats for several ancestral species of domestic animals such as chicken. Domestic chickens in Yunnan were kept by peoples of varied ethnic and economic backgrounds living in highly varied geographic environments. To identify the genetic background of Yunnan domestic chickens and their relationships with Red Junglefowl, we applied 28 widely used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype 340 birds from 7 chickenbreeds and Red Junglefowl indigenous to Yunnan. Among a total of 342 alleles identified, 121 (35.4%) were breed specific, with Red Junglefowl harboring most microsatellite alleles (23). High levels of heterozygosity were observed within populations indicated by a mean unbiased HE value of 0.663, which was higher than the reported for most populations elsewhere. The FIS value of domestic populations ranged from -0.098-0.005, indicating a lack of inbreeding among these populations. A high proportion of significant departures (89) from the 224 HWE tests for each locus in each population reflected an excess of heterozygosity and population substructure. Individual assignment tests, high FST values (0.1757-0.3015), and Nei's DA genetic distances (0.4232-0.6950) indicated clear differentiation among these populations. These observations, along with the close genetic distance between indigenous domestic populations and Red Junglefowl, were consistent with the primitive and ancestral state of Yunnan indigenouschickens. Protecting the unique variants of these indigenous poultry varieties from contamination with commercial breeds might provide values for improving modern agricultural livestock and breeding programs. Thus, the current study may benefit breeding management and conservation efforts. PMID:24841782
Huo, J L; Wu, G S; Chen, T; Huo, H L; Yuan, F; Liu, L X; Ge, C R; Miao, Y W
This study aimed to assess genetic diversity within and between nine Vietnamese local chickenbreeds and two Chinese breeds included for comparison. Genotyping 29 microsatellites revealed high diversity of both Vietnamese and Chinese breeds. Cluster analysis using the STRUCTURE software suggested six clusters as the most likely grouping of the 11 breeds studied. These groups encompassed four homogeneous clusters, one formed by the two Chinese breeds and the other three representing a single breed each: the Mekong Delta breed Ac, the South Central Coast breed Choi, and the Red River Delta breed Dong Tao. The six remaining breeds formed two additional admixed clusters. PMID:20394606
Cuc, N T K; Simianer, H; Eding, H; Tieu, H V; Cuong, V C; Wollny, C B A; Groeneveld, L F; Weigend, S
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chickenbreeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chickenbreeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chickenbreeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations. PMID:21121089
The establishment of cattle breeds which are now indigenous to Africa is believed by historians to be very closely associated with man, his development, migration and specific behaviour from 6000 years BC. Today these breeds compete with exotic breeds in a commercial system driven by global economical principles. Results from various trials are discussed to verify if these breeds can adhere to these principles and compete in the South African beef market to produce quality beef economically. Variation in frame size among indigenousbreeds will determine their suitability as feedlot cattle depending on the price and feed margins driving profit in this industry sector. Meat quality analyses indicate small or no differences between indigenous and exotic European/British breeds but with potentially superior quality compared to Bos indicus breeds. PMID:22063173
Conserving pig genetic resources and improving their productivity is important to increase returns over investment in developing countries. The purebred, first-cross, rotational cross and backcross matings representing production systems based on pig breedsindigenous to the country and exotic pig breeds were investigated. The number of pigs in the nucleus and commercial herds necessary to produce a defined quantity of pork was considered. The amount of heterosis between the indigenous and exotic breeds, superiority in meat production, and degree of inferiority in reproductive performance of the exotic breed compared with that of the indigenousbreed were investigated. The number of breeding pigs in the whole system was in the following order: pure breeding (PB) > first-cross (F1) > rotational cross (RC) > backcross (BC) systems. The number of breeding pigs in the nucleus herds of the RC and BC systems was smaller than that in the nucleus herds of the PB and F1 systems. The degree of inferiority in reproductive performance of the exotic breed compared with that of the indigenousbreed affected the efficiency of the production system. PMID:23480699
Identifying genomics regions that are affected by selection is important to understand the domestication and selection history of the domesticated chicken, as well as understanding molecular pathways underlying phenotypic traits and breeding goals. While whole-genome approaches, either high-density SNP chips or massively parallel sequencing, have been successfully applied to identify evidence for selective sweeps in chicken, it has been difficult to distinguish patterns of selection and stochastic and breed specific effects. Here we present a study to identify selective sweeps in a large number of chickenbreeds (67 in total) using a high-density (58 K) SNP chip. We analyzed commercial chickens representing all major breeding goals. In addition, we analyzed non-commercial chicken diversity for almost all recognized traditional Dutch breeds and a selection of representative breeds from China. Based on their shared history or breeding goal we in silico grouped the breeds into 14 breed groups. We identified 396 chromosomal regions that show suggestive evidence of selection in at least one breed group with 26 of these regions showing strong evidence of selection. Of these 26 regions, 13 were previously described and 13 yield new candidate genes for performance traits in chicken. Our approach demonstrates the strength of including many different populations with similar, and breed groups with different selection histories to reduce stochastic effects based on single populations.
Elferink, Martin G.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Vereijken, Addie; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Groenen, Martien A. M.
Chickens of various Oriental breeds (Shamo and Aseel) and crossbreeds in California's Central Valley were observed to have an unusual skin condition and feather loss. The appearance of white plaques on the comb, face, and/or ear lobes was followed by feather loss starting at the caudal base of the comb and progressing down the neck. Although the cocks were affected first, the condition spread to the hens paired with those cocks. The birds showed no other signs of illness. The affected areas were scraped and biopsied. The samples were examined histologically and by culturing on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium. Microsporum gallinae, the causative agent of favus (avian dermatophytosis), was identified by the histological and mycological tests. PMID:8141747
Background Detecting genetic variation is a critical step in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic diversity. Until recently, such detection has mostly focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) because of the ease in screening complete genomes. Another type of variant, copy number variation (CNV), is emerging as a significant contributor to phenotypic variation in many species. Here we describe a genome-wide CNV study using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in a wide variety of chickenbreeds. Results We identified 3,154 CNVs, grouped into 1,556 CNV regions (CNVRs). Thirty percent of the CNVs were detected in at least 2 individuals. The average size of the CNVs detected was 46.3 kb with the largest CNV, located on GGAZ, being 4.3 Mb. Approximately 75% of the CNVs are copy number losses relatively to the Red Jungle Fowl reference genome. The genome coverage of CNVRs in this study is 60 Mb, which represents almost 5.4% of the chicken genome. In particular large gene families such as the keratin gene family and the MHC show extensive CNV. Conclusions A relative large group of the CNVs are line-specific, several of which were previously shown to be related to the causative mutation for a number of phenotypic variants. The chance that inter-specific CNVs fall into CNVRs detected in chicken is related to the evolutionary distance between the species. Our results provide a valuable resource for the study of genetic and phenotypic variation in this phenotypically diverse species.
The aim of this study was to determine the variants of the thioesterase (TE) beta-ketoacyl reductase (KR) domains of the Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) gene, in the East Anatolian Red (EAR) and South Anatolian Red (SAR) cattle breeds. It has been suggested that the FASN gene is effective on fatty acid composition of meat in cattle. In this study, the genotype and allele frequencies of g.17924 A>G, g.18440 G>A and g.16024 G>A, g.16039 T>C in TE and KR domains, respectively, were detected by using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The g.18663 T>C polymorphism of the TE domain was determined by direct sequencing. The GG genotype of the g.17924 A>G polymorphism, which affects unsaturated fatty acid composition positively, has a high frequency in EAR and SAR breeds. The frequencies of the two haplotypes g.16024 G>A and g.16039 T>C in the KR domain were found to be significantly high in both breeds. These haplotypes also have positive effects on unsaturated fatty acid composition. The AA genotype of the g. 18440 G>A polymorphism, which is suggested to be absent in Bos taurus breeds, was detected in SAR and EAR breeds with frequencies close to those in Bos indicus breeds. In conclusion, we suggest that SAR and EAR cattle breeds have an advantage in terms of genotype and haplotype distribution of the polymorphisms in TE and KR domains of the FASN gene. Additionally g.18440 G>A polymorphism might be a potential marker for breed discrimination. PMID:24745147
Contrary to highly selected commercial breeds, indigenous domestic breeds are composed of semi-wild or feral populations subjected to reduced levels of artificial selection. As a consequence, many of these breeds have become locally adapted to a wide range of environments, showing high levels of phenotypic variability and increased fitness under natural conditions. Genetic analyses of three loci associated with milk production (alpha(S1)-casein, kappa-casein and prolactin) and the locus BoLA-DRB3 of the major histocompatibility complex indicated that the Argentinean Creole cattle (ACC), an indigenousbreed from South America, maintains high levels of genetic diversity and population structure. In contrast to the commercial Holstein breed, the ACC showed considerable variation in heterozygosity (H(e)) and allelic diversity (A) across populations. As expected, bi-allelic markers showed extensive variation in He whereas the highly polymorphic BoLA-DRB3 showed substantial variation in A, with individual populations having 39-74% of the total number of alleles characterized for the breed. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of nine populations throughout the distribution range of the ACC revealed that 91.9-94.7% of the total observed variance was explained by differences within populations whereas 5.3-8.1% was the result of differences among populations. In addition, the ACC breed consistently showed higher levels of genetic differentiation among populations than Holstein. Results from this study emphasize the importance of population genetic structure within domestic breeds as an essential component of genetic diversity and suggest that indigenousbreeds may be considered important reservoirs of genetic diversity for commercial domestic species. PMID:11683709
Giovambattista, G; Ripoli, M V; Peral-Garcia, P; Bouzat, J L
The characterization of livestock genetic diversity can inform breed conservation initiatives. The genetic diversity and genetic structure were assessed in 685 individual genotypes sampled from 24 British chickenbreeds. A total of 239 alleles were found across 30 microsatellite loci with a mean number of 7.97 alleles per locus. The breeds were highly differentiated, with an average F(ST) of 0.25, similar to that of European chickenbreeds. The genetic diversity in British chickenbreeds was comparable to that found in European chickenbreeds, with an average number of alleles per locus of 3.59, ranging from 2.00 in Spanish to 4.40 in Maran, and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.49, ranging from 0.20 in Spanish to 0.62 in Araucana. However, the majority of breeds were not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, as indicated by heterozygote deficiency in the majority of breeds (average F(IS) of 0.20), with an average observed heterozygote frequency of 0.39, ranging from 0.15 in Spanish to 0.49 in Cochin. Individual-based clustering analyses revealed that most individuals clustered to breed origin. However, genetic subdivisions occurred in several breeds, and this was predominantly associated with flock supplier and occasionally by morphological type. The deficit of heterozygotes was likely owing to a Wahlund effect caused by sampling from different flocks, implying structure within breeds. It is proposed that gene flow amongst flocks within breeds should be enhanced to maintain the current levels of genetic diversity. Additionally, certain breeds had low levels of both genetic diversity and uniqueness. Consideration is required for the conservation and preservation of these potentially vulnerable breeds. PMID:22497565
Wilkinson, S; Wiener, P; Teverson, D; Haley, C S; Hocking, P M
We tested the utility of genetic cluster analysis in ascertaining population structure of a large data set for which population structure was previously known. Each of 600 individuals representing 20 distinct chickenbreeds was genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci, and individual multilocus genotypes were used to infer genetic clusters. Individuals from each breed were inferred to belong mostly to the
Noah A. Rosenberg; Terry Burke; Kari Elo; Marcus W. Feldman; P. J. Friedlin; Martien A. M. Groenen; Jossi Hillel; Asko Maki-Tanila; Michele Tixier-Boichard; Alain Vignal; Klaus Wimmers
Summary In a 5-year crossbreeding experiment, specific groups of the Nigeria Indigenouschicken (NI) from two ecological zones (i.e. Fulani, Fu; Fulani dwarf, FuD from the Northern Guinea Savanna and Yoruba, Y, from the Derived Savanna) and the German Dahlem Red normal (DR) and Dahlem Red Dwarf (DRD) were used to produce four genetic groups DR x Fu, Fu x
Microsatellite variation was analyzed in five Chinese indigenous goat breeds, which include four Cashmere breeds (Tibetan, Neimonggol, Liaoning, Taihang) and one Hubei local breed (Matou) used for meat production. Five ovine and one bovine microsatellites, selected from eight ovine microsatellites and five bovine microsatellites were suitable for use in this study. With these six microsatellites, allele frequencies, heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC) and effective allele number were calculated. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed using Nei's standard genetic distance (1978). In the tree, Neimonggol and Liaoning were grouped together, then with Taihang; while Tibetan and Matou individually had their own branch. The genetic relationship of five breeds corresponds to their history and geographic origins. PMID:10612235
Yang, L; Zhao, S H; Li, K; Peng, Z Z; Montgomery, G W
The present study aimed at analyzing the genetic variability of indigenous goat breeds (Capra hircus) using the MHC-associated microsatellite markers BF1, BM1818, BM1258, DYMS1, and SMHCC1. The following breeds were included: Chinese Xuhuai, Indian Changthangi and Pashmina, Kenyan Small East African (SEA) and Galla, and Albanian Vendi. To examine genetic variability, the levels of heterozigosity, degrees of inbreeding, and genetic differences among the breeds were analyzed. The mean number of alleles ranged from nine in the Galla to 14.5 in the Vendi breed. The mean observed heterozygosity and mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.483 in the Vendi to 0.577 in the Galla breed, and from 0.767 in the SEA to 0.879 in the Vendi breed, respectively. Significant loss of heterozygosity (p < 0.01) indicated that these loci were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The mean FIS values ranged from 0.3299 in the SEA to 0.4605 in the Vendi breed with a mean value of 0.3623 in all breeds (p < 0.001). Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 7.14% and 4.74% genetic variation existed among the different breeds and geographic groups, whereas 92.86% and 95.26% existed in the breeds and the geographic groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The microsatellite marker analysis disclosed a high degree of genetic polymorphism. Loss of heterozygosity could be due to genetic drift and endogamy. The genetic variation among populations and geographic groups does not indicate a correlation of genetic differences with geographic distance.
de Andrade Salles, Patricy; Santos, Silvana C.; Rondina, Davide
BACKGROUND: Genomic selection involves breeding value estimation of selection candidates based on high-density SNP genotypes. To quantify the potential benefit of genomic selection, accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBV) obtained with different methods using pedigree or high-density SNP genotypes were evaluated and compared in a commercial layer chickenbreeding line. METHODS: The following traits were analyzed: egg production, egg weight,
Anna Wolc; Chris Stricker; Jesus Arango; Petek Settar; Janet E Fulton; Neil P O’Sullivan; Rudolf Preisinger; David Habier; Rohan Fernando; Dorian J Garrick; Susan J Lamont; Jack CM Dekkers
The aim of the present work was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene exon 10, characterize the genetic variation in three Chinese indigenous goat breeds, and search for its potential association with cashmere traits. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) protocol has been developed for rapid genotyping of the GHR gene in goats. One hundred seventy-eight goats from Liaoning Cashmere (96), Inner Mongolia White Cashmere (40), and Chengdu Grey (42) breeds in China were genotyped at GHR locus using the protocol developed. In all goat breeds investigated, a SNP in exon 10 of GHR gene has been identified by analyzing genomic DNA. The polymorphism consists of a single nucleotide substitution A ? G, resulting in two alleles named, respectively, A and G based on the nucleotide at the position. The allele A was found to be more common in the animals investigated, and seems to be more consistent with cattle and zebu at this polymorphic site found in goats. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of genotype distributions of GHR locus was verified in Liaoning Cashmere, and Inner Mongolia White Cashmere breeds. According to the classification of polymorphism information content (PIC), Chengdu Grey was less polymorphic than Liaoning Cashmere and Inner Mongolia White Cashmere breeds at this locus. The phylogenetic tree of different species based on the nucleotide sequences of GHR gene exon 10 is generally in agreement with the known species relationship. No significant association was found between the polymorphism revealed and the cashmere traits analyzed in present work. PMID:20364329
Bai, W L; Zhou, C Y; Ren, Y; Yin, R H; Jiang, W Q; Zhao, S J; Zhang, S C; Zhang, B L; Luo, G B; Zhao, Z H
The Agouti gene plays an important role in pigment synthesis in domestic animals. A transversion of 423G>T recognized by BanII was found after a fragment (178 bp) of the goat Agouti gene exon 4 was amplified and sequenced. To investigate its genetic effect and diversity, 677 individuals from 12 indigenous\\u000a Chinese goat breeds and one imported goat breed from South Africa
The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783 goats and 1282 sheep kept by traditional farmers, covering nearly all the districts of Botswana. In each district a total of 15 farmers with sheep and goats were selected randomly and records were taken on 4-12 animals per farm, depending on average district flock size. Traits recorded for each animal were body length, body weight, ear length, heart girth, height at withers, hip width, neck length, rump height, shoulder width, tail length (goats only) and horn length. Age (estimated from dentition) and sex of the animals were also recorded and vegetation type was noted. The data were analysed using the general linear model procedure in Statistical Analysis System. Prior to analyses, a main effects model of sex, age and vegetation type was fitted. Later, two types of analyses were done: (i) within a vegetation type fitting sex and age and their interaction, and (ii) within sex fitting age and vegetation type and their interaction. Least-squares means were separated using Student's t-test. Sex, age and vegetation significantly (p<0.05) affected the magnitude of traits. Phenotypic body measurements of castrates were generally higher than in both females and entire males, which were similar. The body measurements of younger animals were less than those of older age groups since the former were still growing compared to the latter. Different vegetation types promoted different body measurements, which should be expected due to differences in nutrient supply from different vegetation types. The indigenousbreeds of sheep and goats can be classified as medium-size breeds. The breeds should be conserved since they are well suited to the harsh environment of Botswana where drought and livestock diseases are ever present. Efforts should be undertaken to characterize them genetically and increase their productivity. PMID:15643814
Nsoso, S J; Podisi, B; Otsogile, E; Mokhutshwane, B S; Ahmadu, B
An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastructural measurements of eggshell in two Egyptian local breeds of chicken (Fayoumi and Dandarawi). A total of 162 females representing the two breeds were randomly assigned to the current experiment. They were housed in individual cages placed in an open-sided house under the same environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. Maturation measurements
M. M. Fathi; A. Zein El-Dein; S. A. El-Safty; Lamiaa M. Radwan
Free ranging chickens reared by smallholder farmers represent genetic diversity suited for particular environments and shaped by the socio-economic and cultural values of the farming systems. This study sought to investigate the existence of chicken strains and evaluate the breeding goals and strategies used by village chicken farmers in Zimbabwe. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 97, 56, 70, 104 and 37 households randomly selected from five agro-ecological-zones I-V, respectively. Fifteen chicken strains mostly defined by morphological traits were reported in the five eco-zones. Production criteria such as body size, and fertility were highly ranked (ranging from 1.3-2.6) by farmers across all the eco-zones, while cultural traits were the least preferred production traits. As a common breeding practice, farmers chose the type of hens and cocks to retain for breeding purposes and these randomly mixed and mated with others from community flocks. Chicken body size was ranked the major determinant in choosing breeding animals followed by mothering ability, and fertility. More households culled chickens associated with poor reproductive performance, poor growth rates and those intolerant to disease pathogens. The focus on many negatively correlated production traits and the absence of farmer records compromises breeding strategies in these production systems. PMID:18626780
Muchadeyi, F C; Wollny, C B A; Eding, H; Weigend, S; Simianer, H
Four cattle breedsindigenous to western and south-western Ethiopia--Abigar, Gurage, Horro and Sheko--were included in a study of the perceptions of smallholder cattle keepers regarding cattle management, production levels and constraints for production. A semi-structured questionnaire was used and 60 cattle keepers from each of the four areas were interviewed. Diseases were reported as the main constraint to cattle production by a majority of livestock keepers in all areas except in the Sheko area, where over-stocking was the main constraint. Among diseases, trypanosomosis was the main livestock disease according to more than half of Gurage, Horro and Sheko keepers, whereas anthrax was most important in the Abigar area. Gurage had highest age at first calving, longest calving interval and also the lowest milk production, whereas Sheko and Abigar had the most favorable characteristics both for milk production (600-700 kg) and fertility (age at first mating 3-3.5 years and above 8 calves/cow). Cattle keepers in the Sheko area reported relatively less problems with cattle diseases compared to the other areas, especially regarding trypanosomosis. Abigar showed a different disease pattern than the other breeds and may also have advantages as regards trypanotolerance. PMID:19234873
Stein, Jennie; Ayalew, Workneh; Rege, J E O; Mulatu, Woudyalew; Malmfors, Birgitta; Dessie, Tadelle; Philipsson, Jan
A study was conducted to assess the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors (litter size, sex of lamb, and parity of dam) on pre-weaning growth performance of crossbred lambs (75% Dorper (DR) 25% indigenous lambs; and 50% Dorper 50% indigenous lambs) under semi-intensive husbandry practices in eastern Ethiopia. Data from a total of 275 Dorper sire breed × indigenous (Blackhead Ogaden [BHO] and Hararghe Highland [HH]) crossbred lambs with different genetic group of the parental breeds were collected for three consecutive years (2009 to 2011). Pre-weaning growth performance attributes of crossbred lambs studied were birth weight, weaning weight, and pre-weaning average daily gain. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (2003). Breed group and non-genetic factors significantly affected pre-weaning growth performance. Lambs with 75% Dorper and 25% indigenous had higher (P < 0.01) birth weight than 50% DR and 50% HH but similar to 50% DR and 50% BHO. Weaning weight and pre-weaning live weight gain were higher (P < 0.01) for ¾DR¼BHO and ¾DR¼HH than 50% Dorper inheritance. Single-born lambs had higher weight at birth, weaning weight, and pre-weaning average daily gain as compared to twins. Sex comparison is significant (P < 0.05) and male lambs recorded highest pre-weaning growth performance compared to female counterparts. Parity, season, and lambing year significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the pre-weaning growth of crossbred lambs. Therefore, it could be concluded that 50-75% Dorper inheritance improved pre-weaning growth performance of indigenousbreeds of Hararghe Highland and Blackhead Ogaden sheep. The result also suggested culling of ewes older than fourth parity to improve the pre-weaning growth performance of lambs. PMID:24307389
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is the main source of glucose during chicken embryonic development, and it plays a major role in glucose homeostasis for developing embryos. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of gluconeogenesis, yet how hepatic PEPCK expression is differentially regulated between chickenbreeds remains elusive. In this study, fertile eggs from a slow-growing Chinese Yellow Feathered Chicken and a fast-growing White Recessive Rock Chicken were incubated under the same standard conditions, and serum and liver samples were collected on embryonic d 18 (18E). The fast-growing breed had a significantly higher fetal weight (P < 0.01) and serum glucose concentration (P < 0.05) compared with the slow-growing breed. The fast-growing breed also had significantly higher hepatic mRNA expression levels of the cystolic form of PEPCK (PEPCK-c; P < 0.05) and significantly higher hepatic mRNA and protein expression levels of cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB-1; P < 0.05). Moreover, the binding of phosphorylated CREB-1 to the PEPCK-c promoter tended to be higher in the fast-growing breed (P = 0.08). Breed-specific epigenetic modifications of the PEPCK-c promoter were also observed; the fast-growing breed demonstrated lower CpG methylation (P < 0.05) and histone H3 (P < 0.05) levels but more histone H3 acetylation (H3ac) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3; P < 0.05) compared with the slow-growing breed. Our results suggest that hepatic PEPCK-c expression is transcriptionally regulated in a breed-specific manner and that fast- and slow-growing broiler chicken fetuses exhibit different epigenetic modifications on their PEPCK-c promoter regions. PMID:24046422
We tested the utility of genetic cluster analysis in ascertaining population structure of a large data set for which population structure was previously known. Each of 600 individuals representing 20 distinct chickenbreeds was genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci, and individual multilocus genotypes were used to infer genetic clusters. Individuals from each breed were inferred to belong mostly to the same cluster. The clustering success rate, measuring the fraction of individuals that were properly inferred to belong to their correct breeds, was consistently approximately 98%. When markers of highest expected heterozygosity were used, genotypes that included at least 8-10 highly variable markers from among the 27 markers genotyped also achieved >95% clustering success. When 12-15 highly variable markers and only 15-20 of the 30 individuals per breed were used, clustering success was at least 90%. We suggest that in species for which population structure is of interest, databases of multilocus genotypes at highly variable markers should be compiled. These genotypes could then be used as training samples for genetic cluster analysis and to facilitate assignments of individuals of unknown origin to populations. The clustering algorithm has potential applications in defining the within-species genetic units that are useful in problems of conservation.
Rosenberg, N A; Burke, T; Elo, K; Feldman, M W; Freidlin, P J; Groenen, M A; Hillel, J; Maki-Tanila, A; Tixier-Boichard, M; Vignal, A; Wimmers, K; Weigend, S
The genetics of the plumage color of the White Prat breed of chicken was studied. Results of crosses between the White Prat breed and Recessive Wheaten (ey/ey) tester line, and Buff Prat (eWh/eWh Co/Co) or Castellana (E/E) breeds, suggested that the former carries the buttercup allele (ebc) at the E-locus, the columbian restriction gene (Co), and the autosomal recessive white (c) gene. Heterozygous Co/co+ in the presence of ebc resulted in a modified stripe pattern in the chick down. The ground color was very dark tan, whereas the light back stripes and the broken head stripe were similar to those of buttercup chicks. Adults were typical buff columbian with considerable black markings on the feathers. The homozygous ebc/ebc Co/Co produced chicks with a black back and a brown head, similar to those previously described for the interaction between Co and the brown (eb) allele. The presence of the recessive white gene masked unexpected genetic variation at the E-locus in the Prat breed, the Buff variety carrying the dominant wheaten (eWh) instead of the buttercup allele. The sex-linked gold (s+) allele was the most frequent in the White Prat variety. The silver (S), sex-linked barring (B), blue (Bl), and possibly dominant white (I) alleles also were present at low frequencies. PMID:9068040
We determined the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among 26 Chinese indigenous horse breeds and two introduced horse breeds by genotyping these animals for 27 microsatellite loci. The 26 Chinese horse breeds come from 12 different provinces. Two introduced horse breeds were the Mongolia B Horse from Mongolia and the Thoroughbred Horse from the UK. A total of 330 alleles were detected, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.719 (Elenchuns) to 0.780 (Dali). The mean number of alleles among the horse breeds ranged from 6.74 (Hequ) to 8.81 (Debao). Although there were abundant genetic variations found, the genetic differentiation was low between the Chinese horses, which displayed only 2.4% of the total genetic variance among the different breeds. However, genetic differentiation (pairwise FST) among Chinese horses, although moderate, was still apparent and varied from 0.001 for the Guizou-Luoping pair to 0.064 for the Jingjiang-Elenchuns pair. The genetic differentiation patterns and genetic relationships among Chinese horse breeds were also consistent with their geographical distribution. The Thoroughbred and Mongolia B breeds could be discerned as two distinct breeds, but the Mongolia B horse in particular suffered genetic admixture with Chinese horses. The Chinese breeds could be divided into five major groups, i.e. the south or along the Yangtze river group (Bose, Debao, Wenshan, Lichuan, Jianchang, Guizhou, Luoping, Jinjiang and Dali), the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau group (Chaidamu, Hequ, Datong, Yushu, Tibet Grassland and Tibet Valley), the Northeast of China group (Elenchuns, Jilin and Heihe), the Northwest of China group (Kazakh, Yili and Yanqi) and the Inner Mongolia group (Mongolia A, Sanhe, Xinihe,Wuzhumuqin and Sengeng). This grouping pattern was further supported by principal component analysis and structure analysis. PMID:20477800
Ling, Y H; Ma, Y H; Guan, W J; Cheng, Y J; Wang, Y P; Han, J L; Mang, L; Zhao, Q J; He, X H; Pu, Y B; Fu, B L
Background The predictive ability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) originates both from associations between high-density markers and QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) and from pedigree information. Thus, GEBV are expected to provide more persistent accuracy over successive generations than breeding values estimated using pedigree-based methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of GEBV in a closed population of layer chickens and to quantify their persistence over five successive generations using marker or pedigree information. Methods The training data consisted of 16 traits and 777 genotyped animals from two generations of a brown-egg layer breeding line, 295 of which had individual phenotype records, while others had phenotypes on 2,738 non-genotyped relatives, or similar data accumulated over up to five generations. Validation data included phenotyped and genotyped birds from five subsequent generations (on average 306 birds/generation). Birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP. Animal models using genomic or pedigree relationship matrices and Bayesian model averaging methods were used for training analyses. Accuracy was evaluated as the correlation between EBV and phenotype in validation divided by the square root of trait heritability. Results Pedigree relationships in outbred populations are reduced by 50% at each meiosis, therefore accuracy is expected to decrease by the square root of 0.5 every generation, as observed for pedigree-based EBV (Estimated Breeding Values). In contrast the GEBV accuracy was more persistent, although the drop in accuracy was substantial in the first generation. Traits that were considered to be influenced by fewer QTL and to have a higher heritability maintained a higher GEBV accuracy over generations. In conclusion, GEBV capture information beyond pedigree relationships, but retraining every generation is recommended for genomic selection in closed breeding populations.
In the present experiment, the expression profile of Toll-like receptor mRNA in indigenous and pure line chickens was studied.\\u000a The expression of TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR7 were quantified in heterophils of Aseel, Kadaknath, Naked neck, Dwarf and White\\u000a Leghorn lines by Quantitative Real-time PCR. White Leghorns expressed significantly (P?0.01) higher levels of TLR3 mRNA\\u000a compared to other lines. TLR4
Kannaki T. Ramasamy; Maddula R. Reddy; Dhanutha N. Raveendranathan; Shanmugam Murugesan; Rudra N. Chatterjee; Rajkumar Ullengala; Santosh Haunshi
The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783
S. J. Nsoso; B. Podisi; E. Otsogile; B. S. Mokhutshwane; B. Ahmadu
A comparative study on the response of four indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia, namely Abigar, Horro, Sheko and Gurage, to natural challenge of trypanosomosis in the Tolley-Gullele area of the Ghibe valley has been undertaken from August 2000 until August 2004. Fifty female yearlings each of Horro, Sheko and Abigar and 31 of the Gurage were purchased from their natural habitats and introduced in to medium to high tsetse-trypanosomosis challenge area of the Ghibe valley. While the natural habitats of first three breeds are naturally infested with tsetse flies and trypanosomosis, that of the Gurage is known to be very minimal, if any, and hence the Gurage breed was used in this study as the known susceptible breed. During the study animal health, production performance and tsetse fly situation were monitored monthly. The Sheko breed has manifested very significantly (p<0.001) high overall average packed cell volume (PCV) values (25%) compared to that of Abigar (24%), Horro (23%) and Gurage (22%). It also had the lowest mean trypanosome prevalence rate of 9% against 23% of Horro, 26% of Abigar and 27% of Gurage, and the least number of Berenil treatments (1.36) compared to Abigar (4.0), Horro (4.6) and Gurage (6.7). While the Abigar manifested high sensitivity and frequent death to PCV depression, the Horro showed strong resilience to PCV depression and better response to Berenil treatment assistance. At this stage the Sheko breed was also found to be equal to the other breeds in its reproductive performance. These results need to be substantiated with further in-depth investigation including immune response, animal behavior and environmental influences. PMID:16797843
Rhode Island Red (RIR) and Fayoumi chickens were evaluated on-station in a college farm and on-farm in village farms, whereas local chickens were only tested under on-farm condition. Traits recorded are egg production and egg quality, body weight and feed efficiency at 4, 8 and 12 months of age. Significant age effect was found for most traits except for shell thickness, albumen height and egg length. Also, significant breed by management system interactions were found for all traits measured in both systems. Fayoumi chickens were higher in egg production in both management systems. Moreover, they were higher than RIR in feed efficiency. RIR were higher in most egg quality traits and had higher weight gain. Local chickens performed below the two exotic breeds in most of the traits, but had higher weight gain than Fayoumi. Chickens kept on-farm had poorer performance than those kept on-station in all traits except for yolk colour. PMID:19085070
In this response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper on indigenous knowledge (IK) and science teaching in South Africa, I seek to broaden the debate by setting the enterprise of integrating IK into science education in its cultural and socio-political context. I begin by exploring the multiple meanings of indigenous knowledge in Africa, next consider…
It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed. PMID:21214647
Ramljak, J; Ivankovi?, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I
We conducted a two-part study in the native home areas of four cattle breeds, Abigar, Gurage, Horro and Sheko, in south-western Ethiopia. The first part of the study investigated livestock keeper knowledge about trypanosomosis and trypanotolerance. For each breed 60 livestock keepers were interviewed, resulting in a total of 240 interviews. The second part of the study focused on biological evidence for trypanotolerance. Blood samples of about 100 head of cattle per breed were collected during peak trypanosomosis challenge period and analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV) and parasitaemia. In addition individual body measurements of the sampled animals were taken and the keepers provided some information regarding their animals. Livestock keeper interviews revealed that trypanosomosis was considered a major problem in all areas (95-100%). Almost all Abigar livestock keepers knew how trypanosomosis is transmitted, whereas only 34-52% of the keepers of the other breeds had that knowledge. Most Sheko keepers (75%) knew of trypanotolerance and claimed to have trypanotolerant animals in their own herds. Among the other three breeds the knowledge of trypanotolerance was much less (8-18%). A majority of the keepers were interested in purchasing trypanotolerant animals. PCV was highest among Horro (26.2) and Sheko (25.1) cattle whereas Abigar had the lowest PCV (20.0). Sheko were least infected by trypanosomes (6%) and had the lowest number of trypanocidal treatments per year (1 treatment/animal and year). Abigar cattle were most infected (23%) followed by Gurage (20%) and Horro (17%). Gurage had by far the highest number of treatments per animal and year (24). There were large differences between the number of cattle perceived by the keepers to be infected, and the number detected from blood sampled, among Abigar, Gurage and Horro. Sheko livestock keepers were better at correctly diagnosing trypanosomosis in their animals. It is concluded that Sheko cattle have higher trypanotolerance attributes of the breeds investigated and a better use of this breed could improve cattle health and household welfare in tsetse-infested areas. PMID:21277682
The criteria for identification, selection and kinship assignment of Ankole cattle and their roles to pastoralists were studied on 248 farms in Kiboga, Mbarara, Mpigi and Sembabule districts of Uganda using a questionnaire, administered during one-to-one interviews. Farms were randomly sampled along transects originating from the headquarters of each of the 19 sub-counties studied. We found that male Ankole cattle are reared for income from sales, meat for home use and ceremonies, aesthetic value and to maintain cultural heritage. Female cattle are mainly kept for milk production, income from sales, heritage and aesthetics, and in few cases, for home use as meat. Other functions included savings, manure and butter production. All cattle are named at birth with coat colour or pattern being the main identification criterion; hence, it is also useful in assigning kinship. Selection criteria for males are more stringent than for females. On most farms, all females are kept for further breeding and are only culled in cases of poor reproductive health. Primary emphasis in selecting males is on the performance of ancestors in milk and reproductive traits, and then on the qualities of the bull itself. Bulls are selected mainly focusing on a big body frame and size, horns that are white, large and curved upward and a plain dark red "ruhogo" coat colour. The results of this study show that pastoralists have a rich body of indigenous knowledge on this breed, and this should effectively be incorporated into planned selective improvement schemes of the Ankole cattle breed. PMID:21805229
Kugonza, Donald Rugira; Nabasirye, Margaret; Hanotte, Olivier; Mpairwe, Denis; Okeyo, A Mwai
In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations – Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) – were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ?0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ?0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (FST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, FST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed.
Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk
1. The major objective of this study was to examine the influence of 24-h storage of semen at low temperature on semen characteristics and fertilising ability of spermatozoa in two native breeds (Kadaknath-KN, Aseel Peela-AP) and White Leghorn (WL) chicken. 2. Various physical and biochemical properties of freshly ejaculated semen of KN and AP were investigated. Fertility was examined in freshly-ejaculated as well as 24-h-stored (3°C) semen diluted (1:3) with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender. 3. No significant difference was observed in sperm motility among the different breeds whereas live counts were higher in WL than the native breeds. Body weight, semen volume and sperm concentration were highest in AP, followed by KN and WL. A similar trend was observed in the percentage of dead and morphologically-abnormal spermatozoa. 4. The activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in seminal plasma were higher in WL than KN, whereas the opposite trend was recorded for glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases. The cholesterol content of semen was highest in AP, followed by KN and WL. Cholesterol was much lower in seminal plasma compared with whole semen but there were no differences between breeds. Mean values of the methylene blue reduction time test were higher in WL than in the native breeds. 5. Fertility and hatchability, using freshly-diluted semen, were poorer in the native breeds than in WL. The pattern of fertility deteriorated further, especially in native fowls, when the birds were inseminated with 24-h-stored semen. 6. In conclusion, variation in physical and biochemical characteristics of semen in native breeds compared to WL correlated with poor fertility after short-term storage of semen. PMID:21732887
Mohan, J; Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Moudgal, R P; Biswas, A; Shit, N
It has been known that the chicken's resistance to disease was affected by chicken's genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breedchickens at 4, 7, and 21?d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN-? genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21?d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN-? genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV.
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional factor first discovered in cancer cells under hypoxic conditions, and was demonstrated to play a key role in the organism's adaptation to changing oxygen tensions. The Tibetan chicken, a breedindigenous to the Tibetan plateau is particularly adaptable to the low oxygen tension and low temperature conditions in the high altitude environment. By comparison, the White Leghorn and ShouGuang chicken are low-altitude chickenbreeds. The eggs of these three chickenbreeds were incubated in a fitted hatcher that simulated hypoxic condition. The results demonstrated that the hatching rate for Tibetan chicken was significantly higher than the two low altitude breeds, and Tibetan chicken displayed higher endurance in the hypoxia environment. To a certain degree, the hypoxic condition proved fatal to hatching for the low-altitude chickens. Gene expression of HIF-1alpha was detected in brain and skeletal muscle tissues for three chicken varieties using the TaqMan probe FQRT-PCR method. The results showed that HIF-1alpha mRNA displayed tissue specific differential expression, with the highest in the brain. In addition, the expression of HIF-1alpha mRNA in the brain of Tibetan chicken embryos was similar to that of the low-altitude chickens when they were hatched under normal oxygen tensions. PMID:17284428
Background Genomic selection involves breeding value estimation of selection candidates based on high-density SNP genotypes. To quantify the potential benefit of genomic selection, accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBV) obtained with different methods using pedigree or high-density SNP genotypes were evaluated and compared in a commercial layer chickenbreeding line. Methods The following traits were analyzed: egg production, egg weight, egg color, shell strength, age at sexual maturity, body weight, albumen height, and yolk weight. Predictions appropriate for early or late selection were compared. A total of 2,708 birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP, including 1,563 females with records. Phenotypes on relatives without genotypes were incorporated in the analysis (in total 13,049 production records). The data were analyzed with a Reduced Animal Model using a relationship matrix based on pedigree data or on marker genotypes and with a Bayesian method using model averaging. Using a validation set that consisted of individuals from the generation following training, these methods were compared by correlating EBV with phenotypes corrected for fixed effects, selecting the top 30 individuals based on EBV and evaluating their mean phenotype, and by regressing phenotypes on EBV. Results Using high-density SNP genotypes increased accuracies of EBV up to two-fold for selection at an early age and by up to 88% for selection at a later age. Accuracy increases at an early age can be mostly attributed to improved estimates of parental EBV for shell quality and egg production, while for other egg quality traits it is mostly due to improved estimates of Mendelian sampling effects. A relatively small number of markers was sufficient to explain most of the genetic variation for egg weight and body weight.
Measurement of adaptability and stability of a breed in different environmental conditions might be assumed as good indicator for ecological, ethological and ethical norms in animal production. Indeed, a good adaptability and stability in reproduction performances, in a given environment, can be assumed as a proof that animals are in good well-being condition. The aim of this study was to
Martino CASSANDRO; Massimo DE MARCHI; Maristella BARUCHELLO
Background H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) are frequently isolated in Taiwan and lead to significant economic losses,\\u000a either directly or indirectly through association with other infectious diseases. This study investigates immune responses\\u000a to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Experimental animals were sampled from six local chickenbreeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University,
In vitro-matured metaphase II (MII) oocytes with corresponding first polar bodies (I pb) from two indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) breeds have been investigated to provide specific data upon the incidence of aneuploidy. A total of 165 and 140 in vitro-matured MII oocytes of the Podolian (PO) and Maremmana (MA) breeds, respectively, were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using Xcen and five chromosome-specific painting probes. Oocytes with unreduced chromosome number were 13.3% and 6.4% in the two breeds, respectively, averaging 10.2%. In the PO, out of 100 MII oocytes + I pb analyzed, two oocytes were nullisomic for chromosome 5 (2.0%) and one disomic for the same chromosome (1.0%). In the MA, out of 100 MII oocytes + I pb, one oocyte was found nullisomic for chromosome 5 (1.0%) and one was disomic for the X chromosome (1.0%). Out of 200 MII oocytes + I pb, the mean rate of aneuploidy (nullisomy + disomy) for the two chromosomes scored was 2.5%, of which 1.5% was due to nullisomy and 1.0% due to disomy. By averaging these data with those previously reported on dairy cattle, the overall incidence of aneuploidy in cattle, as a species, was 2.25%, of which 1.25% was due to nullisomy and 1.0% due to disomy. The results so far achieved indicate similar rates of aneuploidy among the four cattle breeds investigated. Interspecific comparison between cattle (Xcen-5 probes) and pig (Sus scrofa domestica) (1-10 probes) also reveal similar rates. Further studies are needed that use more probes to investigate the interchromosomal effect. Establishing a baseline level of aneuploidy for each species/breed could also be useful for improving the in vitro production of embryos destined to the embryo transfer industry as well as for monitoring future trends of the reproductive health of domestic animals in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID:22056011
Pauciullo, A; Nicodemo, D; Cosenza, G; Peretti, V; Iannuzzi, A; Di Meo, G P; Ramunno, L; Iannuzzi, L; Rubes, J; Di Berardino, D
The evolutionarily conserved, non-coding ~800 base-pair zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) regulatory sequence (ZRS) controls Shh expression in the posterior limb. We report that the chicken mutant oligozeugodactly (ozd), which lacks limb Shh expression, has a large deletion within the ZRS. Furthermore, the preaxial polydactylous, Silkie Breedchicken, which develops ectopic anterior limb Shh expression, has a single base-pair change within the ZRS. Using an in vivo reporter assay to examine enhancer function in the chick limb, we demonstrate that the wild-type ZRS drives ?-galactosidase reporter expression in the ZPA of both wild-type and ozd limbs. The Silkie ZRS drives ?-galactosidase in both posterior and anterior Shh domains in wild-type limb buds. These results support the hypothesis that the ZRS integrates positive and negative prepatterned regulatory inputs in the chicken model system and demonstrate the utility of the chicken limb as an efficient genetic system for gene regulatory studies.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chickenbreed. In total, 1,000 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were raised for 21 d. On d 21, 720 birds with similar BW (536 ± 36 g) were selected and randomly assigned to free-range treatment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 21, 14, 7, and 0 d, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 5 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (180 birds per treatment). All the birds were raised in indoor floor pens measuring 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses before free-range treatment. In the free-range treatment, the chickens were raised in indoor floor houses measuring 3 × 5 m (15 m(2), 2.4 birds/m(2)). In addition, they also had an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The BW of birds after being assigned to free-range treatment for 7 d decreased significantly compared with that in the conventional treatment (P < 0.05). However, there was no effect of the free-range days on the BW at 42 d of age (P > 0.05). The daily weight gain, feed per gain, daily feed intake, and mortality from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by free-range days (P > 0.05). At 42 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), whereas the thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields decreased linearly (P < 0.05). The lung yield showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). The water-holding capacity of the thigh muscle decreased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in the meat color, shear force, and muscle pH (P > 0.05). The absolute thymus weight and thymus:BW ratio showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that increasing free-range days advantageously affects breast yield, but decreases thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields as well as the water-holding capacity of thigh. No evidence was found that increasing free-range days caused changes in growth performance, meat quality, and lymphoid organs except for changes in water-holding capacity and thymus. PMID:24931968
Tong, H B; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Chang, L L; Fu, S Y
In the current study, milk protein variation was examined in cattle (Bos indicus), mithun (Bos frontalis), yak (Bos grunniens) and their hybrid populations in Bhutan to estimate genetic variability, conduct genetic characterization and assess the possibility of gene flow between mithun and cattle. Isoelectric focusing of 372 milk samples from 11 populations detected four molecular types of ?-lactoglobulin (A, B, E and M), five molecular types of ?(S1) -casein (A, B, C, E and X) and three molecular types of k-casein (A, B and X). Mithun and yak shared alleles but were found to exhibit different allele frequencies for the proteins studied. The degree of genetic variability within populations was measured by average heterozygosity and ranged from 24-40% in cattle, 26% for yak and 33% for mithun. We also resolved the traditional mithun and cattle hybridization system via principal component analysis. Our results suggested secondary introgression of mithun genes to the village Thrabum population, and a close genetic relationship between Bhutanese indigenous cattle and Indian cattle. PMID:20887304
Dorji, Tashi; Namikawa, Takao; Mannen, Hideyuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi
Background & objectives: DPE-28, a substituted diphenyl ether (2,6-ditertiarybutyl phenyl-2’,4’-dinitro phenyl ether) was reported to exhibit promising insect growth regulating activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis. A controlled release formulation (CRF) of DPE-28 has been developed to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in its breeding habitats. Toxicity of DPE-28, safety to non-target mosquito predators and the release profile of the CRF of DPE-28 are studied and discussed. Methods: The acute oral and dermal toxicity was tested in male and female Wistar rats as per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 425 and 402 respectively. The toxicity of DPE-28 to non-target predators was tested as per the reported procedure from this laboratory. The CRF of DPE-28 was prepared by following the reported procedure developed at this laboratory earlier. The concentration of DPE-28 released from the CRF was monitored by HPLC by constructing a calibration graph by plotting the peak area in the Y-axis and the concentration of DPE-28 in the X-axis. Results: DPE-28 has been tested for acute oral toxicity and found to be moderately toxic with LD50 value of 1098 mg/kg body weight (b.w). The results of the acute dermal toxicity and skin irritation studies reveal that DPE-28 is safe and non-irritant. DPE-28 when tested at 0.4 mg/litre against non-target mosquito predators did not produce any mortality. The release profile of the active ingredient DPE-28 from the CRF by HPLC technique showed that the average daily release (ADR) of DPE-28 ranged from 0.07 to 5.0 mg/litre during first four weeks. Thereafter the matrix started eroding and the ADR ranged from 5 to 11 mg/litre during the remaining 5 wk. The cumulative release of active ingredient showed that > 90 per cent of the active ingredient was released from the matrix. Interpretation & conclusions: The controlled release matrix of DPE-28 was thus found to inhibit the adult emergence (>80%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus for a period of nine weeks. The CRF of DPE-28 may play a useful role in field and may be recommended for mosquito control programme after evaluating the same under field conditions.
Kalyanasundaram, M.; Mathew, Nisha; Elango, A.; Padmanabhan, V.
Intensive artificial selection has led to the production of the modern broiler chicken, which over the last few decades has undergone a dramatic increase in growth rate and noticeable changes in body conformation. Unfortunately, this has been associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities which have altered the walking ability of these birds, raising obvious welfare concerns, as well as causing economic losses. Here we present a comparative study of ancestral and derived muscle anatomy in chickens to begin to tease apart how evolutionary alterations of muscle form in chickens have influenced their locomotor function and perhaps contributed to lameness. We measured the muscle architectural properties of the right pelvic limb in 50 birds, including the Giant Junglefowl, a commercial strain broiler and four pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (from which the broiler populations are derived) to identify which features of the broiler’s architectural design have diverged the most from the ancestral condition. We report a decline in pelvic limb muscle mass in the commercial line birds that may compromise their locomotor abilities because they carry a larger body mass. This greater demand on the pelvic limb muscles has mostly led to changes in support at the hip joint, revealing significantly larger abductors and additionally much larger medial rotators in the broiler population. Differences were seen within the commercial line bird populations, which are likely attributed to different selection pressures and may reflect differences in the walking ability of these birds. In addition, Junglefowl seem to have both greater force-generating capabilities and longer, presumably faster contracting muscles, indicative of superior musculoskeletal/locomotor function. We have provided baseline data for generating hypotheses to investigate in greater depth the specific biomechanical constraints that compromise the modern broiler’s walking ability and propose that these factors should be considered in the selection for musculoskeletal health in the chickens of the future. Our new anatomical data for a wide range of domestic and wild-type chickens is useful in a comparative context and for deeper functional analysis including computer modelling/simulation of limb mechanics.
Paxton, Heather; Anthony, Nicolas B; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R
A total of 672 sera from apparently healthy commercial and indigenouschickens of different ages were screened for antibodies to infectious bronchitis (IB) virus using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples obtained from breeder, layer, grower and indigenouschicken flocks in Oyo, Ogun, Ondo and Lagos states of southwestern Nigeria were screened. The total seroprevalence was 82.7% with ELISA units
Blood samples were collected from 743 animals from 15 indigenous, 2 old imported, and 3 commercial North European cattle breeds. The samples were analyzed for 11 erythrocyte antigen systems, 8 proteins, and 10 microsatellites, and used to assess inter- and intrabreed genetic variation and genetic population structures. The microsatellites BoLA-DRBP1 and CSSM66 were nonneutral markers according to the Ewens-Watterson test, suggesting some kind of selection imposed on these loci. North European cattle breeds displayed generally similar levels of multilocus heterozygosity and allelic diversity. However, allelic diversity has been reduced in several breeds, which was explained by limited effective population sizes over the course of man-directed breed development and demographic bottlenecks of indigenousbreeds. A tree showing genetic relationships between breeds was constructed from a matrix of random drift-based genetic distance estimates. The breeds were classified on the basis of the tree topology into four major breed groups, defined as Northern indigenousbreeds, Southern breeds, Ayrshire and Friesian breeds, and Jersey. Grouping of Nordic breeds was supported by documented breed history and geographical divisions of native breeding regions of indigenous cattle. Divergence estimates between Icelandic cattle and indigenousbreeds suggested a separation time of more than 1,000 years between Icelandic cattle and Norwegian native breeds, a finding consistent with historical evidence. PMID:11218082
Kantanen, J; Olsaker, I; Holm, L E; Lien, S; Vilkki, J; Brusgaard, K; Eythorsdottir, E; Danell, B; Adalsteinsson, S
Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenousbreeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress production system still practised by millions of families in Indonesia. PMID:22212205
This paper details the population genetic structure of South African indigenous, locally developed and introduced breeds using microsatellite markers, and the conservation implications of these results. Blood samples from 622 sheep, comprising 20 breeds, were collected from different regions in South Africa. All animals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite loci. Average unbiased heterozygosity (Hz) was lowest in the fat-rumped breeds
The Indigenous Australia Website, presented in affiliation with the Australian Museum and the Australia's Cultural Network, combines two Websites -- Dreaming Online and Stories of the Dreaming (see the July 16, 1999 Scout Report) -- into one comprehensive resource. An engaging introduction to the 60,000-year-old cultural heritage of Australia's Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, the site is divided into four main sections: Background Info, Stories of the Dreaming, For Kids, and For Teachers. The Background section provides users with a nice overview, accompanied by images, of art and dress, spiritual and family life, the relationship of indigenous peoples to the land, and their interactions with British colonists, as well as a fairly detailed timeline. Stories of the Dreaming offers short movies of people reciting the tales from their ancestors about the land, sea, and animals. These were filmed in the rugged backdrop of Australia and are available as low or high quality videos (RealPlayer) or as audio or text only. The Teachers and Kids pages supply additional resources including links, a glossary, a FAQ, and advice on teaching lessons in indigenous studies.
The loss of local chickenbreeds as result of replacement with cosmopolitan breeds indicates the need for conservation measures to protect the future of local genetic stocks. The aim of this study is to describe the patterns of polymorphism of the hypervariable control region of mitochondrial DNA (HVR1) in domestic chicken in China's Jiangxi province to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure and phylo-dynamics. To this end, we sequenced the mtDNA HVR1 in 231 chickens including 22 individuals which belonged to previously published sequences. A neighbor-joining tree revealed that these samples clustered into five lineages (Lineages A, B, C, E and G). The highest haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were both found in Anyi tile-liked gray breed. We estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the local chicken existed approximately 16 million years ago. The mismatch distribution analysis showed two major peaks at positions 4 and 9, while the neutrality test (Tajima's D =?-2.19, p < 0.05) and Fu's F-statistics (-8.59, p < 0.05) revealed a significant departure from the neutrality assumption. These results support the idea that domestication of chickens facilitated population increases. Results of a global AMOVA indicated that there was no obvious geographic structure among the local chickenbreeds analyzed in this study. The data obtained in this study will assist future conservation management of local breeds and also reveals intriguing implications for the history of human population movements and commerce. PMID:23617370
Wu, Y P; Huo, J H; Xie, J F; Liu, L X; Wei, Q P; Xie, M G; Kang, Z F; Ji, H Y; Ma, Y H
Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).
Traditionally, Spanish dairy sheep production areas have been closely related to indigenousbreeds, which are usually farmed under semi-extensive or extensive production systems. But their lower yields have led to the introduction of specialised breeds from abroad. Breed introgression varies according to the zone: while local breeds have been substituted by Assaf in Castilla-Leon, Latxa and Manchega are still the
E. Ugarte; R. Ruiz; D. Gabiña; I. Beltrán de Heredia
This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P < 0.05). The KNC meat lost significant amounts of all bioactive compounds during cooking (P < 0.05). Leg meat had high retention percentages of carnosine and anserine after cooking, whereas breast meat showed almost complete retention of betaine and carnitine. The results of this study provide useful and rare information regarding the presence, amounts, and determinants of endogenous bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenouschicken meat. PMID:24812230
Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Soo Kee; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun
Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301
Genetic resistance of native Egyptian breeds to very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment, birds from four breeds (Gimmizah, Sina, Dandrawi and Mandarah) were challenged with vvIBDV. The Mandarah chickens had the lowest mortalities (10%) compared to the Gimmizah, Sina and Dandrawi chickens (55%, 35% and
Eggs are the means through which chickens reproduce. Hens lay the eggs and incubate them so they will grow. The egg has all of the nutrients the chicken embryo needs to develop into a baby chick and helps protect it as it matures.
In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…
Large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences data from previous studies were investigated to obtain genetic information which contributes to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and history of modern sheep. In this study, we analyzed mtDNA D-loop sequences of 963 individuals from 16 Chinese indigenousbreeds that distributed seven geographic regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all three previously defined haplogroups A, B, and C were found in all breeds among different regions except in Southwest China mountainous region, which had only the A and B haplogroups. The weak phylogeographic structure was observed among Chinese indigenous sheep breeds distribution regions and this could be attributable to long-term strong gene flow among regions induced by the human migration, commercial trade, and extensive transport of sheep. The estimation of demographic parameters from mismatch analyses showed that haplogroups A and B had at least one demographic expansion of indigenous sheep in China. PMID:23709123
The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…
In times of rapid global and unforeseeable environmental changes, there is an urgent need for a sustainable cattle breeding policy, based on a global view. Most of the indigenousbreeds are specialized in a particular habitat or production system but are rapidly disappearing. Thus, they represent an important resource to meet present and future breeding objectives. Based on 105 microsatellites, we obtained thorough information on genetic diversity and population structure of 16 cattle breeds that cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the North-West of Europe. Breeds under strict artificial selection and indigenousbreeds under traditional breeding schemes were included. The overall results showed that the genetic diversity is widespread in Busa breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas, when compared with the alpine and north-western European breeds. Our results reflect long-term evolutionary and short-term breeding events very well. The regular pattern of allele frequency distribution in the entire cattle population studied clearly suggests conservation of rare alleles by conservation of preferably unselected traditional breeds with large effective population sizes. From a global and long-term conservation genetics point of view, the native and highly variable breeds closer to the domestication centre could serve as valuable sources of genes for future needs, not only for cattle but also for other farm animals. PMID:19659482
Medugorac, Ivica; Medugorac, Ana; Russ, Ingolf; Veit-Kensch, Claudia E; Taberlet, Pierre; Luntz, Bernhard; Mix, Henry M; Förster, Martin
The unique accessibility of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) during early development provides the opportunity to combine the reproduction of live animals with genetic conservation. Male and female Gifujidori fowl (GJ) PGCs were collected from the blood of early embryos, and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen for >6 months until transfer. Manipulated GJ embryos were cultured until hatching; fertility tests indicated that they had normal reproductive abilities. Embryos from two lines of White Leghorn (24HS, ST) were used as recipients for chimera production following blood removal. The concentration of PGCs in the early embryonic blood of 24HS was significantly higher than in ST (P < 0.05). Frozen-thawed GJ PGCs were microinjected into the bloodstream of same-sex recipients. Offspring originating from GJ PGCs in ST recipients were obtained with a higher efficiency than those originating from GJ PGCs in 24HS recipients (23.3% v. 3.1%). Additionally, GJ progeny were successfully regenerated by crossing germline chimeras of the ST group. In conclusion, the cryogenic preservation of PGCs from early chicken embryos was combined with the conservation of live animals. PMID:20883649
Identifies four groups with conflicting interests in indigenous studies programs and the nature of the conflicts. Proposes the formation of a pan-indigenous intellectual network. Describes the ideal indigenous studies program devoted to building a pan-indigenous infrastructure that indigenous nations would direct and use as a tool to strengthen…
To increase plumage color uniformity and understand the genetic background of Korean chickens, we performed a genome-wide association study of different plumage color in Korean native chickens. We analyzed 60K SNP chips on 279 chickens with GEMMA methods for GWAS and estimated the genetic heritability for plumage color. The estimated heritability suggests that plumage coloration is a polygenic trait. We found new loci associated with feather pigmentation at the genome-wide level and from the results infer that there are additional genetic effect for plumage color. The results will be used for selecting and breedingchicken for plumage color uniformity.
Park, Mi Na; Choi, Jin Ae; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Tae-Hun; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Taeheon
This site offers a wealth of materials relating to the anthropological, educational, and political issues involved with the teaching of Indigenous Languages. The best feature is the online full-texts of recently published scholarly studies and collections devoted to the subject. These texts include Revitalizing Indigenous Languages (1999), Teaching Indigenous Languages (1997), and Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (1996). The site also offers reprints of scholarly articles on such topics as American Indian language policy, models for teaching and maintaining indigenous languages, selected columns (1990-1999) from NABE (National Association for Bilingual Education) News, and quite a bit more. Many of the texts feature hyperlinks, and a site search engine is provided. Finally, an extensive, occasionally annotated list of links to Bilingual, American Indian, Indigenous Languages, and Literacy/ Reading sites is also posted. Jon Reyhner, an associate professor of bilingual and multicultural education at Northern Arizona University, maintains the site.
Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration and formation of undesirable “warmed over flavour” in chicken meat products are supposed to be the lack of ?-tocopherol in chicken meat.
Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun
Background Copy number variants contribute to genetic variation in birds. Analyses of copy number variants in chickenbreeds had focused primarily on those from commercial varieties with nothing known about the occurrence and diversity of copy number variants in locally raised Chinese chickenbreeds. To address this deficiency, we characterized copy number variants in 11 chickenbreeds and compared the variation among these breeds. Results We presented a detailed analysis of the copy number variants in locally raised Chinese chickenbreeds identified using a customized comparative genomic hybridization array. We identified 833 copy number variants contained within 308 copy number variant regions. The median and mean sizes of the copy number variant regions were 14.6 kb and 35.1 kb, respectively. Of the copy number variant regions, 138 (45%) involved gain of DNA, 159 (52%) involved loss of DNA, and 11 (3%) involved both gain and loss of DNA. Principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering revealed the close relatedness of the four locally raised chickenbreeds, Shek-Ki, Langshan, Qingyuan partridge, and Wenchang. Biological process enrichment analysis of the copy number variant regions confirmed the greater variation among the four aforementioned varieties than among the seven other breeds studied. Conclusion Our description of the distribution of the copy number variants and comparison of the differences among the copy number variant regions of the 11 chickenbreeds supplemented the information available concerning the copy number variants of other Chinese chickenbreeds. In addition to its relevance for functional analysis, our results provided the first insight into how chickenbreeds can be clustered on the basis of their genomic copy number variation.
Believing that science is about precision in defining its terms, we propose the use of breeding as an all-encompassing term for mosquito activity does not always represent the reality of what is happening at a site where mosquitoes, in whatever stage, are present. We explore the breadth of the term breeding and propose alternative, more accurate uses for those who write about mosquitoes. We offer samples of what we see as a misuse of the word and provide what we feel is more scientifically acceptable terminology. PMID:17067065
In order to discover the mechanism of cold stress and identify differentially expressed genes in hypothalamus during cold stress, 4 weeks of age Huainan partridge chickens, Chinese indigenousbreed, were chosen for 24 h cold stress and then hypothalamus were isolated and labeled by reverse transcription reaction for cDNA. Labeled cDNA were hybridized with cDNA microarray. After scanning and image processing, the different gene expression profiling of hypothalamus and normal control was investigated. The differentially expressed genes included 334 down-regulated genes and 543 up-regulated genes. In these differentially regulated genes, myosin heavy chain polypeptide 11 (MYH11), light chain polypeptide 9 (MYL9) and tenascin-Y (TNXB), etc., which involved in muscle activity were significantly down-regulated. Genes like cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (NPY5R), hypocretin receptor 2 (HCRTR2) and hypocretin neuropeptide precursor (HCRT) which responsible for regulation of feeding behavior were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes responsible for lipid synthesis, like apolipoprotein (APOB) and agouti related protein homolog (AGRP), were also up-regulated. Through pathway analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomics, during 24 h cold stress, the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction was firstly initiated in chickens for stimulation of central nervus for feed intake. Adipocytokine signaling pathway was in high activation for supplementation of body energy. Jak-STAT, Ca(2+) signaling pathway and other biological reactions were also initiated in response to cold stress. The biological pathways participated in cold stress would provide important information for clarify the mechanism of cold stress and the differentially expressed genes would give much help for screening of candidate genes in breeding of cold stress resistant lines. PMID:24407606
After a long history as a tool of forced assimilation of indigenous populations, education is now a key arena in which indigenous peoples can reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures and thereby improve the academic success of indigenous students. Community-based education offers a means by which indigenous peoples can regain a measure of…
Traditional indigenous healing is widely used today, as it has been since time immemorial. This article describes the following areas in regards to traditional healing: (a) an explanation of indigenous peoples, (b) a definition of traditional indigenous healing, (c) a portrayal of traditional healers, (d) health within indigenous culture, (e) traditional healing techniques, (f) utilization of traditional healing, (g) how
Roxanne Struthers; Valerie S. Eschiti; Beverly Patchell
Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenouschickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (?ST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenouschicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of indigenouschicken of Bangladesh. These results suggest that Bangladeshi indigenouschickens still have abundant genetic diversity and have originated from multiple maternal lineages, and further conservation efforts are warranted to maintain the diversity. PMID:23640100
Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano
The identification of important genetic resources and the prevention of further loss of genetic variation is an important task. In developing countries selection pressure for production traits is low and traditional chickenbreeds are used in rural animal production systems. Therefore the evaluation of exotic local chicken populations as genetic resources is of interest in efforts to maintain genetic variation.
Klaus Wimmers; Siriluck Ponsuksili; Torsten Hardge; Anne Valle-Zarate; Peter Horst
2 Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the hematological parameters in Fayoumi, Assil and Local Chickens of different ages reared in Sylhet region. 250 chickens of three breeds (100 Fayoumi, 50 Assil and 100 Local) were tested at different ages (1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) to observe the hematological parameters: i) Total erythrocyte Count (TEC) ii) Packed
Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breedchickens more resistant to Salmonella. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to Salmonella in young chickens, a cDNA microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression profiles
Saskia van Hemert; Arjan J. W. Hoekman; Mari A. Smits; Johanna M. J. Rebel
The Cuban cattle breeding programme has remained unchanged over more than 20 years and aims at the genetic transformation of the indigenous population by means of crossbreeding within a high-performance cattle stock. Focus is on the breeds Holstein X Zebu in order to produce the crosses "Holstein Tropical" (7/8H 1/8Z), "Mambi" (3/4H 1/4Z), and "Siboney" (5/8H 3/8Z). Besides these, other new breeds are envisaged for milk and meat production. Representative parameters of the production and reproduction of the new genotypes are being reported and discussed. PMID:3395321
Progress from plant breeding has been slow in some marginal environments. Conventional or formal plant breeding (FPB) programs\\u000a conducted by international agricultural research centres or national programs in developing countries have been criticized\\u000a for ignoring indigenous germplasm, failing to breed for conditions facing poor farmers, and emphasizing selection for broad\\u000a versus local adaptation. A suite of techniques, referred to as
Background Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource and the conservation of local breeds is an issue for the preservation of this resource. The genetic diversity of a breed is mainly evaluated through its nuclear diversity. However, nuclear genetic diversity does not provide the same information as mitochondrial genetic diversity. For the species Gallus gallus, at least 8 maternal lineages have been identified. While breeds distributed westward from the Indian subcontinent usually share haplotypes from 1 to 2 haplogroups, Southeast Asian breeds exhibit all the haplogroups. The Vietnamese Ha Giang (HG) chicken has been shown to exhibit a very high nuclear diversity but also important rates of admixture with wild relatives. Its geographical position, within one of the chicken domestication centres ranging from Thailand to the Chinese Yunnan province, increases the probability of observing a very high genetic diversity for maternal lineages, and in a way, improving our understanding of the chicken domestication process. Results A total of 106 sequences from Vietnamese HG chickens were first compared to the sequences of published Chinese breeds. The 25 haplotypes observed in the Vietnamese HG population belonged to six previously published haplogroups which are: A, B, C, D, F and G. On average, breeds from the Chinese Yunnan province carried haplotypes from 4.3 haplogroups. For the HG population, haplogroup diversity is found at both the province and the village level (0.69). The AMOVA results show that genetic diversity occurred within the breeds rather than between breeds or provinces. Regarding the global structure of the mtDNA diversity per population, a characteristic of the HG population was the occurrence of similar pattern distribution as compared to G. gallus spadiceus. However, there was no geographical evidence of gene flow between wild and domestic populations as observed when microsatellites were used. Conclusions In contrast to other chicken populations, the HG chicken population showed very high genetic diversity at both the nuclear and mitochondrial levels. Due to its past and recent history, this population accumulates a specific and rich gene pool highlighting its interest and the need for conservation.
In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and academics…
Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…
The mapping of indigenous lands to secure tenure, manage natural resources, and strengthen cultures is a recent phenomenon, having begun in Canada and Alaska in the 1960s and in other regions during the last decade and a half. A variety of methodologies have made their appearance, ranging from highly participatory approaches involving village sketch maps to more technical efforts with
From 1999-2005, the Mathematics in Indigenous Contexts (MIC) project was implemented by the Board of Studies, New South Wales (NSW), in conjunction with the NSW Department of Education and Training, and academics from two universities. MIC project members worked with schools and communities at two sites: a primary school in an urban community in…
Age has significant impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) systems in animals. Ross 708 broiler chicken is a breed of chicken with fast growth characteristics. Cytochrome P450 in the livers of Ross 708 broiler chicken of different ages has been investigated. The birds were raised under standard husbandry conditions. A certain number of chickens was randomly sampled weekly for liver collection from d 1 to 56 posthatch. The chicken body and liver weights were recorded. The chicken livers were processed for liver microsomes though a multiple-step procedure at low temperature. Total CYP450 content in chicken liver homogenates and liver microsomes was measured using a UV/visible spectroscopic method. The enzymatic activities of CYP450 in the chicken liver microsomes were determined through incubation of CYP450 isoform substrates followed by measurement of formation of their metabolites. The chicken showed an opposite age pattern in hepatic CYP450 content and activities compared with most mammals. The hepatic CYP450 content and activities of chicken at d 1 posthatch were higher than at other ages. The total hepatic CYP450 content in chickens at d 1 posthatch was more than twice the average hepatic value of the chickens at d 7 to 28. This high CYP450 fell quickly in the first week posthatch and slightly rose from d 28 to 56. Hepatic CYP450 activities of CYP1A, 3A, 2C, 2D, and 2H were much higher in the chicken at d 1 posthatch. The differences of these enzymatic activities between d 1 and other ages of chicken were CYP450 isoform dependent. This result suggests that embryonic development of chicken livers has a significant impact on the age profile of hepatic CYP450 content and activities of posthatch chickens. PMID:23571338
This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat.
Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of perches and footpad dermatitis on stress and fear levels of chickens. In experiment 1 hetero- phil to lymphocyte ratio and tonic immobility duration were measured in 36-wk-old hens (36 birds) from 2 Span- ish breeds of chickens (Black Menorca and Quail Castellana) housed in pens with or without
The present study was conducted to investigate whether nutritional treatments can influence the carcass composition, potential consumer acceptability and cost of rearing, at any defined liveweight (LW) or proportion of breed mature weight (MW), in male lambs of three indigenous Greek dairy breeds of sheep. Two trials were carried out each with 30 weaned lambs (about 42 days) of the
D Zygoyiannis; N Katsaounis; C Stamataris; G Arsenos; L Tsaras; J Doney
The role of the non-Indigenous educator and researcher in education on Indigenous issues is becoming the subject of critical scrutiny. Indigenous academics are successfully turning the gaze on non-Indigenous peers and practices. This paper narrates some of the experiences of a non-Indigenous educator teaching an undergraduate elective Indigenous…
Over 70% of the domesticated birds in Kenya are indigenouschicken (IC) providing meat and table eggs. They are frequently raised through the free range, backyard production system. Small flock sizes are characteristic of this production system and often, sales are mainly at the farmgate. Although IC production possesses enormous potential at livelihood improvement, marketing systems are undefined and variable.
The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene is related to the plumage color variations in chicken. Initially, the MC1R gene from 30 individuals was sequenced and nine polymorphisms were obtained. Of these, three and six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were confirmed as synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations, respectively. Among these, three selected SNPs were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method in 150 individuals from five chickenbreeds, which identified the plumage color responding alleles. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree using MC1R gene sequences indicated three well-differentiated different plumage pigmentations (eumelanin, pheomelanin and albino). Also, the genotype analyses indicated that the TT, AA and GG genotypes corresponded to the eumelanin, pheomelanin and albino plumage pigmentations at nucleotide positions 69, 376 and 427, respectively. In contrast, high allele frequencies with T, A and G alleles corresponded to black, red/yellow and white plumage color in 69, 376 and 427 nucleotide positions, respectively. Also, amino acids changes at position Asn23Asn, Val126Ile and Thr143Ala were observed in melanin synthesis with identified possible alleles, respectively. In addition, high haplotype frequencies in TGA, CGG and CAA haplotypes were well discriminated based on the plumage pigmentation in chickenbreeds. The results obtained in this study can be used for designing proper breeding and conservation strategies for the Korean native chickenbreeds, as well as for the developing breed identification markers in chicken.
Hoque, M. R.; Jin, S.; Heo, K. N.; Kang, B. S.; Jo, C.; Lee, J. H.
Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…
This lesson is a detailed explanation of the backcross breeding process. Variations based on whether backcrossing is performed with dominant, recessive, or multiple traits are discussed. Calculations associated with backcross breeding are explained.
The Integrated Breeding Platform is a development being led by the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP), a part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) which has a mission to bring scientists from different horizons and with different skills to work together, bridging the gap between upstream and applied research, so that biotechnology could have greater impact on plant breeding efficiency in developing countries.The Integrated Breeding Platform functions as a one-stop-shop to provide information, tools, services and training. Furthermore IBP hopes to provide developing countries with access to modern breeding technologies, breeding materials, and related information to facilitate their adoption of molecular breeding approaches and improve their plant breeding efficiency.This site provides educational and training opportunities to help people be able to better utilize the tools at the Integrated Breeding Platform, as well as to provide an online community area for webinars and discussion forums.
In order to clarify the origin and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle breeds in China, we carried out phylogenetic analysis\\u000a of representatives of those breeds by employing mitochondrial gene polymorphism. Complete cyt b gene sequences, 1140 bp in length, were determined for a total of 136 individuals from 18 different breeds and these sequences\\u000a were clustered into two distinct genetic lineages:
Xin Cai; Hong Chen; Chuzhao Lei; Shan Wang; Kai Xue; Bao Zhang
This book springs from a 1996 International Summer Institute, held at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, on the cultural restoration of oppressed Indigenous peoples. Essays draw on many perspectives and experiences to seek ways of healing and rebuilding nations, peoples, and communities by restoring Indigenous ecologies, consciousnesses,…
This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…
This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…
The genetic structure of 65 chicken populations was studied using 29 SSR loci. Six main clusters which corresponded to geographical origins and histories were identified: Brown Egg Layers, predominantly Broilers, native Chinese breeds or breeds with recent Asian origin, predominantly breeds of European derivation, a small cluster containing populations with No Common-History (NCH), and populations that had breeding history with White Leghorn. Another group of populations that shared their genome with several clusters was defined as “Multi-clusters”. Gallus gallus gallus (Multi-clusters), one of the subspecies of the Red Jungle Fowl, which was previously suggested to be one of the ancestors of the domesticated chicken, has almost no sharing with European and White Egg layer populations. In a further sub-clustering of the populations, discrimination between all the 65 populations was possible, and relations between them were suggested. The genetic variation between populations was found to account for about 34% of the total genetic variation, 11% between clusters and 23% between populations within clusters. The suggested clusters may assist in future studies on genetic aspects of the chicken gene pool.
Granevitze, Z.; Hillel, J.; Feldman, M.; Six, A.; Eding, H.; Weigend, S.
Throughout the course of the Fourth International Polar Year(s), indigenous peoples have assumed a prominent role as significant partners in the pursuit of a broader and deeper understanding of the multifaceted dimensions of the human role in the Arctic region. Most salient in this partnership has been the substantial underlying differences in perspective, some political, some ideological, but most fundamental and intractable are the differences in world views, between those of the relative newcomers to the area (i.e. the miners, loggers, oil field workers, commercial fishermen, tourists, and even the occasional scientist), and the Native people with roots in the land that go back millennia. But no longer can these differences be cast in simplistic either/or terms, implying some kind of inherent dichotomy between those who live off the land vs. those tied to the cash economy, or traditional vs. modern technologies, or anecdotal vs. scientific evidence. These lines have been blurred with the realities that indigenous cultures are not static, and western structures are no longer dominant. Instead, we now have a much more fluid and dynamic situation in which once competing views of the world are striving toward reconciliation through new structures and frameworks that foster co-existence rather than domination and exploitation.
Based on a survey data collected from 150 farming households in Dano district of western Showa of Ethiopia, this paper analyzes determinants of smallholders' choice for market oriented indigenous Horo cattle production and tries to suggest policy alternatives for sustainable use of animal genetic resource in the study area. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic model were employed to analyze the data. Eight explanatory variables including age of the household head, size of the grazing land, total size of cultivated land, farmer's experience in indigenous cattle production, farmer's attitude towards productivity of local breed, off-farm income, fattening practice, and availability of information and training of the head of the household regarding conservation, management and sustainable use indigenous cattle were found to be statistically significant variables to explain farmers' choice for market oriented indigenous cattle production activities. Besides, possible policy implications were made in order to improve conservation, management and sustainable use of market oriented indigenous cattle genetic resources. PMID:20574818
Within the past 2 decades, community capacity building and community empowerment have emerged as key strategies for reducing health disparities and promoting public health. As with other strategies and best practices, these concepts have been brought to indigenous (American Indian and Alaska Native) communities primarily by mainstream researchers and practitioners. Mainstream models and their resultant programs, however, often have limited application in meeting the needs and realities of indigenous populations. Tribes are increasingly taking control of their local health care services. It is time for indigenous people not only to develop tribal programs but also to define and integrate the underlying theoretical and cultural frameworks for public health application.
Extensive phenotypic variation is a common feature among village chickens found throughout much of the developing world, and in traditional chickenbreeds that have been artificially selected for traits such as plumage variety. We present here an assessment of traditional and village chicken populations, for fine mapping of Mendelian traits using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping while providing information on their genetic structure and diversity. Bayesian clustering analysis reveals two main genetic backgrounds in traditional breeds, Kenyan, Ethiopian and Chilean village chickens. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) reveals useful LD (r2?0.3) in both traditional and village chickens at pairwise marker distances of ?10?Kb; while haplotype block analysis indicates a median block size of 11–12?Kb. Association mapping yielded refined mapping intervals for duplex comb (Gga 2:38.55–38.89?Mb) and rose comb (Gga 7:18.41–22.09?Mb) phenotypes in traditional breeds. Combined mapping information from traditional breeds and Chilean village chicken allows the oocyan phenotype to be fine mapped to two small regions (Gga 1:67.25–67.28?Mb, Gga 1:67.28–67.32?Mb) totalling ?75?Kb. Mapping the unmapped earlobe pigmentation phenotype supports previous findings that the trait is sex-linked and polygenic. A critical assessment of the number of SNPs required to map simple traits indicate that between 90 and 110K SNPs are required for full genome-wide analysis of haplotype block structure/ancestry, and for association mapping in both traditional and village chickens. Our results demonstrate the importance and uniqueness of phenotypic diversity and genetic structure of traditional chickenbreeds for fine-scale mapping of Mendelian traits in the species, with village chicken populations providing further opportunities to enhance mapping resolutions.
Wragg, D; Mwacharo, J M; Alcalde, J A; Hocking, P M; Hanotte, O
CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA
This study assessed the applicability of a Bacillus stearothermophilus test for detection of the depletion of furazolidone anticoccidial drug residues in chicken tissues. Thirty-three Ross breedchicken were dosed orally with furazolidone (2mg\\/kg body weight) daily for 5 days. After the last treatment the birds were sacrificed in groups of three at intervals of 1, 3, 6, 10, 24, 48,
Oketch Aila; Anakalo Shitandi; Symon M. Mahungu; Harish Kumar Sharma
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, there has been an acceleration of the loss of domestic animal biodiversity. For conservation purposes, the genetic diversity of the H'Mong cattle, an indigenous local breed was studied. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the SRY gene and mtDNA D-Loop sequence were analysed to clarify the origin of the breed. The genetic diversity was assessed through genetic
C Berthouly; JC Maillard; L Pham Doan; T Nhu Van; B Bed'Hom; G Leroy; H Hoang Thanh; D Laloë; N Bruneau; C Vu Chi; V Nguyen Dang; E Verrier; X Rognon
On August 1st, 2007, Indigenous nations from within the United States, Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa (New Zealand) signed a treaty to found the United League of Indigenous Nations. The Treaty of Indigenous Nations offers a historic opportunity for sovereign Indigenous governments to build intertribal cooperation outside the framework of the…
This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.
Dermal hyperpigmentation or Fibromelanosis (FM) is one of the few examples of skin pigmentation phenotypes in the chicken, where most other pigmentation variants influence feather color and patterning. The Silkie chicken is the most widespread and well-studied breed displaying this phenotype. The presence of the dominant FM allele results in extensive pigmentation of the dermal layer of skin and the majority of internal connective tissue. Here we identify the causal mutation of FM as an inverted duplication and junction of two genomic regions separated by more than 400 kb in wild-type individuals. One of these duplicated regions contains endothelin 3 (EDN3), a gene with a known role in promoting melanoblast proliferation. We show that EDN3 expression is increased in the developing Silkie embryo during the time in which melanoblasts are migrating, and elevated levels of expression are maintained in the adult skin tissue. We have examined four different chickenbreeds from both Asia and Europe displaying dermal hyperpigmentation and conclude that the same structural variant underlies this phenotype in all chickenbreeds. This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals. PMID:22216010
Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) plays an important role in animal follicular development. Polymorphisms in FSHR promoter region likely impact transcription and follicle growth and maturation. In this study, a fragment of ~1.9 kb of cFSHR promoter for Zang, Xianju, Lohmann Brown, Jining Bairi and Wenchang breeds (line) was obtained. Totally 49 variations were revealed, of which 39 are single nucleotide substitutions, one is nucleotide substitution of (TTG) to (CAC) and nine are indels. Polymorphism at -874 site (a 200 bp indel mutation) was identified, and their effects on egg production traits as well as gene expression were analyzed. At this site, allele I(+) was dominant in Lohmann Brown and Xinyang Brown (a synthetic egg-laying line) lines, but very rare in three Chinese indigenouschickenbreeds, namely Jining Bairi, Wenchang, Zang and one synthetic boiler line (Luqin). In Xinyang Brown population, the polymorphism was associated with age at first egg (AFE) (P < 0.05) and its effect on egg number at 37 weeks of age (E37) and egg number at 57 weeks of age (E57) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The cFSHR mRNA level was not significantly different between three genotypes in small white and small yellow follicles of Xinyang Brown hens, however, allele I(+) tends to increase cFSHR transcription. PMID:21678054
Before the founding of the PRC in 1949, there were a few dairy cattle and no special beef breeds in China and most cattle were draught animals. Since 1949, China has introduced more than 20 specialist beef breeds and dual-purpose (milk\\/meat) breeds to improve the native breeds. According to Bovine Breeds in China published in 1986, China had 34 native
The duration of viraemia and the serological responses were studied in two breeds of sheep and two breeds of goats, experimentally infected with bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 4. Viraemia, detectable by cell culture and embryonated chicken egg inoculation, lasted from the third to sixth day until the 27th–54th day post infection (p.i.). Significant differences between sheep and goats were not
M Koumbati; O Mangana; K Nomikou; P. S Mellor; O Papadopoulos
This article provides a guided tour through three diverse cultural ways of understanding nature: an Indigenous way (with a focus on Indigenous nations in North America), a neo-indigenous way (a concept proposed to recognize many Asian nations' unique ways of knowing nature; in this case, Japan), and a Euro-American scientific way. An exploration of these three ways of knowing unfolds in a developmental way such that some key terms change to become more authentic terms that better represent each culture's collective, yet heterogeneous, worldview, metaphysics, epistemology, and values. For example, the three ways of understanding nature are eventually described as Indigenous ways of living in nature, a Japanese way of knowing seigyo-shizen, and Eurocentric sciences (plural). Characteristics of a postcolonial or anti-hegemonic discourse are suggested for science education, but some inherent difficulties with this discourse are also noted.
This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health\\u000a and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing\\u000a research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and ethics; 2) culturally based research\\u000a methods; and 3) the need to
Six Ethiopian indigenous goat populations viz. Gumuz, Agew, Begia-Medir, Bati, Abergelle, and Central Abergelle were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Society for Animal Genetics. A total of 158 individual goats were tested to assess genetic variations within and between the goat populations in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. The markers revealed 100% polymorphism across six goat populations indicating the presence of genetic diversity, which is an important variable to measure genetic variability within and between populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.56 (Central Abergelle) to 0.68 (Bati) and 0.59 (Abergelle) to 0.69 (Agew goat), respectively. The lowest genetic distance was observed between Begia-Medir and Central Abergelle (0.039), and the largest distances between Agew and Abergelle (0.140) and Gumuz and Abergelle (0.169). Neighbor-joining and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods with bootstrap value of 1,000 was used which grouped the six goat populations into two major groups viz. the Abergelle goat cluster as one group and the Agew, Gumuz, Bati, Begia-Medir, and Central Abergelle goats as the second group. In our study, the obtained higher total variation within the goat populations (95%) confirms a close relatedness of the studied goat ecotypes, which might have happened due to the existence of uncontrolled animal breeding strategies resulting from uncontrolled movement of animals through various market routes and agricultural extension systems. The study contributed to the genetic characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations and demonstrated the usefulness of the 15 microsatellite makers for biodiversity studies in goats. PMID:22237413
Control over management of the world's resources is increasingly contested because of economic, political and biophysical globalization, and increasing demands of a growing population of more than 6 billion. This has led to new interest in indigenous or traditional knowledge in many areas, including agriculture and plant breeding. Farmers were the first plant breeders, beginning with domestication of plants over
This is the fourth in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.
Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.
Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on crit...
Changes in serum gamma globulin levels, numbers of replete female ticks and engorged tick mass were used as parameters to monitor the acquired immune response (antibody mediated immune response) elicited by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations. Three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations were applied to South African Indigenous goats (Nguni), Saanen goats and cross-bred goats (Saanen goats crossed with South African Indigenous goats [Nguni]) under laboratory conditions. During the three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations the serum gamma globulin levels increased in all three breeds, whilst the mean replete female tick numbers and engorged tick mass decreased. Even though all three goat breeds exhibited an acquired immune response, the South African Indigenous goats (Nguni) response was significantly higher than that of the Saanen and cross-bred goats. However, the acquired immune response elicited by Saanen goats was significantly lower when compared with cross-bred goats. PMID:24396916
Gopalraj, Jeyanthi B P; Clarke, Francoise C; Donkin, Edward F
Breeding habitat selection and dispersal are crucial processes that affect many components of fitness. Breeding dispersal entails costs, one of which has been neglected: dispersing animals may miss breeding opportunities because breeding dispersal requires finding a new nesting site and mate, two time- and energy-consuming activities. Dispersers are expected to be prone to non-breeding. We used the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) to test whether breeding dispersal influences breeding probability. Breeding probability was associated with dispersal, in that both were negatively influenced by private information (previous individual reproductive success) and public information (average reproductive success of conspecifics) about patch quality. Furthermore, the probability of skipping breeding was 1.7 times higher in birds that settled in a new patch relative to those that remained on the same patch. Finally, non-breeders that resumed breeding were 4.4 times more likely to disperse than birds that bred in successive years. Although private information may influence breeding probability directly, the link between breeding probability and public information may be indirect, through the influence of public information on breeding dispersal, non-breeding thus being a cost of dispersal. These results support the hypothesis that dispersal may result in not being able to breed. More generally, non-breeding (which can be interpreted as an extreme form of breeding failure) may reveal costs of various previous activities. Because monitoring the non-breeding portion of a population is difficult, non-breeders have been neglected in many studies of reproduction trade-offs.
To view additional success stories click on the link in the left menu Please click here to report your plant breeding success stories. Click on TCAP logo to see the Economic impact of USDA-NIFA small grains CAPsThe Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee (SCC 080) is the USDA-sponsored advisory group of representatives from land grant universities. The Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee represents national plant breeding with a focus on education in the broader sense, including providing information to the public and administrators, and encouraging the development of formal educational opportunities, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Mission: To provide a forum for leadership on issues and opportunities of strategic importance to national core competency in plant breeding research and education Membership: The PBCC members will consist of the representatives of the SCC-080 committee and others by request.
In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)
Forty-six indigenous Sanga-type (Nkone and Tuli breeds) cows and 46 crossbred (Nkone x Jersey and Tuli x Jersey) cows were randomly allocated to four treatment combinations in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two breeds and two dietary levels, a control diet and a diet supplemented with dairy meal containing 14 per cent crude protein at the rate of 2 kg per cow per day. The progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken three times a week from 10 days postpartum for up to 200 days, and the cows' bodyweights and body condition scores were recorded fortnightly. The pregnancy rate in the crossbred cows was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the indigenous cows, and the assumed pregnancy loss rate 30 days after conception was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the indigenous cows than in the crossbred cows. The supplemented crossbred cows had a lower pregnancy loss rate than the supplemented indigenous cows (P<0.05). All the supplemented indigenous cows that lost pregnancies were in their first parity, whereas all the crossbred cows that lost pregnancies were multiparous and were not supplemented. The indigenous cows weighed significantly more (P<0.05) than the crossbred cows irrespective of diet, and the supplemented cows of both breeds weighed more (P<0.05) than the control cows. The supplemented indigenous cows had significantly higher (P<0.05) body condition scores than the control cows. The mean dairy milk yield of all the breeds was generally low but significantly higher (P<0.05) in the crossbred than in the indigenous cows. PMID:15658563
Garwe, E C; Ball, P J H; Hamudikuwanda, H H; Mutisi, C
This report describes the forest insects and diseases in the Pacific Northwest for the year 2002. It includes indigenous and non-indigenous diseases, nursery diseases, indigenous and non-indigenous insects, etc.
This report describes the forest insects and diseases in the Pacific Northwest for the year 1998. It includes indigenous and non-indigenous diseases, nursery diseases, indigenous and non-indigenous insects, etc.
Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.
Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05). A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05), being 1.3±0.65 kg and 1.1±0.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 22±7.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.3±2.85 and annual production 64.5±2.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 88±6.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 16±1.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations.
Al-Qamashoui, B.; Mahgoub, O.; Kadim, I.; Schlecht, E.
Our paper is part of a series focusing on Indigenous peoples' health in different world regions. Indigenous peoples worldwide are subject to marginalisation and discrimination, systematically experiencing poorer health than do majority groups. In Africa, poor health in the general population is widely recognised, but the consistently lower health position and social status of Indigenous peoples are rarely noted. Disputed conceptual understandings of indigeneity, a history of discriminatory colonial and post-colonial policies, and non-recognition of Indigenous groups by some governments complicate the situation. We discuss two case studies, of the central African Pygmy peoples and the San of southern Africa, to illustrate recurring issues in Indigenous health in the continent. We make recommendations for the recognition of Indigenous peoples in Africa and improvements needed in the collection of health data and the provision of services. Finally, we argue that wider changes are needed to address the social determinants of Indigenous peoples' health. PMID:16765763
Nesting female (n = 60) greater prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) were monitored during the 1990-1992 breeding seasons. Nest success ranged from 28% to 40% over 3 years (x = 35%, SE = 0.04). The authors collected data on a variety of vegetati...
Indigenous Chinese goat mtDNA is highly diverse but lacks geographic specificity; however, whether gene flow or gene exchange contributed to this remains unknown. We reanalyzed a consensus fragment of 481 bp in the D-loop region from 339 individuals. The network and neighbor-joining tree revealed three divergent maternal haplogroups (A, B1, and B2) in 17 local breeds. Although high polymorphism resulting in 198 different haplotypes was observed (h = 0.984 ± 0.002; ? = 0.0336 ± 0.0008), neither the distribution of haplotypes nor PCA analysis revealed any obvious geographic structure in the local breeds. Extensive gene flow was widely detected among breeds from southwest China. High levels of gene exchange were detected between Qianbei Brown goats and the other breeds, indicating either more contribution or introgression to their gene pools. This study will be helpful in understanding the phylogeography and gene flow among the goat breeds of southwest China. PMID:24777493
Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Lin Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hong Ping
A financial analysis was performed to assess the performance of three acaricide-treatment groups of indigenousbreeds (Zebu and Nganda) of cattle on a ranch in Luwero District, Uganda. The treatments were based on different frequencies: twice-a-week dipping, once-a-month dipping and no tick control. The objective was to evaluate the economic justification for intensive acaricide application for tick and tick-borne disease
J Okello-Onen; A. W Mukhebi; E. M Tukahirwa; G Musisi; E Bode; R Heinonen; B. D Perry; J Opuda-Asibo
This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts to gain…
While ecotourism has many positive attributes, perhaps the most interesting is its potential to foster transformations in ecological consciousness that some view as vital to achieving more sustainable human–environmental relationships. Frequently, indigenous peoples and their cultures have been associated with ecotourism because of the ‘strong bond between indigenous cultures and the natural environment’ [Zeppel, H. (2006). Indigenous ecotourism: Sustainable development
This article documents the establishment of the Indigenous Specializations program in the School of Social Work at the University of Victoria. In the absence of funding for Indigenous programs, First Nations professors Robina Thomas and Jacquie Green developed the Indigenous Specializations program "off the side of their desk". This article…
Language use changes over time. In Indigenous contexts, language alters to suit the shifting nature of cultural expression as this might fit with Indigenous peoples' preference or as a consequence of changes to outdated and colonial modes of expression. For students studying in the discipline of Indigenous Studies, learning to use appropriate…
This paper proposes the development of Indigenous Studies as an international field, both in the sense of advancing the discipline internationally, wherever there are Indigenous peoples, and in the sense of incorporating international perspectives into curricula. In Canada, Indigenous Studies has been and is still treated as something to be done…
Indigenous knowledge is a critical factor for sustainable development. Empowerment of local communities is a prerequisite for the integration of indigenous knowledge in the development process. The integration of appropriate indigenous knowledge systems into development programs has already contributed to efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainable…
Taiwan red-feathered country chickens (TRFCCs) are one of the main meat resources in Taiwan. Due to the lack of any systematic breeding programs to improve egg productivity, the egg production rate of this breed has gradually decreased. The prediction by zone (PreZone) program was developed to select the chickens with low egg productivity so as to improve the egg productivity of TRFCCs before they reach maturity. Three groups (A, B, and C) of chickens were used in this study. Two approaches were used to identify chickens with low egg productivity. The first approach used predictions based on a single dataset, and the second approach used predictions based on the union of two datasets. The levels of four serum proteins, including apolipoprotein A-I, vitellogenin, X protein (an IGF-I-like protein), and apo VLDL-II, were measured in chickens that were 8, 14, 22, or 24 weeks old. Total egg numbers were recorded for each individual bird during the egg production period. PreZone analysis was performed using the four serum protein levels as selection parameters, and the results were compared to those obtained using a first-order multiple linear regression method with the same parameters. The PreZone program provides another prediction method that can be used to validate datasets with a low correlation between response and predictors. It can be used to find low and improve egg productivity in TRFCCs by selecting the best chickens before they reach maturity.
Lin, Yen-Jen; Liou, Ming Li; Lee, Wen Chuan; Tang, Chuan Yi
The new breeding programme was initiated in 1991 after a visit of Dr Du Plooy to California. This new breeding programme consists of two parts namely rootstock breeding and scion breeding. Both of these programmes are based on the establishment of a genesource, introduction of promising overseas materials, self- pollination, cross pollination and poly-cross nurseries. Satisfactory progress was made since
The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples. PMID:23338830
Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex
"Indigenous" college students in both Canada and the United States have the lowest rates of obtaining postsecondary degrees, and their postsecondary dropout rates are higher than for any other minority (Freeman & Fox, 2005; Mendelson, 2004; Reddy, 1993). There has been very little research done to uncover possible reasons for such low academic…
Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…
Being able to consider the full range of social and economic issues from different cultural perspectives while maintaining respect and an open mind is a difficult task. The similarities between the latest thinking of Western cosmology and theoretical physics and Indigenous understandings of the bush and its components are striking and provide a…
Emerging pathogenic viruses, such as avian influenza (AI), represent a serious threat to the poultry industry and human health. The development of novel therapeutics to protect against these viruses is critical and necessitates understanding the host immune mechanisms to find new pathways for protection against virus infection. Interferon (IFN) is a major antiviral arm of the immune system and is generally the first line of defence against virus. The multiple genes orchestrated by IFN upregulation are not well characterised in chickens due to a lack of reagents and research efforts. Here we have identified chicken ZAP (chZAP), an IFN stimulated gene (ISG), that has antiviral properties in human models, and show that chZAP is upregulated in response to PAMPs. Moreover, we show that chZAP is upregulated in vivo following particular viral infections. This data will benefit further studies that aim to understand antiviral response pathways in the chicken. PMID:24877657
Goossens, Kate E; Karpala, Adam J; Ward, Alistair; Bean, Andrew G D
The Hinai-dori is a breed of chicken native to the Akita prefecture in Japan. A cross between the Hinai-dori and Rhode Island Red breeds has been commercialized as the Hinai-jidori chicken, one of the most popular brands in Japan. High arachidonic acid (AA) content is a characteristic feature of Hinai-jidori chicken meat. To elucidate the relationship between AA content and the palatability of the Hinai-jidori chicken, we examined the effects of palm oil (PO), corn oil (CO), and arachidonic acid-enriched oil (AAO) diet supplementation on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions in thigh meat. Each oil and silicate was mixed at a ratio of 7:3, 5% of fresh matter was added to the finisher diet, and Hinai-jidori chickens were fed these diets for 2 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the AAO group was significantly more than 2-fold higher than that of the PO and CO groups. Other fatty acid contents were not significantly different among the groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the total taste intensity, umami (l-glutamate taste), kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness), and aftertaste of the AAO group were significantly higher than those of PO and CO groups in both chicken soup and steamed minced meat. These data suggest that the palatability of chicken meat can be improved by dietary AA supplementation. PMID:21753220
Kiyohara, R; Yamaguchi, S; Rikimaru, K; Takahashi, H
Learners read or listen to the book "Chickens Arenât the Only Ones" to discover multiple animals whose babies hatch from eggs. In a developmentally appropriate activity, learners build clay models of hatchlings and explore characteristics of different animals. Includes extensions for suggested further study.
To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats.
Ling, Y. H.; Zhang, X. D.; Yao, N.; Ding, J. P.; Chen, H. Q.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ren, C. H.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhang, X. R.
Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a rate-limiting enzyme of heme catabolism, has a crucial role of cytoprotective functions under hypoxia. The objective of the present study was to investigate potential differences in protective effect of HO-1 gene on chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo lung during late incubation. At embryonic day (D) D16, D18, D19, and D20 of incubation, the expression of HO-1 in the lungs of chicken embryos (Tibet and Shouguang chickens) incubated in normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (13% O2) conditions was measured. SNPs were screened within 5'-flanking region and coding regions with PCR-sequencing and the genotype of the SNPs was determined with PCR-RFLP in Tibet, Chahua and Shouguang chicken populations. In conclusion, the Tibet chicken had higher HO-1 expression on D19 under hypoxic incubation and had two SNPs with different frequency distributions from other chickenbreeds, which might be a way that the Tibet chicken had hereditary adaptation to hypoxia during embryonic development. PMID:24947210
The immunopathogenesis of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection in the chicken is reviewed. While infectious bronchitis (IB) is considered primarily a disease of the respiratory system, different IBV strains may show variable tissue tropisms and also affect the oviduct and the kidneys, with serious consequences. Some strains replicate in the intestine but apparently without pathological changes. Pectoral myopathy has been associated with an important recent variant. Several factors can influence the course of infection with IBV, including the age, breed and nutrition of the chicken, the environment and intercurrent infection with other infectious agents. Immunogenic components of the virus include the S (spike) proteins and the N nucleoprotein. The humoral, local and cellular responses of the chicken to IBV are reviewed, together with genetic resistance of the chicken. In long-term persistence of IBV, the caecal tonsil or kidney have been proposed as the sites of persistence. Antigenic variation among IBV strains is related to relatively small differences in amino acid sequences in the S1 spike protein. However, antigenic studies alone do not adequately define immunological relationships between strains and cross-immunisation studies have been used to classify IBV isolates into 'protectotypes'. It has been speculated that changes in the S1 protein may be related to differences in tissue tropisms shown by different strains. Perhaps in the future, new strains of IBV may arise which affect organs or systems not normally associated with IB. PMID:18483939
A winning essay on Indigenous health by medical student, Todd Cruikshank, of The University of Notre Dame Australia, has won him the opportunity to attend the General Practice Education and Training (GPET) Convention in Alice Springs, on 8-9 September 2010.\\u000aThe General Practice Students Network (GPSN) competition, supported by GPET, Northern Territory General Practice Education (NTGPE) and Victorian Aboriginal Community
This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a traditional breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.
The European, or bunch grape, Vitis vinifera, is widely grown because of its high fruit quality and its capacity to grow in a wide range of climatic conditions. However, they are susceptible to fungal diseases and insect pests, especially when grown in cool, wet climates. The aim of a number of grapevine breeding programs throughout the world is to develop
Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…
Indigenous traditional healing is an ancient, deeply rooted, complex holistic health care system practiced by indigenous people worldwide. However, scant information exists to explain the phenomenon of indigenous medicine and indigenous health. Even less is known about how indigenous healing takes place. The purpose of this study is to describe the meaning and essence of the lived experience of 4
Stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) is the key enzyme involved in the endogenous synthesis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in ruminants. Changes in the enzymatic activity as a result of SCD gene polymorphism and regulation have been hypothesized to cause diet-independent variations of CLA content in milk. Evidences for the direct influence of SCD polymorphism on fatty acid composition of milk and beef have also been reported. To evaluate genetic differences because of breed and/or selection goal, we investigated the polymorphism of three previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms located in exon 5 of the SCD gene in 11 cattle breeds raised in Italy and selected for different production goals. Results obtained: (i) evidenced a high variability in the allele frequencies across breeds; (ii) detected three novel haplotypes, one of which is private to indigenous beef breeds, and (iii) showed a significant association between haplotypes and selective goal. PMID:18254828
This paper derives from collaborative research undertaken by staff at the Woolyungah Indigenous Centre, into our own teaching practice. It articulates a particular strand of inquiry emanating from the research: the importance of Indigenous knowledges as this is taught at Woolyungah in the discipline of Indigenous Studies. The paper is a reflection…
A person coming to know for him or herself while respecting differences characterizes the author's experience of Indigenous education. Based on his experience with Indigenous education, he has found that what constitutes validity is very different than mainstream education. In this article, the author presents characteristics of Indigenous…
Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems. PMID:22639035
Background In livestock species like the chicken, high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays are increasingly being used for whole genome association studies and as a tool in breeding (referred to as genomic selection). To be of value in a wide variety of breeds and populations, the success rate of the SNP genotyping assay, the distribution of the SNP across the genome and the minor allele frequencies (MAF) of the SNPs used are extremely important. Results We describe the design of a moderate density (60k) Illumina SNP BeadChip in chicken consisting of SNPs known to be segregating at high to medium minor allele frequencies (MAF) in the two major types of commercial chicken (broilers and layers). This was achieved by the identification of 352,303 SNPs with moderate to high MAF in 2 broilers and 2 layer lines using Illumina sequencing on reduced representation libraries. To further increase the utility of the chip, we also identified SNPs on sequences currently not covered by the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-2.1). This was achieved by 454 sequencing of the chicken genome at a depth of 12x and the identification of SNPs on 454-derived contigs not covered by the current chicken genome assembly. In total we added 790 SNPs that mapped to 454-derived contigs as well as 421 SNPs with a position on Chr_random of the current assembly. The SNP chip contains 57,636 SNPs of which 54,293 could be genotyped and were shown to be segregating in chicken populations. Our SNP identification procedure appeared to be highly reliable and the overall validation rate of the SNPs on the chip was 94%. We were able to map 328 SNPs derived from the 454 sequence contigs on the chicken genome. The majority of these SNPs map to chromosomes that are already represented in genome build Gallus_gallus-2.1.0. Twenty-eight SNPs were used to construct two new linkage groups most likely representing two micro-chromosomes not covered by the current genome assembly. Conclusions The high success rate of the SNPs on the Illumina chicken 60K Beadchip emphasizes the power of Next generation sequence (NGS) technology for the SNP identification and selection step. The identification of SNPs from sequence contigs derived from NGS sequencing resulted in improved coverage of the chicken genome and the construction of two new linkage groups most likely representing two chicken micro-chromosomes.
Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypanotolerant indigenous Orma/zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma/zebu and Sahiwal/zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis) and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3%, anaplasmosis 58%, babesiosis 11%, East Coast Fever 22% and helminthosis 28%, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma/zebu and Sahiwal/zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal/zebu but also the Orma/zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:20169748
Maichomo, M W; Kosura, W O; Gathuma, J M; Gitau, G K; Ndung'u, J M; Nyamwaro, S O
Domestic broiler chickens rapidly accumulate fat and are naturally hyperglycemic and insulin resistant, making them an attractive model for studies of human obesity. We previously demonstrated that short-term (5 h) fasting rapidly upregulates pathways of fatty acid oxidation in broiler chickens and proposed that activation of these pathways may promote leanness. The objective of the current study was to characterize adipose tissue from relatively lean and fatty lines of chickens and determine if heritable leanness in chickens is associated with activation of some of the same pathways induced by fasting. We compared adipose gene expression and metabolite profiles in white adipose tissue of lean Leghorn and Fayoumi breeds to those of fattier commercial broiler chickens. Both lipolysis and expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation were upregulated in lean chickens compared with broilers. Although there were strong similarities between the lean lines compared with broilers, distinct expression signatures were also found between Fayoumi and Leghorn, including differences in adipogenic genes. Similarities between genetically lean and fasted chickens suggest that fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue is adaptively coupled to lipolysis and plays a role in heritable differences in fatness. Unique signatures of leanness in Fayoumi and Leghorn lines highlight distinct pathways that may provide insight into the basis for leanness in humans. Collectively, our results provide a number of future directions through which to fully exploit chickens as unique models for the study of human obesity and adipose metabolism. PMID:24550212
Ji, Bo; Middleton, Jesse L; Ernest, Ben; Saxton, Arnold M; Lamont, Susan J; Campagna, Shawn R; Voy, Brynn H
The growing demand for food with limited arable land available necessitates that the yield of major food crops continues to increase over time. Advances in marker technology, predictive statistics, and breeding methodology have allowed for continued increases in crop performance through genetic improvement. However, one major bottleneck is the generation time of plants, which is biologically limited and has not been improved since the introduction of doubled haploid technology. In this opinion article, we propose to implement in vitro nurseries, which could substantially shorten generation time through rapid cycles of meiosis and mitosis. This could prove a useful tool for speeding up future breeding programs with the aim of sustainable food production. PMID:24080381
De La Fuente, Gerald N; Frei, Ursula K; Lübberstedt, Thomas
Western cultural approaches to teaching science have excluded Indigenous knowledges and culturally favored many non-Aboriginal science students. By asking the question "What connections exist between Western science and Indigenous knowledge?" elements of epistemological (how do we determine what is real?) and ontological (what is real?)…
Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known
The collection of essays on the relationship between English literacy and indigenous education, particularly in the Australian context, includes: "Double Power" (Mandawuy Yunupingu); "History, Cultural Diversity & English Language Teaching" (Martin Nakata); "Scaffolding Reading and Writing for Indigenous Children in School" (David Rose, Brian…
This action research report focuses on a new elective course entitled "Indigenizing Education: Education for/about Aboriginal Peoples" that was developed and taught by two teacher educators--one Euro-Canadian and the other Metis. The purpose of the course was to increase understanding of Indigenous peoples and of the impact of…
Indigenous peoples throughout the world are experiencing the full presence of injustice in the form of duplicitous development schemes, poverty, landlessness, dispossession, political and religious oppression, and genocide. They resist the injustices, yet resistance is only part of the struggle. Protests, social movements, and organizations such as the Indigenous Environmental Network engage in similar struggles against injustice and for nature.
Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…
This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors' hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices. PMID:24142201
Some Indigenous students are at risk of academic failure and science teachers have a role in salvaging these equally able students. This article firstly elucidates the research entailed in Indigenous science education in Australia and beyond. Secondly, it reviews the cultural and language barriers when learning science, faced by middle and senior…
Most counselors have had very little experience with indigenous methods of healing. Indigenous healing can be defined as helping beliefs and practices that originate over extended time within a culture that are not transported from other regions, and that are designed for treating the inhabitants of a given group. Most counselors would find great…
This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.
European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia. PMID:18663216
Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan
In order to evaluate the genetic diversity and discrimination among five Korean native chicken lines, a total of 86 individuals were genotyped using 150 microsatellite (MS) markers, and 15 highly polymorphic MS markers were selected. Based on the highest value of the number of alleles, the expected heterozygosity (He) and polymorphic information content (PIC) for the selected markers ranged from 6 to 12, 0.466 to 0.852, 0.709 to 0.882 and 0.648 to 0.865, respectively. Using these markers, the calculated genetic distance (Fst), the heterozygote deficit among chicken lines (Fit) and the heterozygote deficit within chicken line (Fis) values ranged from 0.0309 to 0.2473, 0.0013 to 0.4513 and ?0.1002 to 0.271, respectively. The expected probability of identity values in random individuals (PI), random half-sib (PIhalf-sibs) and random sibs (PIsibs) were estimated at 7.98×10?29, 2.88×10?20 and 1.25×10?08, respectively, indicating that these markers can be used for traceability systems in Korean native chickens. The unrooted phylogenetic neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed using 15 MS markers that clearly differentiated among the five native chicken lines. Also, the structure was estimated by the individual clustering with the K value of 5. The selected 15 MS markers were found to be useful for the conservation, breeding plan, and traceability system in Korean native chickens.
Seo, D. W.; Hoque, M. R.; Choi, N. R.; Sultana, H.; Park, H. B.; Heo, K. N.; Kang, B. S.; Lim, H. T.; Lee, S. H.; Jo, C.; Lee, J. H.
Biliverdin is an important pigment in the eggshell of chickens and other avian species. Determination of the biosynthesis site for biliverdin is essential for understanding the biochemical process and genetic basis of eggshell pigmentation. Either blood or the shell gland could be the biosynthesis site of eggshell biliverdin. A segregation population with full-sib sisters genotyped Oo and oo, which laid blue-shelled eggs and light brown eggs, respectively, was constructed in a native Chinese chickenbreed. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and HPLC were used to determine the biliverdin concentration in eggshells, blood, bile, excreta, and shell gland of both groups of chickens. Biliverdin content was significantly different between egg shells of blue-shelled and brown-shelled chickens (P < 0.01). Blood and bile were tested 3 to 4 h before oviposition, and excreta was tested randomly. Results showed no significant difference in biliverdin concentration in blood, bile, and excreta between the 2 groups. In the shell gland, the biliverdin contents for the blue-shelled and brown-shelled chickens were 8.25 +/- 2.55 and 1.29 +/- 0.12 nmol/g, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrated that blood is not the biosynthesis site of the shell biliverdin. Biliverdin is most likely synthesized in the shell gland and then deposited onto the eggshell of chickens. PMID:16553287
European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of ?1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and China and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.
Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Mobegi, Victor A.; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A.; Matus, Jose T.; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J.; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J.; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan
Objectives To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Main outcome measures Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. Results PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Conclusions Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity.
Harrold, Timothy C.; Randall, Deborah A.; Falster, Michael O.; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R.
During the 20th century, there has been a concerted effort by a number of transnational organizations and advocacy groups to effectively lobby for the rights and protection of indigenous groups in all parts of the world. In 2000, the United Nations Economic and Social Council established the Permanent Form on Indigenous Issues to effectively address the needs of the 370 million indigenous peoples around the world. On the site, visitors can read official documents and proceedings created by the Forum's work, peruse a photo gallery of indigenous peoples, and read the text of various speeches on indigenous issues. Finally, visitors will also want to peruse the list of upcoming events sponsored by the Forum and also review its latest press releases.
Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome.
Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik
The aim of the present study was to characterize genetic diversity within and differentiation between 5 closely related lines of Japanese-native chickens, the Nagoya breed, based on microsatellite polymorphisms. For 5 Nagoya lines, the mean number of alleles per locus, the observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, and the inbreeding coefficient within a line ranged from 2.35 to 2.85, from 0.385 to 0.507 (average = 0.438), from 0.404 to 0.480 (average = 0.433), and from -0.056 to 0.074, respectively. These results indicated that Nagoya lines have moderate levels of genetic diversity and no severe inbreeding signatures. Genetic differentiations between pairs of lines (pairwise F(ST)) ranged from 0.0224 to 0.2500. The lowest differentiation was found between 2 lines that were divided into distinct lines about 10 years ago. Genetic clustering analyses, the neighbor-joining tree constructed from genetic distances of the proportion of shared alleles and the Bayesian model-based clustering, were carried out based on multilocus genotypes of individuals. The results suggested that Nagoya lines were genetically distinct from commercial gene pools (broilers and white- and brown-egg layers) and that the Nagoya breed is a unique genetic resource. The results from the present study have the potential to contribute to future breeding and management of lines of the Nagoya breed. PMID:22252344
A questionnaire and a census were carried out in 1998/99 on 201 cattle herds in 44 villages located in three different areas of The Gambia, in order to obtain information about the ownership pattern, management and breeding practices for optimizing and extending a pure breeding scheme for indigenous N'Dama cattle. The herds had an average of 58.5 head, of which 39.3% were cows, and most of them were multiowner herds, having on average 5.5 owners. Overall, women represented 38.3% of the owners, but they owned only 15.9% of the cattle. Some of the senior herdsmen received no payment, as they were family members, but most of them received payment in kind, i.e. milk off-take from the herd. Payment in cash only or cash as well as milk was rare. In larger herds it was quite common for additional herdsmen to be hired throughout the year, their payment shifting towards cash only or cash and milk. Many small herds had no older bulls or breeding bull and almost all breeding bulls were born within the herd. In most cases, it was the herd owner who was responsible for the selection of the breeding bull. Traits related to the growth and milk production of the dam were considered as most important for a good breeding bull. The results are discussed with respect to the extension of a pure breeding scheme for N'Dama cattle. PMID:12735708
Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.
PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)
Chicken meat emulsions prepared using food processor (FP), an indigenous meat cutter (MC) and bowl chopper (BC) were evaluated for physicochemical, texture and electron microscopic studies (SEM). Product yield, emulsion stability, hydration properties and gel strength (N) were significantly (P?0.05) higher in BC. Total fluid release (TFR), water release (WR) and fat release (FR) was lowest in BC. Significantly (P?0.05) higher lightness (L) in BC and redness (a) in FP emulsion were observed. Higher firmness, gumminess, chewiness and cohesiveness were observed in BC emulsion. SEM studies revealed a dense and compact protein matrix characteristic of heat induced protein gels. All micrographs showed structures that are compatible with fat globules, muscle fiber, meat protein matrix and heat induced gel/protein matrix. Sensory evaluation showed no significant difference between three treatments for colour, flavour, texture and acceptability scores. Thus, food processor and indigenously developed meat cutter found suitable for producing a stable chicken meat emulsion required for indigenous meat products. PMID:24587526
Devatkal, Suresh K; Manjunatha, M; Narsaiah, K; Patil, R T
When Road-Island breedchickens were given fodder which included toxin in concentration of 16 mg/kg or T-2 toxin in concentration of 10 Mg/kg, that resulted in the decrease of the live weight, increase in the relative weight of the liver, kidneys, pancreas and heart, as well as the decrease of concentration of Bacillus genus bacteria in the caecum and rectum content compared with the control group chickens. No distinctions were observed in activity of alanine aminotransferase and concentration of total protein in the blood plasm. The drinking of probiotic preparation BPS-44 when feeding with forage contaminated by HT-2 or T-2 toxin resulted in the increase of the live weight, normalization of relative weights of viscera, increase in concentration of Bacillus genus bacteria in the intestine compared with chickens which received only mycotoxins. PMID:18416155
Growing the FutureWith the loss of plant breeding positions in the public sector, there has been a loss of the infrastructure that supports plant breeding training, including a reduction in professors with plant breeding expertise, a critical mass of students often too low to provide a stimulating learning environment, and the inability to offer courses with sufficient audience. Although studies support the positive impact of a strong community on learning, currently, students are often trained in isolation. The PBTN has been established to mitigate isolation barriers that currently limit plant breeding education at most institutions and in most plant breeding work places around the world. PBTN supports online course sharing (See list of courses). The PBTN online graduate student community is a place for students around the world to make contact with other plant breeding students, providing an opportunity to exchange ideas, develop interpersonal skills (such as communication and collaboration) and build a plant breeding student community.If you have questions about the community, graduate work in plant breeding, or career oportunities, please contact us. Jamie ShermanDirector-TCAP graduate community and PBTNjsherman@montana.edu Mary BrakkeDirector-TCAP undergraduate firstname.lastname@example.org Deana Namuth-CovertDirector-Plant Breeding Training Network (PBTN)email@example.com This community is funded by the Triticeae CAP project.
The recent development of a national science curriculum in M?ori opened up space to contest whose knowledge and whose ways of knowing are included. This paper outlines the background to the curriculum development work in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous M?ori people and science education. Concern is expressed about the fitting of one cultural framework into another and questions are raised about the approach used in the development of the science curriculum. Further research in the area of language, culture and science education is discussed along with how M?ori might move forward in the endeavour of developing a curriculum that reflects M?ori culture and language.
The wisdom of indigenous peoples is manifest in ways of knowing, seeing, and thinking that are passed down orally from generation to generation. This article takes the reader on a journey through three distinct ways of knowing, specifically as they relate to healing and health. The authors are a Midewanniquay, or Water Woman, of the Ojibway-Anishinabe people of the upper Midwest in the United States and Canada; a Iomilomi healer from Hawaii; and an initiated Priest in the Yoruba tradition of West Africa. The philosophies of all three cultures emphasize the importance of spirituality to health and wellbeing (or healing process), but each has unique ways in which it nurtures relationship with the Creator, the earth, and humankind through sacred rituals and healing practices. PMID:24730191
Day, Dorene; Silva, Dane Kaohelani; Monroe, Amshatar Ololodi
The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by a novel scheme called charge breeding. The transformation from 1 + to n + charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices to produce highly charged ions, charge-to-mass ratios between 1/9 and 1/4 are easily obtained. In this article the performance and the features of the two charge breeding concepts will be compared and discussed. An outlook on charge breeders for the next generation of radioactive ion beam facilities is also given.
Molecular markers are a useful tool for evaluating genetic diversity of chicken genetic resources. Seven chicken lines derived from the Plymouth Rock breed were genotyped using 40 microsatellite markers to quantify genetic differentiation and assess conservation priorities for the lines. Genetic differentiation between pairs of the lines (pairwise FST) ranged from 0.201 to 0.422. A neighbor-joining tree of individuals, based on the proportion of shared alleles, formed clearly defined clusters corresponding to the origins of the lines. In Bayesian model-based clustering, most individuals were clearly assigned to single clusters according to line origin and showed no admixture. These results indicated that a substantial degree of genetic differentiation exists among the lines. To decide priorities for conservation, the contribution of each line to the genetic diversity was estimated. The result indicated that a loss of 4 of the 7 lines would lead to a loss from 1.14 to 3.44% of total genetic diversity. The most preferred line for conservation purposes was identified based on multilocus microsatellite analysis. Our results confirmed that characterization by means of molecular markers is helpful for establishing a plan for conservation of chicken genetic resources. PMID:24135588
Tadano, R; Nagasaka, N; Goto, N; Rikimaru, K; Tsudzuki, M
Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…
Australian universities recognise cultural competency as an essential attribute for graduates. Within this context, The Australian Psychology Accreditation Committee (APAC) has enforced requirements for students within psychology programmes to have access to Indigenous content. Though Indigenous participation rates are low, the inclusion of Indigenous content or what is often labeled ‘Indigenous psychology’ acts at least as a symbolic gesture and
Noting the need to support Western teachers in Australia in their quest to work with indigenous children in more culturally appropriate ways to close the literacy gap between indigenous and non-indigenous children, the Building Bridges project aimed to identify and record the key features of growing up as an indigenous child in Australia today.…
Among the many mammalian species that are threatened as the result of habitat destruction are numerous species of rare or little-known native livestock that possess features that render them ideally adapted to their environment. Because of the vital and valuable role many of these species play both to the ecology and economy of their native countries, attention is being directed towards initiating breeding programs that might insure their continued survival. This review introduces and highlights the importance of some of these indigenous species and outlines efforts currently underway to apply assisted reproductive technologies to their conservation. PMID:10735070
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) gene plays a key role in antiviral regulation in mammals potentially by activating IRF3/7 and NF-?B and leading to the induction of type I interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral and inflammatory responses. In this study, we screened genetic polymorphisms of the MAVS gene in various Chinese domestic chickenbreeds/populations and evaluated its potential effect on gene expression. Among the sequenced fragment (4678bp), a total of 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in 46 chickens from 10 breeds/populations, including 30 coding SNPs and 45 non-coding SNPs. Extremely high haplotype diversity (37 nucleotide haplotypes, 18 amino acid haplotypes) was observed in the coding region (CDS), and a similar pattern of high polymorphisms was also observed for the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). Luciferase assays of two representative 3'-UTR haplotypes were performed in both HEK293 cells and DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells, and we found that they were differentially associated with different abilities on regulating mRNA expression level (P<0.05). Collectively, we observed a considerably high genetic variability of the MAVS gene, and the 3'-UTR variants had an ability to regulate mRNA expression. These results would cast some clues on understanding the potential role of MAVS on viral resistance in chicken. PMID:24835312
Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05). Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05) compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken. PMID:25049734
Yin, H D; Gilbert, E R; Chen, S Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Zhao, X L; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Q
Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05). Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05) compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken.
Yin, H. D.; Gilbert, E. R.; Chen, S. Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Z. C.; Zhao, X. L.; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Q.
This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science\\u000a and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade\\u000a (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students’ non-Indigenous teacher played a\\u000a central role in developing a science module ‘Measuring
The protein efficiency ratio (PER) values for a commercial laboratory diet, thermally processed chicken, enzyme inactivated frozen chicken, enzyme inactivated gamma sterilized chicken, and enzyme inactivated electron sterilized chicken were evaluated usin...
D. C. Ronning E. L. Israelson R. S. Lepp W. T. Skaggs C. R. Schroeder
The analysis of variance revealed considerable variation among the cultivars and the wild species for yield and other quantitative characters in both the years of investigation. The highly significant differences among the cultivars in year wise and pooled analysis of variance for all the 12 characters reveal that there are enough genetic variabilities for all the characters studied. The existence of genetic variability is of paramount importance for starting a judicious plant breeding programme. Since introduced high yielding rice cultivars usually do not perform well. Improvement of indigenous cultivars is a clear choice for increase of rice production. The genetic variability of 37 rice germplasms in 12 agronomic characters estimated in the present study can be used in breeding programme
Data were analyzed on the Kenana, a Bos indicus breed of cattle indigenous to northern Sudan. Cattle were kept at Um Banein in a hot dry tropical environment 13 degrees .04' latitude north at an altitude of 435 m. Analyzed were lactation yield (1597 kg), lactation length (264), calving interval (530), and annual lactation yield (1225 kg). Between 1966 and 1980 all these traits except lactation length were significantly affected by lactation number and year. None was significantly influenced by the season in which lactation started. Kenana have considerable potential in the Sudan environment as a dairy breed, but further selection and an open nucleus system of breeding to introduce additional genetic material is required to express this potential. PMID:3448116
Hip dysplasia is considered to be one of the most serious problems in dog breeding. In the past 20 years the studies of, and the attempts to control, this condition have been directed mainly to the overall picture of the abnormality of the hips. The various efforts have resulted in a decrease in the incidence of HD in several breeds
This is the third in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.
... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... Inspected for wholesomeness by the U.S. Department of Agriculture" seal ensures that the chicken is free from ...
The objective of the study was to know how the Pankararu indigenous perceive their health situation and identify actions they prioritize as necessary to promote health in their community. Qualitative research, in which the declarations collected were subjected to the technique of analyzing the Collective Subject Discourse. It was identified that in the indigenous perception, as the health status of their community, there is a lack of general assistance, and a lack of professionals to assist them meeting their needs. In relation to actions that the Indigenous prioritize as necessary to promote the health of their community, it was highlighted provision of health unit with trained professionals and access to health education actions. It was, thus, proposed an overhaul of the organizations and establishments of the subsystems in promoting indigenous health. PMID:23032334
Oliveira, Jonas Welton Barros; Aquino, Jael Maria; Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles
There is limited information on the specific practices used to successfully recruit and retain indigenous and Latino farmworkers in research studies. This article describes the strategies used in a community-based participatory research project with indigenous agricultural workers. Participants were recruited through consulting with indigenous relatives and friends, identifying and meeting with indigenous leaders from hometown associations in countries of origin, and asking current participants to recruit fellow farmworkers. Adjustments were initiated to the second year protocol to enhance recruitment and retention. The difference in attrition rates between years one and two was statistically significant, a difference partially attributed to modifications to recruitment and retention protocol. Findings confirmed that active recruitment techniques and word-of-mouth recruitment were more effective than passive methods. Trust among academic, organization, and community partners, and shared language and culture between those doing the recruitment and the participants, contributed to sustained farmworker participation. PMID:23733354
Farquhar, Stephanie; de Jesus Gonzalez, Carmen; Hall, Jennifer; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Shadbeh, Nargess
A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.
\\u000a Indigenous soil knowledge, a foundation of traditional farming systems, plays an important role in developing agricultural\\u000a and environmental sustainability, especially in developing countries where most farmers have limited access to soil analysis\\u000a and extension services. Recently, indigenous soil knowledge has been recognized as a vital source for most scientists to be\\u000a used to change and improve natural resource management without
This article reviews the Chinese historical context of personality testing. Issues of interpretation and methodology related to initial adaptations of English-language personality tests are discussed. The deficiencies of the imposed-etic approach are addressed by the recent development of indigenous personality measures. Three large-scale indigenous personality inventories developed for the Chinese people are introduced and evaluated: Ko's Mental Health Questionnaire, Multi-Trait
The issue of family violence and sexual abuse in Indigenous communities across Australia has attracted much attention throughout 2007, including significant intervention by the federal government into communities deemed to be in crisis. This paper critically examines the reporting and recording of Indigenous violence in Australia and reflects on what 'statistics' can offer as we grapple with how to respond appropriately to a problem defined as a 'national emergency'. PMID:19130914
Tick resistance in three breeds of cattle, two indigenousbreeds (Arssi and Boran) and one Boran x Friesian cross-bread, were compared following natural tick infestations at Abernossa ranch in Ethiopia. The local Arssi breed was found to have the highest tick resistance, followed by the Boran breed, whereas the Boran x Friesian was the least resistant. Over a period of 12 months, from October 1991 to September 1992, a total of 32,897 ticks composed of four genera were collected from the animals. The four most abundant tick species were Amblyomma variegatum (61.7%), Boophilus decoloratus (16%); Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (16.3%) and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (3.7%). Furthermore, 63.5% of all ticks were collected from cross-breed cattle, and 26.2% from the Boran, whereas the local Arssi breed carried only 10.3%. The results indicated that cattle resistant to one species of tick were also resistant to other tick species. PMID:8665816
The Digital Library of Indigenous Science Resources (DLISR) is a library collection of online text, video, audio, and image files of Indigenous science. According to the DLISR, Native or Indigenous Science "involves Native persons learning about and understanding the natural world (or non-Native persons learning about and understanding the natural world in the same ways Native people do)." The library includes knowledge about the natural world as well as methods of teaching and learning about the natural world. All the resources found in the DLISR are authored or produced by Indigenous persons or organizations, or are "approved for inclusion in the library collection by an elder or other Indigenous person with the expertise to assess the resource." Visitors will note that the National Science Foundation (NSF) is one of the supporters of this digital library, and they can find more information on Indigenous or Native Science by checking out the "Introduction" tab at the top of the page. The overarching categories available in the library are "Climate Change", "Education", "Law", "Sovereignty", "Traditional Knowledge" and "Traditional Foods". There are approximately two dozen subtopics for visitors to choose under the categories. For example, under the "Traditional Foods" category visitors will find five resources, including one entitled "Alaska Traditional Knowledge and Native Foods Database", which contains measurements of contaminants found in the animals harvested by Alaska Natives.
1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ADSL gene, GARS-AIRS-GART gene and their combination genotype on inosine monophosphate content (IMP) in chicken. 2. The chickenbreeds used for this study were Recessive White chicken (RW, Jiang-13 strain of white Plymouth Rock) and preserved population of 4 Chinese native chickenbreeds, including Silkies, Baier, Tibetan and Xiaoshan. 3. The primers for exon 2 in ADSL gene and 5'UTR region in GARS-AIRS-GART gene were designed and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. 4. Two SNPs were detected, C/T substitution at position 3484 in exon 2 of ADSL gene, which was a silent mutation, and C/T point mutation at position -179 in 5'UTR region of GARS-AIRS-GART gene. In ADSL gene, individuals with TT genotype had significantly higher IMP content than CT and CC genotype individuals. No significant difference was observed between CT and CC genotypes. Similar results were obtained for GARS-AIRS-GART gene. The combination of genotypes ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART genes also had a significant effect on IMP content. Individuals with TTTT genotype had the highest muscle IMP content, while individuals with CCCT genotype had the lowest. 4. We putatively drew the conclusion that the SNPs in these two genes, as well as the combination genotypes, could be used as potential molecular markers for meat quality in chicken. PMID:19946821
Shu, J T; Bao, W B; Zhang, X Y; Ji, C J; Han, W; Chen, K W
Cattle breedsindigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P < 0.05). Measurements related to the calcium-dependent protease system and myofibrillar fragmentation explained the bulk of the variation among breeds, whereas variation in fibre type, sarcomere length and connective tissue properties gave less convincing support. With the exception of the Tuli, Sanga and Sanga-related breeds produced more tender (according to SF) meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05). PMID:22445415
The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…
An Australian national survey of 10,019 primary and secondary teachers suggested that preparation in Indigenous Australian studies held the lowest ranking of national priority items. In addition, a national qualitative study identified inadequacies in teacher preparation for teaching Indigenous Australian studies, especially in secondary schools.…
Single-locus disorders in domesticated animals were among the first Mendelian traits to be documented after the rediscovery of Mendelism, and to be included in early linkage maps. The use of linkage maps and (increasingly) comparative genomics has been central to the identification of the causative gene for single-locus disorders of considerable practical importance. The ‘score-card’ in domestic animals is now more than 100 disorders for which the molecular lesion has been identified and hence for which a DNA test is available. Because of the limited lifespan of any such test, a cost-effective and hence popular means of protecting the intellectual property inherent in a DNA test is not to publish the discovery. While understandable, this practice creates a disconcerting precedent. For multifactorial disorders that are scored on an all-or-none basis or into many classes, the effectiveness of control schemes could be greatly enhanced by selection on estimated breeding values for liability. Genetic variation for resistance to pathogens and parasites is ubiquitous. Selection for resistance can therefore be successful. Because of the technical and welfare challenges inherent in the requirement to expose animals to pathogens or parasites in order to be able to select for resistance, there is a very active search for DNA markers for resistance. The first practical fruits of this research were seen in 2002, with the launch of a national scrapie control programme in the UK.
No team of engineers, no matter how much time they took or how many bottles of cabernet they consumed, would dream up an antenna that looked like a deer antler on steroids. Yet that's what a group at NASA Ames Research Center came up with-thanks to a little help from Darwin. NASA's Space Technology 5 nanosatellites, which are scheduled to start measuring Earth's magnetosphere in late 2004, requires an antenna that can receive a wide range of frequencies regardless of the spacecraft's orientation. Rather than leave such exacting requirements in the hands of a human, the engineers decided to breed a design using genetic algorithms and 32 Linux PCs. The computers generated small antenna-constructing programs (the genotypes) and executed them to produce designs (the phenotypes). Then the designs were evaluated using an antenna simulator. The team settled on the form pictured here. You won't find this kind of antenna in any textbook, design guide, or research paper. But its innovative structure meets a challenging set of specifications. If successfully deployed, it will be the first evolved antenna to make it out of the lab and the first piece of evolved hardware ever to fly in space.
Since mutations on POU1F1 gene possibly resulted in deficiency of GH, PRL, TSH and POU1F1, this study revealed the polymorphism of goat POU1F1-AluI locus and analyzed the distribution of alleles on 13 indigenous Chinese goat breeds. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed the predominance of TT genotype and the frequencies of allele T varied from 0.757 to 0.976 in the analyzed populations (SBWC, Bo, XH and HM). Further study, distributions of genotypic and allelic frequencies at this locus were found to be significantly different among populations based on a chi(2)-test (P < 0.001), suggesting that the breed factor significantly affected the molecular genetic character of POU1F1 gene. The genetic diversity analysis revealed that Chinese indigenous populations had a wide spectrum of genetic diversity in goat POU1F1-AluI locus. However, the ANOVA analysis revealed no significant differences for gene homozygosty, gene heterozygosty, effective allele numbers and PIC (polymorphism information content) among meat, dairy and cashmere utility types (P > 0.05), suggesting that goat utility types had no significant effect on the spectrum of genetic diversity. PMID:18357513
Lan, X Y; Li, M J; Chen, H; Zhang, L Z; Jing, Y J; Wei, T B; Ren, G; Wang, X; Fang, X T; Zhang, C L; Lei, C Z
The present study was undertaken to explore the genetic basis of caprine prolificacy and to screen indigenous goats for prolificacy associated markers of sheep in BMPR1B, GDF9 and BMP15 genes. To detect the associated mutations and identify novel allelic variants in the candidate genes, representative samples were collected from the breeding tract of indigenous goat breeds varying in prolificacy and geographic distribution. DNA was extracted and PCR amplification was done using primers designed or available in literature for the coding DNA sequence of candidate genes. Direct sequencing was done to identify the genetic variations. Mutations in the candidate genes associated with fecundity in sheep were not detected in Indian goats. Three non-synonymous SNPs (C818T, A959C and G1189A) were identified in exon 2 of GDF9 gene out of which mutation A959C has been associated with prolificacy in exotic goats. Two novel SNPs (G735A and C808G) were observed in exon 2 of BMP15 gene. PMID:23299026
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and associations with potential risk factors of brucellosis in indigenous cattle breeds of Western Tigray zone, North West Ethiopia. A total of 1968 cattle were examined between October 2007 and April 2008. Of these, 1120 cattle were from semi-intensive production system composed mainly of barka breed while 848 cattle were from extensive system with arado breed being predominant. Sera were screened using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and positive samples were then confirmed by Complement Fixation Test (CFT). The overall individual animal-level prevalence was 4.9%. Brucellosis seroprevalence was higher in herds reared under semi-intensive production systems. 7.7% and 63.6% prevalence were found at individual- and herd-level in the semi-intensive system, respectively. 1.2% and 3.3% were the figures for the extensive system. Both individual- and herd-level seroprevalence were higher in Mykadra and Bereket towns among all investigated towns. Though the odds ratio for Humera was more than two, seroprevalences across the three districts in the extensive production system were comparable. Herd size, age, sex, and husbandry practices were significantly associated with seropositivity and brucellosis increased the calving interval. Higher risk to infection was found in barka breed than arado in the semi-intensive production system but not in the extensive production system. Breed management systems, but not breed caused breed susceptibility variation. A high prevalence of brucellosis in barka breed in the study area indicates that it might serve as source of infection for others in the region. Hence, screening tests aiming at culling seropositive barka was recommended before distribution to other poverty-prone areas of the region. PMID:20034690
This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions. Refs, figs, tabs.
This issue of the Mutation Breeding Newsletter contains articles related to use of radiation induced mutation techniques to improve the productivity of various crops and fruits. Refs, figs, tabs. (Atomindex citation 28:012970)
I will discuss basic concepts of chaos, and describe techniques that have allowed taking advantage of chaos and improve forecasts and their information. One example is "breeding of instabilities" a very simple technique to estimate the fastest growing instabilities. Breeding allows predicting when a regime change will take place and how long will the new regime last in the famous Lorenz (1963) "unpredictable chaotic model", something that surprised Lorenz himself. These techniques can be applied to any dynamic chaotic system. Some examples include detection of ocean instabilities and their physical origin, breeding in coupled ocean-atmosphere systems, detecting instabilities in the atmosphere of Mars, and breeding on the phase-space reconstructed from single time series using the time-delay embedding method. Finally I'll discuss the implications of these results for data assimilation.
The health profile of Indigenous Australians is characterised by high rates of classic 'lifestyle' diseases. Potential roles of inflammation in pathophysiology of these diseases requires investigation. It is not clear if genetic regulation of inflammation in Indigenous Australians is similar to other populations. This study characterised frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for eight cytokine genes for 100 individuals from a remote Indigenous Australian community and assessed novel genetic variants in four cytokine genes. We used a commercially-available allelic discrimination assay for SNP genotyping; re-sequencing was undertaken by standard Sanger sequencing methodologies for 26 samples. Frequencies of cytokine gene SNPs differed significantly from the Caucasian population (P?0.001-0.044). Twenty-five novel variants were identified across four re-sequenced genes; frequencies ranged from <5% to 100%. Genotype frequencies observed in Indigenous Australians did not consistently resemble reported HapMap frequencies in Northern and Western European populations, Yoruba Nigerian or Han Chinese. Our findings indicate Indigenous Australians might have an inherited propensity for strong inflammatory responses. Preliminary evidence of novel genetic variants highlights the need to catalogue the extent of genetic variation in specific population groups. Improved understanding of differences in genetic variation between specific population groups could assist in assessment of risk for lifestyle diseases. PMID:23940076
Cox, Amanda J; Moscovis, Sophia M; Blackwell, C Caroline; Scott, Rodney J
Characteristics of a sustainable breeding program are broad breeding objectives, managing inbreeding rates and continuous genetic improvement of the traits included in the breeding goal to keep populations competitive. We have monitored some measures of sustainability of the six dairy breeds Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, Jersey, Red Dairy Cattle and Simmental currently involved in the Interbull evaluations. Globally, genetic evaluation
Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breedchickens more resistant to infection. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to Salmonella in young chickens of 2 wk old, a cDNA Microarray containing 13,319 probes was performed to compare gene expression profiles between two chicken groups under control and Salmonella infected conditions. Newly hatched chickens were orally infected with S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. Since the intestine is one of the important barriers the bacteria encounter after oral inoculation, intestine gene expression was investigated at 2 wk old. There were 588 differentially expressed genes detected, of which 276 were known genes, and of the total number 266 were up-regulated and 322 were down-regulated. Differences in gene expression between the two chicken groups were found in control as well as Salmonella infected conditions indicating a difference in the intestine development between the two chicken groups which might be linked to the difference in Salmonella susceptibility. The differential expressions of 4 genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and the results indicated that the expression changes of these genes were generally consistent with the results of GeneChips. The findings in this study have lead to the identification of novel genes and possible cellular pathways, which are host dependent.
Luan, D. Q.; Chang, G. B.; Sheng, Z. W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, W.; Li, Z. Z.; Liu, Y.; Chen, G. H.
Analysis of 6 cattle breeds (5 local Ukrainian breeds and the Holstain breed) on the 9 polymorphous molecular-genetic markers (transferrin, ceruloplasmin, amylase-1, posttransferrin, receptor to vitamin D, haemoglobin, leptin, kapa-casein) was carried out. The rare allele of transferrin was revealed in two local breeds and the rare allele of leptin--in two another local breeds. Associations between syntenic loci (transferrin, ceruloplasmin, kappa-casein, receptor to vitamin D) were observed only in the local breeds but not in the Holstain one. Locus-specific conservation of the ancestor allelic variants in the local breeds and effect of selection on interloci associations are discussed. PMID:11589051
Glazko, V I; Zvezhkhovski, L; Oblap, R V; Tarasiuk, S I
A collaborative effort between Australia's Cultural Network and the Australian Museum, this site showcases some fine examples of Indigenous Australian stories. Collected from all over Australia, the stories (currently 20) are offered in text, audio, and video formats, with brief introductions and a glossary of indigenous words. Short descriptions of the role of storytelling, custodianship, "Dreaming," and secret/ sacred stories are also provided. Users should note that RealPlayer G2 is required to view the video presentations, and that, at time of review, video playback quality was rather poor. The text and audio formats, however, were quite acceptable, making this site worthwhile for anyone interested in Indigenous Australian culture or storytelling in general.
We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives o...
B. Weeks C. Rosenzweig C. Sakakibara C. C. Alexander C. V. Shadrin J. Waterhouse L. Johnson M. Vicarelli N. Bynum N. Oettle P. Neofotis T. Mustonen U. King
Presents the 1996 revised Coolangatta Statement on Indigenous Rights in Education, a framework for discussing indigenous educational rights and self-determination, generated by an international task force. Lists task force members and fundamental principles for further discussion. (SV)
China is one of the principal origins of ponies in the world. We made a comprehensive analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese ponies based on 174 animals of five indigenous Chinese pony breeds from five provinces using 13 microsatellite markers. One hundred and forty-four alleles were detected; the mean number of effective alleles among the pony breeds ranged from 5.38 (Guizhou) to 6.78 (Sichuan); the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.82 (Guizhou) to 0.85 (Debao, Sichuan). Although abundant genetic variation was found, the genetic differentiation was low between the ponies, with 6% total genetic variance among the different breeds. All the pairwise F(ST) values were significant; they varied from 0.0424 for the Sichuan-Yunnan pair to 0.0833 for the Guizhou-Sichuan pair. All five pony breeds deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except the Yunnan pony. Phylogenetic trees of the five pony breeds based on genetic distances were constructed using a neighbor-joining method. The Sichuan and Yunnan ponies were grouped into the same branch, with a high bootstrap support value (97%). Guizhou and Ningqiang ponies were clustered into the same branch with a bootstrap value of 56%, whereas the Debao pony was placed in a separate group, with a bootstrap value of 56%. This grouping pattern was supported by genetic structure analysis. PMID:22782636
Xu, L X; Yang, S L; Lin, R Y; Yang, H B; Li, A P; Wan, Q S
A study was completed to characterize cardiac arrhythmias in broiler chickens. The data were collected from 505 (265 males and 240 females) commercial broilers. Electrocardiograph (ECG) readings were obtained from all birds between 7 and 9, 21 and 23, and 42 and 44 days of age. For comparison, ECG recordings were also collected from 180 broiler breeders at 3 and 8 weeks of age, and from 100 6-week-old Brown Leghorn and 100 6-week-old Barred Plymouth Rock chicks. The measurements included evaluation of heart rhythm, and incidence of ascites and of sudden death syndrome (SDS). Heart arrhythmias in broiler breeders or in the two other breeds examined were sporadic. Cardiac arrhythmias in broiler chickens were seen as early as 7 days of age. The incidence of arrhythmias increased with age. At 42-44 days of age 17% of the broiler population showed disrhythmia. The incidence was higher in male broilers (P < 0.012) in comparison to females. The most frequently observed disturbances of the rhythm were ventricular arrhythmias (VA), the most common being premature ventricular contractions (PVC). In most cases PVC occurred as one or two episodes, but in several birds, runs of three or more consecutive PVCs occurred. Unifocal PVCs were considerably more frequent than multifocal PVCs. Sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) was least frequent. Heart-related mortalities were observed only in broiler chickens. There were 23 SDS cases (4.55% of the population) and 13 birds developed ascites (2.25% of the population). Male broilers had a higher incidence of SDS (P < 0.027) and ascites (P = 0.064) compared to females. Males represented 74% of all SDS cases and 77% of all ascites cases. Whereas three birds that died of SDS and one bird that developed ascites had a history of VA, five birds that developed ascites had a history of conduction block. It has been concluded that, compared to other chickens, the hearts of broiler chickens are considerably more susceptible to arrhythmias. Cardiac arrhythmias are involved in the pathogenesis of SDS and are likely in some cases of ascites. PMID:9591472
1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis.2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic
1. Mature, male chickens, Bobwhite quail, and rats differed with respect to glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in the kidney, duodenum and testis, but species differences were not observed in the liver. 2. GST activity was present in the heart, spleen, liver, duodenum, kidney, testis, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, optic tecta, and medulla oblongata of chickens with differences in tissues and breeds. 3. Renal GST activity was higher in female chickens, whereas enzyme activity in the brain was higher in males. 4. Hepatic GST activity fluctuated about a mean of 784 nmol min-1 mg protein-1 with a 12 hr periodicity which was not a feeding phenomenon. 5. The results demonstrate that GST activity occurs in diverse tissues of the chicken and Bobwhite quail with kidney greater than liver greater than duodenum greater than testis, compared to testis greater than liver greater than duodenum greater than kidney in the rat. Hepatic GST activity exhibits an ultradian periodicity. PMID:1814676
Maurice, D V; Lightsey, S F; Hsu, K T; Rhoades, J F
The Nicobari pig, locally known as Ha-un, is an indigenous pig germplasm located only in the Nicobar group of islands, India. The present study documents the Nicobari pig-rearing practices of the tribal farmers and genetically characterizes them using 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years (2010-2012) in Car Nicobar, India. A total of 225 farmers were surveyed (15 farmers per village of 15 villages). Information on herd statistics, husbandry practices, and constraints faced by the farmers in pig production were collected. The pigs were reared in a free-range system. Mean pig herd size per house hold was 8.9, and main feed for pigs was coconut and some indigenous feed materials such as pandanus, bread fruit, and Nicobari alu. The main constraints faced by the farmers were lack of feed after the tsunami, different disease conditions, piglet mortality, and predator attack. The Nicobari pigs were genotyped by 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The mean observed number of alleles for all 23 loci in Nicobari pigs was 6.96 ± 0.31. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.66 ± 0.02 and 0.75 ± 0.01, respectively. It was found that the genetic diversity of this pig breed was very high compared to Large White Yorkshire and other European pig breeds. This genetic characterization of the pig breed will be helpful in their conservation effort. PMID:24595559
De, Arun Kumar; Jeyakumar, S; Kundu, Madhu Sudan; Kundu, Anandamoy; Sunder, Jai; Ramachandran, M
Reviews four books that explain modern schooling's irrelevance for many indigenous communities and that represent indigenous knowledge practices with respect: "What Is Indigenous Knowledge? Voices from the Academy"; "Escaping Education: Living as Learning within Grassroots Cultures"; "Intercultural Education and Literacy: An Ethnographic Study of…
Early federal government policies for American indigenous people alternated between extermination and assimilation. Imposing the colonists' and immigrants' language on indigenous people was important for achieving the latter. In the 1970-90's, federally funded grants for bilingual education for indigenous schools were offered to accommodate Native American pressures to reverse the tragic results of those former policies. The stated bilingual goals
This paper explores the interplay between identity reconstruction of indigenous college students and the effects of transformative learning on their self-development and collective action. Seventeen indigenous college students were interviewed for this study. The findings showed that most indigenous college students developed stigmatized identity…
The historical exploitation experienced by indigenous people in the United States has left a number of negative legacies, including distrust toward research. This distrust poses a barrier to progress made through culturally sensitive research. Given the complex history of research with indigenous groups, the purpose of this descriptive phenomenological study was to illuminate the lived experiences of both indigenous and
Catherine E. Burnette; Sara Sanders; Howard K. Butcher; Emily Matt Salois
Significant challenges exist for Indigenous people in identifying suitable economic and commercial development opportunities directed at enhancing economic and human development within their communities. Ecotourism is seen as one sector that could provide such opportunities. Don Fuller and his colleagues examine the importance and implications of Indigenous culture for ecotourism developments in remote Australian Indigenous communities, in order to evaluate
Don Fuller; Julia Caldicott; Grant Cairncross; Simon J Wilde
Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of…
Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood
The notion of Indigenous epistemologies and "ways of knowing" continues to be undervalued within various academic disciplines, particularly those who continue to draw upon "scientific" approaches that colonise Indigenous peoples today. This paper will examine the politics of contested knowledge from the perspective of three Indigenous researchers…
Tur, Simone Ulalka; Blanch, Faye Rosas; Wilson, Christopher
Vocational education and training outcomes for Indigenous Australians have remained below expectations for some time. Implementation of Indigenous Standpoint Theory (IST) presents the opportunity to further enhance Vocational Education and Training for Indigenous people in Australia. This paper briefly discusses this theory, the concept of…
Calls for the effective integration of indigenous knowledge and perspective into agroforestry are increasingly familiar in agroforestry programmes. This is the result of a need to better target research, ethical concerns about participation and power and the recognition that indigenous knowledge is a potentially powerful source of understanding that may often be complementary to scientific knowledge.Incorporating indigenous knowledge into development
The educational outcomes of Indigenous Australians have improved over recent decades. This is evident across a range of indicators on the enrolment, participation and achievement of Indigenous students in the early childhood education and school sectors. There has also been increased representation of Indigenous students in New Apprenticeships and…
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006
This volume compiles 11 papers indicative of the new directions that indigenous education is taking in North America. Three sections focus on language, culture, and teaching; indigenous perspectives on indigenous education; and issues surrounding teaching methods. The papers are: (1) "Teaching Dine Language and Culture in Navajo Schools: Voices…
This report examines two sets of issues, the first being whether Indigenous Australians obtain a lower return on investment in education and training than other Australians. If they do, then this would partly explain why, in general, Indigenous participation in education and training is relatively low. The second issue is whether Indigenous…
There is often a disparity in Indigenous Affairs between many documents, such as policies, reports and legislation, and outcomes. This article explores this difference through analysing the policy area of Indigenous education during the period of 1991 to 2000. I examine three key documents relating to Indigenous education. These are the "National…
Background The aim of this study is to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of chicken Calpain3 (CAPN3) gene and to analyze the potential association between CAPN3 gene polymorphisms and carcass traits in chickens. We screened CAPN3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 307 meat-type quality chicken from 5 commercial pure lines (S01, S02, S03, S05, and D99) and 4 native breeds from Guangdong Province (Huiyang Huxu chicken and Qingyuan Ma chicken) and Sichuan Province (Caoke chicken and Shandi Black-bone chicken), China. Results Two SNPs (11818T>A and 12814T>G) were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method and were verified by DNA sequencing. Association analysis showed that the 12814T>G genotypes were significantly associated with body weight (BW), carcass weight (CW), breast muscle weight (BMW), and leg muscle weight (LMW). Haplotypes constructed on the two SNPs (H1, TG; H2, TT; H3, AG; and H4, AT) were associated with BW, CW (P < 0.05), eviscerated percentage (EP), semi-eviscerated percentage (SEP), breast muscle percentage (BMP), and leg muscle percentage (LMP) (P < 0.01). Diplotype H1H2 was dominant for BW, CW, and LMP, and H2H2 was dominant for EP, SEP, and BMP. Conclusion We speculated that the CAPN3 gene was a major gene affecting chicken muscle growth and carcass traits or it was linked with the major gene(s). Diplotypes H1H2 and H2H2 might be advantageous for carcass traits.
Although cassava is a major food crop, its scientific breeding began only recently compared with other crops. Significant progress has been achieved, particularly in Asia where cassava is used mainly for industrial processes and no major biotic constraints affect its productivity. Cassava breeding faces several limitations that need to be addressed. The heterozygous nature of the crop and parental lines used to generate new segregating progenies makes it difficult to identify parents with good breeding values. Breeding so far has been mainly based on a mass phenotypic recurrent selection. There is very little knowledge on the inheritance of traits of agronomic relevance. Several approaches have been taken to overcome the constraints in the current methodologies for the genetic improvement of cassava. Evaluations at early stages of selection allow for estimates of general combining ability effect or breeding values of parental lines. Inbreeding by sequential self-pollination facilitates the identification of useful recessive traits, either already present in the Manihot gene pool or induced by mutagenesis. PMID:15630615
Ceballos, Hernán; Iglesias, Carlos A; Pérez, Juan C; Dixon, Alfred G O
When the St. Louis Exposition opened in 1904 it became host to the largest gathering of the world's Indigenous peoples to that date. However, questions about how Native peoples understood these transnational Indigenous interactions have remained largely out of the realm of academic inquiry-a fact often attributed to the "absence" of primary sources. This article counters such assertions by providing a rereading that interrogates colonial assumptions embedded in both archival materials and contemporary scholarly interpretations. By analyzing a candid photograph of two Native women-one Tzoneca, the other Ainu-taken at the fair by Jessie Tarbox Beals and utilizing Frederick Starr's journal, this article ultimately questions whether the Exposition's celebration of empire may have inadvertently served anti-colonial purposes. Namely, by presenting Indigenous participants with opportunities to forge relationships across the globe, a fact that may have served to inform the late 20th century emergence of a global Indigenous consciousness. PMID:20857585
Students will examine a chicken wing to discover the different tissues and organs that make it up. They will relate this to the concept that cells make up tissues, which make up organs, which make up organ systems in the organism.
The incidence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens in Northern Ireland was determined by examining three groups of birds. These included: (1)12 flocks of broilers monitored at regular intervals from their introduction into commercial units until the time of slaughter; (2) 21 batches of unsolicited birds submitted to the laboratory for postmortem examination; and (3) 13 batches of chicks under
Adult education for indigenous peoples in Canada was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Canada's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…
In this paper the human-nature relationship is recognized as a major field of interest and a platform of ideas linked with it is explored. A "new" source to inform an alternative paradigm for outdoor education is proposed; it is millennia old, has roots all over the globe and is a living, breathing, and evolving tradition--indigenous ways. While…
Few studies ethnographically detail how Indigenous young people's mobility intersects with sociolinguistic transformation in an interconnected world. Drawing on a decade-long study of youth and language contact, I analyze Yup'ik young people's migration in relation to emerging language ideologies and patterns of language use in "Piniq,"…
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are not achieving the levels of English literacy required for satisfactory completion of Australia's school system. A national strategy has been launched to help Indigenous students achieve English literacy. However, there continues to be little recognition of the language and cultural needs of the…
European social psychology does not fit readily into the characterisations of indigenization that can be applied in other parts of the world. This is partly because Europe has provided the earliest origins of the academic study of psychology, and partly because of the great historical and linguistic diversity of the continent. It is shown that both before and after the
Across Canada, significant program changes in school mathematics have been made that encourage teachers to consider Aboriginal perspectives. In this article, I investigate one Aboriginal teacher's approaches to integrating Indigenous knowledges and the mandated mathematics curriculum in a Blackfoot First Nation school. Using a framework that…
This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery.This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple
D. O. Hitzman; S. A. Bailey; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann
This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.
In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…
As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…
Created and maintained by Rob Wesley, this Web directory indexes sites related to Canadian aboriginal, Native American, and international indigenous peoples and cultures. The annotated links are organized by topic, including First Nations, Education, Government, History, and Organizations, among others. What's new, a top 100 listing, and an internal search engine are also provided. Visitors are welcome to submit additional sites for inclusion.
We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).
Background Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. Results A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (P<0.01), respectively. A number of genes in the significant core regions, including RB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens. Conclusions We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress.
Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Methods Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. Results With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Conclusions Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained molecular breeding values had similar accuracies. The benefit of adding data from other breeds to a within-breed training population is the ability to produce molecular breeding values that are more robust across breeds and these can be utilized until enough training data has been accumulated to allow for a within-breed training set.
Two nitrofuran feed additives, 0.011% nihydrazone and a combination of 0.0055% nitrofurazone and 0.0008% furazolidone, improved weight gains and feed conversions in chickens with “air sac infection.” Both nitrofurans caused a significant reduction in the total chickens condemned at the dressing plant from this disease, but nihydrazone gave the best results. Nihydrazone*, a new nitrofuran feed additive for chickens, was found by Wolfgang et al. (1) to be effective against coccidiosis due to Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix. In chickens nihydrazone was shown by Edgar et al. (2) to result in fewer chickens condemned from “air sac infection” than with any other drug used. Rosenberg et al. (3) found nihydrazone caused significant reduction in condemnations due to this disease. Cosgrove (4) showed that nihydrazone prevented an outbreak of cecal coccidiosis, reduced the incidence of “air sac infection,” improved weight gains, feed conversions and livability. Bierer (5) found nihydrazone active against fowl typhoid. Harwood et al. (6) reported bifuran** effective against E. tenella and E. necatrix coccidiosis and it has been used commercially for this purpose. Bierer (5) (7) found Bifuran*** active in prevention of pullorum disease and fowl typhoid in chicks. The mode of action of nihydrazone and nitrofurazone against E. tenella coccidiosis was shown by Johnson and Van Ryzin (8). This production efficiency study was undertaken to evaluate nihydrazone and bifuran in the presence of “air sac infection” and concomitant diseases under field conditions. Camden (9) states that the only satisfactory test of a drug is the performance it gives under field conditions. Nihydrazone (1) (5) and Bifuran (5) (6) have both antibacterial and antiprotozoal activity and under field conditions, normal densities of bacterial and other parasitic organisms are encountered (9). Thus a coccidiostat having antibacterial and antiprotozoal properties is desirable (7).
We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin’s reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as “near threatened” in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.
Fretwell, Peter T.; Trathan, Phil N.; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L.
We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381
Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L
We recently identified and characterized a novel virus, designated avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HS syndrome) in the United States. Avian HEV is genetically related to but distinct from human and swine HEVs. To determine the extent of genetic variation and the seroprevalence of avian HEV infection in chicken flocks, we genetically identified and characterized 11 additional avian HEV isolates from chickens with HS syndrome and assessed the prevalence of avian HEV antibodies from a total of 1,276 chickens of different ages and breeds from 76 different flocks in five states (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Virginia, and Wisconsin). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a truncated recombinant avian HEV ORF2 antigen was developed and used to determine avian HEV seroprevalence. About 71% of chicken flocks and 30% of chickens tested in the study were positive for antibodies to avian HEV. About 17% of chickens younger than 18 weeks were seropositive, whereas about 36% of adult chickens were seropositive. By using a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay, we tested 21 bile samples from chickens with HS syndrome in California, Connecticut, New York, and Wisconsin for the presence of avian HEV RNA. Of the 21 bile samples, 12 were positive for 30- to 35-nm HEV-like virus particles by electron microscopy (EM). A total of 11 of the 12 EM-positive bile samples and 6 of the 9 EM-negative bile samples were positive for avian HEV RNA by RT-PCR. The sequences of a 372-bp region within the helicase gene of 11 avian HEV isolates were determined. Sequence analyses revealed that the 11 field isolates of avian HEV had 78 to 100% nucleotide sequence identities to each other, 79 to 88% identities to the prototype avian HEV, 76 to 80% identities to chicken big liver and spleen disease virus, and 56 to 61% identities to other known strains of human and swine HEV. The data from this study indicated that, like swine and human HEVs, avian HEV isolates are genetically heterogenic and that avian HEV infection is enzoonotic in chicken flocks in the United States.
Huang, F. F.; Haqshenas, G.; Shivaprasad, H. L.; Guenette, D. K.; Woolcock, P. R.; Larsen, C. T.; Pierson, F. W.; Elvinger, F.; Toth, T. E.; Meng, X. J.
We recently identified and characterized a novel virus, designated avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HS syndrome) in the United States. Avian HEV is genetically related to but distinct from human and swine HEVs. To determine the extent of genetic variation and the seroprevalence of avian HEV infection in chicken flocks, we genetically identified and characterized 11 additional avian HEV isolates from chickens with HS syndrome and assessed the prevalence of avian HEV antibodies from a total of 1,276 chickens of different ages and breeds from 76 different flocks in five states (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Virginia, and Wisconsin). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a truncated recombinant avian HEV ORF2 antigen was developed and used to determine avian HEV seroprevalence. About 71% of chicken flocks and 30% of chickens tested in the study were positive for antibodies to avian HEV. About 17% of chickens younger than 18 weeks were seropositive, whereas about 36% of adult chickens were seropositive. By using a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay, we tested 21 bile samples from chickens with HS syndrome in California, Connecticut, New York, and Wisconsin for the presence of avian HEV RNA. Of the 21 bile samples, 12 were positive for 30- to 35-nm HEV-like virus particles by electron microscopy (EM). A total of 11 of the 12 EM-positive bile samples and 6 of the 9 EM-negative bile samples were positive for avian HEV RNA by RT-PCR. The sequences of a 372-bp region within the helicase gene of 11 avian HEV isolates were determined. Sequence analyses revealed that the 11 field isolates of avian HEV had 78 to 100% nucleotide sequence identities to each other, 79 to 88% identities to the prototype avian HEV, 76 to 80% identities to chicken big liver and spleen disease virus, and 56 to 61% identities to other known strains of human and swine HEV. The data from this study indicated that, like swine and human HEVs, avian HEV isolates are genetically heterogenic and that avian HEV infection is enzoonotic in chicken flocks in the United States. PMID:12409397
Huang, F F; Haqshenas, G; Shivaprasad, H L; Guenette, D K; Woolcock, P R; Larsen, C T; Pierson, F W; Elvinger, F; Toth, T E; Meng, X J
We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a comparison of the sequences of 3 domestic chickens (broiler, layer, Silkie) to their wild ancestor Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about 5 SNP/kb for almost every possible comparison between RJF and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--contrary to the idea that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated prior to domestication, and there is little to no evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales of greater than 100 kb.
Wong, G K; Hillier, L; Brandstrom, M; Croojmans, R; Ovcharenko, I; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L; Lucas, S; Glavina, T; Kaiser, P; Gunnarsson, U; Webber, C; Overton, I
Plant breeding programmes rarely take explicit practical account of the two sources of genetic variance, namely between and within full-sib families, even though existence of these two sources of variation has long been recognised. This paper refers to inbred and clonal crops, not to outbred, seed-propagated species. Theory suggests that the two variances should be of similar size, sometimes very
As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and surrounding areas, the two breeding-bird censuses taken in 1977 were repeated in 1978. Five observers made thirteen census trips to both the BNL and Westhampton plot...
This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply ...
Students will see how evolution works with a simulated breeding bunnies lab using red and white beans, one representing dominant alleles and the other recessive alleles. This lesson can be used in sixth grade with some minor modifications of the directions and the data being recorded.
The aim of this work was to reveal the current form of village chicken production in Tokat province of Turkey. A survey was applied to 153 randomly selected farmers of 5 subdistricts in Tokat province. The ratios of domestic fowls in the survey region were as follows: hen 98.83%, goose 0.65%, turkey 0.29% and duck 0.16% (P < 0.01). Feather colours of laying hens were white (2.76%), brown (8.63%) and mixed color (88.60%). The hen farms in this region consisted of native breeds (91.42%), commercial breeds (5.71%) and their crosses (2.85%). The mean egg weight of the village hens was between 30 and 40 g. Wheat (65.73%) and mixed (wheat, barley, maize and kitchen refuse) feed (34.22%) were used to supplement the hens (P < 0.01). For producing natural chicks, the hens were brooded between 1.10 and 1.46 times/year, 1.31 on average. For each brooding, the number of placed eggs under the broody hens was between 11.39 and 12.42 (P < 0.05). PMID:18446442
A survey of pastoralist and agropastoralist households in south-east Kenya was conducted to determine their production objectives and management strategies in order to optimize and extend a breeding programme for indigenous small East African Shorthorn Zebu cattle. The reasons for keeping cattle and the breed/trait preferences identified reflect the multiple objectives of the livestock keepers, with both adaptive traits and productive/reproductive traits rated as important. Although the Maasai and Kamba zebu (M&KZ) breeds were ranked highly with regard to adaptive traits, the population is considered to have been in decline over recent years. In order to promote the conservation and sustainable use of the M&KZ cattle, the formation of an open nucleus breeding scheme is recommended. In particular, such a scheme would be able to address several existing constraints (e.g. individual herds are very small and communal use of pastures/water makes controlled mating difficult). Such interventions would require the full participation of the livestock keepers, as well as ensuring that a holistic approach to species and breed attributes is taken into account in setting breeding goals, such that the full array of contributions that livestock make to livelihoods and the genetic characteristics related to these contributions are fully incorporated into the programme. PMID:16619880
Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...
Genetic relationships and population structure of 8 horse breeds in the Czech and Slovak Republics were investigated using\\u000a classification methods for breed discrimination. To demonstrate genetic differences among these breeds, we used genetic information\\u000a — genotype data of microsatellite markers and classification algorithms — to perform a probabilistic prediction of an individual’s\\u000a breed. In total, 932 unrelated animals were genotyped
Phenotypic measurements of chicken egg character and production traits are restricted to mature females only. Marker assisted selection of immature chickens using quantitative trait loci (QTL) has the potential to accelerate the genetic improvement of these traits in the chicken population. The QTL for 12 traits (i.e. body weight (BW), six for egg character, three for egg shell colour and two for egg production) of chickens were identified. An F2 population comprising 265 female chickens obtained by crossing White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red breeds and genotyped for 123 microsatellite markers was used for detecting QTL. Ninety-six markers were mapped on 25 autosomal linkage groups, and 13 markers were mapped on one Z chromosomal linkage group. Eight previous unmapped markers were assigned to their respective chromosomes in this study. Significant QTL were detected for BW on chromosomes 4 and 27, egg weight on chromosome 4, the short length of egg on chromosome 4, and redness of egg shell colour (using the L*a*b* colour system) on chromosome 11. A significant QTL on the Z chromosome was linked with age at first egg. Significant QTL could account for 6-19% of the phenotypic variance in the F2 population. PMID:15147389
Earlé, R. A. 1981. Factors governing avian breeding in Acacia savanna, Pietermaritzburg, Part 3: Breeding success, recruitment and clutch size. Ostrich 52:235-243.The clutch size and breeding success of eight species of birds were monitored over a two year period in Acacia savanna. The mean clutch size fluctuated within the breeding season and four patterns of clutch size variation were noted.
This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub- programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of...
This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub- programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section o...
Genetic improvement of agronomic crops through breeding, which typically are marketed as commodities, are grower directed. Breeding objectives principally involve increasing yield, often based on resistance to biotic and non-biotic stress. For example improvement in hybrid maize yields have relied on increasing yield stability under high populations. In horticultural crops, breeding objectives must be consumer directed because consumers make individual
Modern livestock breeding programs feature accurate breeding value estimation and advanced reproductive technol- ogy. Such programs lead to rapid genetic progress, but they also lead to the accumulation of inbreeding via heavy impact of a few selected individuals or families. Inbreeding rates are accelerating in most species, and economic losses due to in- breeding depression in production, growth, health, and
In Latin America, indigenous populations have high rates of non-completion of TB treatment and case fatality and have been defined as a priority group for investments. To evaluate TB control, a retrospective cohort study was performed to identify factors predictive of non-completion of treatment and mortality in an indigenous and non-indigenous population between 2002 and 2008 in Dourados, Brazil. A 90% reduction in non-completion of TB treatment was observed in the indigenous population after DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) implementation (20% vs 2%). In the non-indigenous population, the number of patients not completing TB treatment continued to increase. Non-indigenous TB patients had 4.5 times higher mortality than indigenous TB patients (9% vs 2%). In multivariate analysis, non-indigenous race [odds ratio (OR) 2.33, 95% CI 1.32-4.10] was associated with non-completion of TB treatment, and HIV-positive status (OR 5.58, 95% CI 2.38-13.07) was associated with mortality. Implementation of DOTS in the indigenous populations in Dourados showed a significant reduction in non-completion of TB treatment. Nevertheless, a high rate of TB in children and young adults indicates the continuous transmission and maintenance of the epidemic in this community. Among the non-indigenous population, the TB case fatality rate is closely linked to the HIV prevalence. PMID:22365154
Croda, Mariana Garcia; Trajber, Zelik; Lima, Rosangela da Costa; Croda, Julio
Objectives To investigate growth in problem drinking and monthly marijuana use among North American Indigenous adolescents from the upper Midwest and Canada. Methods Panel data from a community-based participatory research project includes responses from 619 adolescents residing on or near 7 different reservations/reserves. All respondents were members of the same Indigenous cultural group. Results Rates of problem drinking and monthly marijuana use increased steadily across the adolescent years, with fastest growth occurring in early adolescence (before age 15). In general, female participants reported higher rates of substance use prior to age 15; however, male reports of use surpassed those of females in later adolescence. Conclusions Results of this study highlight the importance of early adolescent substance use prevention efforts and the possible utility of gender responsive programming.
In the 1960's, Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engines were developed and ground tested capable of yielding isp of up to 900 s at thrusts up to 250 klb. Numerous trade studies have shown that such traditional hydrogen fueled NTR engines can reduce the inertial mass low earth orbit (IMLEO) of lunar missions by 35 percent and Mars missions by 50 to 65 percent. The same personnel and facilities used to revive the hydrogen NTR can also be used to develop NTR engines capable of using indigenous Martian volatiles as propellant. By putting this capacity of the NTR to work in a Mars descent/acent vehicle, the Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel (NIMF) can greatly reduce the IMLEO of a manned Mars mission, while giving the mission unlimited planetwide mobility.
Globalisation is often viewed as a threat to cultural and linguistic diversity and therefore is a central concern of educational practices and policy. The present study challenges this common view by demonstrating that local communities can use global means to support and enhance their specific practices and policies. An historical exploration of education policy in Mexico reveals that there has been a continuing struggle by indigenous peoples to maintain locally relevant modes of teaching. Indigenous peoples have increasingly used technology to maintain their languages and local cultural practices. Such accentuation of the local in a global context is exemplified by the people of Chiapas: They live in subsistence-type communities, yet their recent education movements and appeals to international solidarity (such as in the Zapatista rebellion) have employed computer-aided technologies.
This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.
We study indigenous bundles in characteristic p>0 with nilpotent p-curvature,\\u000aand show that they correspond to so-called deformation data. Using this\\u000aequivalence, we translate the existence problem for deformation data into the\\u000aexistence of polynomial solutions of certain differential equations with\\u000aadditional properties. As in application, we show that P^1 minus four points is\\u000ahyperbolically ordinary (in the sense of
This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.
Soil and ground water from four sites chronically contaminated with chlorobenzenes were examined to determine whether indigenous bacteria could degrade the contaminants and whether the addition of specific chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria enhanced the degradation rate. At each site, chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria were readily isolated from chlorobenzene-contaminated wells, whereas similar samples from noncontaminated wells yielded no chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria. Isolates were tested for growth on a variety of substrates. At a site contaminated with several solvents, a bioreactor was inoculated with the chlorobenzene-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150. Contaminated water was pumped through this bioreactor and a control bioreactor that had been colonized by in indigenous microorganisms. The contaminants were removed from both bioreactors; however, JS150 could not be recovered from the inoculated bioreactor after three weeks of operation. A follow-up lab study using ground water from the contaminated site confirmed the field results. The authors conclude that chlorobenzene contamination of soil causes the development of indigenous degradative populations that have a competitive advantage over inoculated strains. The mechanism and time course of this acclimation are poorly understood and require additional study.
Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have historically created dog breeds are still ongoing, and create further subdivision within current dog breeds.
Genetic analyses, structure, and bottlenecks were examined in six populations of Iranian indigenous goat using 13 microsatellite loci. The overall heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC), and Shannon index values were 0.80, 0.74, and 2.14, respectively, indicating high genetic diversity. Both a phylogenetic tree and factorial correspondence analysis grouped the populations into two major clusters. Signatures for bottleneck events in the populations were examined by two methods, which suggested that bottlenecks had occurred in two Tali and Markhoz populations, whereas other populations (Raeini, Korki jonobe Khorasan, Lori, and Najdi) showed no signature of a genetic bottleneck in the recent past. The results showed that Iranian goats have high genetic diversity and may be of value to alternative breeding and conservation programs. PMID:24669871
Indigenous Australians suffer considerable social and economic disadvantage. The challenge for Indigenous communities and policy makers is to discover or create opportunities that will provide sustainable development. Tourism is seen as one sector that could possibly provide such opportunities. Indigenous tourism enterprises are in most situations likely to be micro businesses. Micro businesses, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, have relatively high failure
This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students' non-Indigenous teacher played a central role in developing a science module `Measuring Time' that combined Amis knowledge and Western science knowledge. The study identified two cultural worldview perspectives on time; for example, the place-based cyclical time held by the Amis, and the universal rectilinear time presupposed by scientists. Students' pre-instructional fragmented concepts from both knowledge systems became more informed and refined through their engagement in `Measuring Time'. Students' increased interest and pride in their Amis culture were noted.
Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands. PMID:24687096
Hamilton, Marcus J; Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C
Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.
Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.
Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04) years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys) completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day), over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI)), calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)), folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls), and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL)). Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.
Polydactyly occurs in some chickenbreeds, but the molecular mechanism remains incompletely understood. Combined genome-wide linkage analysis and association study (GWAS) for chicken polydactyly helps identify loci or candidate genes for the trait and potentially provides further mechanistic understanding of this phenotype in chickens and perhaps other species. The linkage analysis and GWAS for polydactyly was conducted using an F2 population derived from Beijing-You chickens and commercial broilers. The results identified two QTLs through linkage analysis and seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) through GWAS, associated with the polydactyly trait. One QTL located at 35 cM on the GGA2 was significant at the 1% genome-wise level and another QTL at the 1% chromosome-wide significance level was detected at 39 cM on GGA19. A total of seven SNPs, four of 5% genome-wide significance (P < 2.98 × 10?6) and three of suggestive significance (5.96 × 10?5) were identified, including two SNPs (GGaluGA132178 and Gga_rs14135036) in the QTL on GGA2. Of the identified SNPs, the eight nearest genes were sonic hedgehog (SHH), limb region 1 homolog (mouse) (LMBR1), dipeptidyl-peptidase 6, transcript variant 3 (DPP6), thyroid-stimulating hormone, beta (TSHB), sal-like 4 (Drosophila) (SALL4), par-6 partitioning defective 6 homolog beta (Caenorhabditis elegans) (PARD6B), coenzyme Q5 (COQ5), and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, etapolypeptide (YWHAH). The GWAS supports earlier reports of the importance of SHH and LMBR1 as regulating genes for polydactyly in chickens and other species, and identified others, most of which have not previously been associated with limb development. The genes and associated SNPs revealed here provide detailed information for further exploring the molecular and developmental mechanisms underlying polydactyly.
The objective is to design a pressurized shelter build of indigenous lunar material. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar conditions which impact design; secondary factors; review of previously proposed concepts; cross section of assembly facility; rationale for indigenous materials; indigenous material choices; cast basalt properties; design variables; design 1, cylindrical segments; construction sequence; design 2, arch-slabs with post-tensioned ring girders; and future research.
Bacteroidales are fecal anaerobic bacteria that are common in the digestive systems and feces of warm-blooded animals. Some strains of Bacteroidales have been reported to be host-specific. In this study, Bacteroidales strains from chicken feces were examined for their potential use as indicators of chicken fecal contamination. Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from chicken feces were amplified, cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using these sequences and published Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from human and bovine feces. Primers were designed based on putative chicken feces-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences and the primer pairs were tested for specificity in PCR assays. One set of primers, chBact F1 and chBact R16, specifically amplified DNA from chicken feces in a PCR assay, but did not amplify wild turkey, cat, bovine, or deer fecal DNAs. In addition, DNA from feces contaminated straw-based chicken litter produced a product in the PCR assay. However, DNA from feces contaminated wood shavings-based chicken litter was not amplified. The PCR assay described here may prove a useful tool for the detection of chicken feces and for source tracking in watersheds with fecal contamination.
In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident.
Denzau, Susanne; Niessner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang
Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)
Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…
How can indigenous evaluators implement culturally competent models in First Nations communities while ensuring that government grant evaluation requirements are met? Through describing the challenges in one tribal community in the United States, this article will discuss how American Indian/Alaska Native substance abuse prevention programs are…
Designing breeding schemes suitable for smallholder livestock production systems in developing regions has hitherto been a challenge. The suggested schemes either do not address farmers' breeding goals (centralized station-based nucleus schemes) or yield slow genetic progress (village-based schemes). A new breeding scheme that integrates the merits of previously suggested schemes has been designed for Menz sheep improvement in Ethiopia. It involves selection based on breeding values in nucleus flocks to produce elite rams, a one-time only provision of improved rams to villagers and a follow-up village-based selection to sustain genetic progress in village flocks. Here, we assessed whether conventional selection of breeding rams based on breeding values for production traits, which is the practice in station-based nucleus flocks, meets farmers' breeding objectives. We also elicited determinants of farmers' ram choice. Low but significant correlations were found between rankings of rams based on farmers' selection criteria, estimated breeding values (EBV) and body weight (BW). Appearance traits (such as color and horn) and meat production traits (BW and linear size traits) significantly determined farmers' breeding ram choice. The results imply that conventional selection criteria based solely on EBV for production traits do not address farmers' trait preferences fully, but only partially. Thus, a two-stage selection procedure involving selection on breeding values in nucleus centers followed by farmers' selection among top- ranking candidate rams is recommended. This approach accommodates farmers' preferences and speeds up genetic progress in village-based selection. The Menz sheep scheme could be applied elsewhere with similar situations to transform conventional station-based nucleus breeding activities into participatory breeding programs. PMID:22440095
Gizaw, S; Getachew, T; Tibbo, M; Haile, A; Dessie, T
Copy number variations (CNVs) are important forms of genomic variation, and have attracted extensive attentions in humans as well as domestic animals. In the study, using a custom-designed 2.1 M array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), genome-wide CNVs were identified among 12 individuals from diverse pig breeds, including one Asian wild population, six Chinese indigenousbreeds and two modern commercial breeds (Yorkshire and Landrace), with one individual of the other modern commercial breed, Duroc, as the reference. A total of 1,344 CNV regions (CNVRs) were identified, covering 47.79 Mb (?1.70%) of the pig genome. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 3.37 Kb to 1,319.0 Kb with a mean of 35.56 Kb and a median of 11.11 Kb. Compared with similar studies reported, most of the CNVRs (74.18%) were firstly identified in present study. In order to confirm these CNVRs, 21 CNVRs were randomly chosen to be validated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and a high rate (85.71%) of confirmation was obtained. Functional annotation of CNVRs suggested that the identified CNVRs have important function, and may play an important role in phenotypic and production traits difference among various breeds. Our results are essential complementary to the CNV map in the pig genome, which will provide abundant genetic markers to investigate association studies between various phenotypes and CNVs in pigs.
This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.
A 17-month (from January 2002 to May 2003) longitudinal study was undertaken to elucidate the epidemiology of important endemic and epidemic diseases affecting semi-scavenging chickens reared in the Participatory Livestock Development Project area in Bangladesh. This project was implemented in 17 northern and north-central districts of Bangladesh, under which 361 839 rural poor people were assisted to undertake poultry-rearing activity as a tool of poverty reduction. Of the total beneficiaries 93% were "key rearers". A key rearer is defined as a beneficiary who generally rears 10 to 13 hens in a semi-scavenging system with little additional feed supply. Households of 650 key rearers and some chick rearers were observed. During the study period 1227 birds, which belonged to different age, breed and sex categories, were found dead as a result of disease occurrence. From every dead bird organ samples such as the liver, heart, spleen, brain lung, trachea and bursa of Fabricius were collected. The incidence rate of mortality was 0.01976 per bird-months at risk. Of the total deaths 58.44% had single or mixed type of infections. Newcastle disease had the highest proportional mortality rate (15.81%). The proportional mortality caused by fowlpox, fowl cholera, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, aspergillosis, infectious bursal disease, mixed infections and undiagnosed cases were 8.96%, 6.76%, 7.09%, 6.93%, 0.33%, 2.04%, 10.51% and 41.56%, respectively. Newcastle disease affected a significant higher proportion (18.81%) of birds older than 60 days of age (P=0.00). Younger birds (age < or = 60 days) had a higher proportional mortality due to fowlpox and infectious bursal disease than older birds (P=0.00). Sonali (male Rhode Island Red x female Fayoumi) birds reared under the semi-scavenging system had a higher infection rate with Newcastle disease virus compared with indigenous and Fayoumi birds (P=0.00). Fowlpox was more prevalent in Fayoumi birds compared with Sonali. Surprisingly, Newcastle disease was more common in the vaccinated birds rather than the unvaccinated birds. PMID:16147566
Biswas, P K; Biswas, D; Ahmed, S; Rahman, A; Debnath, N C
PCR-SSCP technique was designed in this study to investigate the effect of MyoG on quality meat chicken (developed by Sichuan Dahen Poultry Breeding Company using local breeds). Four mutations at base position in promoter were detected among individuals in each line, i.e. T/C in locusA and T/A, T/C and A/G in locus B . The least square analysis showed that there were a significant difference between genotypes and breast muscle percentage and some carcass traits (P<0.05for locus A. There were a significant difference (P <0.05) in breast muscle weight between ACAA and AB geno- types; a significant difference (P <0.05) in leg muscle percentage between CC and AC for locus B, and a extremity signifi-cant difference (P <0.01) in the frequency of genotype muscle Fibre Density for Bothlocus A to locus B. There was no sig-nificant difference (P >0.05) in the other triats. It was concluded from the results that MyoG gene is the major gene affect-ing the muscle fiber traits of chicken or it links with the candidate gene, and the mutation could be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chickens for Meat Quality traits. PMID:17855259
The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out. PMID:23713267
Riboflavin status indices in tissues (brain, liver, heart) and blood plasma, and performance parameters were studied in male and female broiler chickens in response to a wide range of dietary supplementation of riboflavin in order to establish the requirement for riboflavin in fast growing modern broilers. The birds fed riboflavin supplemented diets were increasing their body weight at a higher rate than those fed the unsupplemented diet, but this was apparent only during the first stage of growth (days 1 to 21). Supplementation of 2 mg riboflavin per kg was sufficient to support the maximum growth rate. Feed consumption was not affected by different levels of dietary supplementation of riboflavin. The supplementation of riboflavin in the diet increased (p < 0.001) plasma riboflavin level, but the magnitude of response decreased with age. The main component in the tissues was FAD, followed by FMN and riboflavin. Overall, the dietary riboflavin supplementation had highly significant (p < 0.001) effects on tissue FAD, FMN, and riboflavin status, but the effect of supplementation was clearly pronounced only at days 7 and 14, and thereafter the status of FAD, FMN, and riboflavin in the tissues did not differ between unsupplemented and supplemented birds. Neither FAD, FMN, and riboflavin nor GSSG-RED activity correlate with the level of supplementation. Saturation levels of riboflavin in the blood plasma and tissues, corresponded with dietary riboflavin levels of supplementation at 1 to 2 mg per kg. Based on the performance and biochemical data, the dietary requirement of riboflavin for fast growing broilers should be set at a level of 5 mg/kg. The currently recommended allowance of 3.6 mg riboflavin per kg of ration is not sufficient for modern breeds of broiler chickens. PMID:9789764
1. The performance of indigenous ducks (ID), Khaki Campbell (KC) and their reciprocal crossbred layers was studied from 19 to 58 weeks of age. For each genotype, 4 x 18 ducks (3 males + 15 females) were reared under a semi-intensive system (SIS) and an intensive system (IS) with standard management, and 4 x 50 ducks (8 males + 42 females) were reared in an extensive system (ES) with traditional management. 2. In comparison to KC, ID were superior in terms of age at first egg, age at 50% egg production, egg weight, hatchability, eggshell thickness with higher egg shape index. KC ducks were superior to ID in body weight, egg production and feed/kg eggs. Egg quality was similar among the genotypes. Crosses were superior to their parent breeds in age at first egg, egg production and feed/kg eggs. They were also superior to KC in egg weight and egg-shell thickness with a higher egg shape index. 3. The performance of genotypes in the SIS and the IS was similar and superior to the ES except for fertility and yolk colour. 4. Significant heterotic effects were recorded for age at first egg, age at 50% egg production, egg production per duck-day, feed efficiency and egg weight in crosses. Performance was similar in the reciprocal crosses, but superior to their parent breeds. PMID:16268099
Nageswara, A R; Ramasubba Reddy, V; Ravindra Reddy, V
We constructed a chicken F(2) resource population to facilitate the genetic improvement of economically important traits, particularly growth and carcass traits. An F(2) population comprising 240 chickens obtained by crossing a Shamo (lean, lightweight Japanese native breed) male and White Plymouth Rock breed (fat, heavyweight broiler) females was measured for BW, carcass weight (CW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), breast muscle weight (BMW), and thigh muscle weight (TMW) and was used for genome-wide linkage and QTL analysis, using a total of 240 microsatellite markers. A total of 14 QTL were detected at a 5% chromosome-wide level, and 7 QTL were significant at a 5% experiment-wide level for the traits evaluated in the F(2) population. For growth traits, significant and suggestive QTL affecting BW (measured at 6 and 9 wk) and average daily gain were identified on similar regions of chromosomes 1 and 3. For carcass traits, the QTL effects on CW were detected on chromosomes 1 and 3, with the greatest F-ratio of 15.0 being obtained for CW on chromosome 3. Quantitative trait loci positions affecting BMW and TMW were not detected at the same loci as those detected for BMW percentage of CW and TMW percentage of CW. For AFW, QTL positions were detected at the same loci as those detected for AFW percentage of CW. The present study identified significant QTL affecting BW, CW, and AFW. PMID:19211515
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control.
A baculovirus-derived recombinant VP2 (rVP2) subunit vaccine elicited anti-infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) antibodies in commercial flocks. The induced antibody levels were similar to those evoked against IBDV by a commercial vaccine. The levels remained higher than that of the negative controls for at least four and a half months in commercial chickens. The antibodies were also transferred to their offspring and were detected in the blood of the progeny for at least 20 days after hatching. These results, along with former data, that show that antibodies elicited by baculovirus rVP2 confer protection to chickens from IBDV [J. Pitcovski et al. (1996), Insect cell-derived VP2 of infectious bursal disease confers protection against the disease in chickens. Avian Diseases, 40, 753-761], imply that the baculovirus-derived rVP2 subunit may serve as a successful vaccine for commercial breeding flocks. PMID:19184783
Yehuda, H; Goldway, M; Gutter, B; Michael, A; Godfried, Y; Shaaltiel, Y; Levi, B Z; Pitcovski, J
The noncoding control region of the mitochondrial DNA of various gallinaceous birds was studied with regard to its restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequences of the first 400 bases. Tandem duplication of the 60-base unit was established as a trait unique to the genus Gallus, which is shared neither by pheasants nor by quails. Unlike its close ally Gallus varius (green junglefowl), the red junglefowl Gallus gallus is a genetically very diverse species; the 7.0% sequence divergence was seen between those from Thailand (G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus) and the other from the Indonesian island of Java (G. g. Bankiva). Furthermore, the divergence increased to 27.83% if each transversion is regarded as an equivalent of 10 transitions. On the other hand, a mere 0.5-3.0% difference (all transitions) separated various domestic breeds of the chicken from two G. g. gallus of Thailand, thus indicating a single domestication event in the area inhabited by this subspecies of the red junglefowl as the origin of all domestic breeds. Only transitions separated six diverse domesticated breeds. Nevertheless, a 2.75% difference was seen between RFLP type I breeds (White Leghorn and Nagoya) and a RFLP type VIII breed (Ayam Pelung). The above data suggested that although the mitochondrion of RFLP type V was the main contributor to domestication, hens of other RFLP types also contributed to this event.
Fumihito, A; Miyake, T; Sumi, S; Takada, M; Ohno, S; Kondo, N
Glycerol (11%; v:v) is the cryoprotectant most often used for the cryopreservation of rooster sperm. However, chickenbreeds differ in the resistance of their sperm to the cryopreservation process and endangered or local breeds usually present low fertilizing ability when conventional sperm cryopreservation protocols are used. The objective of this study was to optimize the protocol for the cryopreservation of the sperm from the endangered breed "Gallina Valenciana de Chulilla". For this purpose, 10 pools of semen from 43 roosters of this breed were cryopreserved using 8%, 7%, 6%, or 4% glycerol, and the sperm quality was determined immediately after thawing and in the insemination doses. Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens (n = 40) were used for the insemination trials. The sperm quality after cryopreservation progressively decreased as the glycerol concentration was reduced (P < 0.01); samples frozen using 4% glycerol exhibited the lowest quality (38% total motile sperm and 49% live sperm), and samples frozen using 8% glycerol exhibited the highest quality (67% total motile sperm and 66% live sperm). These differences were also observed after the glycerol was removed (P < 0.01). However, the sperm fertilizing ability was similar for all the treatments (23%-30% fertilized eggs), and increased as the glycerol concentration decreased. In conclusion, semen from roosters frozen using 4% glycerol exhibited lower sperm quality but similar fertilizing ability compared with samples processed using higher glycerol concentrations. These results may provide useful information for developing cryopreservation protocols for other breeds. PMID:24629594
Blanch, E; Tomás, C; Casares, L; Gómez, E A; Sansano, S; Giménez, I; Mocé, E
Genomic selection (GS) involves selection decisions based on genomic breeding values estimated as the sum of the effects of\\u000a genome-wide markers capturing most quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the target trait(s). GS is revolutionizing breeding practice\\u000a in domestic animals. The same approach and concepts can be readily applied to forest tree breeding where long generation times\\u000a and late expressing complex
In the first half of the 20th century, the social functions of the indigenous languages in Chukotka, in northeast Asia, increased due to the development of written languages, local press, and broadcasting on radio and television. From 1933 to 1989, the local press of indigenous peoples in Chukotka was used for Communist Party propaganda. However,…
The 2-hour workshop was devoted to sharing indigenous approaches to understanding and communicating the environment around us. Topics focused on weather and climate change. Two indigenous peoples from the Tohono O'odham and Pueblo of Laguna Nations immersed participants in their perspectives of knowing through storytelling.
This paper argues for the use of indigenous languages as languages of teaching and learning, focusing on Zimbabwe. It describes the language situation in Zimbabwe, which has three national languages (all of which enjoy some prominence under the current Education Act) and fourteen minority indigenous languages. English plays a central role in…
This paper introduces five concepts that guide teachers' and students' critical inquiry in the understanding of media and visual representation. In a step-by-step process, the paper illustrates how these five concepts can become a tool with which to critique and examine film images of indigenous people. The Sani are indigenous people of the…
This article reflects on pathways for Indigenous education in the developing agenda of the Australian Curriculum, the cross-curriculum priorities, the general capability area of intercultural understanding, and the positioning of Indigenous learners within the diversity of learners with English as an additional language or dialect (EALD).
This article explores a project at the Koori Centre, University of Sydney, funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) in 2011, titled "Indigenous On-Line Cultural Teaching and Sharing". One of the team members (Kutay) was also a project team member on the ALTC-funded project "Exploring PBL in Indigenous Australian Studies",…
This article discusses the development of a methodological metissage that combined Indigenous and interpretive traditions. This metissage was developed during a doctoral study conducted with Canadian environmental educators who incorporate Western and Indigenous knowledge and philosophy into their ecological identities and pedagogical praxis. It…
This forum explores and expands on Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's article titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how indigenous knowledge is appropriated in science classrooms; how students from indigenous students'…
This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…
This book brings together essays that explore Indigenous ways of knowing and that consider how such knowledge can inform educational practices and institutions. Indigenous Knowledge is resiliently local in character and thus poses a distinct contrast to the international, more impersonal system of knowledge prevalent in Western educational…
Australia's Indigenous peoples represent 2.5% of the national population but this number is increasing at a faster rate than the national average of other demographic groups. The history of the Indigenous peoples is one of dispossession and displacement, and a loss of cultures and languages. Access to and participation in education at all levels,…
Intellectual property enables individuals to gain financially from sharing unique and useful knowledge. Compensating indigenous people for sharing their knowledge and resources might both validate and be an equitable reward for indigenous knowledge of biological resources, and might promote the conservation of those resources. This book contains…
Elderly African Americans residing in rural areas have practiced and continue to practice indigenous healing practices for various reasons. In addition to the belief in the value of such practices, many of these individuals practice indigenous healing because it is cost effective. In this article information is presented on the history of research…
To identify independent correlates of reported gambling problems amongst the Indigenous population of Australia. A cross-sectional design was applied to a nationally representative sample of the Indigenous population. Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented by remoteness and jurisdiction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to…
This article explores an integrative framework for a motivational psychology for the education of Indigenous students. Drawing on and adapting Graham's (1994) taxonomy for motivational psychology, it is suggested that enhancing the educational outcomes of Indigenous students involves addressing factors relevant to the self (positive identity,…
This paper discusses the context of indigenous language education in western Canada, the hope of language revitalization, and the role of the Canadian Indigenous Languages and Literacy Development Institute (CILLDI) in reclaiming and stabilizing these languages. CILLDI was established in 1999 by a collective of language advocates and educators who…
Blair, Heather A.; Paskemin, Donna; Laderoute, Barbara
Peter J. Anderson and Bernadette Atkinson teach Indigenous and Traditionally Education in a Global World as a fourth year unit in the Faculty of Education at Monash University, Clayton. This paper is a self reflective piece of work where they discuss the use of graduate attributes relating to Indigenous Education, put forward by the Australian…
The Review of Australian Higher Education (Bradley Review, 2008) and the Review of Higher Education Access and Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People (Behrendt Review, 2012) identified the need for tertiary institutions to incorporate Indigenous knowledges into curriculum to improve educational outcomes for Indigenous…
A recurring theme in Indigenous affairs in Australia is a tension between maintenance of Indigenous culture and achievement of socio-economic "equity": essentially "self-determination" versus "assimilation". Implicit in this tension is the view that attachment to traditional cultures and lifestyles is a hindrance to achieving "mainstream" economic…
Disparities exist between Indigenous Australians and non-Indigenous Australians on indicators of life expectancy, alcohol and drug use, adult and juvenile incarceration, and rates of hospitalisation for self-harm, suicide, and mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2008; Commonwealth of Australia, 2011). Psychology is a discipline that can assist in remedying these issues, yet disparities
In this article, Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy and Emma Maughn explore epistemic tensions within an Indigenous teacher preparation program where students question Western systems for creating, producing, reproducing, and valuing knowledge. Grounding their argument in a rich understanding of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, the authors advocate for an…
The utilization of some indigenous, Nigerian spices were studied in sample households from urban and rural areas in Southeastern Nigeria. The data, collected by a questionnaire, indicated that 94 percent of the urban and 82 percent of the rural households used spices and condiments produced by indigenous perennial plants and that cultural and medicinal significance was attached to use of
Background During the last decades, there has been an acceleration of the loss of domestic animal biodiversity. For conservation purposes, the genetic diversity of the H'Mong cattle, an indigenous local breed was studied. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the SRY gene and mtDNA D-Loop sequence were analysed to clarify the origin of the breed. The genetic diversity was assessed through genetic data with twenty-five FAO microsatellites, and morphometric data with five body measurements from 408 animals sampled from eight districts of the Ha Giang province. Results The SRY genes were all of the zebu type. Among the 27 mtDNA haplotypes, 12 haplotypes were of the taurine type and the remaining 15 of the zebu type. This indicates female taurine introgression in the zebu H'Mong. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.616 to 0.673 and from 0.681 to 0.729 respectively according to district, with low genetic differentiation (FST = 0.0076). Multivariate analysis on morphometric and genetic data shows a separation of districts into two groups following a south-west/north-east cline and admixture analysis confirmed the two clusters, but no differentiation of taurine introgression between clusters was observed. A possible admixture with the Yellow cattle breed from a neighbouring province was suggested through genetic data and householder interviews. Conclusions In this study we demonstrate the interest of fine-scale sampling for the study of genetic structure of local breeds. Such a study allows avoiding erroneous conservation policies and on the contrary, proposes measures for conserving and limiting crossbreeding between the H'Mong and the Yellow cattle breeds.
Fat and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in meat quality characteristics including the fatty acid composition of muscle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. This study compared meat quality traits between Lantang (a Chinese indigenousbreed) and Landrace (a typical lean breed). The Lantang pigs showed higher L* values and intramuscular fat content, lower pH45min, pH24h and shear force in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle than Landrace (P < 0.05). Fatty acid analysis demonstrated the lower monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage in Lantang LD than that in Landrace LD (P < 0.05). To further identify candidate genes for fatty acid composition, the transcriptome of LD muscle from the two breeds were measured by microarrays. There were 586 transcripts differentially expressed, of which 267 transcripts were highly expressed in Lantang pigs. After the validation by real-time quantitative PCR, 13 genes were determined as candidate genes for fatty acid composition of muscle, including Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Then, a SCD over-expression plasmid was transfected into C2C12 cells to reveal the effect of SCD on the fatty acid composition in vitro. The results showed that SCD over-expression significantly increased PUFA proportion, while reduced that of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in C2C12 cells (P < 0.05). In summary, this study compared the differences of fatty acid composition and transcriptome in two breeds differing in meat quality, and further identified the novel role of SCD in the regulation of PUFA deposition.
A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained encompassing the entire cDNA of 3 kb. The open reading frame encodes a protein of 201 amino acids. The cytoplasmic domain is identical with that of mammalian syndecan-2, and highly similar to those of Xenopus laevis and zebrafish syndecan-2. The transmembrane domain is identical with that of mammalian and zebrafish syndecan-2, and highly similar to that of Xenopus laevis syndecan-2. The ectodomain is 45-62% identical with that of zebrafish, Xenopus laevis and mammalian syndecan-2. Two coding single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed. In vitro transcription and translation yielded a product of 30 kDa. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development. This pattern was different from that reported for syndecan-4, but consistent with the roles of syndecan-2 in neural maturation and in mesenchymal-matrix interactions.
Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline; Woods, Anne
Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units.
Arranz, Juan-Jose; Bayon, Yolanda; Primitivo, Fermin San
Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep--Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino--with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from F(ST) diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units. PMID:11712973
The Silkie chicken has been a model of melanoctye precursor and neural crest cell migration and proliferation in the developing embryo due to its extensive hyperpigmentation of dermal and connective tissues. Although previous studies have focused on the distribution and structure of the Silkie's pigment or the general mechanisms by which this phenotype presents itself, the causal genetic variants have not been identified. Classical breeding experiments have determined this trait to be controlled by 2 interacting genes, the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin (Id) and autosomal fibromelanosis (Fm) genes. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-trait association analysis was used to detect genomic regions showing significant association with these pigmentation genes in 2 chicken mapping populations designed to segregate independently for Id and Fm. The SNP showing the highest association with Id was located at 72.3 Mb on chromosome Z and 10.3-13.1 Mb on chromosome 20 showed the highest association with Fm. Prior to this study, the linkage group to which Fm belonged was unknown. Although the primary focus of this study was to identify loci contributing to dermal pigmentation in the Silkie chicken, loci associated with various other morphological traits segregating in these populations were also detected. A single SNP in a highly conserved cis-regulatory region of Sonic Hedgehog was significantly associated with polydactyly (Po). Genomic regions in association with silkie feathering or hookless (h), feathered legs (Pti), vulture hock (V), rose comb (R), and duplex comb (D) were also identified. PMID:20064842
Designing strategies for conservation and improvement livestock should be based on assessment of genetic characteristics of populations under consideration. In Oman, conservation programs for local livestock breeds have been started. The current study assessed the genetic diversity and conservation potential of local chickens from Oman. Twenty-nine microsatellite markers were analyzed in 158 birds from six agro-ecological zones: Batinah, Dhofar, North Hajar, East Hajar, Musandam, and East Coast. Overall, a total of 217 alleles were observed. Across populations, the average number of alleles per locus was 7.48 and ranged from 2 (MCW98 and MCW103) to 20 (LEI094). The mean expected heterozygosity (H E) was 0.62. Average fixation index among populations (F ST) was 0.034, indicating low population differentiation, while the mean global deficit of heterozygotes across populations (F IT) was 0.159. Based on Nei's genetic distance, a neighbor-joining tree was constructed for the populations, which clearly identified the Dhofar population as the most distant one of the Omani chicken populations. The analysis of conservation priorities identified Dhofar and Musandam populations as the ones that largely contribute to the maximal genetic diversity of the Omani chicken gene pool. PMID:24590534
The lungs undergo changes that are adaptive for high elevation in certain animal species. In chickens, animals bred at high elevations (e.g., Tibet chickens) are better able to hatch and survive under high-altitude conditions. In addition, lowland chickenbreeds undergo physiological effects and suffer greater mortality when they are exposed to hypoxic conditions during embryonic development. Although these physiological effects have been noted, the mechanisms that are responsible for hypoxia-induced changes in lung development and function are not known. Here we have examined the role of a particular microRNA (miRNA) in the regulation of lung development under hypoxic conditions. When chicks were incubated in low oxygen (hypoxia), miR-15a was significantly increased in embryonic lung tissue. The expression level of miR-15a in hypoxic Tibet chicken embryos increased and remained relatively high at embryonic day (E)16–20, whereas in normal chickens, expression increased and peaked at E19–20, at which time the cross-current gas exchange system (CCGS) is developing. Bcl-2 was a translationally repressed target of miR-15a in these chickens. miR-16, a cluster and family member of miR-15a, was detected but did not participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of bcl-2. Around E19, the hypoxia-induced decrease in Bcl-2 protein resulted in apoptosis in the mesenchyme around the migrating tubes, which led to an expansion and migration of the tubes that would become the air capillary network and the CCGS. Thus, interfering with miR-15a expression in lung tissue may be a novel therapeutic strategy for hypoxia insults and altitude adaptation.
When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. Detección del Cambio Ecológico Rápido por la Población Indígena. PMID:24528101
The growing world-wide sensitivity to the aspirations of indigenous peoples is to be welcomed. However, there is still a tendency which should be avoided: to lump the claims of indigenous peoples with those of minorities. Indigenous peoples are the heirs of long-established political, social and cultural communities which have been oppressed for centuries or victimized by policies of genocide or forced assimilation into the approved language and religion of the dominating community. These forms of destruction can only be truly ended by returning to indigenous peoples a degree of autonomy which will ensure that they have real control over their future. Indigenous peoples should be able to create institutions, including schools, where their languages, religions and cultures are permitted to flourish without interference.
Abstract 1. The content of chondroitin sulphate (CS), known as a nutraceutical, was estimated in broiler chicken carcasses by analysing sulphated glycosaminoglycan uronic acid in posterior sternum (keel) cartilage and bones from 4 parts (wing, leg, front and hind) of carcasses. 2. The results of the present study suggested that approximately 0.63 g CS uronic acid (or 1.9 g as CS) can be extracted from a 1.66 kg whole broiler chicken carcass. The amount of extractable CS from keel cartilage, which has been reported as a valuable source of CS in broiler chicken carcasses, was surprisingly low (<10% of total CS). PMID:24392803
Intramuscular fat (IMF) plays an important role in meat quality. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying IMF deposition in skeletal muscle have not been addressed for the sex-linked dwarf (SLD) chicken. In this study, potential candidate genes and signaling pathways related to IMF deposition in chicken leg muscle tissue were characterized using gene expression profiling of both 7-week-old SLD and normal chickens. A total of 173 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the two breeds. Subsequently, 6 DEGs related to lipid metabolism or muscle development were verified in each breed based on gene ontology (GO) analysis. In addition, KEGG pathway analysis of DEGs indicated that some of them (GHR, SOCS3, and IGF2BP3) participate in adipocytokine and insulin signaling pathways. To investigate the role of the above signaling pathways in IMF deposition, the gene expression of pathway factors and other downstream genes were measured by using qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Collectively, the results identified potential candidate genes related to IMF deposition and suggested that IMF deposition in skeletal muscle of SLD chicken is regulated partially by pathways of adipocytokine and insulin and other downstream signaling pathways (TGF- ? /SMAD3 and Wnt/catenin- ? pathway). PMID:24757673
Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ?3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision.
Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719
Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P
Modern domestic plants and animals are subject to human-driven selection for desired phenotypic traits and behavior. Large-scale genetic studies of modern domestic populations and their wild relatives have revealed not only the genetic mechanisms underlying specific phenotypic traits, but also allowed for the identification of candidate domestication genes. Our understanding of the importance of these genes during the initial stages of the domestication process traditionally rests on the assumption that robust inferences about the past can be made on the basis of modern genetic datasets. A growing body of evidence from ancient DNA studies, however, has revealed that ancient and even historic populations often bear little resemblance to their modern counterparts. Here, we test the temporal context of selection on specific genetic loci known to differentiate modern domestic chickens from their extant wild ancestors. We extracted DNA from 80 ancient chickens excavated from 12 European archaeological sites, dated from ?280 B.C. to the 18th century A.D. We targeted three unlinked genetic loci: the mitochondrial control region, a gene associated with yellow skin color (?-carotene dioxygenase 2), and a putative domestication gene thought to be linked to photoperiod and reproduction (thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, TSHR). Our results reveal significant variability in both nuclear genes, suggesting that the commonality of yellow skin in Western breeds and the near fixation of TSHR in all modern chickens took place only in the past 500 y. In addition, mitochondrial variation has increased as a result of recent admixture with exotic breeds. We conclude by emphasizing the perils of inferring the past from modern genetic data alone.
Modern domestic plants and animals are subject to human-driven selection for desired phenotypic traits and behavior. Large-scale genetic studies of modern domestic populations and their wild relatives have revealed not only the genetic mechanisms underlying specific phenotypic traits, but also allowed for the identification of candidate domestication genes. Our understanding of the importance of these genes during the initial stages of the domestication process traditionally rests on the assumption that robust inferences about the past can be made on the basis of modern genetic datasets. A growing body of evidence from ancient DNA studies, however, has revealed that ancient and even historic populations often bear little resemblance to their modern counterparts. Here, we test the temporal context of selection on specific genetic loci known to differentiate modern domestic chickens from their extant wild ancestors. We extracted DNA from 80 ancient chickens excavated from 12 European archaeological sites, dated from ?280 B.C. to the 18th century A.D. We targeted three unlinked genetic loci: the mitochondrial control region, a gene associated with yellow skin color (?-carotene dioxygenase 2), and a putative domestication gene thought to be linked to photoperiod and reproduction (thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, TSHR). Our results reveal significant variability in both nuclear genes, suggesting that the commonality of yellow skin in Western breeds and the near fixation of TSHR in all modern chickens took place only in the past 500 y. In addition, mitochondrial variation has increased as a result of recent admixture with exotic breeds. We conclude by emphasizing the perils of inferring the past from modern genetic data alone. PMID:24753608
As part of an evaluation of a web-based early literacy intervention, ABRACADABRA, a small exploratory study was conducted over one term in three primary schools in the Northern Territory. Of particular concern was the relationship between attendance and the acquisition of early literacy skills of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. Using the…
Ehrich, John; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Helmer, Janet; Oteng, Georges; Lea, Tess; Bartlett, Claire; Smith, Heather; Emmett, Sue
BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine how the indigenous naming, indigenous self-diagnosis and management of diabetes evolved with awareness in order to develop a socially oriented theoretical model for its care. METHODS: The data was collected through a one-year extended participant observation in Bafut, a rural health district of Cameroon. The sample consisted of 72 participants in a rural health
We review the policy of the Ghanaian Ministry of Health towards indigenous healers, and estimate their potential and actual utilization in the national health delivery system. We then describe the program to give primary health training to indigenous healers. The program established relations with the regional offices and central headquarters of the Ministry of Health, The Centre for Scientific Research
D. M. Warren; G. Steven Bova; Mary Ann Tregoning; Mark Kliewer
Summary Participatory plant breeding is discussed not only for its advantages in exploiting specific adaptation and hence in fitting crops to the environment, but also as the only possible type of breeding which is possible for crops grown in unfavorable conditions and\\/or remote regions, and in areas not sufficiently large to justify the interest of large breeding programs. The paper
Salvatore Ceccarelli; Elizabeth Bailey; Stefania Grando; Richard Tutwiler
The role of physiological understanding in improving the efficiency of breeding programs is examined largely from the perspective of conventional breeding programs. Impact of physiological research to date on breeding programs, and the nature of that research, was assessed from (i) responses to a questionnaire distributed to plant breeders and physiologists, and (ii) a survey of literature abstracts. Ways to
Phillip Jackson; Michael Robertson; Mark Cooper; Graeme Hammer
Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link) is an indigenous, perennial grass of North America that is being developed into a cellulosic biomass crop suitable for biofuel production. Limited research has been performed into the breeding of prairie cordgrass; this research details an initial investigation into the development of a breeding program for this species. Genomic libraries enriched for four simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were developed, 25 clones from each library were sequenced, identifying 70?SSR regions, and primers were developed for these regions, 35 of which were amplified under standard PCR conditions. These SSR markers were used to validate the crossing methodology of prairie cordgrass and it was found that crosses between two plants occurred without the need for emasculation. The successful cross between two clones of prairie cordgrass indicates that this species is not self-incompatible. The results from this research will be used to instigate the production of a molecular map of prairie cordgrass which can be used to incorporate marker-assisted selection (MAS) protocols into a breeding program to improve this species for cellulosic biomass production.
Gedye, K. R.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. L.; Owens, V.; Boe, A.
Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link) is an indigenous, perennial grass of North America that is being developed into a cellulosic biomass crop suitable for biofuel production. Limited research has been performed into the breeding of prairie cordgrass; this research details an initial investigation into the development of a breeding program for this species. Genomic libraries enriched for four simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were developed, 25 clones from each library were sequenced, identifying 70?SSR regions, and primers were developed for these regions, 35 of which were amplified under standard PCR conditions. These SSR markers were used to validate the crossing methodology of prairie cordgrass and it was found that crosses between two plants occurred without the need for emasculation. The successful cross between two clones of prairie cordgrass indicates that this species is not self-incompatible. The results from this research will be used to instigate the production of a molecular map of prairie cordgrass which can be used to incorporate marker-assisted selection (MAS) protocols into a breeding program to improve this species for cellulosic biomass production. PMID:23227036
Gedye, K R; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J L; Owens, V; Boe, A
Modern dog breeding has given rise to more than 400 breeds differing both in morphology and behaviour. Traditionally, kennel clubs have utilized an artificial category system based on the morphological similarity and historical function of each dog breed. Behavioural comparisons at the breed-group level produced ambiguous results as to whether the historical function still has an influence on the breed-typical
The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often
D. M. A. Belemsaga; Y. Lombo; S. Thevenon; S. Sylla
This is the first in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from these lessons.
We investigated differences in annual breeding population stability and its relationship to diversity in food habits for several species of raptors. Chi-square tests showed no significant differences between observed and expected (based on logistic growth equation) breeding population sizes for Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) during recovery from pesticide induced declines in 4 Alaskan populations. This indicates that no major Peregrine
The aim of the current study was designed to explore possible breed differences in a basic behavioral phenotype in dogs. It measured paw use during food-retrieval from a cylindrical, hollow, rubber toy to assess motor laterality (pawedness) in 4 breeds of dogs selected for their morphological differences: 45 greyhounds (males n = 23\\/females n = 22), 47 whippets (15\\/32), 46
Paul D. McGreevy; Alex Brueckner; Peter C. Thomson; Nicholas J. Branson
Using a baiting technique, Chrysosporium georgiae was isolated from chicken feathers. Twenty-eight different fungal isolates\\u000a were evaluated for their ability to produce keratinase enzymes using a keratin–salt agar medium containing either white chicken\\u000a feathers or a prepared feather keratin suspension (KS). The Chrysosporium species were able to use keratin and grow at different\\u000a rates. Chrysosporium georgiae completely degraded the added
M. A. El-Naghy; M. S. El-Ktatny; E. M. Fadl-Allah; W. W. Nazeer
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of germline cells. Although avian PGCs have been used to produce transgenic birds,\\u000a their characteristics largely remain unknown. In this study, we isolated PGCs from chicken embryos at various developmental\\u000a stages and analyzed the gene expression. Using the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) as a marker of\\u000a chicken PGCs, we purified PGCs from
This study identified the indigenous criteria used by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala to assess the nutritional quality of available feed resources. Focus group discussions and questionnaire interviews (with a total of 120 livestock farming households) were conducted. The findings showed that banana peels, leftover food and own-mixed feeds were the most commonly used feed resources for cattle, pigs and chickens, respectively. Farmers use several indigenous criteria to judge the nutritional quality of the available feed resources. These included perceived effects on disease resistance, feed intake, growth/body condition, hair coat appearance, faecal output, faecal texture and level of production, among others. According to farmers, animals offered with a feed resource of good nutritional quality are more resistant to diseases, ingest much of the feed, gain weight with well-filled bodies, have smooth hair coats, produce large quantities of faeces that are not too firm or watery and exhibit good performance (lactating cows produce more milk, sows produce piglets of good body size, hens lay more eggs of normal size, etc.). Although this indigenous knowledge exists, farmers put more importance on availability and cost as opposed to nutritional quality when choosing feed resources. This explains why banana peels were among the feed resources perceived to be of low nutritional quality but, at the same time, were found to be the most commonly used. Hence, there is a need to sensitise farmers on the importance of nutritional quality in ensuring better and efficient utilisation of the available feed resources. PMID:23568618
Lumu, Richard; Katongole, Constantine Bakyusa; Nambi-Kasozi, Justine; Bareeba, Felix; Presto, Magdalena; Ivarsson, Emma; Lindberg, Jan Erik
This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.
D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann
Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonotic infectious diseases. The present work evaluated the effectiveness of steam treatment at 100 °C for 8s, a 5% lactic acid treatment for 1 min and their combination for inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni inoculated on chicken skin. The impact of each treatment on the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the effect of rinsing after contact with lactic acid were also evaluated. Residual bacteria were counted immediately after treatment or after seven days of storage at 4 °C. Results demonstrated the immediate efficiency of the steam and the combined treatments with reductions of approximately 6 and 5 log cfu/cm2 respectively for S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni. They also showed significant reductions (equal to or >3.2 log cfu/cm2) in the total aerobic mesophilic plate count. Lactic acid had a persistent effect on pathogen growth during storage which was significantly higher when the skin was not rinsed, reaching reductions of 3.8 log cfu/cm2 for both S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni. Only the combined treatments significantly reduced the recovery of the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria during storage. The significant reductions in both pathogens and total aerobic mesophilic bacteria on treated chicken skins are possible ways to improve the safety and shelf life of the product although high levels of indigenous non-pathogenic bacteria may be beneficial due to their protective effect against potential re-contamination of chicken skin. PMID:23454819
A federal report released by the Department of Families and Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA, 2009), entitled "Closing the Gap on Indigenous Disadvantage: The Challenge for Australia", highlighted the inequality that exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students based on a restricted access to resources, issues…
This dissertation is a case study and historical analysis of the rise of indigenous organizing in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico over the past three decades. The primary focus is on how indigenous organizations in Oaxaca reconstructed indigenous identity over the past three decades as part of their mobilization activities. The study traces the evolution of indigenous organizing from its
The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…
The preservation of Indigenous cultures is a controversial issue in Australia. On the one hand, the maintenance of traditional Indigenous culture has been viewed as a barrier to integration with mainstream society and the achievement of socio-economic equality between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. An alternative view sees maintenance…
Academics of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander descent are few in number but play a vital role in Australian university teaching. In addition to teaching both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students, they interact with academic colleagues in a context where pressures to "Indigenize" Australian curricula and increase Indigenous enrolments are…
This paper examines the idea of embedding Indigenous perspectives drawing upon a metaphor for designing an environment that nurtures Indigenous cultural identity and relationships. This paper constitutes a teacher's personal story of emerging understandings of Indigenous Standpoint Theory and pedagogy, which began with embedding Indigenous…
The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY). The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50) (ED50= 477 mg/kg). Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds.
Aguilar, Irma; Sanchez, Elda E.; Giron, Maria E.; Estrella, Amalid; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodriguez-Acosta, F. Alexis
The genetic determination of eggshell coloration has not been determined in birds. Here we report that the blue eggshell is caused by an EAV-HP insertion that promotes the expression of SLCO1B3 gene in the uterus (shell gland) of the oviduct in chicken. In this study, the genetic map location of the blue eggshell gene was refined by linkage analysis in an F2 chicken population, and four candidate genes within the refined interval were subsequently tested for their expression levels in the shell gland of the uterus from blue-shelled and non-blue-shelled hens. SLCO1B3 gene was found to be the only one expressed in the uterus of blue-shelled hens but not in that of non-blue-shelled hens. Results from a pyrosequencing analysis showed that only the allele of SLCO1B3 from blue-shelled chickens was expressed in the uterus of heterozygous hens (O*LC/O*N). SLCO1B3 gene belongs to the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family; and the OATPs, functioning as membrane transporters, have been reported for the transportation of amphipathic organic compounds, including bile salt in mammals. We subsequently resequenced the whole genomic region of SLCO1B3 and discovered an EAV-HP insertion in the 5? flanking region of SLCO1B3. The EAV-HP insertion was found closely associated with blue eggshell phenotype following complete Mendelian segregation. In situ hybridization also demonstrated that the blue eggshell is associated with ectopic expression of SLCO1B3 in shell glands of uterus. Our finding strongly suggests that the EAV-HP insertion is the causative mutation for the blue eggshell phenotype. The insertion was also found in another Chinese blue-shelled breed and an American blue-shelled breed. In addition, we found that the insertion site in the blue-shelled chickens from Araucana is different from that in Chinese breeds, which implied independent integration events in the blue-shelled chickens from the two continents, providing a parallel evolutionary example at the molecular level.
Data are presented on the genetics of the plumage color of the Villafranquina, a breed of Spanish chicken representing a black-tailed red type of the columbian restriction pattern. Crosses between Villafranquina females, which show a large amount of secondary pattern, and Brown and Buttercup tester males suggested that this breed carries the brown allele (eb) at the E-locus. This allele is modified by the dark-brown columbian-like gene (Db), resulting in the plumage pattern characteristic of the breed. The degree of expression of Db varies markedly depending on other key genes present. This gene acted as an incomplete dominant when crossed to brown (eb) and buttercup (ebc) tester lines. However, in the presence of the birchen (ER) gene, Db was recessive in females but dominant in males, suggesting sex-influenced inheritance. Silver (S) does not alter the brown down of Db-modified ER, although it does express itself readily on a brown (eb) background. Variability in the expression of Db in both F1 and F2 populations suggests that it sometimes interacts with not yet identified modifying genes. PMID:3405912
Fossil records, archaeological proofs, and historical documents report that horses persisted continuously in the Iberian Peninsula since the Pleistocene and were taken to the American continent (New World) in the 15th century. To investigate the variation within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Iberian and New World horse breeds, to analyze their relationships, and to test the historical origin of New World horses, a total of 153 samples, representing 30 Iberian and New World breeds, were analyzed by sequencing mtDNA control region fragments. Fifty-four haplotypes were found and assigned to seven haplogroups. Reduced levels of variation found for the Menorquina, Sorraia, and Sulphur Mustang breeds are consistent with experienced bottlenecks or limited number of founders. For all diversity indices, Iberian breeds showed higher diversity values than South American and North American breeds. Although, the results show that the Iberian and New World breeds stem from multiple origins, we present a set of genetic data revealing a high frequency of Iberian haplotypes in New World breeds, which is consistent with historical documentation. PMID:16489143
Luís, Cristina; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Cothran, E Gus; Oom, Maria do Mar
The aims of this study were to critically analyse Indigenous students' self-concepts and schooling, further education, and employment aspirations. A total of 1686 secondary students (517 Indigenous and 1151 non-Indigenous) from urban and rural regions from 3 Australian States completed a questionnaire. Significantly more Indigenous students in comparison to non-Indigenous students aspired to: leave school early, go to Technical and
Substance misuse is a significant issue in Australia, and a large proportion of individuals with substance misuse disorders have co-existing mental health disorders. There is evidence that Indigenous Australians are more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to experience the adverse effects of alcohol consumption, and that mental health disorders are more prevalent in Indigenous communities than non-Indigenous communities. Indigenous Australians currently
Indigenous and non-Indigenous Western Australians with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza (pH1N1) infection were compared for risk factors, influenza vaccination history, symptoms, use of antiviral medications, and hospitalisation. Data were collected systematically on 856 notified cases with laboratory confirmed pH1N1 infection during the first 10 weeks of pH1N1 virus transmission in Western Australia in 2009. Indigenous people with pH1N1 were approximately
Leigh S Goggin; Dale Carcione; Donna B Mak; Gary K Dowse; Carolien M Giele; David W Smith; Paul V Effler
Interferons (IFNs) are essential components of the antiviral defense system of vertebrates. In mammals, functional receptors for type III IFN (lambda interferon [IFN-?]) are found mainly on epithelial cells, and IFN-? was demonstrated to play a crucial role in limiting viral infections of mucosal surfaces. To determine whether IFN-? plays a similar role in birds, we produced recombinant chicken IFN-? (chIFN-?) and we used the replication-competent retroviral RCAS vector system to generate mosaic-transgenic chicken embryos that constitutively express chIFN-?. We could demonstrate that chIFN-? markedly inhibited replication of various virus strains, including highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, in ovo and in vivo, as well as in epithelium-rich tissue and cell culture systems. In contrast, chicken fibroblasts responded poorly to chIFN-?. When applied in vivo to 3-week-old chickens, recombinant chIFN-? strongly induced the IFN-responsive Mx gene in epithelium-rich organs, such as lungs, tracheas, and intestinal tracts. Correspondingly, these organs were found to express high transcript levels of the putative chIFN-? receptor alpha chain (chIL28RA) gene. Transfection of chicken fibroblasts with a chIL28RA expression construct rendered these cells responsive to chIFN-? treatment, indicating that receptor expression determines cell type specificity of IFN-? action in chickens. Surprisingly, mosaic-transgenic chickens perished soon after hatching, demonstrating a detrimental effect of constitutive chIFN-? expression. Our data highlight fundamental similarities between the IFN-? systems of mammals and birds and suggest that type III IFN might play a role in defending mucosal surfaces against viral intruders in most if not all vertebrates. PMID:24371053
The horse has been a food source, but more importantly, it has been a means for transport. Its domestication was one of the crucial steps in the history of human civilization. Despite the archaeological and molecular studies carried out on the history of horse domestication, which would contribute to conservation of the breeds, the details of the domestication of horses still remain to be resolved. We employed 21 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region partial sequences to analyse genetic variability within and among four Anatolian native horse breeds, Ayvac?k Pony, Malakan Horse, H?n?s Horse and Canik Horse, as well as samples from indigenous horses of unknown breed ancestry. The aims of the study were twofold: first, to produce data from the prehistorically and historically important land bridge, Anatolia, in order to assess its role in horse domestication and second, to analyse the data from a conservation perspective to help the ministry improve conservation and management strategies regarding native horse breeds. Even though the microsatellite data revealed a high allelic diversity, 98% of the genetic variation partitioned within groups. Genetic structure did not correlate with a breed or geographic origin. High diversity was also detected in mtDNA control region sequence analysis. Frequencies of two haplogroups (HC and HF) revealed a cline between Asia and Europe, suggesting Anatolia as a probable connection route between the two continents. This first detailed genetic study on Anatolian horse breeds revealed high diversity among horse mtDNA haplogroups in Anatolia and suggested Anatolia's role as a conduit between the two continents. The study also provides an important basis for conservation practices in Turkey. PMID:22497212
Koban, E; Denizci, M; Aslan, O; Aktoprakligil, D; Aksu, S; Bower, M; Balcioglu, B K; Ozdemir Bahadir, A; Bilgin, R; Erdag, B; Bagis, H; Arat, S
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?) is a key molecule in adipocyte differentitation; it transactivates multiple target genes in lipid metabolic pathways. Using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing, we evaluated a potential association of an SNP (72472 G?T in exon7) of the bovine PPAR-? gene with carcass and meat quality traits in 660 individuals from five Chinese indigenous cattle breeds, Qinchuan (QC), Luxi (LX), Nanyang (NY), Jiaxian (JX), and Xianan (XN). This 72472 G?T mutation identified a missense mutation, Q448H. Two alleles were named C and D. Allele frequencies of PPAR-?-C/D in the five breeds were 0.7815/0.2185, 0.9/0.1, 0.7442/0.2558, 0.7051/0.2949, and 0.8333/0.1667 for QC, NY, JX, LX, and XN, respectively. Except for the XN breed, all breeds were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at this locus. The polymorphism information content was low for NY and XN (0.16 and 0.24, respectively), while it was moderately high for QC, JX, and LX (0.28, 0.31 and 0.33, respectively). Correlation analysis showed significant association of this missense mutation with carcass length, backfat thickness and water holding capacity in the QC breed. Animals with the genotype CD had significantly greater carcass length than those with genotypes CC and DD, while animals with genotype CC had significantly greater backfat thickness than those with genotypes CD and DD. Animals with genotype CC had lower water holding capacity than those with the genotypes CD and DD. In conclusion, this locus is a candidate for a major quantitative trait locus affecting production traits and could be used for beef breeding selection. PMID:22930427
This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic pr...
This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic pr...
This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic pr...
D. O. Hitzman A. K. Stepp D. M. Dennis L. R. Graumann
This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic pr...
D. O. Hitzman A. K. Stepp D. M. Dennis L. R. Graumann
This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic pr...
D. O. Hitzman A. K. Stepp D. D. Dennis L. R. Graumann
The peer-reviewed resource portrays how an ethical approach to genetic testing of indigenous populations requires protection from racial discrimination, preservation of human rights, prior informed consent of individuals, and retention of a population's cultural self-determination.
The issue- based, peer reviewed article considers how an ethical approach to genetic testing of indigenous populations requires protection from racial discrimination, preservation of human rights, prior informed consent of individuals, and retention of a populations cultural self-determination.
Air drying of raw sludge caused inactivation of indigenous viruses. A gradual loss of infectivity occurred with the loss of water until the solids content reached about 80%. A more rapid decline of viral infectivity occurred with further dewatering....
Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.
Recurring infection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an avian oncogenic gammaretrovirus, has been a major obstacle in attempts to breed and release the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken (Tympanicus cupido attwateri). The aim of this study was to develop a DNA vaccine that protects the birds against REV infection. A plasmid was constructed expressing fusion proteins of REV envelope (env) and VP22 of Gallid herpesvirus 2 or REV gag and VP22. Birds vaccinated with these recombinant plasmids developed neutralizing antibodies; showed delayed replication of virus; and had significantly less infection of lymphocytes, specifically CD4+ lymphocytes. Although the vaccine did not prevent infection, it offered partial protection. Birds in field conditions and breeding facilities could potentially benefit from increased immunity when vaccinated. PMID:23805542
Drechsler, Yvonne; Tkalcic, Suzana; Saggese, Miguel D; Shivaprasad, H L; Ajithdoss, Dharani K; Collisson, Ellen W
We investigated characteristics of established non-indigenous (ENI) terrestrial vertebrates in Israel and adjacent areas,\\u000a as well as attributes of areas they occupy. Eighteen non-indigenous birds have established populations in this region since\\u000a 1850. A database of their attributes was compiled, analyzed, and compared to works from elsewhere. Most ENI bird species are\\u000a established locally; a few are spreading or widespread.
This paper discusses the creative and contemporary performances of young Indigenous hip-hoppers in two seemingly disparate places (Nowra, NSW, and Torres Strait Islands, QLD). Visiting two Indigenous hip-hop groups from these places—and drawing on interviews and participant observation—we explore the way in which emerging technologies, festivals, programs and online networking have helped enable unique forms of music making. In contrast
The chicken is a useful animal for preparation of antibodies that are reactive with highly conserved mammalian molecules. For further clinical application of chicken antibodies, we constructed the novel expression vectors for chicken–human chimeric antibodies, pcSLC?1, pcSLC?4 and pcSLC?. These vectors had the following characteristics: (1) any chicken variable regions from hybridomas or a phage display library can be easily
Aim: An indigenous apparatus is designed to measure the orthodontic force delivered from elastomeric chains and compare this force with values obtained from the Instron universal testing machine. Material and Methods: An indigenously designed apparatus is developed to evaluate forces delivered by various orthodontic auxiliaries. The apparatus consists of a flat steel platform, movable arm, and a mounted screw gauge arm. Orthodontic brackets can be attached to these arms. An electric circuit is connected, to the movable arm, which will estimate the forces exerted between brackets with elastomeric chain. The circuit is connected to the signal conditioner which will display the reading. Elastomeric chain with four links is attached to the arms. The movable arm is adjusted to create orthodontic forces and calibrated on the digital displayer. Twenty Elastomeric chains are used and forces are calibrated with the indigenously designed apparatus. The values of the force is compared with the forces calibrated with Instron universal testing machine to compare the efficacy of the indigenous apparatus. Results: The force values obtained from activation of elastomeric chain segments, in the Instron universal testing machine and the indigenous apparatus were in the range of 100 to 150 grams, initially at 1mm activation then, took a steep rise to 300 to 350 grams at 5mm activation and then, had a gradual increase for the remaining 5mm activation, reaching 400 to 450 grams. Conclusion: The Indigenous apparatus can be considered efficient in measuring tensile force generated by orthodontic auxiliaries. PMID:24392423
Dinesh, S P Saravana; Arun, A V; Sundari, K K Shantha; Samantha, Christine; Ambika, K
Indigenous Australians suffer significant disadvantage in health outcomes and have a life expectancy well below that of non-Indigenous Australians. Mortality rates of Indigenous Australians are higher than that of Indigenous populations in developed countries elsewhere in the world. A number of parasitic diseases which are uncommon in the rest of the Australian population contribute to the high burden of disease in many remote Indigenous communities. High rates of infection with enteric parasites such as Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris have been recorded and infection of the skin with the ecto-parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei is also a substantial problem. Secondary infection of scabies lesions, including with Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus, can produce serious sequelae such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Transmission of many parasites in many remote communities is facilitated by overcrowded living conditions and infrastructure problems which result in poor sanitation and hygiene. Improvements in environmental health conditions must accompany medical initiatives to achieve sustainable improvement in the health of Indigenous Australians. PMID:20412810
Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James S; Carapetis, Jonathan R
Chicken intestine and tannery fleshings, the major wastes from poultry and tannery industries posing wide disposal problems, are used in this study for the recovery of proteins through biodegradation. Chicken intestines have been investigated as a source of proteolytic and autolytic enzymes for the hydrolysis of tannery fleshings. A combination of tannery fleshings and chicken intestines at acidic pH, when
This study investigated the effect of supplementation with chicken extract on plasma and colostrum protein compositions in lactating women. Thirty healthy pregnant women were evenly divided into the control (n = 15) or chicken extract (CE) group (n = 15). The CE group was given one bottle (70 mL\\/bottle) of chicken extract three times a day to provide 18 g
Jane C.-J. Chao; Hsu-Ping Tseng; Ching Wen Chang; Yi-Yi Chien; Heng Kien Au; Jiun-Rong Chen; Chin-Fa Chen
Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC) cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous), prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively), and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P < 0.001), specifically HPV clades ?5 (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.3) and ?7, excluding type 18 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3). In multivariate analysis, detection of any HPV genotype was strongly associated with smoking and Pap-test abnormalities, with both risk factors more common among Indigenous women. Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact.
Introduction The prevalence of undernutrition, which is closely associated with socioeconomic and sanitation conditions, is often higher among indigenous than non-indigenous children in many countries. In Brazil, in spite of overall reductions in the prevalence of undernutrition in recent decades, the nutritional situation of indigenous children remains worrying. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first study to evaluate a nationwide representative sample of indigenous peoples. This paper presents findings from this study on the nutritional status of indigenous children?5 years of age in Brazil. Methods A multi-stage sampling was employed to obtain a representative sample of the indigenous population residing in villages in four Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, and Southeast/South). Initially, a stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for indigenous villages located in these regions. Households in sampled villages were selected by census or systematic sampling depending on the village population. The survey evaluated the health and nutritional status of children?5 years, in addition to interviewing mothers or caretakers. Results Height and weight measurements were taken of 6,050 and 6,075 children, respectively. Prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 25.7%, 5.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. Even after controlling for confounding, the prevalence rates of underweight and stunting were higher among children in the North region, in low socioeconomic status households, in households with poorer sanitary conditions, with anemic mothers, with low birthweight, and who were hospitalized during the prior 6 months. A protective effect of breastfeeding for underweight was observed for children under 12 months. Conclusions The elevated rate of stunting observed in indigenous children approximates that of non-indigenous Brazilians four decades ago, before major health reforms greatly reduced its occurrence nationwide. Prevalence rates of undernutrition were associated with socioeconomic variables including income, household goods, schooling, and access to sanitation services, among other variables. Providing important baseline data for future comparison, these findings further suggest the relevance of social, economic, and environmental factors at different scales (local, regional, and national) for the nutritional status of indigenous peoples.
Indigenous participation rates in higher education are significantly lower than the rates reported for non-Indigenous people in Australia--with the greatest disparity evident in the area of postgraduate studies. This problem needs to be addressed by providing culturally appropriate support mechanisms to Indigenous postgraduate students. This…
This lesson discusses the final stage of developing genetically engineered crops. The need for backcrossing, and the steps of this breeding method are described. Yield lag, yield drag, and gene stacking are also discussed.
Please join us for the 2014 UNL Plant Breeding and Genetics Symposium!April 1, 2014 UNL plant breeding and genetics graduate students are excited to organize and host the 2nd UNL Plant Breeding and Genetics Symposium. The 2012 symposium was a big success and we look forward to having another great symposium this year. We welcome UNL students and faculty as well as visitors from surrounding plant breeding research stations.The symposium will also be offered online as a live webinar. If you can not attend in person, please take advantage of the webinar. Registration is encouraged for the webinar, so we can send you additional information about viewing the webinar closer to the symposium date.
The 2006 Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey of Southern Saskatchewan was conducted 5-25 May and was consistent in design and coverage to previous surveys. Wetland and upland habitat conditions were variable across Southern Saskatchewan durin...
The 2005 Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey of Southern Saskatchewan was conducted 5-31 May and was consistent in design and coverage to previous years surveys. Wetland and upland habitat conditions were variable across Southern Saskatchewan...
Summarized are recent studies in the breeding improvements of rubber yield in guayule. Breeders working for the Emergency Rubber Project developed a number of cultivars from which seed was preserved and stored by USDA. These activars, augmented by new col...
Breeding objectives always involve consideration of multiple traits, even in situations where output of a single trait is\\u000a dominant. We review literature dealing with formal definition of breeding objectives. Involvement of farmers in the process\\u000a of setting up breeding objectives is also considered. In the optimal selection index, the relative importance of a trait is\\u000a scaled by its economic value,
Johann Sölkner; Heinrich Grausgruber; Ally Mwai Okeyo; Peter Ruckenbauer; Maria Wurzinger
"Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, p<0.001), as did breed group (F=10.66, numDF=8, denDF=772, p<0.001). Herding and gundog groups were broken into sub-groups based on historic breed purpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; p<0.001), and tending and loose-eyed herding breeds were bolder than heading and cattle-herding breeds (Reg. Coef.=1.744; S.E.=0.866; p=0.045 and Reg. Coef.=1.842; S.E.=0.693; p=0.0084, respectively). This study supports the existence of the shy-bold continuum in dogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. PMID:23603555
Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D
Background The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes) and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. Methods A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N?=?1660 men and women, 18–96?years). Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI?18.5?kg/m2), anaemia, goitre, suspected tuberculosis and hypertension was compared across forward castes, other backward classes and tribal populations. Multi-level weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the predicted prevalence of morbidity for each age and social group. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to further explore the health gap between tribes and non-tribes, and between subgroups of tribes. Results Social stratification remains a strong determinant of health in the progressive social policy environment of Kerala. The tribal groups are bearing a higher burden of underweight (46.1 vs. 24.3%), anaemia (9.9 vs. 3.5%) and goitre (8.5 vs. 3.6%) compared to non-tribes, but have similar levels of tuberculosis (21.4 vs. 20.4%) and hypertension (23.5 vs. 20.1%). Significant health inequalities also exist within tribal populations; the Paniya have higher levels of underweight (54.8 vs. 40.7%) and anaemia (17.2 vs. 5.7%) than other Scheduled Tribes. The social gradient in health is evident in each age group, with the exception of hypertension. The predicted prevalence of underweight is 31 and 13 percentage points higher for Paniya and other Scheduled Tribe members, respectively, compared to Forward Caste members 18–30?y (27.1%). Higher hypertension is only evident among Paniya adults 18–30?y (10 percentage points higher than Forward Caste adults of the same age group (5.4%)). The decomposition analysis shows that poverty and other determinants of health only explain 51% and 42% of the health gap between tribes and non-tribes for underweight and goitre, respectively. Conclusions Policies and programmes designed to benefit the Scheduled Tribes need to promote their well-being in general but also target the specific needs of the most vulnerable indigenous groups. There is a need to enhance the capacity of the disadvantaged to equally take advantage of health opportunities.