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Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenouschicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenouschickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenouschickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenouschickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenouschickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.
Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenouschicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenouschickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenouschickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenouschickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenouschickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206
1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenouschicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74?g average daily gain and 57·96?g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme. PMID:23444855
This study examined the effects of 4 genotypes of chicken, all suitable for extensive fattening, on carcass and meat quality using 320 chickens divided into 4 equally sized groups. The comparison included 2 indigenouschicken strains from Thailand, Black-boned and Thai native (Thai), and 2 imported chickenbreeds, Bresse and Rhode Island Red (Rhode, a layer breed). The animals were fed until 16 wk of age. Breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (biceps femoris) muscles were studied in detail. Chickens of the imported breeds were heavier at slaughter than indigenous strains, especially Black-boned chickens. Proportions of retail cuts with bones were similar among genotypes, whereas deboned breast meat and lean:bone ratio were lowest in the layer breed (Rhode). The meat of the Black-boned chickens was darker than that of the other genotypes. Thai and Rhode chickens had a particularly yellow skin. The ratio of red and intermediate to white fibers was higher in the thigh muscle, and the diameter of all muscle fiber types in both muscles was smaller in the indigenous compared with the imported breeds. The meat of the 2 indigenous Thai strains had lower contents of fat and cholesterol compared with that of the imported breeds, especially relative to the Rhode chickens (thigh meat). The meat of the indigenous origins, especially of the Thai chickens, was higher in shear force and collagen content (thigh only) than meat of the imported breeds. The meat lipids of the Thai chickens had particularly high proportions of n-3 fatty acids and a favorably low n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio compared with the other genotypes. In conclusion, meat of indigenouschickens has some unique features and seems to have more advantages over imported breeds than disadvantages, especially when determined for a niche market serving consumers who prefer chewy, low-fat chicken meat. PMID:18079466
Jaturasitha, S; Srikanchai, T; Kreuzer, M; Wicke, M
A bio-economic model was developed to evaluate the utilisation of indigenouschickens (IC) under different production systems accounting for the risk attitude of the farmers. The model classified the production systems into three categories based on the level of management: free-range system (FRS), where chickens were left to scavenge for feed resources with no supplementation and healthcare; intensive system (IS), where the chickens were permanently confined and supplied with rationed feed and healthcare; and semi-intensive system (SIS), a hybrid of FRS and IS, where the chickens were partially confined, supplemented with rationed feeds, provided with healthcare and allowed to scavenge within the homestead or in runs. The model allows prediction of the live weights and feed intake at different stages in the life cycle of the IC and can compute the profitability of each production system using both traditional and risk-rated profit models. The input parameters used in the model represent a typical IC production system in developing countries but are flexible and therefore can be modified to suit specific situations and simulate profitability and costs of other poultry species production systems. The model has the capability to derive the economic values as changes in the genetic merit of the biological parameter results in marginal changes in profitability and costs of the production systems. The results suggested that utilisation of IC in their current genetic merit and production environment is more profitable under FRS and SIS but not economically viable under IS. PMID:22644732
Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J
To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers' choice of chickenbreeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers' selection practices. The participatory farmers' discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective "traits" and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and "traits" identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers' ratings of indigenouschickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenouschickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production environment was the most important attribute of chickens in all the study areas. The high significance attributed to reproduction traits indicates the need for maintaining broody behavior and high level of hatchability while breeding for improved productivity of indigenouschickens for village conditions. The market price of chickens is primarily dictated by weight, but farmers rated growth (males) and number of eggs followed by growth (females) as the production traits they would like the most to be improved. Therefore, the ultimate breeding goal should be to develop a dual-purpose breed based on indigenouschicken genetic resources with any of the comb types other than single for all the regions studied having the most preferred white body plumage for farmers in the Amhara region and red body plumage for those in Oromia, Benshangul-Gumuz, and Southern regions. PMID:20512411
Dana, Nigussie; van der Waaij, Liesbeth H; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A M
To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers’ choice of chickenbreeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers’ selection practices. The participatory farmers’ discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective “traits” and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and “traits” identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers’ ratings of indigenouschickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenouschickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production environment was the most important attribute of chickens in all the study areas. The high significance attributed to reproduction traits indicates the need for maintaining broody behavior and high level of hatchability while breeding for improved productivity of indigenouschickens for village conditions. The market price of chickens is primarily dictated by weight, but farmers rated growth (males) and number of eggs followed by growth (females) as the production traits they would like the most to be improved. Therefore, the ultimate breeding goal should be to develop a dual-purpose breed based on indigenouschicken genetic resources with any of the comb types other than single for all the regions studied having the most preferred white body plumage for farmers in the Amhara region and red body plumage for those in Oromia, Benshangul-Gumuz, and Southern regions.
van der Waaij, Liesbeth H.; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A. M.
In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida were compared in two chickenbreeds, the indigenous Vietnamese Ri and the commercial Luong Phuong. Furthermore, the association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) with disease-related parameters was evaluated, using alleles of the LEI0258 microsatellite as markers for MHC haplotypes. The Ri chickens were found to be more resistant to A. galli and S. Enteritidis than commercial Luong Phuong chickens. In contrast, the Ri chickens were more susceptible to P. multocida, although production parameters were more affected in the Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that the individual variations observed in response to the infections were influenced by the MHC. Using marker alleles of the microsatellite LEI0258, which is located within the MHC region, several MHC haplotypes were identified as being associated with infection intensity of A. galli. An association of the MHC with the specific antibody response to S. Enteritidis was also found where four MHC haplotypes were shown to be associated with high specific antibody response. Finally, one MHC haplotype was identified as being associated with pathological lesions and mortality in the P. multocida experiment. Although not statistically significant, our analysis suggested that this haplotype might be associated with resistance. These results demonstrate the presence of local genetic resources in Vietnamese chickens, which could be utilized in breeding programmes aiming at improving disease resistance. PMID:19945754
Schou, T W; Labouriau, R; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Sørensen, P; Cu, H P; Nguyen, V K; Juul-Madsen, H R
The economic values for productive (egg number, average daily gain, live weight, and mature weight) and functional (fertility, hatchability, broodiness, survival rate, feed intake, and egg weight) traits were derived for three production systems utilizing indigenouschicken in Kenya. The production systems considered were free-range, semi-intensive, and intensive system and were evaluated based on fixed flock size and fixed feed resource production circumstances. A bio-economic model that combined potential performances, feeding strategies, optimum culling strategies, farmer's preferences and accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and economic dynamics was employed to derive risk-rated economic values. The economic values for all the traits were highest in free-range system under the two production circumstances and decreased with level of intensification. The economic values for egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate were positive while those for mature weight, broodiness, egg weight, and feed intake were negative. Generally, the economic values estimated under fixed feed resource production circumstances were higher than those derived under fixed flock size. The difference between economic values estimated using simple (traditional) and risk-rated profit model functions ranged from -47.26% to +67.11% indicating that inclusion of risks in estimation of economic values is important. The results of this study suggest that improvement targeting egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate would have a positive impact on profitability of indigenouschicken production in Kenya. PMID:22246574
Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J
This study examined the effects of 4 geno- types of chicken, all suitable for extensive fattening, on carcass and meat quality using 320 chickens divided into 4 equally sized groups. The comparison included 2 indig- enous chicken strains from Thailand, Black-boned and Thai native (Thai), and 2 imported chickenbreeds, Bresse and Rhode Island Red (Rhode, a layer breed). The
S. Jaturasitha; T. Srikanchai; M. Kreuzer; M. Wicke
General and specific combining abilities for feed efficiency in 5,191 chicks from a combination of four breeds of chickens,\\u000a (Anak Titan (A), Alpha (B), Giriraja (G), and normal indigenous (N) chickens) were examined by means of diallel analysis.\\u000a The analysis revealed that Anak Titan had the highest general combining ability of 0.07?±?0.00 while the least was Alpha with\\u000a a value
Growth performances and feed utilization potentials of six chicken populations were investigated at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopia. Five local ecotypes originated from different Agro- ecologies and corresponding market sheds in Ethiopia, namely, Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi, and the Fayoumi breed was used as a reference breed. Ecotype had a significant (p<0.01) effect on overall body weight gain
Indigenouschicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes\\u000a of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six\\u000a counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers’ management practices\\u000a were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels
Tobias O. Okeno; Alexander K. Kahi; Kurt J. Peters
This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chickenbreeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens. PMID:17166322
Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L
1. The study investigated the extent of hyperpigmentation (a trait fixed in native Indian Kadaknath chickens), bodyweight, carcase quality and leanness at 12 weeks of age in F1 and back-crosses of Kadaknath with White Leghorn, White Plymouth Rock and Aseel Peela chickens.2. The objective of the study was to determine if hyperpigmentation was affected by the major gene Fibromelanosis (Fm)
G. Arora; S. K. Mishra; B. Nautiyal; S. O. Pratap; A. Gupta; C. K. Beura; D. P. Singh
There is a variety of professions working with village chickens in developing countries, including farmers, veterinarians and chicken traders. People from all these occupations were involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country, in the Yangon and in the Mandalay divisions. The breeding and training of fighting cocks was practised only in the Mandalay division, with well-trained birds sold for very high prices. Apart from this, chickens were raised in both regions mainly for small disposable income and were generally sold when money was needed, in particular during religious festivals. Chicken traders on bicycles, often called 'middle men', usually purchase birds from farmers in about 10 villages per day. Several 'middle men' supply birds to wealthier chicken merchants, who sell these birds at larger chicken markets. There is in general limited knowledge among farmers about the prevention of Newcastle disease via vaccination. Commercial indigenouschicken production is practised in Myanmar, but family poultry farming dominates indigenouschicken production in the country. PMID:17265778
The present study was conducted to assess the performance of indigenouschickens under extensive system in southern Nyanza,\\u000a Kenya. The study was carried out in two phases in Komolorume and Kawere villages in Rongo and Rachuonyo districts, respectively.\\u000a The first phase was a cross-sectional study in 81 farms selected by cluster sampling to get the overview of the indigenous\\u000a chicken
Portas Odula Olwande; William O. Ogara; Samwel O. Okuthe; Gerald Muchemi; Edward Okoth; Maurice O. Odindo; Rubin F. Adhiambo
Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed,\\u000a age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) \\/ glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)\\u000a \\/ glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The\\u000a mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale,
M. Tibbo; Y. Jibril; M. Woldemeskel; F. Dawo; K. Aragaw; J. E. O. Rege
Identifying genomics regions that are affected by selection is important to understand the domestication and selection history of the domesticated chicken, as well as understanding molecular pathways underlying phenotypic traits and breeding goals. While whole-genome approaches, either high-density SNP chips or massively parallel sequencing, have been successfully applied to identify evidence for selective sweeps in chicken, it has been difficult to distinguish patterns of selection and stochastic and breed specific effects. Here we present a study to identify selective sweeps in a large number of chickenbreeds (67 in total) using a high-density (58 K) SNP chip. We analyzed commercial chickens representing all major breeding goals. In addition, we analyzed non-commercial chicken diversity for almost all recognized traditional Dutch breeds and a selection of representative breeds from China. Based on their shared history or breeding goal we in silico grouped the breeds into 14 breed groups. We identified 396 chromosomal regions that show suggestive evidence of selection in at least one breed group with 26 of these regions showing strong evidence of selection. Of these 26 regions, 13 were previously described and 13 yield new candidate genes for performance traits in chicken. Our approach demonstrates the strength of including many different populations with similar, and breed groups with different selection histories to reduce stochastic effects based on single populations.
Elferink, Martin G.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Vereijken, Addie; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Groenen, Martien A. M.
Background Detecting genetic variation is a critical step in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic diversity. Until recently, such detection has mostly focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) because of the ease in screening complete genomes. Another type of variant, copy number variation (CNV), is emerging as a significant contributor to phenotypic variation in many species. Here we describe a genome-wide CNV study using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in a wide variety of chickenbreeds. Results We identified 3,154 CNVs, grouped into 1,556 CNV regions (CNVRs). Thirty percent of the CNVs were detected in at least 2 individuals. The average size of the CNVs detected was 46.3 kb with the largest CNV, located on GGAZ, being 4.3 Mb. Approximately 75% of the CNVs are copy number losses relatively to the Red Jungle Fowl reference genome. The genome coverage of CNVRs in this study is 60 Mb, which represents almost 5.4% of the chicken genome. In particular large gene families such as the keratin gene family and the MHC show extensive CNV. Conclusions A relative large group of the CNVs are line-specific, several of which were previously shown to be related to the causative mutation for a number of phenotypic variants. The chance that inter-specific CNVs fall into CNVRs detected in chicken is related to the evolutionary distance between the species. Our results provide a valuable resource for the study of genetic and phenotypic variation in this phenotypically diverse species.
Although it is generally accepted that a ‘multiple origins’ hypothesis could explain the origin of Chinese goats, little supportive evidence from mtDNA control region sequencing analysis has been collected. We assessed the phylogenetic relationships among 84 individuals representing 13 Chinese indigenous goat breeds and Boer, using a hypervariable segment of mtDNA control region. A total of 49 haplotypes defined by
Bin Fan; Shi-Lin Chen; Jame H. Kijas; Bang Liu; Mei Yu; Shu-Hong Zhao; Meng-Jin Zhu; Tong-An Xiong; Kui Li
Four cattle breedsindigenous to western and south-western Ethiopia - Abigar, Gurage, Horro and Sheko - were included in a\\u000a study of the perceptions of smallholder cattle keepers regarding cattle management, production levels and constraints for\\u000a production. A semi-structured questionnaire was used and 60 cattle keepers from each of the four areas were interviewed. Diseases\\u000a were reported as the main
Jennie Stein; Workneh Ayalew; J. E. O. Rege; Woudyalew Mulatu; Birgitta Malmfors; Tadelle Dessie; Jan Philipsson
The aim of this research was to make a full study of the meat from Mos-breed roosters (Spanish indigenouschicken). To achieve this purpose, the type of breed (Mos vs. a hybrid line, Sasso T-44) and the effect of finishing treatment in the last month (corn vs. commercial fodder) on growth performance, carcass and meat quality (physicochemical and textural traits), fatty and amino acid profile, and sensorial description were studied. The finishing feeding effect did not modify the growth, but the differences between genotypes were statistically significant (P < 0.05), in where Sasso T-44 was the genotype that generated the best growths and associated parameters. With regard to carcass characteristics, no significant influences of finishing feeding treatment (P > 0.05) were found, and carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. Drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in Mos breed than in Sasso T-44 birds, whereas breast (15.2%), that is the most highly valued piece of the chicken, was similar for both genotypes. Significant differences in pH, protein, and ash content between genotypes have been found, whereas finishing feeding treatment had an effect on myoglobin and redness index (P < 0.01), showing meat from roosters fed with corn had a higher luminosity. Despite the fact of the slaughtered age of birds, values of shear force were slightly higher than 2 kg (2.11 kg) for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Mos breed showed a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (25.90 vs. 22.74; P < 0.001) and a lower percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (35.14 vs. 38.95; P < 0.001) than Sasso T-44 chicken muscles. Surprisingly, birds finishing with the corn diet (2 times higher in linolenic acid than fodder) did not increase their polyunsaturated fatty acid level in the breast, obtaining in the Mos breed a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.69. The amino acid profile of the indigenous-breed breast was not similar to that of the commercial-strain breast; besides, finishing feeding treatment had more of an effect on amino acid profile, affecting the majority of amino acids, with the exception of phenylalanine and threonine. PMID:22499883
The present study was conducted to assess the performance of indigenouschickens under extensive system in southern Nyanza, Kenya. The study was carried out in two phases in Komolorume and Kawere villages in Rongo and Rachuonyo districts, respectively. The first phase was a cross-sectional study in 81 farms selected by cluster sampling to get the overview of the indigenouschicken production. A four-month prospective longitudinal study in 60 farms randomly selected from the previous 81 farms followed. Mean flock sizes per household were 20 and 18 birds in Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. Overall mean flock size was 19 birds ranging from 1 to 64. The mean clutch size, egg weight and hatchability were 12 eggs, 48 g and 81% respectively in Komolorume and 10 eggs, 45 g and 70%, respectively, in Kawere. The chick survival rates to the age of eight weeks were 13% and 10% in Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. Mean live weights for cocks and hens were 2096 g and 1599 g in Komolorume and 2071 g and 1482 g in Kawere, respectively. The mean household cock to hen ratio was 2:5 and 2:4 for Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. The mean chick to grower to adult ratio per household was 8: 6:6 in Komolorume and 8:4:6 in Kawere. Clutch sizes and hatchability rates were significantly higher in Komolorume village (P < 0.5). The productivity of the indigenouschickens was shown to be low compared to that of the improved chickens in other parts of the world. PMID:19680773
Olwande, Portas Odula; Ogara, William O; Okuthe, Samwel O; Muchemi, Gerald; Okoth, Edward; Odindo, Maurice O; Adhiambo, Rubin F
In order to study genetic variation of tyrosinase gene in four different flesh color chickenbreeds selected from special\\u000a districts including Guyuan, Wenchang, Tibetan and Hisex chicken, five loci of the TYR gene exon-1 and one locus of 5? flanking region were analyzed in PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. The results indicated that\\u000a there were polymorphisms only at TYR1 and TYR3
J. Q. Zhang; H. Chen; Z. J. Sun; X. L. Liu; Y. Z. Qiang-Ba; Y. L. Gu
1.?Inter-breed morphological comparisons were made among 11 breeds of Japanese native chickens (Gifujidori, Hinaidori, Shokoku, Totenko, Tomaru, Satsumadori, Shamo, Koshamo, Koeyoshi, Chabo and Nagoya), White Leghorn, broiler chickens (Chunky) and red junglefowl collected in the Philippines, based on results of direct measurements and analysis by computer vision techniques of the skull.2.?Analysis of direct measurements identified two groups of chicken: a
Y. Ino; T. Oka; K. Nomura; T. Watanabe; S. Kawashima; T. Amano; Y. Hayashi; A. Okabe; Y. Uehara; T. Masuda; J. Takamatsu; A. Nakazawa; K. Ikeuchi; H. Endo; K. Fukuta; F. Akishinonomiya
A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7%) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9%). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4%), followed by Raillietina echinobothrida (32.2%). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised. PMID:20169754
The aim of the present work was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene exon 10, characterize the genetic variation in three Chinese indigenous goat breeds, and search for its potential association with cashmere traits. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) protocol has been developed for rapid genotyping of the GHR gene in goats. One hundred seventy-eight goats from Liaoning Cashmere (96), Inner Mongolia White Cashmere (40), and Chengdu Grey (42) breeds in China were genotyped at GHR locus using the protocol developed. In all goat breeds investigated, a SNP in exon 10 of GHR gene has been identified by analyzing genomic DNA. The polymorphism consists of a single nucleotide substitution A ? G, resulting in two alleles named, respectively, A and G based on the nucleotide at the position. The allele A was found to be more common in the animals investigated, and seems to be more consistent with cattle and zebu at this polymorphic site found in goats. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of genotype distributions of GHR locus was verified in Liaoning Cashmere, and Inner Mongolia White Cashmere breeds. According to the classification of polymorphism information content (PIC), Chengdu Grey was less polymorphic than Liaoning Cashmere and Inner Mongolia White Cashmere breeds at this locus. The phylogenetic tree of different species based on the nucleotide sequences of GHR gene exon 10 is generally in agreement with the known species relationship. No significant association was found between the polymorphism revealed and the cashmere traits analyzed in present work. PMID:20364329
Bai, W L; Zhou, C Y; Ren, Y; Yin, R H; Jiang, W Q; Zhao, S J; Zhang, S C; Zhang, B L; Luo, G B; Zhao, Z H
The Agouti gene plays an important role in pigment synthesis in domestic animals. A transversion of 423G>T recognized by BanII was found after a fragment (178 bp) of the goat Agouti gene exon 4 was amplified and sequenced. To investigate its genetic effect and diversity, 677 individuals from 12 indigenous\\u000a Chinese goat breeds and one imported goat breed from South Africa
The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783 goats and 1282 sheep kept by traditional farmers, covering nearly all the districts of Botswana. In each district a total of 15 farmers with sheep and goats were selected randomly and records were taken on 4-12 animals per farm, depending on average district flock size. Traits recorded for each animal were body length, body weight, ear length, heart girth, height at withers, hip width, neck length, rump height, shoulder width, tail length (goats only) and horn length. Age (estimated from dentition) and sex of the animals were also recorded and vegetation type was noted. The data were analysed using the general linear model procedure in Statistical Analysis System. Prior to analyses, a main effects model of sex, age and vegetation type was fitted. Later, two types of analyses were done: (i) within a vegetation type fitting sex and age and their interaction, and (ii) within sex fitting age and vegetation type and their interaction. Least-squares means were separated using Student's t-test. Sex, age and vegetation significantly (p<0.05) affected the magnitude of traits. Phenotypic body measurements of castrates were generally higher than in both females and entire males, which were similar. The body measurements of younger animals were less than those of older age groups since the former were still growing compared to the latter. Different vegetation types promoted different body measurements, which should be expected due to differences in nutrient supply from different vegetation types. The indigenousbreeds of sheep and goats can be classified as medium-size breeds. The breeds should be conserved since they are well suited to the harsh environment of Botswana where drought and livestock diseases are ever present. Efforts should be undertaken to characterize them genetically and increase their productivity. PMID:15643814
Nsoso, S J; Podisi, B; Otsogile, E; Mokhutshwane, B S; Ahmadu, B
A comparative study on the response of four indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia, namely Abigar, Horro, Sheko and Gurage, to natural challenge of trypanosomosis in the Tolley–Gullele area of the Ghibe valley has been undertaken from August 2000 until August 2004. Fifty female yearlings each of Horro, Sheko and Abigar and 31 of the Gurage were purchased from their natural
H. Lemecha; W. Mulatu; I. Hussein; E. Rege; T. Tekle; S. Abdicho; W. Ayalew
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of the cellular receptors that constitute a major component of the evolutionary conserved pattern recognition system (PRR). TLRs are expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types. In this study we compared the expression profiles of the chicken TLR1, TLR2 and TLR5 genes in a range of organs (lung, ovary, liver, thymus, duodenum, spleen and large intestine) in commercial Hy-Line (HL) and indigenous Green-legged Partridgelike (GP) chickens. The level of mRNA was determined with RT-qPCR using the TaqMan probes for target and reference (ACTB) genes. We determined that the tissue profiles differed with respect to each TLR and they were ranked as follows: spleen, lungs, large intestine (TLR1), large intestine, lungs, thymus/ovary (TLR2) and lungs, thymus, liver (TLR5). A differential expression between HL and GP chickens was determined for TLR1 and TLR5 genes in large intestine and thymus of HL (P?0.05) and GP (P?0.05) chickens. We conclude that the commercial chickens expressed higher levels of TLR1 mRNA in large intestine and TLR5 mRNA in thymus than indigenouschickens. PMID:23873159
S?awi?ska, Anna; D'Andrea, Mariasilvia; Pilla, Fabio; Bednarczyk, Marek; Siwek, Maria
Four cattle breedsindigenous to western and south-western Ethiopia--Abigar, Gurage, Horro and Sheko--were included in a study of the perceptions of smallholder cattle keepers regarding cattle management, production levels and constraints for production. A semi-structured questionnaire was used and 60 cattle keepers from each of the four areas were interviewed. Diseases were reported as the main constraint to cattle production by a majority of livestock keepers in all areas except in the Sheko area, where over-stocking was the main constraint. Among diseases, trypanosomosis was the main livestock disease according to more than half of Gurage, Horro and Sheko keepers, whereas anthrax was most important in the Abigar area. Gurage had highest age at first calving, longest calving interval and also the lowest milk production, whereas Sheko and Abigar had the most favorable characteristics both for milk production (600-700 kg) and fertility (age at first mating 3-3.5 years and above 8 calves/cow). Cattle keepers in the Sheko area reported relatively less problems with cattle diseases compared to the other areas, especially regarding trypanosomosis. Abigar showed a different disease pattern than the other breeds and may also have advantages as regards trypanotolerance. PMID:19234873
Stein, Jennie; Ayalew, Workneh; Rege, J E O; Mulatu, Woudyalew; Malmfors, Birgitta; Dessie, Tadelle; Philipsson, Jan
The present study is the first demonstration of an association of the genetic serum Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) concentration with bacterial infections in chickens. The genetic serum MBL concentration was determined in two chickenbreeds, and the association with the specific Pasteurella multocida humoral immune response during an experimental infection was examined. Furthermore, we examined the association of the genetic serum MBL concentration with systemic infection. The chickens with systemic infection had a statistically significant lower mean serum MBL concentration than the rest of the chickens, suggesting that MBL plays an important role against P. multocida. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the specific antibody response and the genetic serum MBL concentration for both breeds. This indicates that MBL in chickens is capable of acting as the first line of defence against P. multocida by diminishing the infection before the adaptive immune response takes over. PMID:18922580
Schou, T W; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Cu, H P; Juul-Madsen, H R
The aim of this research was to study the Mos rooster breed growth performance, carcass, and meat quality. The breed effect (Mos vs. Sasso T-44) and finishing feed in the last month (fodder vs. corn) on animal growth, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty and amino acid profiles were studied using a randomized block design with initial weight as covariance. In total, 80 roosters (n = 30 of Sasso T-44 line and n = 50 of Mos breed) were used. They were separated by breed and allocated to 2 feeding treatment groups (concentrate and corn). Each feeding treatment group consisted of 15 and 25 roosters, for Sasso T-44 line and Mos breed, respectively. Finishing feeding did not affect growth parameters in the 2 genotypes of rooster tested (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the comparison between both types of roosters led to significant differences in growth parameters (P < 0.05). Regarding carcass characteristics, no significant influences of finishing feeding treatment (P > 0.05) were found, and as expected, carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. However, drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in the Mos breed than in the hybrid line. In color instrumental traits, roosters feeding with corn showed breast meat with significantly (P < 0.001) higher a* and b* values than those of cocks feeding with commercial fodder. Values of shear force were less than 2 kg for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Finishing with corn significantly increased (P < 0.001) the polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast; the Mos breed had a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.73. The amino acid profile of the indigenousbreed was not similar to that of the commercial strain. Finishing feeding treatment had a greater influence than breed effect on amino acid profile. PMID:22252364
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is the main source of glucose during chicken embryonic development, and it plays a major role in glucose homeostasis for developing embryos. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of gluconeogenesis, yet how hepatic PEPCK expression is differentially regulated between chickenbreeds remains elusive. In this study, fertile eggs from a slow-growing Chinese Yellow Feathered Chicken and a fast-growing White Recessive Rock Chicken were incubated under the same standard conditions, and serum and liver samples were collected on embryonic d 18 (18E). The fast-growing breed had a significantly higher fetal weight (P < 0.01) and serum glucose concentration (P < 0.05) compared with the slow-growing breed. The fast-growing breed also had significantly higher hepatic mRNA expression levels of the cystolic form of PEPCK (PEPCK-c; P < 0.05) and significantly higher hepatic mRNA and protein expression levels of cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB-1; P < 0.05). Moreover, the binding of phosphorylated CREB-1 to the PEPCK-c promoter tended to be higher in the fast-growing breed (P = 0.08). Breed-specific epigenetic modifications of the PEPCK-c promoter were also observed; the fast-growing breed demonstrated lower CpG methylation (P < 0.05) and histone H3 (P < 0.05) levels but more histone H3 acetylation (H3ac) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3; P < 0.05) compared with the slow-growing breed. Our results suggest that hepatic PEPCK-c expression is transcriptionally regulated in a breed-specific manner and that fast- and slow-growing broiler chicken fetuses exhibit different epigenetic modifications on their PEPCK-c promoter regions. PMID:24046422
The possibility exists for the accidental contamination of feedstuffs used in poultry and livestock feeds with diflubenzuron (Dimilin, TH 6040; N-[[(4-chlorophenyl)amino]-carbonyl]-2, 6-difluorobenzamide), an insect growth regulator. The effect of this insecticide on reproduction in chickens was tested by feeding diflubenzuron at levels of 1, 2.5, 25, and 250 ppm to male and female layer-breedchickens from 1 day of age through a laying cycle. Characteristics measured were egg production, egg weight, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability, and effects on the progeny. Feeding diflubenzuron at levels up to 250 ppm did not affect the characteristics measured. These results will be useful in evaluating the use of diflubenzuron in the field. PMID:6806793
The aim of this study was to analyze the variation of different genetic diversity measures in 5 Italian local chickenbreeds over a 4-yr period of conservation. The local breeds were Ermellinata di Rovigo, Padovana, Pépoi, Robusta Lionata, and Robusta Maculata. A total of 368 samples were chosen for the analysis among the birds hatched in the years 2002 and 2006. Genetic variation over 30 microsatellite loci was analyzed. All 30 microsatellites were polymorphic, with a total number of alleles equal to 251, a mean (±SD) of 8.367 ± 3.378 across populations and 3.233 ± 1.338 within population. After 4 yr of conservation, a loss of alleles occurred for all the microsatellites, with the exception of 4 loci. The total number of alleles and expected heterozygosity estimates significantly decreased during the 4 yr of conservation, whereas no significant differences were detected for the microsatellites polymorphism information content or for the observed heterozygosity estimates. A decrease of the inbreeding coefficient occurred for all the breeds, with the exception of Padovana and Robusta Lionata. All populations showed evidence of a persistent significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium caused by an excess of homozygotes, except Robusta Maculata, which reached the equilibrium in 2006. For Pépoi, Padovana, Ermellinata di Rovigo, and Robusta Maculata, molecular coancestry increased significantly (P < 0.001) after the 4 yr of conservation. No evident genetic structures were detectable within breed, both for 2002 and for 2006 individuals. However, a slight increase in the proportion of membership for each breed had occurred in the year 2006 compared with the data obtained in the year 2002. As consequence, within breed, individuals in 2006 appear more homogeneous, producing clearer, more distinctive and separated groups. Molecular markers analysis helped us monitor the genetic variability of local breeds involved in a conservation scheme, enabling the planning of new strategies for the improvement of in situ conservation schemes. PMID:21934000
A total of 2567 indigenous Greek ewes (Chios, Vlachiki and Vlachiki×Chios breeds) were used to determine the optimum time for insemination, following synchronization of oestrus with MAP-impregnated intravaginal sponges and PMSG during non-breeding season. Within each breed group, the ewes were divided into three subgroups and submitted to a double blind cervical artificial insemination 48 and 60h (subgroup I), 60
A Karagiannidis; S Varsakeli; G Karatzas; C Brozos
Background The predictive ability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) originates both from associations between high-density markers and QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) and from pedigree information. Thus, GEBV are expected to provide more persistent accuracy over successive generations than breeding values estimated using pedigree-based methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of GEBV in a closed population of layer chickens and to quantify their persistence over five successive generations using marker or pedigree information. Methods The training data consisted of 16 traits and 777 genotyped animals from two generations of a brown-egg layer breeding line, 295 of which had individual phenotype records, while others had phenotypes on 2,738 non-genotyped relatives, or similar data accumulated over up to five generations. Validation data included phenotyped and genotyped birds from five subsequent generations (on average 306 birds/generation). Birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP. Animal models using genomic or pedigree relationship matrices and Bayesian model averaging methods were used for training analyses. Accuracy was evaluated as the correlation between EBV and phenotype in validation divided by the square root of trait heritability. Results Pedigree relationships in outbred populations are reduced by 50% at each meiosis, therefore accuracy is expected to decrease by the square root of 0.5 every generation, as observed for pedigree-based EBV (Estimated Breeding Values). In contrast the GEBV accuracy was more persistent, although the drop in accuracy was substantial in the first generation. Traits that were considered to be influenced by fewer QTL and to have a higher heritability maintained a higher GEBV accuracy over generations. In conclusion, GEBV capture information beyond pedigree relationships, but retraining every generation is recommended for genomic selection in closed breeding populations.
The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783
S. J. Nsoso; B. Podisi; E. Otsogile; B. S. Mokhutshwane; B. Ahmadu
The present study was conducted to evaluate two Indian native chickenbreeds, namely, Aseel and Kadaknath for fertility, hatchability, genetic parameters of juvenile growth traits, and semen quality traits at the onset of sexual maturity. The fertility was similar in Aseel (86.96%) and Kadaknath (85.15%); however, a relatively higher hatchability was observed in Kadaknath (77.94%) than Aseel (70.74%). Heritability estimates of body weights at 4 weeks of age were almost similar in Aseel (0.37) and Kadaknath (0.39), while the estimate of body weight at 6 weeks of age was higher in Aseel (0.42) than Kadaknath (0.31). The heritability estimate of shank length at 6 weeks of age was lower in Aseel (0.16) compared to Kadaknath (0.35). The age at first egg in the flock was comparable in Aseel (148 days) and Kadaknath (150 days). Aseel breed with significantly (P ? 0.001) higher body weight, absolute and relative testes weights had significantly higher semen volume (P ? 0.05) and sperm motility (P ? 0.01) but had lower seminal plasma cholesterol level (P ? 0.05) as compared to Kadaknath. It can be concluded that there is a scope for genetic improvement of these two native breeds for juvenile growth traits since heritability estimates of these traits were relatively high. PMID:22068634
A comparative study on the response of four indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia, namely Abigar, Horro, Sheko and Gurage, to natural challenge of trypanosomosis in the Tolley-Gullele area of the Ghibe valley has been undertaken from August 2000 until August 2004. Fifty female yearlings each of Horro, Sheko and Abigar and 31 of the Gurage were purchased from their natural habitats and introduced in to medium to high tsetse-trypanosomosis challenge area of the Ghibe valley. While the natural habitats of first three breeds are naturally infested with tsetse flies and trypanosomosis, that of the Gurage is known to be very minimal, if any, and hence the Gurage breed was used in this study as the known susceptible breed. During the study animal health, production performance and tsetse fly situation were monitored monthly. The Sheko breed has manifested very significantly (p<0.001) high overall average packed cell volume (PCV) values (25%) compared to that of Abigar (24%), Horro (23%) and Gurage (22%). It also had the lowest mean trypanosome prevalence rate of 9% against 23% of Horro, 26% of Abigar and 27% of Gurage, and the least number of Berenil treatments (1.36) compared to Abigar (4.0), Horro (4.6) and Gurage (6.7). While the Abigar manifested high sensitivity and frequent death to PCV depression, the Horro showed strong resilience to PCV depression and better response to Berenil treatment assistance. At this stage the Sheko breed was also found to be equal to the other breeds in its reproductive performance. These results need to be substantiated with further in-depth investigation including immune response, animal behavior and environmental influences. PMID:16797843
Based on the results of participatory approaches to define traits in the breeding objectives, four scenarios of ram selection and ram use were compared via deterministic modelling of breeding plans for community-based sheep breeding programmes in four diverse agro-ecological regions of Ethiopia. The regions (and production systems) were Afar (pastoral/agro-pastoral), Bonga and Horro (both mixed crop-livestock) and Menz (sheep-barley). The schemes or scenarios differed in terms of selection intensity and duration of ram use. The predicted genetic gains per year in yearling weight (kilograms) were comparable across the schemes but differed among the breeds and ranged from 0.399 to 0.440 in Afar, 0.813 to 0.894 in Bonga, 0.850 to 0.940 in Horro, and 0.616 to 0.699 in Menz. The genetic gains per year in number of lambs born per ewe bred ranged from 0.009 to 0.010 in both Bonga and Horro. The predicted genetic gain in the proportion of lambs weaned per ewe joined was nearly comparable in all breeds ranging from 0.008 to 0.011. The genetic gain per year in milk yield of Afar breed was in the order of 0.018 to 0.020 kg, while the genetic gain per generation for greasy fleece weight (kg) ranged from 0.016 to 0.024 in Menz. Generally, strong selection and shorter duration of ram use for breeding were the preferred options. The expected genetic gains are satisfactory but largely rely on accurate and continuous pedigree and performance recording. PMID:22583329
Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Willam, A; Wurzinger, M; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Solkner, J
1 Abstract: Crossbreeding is one of the tools for exploiting genetic variation. The main purpose of crossing in chicken is to produce superior crosses (i.e. make use of hybrid vigor), improve fitness and fertility traits. This study was carried out at South Sinai Research Station located at Ras Suder, Egypt. Two local breeds namely Fayoumi (F) and Sinai (S) and
Breed utilization, genetic improvement, and industry consolidation are predicted to have major impacts on the genetic composition of commercial chickens. Consequently, the question arises as to whether sufficient genetic diversity remains within industry stocks to address future needs. With the ch...
In this response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper on indigenous knowledge (IK) and science teaching in South Africa, I seek to broaden the debate by setting the enterprise of integrating IK into science education in its cultural and socio-political context. I begin by exploring the multiple meanings of indigenous knowledge in Africa, next consider…
We conducted a two-part study in the native home areas of four cattle breeds, Abigar, Gurage, Horro and Sheko, in south-western Ethiopia. The first part of the study investigated livestock keeper knowledge about trypanosomosis and trypanotolerance. For each breed 60 livestock keepers were interviewed, resulting in a total of 240 interviews. The second part of the study focused on biological
Jennie Stein; Workneh Ayalew; Ed Rege; Woudyalew Mulatu; Hailemariam Lemecha; Yaregal Tadesse; Tilahun Tekle; Jan Philipsson
A study was carried out at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Debre Berhan Research Station in Ethiopia from 1992 to 1995 to compare the peri-parturient rise (PPR) in faecal nematode egg counts (FEC) in ewes of two indigenous sheep breeds. A total of 1439 Menz and 1347 Horro ewes were single sire mated following oestrus synchronization to lamb in
S Tembely; A Lahlou-Kassi; J. E. O Rege; E Mukasa-Mugerwa; D Anindo; S Sovani; R. L Baker
We conducted a two-part study in the native home areas of four cattle breeds, Abigar, Gurage, Horro and Sheko, in south-western Ethiopia. The first part of the study investigated livestock keeper knowledge about trypanosomosis and trypanotolerance. For each breed 60 livestock keepers were interviewed, resulting in a total of 240 interviews. The second part of the study focused on biological evidence for trypanotolerance. Blood samples of about 100 head of cattle per breed were collected during peak trypanosomosis challenge period and analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV) and parasitaemia. In addition individual body measurements of the sampled animals were taken and the keepers provided some information regarding their animals. Livestock keeper interviews revealed that trypanosomosis was considered a major problem in all areas (95-100%). Almost all Abigar livestock keepers knew how trypanosomosis is transmitted, whereas only 34-52% of the keepers of the other breeds had that knowledge. Most Sheko keepers (75%) knew of trypanotolerance and claimed to have trypanotolerant animals in their own herds. Among the other three breeds the knowledge of trypanotolerance was much less (8-18%). A majority of the keepers were interested in purchasing trypanotolerant animals. PCV was highest among Horro (26.2) and Sheko (25.1) cattle whereas Abigar had the lowest PCV (20.0). Sheko were least infected by trypanosomes (6%) and had the lowest number of trypanocidal treatments per year (1 treatment/animal and year). Abigar cattle were most infected (23%) followed by Gurage (20%) and Horro (17%). Gurage had by far the highest number of treatments per animal and year (24). There were large differences between the number of cattle perceived by the keepers to be infected, and the number detected from blood sampled, among Abigar, Gurage and Horro. Sheko livestock keepers were better at correctly diagnosing trypanosomosis in their animals. It is concluded that Sheko cattle have higher trypanotolerance attributes of the breeds investigated and a better use of this breed could improve cattle health and household welfare in tsetse-infested areas. PMID:21277682
In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations - Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) - were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ?0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ?0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (F ST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, F ST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (F ST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed. PMID:23518904
Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk
2 Abstract: Since the meat of chicken is considered one of the sources of the human infection, this study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging with semi-industrial and industrial chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Shiraz, Southern, Iran. 203 serum samples from free-ranging chickens of sub-urban districts, 50 serum samples of semi-industri al chickens which rearing in
Q. Asgari; F. Akrami Mohajeri; M. Kalantari; B. Esmaeilzadeh; A. Farzaneh; M. Moazeni; S. R. Ghalebi; F. Saremi; M. Zarifi Kalyani; M. H. Motazedian
In this response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper on indigenous knowledge (IK) and science teaching in South Africa, I seek to broaden the debate by setting the enterprise of integrating IK into science education in its cultural and socio-political context. I begin by exploring the multiple meanings of indigenous knowledge in Africa, next consider the sources available for accurately apprehending those different varieties of IK and then raise three issues of procedure that the Hewson and Ogunniyi approach seems largely to overlook: the varying meanings and styles of argumentation in African culture; the relevance of more participatory and discovery-based modes of inquiry to their topic; and the critical importance of grasping the socio-political terrain on which IK must operate. I conclude that, while their initiative opens valuable new paths of inquiry and practice, the proposed methodology would benefit from more solid grounding in discovery learning, African styles of debate and a clear mapping of stakes and stakeholders.
The physiological mechanisms of thermogenesis, energy balance and energy expenditure are poorly understood in poultry. The aim of this study was designed to investigate the physiological roles of avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) regulating in energy balance and thermogenesis by using three chickenbreeds of existence striking genetic difference and feeding with different dietary protein levels. Three chickenbreeds including broilers, hybrid chickens, and non-selection Wuding chickens were used in this study. Total 150 chicks of 1 day of age, with 50 from each breed were reared under standard conditions on starter diets to 30 days. At 30 days of age, forty chicks from each breed chicks were divided into two groups. One group was fed low protein diet (LP, 17.0 %), and the other group was fed high protein diet (HP, 19.5 %) for 60 days. Wuding chickens showed the lowest feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and the highest expressions of avUCP mRNA association with high plasma T3 and insulin concentrations. Hybrid chickens showed the lowest expressions of avUCP mRNA association with high FCE and energy efficiency. Expressions of avUCP mRNA association with diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were only observed in broiler and hybrid chickens. The expressions of avUCP mRNA were positive association with plasma insulin, T3 and NEFA concentrations. Age influence on the expression of avUCP mRNA were observed only for hybrid and broiler chickens. It seems that both roles of avUCP regulation thermogenesis and lipid utilisation as fuel were observed in the present study response to variation in dietary protein and breeds. PMID:23430386
1. The major objective of this study was to examine the influence of 24-h storage of semen at low temperature on semen characteristics and fertilising ability of spermatozoa in two native breeds (Kadaknath-KN, Aseel Peela-AP) and White Leghorn (WL) chicken. 2. Various physical and biochemical properties of freshly ejaculated semen of KN and AP were investigated. Fertility was examined in freshly-ejaculated as well as 24-h-stored (3°C) semen diluted (1:3) with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender. 3. No significant difference was observed in sperm motility among the different breeds whereas live counts were higher in WL than the native breeds. Body weight, semen volume and sperm concentration were highest in AP, followed by KN and WL. A similar trend was observed in the percentage of dead and morphologically-abnormal spermatozoa. 4. The activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in seminal plasma were higher in WL than KN, whereas the opposite trend was recorded for glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases. The cholesterol content of semen was highest in AP, followed by KN and WL. Cholesterol was much lower in seminal plasma compared with whole semen but there were no differences between breeds. Mean values of the methylene blue reduction time test were higher in WL than in the native breeds. 5. Fertility and hatchability, using freshly-diluted semen, were poorer in the native breeds than in WL. The pattern of fertility deteriorated further, especially in native fowls, when the birds were inseminated with 24-h-stored semen. 6. In conclusion, variation in physical and biochemical characteristics of semen in native breeds compared to WL correlated with poor fertility after short-term storage of semen. PMID:21732887
Mohan, J; Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Moudgal, R P; Biswas, A; Shit, N
It has been known that the chicken's resistance to disease was affected by chicken's genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breedchickens at 4, 7, and 21?d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN-? genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21?d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN-? genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV.
Body, liver, heart and spleen weights were measured in 3 different breeds and 2 breed crosses over an age range of 0–8 weeks. Correlation coefficients, linear regression equations, standard deviations of observations around regression lines, and the standard errors of the slopes were calculated to study the effects of age, breed, and body weight on organ weight. The principal findings
The nutritive values of scavenging feed resource bases and effects of season and chickens age on the latter were studied in smallholder farms in Aad'a, Ethiopia. The study included 210 households and 208 chickens. The mean weight of crop contents in all age groups ranged from 26.2 to 28.2 g, while it was 29.8 g and 24.7 g in the harvesting and non-harvesting seasons, respectively. Grains represented 48-49% of the mean weight of crop contents in all age groups and it was significantly higher (P < 0.05) during the harvesting season than the non-harvesting period in both age groups. Kitchen wastes were next in abundance (26-29%) and were significantly more abundant in non-harvesting season in growers only and in hens than in growers (P < 0.001). The dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, calcium, phosphorous and metabolizable energy levels of crop contents were 91.1-92.5%, 12.9-15.5%, 4.17-7.07%, 0.43-0.90%, 0.28-0.38% and 3404.3-3636.2 Kcal, respectively. Crude protein, calcium and phosphorus levels were below the requirements for egg production and growth. The scavenging feed resource base was critically deficient in these nutrients during the harvesting season. As these nutrients are vital for production, supplementary feeds rich in these nutrients would probably result in increased egg production and optimum growth. PMID:19554467
Mekonnen, Hailemariam; Mulatu, D; Kelay, B; Berhan, T
Rooster semen is an effluent from paired reproductive tracts. Each tract includes a testis, epididymis, and deferent duct. Upon ejaculation, efficacy of sperm propulsion varies among roosters. This phenotype is sperm mobility, that is, the movement of sperm against resistance at body temperature. The present work 1) compares reproductive tract throughput between lines of chickens selected for low and high sperm mobility, 2) demonstrates how semen quality can be defined in terms of an interaction between reproductive tract throughput and the proportion of mobile sperm ejaculated, 3) confirms that phenotype can be linked to genomewide differences in SNPlotype, and 4) shows how breeding can affect semen quality. Sperm mobility phenotype distributions were based on the average of duplicate observations per male (n = 241 and 262 roosters for low and high lines, respectively). Distributions were skewed and normal for low and high lines, respectively. Subsequent analyses used these base populations as sources for test subjects. In the first analysis, 10 males were selected from the mode of each distribution, and sperm mobility data were evaluated by nested ANOVA. Variation was observed between lines (P < 0.0001) but not among males within lines (P = 0.980). Sperm mobility data along with data from paired reproductive tracts were used to estimate combined reproductive tract throughput. Whereas testicular output was 1.2-fold greater in the low line (P = 0.037), the output of mobile sperm per day was 10.5-fold greater in the high line (P < 0.0001). Deferent duct transit differed between tails of the low line (P < 0.0001) but not between the tails of the high line (P = 0.514). Males from the mode and upper tail of the low line were SNPlotyped using a 60k chip by DNA Landmarks. These test subjects were used to associate phenotype with SNPlotype because founder effects and genetic drift could be discounted. Loci of interest were found on multiple chromosomes. Loci on chromosome Z were of particular interest because roosters are homozygous for this sex chromosome and a pronounced maternal effect was observed in a prior heritability study. Midrange phenotypes were produced by crossing low and high sperm mobility lines. Our experimental outcomes demonstrate that genes affect reproductive tract function as well as sperm cell attributes and thereby make semen quality subject to genetic selection. PMID:23100593
Indigenouschickens (IC) in developing countries provide a useful resource to detect novel genes in mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here, we investigated the nature and level of genetic diversity in IC from five distinct regions of Sri Lanka using a PCR-based resequencing method. Additionally, we investigated the relatedness of IC to different species of junglefowls including Ceylon (CJF; Gallus lafayetti), a subspecies that is endemic to Sri Lanka, green (Gallus varius), grey (Gallus sonneratii), and red (Gallus gallus) junglefowl. A total of 140 birds including eight CJF were used to screen 613 bp of IC and 675 bp of CJF control region of the mitochondrial DNA sequence for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other variants. We detected and validated 44 SNPs, which formed 42 haplotypes and six haplogroups in IC. The SNPs observed in the CJF were distinct and the D-loop appeared to be missing a 62 bp found in IC and the red junglefowl (RJF). Among the six haplogroups of IC, only one was region-specific. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.901 to 0.965 and from 0.011 to 0.013, respectively. Estimates of genetic divergence were inconsistent but generally low in all the regions. Further, variation among individuals within regions accounted for 92% of the total molecular variation among birds. The Sri Lankan indigenouschickens were more closely related to red and grey junglefowls than to CJF, suggesting a multiple origin. The molecular information on genetic diversity revealed in our study may be useful in developing genetic improvement and conservation strategies to better utilize indigenous Sri Lankan chicken resources.
A breeding program has been established in 2008 to improve productivity of Horro chicken, an indigenous population in the western highlands of Ethiopia. The pedigree descended from 26 sires and 260 dams. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 8 weeks then every 4 weeks for the next 8 weeks. Egg production was recorded to 44 weeks
Background Genomic selection involves breeding value estimation of selection candidates based on high-density SNP genotypes. To quantify the potential benefit of genomic selection, accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBV) obtained with different methods using pedigree or high-density SNP genotypes were evaluated and compared in a commercial layer chickenbreeding line. Methods The following traits were analyzed: egg production, egg weight, egg color, shell strength, age at sexual maturity, body weight, albumen height, and yolk weight. Predictions appropriate for early or late selection were compared. A total of 2,708 birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP, including 1,563 females with records. Phenotypes on relatives without genotypes were incorporated in the analysis (in total 13,049 production records). The data were analyzed with a Reduced Animal Model using a relationship matrix based on pedigree data or on marker genotypes and with a Bayesian method using model averaging. Using a validation set that consisted of individuals from the generation following training, these methods were compared by correlating EBV with phenotypes corrected for fixed effects, selecting the top 30 individuals based on EBV and evaluating their mean phenotype, and by regressing phenotypes on EBV. Results Using high-density SNP genotypes increased accuracies of EBV up to two-fold for selection at an early age and by up to 88% for selection at a later age. Accuracy increases at an early age can be mostly attributed to improved estimates of parental EBV for shell quality and egg production, while for other egg quality traits it is mostly due to improved estimates of Mendelian sampling effects. A relatively small number of markers was sufficient to explain most of the genetic variation for egg weight and body weight.
Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenouschickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578
A study was carried out at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Debre Berhan Research Station in Ethiopia from 1992 to 1995 to compare the peri-parturient rise (PPR) in faecal nematode egg counts (FEC) in ewes of two indigenous sheep breeds. A total of 1439 Menz and 1347 Horro ewes were single sire mated following oestrus synchronization to lamb in the wet and dry season. Three ewe treatment groups were constituted as mated/lactating/undrenched; mated/lactating/drenched; unmated/undrenched for three wet and three dry lambing seasons. All ewes grazed naturally contaminated pasture. Levels of faecal egg output were monitored at mating, 3 months after mating, 2 weeks before lambing, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-lambing. A significant PPR in FEC occurred 2 weeks before lambing and peaked at 4 weeks post-parturition in ewes lambing just before the beginning of the dry season (October/November). There was no significant increase in FEC when lambing occurred before the onset of the long rainy season (May/June). The PPR in this study was associated with both lactation and seasonal availability of third-stage infective larvae on pasture. There was no consistent breed difference in FEC during the six sampling periods from mating to weaning. Faecal cultures and worm counts from both breeds confirmed the presence of Longistrongylus (Pseudomarshallagia) elongata, Trichostrongylus spp.and Haemonchus contortus. The role of the peri-parturient rise of FEC in ewes in gastrointestinal nematode transmission is discussed. PMID:9746282
Tembely, S; Lahlou-Kassi, A; Rege, J E; Mukasa-Mugerwa, E; Anindo, D; Sovani, S; Baker, R L
Genetic characterization among Red Junglefowl (GS, Gallus gallus spadiceus), Thai indigenouschicken (TIC, Gallus domesticus) and commercial lines has been widely used for studies of genealogical origin, genetic diversity, and effects of selection. We compared the efficiency of genetic characterization of chicken populations that had been under different intensities of selection using selective functional gene versus microsatellite marker analyses. We genotyped 151 chickens from five populations: Red Junglefowl, TIC and commercial lines (BR, broiler and WL, White Leghorn). Genetic structure analyses using six loci of five functional genes - corresponding to heat tolerance (heat shock protein 70, HSP70/C, HSP70/M), broodiness (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1, VIPR-1), egg production-[24-bp indel (insertion or deletion) prolactin, 24bpPRL], ovulation rate (growth hormone receptor, GHR), and growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1) - were compared with 18 microsatellite markers. PCR-RFLP and allele specific PCR were used for functional gene typing. A neighbor-joining tree from Nei's genetic distance was constructed to show genetic relationships. A similar pattern was found with both functional genes and microsatellites. Three groups consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG were formed. A principal component plot based on individual similarity using Dice's coefficient was also constructed to confirm the relationship. Different patterns were found when using functional genes versus microsatellites. A principal component plot with functional genes also gave three clusters consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG. A principal component plot using microsatellites gave four clusters, consisting of WL, GG, TIC, and BR-GS. Characterization of BR and GS differs from previous studies. We concluded that genetic characterization with appropriate functional genes is more accurate when differences in genetic make-up among populations are known. Genetic characterization using functional gene data was consistent in neighbor joining and principal component plot analyses, while genetic characterization using microsatellite data gave varied results depending on the analysis methodology. PMID:22869543
Akaboot, P; Duangjinda, M; Phasuk, Y; Kaenchan, C; Chinchiyanond, W
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) are two candidate genes with a wide variety of physiological functions in growth and especially in reproduction processes. We examined the association of one SNP from each of these genes with growth- and egg production-related traits in Mazandaran native chickens. Two hundred and six individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Marker-trait association analyses were performed using both breeding value and phenotypic information. The data came from 18 successive generations of selection at a Mazandaran native chickenbreeding station in Iran. Data were analyzed with a univariate animal model in an ASREML procedure to estimate breeding values of the birds for these traits. Two alleles were found for both genes, A and a alleles for GnRHR, with frequencies of 0.614 and 0.386, B and b alleles for NPY, with frequencies of 0.780 and 0.221, respectively. The additive genetic effects of the GnRHR gene on egg number and egg mass were significant. Also, body weight at sexual maturity was significantly influenced by the NPY gene. We conclude that GnRHR and NPY genes are associated with egg production and growth traits, respectively. PMID:22869074
Fatemi, S A; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, H; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Niknafs, Sh
This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard\\u000a chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard\\u000a pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois
This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants. PMID:17944308
A breeding program has been established in 2008 to improve productivity of Horro chicken, an indigenous population in the\\u000a western highlands of Ethiopia. The pedigree descended from 26 sires and 260 dams. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks\\u000a from hatch to 8 weeks then every 4 weeks for the next 8 weeks. Egg production was recorded to 44 weeks of age for one generation.
Nigussie Dana; E. H. vander Waaij; Johan A. M. van Arendonk
This study was conducted to compare the effects of exchanged diets with identical energy level on characteristics of slow-growing (WENs Yellow-Feathered Chicken, WYFC) and fast-growing (White Recessive Rock Chicken, WRRC) female chickens. A total of 1450 WYFC and 1150 WRRC 1-day-old female hatchlings were used. A high-nutrient-density (HND) diet and a low-nutrient-density (LND) diet were formulated for three phases. A completely randomized experimental design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (diet and breed), each with five replicates of 145 and 115 birds, was applied. The results showed that WRRC had a higher body weight (BW), average daily feed intake and average daily gain than WYFC throughout the experiment (p<.05). WYFC that were provided with HND groups had a higher BW only in the starter and grower phases, whereas WRRC had a higher BW in the HND group than in LND groups throughout the experiment. The feed:gain ratio and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were better for WRRC in the starter and grower phases; however, these ratios were better for WYFC in the finisher period. The LND groups had a higher PER throughout the experiment for both breeds (p<0.05). The breast and leg muscle weights were higher for WRRC compared with WYFC during the grower and finisher phases (p<0.05). WRRC had a lower liver index but higher serum UA and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations than WYFC (p<0.05). No diet effect was observed on organ indices, muscle yields or blood responses. The gene expressions of Rheb, TOR, S6K1 and 4E-BP1 in gastrocnemius muscle were the highest in the WYFC-LND groups at 63 and 105 days (p<0.05). These findings suggested that different genotypes respond differently to changes in dietary nutrient density and that lower-nutrient-density diets are optimal for the long-term housing of broiler chickens. PMID:22731106
By the titrations of the antibody response to the vaccinations of avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND), the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Marek's disease (MD)-resistant breeding and vaccination against the immunosuppression induced by virulent Marek's disease virus (MDV). The results showed that haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres to AI and ND in MDV-unchallenged groups were
Yuan-Chang Jin; Ping Wei; Wei-Fen Liang; Ya Li; Bo-Xue Niu; Xian-Rong Yang
The biochemical determinism of ultimate pH (pHu) was studied in the pectoralis muscle of broiler chickens. Thirty birds of 3 genetic types (a fast-growing standard (FG), a slow-growing French "Label Rouge" (SG), and a heavy line type (HL)) were kept under conventional breeding methods until the usual marketing age (6, 12, and 6 wk for FG, SG, and HL birds, respectively). The birds were divided into 3 different antemortem treatment groups: minimum stress, shackling for a longer time (2 min), and heat stress (exposure to 35 degrees C for 3.5 h and shackling for 2 min before stunning). The birds were slaughtered on the same day. The pHu differed (P < 0.001) among the 3 genetic types, ranking as follows: FG (5.95+/-0.01) > HL (5.85+/-0.02) > SG (5.73+/-0.02). In SG and HL birds, pHu was strongly correlated with muscle glycogen content at slaughter (r = -0.74 and -0.82; P < 0.01 respectively), whereas this correlation was weak in FG birds. Regardless of genetic type, neither buffering capacity nor lactate accumulation significantly contributed to pHu variations (P > 0.05). The activity of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPd) was significantly higher in FG chickens (0.98+/-0.31; P < 0.05) than in HL and SG birds (0.46+/-0.24 and 0.34+/-0.18, respectively). Significant correlations were found between AMPd activity, pHu, and glycolytic potential (GP) at slaughter (r = 0.34 and -.29; P < 0.01, respectively). Further research is needed to study in more detail the role of AMPd in the determinism of pHu, particularly in fast-growing broilers. PMID:15339023
El Rammouz, R; Berri, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Babilé, R; Fernandez, X
Data collected on 3256 lambs born to Horro and Menz breed ewes single-sire mated to 71 rams at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Debre Berhan station between September 1992 and June 1996 were analysed for rates of survival and growth from birth to weaning. A significantly lower proportion of Menz lambs died before 1 year of age (28%) than
E Mukasa-Mugerwa; A Lahlou-Kassi; D Anindo; J. E. O Rege; S Tembely; Markos Tibbo; R. L Baker
In the current study, milk protein variation was examined in cattle (Bos indicus), mithun (Bos frontalis), yak (Bos grunniens) and their hybrid populations in Bhutan to estimate genetic variability, conduct genetic characterization and assess the possibility of gene flow between mithun and cattle. Isoelectric focusing of 372 milk samples from 11 populations detected four molecular types of ?-lactoglobulin (A, B, E and M), five molecular types of ?(S1) -casein (A, B, C, E and X) and three molecular types of k-casein (A, B and X). Mithun and yak shared alleles but were found to exhibit different allele frequencies for the proteins studied. The degree of genetic variability within populations was measured by average heterozygosity and ranged from 24-40% in cattle, 26% for yak and 33% for mithun. We also resolved the traditional mithun and cattle hybridization system via principal component analysis. Our results suggested secondary introgression of mithun genes to the village Thrabum population, and a close genetic relationship between Bhutanese indigenous cattle and Indian cattle. PMID:20887304
Dorji, Tashi; Namikawa, Takao; Mannen, Hideyuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi
Data collected on 3256 lambs born to Horro and Menz breed ewes single-sire mated to 71 rams at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Debre Berhan station between September 1992 and June 1996 were analysed for rates of survival and growth from birth to weaning. A significantly lower proportion of Menz lambs died before 1 year of age (28%) than the Horro lambs (59%). Least squares means for pre- and post-weaning mortality were 8.8 and 19.3%, respectively in Menz, and 25.3 and 34.2% for Horro sheep. Major causes of death were similar in Horro versus Menz lambs and were pneumonia (53 vs. 54%, respectively), digestive problems (14 vs. 12%), endoparasite infections (9 vs. 13%), starvation-mismothering-exposure (SME) complex (10 vs. 7%) and septicemia (3 vs. 2%). Relationships among causes of mortality with breed, birth weight (BWT), season of birth, parity, litter size and lamb health category (number of times a lamb was sick between birth and 1 year of age) were determined. The impact of these factors on mortality varied with lamb age. Lambs that were born with <2kg BWT had a greater risk of dying from any cause except pneumonia. But, even though Horro lambs were heavier than Menz at birth (2.4 vs. 2.1kg, respectively), twice as many died before 1 year of age. The cause of mortality was further influenced by season of birth, lamb sex and health category. In addition, sires were a significant source of variation for progeny survival at 6, 9 and 12 months of age, but not at the younger ages. The best and worst Horro ram sired progeny groups that had mortality rates up to 1 year of age of 22 vs. 80%, respectively. The same estimates in Menz rams were 11 and 48%, respectively. Reduced mortality rate would significantly increase lamb output. However, isolated efforts to solve this problem are likely to have limited impact. Instead, an integrated approach to minimise the impact of underlying factors is advocated. Farm (animal) management routines that could be introduced in the short or longer term are discussed. PMID:10818297
Intensive artificial selection has led to the production of the modern broiler chicken, which over the last few decades has undergone a dramatic increase in growth rate and noticeable changes in body conformation. Unfortunately, this has been associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities which have altered the walking ability of these birds, raising obvious welfare concerns, as well as causing economic losses. Here we present a comparative study of ancestral and derived muscle anatomy in chickens to begin to tease apart how evolutionary alterations of muscle form in chickens have influenced their locomotor function and perhaps contributed to lameness. We measured the muscle architectural properties of the right pelvic limb in 50 birds, including the Giant Junglefowl, a commercial strain broiler and four pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (from which the broiler populations are derived) to identify which features of the broiler’s architectural design have diverged the most from the ancestral condition. We report a decline in pelvic limb muscle mass in the commercial line birds that may compromise their locomotor abilities because they carry a larger body mass. This greater demand on the pelvic limb muscles has mostly led to changes in support at the hip joint, revealing significantly larger abductors and additionally much larger medial rotators in the broiler population. Differences were seen within the commercial line bird populations, which are likely attributed to different selection pressures and may reflect differences in the walking ability of these birds. In addition, Junglefowl seem to have both greater force-generating capabilities and longer, presumably faster contracting muscles, indicative of superior musculoskeletal/locomotor function. We have provided baseline data for generating hypotheses to investigate in greater depth the specific biomechanical constraints that compromise the modern broiler’s walking ability and propose that these factors should be considered in the selection for musculoskeletal health in the chickens of the future. Our new anatomical data for a wide range of domestic and wild-type chickens is useful in a comparative context and for deeper functional analysis including computer modelling/simulation of limb mechanics.
Paxton, Heather; Anthony, Nicolas B; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R
Tick resistance in three breeds of cattle, two indigenousbreeds (Arssi and Boran) and one Boran x Friesian cross-breed, were compared following natural tick infestations at Abernossa ranch in Ethiopia. The local Arssi breed was found to have the highest tick resistance, followed by the Boran breed, whereas the Boran x Friesian was the least resistant. Over a period of
Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenousbreeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress production system still practised by millions of families in Indonesia. PMID:22212205
The Indigenous Australia Website, presented in affiliation with the Australian Museum and the Australia's Cultural Network, combines two Websites -- Dreaming Online and Stories of the Dreaming (see the July 16, 1999 Scout Report) -- into one comprehensive resource. An engaging introduction to the 60,000-year-old cultural heritage of Australia's Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, the site is divided into four main sections: Background Info, Stories of the Dreaming, For Kids, and For Teachers. The Background section provides users with a nice overview, accompanied by images, of art and dress, spiritual and family life, the relationship of indigenous peoples to the land, and their interactions with British colonists, as well as a fairly detailed timeline. Stories of the Dreaming offers short movies of people reciting the tales from their ancestors about the land, sea, and animals. These were filmed in the rugged backdrop of Australia and are available as low or high quality videos (RealPlayer) or as audio or text only. The Teachers and Kids pages supply additional resources including links, a glossary, a FAQ, and advice on teaching lessons in indigenous studies.
Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).
Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301
A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of village chickens under an improved feeding management system in Zimbabwe. Commercial hybrid chickens of the same age as the village chickens were raised under similar conditions in order to establish the degree of performance variation between village and hybrid birds. Seventy day-old broiler chicks from each breed were randomly grouped into
|The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…
How the conventional breeding method of backcross breeding is done.This is the seventh of a series of seven animations that detail theprocess of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Gun.)
European cattle breeds are being introduced into Ethiopia in an effort to improve the productivity of indigenousbreeds. The Ethiopian cattle breeds Horro and Boran were compared for tick burdens with their crosses with Friesian, Jersey and Simmental. Horro animals had the lowest tick burdens and the Horro × Friesian the highest. Adaptation to their environment and long-term natural selection
Eggs are the means through which chickens reproduce. Hens lay the eggs and incubate them so they will grow. The egg has all of the nutrients the chicken embryo needs to develop into a baby chick and helps protect it as it matures.
|Identifies four groups with conflicting interests in indigenous studies programs and the nature of the conflicts. Proposes the formation of a pan-indigenous intellectual network. Describes the ideal indigenous studies program devoted to building a pan-indigenous infrastructure that indigenous nations would direct and use as a tool to strengthen…
The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months - 2 years old), from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village), for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280
This site offers a wealth of materials relating to the anthropological, educational, and political issues involved with the teaching of Indigenous Languages. The best feature is the online full-texts of recently published scholarly studies and collections devoted to the subject. These texts include Revitalizing Indigenous Languages (1999), Teaching Indigenous Languages (1997), and Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (1996). The site also offers reprints of scholarly articles on such topics as American Indian language policy, models for teaching and maintaining indigenous languages, selected columns (1990-1999) from NABE (National Association for Bilingual Education) News, and quite a bit more. Many of the texts feature hyperlinks, and a site search engine is provided. Finally, an extensive, occasionally annotated list of links to Bilingual, American Indian, Indigenous Languages, and Literacy/ Reading sites is also posted. Jon Reyhner, an associate professor of bilingual and multicultural education at Northern Arizona University, maintains the site.
Indigenous Science Resources is a collection of online text, video, audio, and image files of Indigenous science that includes knowledge about the natural world and ways of teaching and learning about it. All resources are authored and/or produced by Indigenous persons or organizations or approved for inclusion in the collection by an elder or other Indigenous person with the expertise to assess the resource. It is intended for users of all cultures, but can be a particularly important resource for teachers and students in Native Studies programs and in tribal schools and colleges. The current set of resources are primarily from SnowChange, Tribal College Journal and Winds of Change.
Understanding the complex origin of domesticated populations is of vital importance for understanding, preserving and exploiting breed genetic diversity. Here, we aim to assess Asian contributions to European traditional breeds and western commercial chickens for mitochondrial genetic diversity. To this end, a 365-bp fragment of the chicken mtDNA D-loop region of 16 Dutch fancy breeds (113 individuals) was surveyed, comprising
N. D. Mullu; H. J. W. C. Megens; R. P. M. A. Crooijmans; O. Hanotte; J. Mwacharo; M. A. M. Groenen; Arendonk van J. A. M
This lesson, from Science NetLinks, is intended to help students realize that they can learn a lot about chickens -and animals in general - through close observation. Students begin the lesson by expressing what they know about chickens in general and then are encouraged to think and talk about how eggs hatch into chicks and the kinds of special things that are needed to care for eggs/chicks.
|On a tour of Cuba, Native scholars from North and South America reconnected with the "extinct" Taino people and shared their knowledge of traditional healing herbs. Western science is just beginning to validate the tremendous knowledge base that indigenous healers have developed--most indigenous medicinal knowledge is useful for finding new…
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small RNAs abundant in the germline that have been implicated in germline development and maintenance of genomic integrity across several animal species including human, mouse, rat, zebrafish and drosophila. Tens of thousands of piRNAs have been discovered, yet abundant piRNAs have still not been detected in various eukaryotic organisms. This is a report on the characterization, cloning and expression profiling of piRNA-like chicken RNAs. Here, we identified 19 piRNAs, each 23-39 nucleotides long, from chicken testis using a small RNA cDNA library and T-A cloning methods. Three different pilRNAs were selected according to size, homology and secondary structure for temporal and spatial expression by Q-PCR technology in different tissues at five growth and four development stages of Chinese indigenous Rugao chickens (RG) and introduced recessive white feather chickens (RW). We found that, consistent to other organisms, pilRNA-encoding sequences within the chicken genome were asymmetrically distributed on the chromosomes while displaying a preference for intergenic regions across the genome. Interestingly, unlike miRNAs with unique stem-loop structures (mature miRNAs form stem section and the rest form loop section), distinct secondary structures of pilRNAs were predicted. In addition, chicken pilRNAs were not only abundant in the germline but also existed in somatic tissues, where, expression levels were influenced mainly by different pilRNAs, breed and gender. Taken together, our results suggest that two distinct secondary structures exist between pilRNAs and miRNAs, which may clarify the splicing and processing mechanisms of the two small RNAs are possible different. Moreover, our results suggest that pilRNAs may not only be confined to development and maintenance of the germline but may also play important roles in somatic tissues. Additionally, different pilRNAs may be involved in the unique regulatory machinery of complex biological processes. PMID:23196706
An investigation was made of the relationship between the water and food consumption of healthy and sick chickens. Using coccidiosis as a disease model, and uninfected chickens as healthy controls, male birds of an egg-production breed and males and females of a meat-production breed were found to have simultaneously reduced water and food intakes 4 days after infection with Eimeria
In this study, we analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region of Japanese native chickens to clarify their phylogenetic relationships, possible maternal origin and routes of introduction into Japan. Seven haplogroups (Types A-G) were identified. Types A-C were observed in Jidori, Shokoku and related breeds. However, Type C was absent in Shokoku, which was introduced from China, while most Indonesian native chickens were included in the Type C haplogroup. Types D-G were observed in Shamo and related breeds. Type E had a close genetic relationship with Chinese native chickens. Our results indicate that some breeds were not introduced into Japan as suggested in conventional literature, based on low nucleotide diversity of certain chickenbreeds. Sequences originating from China and Korea could be clearly distinguished from those originating from Southeast Asia. In each group, domestic chickens were divided into the Jidori-Shokoku and Shamo groups. These results indicate that Chinese and Korean chickens were derived from Southeast Asia. Following the domestication of red junglefowl, a non-game type chicken was developed, and it spread to China. A game type chicken was developed in each area. Both non-game and game chickens formed the foundation of Japanese native chickens. PMID:17539973
This article explores contemporary Indigenous artists', activists', and scholars' use of the Internet to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, culture, art, history, and worldview; critique the political realities of dominant discourse; and address the genocidal history and ongoing repression of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Internet examples include…
In this keynote address, the author talks about Indigenous peoples who are presently in a dynamic circumstance of constant change that they are facing courageously with creative collaboration and syncretism. In the address, the author speaks "of" an Indigenous consciousness and he speaks "with" an Indigenous consciousness so that Indigenous…
|In this keynote address, the author talks about Indigenous peoples who are presently in a dynamic circumstance of constant change that they are facing courageously with creative collaboration and syncretism. In the address, the author speaks "of" an Indigenous consciousness and he speaks "with" an Indigenous consciousness so that Indigenous…
|This article explores contemporary Indigenous artists', activists', and scholars' use of the Internet to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, culture, art, history, and worldview; critique the political realities of dominant discourse; and address the genocidal history and ongoing repression of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Internet examples include…
The paper highlights the research of A. S. Serebrovsky in chicken genetics, including gene mapping and inheritance of morphological traits. Genetic formulas for several breeds are presented. The data of genetic surveys for local chicken populations from 23 regions of the former Soviet Union are also reviewed. The personal data of the authors on the morphotypological characteristics of different chickenbreeds are given and discussed. PMID:23113330
Moiseeva, I G; Romanov, M N; Nikiforov, A A; Avrutskaia, T B
Kiore were snap-trapped in five forest habitats on Lady Alice Island. Trapping was most successful from late autumn to early spring and in coastal scrub habitat Breeding extended over at least 6 months (November to April) during which females produced 2–3 litters each averaging five young. Although plant material was most abundant in rat stomachs (averaging 78% volumetrically), a wide
The development of transgenic chicken technology has lagged far behind that of mammalian species. Two reasons for this are that only a one-cell-stage oocyte can be obtained from a sacrificed hen and that the yolk prevents high-magnification microscopic observation of oocytes. Recently, several new methods have been developed that will enable the successful establishment of transgenic chickens. Retroviral vectors are used in many cases because of their ability to incorporate transgenes into host cell chromosomes in a highly efficient manner. These viral vectors are injected directly into the embryos, usually at the blastodermal stage. In some cases, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are infected in vitro and then implanted into recipient embryos. Methods that do not rely on retroviral vectors are also available for creating transgenic chickens. Long-term culture of PGCs permits the selection of stably transfected cells and implantation of the manipulated PGCs. In addition, embryonic stem (ES) cell systems are available; however, the induction of functional gametes from ES cells has not, to our knowledge, been successful. It is clear that recent developments suggest that chickens may be used as a valuable experimental genetic system. PMID:23278121
Ten specific pathogen free light breedchickens and 10 commercial layer ducks were inoculated intranasally with one of five avian influenza A viruses which had been characterised as showing high or low pathogenicity for chickens. Recovery of the two viruses of low pathogenicity was restricted to the respiratory tract and gut of both species. Highly pathogenic viruses were recovered from
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and associations with potential risk factors of brucellosis in indigenous cattle breeds of Western Tigray zone, North West Ethiopia. A total of 1968 cattle were examined between October 2007 and April 2008. Of these, 1120 cattle were from semi-intensive production system composed mainly of barka breed while 848 cattle were
Durum wheat has been subjected to intense breeding in Italy due to its local economic importance. Four groups of Italian cultivars representative of different breeding eras were compared in northern Syria for yield potential and morphophysiological features at a moderately favourable site, and drought tolerance at a stressful site. Group 1 included indigenous landraces; Group 2 comprised genotypes selected from
The reproductive and lamb mortality data (n=4890) of Horro and Menz ewes following controlled breeding in Ethiopia were analyzed. Sheep were treated with flugestone acetate (FGA) intravaginal sponges during the wet and dry seasons to compare the reproductive performance of the two indigenous Ethiopian highland sheep breeds. There was a significant (P<0.001) difference in the fertility rate (conception rate) (79%
Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenouschickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (?ST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenouschicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of indigenouschicken of Bangladesh. These results suggest that Bangladeshi indigenouschickens still have abundant genetic diversity and have originated from multiple maternal lineages, and further conservation efforts are warranted to maintain the diversity. PMID:23640100
Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano
Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.
Although the major histocompatibility complex of chickens (encoded in the B complex) has been studied for a number of years, almost all work has focused on the White Leghorn breed. Broiler (meat-type)\\u000a chickens were derived from other breeds, including Cornish and Plymouth Rock. It was our hypothesis that new B haplotypes, not previously identified in White Leghorns, might be present
Lanqing Li; L. Warren Johnson; Emily J. Livant; Sandra J. Ewald
In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and academics…
An Indigenous social work guided by Indigenous Australians’ participation and experience that has, at its heart, human rights and social justice is in its infancy in Australia. The present paper continues a discussion on Indigenous Australian social work theory and practice developments being generated by those working in this field. Aspects of this “praxis” include recognition of the effects of
|In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and…
Indigenous peoples are overrepresented in the homeless population. This paper examines the extent to which homelessness and some of its possible antecedents and consequences differ for indigenous peoples and majority whites residing in the city of Minneapolis. We conclude that being homeless and indigenous in Minneapolis is a significantly different experience for this group than it is for majority whites.
The aim of this study was to compare growth curves of stature in indigenous and non-indigenous children belonging to two levels of poverty and to establish the onset and evolution of the deficit. Children of indigenous and non-indigenous background living in communities of extreme and low poverty in Chile were studied and their height-for-age Z-score from birth until 6 year of age were compared. Mean weight at birth was within normal range, and no differences were found in ethnicity and levels of poverty. Length at birth was below the reference with the exception of the non indigenous newborn from counties of low poverty. Deficit in growth showed an early start, furthermore in indigenous children belonging to the extreme poverty, is from birth and progress through the 18 months. At 72 months the deficit reached -1.1 z scores in the indigenous of the extreme poverty versus -0.7 in the non indigenous group. Children from the low poverty had a Z-score of -0.4 z scores at 72 months without differences between ethnias. Indigenous of the extreme poverty had less accumulative growth while the indigenous of the low poverty areas growth satisfactory without differences with the non indigenous. PMID:15586687
2 Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the hematological parameters in Fayoumi, Assil and Local Chickens of different ages reared in Sylhet region. 250 chickens of three breeds (100 Fayoumi, 50 Assil and 100 Local) were tested at different ages (1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) to observe the hematological parameters: i) Total erythrocyte Count (TEC) ii) Packed
We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This map is based on a comparison of the sequences of three domestic chickenbreeds (a broiler, a layer and a Chinese silkie) with that of their wild ancestor, red jungle fowl. Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% of the variant sites are
Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Bin Liu; Jun Wang; Yong Zhang; Xu Yang; Zengjin Zhang; Qingshun Meng; Jun Zhou; Dawei Li; Jingjing Zhang; Peixiang Ni; Songgang Li; Longhua Ran; Heng Li; Jianguo Zhang; Ruiqiang Li; Shengting Li; Hongkun Zheng; Wei Lin; Guangyuan Li; Xiaoling Wang; Wenming Zhao; Jun Li; Chen Ye; Mingtao Dai; Jue Ruan; Yan Zhou; Yuanzhe Li; Ximiao He; Yunze Zhang; Jing Wang; Xiangang Huang; Wei Tong; Jie Chen; Jia Ye; Chen Chen; Ning Wei; Guoqing Li; Le Dong; Fengdi Lan; Yongqiao Sun; Zhenpeng Zhang; Zheng Yang; Yingpu Yu; Yanqing Huang; Dandan He; Yan Xi; Dong Wei; Qiuhui Qi; Wenjie Li; Jianping Shi; Miaoheng Wang; Fei Xie; Jianjun Wang; Xiaowei Zhang; Pei Wang; Yiqiang Zhao; Ning Li; Ning Yang; Songnian Hu; Changqing Zeng; Weimou Zheng; Bailin Hao; LaDeana W. Hillier; Shiaw-Pyng Yang; Wesley C. Warren; Richard K. Wilson; Mikael Brandström; Hans Ellegren; Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans; Jan J. van der Poel; Henk Bovenhuis; Martien A. M. Groenen; Ivan Ovcharenko; Laurie Gordon; Lisa Stubbs; Susan Lucas; Tijana Glavina; Andrea Aerts; Pete Kaiser; Lisa Rothwell; John R. Young; Sally Rogers; Brian A. Walker; Andy van Hateren; Jim Kaufman; Nat Bumstead; Susan J. Lamont; Huaijun Zhou; Paul M. Hocking; David Morrice; Dirk-Jan de Koning; Andy Law; Neil Bartley; David W. Burt; Henry Hunt; Hans H. Cheng; Ulrika Gunnarsson; Per Wahlberg; Leif Andersson; Ellen Kindlund; Martti T. Tammi; Björn Andersson; Caleb Webber; Chris P. Ponting; Ian M. Overton; Paul E Boardman; Haizhou Tang; Simon J. Hubbard; Stuart A. Wilson; Jun Yu; Jian Wang; HuanMing Yang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that multiple domestication events in South and South-East Asia (Yunnan and surrounding areas) and India have led to the genesis of modern domestic chickens. Ha Giang province is a northern Vietnamese region, where local chickens, such as the H'mong breed, and wild junglefowl coexist. The assumption was made that hybridisation between wild junglefowl and Ha Giang
C Berthouly; G Leroy; T Nhu Van; H Hoang Thanh; B Bed'Hom; B Trong Nguyen; C Vu Chi; F Monicat; M Tixier-Boichard; E Verrier; J-C Maillard; X Rognon
The study was conducted to determine growth promoter effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on Horro and Fayoumi chickens. This study was conducted at Agricultural Research Center and National Veterinary Institute (Debre Zeit). A total of 450 chickens (225 from each breed) were used in this study. Birds were grouped according to treatment groups: EM-treated (with feed, with water, with feed
Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…
The authors efforts to insert genes into the chicken germ line are dependent upon the ability of exogenous avian retroviruses to infect chicken germ cells. They have used a transformation defective Schmidt Ruppin A strain of Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV-SRA) in their initial experiments. The general protocol involved generating RSV-SRA viremic female chickens (Go), which shed exogenous virus via the oviduct. As the fertilized egg passes through the oviduct, embryonic cells are exposed to the virus. If the germ cell precursors are infected by the virus, offspring (G1) should be generated which are capable of passing the viral DNA to the next generation (G2). Fifteen viremic G1 males were selected for breeding and progeny testing. Since male chickens do not congenitally pass retroviruses through semen, production of viremic G2 offspring indicates germ line DNA transmission. This is confirmed by DNA analysis of the experimental chickens. Using a specific probe for exogenous retrovirus, they have detected the presence of RSV-SRA DNA in viremic chickens. Southern DNA analysis revealed junction fragments for RSV-SRA DNA in viremic G2 chickens, but not in non-viremic siblings. Furthermore, DNA isolated from various tissues of a viremic G2 chicken showed an identical DNA junction fragment pattern, indicating all tissues were derived from the same embryonic cell which contained integrated provirus. To date they have generated 50 transgenic chickens.
It is postulated that chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) became domesticated from wild junglefowls in Southeast Asia nearly 10,000 years ago. Based on 19 individual samples covering various chickenbreeds, red junglefowl (G. g. gallus), and green junglefowl (G. varius), we address the origin of domestic chickens, the relative roles of ancestral polymorphisms and introgression, and the effects of artificial selection on the domestic chicken genome. DNA sequences from 30 introns at 25 nuclear loci are determined for both diploid chromosomes from a majority of samples. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the DNA sequences of chickens, red and green junglefowls formed reciprocally monophyletic clusters. The Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation further reveals that domestic chickens diverged from red junglefowl 58,000±16,000 years ago, well before the archeological dating of domestication, and that their common ancestor in turn diverged from green junglefowl 3.6 million years ago. Several shared haplotypes nonetheless found between green junglefowl and chickens are attributed to recent unidirectional introgression of chickens into green junglefowl. Shared haplotypes are more frequently found between red junglefowl and chickens, which are attributed to both introgression and ancestral polymorphisms. Within each chickenbreed, there is an excess of homozygosity, but there is no significant reduction in the nucleotide diversity. Phenotypic modifications of chickenbreeds as a result of artificial selection appear to stem from ancestral polymorphisms at a limited number of genetic loci.
Sawai, Hiromi; Kim, Hie Lim; Kuno, Kaori; Suzuki, Sayaka; Gotoh, Hideo; Takada, Masaru; Takahata, Naoyuki; Satta, Yoko; Akishinonomiya, Fumihito
Background Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource and the conservation of local breeds is an issue for the preservation of this resource. The genetic diversity of a breed is mainly evaluated through its nuclear diversity. However, nuclear genetic diversity does not provide the same information as mitochondrial genetic diversity. For the species Gallus gallus, at least 8 maternal lineages have been identified. While breeds distributed westward from the Indian subcontinent usually share haplotypes from 1 to 2 haplogroups, Southeast Asian breeds exhibit all the haplogroups. The Vietnamese Ha Giang (HG) chicken has been shown to exhibit a very high nuclear diversity but also important rates of admixture with wild relatives. Its geographical position, within one of the chicken domestication centres ranging from Thailand to the Chinese Yunnan province, increases the probability of observing a very high genetic diversity for maternal lineages, and in a way, improving our understanding of the chicken domestication process. Results A total of 106 sequences from Vietnamese HG chickens were first compared to the sequences of published Chinese breeds. The 25 haplotypes observed in the Vietnamese HG population belonged to six previously published haplogroups which are: A, B, C, D, F and G. On average, breeds from the Chinese Yunnan province carried haplotypes from 4.3 haplogroups. For the HG population, haplogroup diversity is found at both the province and the village level (0.69). The AMOVA results show that genetic diversity occurred within the breeds rather than between breeds or provinces. Regarding the global structure of the mtDNA diversity per population, a characteristic of the HG population was the occurrence of similar pattern distribution as compared to G. gallus spadiceus. However, there was no geographical evidence of gene flow between wild and domestic populations as observed when microsatellites were used. Conclusions In contrast to other chicken populations, the HG chicken population showed very high genetic diversity at both the nuclear and mitochondrial levels. Due to its past and recent history, this population accumulates a specific and rich gene pool highlighting its interest and the need for conservation.
1. Forty commercial broiler chickens from two different breeding origins were used for individual measurements of growth performance from d 7 to d 21. From d 21 to d 24 a balance experiment was carried out for the measurement of metabolisable energy (ME), digestibilities of lipids, starch and amino acids, viscosity of excreta water-extract, and amount of water loss. After
Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++,
Dale A Sandercock; Zoe E Barker; Malcolm A Mitchell; Paul M Hocking
|Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…
|Eurocentric intelligence is restricted to rational, linear, competitive, and hierarchical thinking. Indigenous intelligence encompasses the body, mind, heart, and experience in total responsiveness and total relationship to the whole environment, which includes the seven generations past and future. Implementation of major changes to indigenous…
Eurocentric intelligence is restricted to rational, linear, competitive, and hierarchical thinking. Indigenous intelligence encompasses the body, mind, heart, and experience in total responsiveness and total relationship to the whole environment, which includes the seven generations past and future. Implementation of major changes to indigenous…
Chicken soup, a popular home remedy for the common cold since at least the 12th century, may really ... chicken soup reduce the inflammation associated with the common cold, thus providing some relief of symptoms. Although researchers ...
It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastric glands. Interestingly, the stomach mass correlated well with live body weight in both breeds apart from possessing similar histomorphometry of the gastric gland regions. On the other hand, the thicker (P < 0.05) submucosa in the Vietnamese wild pig is attributed to the presence of numerous loose connective tissues, abundant blood vessels, adipose tissues and nerve plexus. The appearance of lymphoid follicles underneath the tubular gastric glands in the Vietnamese wild pig exceeded that of Muong indigenous pigs. This finding suggested that the difference in feeding behavior as well as immunity. In conclusion, adaptations found in the Vietnamese wild pig indicated that this breed is equipped with a bigger and effectively functional stomach to suit its digestive physiology and immunity in the wild.
Trang, Pham Hong; Ooi, Peck Toung; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed
Age has significant impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) systems in animals. Ross 708 broiler chicken is a breed of chicken with fast growth characteristics. Cytochrome P450 in the livers of Ross 708 broiler chicken of different ages has been investigated. The birds were raised under standard husbandry conditions. A certain number of chickens was randomly sampled weekly for liver collection from d 1 to 56 posthatch. The chicken body and liver weights were recorded. The chicken livers were processed for liver microsomes though a multiple-step procedure at low temperature. Total CYP450 content in chicken liver homogenates and liver microsomes was measured using a UV/visible spectroscopic method. The enzymatic activities of CYP450 in the chicken liver microsomes were determined through incubation of CYP450 isoform substrates followed by measurement of formation of their metabolites. The chicken showed an opposite age pattern in hepatic CYP450 content and activities compared with most mammals. The hepatic CYP450 content and activities of chicken at d 1 posthatch were higher than at other ages. The total hepatic CYP450 content in chickens at d 1 posthatch was more than twice the average hepatic value of the chickens at d 7 to 28. This high CYP450 fell quickly in the first week posthatch and slightly rose from d 28 to 56. Hepatic CYP450 activities of CYP1A, 3A, 2C, 2D, and 2H were much higher in the chicken at d 1 posthatch. The differences of these enzymatic activities between d 1 and other ages of chicken were CYP450 isoform dependent. This result suggests that embryonic development of chicken livers has a significant impact on the age profile of hepatic CYP450 content and activities of posthatch chickens. PMID:23571338
This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…
|This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…
|This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…
|Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…
Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) is the causative agent of fowl typhoid (FT) in chickens. FT is a severe systemic disease of chickens causing heavy economic losses to the poultry industry through mortality, reduced egg production and culling of precious breeding stocks. In this study, a metC (encoding cystathionine ? lyase) mutant was produced from a virulent strain of
Devendra H. Shah; Smriti Shringi; Atul R. Desai; Eun-Jeong Heo; Jin-Ho Park; Joon-Seok Chae
3 Abstract: Despite the great efforts poultry breeding companies made towards eradication of pathogeni c mycoplasmas from poultry flocks, Still Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection is of continuing economic concern in commercial broiler breeder chicken flocks. Control of MG infection in broiler breeder chicken flocks by chemotherapy is the most practical way to minimize economical losses. Tilmicosin is one of the
This book presents the current status of chickpea breeding and management by experts from around the world. It thoroughly covers a wide array of subject on chickpea genetics and breeding ranging from cytogenetics, wild relatives and biodiversity, conventional and modern breeding techniques and achi...
A breeding program has been established in 2008 to improve productivity of Horro chicken, an indigenous population in the western highlands of Ethiopia. The pedigree descended from 26 sires and 260 dams. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 8 weeks then every 4 weeks for the next 8 weeks. Egg production was recorded to 44 weeks of age for one generation. Genetic parameters were estimated using animal model fitted with common environmental effects for growth traits and ignoring common environment for egg production traits. Direct heritabilities ranged from low (0.15?±?0.08), for body weight at 6 weeks, to moderate (0.40?±?0.23), for hatch weight. Heritabilities of common environmental effects on growth were high at hatch (0.39?±?0.10) and remained low afterwards. Age at first egg showed a very low heritability (0.06?±?0.15). Heritabilities of egg numbers in the first, second, third, and fourth months of laying were 0.32 (±0.13), 0.20 (±0.16), 0.56 (±0.15), and 0.25 (±0.14), respectively. Heritabilities of cumulative of monthly records of egg numbers were from 0.24?±?0.16 (for the first 2 months, EP12) to 0.35?±?0.16 (over the 6 months, EP16). Body weight at 16 weeks of age (BW16) has a strong genetic correlation with the cumulative of monthly records: 0.92 (with EP12), 0.69 (with EP36), and 0.73 (with EP16). Besides their strong association, BW16 and EP16 showed higher heritability, relative to their respective trait categories. These two traits seemed to have common genes and utilizing them as selection traits would be expected to improve both egg production and growth performance of local chicken. However, the standard errors of estimates in this study were mostly high indicating that the estimates have low precision. Parameter estimations based on more data are needed before applying the current results in breeding programs. PMID:20625931
Dana, Nigussie; Vander Waaij, E H; van Arendonk, Johan A M
A breeding program has been established in 2008 to improve productivity of Horro chicken, an indigenous population in the western highlands of Ethiopia. The pedigree descended from 26 sires and 260 dams. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 8 weeks then every 4 weeks for the next 8 weeks. Egg production was recorded to 44 weeks of age for one generation. Genetic parameters were estimated using animal model fitted with common environmental effects for growth traits and ignoring common environment for egg production traits. Direct heritabilities ranged from low (0.15?±?0.08), for body weight at 6 weeks, to moderate (0.40?±?0.23), for hatch weight. Heritabilities of common environmental effects on growth were high at hatch (0.39?±?0.10) and remained low afterwards. Age at first egg showed a very low heritability (0.06?±?0.15). Heritabilities of egg numbers in the first, second, third, and fourth months of laying were 0.32 (±0.13), 0.20 (±0.16), 0.56 (±0.15), and 0.25 (±0.14), respectively. Heritabilities of cumulative of monthly records of egg numbers were from 0.24?±?0.16 (for the first 2 months, EP12) to 0.35?±?0.16 (over the 6 months, EP16). Body weight at 16 weeks of age (BW16) has a strong genetic correlation with the cumulative of monthly records: 0.92 (with EP12), 0.69 (with EP36), and 0.73 (with EP16). Besides their strong association, BW16 and EP16 showed higher heritability, relative to their respective trait categories. These two traits seemed to have common genes and utilizing them as selection traits would be expected to improve both egg production and growth performance of local chicken. However, the standard errors of estimates in this study were mostly high indicating that the estimates have low precision. Parameter estimations based on more data are needed before applying the current results in breeding programs.
|On August 1st, 2007, Indigenous nations from within the United States, Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa (New Zealand) signed a treaty to found the United League of Indigenous Nations. The Treaty of Indigenous Nations offers a historic opportunity for sovereign Indigenous governments to build intertribal cooperation outside the framework of the…
Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…
|Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…
This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.
|This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.|
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, there has been an acceleration of the loss of domestic animal biodiversity. For conservation purposes, the genetic diversity of the H'Mong cattle, an indigenous local breed was studied. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the SRY gene and mtDNA D-Loop sequence were analysed to clarify the origin of the breed. The genetic diversity was assessed through genetic
C Berthouly; JC Maillard; L Pham Doan; T Nhu Van; B Bed'Hom; G Leroy; H Hoang Thanh; D Laloë; N Bruneau; C Vu Chi; V Nguyen Dang; E Verrier; X Rognon
This article provides a guided tour through three diverse cultural ways of understanding nature: an Indigenous way (with a focus on Indigenous nations in North America), a neo-indigenous way (a concept proposed to recognize many Asian nations' unique ways of knowing nature; in this case, Japan), and a Euro-American scientific way. An exploration of these three ways of knowing unfolds in a developmental way such that some key terms change to become more authentic terms that better represent each culture's collective, yet heterogeneous, worldview, metaphysics, epistemology, and values. For example, the three ways of understanding nature are eventually described as Indigenous ways of living in nature, a Japanese way of knowing seigyo-shizen, and Eurocentric sciences (plural). Characteristics of a postcolonial or anti-hegemonic discourse are suggested for science education, but some inherent difficulties with this discourse are also noted.
This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health\\u000a and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing\\u000a research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and ethics; 2) culturally based research\\u000a methods; and 3) the need to
Background Previous studies suggested that multiple domestication events in South and South-East Asia (Yunnan and surrounding areas) and India have led to the genesis of modern domestic chickens. Ha Giang province is a northern Vietnamese region, where local chickens, such as the H'mong breed, and wild junglefowl coexist. The assumption was made that hybridisation between wild junglefowl and Ha Giang chickens may have occurred and led to the high genetic diversity previously observed. The objectives of this study were i) to clarify the genetic structure of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province and ii) to give evidence of admixture with G. gallus. A large survey of the molecular polymorphism for 18 microsatellite markers was conducted on 1082 chickens from 30 communes of the Ha Giang province (HG chickens). This dataset was combined with a previous dataset of Asian breeds, commercial lines and samples of Red junglefowl from Thailand and Vietnam (Ha Noï). Measurements of genetic diversity were estimated both within-population and between populations, and a step-by-step Bayesian approach was performed on the global data set. Results The highest value for expected heterozygosity (> 0.60) was found in HG chickens and in the wild junglefowl populations from Thailand. HG chickens exhibited the highest allelic richness (mean A = 2.9). No significant genetic subdivisions of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province were found. As compared to other breeds, HG chickens clustered with wild populations. Furthermore, the neighbornet tree and the Bayesian clustering analysis showed that chickens from 4 communes were closely related to the wild ones and showed an admixture pattern. Conclusion In the absence of any population structuring within the province, the H'mong chicken, identified from its black phenotype, shared a common gene pool with other chickens from the Ha Giang population. The large number of alleles shared exclusively between Ha Giang chickens and junglefowl, as well as the results of a Bayesian clustering analysis, suggest that gene flow has been taking place from junglefowl to Ha Giang chickens.
Berthouly, C; Leroy, G; Van, T Nhu; Thanh, H Hoang; Bed'Hom, B; Nguyen, B Trong; Chi, C Vu; Monicat, F; Tixier-Boichard, M; Verrier, E; Maillard, J-C; Rognon, X
ABSTRACT Chicken lines that were either resistant or susceptible to ascites syndrome,were developed,by using a hypobaric,chamber,to induce,the disease. Birds were reared in a hypobaric,chamber,that simulated,high alti- tude by operating under a partial vacuum, which thereby lowered,the partial pressure,of oxygen. Ascites mortality data from,birds reared under,hypobaric,chamber,condi- tions were used to select siblings to be used for breeding. The response,to selection for
H. O. Pavlidis; J. M. Balog; L. K. Stamps; J. D. Hughes; W. E. Huff; N. B. Anthony
Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements.
Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) plays an important role in animal follicular development. Polymorphisms in FSHR promoter region likely impact transcription and follicle growth and maturation. In this study, a fragment of ~1.9 kb of cFSHR promoter for Zang, Xianju, Lohmann Brown, Jining Bairi and Wenchang breeds (line) was obtained. Totally 49 variations were revealed, of which 39 are single nucleotide substitutions, one is nucleotide substitution of (TTG) to (CAC) and nine are indels. Polymorphism at -874 site (a 200 bp indel mutation) was identified, and their effects on egg production traits as well as gene expression were analyzed. At this site, allele I(+) was dominant in Lohmann Brown and Xinyang Brown (a synthetic egg-laying line) lines, but very rare in three Chinese indigenouschickenbreeds, namely Jining Bairi, Wenchang, Zang and one synthetic boiler line (Luqin). In Xinyang Brown population, the polymorphism was associated with age at first egg (AFE) (P < 0.05) and its effect on egg number at 37 weeks of age (E37) and egg number at 57 weeks of age (E57) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The cFSHR mRNA level was not significantly different between three genotypes in small white and small yellow follicles of Xinyang Brown hens, however, allele I(+) tends to increase cFSHR transcription. PMID:21678054
Domestic chickens are excellent models for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity, as numerous phenotypic changes in physiology, morphology, and behavior in chickens have been artificially selected. Genomic study is required to study genome-wide patterns of DNA variation for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We sequenced the genomes of the Silkie and the Taiwanese native chicken L2 at ?23- and 25-fold average coverage depth, respectively, using Illumina sequencing. The reads were mapped onto the chicken reference genome (including 5.1% Ns) to 92.32% genome coverage for the two breeds. Using a stringent filter, we identified ?7.6 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8,839 copy number variations (CNVs) in the mapped regions; 42% of the SNPs have not found in other chickens before. Among the 68,906 SNPs annotated in the chicken sequence assembly, 27,852 were nonsynonymous SNPs located in 13,537 genes. We also identified hundreds of shared and divergent structural and copy number variants in intronic and intergenic regions and in coding regions in the two breeds. Functional enrichments of identified genetic variants were discussed. Radical nsSNP-containing immunity genes were enriched in the QTL regions associated with some economic traits for both breeds. Moreover, genetic changes involved in selective sweeps were detected. From the selective sweeps identified in our two breeds, several genes associated with growth, appetite, and metabolic regulation were identified. Our study provides a framework for genetic and genomic research of domestic chickens and facilitates the domestic chicken as an avian model for genomic, biomedical, and evolutionary studies.
Background Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998–1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances. Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13–1.30). They are also more likely to smoke and (especially) drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33–1.95) compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups. Conclusions Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous populations, reiterating the overall importance of socioeconomic status for reducing population-level health disparities, regardless of indigeneity.
Subramanian, S. V; Smith, George Davey; Subramanyam, Malavika
From years 2000 to 2003, Salmonella was investigated from a total of 1785 samples comprised of chicken intestinal samples, cloacal swabs, drag swabs, litter samples and chick dust samples collected from 191 poultry breeding flocks belonging to 15 different chickenbreeding stock companies in the Marmara region, Turkey by a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (SGBRT-PCR), by a probe-specific
Aysegul Eyigor; Gulsen Goncagul; Elcin Gunaydin; K. Tayfun Carli
Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.
This paper deals with some methods for breeding Daphnia magna. Critical variables are the filtration of the medium on charcoal, the composition of the medium, the amount of food, the addition of vitamins with yeast extract and the extent of refreshing the medium. If these variables are well controlled, breeding daphnia is easy with reproduction varying from 3 to 9
Blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) improvement has made substantial progress with over 400 cultivars named originating from wild selections to many releases from breeding efforts. Public breeding has been ongoing for over 100 years. The result of these improvements is commercial production ...
Dermal hyperpigmentation or Fibromelanosis (FM) is one of the few examples of skin pigmentation phenotypes in the chicken, where most other pigmentation variants influence feather color and patterning. The Silkie chicken is the most widespread and well-studied breed displaying this phenotype. The presence of the dominant FM allele results in extensive pigmentation of the dermal layer of skin and the majority of internal connective tissue. Here we identify the causal mutation of FM as an inverted duplication and junction of two genomic regions separated by more than 400 kb in wild-type individuals. One of these duplicated regions contains endothelin 3 (EDN3), a gene with a known role in promoting melanoblast proliferation. We show that EDN3 expression is increased in the developing Silkie embryo during the time in which melanoblasts are migrating, and elevated levels of expression are maintained in the adult skin tissue. We have examined four different chickenbreeds from both Asia and Europe displaying dermal hyperpigmentation and conclude that the same structural variant underlies this phenotype in all chickenbreeds. This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals. PMID:22216010
Dermal hyperpigmentation or Fibromelanosis (FM) is one of the few examples of skin pigmentation phenotypes in the chicken, where most other pigmentation variants influence feather color and patterning. The Silkie chicken is the most widespread and well-studied breed displaying this phenotype. The presence of the dominant FM allele results in extensive pigmentation of the dermal layer of skin and the majority of internal connective tissue. Here we identify the causal mutation of FM as an inverted duplication and junction of two genomic regions separated by more than 400 kb in wild-type individuals. One of these duplicated regions contains endothelin 3 (EDN3), a gene with a known role in promoting melanoblast proliferation. We show that EDN3 expression is increased in the developing Silkie embryo during the time in which melanoblasts are migrating, and elevated levels of expression are maintained in the adult skin tissue. We have examined four different chickenbreeds from both Asia and Europe displaying dermal hyperpigmentation and conclude that the same structural variant underlies this phenotype in all chickenbreeds. This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals.
The 'Karen Commitment' is a plea by indigenous livestock breeding communities to governments and relevant international bodies to recognise their role in creating and stewarding unique animal genetic resources. It requests legally binding recognition of their right to access, save, use, and exchange their animal genetic resources unrestricted by intellectual property rights (IPRs) and modification through genetic engineering technologies. Furthermore
CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA
Indigenous populations in the U.S. and Pacific Islands are underrepresented in mental health and substance abuse research, are underserved, and have limited access to mainstream providers. Often, they receive care that is low quality and culturally inappropriate, resulting in compromised service outcomes. The First Nations Behavioral Health Association (U.S.) and the Pacific Substance Abuse and Mental Health Collaborating Council (Pacific Jurisdictions), have developed a Compendium of Best Practices for American Indian/Alaska Native and Pacific Island Populations. The private and public sector's increasing reliance on evidence-based practices (EBP) leaves many Indigenous communities at a disadvantage. For example, funding sources may require the use of EBP without awareness of its cultural usefulness to the local Indigenous population. Indigenous communities are then faced with having to select an EBP that is rooted in non-native social and cultural contexts with no known effectiveness in an Indigenous community. The field of cultural competence has tried to influence mainstream research, and the escalating requirement of EBP use. These efforts have given rise to the practice-based evidence (PBE) and the community-defined evidence (CDE) fields. All of these efforts, ranging from evidence-based practice to community-defined evidence, have a shared goal: practice improvement. PMID:22400456
This report describes the forest insects and diseases in the Pacific Northwest for the year 1998. It includes indigenous and non-indigenous diseases, nursery diseases, indigenous and non-indigenous insects, etc.
This report describes the forest insects and diseases in the Pacific Northwest for the year 2000. It includes indigenous and non-indigenous diseases, nursery diseases, indigenous and non-indigenous insects, etc.
The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities. PMID:23064403
Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W
Chicken feathers, an agricultural waste problem, are a promising bio-based alternative to composite reinforcement. Approximately 5 billion pounds of chicken feathers are produced per year in the United States poultry industry alone. Containing 47.83% carbon, chicken feathers are hollow and strong in nature due to the 91% keratin content. Carbonized chicken feather (CCF) fibers are produced by heating to 220
Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718
|Indigenous people have often been confronted with education systems that ignore their cultural and historical perspectives. This insightful volume contributes to the understanding of indigenous empowerment through education, and creates a new foundation for implementing specialized indigenous/minority education worldwide, engaging the…
|This article documents the establishment of the Indigenous Specializations program in the School of Social Work at the University of Victoria. In the absence of funding for Indigenous programs, First Nations professors Robina Thomas and Jacquie Green developed the Indigenous Specializations program "off the side of their desk". This article…
|Presents a brief overview of the nature of indigenous sustainable subsistence economies, and the present underdevelopment and dependency of North American indigenous economies resulting from colonialism and marginalization. Describes environmental and personal contamination on indigenous lands from uranium and coal mining, toxic and nuclear…
Closing the divide between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students is one of the most pressing current educational imperatives. Given the diversity of educational disadvantage experienced by Indigenous students, and the contexts within which they obtain their education, success in closing the divide is taking a multifaceted approach. One of the most innovative approaches has been developed by Vibe Australia through its
Presents a brief overview of the nature of indigenous sustainable subsistence economies, and the present underdevelopment and dependency of North American indigenous economies resulting from colonialism and marginalization. Describes environmental and personal contamination on indigenous lands from uranium and coal mining, toxic and nuclear waste,…
We present a breeding protocol that distills pure copies of any stabilizer state from noisy copies and a pool of predistilled pure copies of the same state, by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements, and classical communication.
|"Indigenous" college students in both Canada and the United States have the lowest rates of obtaining postsecondary degrees, and their postsecondary dropout rates are higher than for any other minority (Freeman & Fox, 2005; Mendelson, 2004; Reddy, 1993). There has been very little research done to uncover possible reasons for such low academic…
The paper examines the policy framework that has governed Indigenous Australians since colonisation and argues for a need to reframe the meaning of economic development to properly reflect the importance of cultural values. It suggests that using participatory methods can be a way of creating a space for dialogue where the current concepts can be challenged for such change to
|Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…
Indigenous populations in the U.S. and Pacific Islands are underrepresented in mental health and substance abuse research, are underserved, and have limited access to mainstream providers. Often, they receive care that is low quality and culturally inappropriate, resulting in compromised service outcomes. The First Nations Behavioral Health Association (U.S.) and the Pacific Substance Abuse and Mental Health Collaborating Council (Pacific
|Colonial influences have generally failed to respect indigenous knowledge, languages, and cultures. Determination to reclaim First Nations identity is visible in many jurisdictions. First Nations Peoples continue to call on governments to facilitate changes needed to revitalize their economic, social, cultural, and spiritual well-being. This…
Colonial influences have generally failed to respect indigenous knowledge, languages, and cultures. Determination to reclaim First Nations identity is visible in many jurisdictions. First Nations Peoples continue to call on governments to facilitate changes needed to revitalize their economic, social, cultural, and spiritual well-being. This…
|Dr. Joshua Fishman, a world renowned sociolinguist and expert on endangered languages, postulates a continuum of eight stages of language loss for indigenous languages. The most-endangered languages are in stage 8 and only have a few elderly speakers. In stage 7 only adults beyond child-bearing age still speak the tribal language. In stage 6…
A new wave of agricultural intensification in New Zealand is causing increasing pressure on natural resources. Moller et al. (2008) suggest that the agricultural intensification is inevitable, that negative environmental impacts have only been demonstrated for aquatic system s, and that a new paradigm based on integrating indigenous biodiversity and agriculture offers the best way forward. We question all these
The study of inequities in health is a critical component of monitoring government obligations to uphold the rights of Indigenous Peoples. In Aotearoa/New Zealand the indigenous M?ori population has a substantially younger age structure than the non-indigenous population making it necessary to account for age differences when comparing population health outcomes. An age-standardised rate is a summary measure of a rate that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Changing age standards have stimulated interest in the potential impact of population standards on disparities data and consequently on health policy. This paper compares the age structure of the M?ori and non-M?ori populations with two standard populations commonly used in New Zealand: Segi's world and WHO world populations. The performance of these standards in M?ori and non-M?ori mortality data was then measured against the use of the M?ori population as a standard. It was found that the choice of population standard affects the magnitude of mortality rates, rate ratios and rate differences, the relative ranking of causes of death, and the relative width of confidence intervals. This in turn will affect the monitoring of trends in health outcomes and health policy decision-making. It is concluded that the choice of age standard has political implications and the development and utilisation of an international indigenous population standard should be considered.
|This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…
|Available evidence suggests that Islamic (or Quranic) schools, as the primary contemporary example of indigenous schooling, have made major changes in various countries where they remain active. These include changes in the nature of instruction, style of teaching, and teacher corps. In general, these changes have been made in response to social…
The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples. PMID:23338830
Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex
Native chickenbreeding station of Mazandaran was established in 1988 with two main objectives: genetic improvement through selection programs and dissemination of indigenous Mazandarani birds. (Co)variance components and genetic parameters for economically important traits were estimated using (bi) univariate animal models with ASREML procedure in Mazandarani native chicken. The data were from 18 generations of selection (1988-2009). Heritability estimates for body weight at different ages [at hatch (bw1), 8 (bw8), 12 (bw12) weeks of ages and sex maturation (wsm)] ranged from 0.24 ± 0.00 to 0.47 ± 0.01. Heritability for reproductive traits including age at sex maturation (asm); egg number (en); weight of first egg (ew1); average egg weight at 28 (ew28), 30 (ew30), and 32 (ew32) weeks of age; their averages (av); average egg weight for the first 12 weeks of production (ew12); egg mass (em); and egg intensity (eint) varied from 0.16 ± 0.01 to 0.43 ± 0.01. Generally, the magnitudes of heritability for the investigated traits were moderate. However, egg production traits showed smaller heritability compared with growth traits. Genetic correlations among egg weight at different ages were mostly higher than 0.8. On the one hand, body weight at different ages showed positive and relatively moderate genetic correlations with egg weight traits (ew1, ew28, ew30, ew32, ew12, and av) and varied from 0.30 ± 0.03 to 0.59 ± 0.02. On the other hand, low negative genetic correlations were obtained between body weight traits (bw1, bw8, bw12, and wsm) and egg number (en). Also, there is low negative genetic correlation (-24 ± 0.04 to -29 ± 0.05) between egg number and egg weight. Therefore, during simultaneous selection process for both growth and egg production traits, probable reduction in egg production due to low reduction in egg number may be compensated by increases in egg weight. PMID:22286525
|In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)|
Genetic diversity and conservation potential of six indigenous cattle breeds of north Ethiopia was analysed based on 20 microsatellite markers using core set methods. Expected future diversity (assuming assigned extinction probabilities are valid for the next 20-50 years) were 0.988+/-0.011 and 0.980+/-0.010 with expected loss of diversity estimated at 0.02% and 0.74% of current level for the Maximum Variance Total (MVT) and Maximum Variance Offspring (MVO) core sets, respectively. Even though all breeds have contributed to current diversity levels, the Afar and Abergelle breeds only contributed 51% and 62% to the MVT and MVO core sets, respectively, while the Raya breed contributed only 6% and 1.5% to the MVT and MVO core set diversities, respectively. Moreover, prioritizing the six north Ethiopian cattle breeds using the conservation potential obtained from the MVT core set method seems reasonable considering the origin and migration histories of the breeds. Our results suggest that the total current genetic diversity of these breeds can be sufficiently maintained by designing a conservation strategy based on conservation potential of each breed from the MVT core set so that priority is given to lowering the extinction probabilities of breeds with high conservation potential to zero. PMID:17651327
Zerabruk, M; Bennewitz, J; Kantanen, J; Olsaker, I; Vangen, O
Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?0.05) higher than Yankasa, which were both higher than West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed tail length, rump height, chest girth, ear length and chest depth as the most discriminating variables for classification. Mahalanobis distances show the least differentiation between Uda and Balami and the largest between WAD and Balami sheep. While 93.3% of WAD sheep were correctly assigned to their source genetic group, 63.9% of Yankasa, 61.2% of Balami and 45.2% of Uda were classified correctly by nearest neighbour discriminant analysis. The overall high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of all microsatellite markers ranged from 0.751 to 0.927 supporting their use in genetic characterization. Expected heterozygosity was high for all loci (0.783 to 0.93). Mean heterozygote deficiency across all populations (0.171 to 0.534) possibly indicate significant inbreeding (P?0.05). Mean values for FST, FIT and FIS statistics across all loci were 0.088, 0.394 and 0.336 respectively. Yankasa and Balami are the most closely related breeds (DA?=?0.184) while WAD and Balami are the farthest apart breeds (DA?=?0.665), which is coincident with distance based on morphological analysis and population structure assessed by STRUCTURE. Conclusions These results suggest that within-breed genetic variation in Nigerian sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep.
Ten specific pathogen free light breedchickens and 10 commercial layer ducks were inoculated intranasally with one of five avian influenza A viruses which had been characterised as showing high or low pathogenicity for chickens. Recovery of the two viruses of low pathogenicity was restricted to the respiratory tract and gut of both species. Highly pathogenic viruses were recovered from all organs sampled. With two of the highly pathogenic viruses, A/duck/Ireland/113/83 (H5N8) and A/chicken/Victoria/85 (H7N7), the sites of recovery in ducks were similar to those seen in chickens except that virus was absent from the brain, apart from low levels detected in brain samples taken on day 5 from ducks infected with A/duck/Ireland/113/83. The levels recovered from organs of ducks for these two viruses were also similar to those in chickens, except for lower levels in kidney and liver for ducks infected with A/chicken/Victoria/85, and a delayed peak of recovery of both viruses in ducks. The third.highly pathogenic virus, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1), could not be recovered from any site in ducks. For all three highly pathogenic viruses mortality and morbidity were rapid and complete in chickens but absent in ducks. PMID:18645810
As a tool for large scale production of recombinant proteins, chickens have advantages such as high productivity and low breeding\\u000a costs compared to other animals. We previously reported the production of erythropoietin, the tumor necrosis factor receptor\\u000a fused to an Fc fragment, and an Fc-fused single-chain Fv antibody in eggs laid by genetically manipulated chickens. In egg\\u000a white, however, the
A total of 147 Menz and Horro lambs of both sexes were serially slaughtered and dissected at five different stages of growth to define the pattern of growth and partitioning of fat among body depots in indigenous Ethiopian Menz and Horro sheep breeds. The GLM procedure of SAS and allometric growth equation were used to assess the effects of various
E Negussie; O. J Rottmann; F Pirchner; J. E. O Rege
Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi.
Casanova, Claudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Angelo P.
This article focuses on answering two main questions: Why is this phenomenon occurring for Indigenous students in higher education and what are effective solutions for the retention and success of Indigenous students in higher education?
The study of breeding systems explores relationships between mating behaviour and parental care. Recent findings have shown that in many birds, fishes, anurans, and insects, females play a more active role than previously thought, by engaging in mate choice, mating with more than one male, and selecting genetic partners separately from social partners. Theoretical advances have improved our understanding of
This chapter describes the origin, speciation, and history of improvement of the raspberries, Rubus section idaeobatus. The world industry in North America, Australasia, China, Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America and the breeding objectives of programs in those areas are discussed. Ger...
The development of soybean cultivars is an integrated process of germplasm selections, breeding methodologies, and genetic manipulations. In this general review chapter, germplasm within the genus Glycine is summarized by country and maturity group. Examples are given where germplasm (plant introd...
In many Indigenous territories, continuing processes of primitive accumulation driven by governments’ claims to resources\\u000a and territory simultaneously deny Indigenous rights and insist on market forces as the foundation for economic and social\\u000a futures in Indigenous domains. Drawing on research in North Australia, this paper identifies the erasure of Indigenous governance,\\u000a the development of wickedly complex administrative systems, continuing structural
Molecular insight and methods applied to plant breeding and germplasm enhancement is the goal of assisted breeding, also known\\u000a as marker assisted breeding, marker assisted selection, molecular plant breeding, or genome-wide selection, among others.\\u000a The basic idea is that most, if not all, heritable components of agronomic performance can be assayed with an unbiased, uniform,\\u000a and comparatively inexpensive set of
European cattle breeds are being introduced into Ethiopia in an effort to improve the productivity of indigenousbreeds. The Ethiopian cattle breeds Horro and Boran were compared for tick burdens with their crosses with Friesian, Jersey and Simmental. Horro animals had the lowest tick burdens and the Horro x Friesian the highest. Adaptation to their environment and long-term natural selection for tick resistance in Horro cattle is the most likely explanation. Repeatability of tick burdens in all animals considered as one herd were only statistically significant for Boophilus decoloratus, the most abundant tick species. Statistically significant correlations between burdens of female B. decoloratus, Amblyomma cohaerens and Rhipicephalus praetextatus were observed and the addition of the males resulted in all inter-species correlations becoming significant. Care should be taken when crossing Ethiopian with more productive European cattle breeds in order not to lower their tick and disease resistance. PMID:8109054
The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous education.…
The aim of this study was to determine survival of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) in chicken meat, chicken skin medallions and chicken liver contaminated with this bacterium at +4 °C and -20 °C, after 24 hours of incubation. The survival of C. jejuni at +4 °C, -20 °C in chicken meat, chicken skin medallions and chicken liver were examined after 24 hours of incubation with C. jejuni. All samples were previously tested for the presence of Campylobacter species according to ISO 10272-1:2006. After 24 hours of incubation at +4 ° C, the number of survived C. jejuni in chicken meat slightly decreased on both non-selective and selective plates, but still in range of 10. After 24 hours of incubation at -20 ° C, the number of survived C. jejuni in chicken meat was in range of 10 cfu/ml on non-selective plate, with complete absence of growth on selective plate. After 24 hours of incubation, the number of survived C. jejuni in chicken liver increased on selective and non-selective plates (>10) at +4 ° C, while at -20 ° C there were no C. jejuni survived on both plates. 24 hours of incubation at both temperatures did not much influence the number of C. jejuni in chicken meet, while chicken skin medaillons allowed increase of the number of bacteria. Incubation of chicken liver at + 4° C allowed bacterial multiplication, while incubation at -20 ° C caused absence of survival (Tab. 1, Ref. 12). PMID:22693971
Kocic, B; Ivic-Kolevska, S; Miljkovic-Selimovic, B; Milosevic, Z
Breeding of genetically resistant chickens to Marek's disease (MD) is a vital strategy to poultry health. To find the markers underlying the genetic resistance to MD, copy number variation (CNV) was examined in inbred MD-resistant and -susceptible chicken lines. A total of 45 CNVs were found in four lines of chickens, and 28 were potentially involved in immune response and cell proliferation, etc. Importantly, two CNVs related with MD resistance were transmitted to descendent recombinant congenic lines that differ in susceptibility to MD. Our findings may lead to better strategies for genetic improvement of disease resistance in poultry. PMID:23390598
Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems. PMID:22639035
The Hinai-dori is a breed of chicken native to the Akita prefecture in Japan. A cross between the Hinai-dori and Rhode Island Red breeds has been commercialized as the Hinai-jidori chicken, one of the most popular brands in Japan. High arachidonic acid (AA) content is a characteristic feature of Hinai-jidori chicken meat. To elucidate the relationship between AA content and the palatability of the Hinai-jidori chicken, we examined the effects of palm oil (PO), corn oil (CO), and arachidonic acid-enriched oil (AAO) diet supplementation on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions in thigh meat. Each oil and silicate was mixed at a ratio of 7:3, 5% of fresh matter was added to the finisher diet, and Hinai-jidori chickens were fed these diets for 2 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the AAO group was significantly more than 2-fold higher than that of the PO and CO groups. Other fatty acid contents were not significantly different among the groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the total taste intensity, umami (l-glutamate taste), kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness), and aftertaste of the AAO group were significantly higher than those of PO and CO groups in both chicken soup and steamed minced meat. These data suggest that the palatability of chicken meat can be improved by dietary AA supplementation. PMID:21753220
Kiyohara, R; Yamaguchi, S; Rikimaru, K; Takahashi, H
In many high-income countries, indigenous populations bear a higher burden of obesity and diabetes than non-indigenous populations. Less is known about these patterns in lower- and middle-income countries. We assessed the hypothesis that obesity and diabetes were less prevalent among indigenous than non-indigenous adults in Mexico, home to the largest indigenous population in Latin America. We investigated socioeconomic explanations for differences. In a related line of inquiry, we examine whether adults in communities with higher versus lower percentages of indigenous residents were buffered against these conditions. We assessed whether differences were partially explained by lower development in higher-indigenous communities. Obesity was based on measured height and weight, and diabetes on a diagnosis from a healthcare professional. The analysis for obesity included 19?577 adults aged 20 and older from the Mexican Family Life Survey (2002), a nationally representative survey of Mexican households and communities; for diabetes, we restricted analysis to adults with health insurance. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate the odds of obesity and diabetes by indigenous status and community percent indigenous. Results suggest that indigenous adults had significantly lower odds of obesity and diabetes than non-indigenous adults. This advantage was not explained by the lower socioeconomic status of indigenous individuals. A higher percentage of indigenous individuals in communities provided protection against obesity, although not for diabetes. Differences for obesity were not accounted for by community development. Findings suggest that an opportunity may exist to prevent disparities in obesity and diabetes from developing by indigenous characteristics in Mexico. Identifying the sources of protective effects of individual and community indigenous characteristics relative to these health conditions should be a priority, given global implications for prevention. PMID:22033376
Stoddard, Pamela; Handley, Margaret A; Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Schillinger, Dean
Crop improvement by traditional breeding versus biotechnology is analysed here. Since new technologies can truncate time and space and increase precision, plant improvement could become more factory like, creating a world where agriculture depends on industry. Private sector funding for research in biotechnology is increasing giving rise to a conflict of interests. Seed companies rather than farmers stand to benefit most, and marketing and advertising of seeds and chemicals will play an increasingly important role in the future. 42 references.
Hansen, M.; Busch, L.; Burkhardt, J.; Lacy, W.B.; Lacy, L.R.
Subgroup J avian leucosis virus (ALV-J) causes great economic losses in the poultry industry. One in 3 grandparent farms was closed due to ALV-J infection in 1998 in Taiwan. The remaining 2 farms were forced to import breeding chicks from different breeding companies afterwards. We report on the ALV-J infection status among these breeders, their progeny and Taiwan native chickens during 2000-2002. The weekly mortality for the male line among the infected breeders was higher than that for the female line. Sixty-three percent (5/8) of the broiler flocks were infected with ALV-J. The surface (SU) portion of the env gene from the ALV-J field isolates was cloned and sequenced. The phylogenetic results show that all of the isolates fell into 2 clusters. Unexpectedly, the isolates from the same breeds fell into different clusters, with a cluster including isolates from different breeding companies. ALV-Js from native chickens crossbred with imported chickens were placed into the same clusters as those from the imported breeds. The high similarities observed in different ALV-J isolates suggest that different ALV-Js were mixed in the pedigree generations in different breeding lines. PMID:12679561
|Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…
This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors' hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices. PMID:24142201
Uses stories of U.S. and Canadian indigenous individuals who defended their lands against uranium mining and hydroelectric development to contrast the thinking of indigenous people (natural law as pre-eminent, spiritual practice, intergenerational residency in the same place) with industrial thinking (man's dominion over nature, linear thinking,…
|The collection of essays on the relationship between English literacy and indigenous education, particularly in the Australian context, includes: "Double Power" (Mandawuy Yunupingu); "History, Cultural Diversity & English Language Teaching" (Martin Nakata); "Scaffolding Reading and Writing for Indigenous Children in School" (David Rose, Brian…
|Describes the effects on indigenous communities of Bolivia's recent Popular Participation Laws, which relocated political and financial decision making to the municipal level; community efforts toward cultural maintenance and nonformal agricultural education; the activism of indigenous university students; and the dual discrimination suffered by…
|Uses stories of U.S. and Canadian indigenous individuals who defended their lands against uranium mining and hydroelectric development to contrast the thinking of indigenous people (natural law as pre-eminent, spiritual practice, intergenerational residency in the same place) with industrial thinking (man's dominion over nature, linear thinking,…
|This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…
|Engaging positively with the mobility of Indigenous students has been the centre of a 5-year action research project in Queensland, Australia. Drawing on responses developed for other marginalised mobile populations, and with consideration for the extent of mobility amongst many Indigenous people in Australia, this paper focuses on the…
Engaging positively with the mobility of Indigenous students has been the centre of a 5-year action research project in Queensland, Australia. Drawing on responses developed for other marginalised mobile populations, and with consideration for the extent of mobility amongst many Indigenous people in Australia, this paper focuses on the…
The last decade or so of research in Canada, reflected in this special issue, has increased our understanding of the distinction between Indigenous resilience and the research into Indigenous resilience. Measurement offers glimpses of resilience, mostly from the potentially distorted view of how resilient youth face specific adversity — adversity that is set by the funding opportunity: tobacco, substance abuse, suicide, or HIV infection. The driving role of funding has obvious problems; the priorities of funders may not be the priorities of communities and results can tell more about the funding opportunity than about resilience itself. Even so, this problem-focussed research has the very practical advantage of producing results geared to solutions. A major lesson of this body of work is that we should allow ourselves the space (and the modesty) to recognize that Aboriginal resilience is greater than we have been able to measure under specific funding opportunities. Even with this limitation, our results shows a large degree of specificity — what strengthens youth resilience to one type of adversity in one setting might well not work in another. Five proposals emerge from the findings.
During the 20th century, there has been a concerted effort by a number of transnational organizations and advocacy groups to effectively lobby for the rights and protection of indigenous groups in all parts of the world. In 2000, the United Nations Economic and Social Council established the Permanent Form on Indigenous Issues to effectively address the needs of the 370 million indigenous peoples around the world. On the site, visitors can read official documents and proceedings created by the Forum's work, peruse a photo gallery of indigenous peoples, and read the text of various speeches on indigenous issues. Finally, visitors will also want to peruse the list of upcoming events sponsored by the Forum and also review its latest press releases.
Evaluations of genetic diversity in domestic livestock populations are necessary to implement region-specific conservation measures. We determined the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among eight geographically and phenotypically diverse cattle breedsindigenous to west-central India by genotyping these animals for 22 microsatellite loci. A total of 326 alleles were detected, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.614 (Kenkatha) to 0.701 (Dangi). The mean number of alleles among the cattle breeds ranged from 7.182 (Khillar) to 9.409 (Gaolao). There were abundant genetic variations displayed within breeds, and the genetic differentiation was also high between the Indian cattle breeds, which displayed 15.9% of the total genetic differentiation among the different breeds. The genetic differentiation (pairwise FST ) among the eight Indian breeds varied from 0.0126 for the Kankrej-Malvi pair to 0.2667 for Khillar-Kenkatha pair. The phylogeny, principal components analysis, and structure analysis further supported close grouping of Kankrej, Malvi, Nimari and Gir; Gaolao and Kenkatha, whereas Dangi and Khillar remained at distance from other breeds. PMID:23216283
Background In livestock species like the chicken, high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays are increasingly being used for whole genome association studies and as a tool in breeding (referred to as genomic selection). To be of value in a wide variety of breeds and populations, the success rate of the SNP genotyping assay, the distribution of the SNP across the genome and the minor allele frequencies (MAF) of the SNPs used are extremely important. Results We describe the design of a moderate density (60k) Illumina SNP BeadChip in chicken consisting of SNPs known to be segregating at high to medium minor allele frequencies (MAF) in the two major types of commercial chicken (broilers and layers). This was achieved by the identification of 352,303 SNPs with moderate to high MAF in 2 broilers and 2 layer lines using Illumina sequencing on reduced representation libraries. To further increase the utility of the chip, we also identified SNPs on sequences currently not covered by the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-2.1). This was achieved by 454 sequencing of the chicken genome at a depth of 12x and the identification of SNPs on 454-derived contigs not covered by the current chicken genome assembly. In total we added 790 SNPs that mapped to 454-derived contigs as well as 421 SNPs with a position on Chr_random of the current assembly. The SNP chip contains 57,636 SNPs of which 54,293 could be genotyped and were shown to be segregating in chicken populations. Our SNP identification procedure appeared to be highly reliable and the overall validation rate of the SNPs on the chip was 94%. We were able to map 328 SNPs derived from the 454 sequence contigs on the chicken genome. The majority of these SNPs map to chromosomes that are already represented in genome build Gallus_gallus-2.1.0. Twenty-eight SNPs were used to construct two new linkage groups most likely representing two micro-chromosomes not covered by the current genome assembly. Conclusions The high success rate of the SNPs on the Illumina chicken 60K Beadchip emphasizes the power of Next generation sequence (NGS) technology for the SNP identification and selection step. The identification of SNPs from sequence contigs derived from NGS sequencing resulted in improved coverage of the chicken genome and the construction of two new linkage groups most likely representing two chicken micro-chromosomes.
Acute anaphylaxis due to chicken meat is very rare; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 13-year-old girl, with a past history of allergic urticaria due to eggs, who presented immediately after ingestion of lightly grilled chicken meat with facial edema, dysphonia, acute dyspnoea and a feeling of suffocation. A few months later, the patient developed asthma in the vicinity of poultry and after contact with chicken feathers. PMID:22240229
Cheikh Rouhou, S; Bachouch, I; Racil, H; Chaouch, N; Zarrouk, M; Salmi, L; Chabbou, A
There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified.
Initiated in 1995, the Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas (WBBA) is an on-going project to document all bird species breeding in the state of Wisconsin. A project of the Wisconsin Society for Ornithology, WBBA documents the presence and breeding status of bird species detected within a selected 5km x 5km area, as well as (optionally) the estimated abundance of the species and the type of habitat in which it was detected. The results of this ambitious initiative are now available in the form of online Species Distribution Maps and multiple species summaries. While not all maps have been error-checked, these color maps offer detailed images showing confirmed and probable breeding locations for Wisconsin's several hundred species of breeding birds. In addition to the maps, the site provides a section on WBBA methods, numerous bird identification images, and a Casual Observation Form. A select list of links (to other states's Breeding Bird Atlas projects) rounds out the site.
Semen cryopreservation is fundamental both for the practice of artificial insemination, and for the conservation of genetic resources in cryobanks; nevertheless, there is still not an efficient standard freezing procedure assuring a steady and suitable level of fertility in fowl, and consequently there is no systematic use of frozen semen in the poultry industry. This study examined changes in motility (CASA), cell membrane integrity (Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) exclusion procedure and stress test) and DNA fragmentation (neutral comet assay) in fowl spermatozoa before, during and after cryopreservation and storage at -196 °C. An optimized comet assay for chicken semen was studied and applied to the analyses. Semen collected from 18 Mericanel della Brianza (local Italian breed) male chicken breeders was frozen in pellets and thawed in a water bath at 60 °C. Measurements were performed on fresh semen soon after dilution, after equilibration with 6% dimethylacetamide at 4 °C (processed semen) and after thawing. Sperm DNA damage occurred during cryopreservation of chicken semen and the proportion of spermatozoa with damaged DNA significantly increased from 6.2% in fresh and 6.4% in processed semen to 19.8% in frozen-thawed semen. The proportion of DNA in the comet tail of damaged spermatozoa was also significantly affected by cryopreservation, with an increase found from fresh (26.3%) to frozen-thawed (30.9%) sperm, whereas processed semen (30.1%) didn't show significant differences. The proportion of total membrane damaged spermatozoa (EtBr exclusion procedure) did not increase by 4 °C equilibration time, and greatly and significantly increased by cryopreservation; the values recorded in fresh, processed and frozen semen were 2.9, 5.6, and 66.7% respectively. As regards the proportion of damaged cells in the stress test, all values differed significantly (7.1% fresh semen, 11.7% processed semen, 63.7% frozen semen). Total motility was not affected by equilibration (52.1% fresh semen, 51.9% processed semen), whereas it decreased significantly after cryopreservation (19.8%). These results suggest a low sensitivity of frozen-thawed chicken spermatozoa to DNA fragmentation, therefore it should not be considered as a major cause of sperm injuries during cryopreservation. PMID:21396690
The recent development of a national science curriculum in M?ori opened up space to contest whose knowledge and whose ways of knowing are included. This paper outlines the background to the curriculum development work in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous M?ori people and science education. Concern is expressed about the fitting of one cultural framework into another and questions are raised about the approach used in the development of the science curriculum. Further research in the area of language, culture and science education is discussed along with how M?ori might move forward in the endeavour of developing a curriculum that reflects M?ori culture and language.
Raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting foodborne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis as a result of consuming partly cooked chicken nuggets may be due in part to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and characterize the strains of Salmonella contaminating chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted feeds, in an attempt to demonstrate whether the same Salmonella strains present in broiler feed could be isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips available for human consumption. Salmonellae were recovered using the Health Canada MFHPB-20 method for the isolation and identification of Salmonella from foods. Strains were characterized by serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial resistance typing (R-typing), and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonellae were isolated from 25-g samples in 27% (n=92) of nugget and strip samples, 95% (n=20) of chicken nugget meat samples, and from 9% (n=111) of pelleted feed samples. Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Orion were the most commonly isolated serovars from chicken nuggets and strips, nugget and strip meat, and pelleted broiler feeds, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0006 and R-type sensitive as well as Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0068 and R-type sensitive were isolated from pelleted feed, and chicken nugget and strip meat in two separate instances. Data showed that Salmonella strains isolated from broiler feed were indistinguishable from strains isolated from packaged raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips. However, results did not rule out the possibility that breeding stock or contamination during processing may have contributed to chicken meat contamination by Salmonella. PMID:17969605
Bucher, O; Holley, R A; Ahmed, R; Tabor, H; Nadon, C; Ng, L K; D'Aoust, J Y
\\u000a \\u000a Plant breeding aims at the genetic improvement of cultivated plants. Depending on the reproduction system of a plant the breeding\\u000a process can last up to 15 years for crops and much longer for tree species. The breeding method is determined by the reproductive\\u000a system of a plant and on the presence of hybrid yield (heterosis). Since the 1970s biotechnology is
Cell- and tissue culture methods in combination with conventional breeding process were suitable way to produce new varieties.\\u000a These applications gave new breeding alternatives to release competitive genotypes in comparison with traditional ones. To\\u000a the breeding of ‘Risabell’ (1997) DH lines were produced via anther culture from F2 population of a single cross combination. The new variety was improved for
Breeding for complex multigenic phenotypic quality characters in cereals by chemical analyses and functional pilot tests is\\u000a traditionally a slow and expensive process. The development of new instrumental screening methods for complex quality traits\\u000a evaluated by multivariate data analysis has during the last decades revolutionised the economy and scale in breeding for quality.\\u000a The traditional explorative plant breeding view is
The solute carrier family 27 (SLC27, also known as fatty acid transport proteins [FATPs]) plays important biological roles in cells. However, there is no report about the expression profile of SLC27 member in chicken. In this study, we quantified the expression of SLC27A1 (FATP1) mRNA in a mountainous black-boned chickenbreed (MB) and a commercial meat type chickenbreed (S01), to discern the tissue and age-related specific expression pattern and their potential involvement in fat deposition and muscle fatty acid metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed for accurate measurement of SLC27A1 mRNA levels in different tissues from chicken with different ages (0-12 weeks). Expression of SLC27A1 mRNA was detected in all tissues examined. There was a significantly age-related change of the SLC27A1 mRNAs in heart, breast muscle (BMW), leg muscle (LMW), liver, and abdominal fat (AF) tissues (P < 0.05). The breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had the highest expression of SLC27A1 mRNA than the other tissues from the same individual at 0, 2 and 4 weeks. The overall SLC27A1 mRNA level exhibited a "rise-decline" developmental change in all tissues except for breast muscle, subcutaneous fat, and brain. The S01 chicken had a higher expression of the SLC27A1 mRNA in breast muscle, subcutaneous fat, and heart tissues than the MB chicken. Our results showed that the expression of SLC27A1 mRNA in chicken tissues exhibits specific developmental changes and age-related patterns. PMID:21184181
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection is a common concern in poultry production for its negative effects on growth as well as food safety for humans. Identification of molecular markers that are linked to resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis may lead to appropriate solutions to control Salmonella infection in chickens. This study investigated the association of candidate genes with resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in young chickens. Two native breeds of Malaysian chickens, namely, Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl, were evaluated for bacterial colonization after Salmonella Enteritidis inoculation. Seven candidate genes were selected on the basis of their physiological role in immune response, as determined by prior studies in other genetic lines: natural resistance-associated protein 1 (NRAMP1), transforming growth factor ?3 (TGF?3), transforming growth factor ?4 (TGF?4), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (IAP1), caspase 1 (CASP1), lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? factor (LITAF), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Polymerase chain reaction-RFLP was used to identify polymorphisms in the candidate genes; all genes exhibited polymorphisms in at least one breed. The NRAMP1-SacI polymorphism correlated with the differences in Salmonella Enteritidis load in the cecum (P = 0.002) and spleen (P = 0.01) of Village Chickens. Polymorphisms in the restriction sites of TGF?3-BsrI, TGF?4-MboII, and TRAIL-StyI were associated with Salmonella Enteritidis burden in the cecum, spleen, and liver of Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the NRAMP1, TGF?3, TGF?4, and TRAIL genes are potential candidates for use in selection programs for increasing genetic resistance against Salmonella Enteritidis in native Malaysian chickens. PMID:23472012
Tohidi, R; Idris, I B; Malar Panandam, J; Hair Bejo, M
1. The use of computerised tomography (CT) to predict body composition of chickens has been evaluated. Prediction equations were constructed by regression analyses with CT?observations as independent variables. The accuracy of prediction was evaluated on separate sets of birds, not included in the regression analyses.2. Different methods of generating CT?observations were evaluated. The most robust CT?variables for prediction purposes were
This narrative describes the growth of an alliance between two indigenous organizations in North and South America, illustrating how a shared indigenous vision of cultural survival and connection to the land led to the creation of an ongoing collaboration for indigenous youth leadership development, which has extended to encompass collaboration with other South American and Caribbean indigenous groups. Allowing organizational
Christine Wihak; Lynne Hately; Sydney Allicock; Michael Lickers
|Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…
Indigenous Australians experience a significant, disproportionate burden of ill-health when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. This is evidenced in the higher rates of disease and injury in the Indigenous population and their substantially lower life expectancy [1, 2]. The factors contributing to the poor health status of Indigenous Australians are extensive and complex, and reflect events involving dispossession, alienation, and segregation.
Indigenous business participation is significantly less when compared to mainstream Anglo- European participation in Australia. Yet those who are in business, are they any less Indigenous by being successful entrepreneurs than what they were before they went into business? Do you loose your Indigenous values? These questions are not uncommon within Indigenous community circles where the unknown often produces negativity.
|The data from a longitudinal study of seven indigenous justice service organizations in four colonized countries were analyzed to identify the characteristics that made them "indigenous." Although nine common organizational characteristics emerged, of these, four are essential and specific to indigenous organizations (dependency on indigenous…
First comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets.Water markets are acceptable to Indigenous respondents.There are caveats in the design of water markets to protect Indigenous water values.These caveats include not separating land and water title and supporting equity.Shared preservation value among all respondents for catchments of high ecological and customary value.
Nikolakis, William D.; Grafton, R. Quentin; To, Hang
The exploration and development of Mars will require abundant surface power. Nuclear reactors are a low-cost, low-mass means of providing that power. A significant fraction of the nuclear power system mass is radiation shielding necessary for protecting humans and/or equipment from radiation emitted by the reactor. For planetary surface missions, it may be desirable to provide some or all of the required shielding from indigenous materials. This paper examines shielding options that utilize either purely indigenous materials or a combination of indigenous and nonindigenous materials.
Houts, Michael G.; Poston, David I.; Trellue, Holly R. [Nuclear Systems Design and Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Baca, Justin A.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Nuclear Technology and Research, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1146 (United States)
Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to enhance scientific and adaptive capacity in Tribal communities in the United States around climate change. The first is the American Indian Alaska Native Climate Change Working Group, led out of Haskell Indian Nations University. The second is a newly funded effort led by the North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges that will use NASA resources to explore climate change on the great planes. Finally, we will present an effort led by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) that seeks to develop an undergraduate course introducing climate change to tribal college students. Our presentation will also describe how a geoscience research facility, in this case the National Center for Atmospheric Research, can support efforts led by indigenous communities.
Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) is the causative agent of fowl typhoid (FT) in chickens. FT is a severe systemic disease of chickens causing heavy economic losses to the poultry industry through mortality, reduced egg production and culling of precious breeding stocks. In this study, a metC (encoding cystathionine b lyase) mutant was produced from avirulent strainofS.Gallinarum byMini-Tn5 insertionalinactivation.
Devendra H. Shah; Smriti Shringi; Atul R. Desai; Eun-Jeong Heo; Jin-Ho Park; Joon-Seok Chae
Many of the pre-requisites necessary for breeding plants with inducible resistance to pests are no different from breeding for constitutive resistance. In both cases it is necessary to have resistance genes giving high enough yield gains from pest protection, efficient selection methods and means of introducing resistance genes into agronomically acceptable plant material. In addition, resistance traits need to be
This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science\\u000a and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade\\u000a (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students’ non-Indigenous teacher played a\\u000a central role in developing a science module ‘Measuring
The construct of self-concept has been well documented in Western cultures, but self-concept research is limited in Indigenous communities. This study assessed the equivalence for Australian Indigenous and non Indigenous students of six dimensions of self-concept: Family, Self-Acceptance, General School, Academic Achievement, Peer, and Career. Primary and high school students ( N = 625) completed a survey providing data on
INTRODUCTION This study involves a review of New Zealand indigenous entrepreneurs, whereby the proposition of work-life balance is examined. The New Zealand indigenous entrepreneur is an opportunity based entrepreneur, opting for social integration of work-life balance versus wealth creation. METHOD The study introduces a two-tiered research focus on indigenous lifestyle entrepreneurs; incorporating GEM Aotearoa (2005) data and empirical analysis from
The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were screened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6 ± 10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6 ± 10.8 months in the non-indigenous group. Among the non-indigenous, the analysis showed no significant association between age at menarche and socioeconomic status. In the indigenous group, age at menarche among girls with low socioeconomic status was 5.4 months later than among those with higher socioeconomic status. There were no differences in nutritional status according to socioeconomic level. Obesity was associated with earlier menarche. Menarche occurred earlier than in previous generations. An inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche was seen in the indigenous group only; low socioeconomic status was associated with delayed menarche, regardless of nutritional status or mother's age at menarche. PMID:22641520
Plasma leptin concentrations were investigated during the reproductive cycle in the native Thai chicken. The plasma leptin concentration was high during non-laying (0.69±0.15ng/ml), lowered to a minimum concentration during egg laying (0.07±0.02ng/ml), and gradually increased during egg incubation and rearing of the chicks (0.53±0.22 and 0.74±0.29ng/ml, respectively). However, the differences were not significant. Incubating chickens that were deprived of their nests for 3 weeks showed a significant decrease in plasma leptin concentrations (0.29±0.04ng/ml, P<0.05) compared to those of their corresponding incubating controls (0.77±0.08ng/ml). Similarly, plasma leptin concentration of chickens that were deprived of their chicks for 4 weeks was significantly lower (0.09±0.11ng/ml, P<0.05), when compared to those of chickens that rearing their chicks (0.71±0.18ng/ml). These findings taken together with the results that the low plasma leptin concentrations were observed in chickens having relatively greater ovary and oviduct weights led to the suggestion that circulating leptin concentrations are associated with the reproductive states of the birds, especially the ovarian activity (i.e. ovarian steroid hormone concentrations) in the native Thai chicken, a tropical and continuous breeding species. PMID:23067865
\\u000a Indigenous soil knowledge, a foundation of traditional farming systems, plays an important role in developing agricultural\\u000a and environmental sustainability, especially in developing countries where most farmers have limited access to soil analysis\\u000a and extension services. Recently, indigenous soil knowledge has been recognized as a vital source for most scientists to be\\u000a used to change and improve natural resource management without
Chicken anaemia agent (CAA) is a small, unclassified, icosahedral DNA virus with a single?stranded, circular genome. It seems to have a worldwide distribution. Only one serotype of CAA has been found, and all isolates investigated so far are pathogenic for young chicks.CAA causes a syndrome in chickens characterised by increased mortality, anaemia associated with atrophy of the haematopoietic tissues in
Selective breeding of plants and animals has been carried on for hundreds of years. Few attempts, however, have been made to breed salmon that have characteristics which would better fit the fish for the needs of modern salmon management. Experiments started in 1949 at the University of Washington to develop a selected stock of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have shown
Canine aggression poses serious public health and animal welfare concerns. Most of what is understood about breed differences in aggression comes from reports based on bite statistics, behavior clinic caseloads, and experts’ opinions. Information on breed-specific aggressiveness derived from such sources may be misleading due to biases attributable to a disproportionate risk of injury associated with larger and\\/or more physically
Most plant breeding is based on “defect elimination” or “selection for yield”. A valuable additional approach is available through the breeding of crop ideotypes, plants with model characteristics known to influence photosynthesis, growth and (in cereals) grain production. Some instances of the successful use of model characters of this kind are quoted.
A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.
The Digital Library of Indigenous Science Resources (DLISR) is a library collection of online text, video, audio, and image files of Indigenous science. According to the DLISR, Native or Indigenous Science "involves Native persons learning about and understanding the natural world (or non-Native persons learning about and understanding the natural world in the same ways Native people do)." The library includes knowledge about the natural world as well as methods of teaching and learning about the natural world. All the resources found in the DLISR are authored or produced by Indigenous persons or organizations, or are "approved for inclusion in the library collection by an elder or other Indigenous person with the expertise to assess the resource." Visitors will note that the National Science Foundation (NSF) is one of the supporters of this digital library, and they can find more information on Indigenous or Native Science by checking out the "Introduction" tab at the top of the page. The overarching categories available in the library are "Climate Change", "Education", "Law", "Sovereignty", "Traditional Knowledge" and "Traditional Foods". There are approximately two dozen subtopics for visitors to choose under the categories. For example, under the "Traditional Foods" category visitors will find five resources, including one entitled "Alaska Traditional Knowledge and Native Foods Database", which contains measurements of contaminants found in the animals harvested by Alaska Natives.
Historical studies of homeopathy in Europe and the USA have focused on practitioners' attempts to emphasize 'modern' and 'scientific' approaches. Studies of homeopathy in India have focused on a process of Indianization. Arguing against such unilineal trajectories, this paper situates homeopathy in South India within the context of shifting relations between 'scientific' and 'indigenous' systems of medicine. Three time periods are considered. From 1924 through 1934, homeopathy was singled out by Government of Madras officials as 'scientific', as contrasted with the 'indigenous' Ayurvedic, Siddha, and Unani systems of medicine. From 1947 through 1960, both 'indigenous' and 'scientific' interpretations of homeopathy were put forward by different factions. An honorary director of homeopathy proposed the Indianization of homeopathy, and its reconciliation with Ayurveda; this view conflicted with the Madras government's policy of expanding the 'scientific' medical curriculum of the Government College of Indigenous Medicine. It was not until the early 1970s that homeopathy was officially recognized in Tamilnadu State. By then, both homeopathy and Ayurveda had become conceptualized as non-Tamil, in contrast with promotion of the Tamil Siddha system of 'indigenous' medicine. Thus, constructs of 'indigenous' and 'scientific' systems of medicine are quite malleable with respect to homeopathy in South India. PMID:12638553
Vaccination has provided major benefits to the health of indigenous children in the face of continuing poorer socioe-conomic conditions but several issues have been identified for improvement. While indigenous children are vaccinated at high rates for the standard schedule vaccines, vaccination is more commonly delayed. Coverage for 'targeted' vaccines is substantially lower, and data on coverage for indigenous adolescents is non-existent. Improved identification of indigenous clients by immunisation providers and the expansion of the childhood register are required. The progressive removal of early-acting Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines from schedules for indigenous children because of an international shortage raises the risk of disease re-emergence and highlights the need for vigilant surveillance including carriage. The expanded use of existing vaccines (influenza) and early adoption of new vaccines (higher valency pneumococcal conjugates) are needed to maximise benefits, in particular the potential to impact on non-invasive disease such as otitis media and non-bacteraemic pneumonia that are so prevalent in indigenous children. PMID:21564384
Educated as a veterinarian at Cureghem, Leopold Frateur started his scientific career in 1899 as a professor at the Faculty of Sciences of the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium, in charge of the course in zootechnology. After a study tour to zootechnical institutes and centres of animal breeding in Europe he was invited by the governmental department of Agriculture and the Belgian Society of Zootechnology to investigate the relevance of the Mendelian laws of heredity for the improvement of cattle breeding. In the early years of the century, Frateur conducted field research in order to determine the characteristics of the cattle breeds in Belgium. In 1908 Frateur founded the Institute of Animal Husbandry at his university. Here he worked out his programme of experimental genetics until his retirement in 1936. The last six years of his professorship he teached also agricultural economics in the Faculty of Economical Sciences. In Frateur's experimental research the following main lines can be distinguished: 1) The analysis of simple and complex hereditary factors in cattle, rabbits and poultry; 2) The study of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of importance for the improvement of animal breeds; 3) The synthesis of genetic factors from different stock in order to obtain higher yielding breeds with stable characteristics; 4) Theoretical study of the relationship between genotype and phenotype and the influence of environment factors; 5) Theoretical exploration of the issue of variability and modification of newly formed characteristics; 6) Research leading to an explanation of telegony and atavism; 7) The formulation of a theory on the creation of new breeds in domestic animals and plants, and the relation between breed and species. Also he was responding to topical needs, e.g. he determined the causal factor of pullorum epidemic in chicken farming, or he investigated the hereditary resistance against diphteric infection amongst chickens. Frateur took the theoretical knowledge on heredity as the starting point for practical application in cattle breeding. During and right after W. W. I. he stated that the current scientific knowledge is enough advanced to consider the start of a large breeding programme for the improvement of cattle livestock. In order to realise this reinstatement Frateur received important support from the authorities (Royal Decree, August 1919). From then onwards he focussed his efforts on the realisation of a national framework for improvement of cattle livestock, in collaboration with regional centres and societies for animal selection, breeding and production. Later he also started programmes for the improvement of chicken and pig breeding, again in a joint effort with official consultants and members of breeding societies. He was not only the architect of these programmes, providing the necessary scientific and technical guidance, but he had also a chair in the governing bodies, supervising the execution and control of the breeding programmes. In order to draw a picture of the research community engaged in animal breeding during the first decennia of the 20th century Frateur's contacts through study tours, congresses and learned societies are investigated. The life and work of Frateur is described by the author in two volumes, published in 1999. The second volume consists of a reprint of 50 selected papers on animal breeding. PMID:12051273
This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled us first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low-molecular-weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that are responsible for the mammalian genome reprograming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance caused by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The authors substantiate the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics investigations as well as in disease prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although the discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.
Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.
PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)
Bacteriophage specific for Campylobacter were isolated from chicken excreta collected from established free-range layer breed stock. Bacteriophage were either propagated\\u000a on a Campylobacter jejuni host with broad susceptibility to bacteriophage (NCTC 12662) or on Campylobacter isolates from the same samples. Campylobacters were confirmed as being C. jejuni and or C. coli, using a combination of standard biochemical tests and PCR
Catherine M. Loc Carrillo; Phillippa L. Connerton; Tom Pearson; Ian F. Connerton
BACKGROUND: Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial\\/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures
|The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…
Four chickenbreeds (White Leghorn, Yangshan, Taihe Silkies, White Recessive Rocks) with different reproduction were applied to screen potential SNPs related to laying performance in the 5' flanking region, exon region and partial intron region of chicken prolactin (cPRL) gene. Totally almost 4500 bp were screened rapidly based on DNA pooling and sequencing, and thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two indels (24 bp and 15 bp) were found, including nine SNPs and two indels in the 5' flanking region, one SNP in Exon 2, two SNPs in Exon 5 and one SNP in Intron 2 respectively. Furthermore, 5' flanking region of cPRL gene was analyzed by the website of http://motif.genome.ad.jp/. A possible Evi-1 binding site (score 93) was found in White Leghorn cPRL gene because of the 24 bp insertion, another possible C/EBPbeta binding site (score 94) was found in Yangshan cPRL gene because of the variation of C-2402T. Further studies need to be carried out to verify their effects on the expression of cPRL gene, the broodiness and laying performance of chickens. PMID:15843347
Chicken prolactin (PRL) is a physiological candidate gene for egg production. The objective of the current research was to investigate the association of polymorphisms in the chicken PRL promoter region with egg production. Genotyping of 177 individuals from White Leghorn, Yangshan, Taihe Silkies, White Rock, and Nongdahe breeds for 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (C-2402T, C-2161G, T-2101G, C-2062G, T-2054A, and G-2040A) and 1 24-bp indel (insertion-deletion) at the site of -358 of the chicken PRL gene revealed large breed differences in allelic frequencies for all but the T-2101G and T-2054A polymorphisms. An F2 population produced from Nongdahe x Taihe Silkies chickens consisted of 374 hens, which were recorded for egg production traits and genotyped for the above 7 polymorphisms. Marker-trait association analysis indicated that the 24-bp indel was associated with egg production (P < 0.01) and that H3 (C C T C T G) was the most advantageous haplotype for egg production. PMID:16493942
Cui, J X; Du, H L; Liang, Y; Deng, X M; Li, N; Zhang, X Q
Indonesian native chickens are considered an important genetic resource, particularly with respect to their excellent traits for meat and egg production. However, few molecular genetic studies of these native chickens have been conducted. We analyzed the genetic diversity and differentiation of 4 populations of Indonesian native chickens: Black Kedu (BK), Kedu (KD), Kampung (LOC), and Arab (AR). Blood samples from 188 individuals were collected in central and western Java. Genomic DNA was genotyped using 98 autosomal SNP markers, of which 87 were found to be polymorphic. The proportion of polymorphic loci and the average heterozygosity of each population were in the range of 0.765 to 0.878 and 0.224 to 0.263, respectively. The 4 populations of Indonesian chickens appeared to be derived from 3 genetic populations (K = 3): maximum likelihood clustering showed that the BK variety and AR breed were each assigned to a distinct cluster, whereas the LOC ecotype and KD variety were admixed populations with similar proportions of membership. Principal components analysis revealed that eigenvector 1 separated BK and AR from the other 2 populations. Neighbor-joining trees constructed from pairwise distance matrix (F(ST)) estimates, for individuals and between populations, corroborated that the LOC ecotype and KD variety were related closely, whereas the BK variety and AR breed diverged at greater distances. These results also confirmed the usefulness of SNP markers for the study of genetic diversity. PMID:22010231
Riztyan; Katano, T; Shimogiri, T; Kawabe, K; Okamoto, S
The feeding ecology of two common indigenous (Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena sphyraena) and one abundant non-indigenous sphyraenid species, Sphyraena chrysotaenia, of Indo-Pacific Ocean origin, was investigated in an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The stomach contents of 738 individuals of varying size, collected during the period December 2008 to August 2009, were examined. The dietary analyses revealed that all three species were specialized piscivores with a diet consisting of >90% fish, both by number and mass. Concurrent sampling of the fish assemblage made it possible to calculate selectivity as well as diet breadth and overlap of these strict piscivores. Even though several prey species were found in the stomachs of the three predators examined, selectivity towards Atherina boyeri was highly significant. For all species examined, >70% of the diet by mass was made up by three indigenous species of commercial value: Spicara smaris, Boops boops and A. boyeri. Diet breadth and size of prey increased with increasing body size for all predators. With increased body size, the diet overlap between indigenous and non-indigenous species decreased. This could be attributed to increased diet breadth and the specific life-history characteristics of indigenous species developing into larger individuals. During winter, the condition factor of the non-indigenous species was significantly lower than that of the indigenous, indicating that winter conditions in the Mediterranean Sea may limit its further expansion north and westward. With this study, the gap in knowledge of the feeding preferences of the most abundant piscivorous species found in coastal areas of the study region is filled. Additionally, the results indicate that non-indigenous species familial affiliation to indigenous ones does not facilitate invasion success. PMID:22650432
Kalogirou, S; Mittermayer, F; Pihl, L; Wennhage, H
This study aimed to characterize the local chickens and their production systems and to investigate the opportunities for improvement. The study was carried out in 18 villages in northern Jordan with the participation of 120 households. Data were collected by individual interviews and surveys supported with structured questionnaires. A scoring system was developed to study the effect of different levels of management on chicken performance. The main reasons for keep local chickens were egg production and generation of income. The main features of the production systems were improper housing and inadequate hygiene. Newcastle disease, predators, and parasites were the main causes of flock losses. Purchasing rate was controlled by the chickens' phenotype, sex and age, and by season of year. The average flock size was 41.6 (+/-32.9) chickens per household, with a hen:cock ratio of 6.4:1. The average effective population size was 15.35, which indicated a high rate of inbreeding (5.52%). The main selection criterion adopted by farmers was egg production. There were positive significant correlations (p<0.001) between management level and chickens' performance. Hatchability, survivability, flock size, number of clutches, egg weight and egg mass were the major parameters that improved significantly with improvement in management level. Local chickens fulfil significant functions in the livelihood of rural smallholders; however, many constraints affected the efficiency of the production systems. Solutions should start with improving the management practices and establishing an effective breeding system. PMID:17691540
Predictions of growth are important factors that contribute to the profitability of an operation in poultry production. Modern commercial hybrids have a higher body growth in comparison with the local purebreds. However a niche market for meat and egg poultry production needs to be established using local purebreds to promote biodiversity. The aim of this study was to model the growth response of male and female chickens belonging to 5 local Italian populations: a commercial slow-growing hybrid (Berlanda, B), the Padovana pure breed [2 plumage varieties: silver, argentata (PA) and chamois, camosciata (PC)], and their crosses PC×B and PC×PA. A total of 398 one-day-old birds were reared until 180 d of age under indoor conditions. The linear and 3 nonlinear models (logistic, Gompertz, and Richards) were compared to study the growth patterns of these chicken populations. Significant (P < 0.01) differences were observed among the genotypes for several curve parameters. In males, PC×B showed the lowest age at inflection point, B showed the highest age and BW, whereas PA showed the highest age and the lowest weight. In females, the age at the inflection point did not differ among the groups; B showed the highest weight. All the nonlinear models gave a good fit of male and female data with R(2) ranging from 0.992 and 0.999, but the logistic equation had higher value of root mean square error than the Gompertz and the Richards values. Based on residual sum of squares for both sexes, the Richards model was better (P < 0.05) than the logistic but not superior to the Gompertz. The logistic equation showed an overestimation of initial BW for all the groups and sex. For Italian local chicken populations, the Richards model requires a measure of BW recorded at 90 d or after to obtain a good fit of the asymptotic weight. However, the Gompertz model has the advantage that it requires one less parameter than the Richards model. PMID:23873574
Since mutations on POU1F1 gene possibly resulted in deficiency of GH, PRL, TSH and POU1F1, this study revealed the polymorphism of goat POU1F1-AluI locus and analyzed the distribution of alleles on 13 indigenous Chinese goat breeds. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed the predominance of TT genotype and the frequencies of allele T varied from 0.757 to 0.976 in the analyzed populations (SBWC, Bo, XH and HM). Further study, distributions of genotypic and allelic frequencies at this locus were found to be significantly different among populations based on a chi(2)-test (P < 0.001), suggesting that the breed factor significantly affected the molecular genetic character of POU1F1 gene. The genetic diversity analysis revealed that Chinese indigenous populations had a wide spectrum of genetic diversity in goat POU1F1-AluI locus. However, the ANOVA analysis revealed no significant differences for gene homozygosty, gene heterozygosty, effective allele numbers and PIC (polymorphism information content) among meat, dairy and cashmere utility types (P > 0.05), suggesting that goat utility types had no significant effect on the spectrum of genetic diversity. PMID:18357513
Lan, X Y; Li, M J; Chen, H; Zhang, L Z; Jing, Y J; Wei, T B; Ren, G; Wang, X; Fang, X T; Zhang, C L; Lei, C Z
Single-locus disorders in domesticated animals were among the first Mendelian traits to be documented after the rediscovery of Mendelism, and to be included in early linkage maps. The use of linkage maps and (increasingly) comparative genomics has been central to the identification of the causative gene for single-locus disorders of considerable practical importance. The ‘score-card’ in domestic animals is now more than 100 disorders for which the molecular lesion has been identified and hence for which a DNA test is available. Because of the limited lifespan of any such test, a cost-effective and hence popular means of protecting the intellectual property inherent in a DNA test is not to publish the discovery. While understandable, this practice creates a disconcerting precedent. For multifactorial disorders that are scored on an all-or-none basis or into many classes, the effectiveness of control schemes could be greatly enhanced by selection on estimated breeding values for liability. Genetic variation for resistance to pathogens and parasites is ubiquitous. Selection for resistance can therefore be successful. Because of the technical and welfare challenges inherent in the requirement to expose animals to pathogens or parasites in order to be able to select for resistance, there is a very active search for DNA markers for resistance. The first practical fruits of this research were seen in 2002, with the launch of a national scrapie control programme in the UK.
This study examined carcass yields and meat quality traits between Baicheng-You (BCY) chickens and Arbor Acres (AA) broilers. Thirty birds for each strain were selected and slaughtered at market ages of 49 d for AA broilers and 120 d for BCY. The results showed that BCY chickens had lower dressing (2.99%), semi-evisceration (5.10%), breast muscle (5.80%), and abdominal fat (1.55%) than those for AA broilers (P < 0.05). However, the leg muscle (%) of BCY chickens was greater (3.14%) than that of AA broilers (P < 0.05). The meat pH45min and pH24h value variations of these 2 breeds were within the normal range (5.53-6.70). The meat color density (optical density, OD) of thigh muscle was darker than breast muscles in both strains (P < 0.05). The cooking loss (%) of breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (18.81 and 20.20%, respectively) was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of same muscles of AA broilers (26.41 and 27.33%, respectively). The shear force of breast meat in both breeds was lower (P < 0.05) than that of their thigh meat. The moisture of breast muscle of BCY chickens (72.93%) was lower (P < 0.05) than breast muscles of AA broilers (74.43%). The CP content of breast muscles was greater (P < 0.05) than its thigh muscles of same strain, but it had no significant (P > 0.05) difference of CP content in the same muscles of the 2 strains. The intramuscular fat (IMF) content was greater (P < 0.05) in thigh muscles of BCY chickens (6.80%) than those of AA broilers (4.28%), and inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content was greater (P < 0.05) in breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (IMP: 3.79 and 1.47 mg/g) than same muscles in AA broilers (1.42 and 0.47 mg/g). In this study, muscle from 120-d-old BCY chickens was judged to have better quality traits with regard to cooking loss, drip loss, contents of IMF, and IMP compared with meat from 42-d-old AA broilers. At the same time, greater carcass yields, greater thigh pH24, and lower IMF content were observed in AA broilers compared with the BCY chickens. PMID:24046427
The protein efficiency ratio (PER) values for a commercial laboratory diet, thermally processed chicken, enzyme inactivated frozen chicken, enzyme inactivated gamma sterilized chicken, and enzyme inactivated electron sterilized chicken were evaluated usin...
D. C. Ronning E. L. Israelson R. S. Lepp W. T. Skaggs C. R. Schroeder
1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ADSL gene, GARS-AIRS-GART gene and their combination genotype on inosine monophosphate content (IMP) in chicken. 2. The chickenbreeds used for this study were Recessive White chicken (RW, Jiang-13 strain of white Plymouth Rock) and preserved population of 4 Chinese native chickenbreeds, including Silkies, Baier, Tibetan and Xiaoshan. 3. The primers for exon 2 in ADSL gene and 5'UTR region in GARS-AIRS-GART gene were designed and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. 4. Two SNPs were detected, C/T substitution at position 3484 in exon 2 of ADSL gene, which was a silent mutation, and C/T point mutation at position -179 in 5'UTR region of GARS-AIRS-GART gene. In ADSL gene, individuals with TT genotype had significantly higher IMP content than CT and CC genotype individuals. No significant difference was observed between CT and CC genotypes. Similar results were obtained for GARS-AIRS-GART gene. The combination of genotypes ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART genes also had a significant effect on IMP content. Individuals with TTTT genotype had the highest muscle IMP content, while individuals with CCCT genotype had the lowest. 4. We putatively drew the conclusion that the SNPs in these two genes, as well as the combination genotypes, could be used as potential molecular markers for meat quality in chicken. PMID:19946821
Shu, J T; Bao, W B; Zhang, X Y; Ji, C J; Han, W; Chen, K W
A collaborative effort between Australia's Cultural Network and the Australian Museum, this site showcases some fine examples of Indigenous Australian stories. Collected from all over Australia, the stories (currently 20) are offered in text, audio, and video formats, with brief introductions and a glossary of indigenous words. Short descriptions of the role of storytelling, custodianship, "Dreaming," and secret/ sacred stories are also provided. Users should note that RealPlayer G2 is required to view the video presentations, and that, at time of review, video playback quality was rather poor. The text and audio formats, however, were quite acceptable, making this site worthwhile for anyone interested in Indigenous Australian culture or storytelling in general.
BACKGROUND: There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds.
Susanne Björnerfeldt; Frank Hailer; Maria Nord; Carles Vilà
Counterinsurgency is manpower intensive, and nearly all major counterinsurgency campaigns of the last century have relied heavily on indigenous police and military forces. Indeed, there have been few counterinsurgency situations in which the indigenous se...
Ecuador has historically excluded the indigenous peoples economically to the point where they experience the highest levels of poverty in the country. The indigenous people have been tied to their land and current economic policies are endangering their c...
We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives o...
B. Weeks C. Rosenzweig C. Sakakibara C. C. Alexander C. V. Shadrin J. Waterhouse L. Johnson M. Vicarelli N. Bynum N. Oettle P. Neofotis T. Mustonen U. King
Increasing numbers of indigenous farmworkers from Mexico and Guatemala have been arriving in the Pacific Northwest (indigenous people are not of Hispanic or Latino descent and migrate from regions with unique cultural and linguistic traditions). Multilingual project outreach workers administered surveys to 150 farmworkers in Oregon to assess health, occupational safety, and general living conditions. This study confirms the increasing presence of indigenous peoples in Oregon and characterizes differences between indigenous and Latino farmworkers' occupational and health needs.
Dermal squamous cell carcinoma (DSCC) was found in young brown chicken flocks reared on reused litter in Japan. DSCC was often detected at slaughter from April 2007 to March 2009, especially in June and July 2007. No DSCC was observed in the broiler chickens on the farms. Twelve 11-wk-old brown chickens with DSCC were investigated pathologically and microbiologically. Various degrees of crater-like skin lesions were found on the back, waist, neck, legs, abdomen, and wings of the carcasses. The feather follicles were enlarged. The feather follicular epithelial cells proliferated, and the squamous cells proliferated neoplastically in association with collagen fibers and fibroblasts in the dermis under the feather follicular epithelium. "Keratin pearl" structures were often seen in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the keratin antigen was positive in the neoplastically proliferated squamous cells in the dermis. Avian leukosis virus antigens could not be found in the neoplastic squamous cells in the dermis. Ultrastructurally, no viral agents could be detected in the skin with DSCC. Virologically, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions of the skin with DSCC for fowlpox virus and avian leukosis virus were negative. No viruses could be isolated from the skin with DSCC. This study suggests that the chickenbreed, reused litter, and season may be associated with the incidence of DSCC in brown chickens. PMID:20945801
|This book contains 14 papers: "Indigenous Peoples and Adult Education: A Growing Challenge" (Rodolfo Stavenhagen); "Indigenous Peoples: Progress in the International Recognition of Human Rights and the Role of Education" (Julian Burger); "Adult Learning in the Context of Indigenous Societies" (Linda King); "Linguistic Rights and the Role of…
Some indigenous knowledge is said to be holistic in the way it deals with the environment. Given the difficulties of Western science with complex environmental problems, any insights from the holism of indigenous knowledge are of major interest. Based on examples from Inuit and other northern peoples, it appears that indigenous knowledge approaches complex systems by using simple prescriptions consistent
This paper examines tenure inequities faced by global indigenous communities. In doing so, it compares western ownership concepts with indigenous ones to further explain issues of cultural difference. Unlike western cultures, where land is viewed as a catalyst for economic growth, land remains central to many indigenous communities who hold both spiritual and stewardship responsibilities for it. Western society espouses
|This paper explores the interplay between identity reconstruction of indigenous college students and the effects of transformative learning on their self-development and collective action. Seventeen indigenous college students were interviewed for this study. The findings showed that most indigenous college students developed stigmatized identity…
|In Australia, as in other global contexts, Indigenous student education outcomes are well below those of their non-Indigenous counterparts. A more robust understanding of, and responsiveness to, Indigenous temporary mobilities is a critical step to redressing such educational inequalities. This paper draws together learnings from the papers in…
|This volume compiles 11 papers indicative of the new directions that indigenous education is taking in North America. Three sections focus on language, culture, and teaching; indigenous perspectives on indigenous education; and issues surrounding teaching methods. The papers are: (1) "Teaching Dine Language and Culture in Navajo Schools: Voices…
|This paper examines the Australian government's Indigenous policy by interrogating the concept of partnership between governments and Indigenous communities through three examples. Increasingly, the Australian federal government is focusing attention on the poor literacy and numeracy outcomes for Indigenous children in remote and very remote…
Traditional economic activities, lifestyles and customs of many indigenous peoples in the Russian North, such as reindeer herding, hunting and fishing, are closely linked to quality of the natural environment. These traditional activities that constitute the core of indigenous cultures are impacted by extractive sector activities conducted in and around traditional territories of indigenous peoples. This paper examines implications of
The study of suicide in indigenous peoples is explored in different nations, both within nations containing many types of indigenous peoples and also across cultures. Some illustrations are given of how studies of indigenous peoples can be used both to test existing theories of suicide and generate new theories of suicide.
The educational outcomes of Indigenous Australians have improved over recent decades. This is evident across a range of indicators on the enrolment, participation and achievement of Indigenous students in the early childhood education and school sectors. There has also been increased representation of Indigenous students in New Apprenticeships and…
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006
|What is the relationship between Indigenous peoples and violent reactions to contemporary states? This research explores differing, culturally informed notions of attachment to land or place territory. Mechanistic ties and organic ties to land are linked to a key distinction between Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous peoples. Utilizing the…
|This narrative describes the growth of an alliance between two indigenous organizations in North and South America, illustrating how a shared indigenous vision of cultural survival and connection to the land led to the creation of an ongoing collaboration for indigenous youth leadership development, which has extended to encompass collaboration…
Wihak, Christine; Hately, Lynne; Allicock, Sydney; Lickers, Michael
|There is often a disparity in Indigenous Affairs between many documents, such as policies, reports and legislation, and outcomes. This article explores this difference through analysing the policy area of Indigenous education during the period of 1991 to 2000. I examine three key documents relating to Indigenous education. These are the "National…
BACKGROUND: Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from diabetes. There is an urgent need to understand how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver diabetes services to those most in need, to monitor the quality of diabetes care received by Indigenous people, and to improve systems for better diabetes care. METHODS: The intervention featured
Ross Bailie; Damin Si; Michelle Dowden; Lynette O'Donoghue; Christine Connors; Gary Robinson; Joan Cunningham; Tarun Weeramanthri
|Indigenous digital storytelling in video is a way of witnessing the stories of Indigenous communities and Elders, including what has happened and is happening in the lives and work of Indigenous peoples. Witnessing includes acts of remembrance in which we look back to reinterpret and recreate our relationship to the past in order to understand…
|Indigenous digital storytelling and research are as much about the process of community relationships as they are about the development of digital products and research outcomes. Indigenous researchers, digital storytelling producers, and academics work in different communities with research collaborators who are indigenous community members,…
Domestic animals are excellent models for genetic studies of phenotypic evolution. They have evolved genetic adaptations to a new environment, the farm, and have been subjected to strong human-driven selection leading to remarkable phenotypic changes in morphology, physiology and behaviour. Identifying the genetic changes underlying these developments provides new insight into general mechanisms by which genetic variation shapes phenotypic diversity. Here we describe the use of massively parallel sequencing to identify selective sweeps of favourable alleles and candidate mutations that have had a prominent role in the domestication of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their subsequent specialization into broiler (meat-producing) and layer (egg-producing) chickens. We have generated 44.5-fold coverage of the chicken genome using pools of genomic DNA representing eight different populations of domestic chickens as well as red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), the major wild ancestor. We report more than 7,000,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, almost 1,300 deletions and a number of putative selective sweeps. One of the most striking selective sweeps found in all domestic chickens occurred at the locus for thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), which has a pivotal role in metabolic regulation and photoperiod control of reproduction in vertebrates. Several of the selective sweeps detected in broilers overlapped genes associated with growth, appetite and metabolic regulation. We found little evidence that selection for loss-of-function mutations had a prominent role in chicken domestication, but we detected two deletions in coding sequences that we suggest are functionally important. This study has direct application to animal breeding and enhances the importance of the domestic chicken as a model organism for biomedical research. PMID:20220755
Rubin, Carl-Johan; Zody, Michael C; Eriksson, Jonas; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Sherwood, Ellen; Webster, Matthew T; Jiang, Lin; Ingman, Max; Sharpe, Ted; Ka, Sojeong; Hallböök, Finn; Besnier, Francois; Carlborg, Orjan; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Jensen, Per; Siegel, Paul; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Andersson, Leif
Although a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified from the bovine genome-sequencing project, few of these have been validated at large in Bos indicus breeds. We have genotyped 192 animals, representing 5 cattle populations of Ethiopia, with the Illumina Bovine 8K SNP BeadChip. These include 1 Sanga (Danakil), 3 zebu (Borana, Arsi and Ambo), and 1 zebu × Sanga intermediate (Horro) breeds. The Hanwoo (Bos taurus) was included for comparison purposes. Analysis of 7,045 SNP markers revealed that the mean minor allele frequency (MAF) was 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.21, 0.23, and 0.29 for Ambo, Arsi, Borana, Danakil, Horro, and Hanwoo, respectively. Significant differences of MAF were observed between the indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations and Hanwoo breed (p < 0.001). Across the Ethiopian cattle populations, a common variant MAF (?0.10 and ?0.5) accounted for an overall estimated 73.79% of the 7,045 SNPs. The Hanwoo displayed a higher proportion of common variant SNPs (90%). Investigation within Ethiopian cattle populations showed that on average, 16.64% of the markers were monomorphic, but in the Hanwoo breed, only 6% of the markers were monomorphic. Across the sampled Ethiopian cattle populations, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.314 and 0.313, respectively. The level of SNP variation identified in this particular study highlights that these markers can be potentially used for genetic studies in African cattle breeds. PMID:23166531
Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Kim, Kwan-Suk
Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly homogeneous preferences were investigated. In the pastoral production system, attention was given to coat color of both breeding rams and ewes, favoring brown and white colors over black. Ram libido influenced producers' decisions in Bonga, Horro and Menz areas. The influence of milk yield and twinning on respondents' decision making was high in Afar and Horro, respectively. Breeders in all areas attempt to combine production and reproduction traits as well as they can in order to maximize benefits from their sheep. The elicited measurable objective traits were used to design alternative community-based sheep breeding plans for the four indigenous sheep breeds in their production environments that have been implemented since. PMID:22440475
Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M
|Adult education for indigenous peoples in Norway was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Norway's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…
|Adult education for indigenous peoples in Canada was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Canada's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…
|Educational research among indigenous peoples has often been flawed. Many studies on achievement motivation, cognitive development, and learning styles have failed to establish that the behaviors and responses being measured were functionally, conceptually, or metrically equivalent to those from which norms for comparison were drawn, and that the…
This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.
The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources. PMID:17175093
Photosynthetic algae represent a large and diverse group of organisms that have only a limited history of characterization and exploitation. The application of resource production from algae is relatively untapped, with the potential to produce fuels, food, fibers and nutraceuticals on a large scale. Methods to screen for indigenous species of algae have improved and can allow communities to prospect
Ann C. Wilkie; Scott J. Edmundson; James G. Duncan
A diversified food supply is contingent on underlying biodiversity in the locality where one lives or at a distance from it, if trade routes are established. Indigenous people generally settled at the water’s edge so that aquatic foods made up part of their diversified diet, with the rest of the diversity dependent on how much they hunted and gathered, on
This paper explores current trends in indigenous (aboriginal) tourism development in Canadas western Arctic region. Its operational environment is characterized by the presence of mixed local community economies and a co-management framework for lands and resources. In the North, aboriginal tourism is a resource-based industry, traditionally in the form of big game hunting, and in a more modern context, evolving
This article contends that the third generation of cultural–historical activity theory as forwarded in Yrjo Engeström’s version of expansive learning offers the people of South Africa a framework within which to practically realise the objective of a more culturally inclusive and relevant education. By recognising and harnessing the divergent and even opposing principles and values within indigenous and modern western
This article contends that the third generation of cultural–historical activity theory as forwarded in Yrjo Engeström’s version of expansive learning offers the people of South Africa a framework within which to practically realise the objective of a more culturally inclusive and relevant education. By recognising and harnessing the divergent and even opposing principles and values within indigenous and modern western
Ever since the white man entered the new world, invading and then destroying First Nations\\/Indigenous People's territories, Native Americans have been second class citizens. At first, they were considered savages, barely human. They were certainly not considered worthy of equal standing with the pale face. The real reason? Europeans brought with them awe-inspiring explosives, gun powder and violence (also religion
Otitis media with effusion and recurrent acute otitis media are ubiquitous among Indigenous children. Otitis media causes conductive hearing loss that may persist throughout early childhood and adversely affect social interactions, language acquisition and learning. Control of otitis media usually restores hearing to adequate levels. Surgery is to be considered when otitis media has not responded to medical treatment. In non-Indigenous populations, tympanostomy tubes ("grommets"), with or without adenoidectomy, can control otitis media; how these findings relate to Indigenous Australians is not known. Tympanic membrane perforation is a frequent sequela of early childhood otitis media among Indigenous children. It occurs as early as 12 months of age and causes conductive hearing loss. Perforation is associated with recurrent aural discharge, particularly in the tropics and in desert regions. Medical and public health management is required until a child is old enough to undergo surgical closure of the perforation, usually by an age of 7-10 years. Surgical closure of the tympanic membrane stops the aural discharge and improves the hearing sufficiently to avoid the need for hearing aids in most cases. The success rate of surgery conducted in rural and remote Australia is below urban benchmarks; improving this will probably require funding for community-based follow-up. PMID:19883360
European social psychology does not fit readily into the characterisations of indigenization that can be applied in other parts of the world. This is partly because Europe has provided the earliest origins of the academic study of psychology, and partly because of the great historical and linguistic diversity of the continent. It is shown that both before and after the
|This paper is a report on the theoretical origins of a decolonizing research sensibility called Indigenous Metissage. This research praxis emerged parallel to personal and ongoing inquiries into historic and current relations connecting Aboriginal peoples and Canadians in the place now called Canada. I frame the colonial frontier origins of these…
|"Earthsongs" was the third in a series of courses designed and facilitated by Dr. Lorna Williams, Canada Research Chair in Aboriginal Education at the University of Victoria. Subtitled "Learning and teaching in an Indigenous world," these courses offer undergraduate and graduate students from the Faculty of Education and across the university,…
|Drawing from papers presented at the five "Stabilizing Indigenous Languages" symposia held since 1994, this paper recommends strategies for language revitalization at various stages of language loss. Based on a study of minority languages worldwide, Joshua Fishman postulated a continuum of eight stages of language loss, ranging from the edge of…
In the process of industrialization, indigenous (local) knowledge is often devalued relative to the 'modern'knowledge and technologies that develop to serve the needs of the new com modity-generating economy. In developing countries, it is often the case that men and eth nic majorities gravitate toward the emerging modern sector, whereas women, ethnic minor ities and others remain more on the
|Across Canada, significant program changes in school mathematics have been made that encourage teachers to consider Aboriginal perspectives. In this article, I investigate one Aboriginal teacher's approaches to integrating Indigenous knowledges and the mandated mathematics curriculum in a Blackfoot First Nation school. Using a framework that…
With the proliferation of old fields and the decline of native grasslands in North America, non-indigenous grasses, which tend to colonize and dominate North American old fields, have become progressively more abundant. These new grasses can differ from native grasses in a number of ways, including root and shoot morphology (e.g., density of root mat, height of shoots), growth phenology
Mark A. Davis; Louise Bier; Ethan Bushelle; Aleta Johnson; Brianna Kujala
There is much debate about whether with globalization human society will become culturally homogenized or further differentiated. Intercultural researchers have yet to contribute to this dialogue, and in this paper these issues are examined in light of the need for and value of indigenous research. A model of knowledge creation from cultural insights is presented as a methodology for pursuing
Stuart Barker’s initial contributions to genetics during the mid-1950s were down-to-earth instructive articles on genotype-by-environment\\u000a interaction in cattle and random-sample tests for chicken strains, and pedigree analyses of Australian cattle breeds. Taking\\u000a up a lectureship in animal genetics at the University of Sydney, Stuart rapidly became involved in experimental population\\u000a genetics research with Drosophila. He also conducted some of the
This paper reports the results of a study of the self-concepts of students across two cultural groupings in Australia. Specifically, the study assessed the cultural equivalence for Australian Indigenous students and non-Indigenous students of six dimensions of self-concept: Family, Peer, General School, Academic Achievement, Career, and Self-Acceptance. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicate strong support for the cultural equivalence
Successful plant breeding programs begin with parental line selection. Effective parental line selection is facilitated when the breeding potential of candidate parental lines is known. Using topcross families involving germplasm representing eight US public cotton breeding programs, we evaluated th...
Maternal effects are important in epigenetic determination of offspring phenotypes during all life stages. In the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), transgenerational transfer of egg yolk factors may set the stage for morphological and physiological phenotypic differences observed among breeds. To investigate the effect of breed-specific yolk composition on embryonic broiler and layer chicken phenotypes, we employed an ex ovo, xenobiotic technique that allowed the transfer of broiler and layer chicken embryos from their natural yolks to novel yolk environments. Embryonic day two broiler embryos developing on broiler yolk culture medium (YCM) had significantly higher heart rates than layer embryos developing on layer YCM (176±7 beats min(-1) and 147±7 beats min(-1), respectively). Broiler embryos developing on layer YCM exhibited heart rates typical of layer embryos developing normally on layer YCM. However, layer embryo heart rates were not affected by development on broiler YCM. Unlike O(2) consumption, development rate and body mass of embryos were significantly affected by exposure to different yolk types, with both broiler and layer embryos displaying traits that reflected yolk source rather than embryo genotype. Analysis of hormone concentrations of broiler and layer egg yolks revealed that testosterone concentrations were higher in broiler yolk (4.63±2.02 pg mg(-1) vs 3.32±1.92 pg mg(-1)), whereas triiodothyronine concentrations were higher in layer yolk (1.05±0.18 pg mg(-1) vs 0.46±0.22 pg mg(-1)). Thus, a complex synergistic effect of breed-specific genotype and yolk environment exists early in chicken development, with yolk thyroid hormone and yolk testosterone as potential mediators of the physiological and morphological effects. PMID:21270311
Cardiovascular disease (CV) is an important problem among the 400 million Indigenous Populations around the world, and has been included in the World Health Organization (WHO) "2008-2013 Action Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases". Our understanding of the causes of CV disease in the Indigenous populations of Australia and New Zealand will be facilitated by better understanding the causes of CV disease in Indigenous populations around the world. The opening scientific presentations of the Inaugural CSANZ Conference on Indigenous Cardiovascular Health were from two international speakers notable for their commitment to Indigenous Health as a global problem. PMID:20378406
Twelve week old indigenouschickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immune-suppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322 and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS birds demonstrated much more severe signs of fowl cholera than IS birds. With few exceptions, signs recorded in IS and NIS birds
P. G. Mbuthia; L. W. Njagi; P. N. Nyaga; L. C. Bebora; U. Minga; Jens Peter Christensen; J. E. Olsen
Sixty chickens were randomly divided into two groups (30 chickens in each group) to determine the effect of oral administration of chicken intestinal antimicrobial peptides (CIAMP) on the humoral immune response. Chickens of both groups were fed the same diet. In the treatment group chickens received drinking water supplemented with CIAMP (1 µg\\/ml) right after hatching. Samples of blood, bursa of
Yang Yurong; Jiang Yibao; She Ruiping; Yin Qingqiang; Peng Kaisong; Bao Huihui; Wang Decheng; Liu Tianlong; Zhou Xuemei
To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups.
LU, FLORA; GRAY, CLARK; BILSBORROW, RICHARD E.; MENA, CARLOS F.; ERLIEN, CHRISTINE M.; BREMNER, JASON; BARBIERI, ALISSON; WALSH, STEPHEN J.
1. The immune system of the chicken is an invaluable model for studying basic immunology and has made seminal contributions to fundamental immunological principles. Graft versus host responses and the key role of lymphocytes in adaptive immunity were first described in work with chicken embryos and chickens. 2. Most notably, the bursa of Fabricius provided the first substantive evidence that
Plant breeding programmes rarely take explicit practical account of the two sources of genetic variance, namely between and within full-sib families, even though existence of these two sources of variation has long been recognised. This paper refers to inbred and clonal crops, not to outbred, seed-propagated species. Theory suggests that the two variances should be of similar size, sometimes very
The induction of artifical mutations by radiation and its utilization ; for radiation breeding are discussed. There are external and internal ; irradiation methods to induce mutations by radiation. The former method has the ; advantage of good reproducibility and occupies the main current. In the latter ; method, the rate of mutation per rate of dose unit is high
Over the last 20 years stone fruit rootstock development has begun shifting from seedling to clonal types, many of interspecific origin. Publicly funded breeding programs have produced most of these rootstocks due to the time, cost, and risk associated with their development; however, private indus...
Summary Linear programming (LP) and other types of systems analysis procedures are being used more frequently by animal scientists. In this study, we used a LP model to determine the costs and most efficient manner of conducting a multi-year beef cattle breeding experiment designed to compare the initial level of heterosis among the F l crosses of the Angus, Hereford
This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply ...
Perennial ryegrass has become the most widely sown perennial forage grass in temperate regions due to its combination of high digestibility and tolerance of grazing. The primary objectives in breeding for agricultural use are to improve total and seasonal dry matter production over a range of fertiliser inputs, digestibility, persistency, freezing tolerance and drought or heat tolerance. Adequate seed production
The breeding of cereal crops did not get started in Kazakhstan until after the Great October Socialist Revolution. Before that time there was no available information as to the nature of the varieties grown here. Concepts of the line being followed in pla...
Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using lt. slash-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements conventional breeding approach ...
1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis.2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic
We studied the impacts of colonists, two groups of indigenous residents (Miskitu and Mayangna), and management by the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) on the forest of the Bosawas International Biosphere Reserve. Indigenous people and colonists subsist on the natural resources of the reserve, and MARENA is responsible for protecting the area from colonization and illicit exploitation. Using geostatistical procedures and Landsat images at three different time periods, we compared per capita deforestation and boundary stabilization in areas with colonists and areas with indigenous peoples. We also examined whether the Mayangna deforested less than the Miskitu and whether the Nicaraguan government has effectively defended the Bosawas boundary against the advance of the agricultural frontier. In addition, we analyzed the current distribution of land uses within the reserve and its contiguous indigenous areas with a supervised classification of current land cover. Indigenous demarcations protected the forest successfully, whereas the Bosawas boundary itself did not inhibit colonization and consequent deforestation. Indigenous farmers deforested significantly less per capita than colonists, and the two indigenous groups in Bosawas did not differ significantly in their effects on the forest. Our results show that indigenous common-property institutions and indigenous defense of homeland have been powerful factors in protecting the forests of Bosawas and that the difficult evolution of a nested cross-scale governance system in Bosawas-under pressure from indigenous peoples-is probably the key to the forest's survival thus far. PMID:18173473
Globalisation is often viewed as a threat to cultural and linguistic diversity and therefore is a central concern of educational practices and policy. The present study challenges this common view by demonstrating that local communities can use global means to support and enhance their specific practices and policies. An historical exploration of education policy in Mexico reveals that there has been a continuing struggle by indigenous peoples to maintain locally relevant modes of teaching. Indigenous peoples have increasingly used technology to maintain their languages and local cultural practices. Such accentuation of the local in a global context is exemplified by the people of Chiapas: They live in subsistence-type communities, yet their recent education movements and appeals to international solidarity (such as in the Zapatista rebellion) have employed computer-aided technologies.
The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) and the United States (American Indian and Alaska Native) is a major child health issue. This is exemplified by the high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) with resulting adverse health effects, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. The present statement includes recommendations for oral health preventive and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial.
Drawing on examples mostly from Iñupiaq and Yup’ik sea-ice expertise in coastal Alaska, this contribution examines how local, indigenous knowledge (LIK) can inform and guide geophysical and biological sea-ice research. Part of the relevance of LIK derives from its linkage to sea-ice use and the services coastal communities derive from the ice cover. As a result, indigenous experts keep track of a broad range of sea-ice variables at a particular location. These observations are embedded into a broader worldview that speaks to both long-term variability or change and to the system of values associated with ice use. The contribution examines eight different contexts in which LIK in study site selection and assessment of a sampling campaign in the context of inter annual variability, the identification of rare or inconspicuous phenomena or events, the contribution by indigenous experts to hazard assessment and emergency response, the record of past and present climate embedded in LIK, and the value of holistic sea-ice knowledge in detecting subtle, intertwined patterns of environmental change. The relevance of local, indigenous sea-ice expertise in helping advance adaptation and responses to climate change as well as its potential role in guiding research questions and hypotheses are also examined. The challenges that may have to be overcome in creating an interface for exchange between indigenous experts and seaice researchers are considered. Promising approaches to overcome these challenges include cross-cultural, interdisciplinary education, and the fostering of Communities of Practice.
Domestication processes tend to release animals from natural selection and favour traits desired by humans, such as food-production and co-operative behaviour. A side effect of such selective breeding is the alteration of unintended traits. In this paper, we investigate how active selection for egg production in chickens has affected the visual system, in particular the optical sensitivity that relates to the ability of chickens to see in dim light. We measured eye dimensions as well as the pupil diameter at different light intensities (the steady state pupil dynamics), in adult male and female White Leghorns and the closest relatives to their ancestor, the Red Junglefowls. With this information, we calculated the focal length and optical sensitivity (f-number) of the eyes. Males have larger eyes than females in both breeds and White Leghorn eyes are larger than those of Red Junglefowls in both sexes. The steady state pupil dynamics is less variable, however, the combination of pupil dynamics and eye size gives a higher optical sensitivity in Red Junglefowl eyes than in White Leghorns at light intensities below approximately 10 cd/m(2). While eye size and focal length match the larger body size in White Leghorns compared to Red Junglefowls, the steady state pupil dynamics do not. The reason for this is likely to be that eye morphology and the neuro-muscular control of the pupil have been affected differently by the strong selection for egg production and the simultaneous release of the selection pressure for high performing vision. This study is the first description of how optical sensitivity has changed in a domesticated species and our results demonstrate important considerations regarding domestication processes and sensory ability. PMID:23776492
As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models\\u000a of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would\\u000a be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing current psychological models\\u000a and methods of improving cultural validity are discussed. An integrative
This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.
Although the last 200 years of colonisation has brought radical changes in economic and governance structures for thousands\\u000a of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders living in remote areas of northern Australia, many of these Indigenous people still\\u000a rely upon, and live closely connected to, their natural environment. Over millennia, living ‘on country’, many of these communities\\u000a have developed a sophisticated appreciation
This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.
Albuminuria: Marker or target in indigenous populations.BackgroundAustralian Aborigines in remote areas are experiencing an epidemic of renal disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Adult deaths are increased 3- to 6-fold, and renal failure more than 20-fold. Renal disease is marked by albuminuria. We describe its distributions and correlations in two remote communities in the Northern Territory.MethodsObservations in Community
The author gives a review of the present position of spinach breeding. In succession the following sections are treated: Historical data, secondary sex characters, biology of the flower, shortening the time required for a generation, breeding methods, inheritance of some characters, the testing and selection methods and the breeding objectives.
The development of population genetic structure in ice-breeding seal species is likely to be shaped by a combination of breeding habitat and life-history characteristics. Species that return to breed on predictable fast-ice locations are more likely to exhibit natal fidelity than pack-ice-breeding species, which in turn facilitates the development of genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Other aspects of life history such as geographically distinct vocalizations, female gregariousness, and the potential for polygynous breeding may also facilitate population structure. Based on these factors, we predicted that fast-ice-breeding seal species (the Weddell and ringed seal) would show elevated genetic differentiation compared to pack-ice-breeding species (the leopard, Ross, crabeater and bearded seals). We tested this prediction using microsatellite analysis to examine population structure of these six ice-breeding species. Our results did not support this prediction. While none of the Antarctic pack-ice species showed statistically significant population structure, the bearded seal of the Arctic pack ice showed strong differentiation between subpopulations. Again in contrast, the fast-ice-breeding Weddell seal of the Antarctic showed clear evidence for genetic differentiation while the ringed seal, breeding in similar habitat in the Arctic, did not. These results suggest that the development of population structure in ice-breeding phocid seals is a more complex outcome of the interplay of phylogenetic and ecological factors than can be predicted on the basis of breeding substrate and life-history characteristics. PMID:18494764
Davis, Corey S; Stirling, Ian; Strobeck, Curtis; Coltman, David W
Once considered a disease of affluence and confined to industrialized nations, obesity is currently emerging as a major health concern in nearly every country in the world. Available data suggest that the prevalence rate of obesity has reached unprecedented levels in most developing countries, and is increasing at a rate that far outpaces that of developed nations. This increase in obesity has also been documented among North American circumpolar populations and is associated with lifestyle changes related to economic development. While obesity has not been well studied among indigenous Siberians, recent anthropological studies indicate that obesity and its associated comorbidities are important health problems.The present study examines recent adult body composition data from four indigenous Siberian populations (Evenki, Ket, Buriat, and Yakut) with two main objectives: 1) to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among these groups, and 2) to assess the influence of lifestyle and socioeconomic factors on the development of excess body fat. The results of this study indicate that obesity has emerged as an important health issue among indigenous Siberians, and especially for women, whose obesity rates are considerably higher than those of men (12% vs. 7%). The present study investigated the association between lifestyle and body composition among the Yakut, and documented substantial sex differences in lifestyle correlates of obesity. Yakut men with higher incomes and who owned more luxury consumer goods were more likely to have excess body fat while, among Yakut women, affluence was not strongly associated with overweight and obesity. PMID:16617212
Snodgrass, J Josh; Leonard, William R; Sorensen, Mark V; Tarskaia, Larissa A; Alekseev, Vasili P; Krivoshapkin, Vadim
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine concentration on meat quality and carcass traits in 2 chicken lines, SD02 and SD03, and their crosses, both originating from a Chinese native breed, the Erlang Mountainous chicken. The lines were selected for 4 generations by Sichuan Agricultural University (Ya'an, China); for the present study, chickens from the 2 lines and their crosses were randomly assigned at hatch to 1 of 2 dietary groups. One group was offered diets containing 1, 0.85, and 0.70% total lysine, whereas the other was offered diets with 1.15, 1, and 0.85% total lysine from d 1 to 28, d 29 to 49, and d 50 to 70, respectively. In total, 252 chickens were commercially processed at 70 d old. Traits measured included live BW, subcutaneous fat thickness, weight of carcass, eviscerated carcass, semi-eviscerated carcass, breast muscle (left pectoralis major and minor), leg muscle (boneless left drum plus thigh), heart, gizzard, proventriculus, spleen, liver, comb, and abdominal fat, color parameters lightness, redness, or yellowness (L*, a*, and b*), pH, and breast muscle intramuscular fat content. The results indicated that, although dietary lysine concentration did not affect subcutaneous fat thickness, color parameters, pH, intramuscular fat content, and organ weights, there were effects on feed conversion and muscle and BW (P < 0.05). Males and females displayed major differences in feed conversion, BW, muscle growth, and organ weight. The Line SD02 chickens grew faster and displayed less fat deposition and superior feed conversion compared with Line SD03 and the reciprocal crosses. In conclusion, performance of the chicken stocks evaluated in this study differs substantially in muscle weight and carcass weight. PMID:23687167
...approved cooperative breeding programs. (d) Approval conditions...that the cooperative breeding program shall maintain records of...or escape, and breeding success. These records shall be made...approval. Cooperative breeding programs shall be approved for two...
...approved cooperative breeding programs. (d) Approval conditions...that the cooperative breeding program shall maintain records of...or escape, and breeding success. These records shall be made...approval. Cooperative breeding programs shall be approved for two...
Closing the divide between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students is one of the most pressing current educational imperatives. A multifaceted approach is needed to achieve this, given the diversity of educational disadvantage experienced by Indigenous students, and the contexts within which they obtain their education. One innovative approach to overcoming the disparity between Indigenous and non- Indigenous educational outcomes is that
|The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the…
Chicken feathers, an agricultural waste problem, are a promising bio-based alternative to composite reinforcement. Approximately 5 billion pounds of chicken feathers are produced per year in the United States poultry industry alone. Containing 47.83% carbon, chicken feathers are hollow and strong in nature due to the 91% keratin content. Carbonized chicken feather (CCF) fibers are produced by heating to 220 C for 26 hours to optimize the crosslinking of the amino acids (predominantly cysteine). The feathers are then heated at 450 C for an additional two hours to reduce the content to mainly carbon. Wide angle xray scattering shows a structural change in the carbonized fiber from an interplanar spacing of 4.4 å (d200) in the raw feather to 3.36å in the CCF, resembling 3.43 å of commercial fiber. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that the hollow structure is kept intact. Dynamic mechanical analysis shows a 194% increase in the storage modulus of the composite from 0.730 GPa to 2.145 GPa at 35 C with the addition of only 3.45 wt% CCF mat. Assuming a density of 1 g/cm^3 the upper limit of the fiber modulus is approximately 40 GPa, compared to 3 GPa for the natural keratin fiber. The low cost carbon microtubes are being explored for polymer composite reinforcement and Hydrogen Storage substrates. Supported by USDA-NRI.
The chicken has played an important role in biological discoveries since the 17th century (Stern, 2005). Many investigations into vertebrate development have utilized the chicken due to the accessibility of the chick embryo and its ease of manipulation (Brown et al., 2003). However, the lack of genetic resources has often handicapped these studies and so the chick is frequently overlooked as a model organism for the analysis of vertebrate gene function in favor of mice or zebrafish. In the past six years this situation has altered dramatically with the generation of over half a million expressed sequence tags and >20,000 fully sequenced chicken cDNAs (Boardman et al. 2002; Caldwell et al., 2005; Hubbard et al., 2005) together with a 6X coverage genome sequence (Hillier et al., 2004). These resources have created a comprehensive catalogue of chicken genes with readily accessible cDNA and EST resources available via ARK-GENOMICS (www.ark-genomics.org) for the functional analysis of vertebrate gene function.
van Hateren, Nick J.; Jones, Rachel S.; Wilson, Stuart A.
The incidence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens in Northern Ireland was determined by examining three groups of birds. These included: (1)12 flocks of broilers monitored at regular intervals from their introduction into commercial units until the time of slaughter; (2) 21 batches of unsolicited birds submitted to the laboratory for postmortem examination; and (3) 13 batches of chicks under
This study describes the toxicity signs that developed when the diet of male broiler chickens was artificially contaminated with different levels of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA). Chicks were assigned randomly to three groups of 80 chicks that were fed a diet containing 0 oarts per billion (ppb) (control, group 1), 400 ppb (group 2) or 800 ppb (group 3)
M. A. Elaroussi; F. R. Mohamed; E. M. El Barkouky; A. M. Atta; A. M. Abdou; M. H. Hatab
This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model for "science for all".
Background Variations in gene expression, mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, may cause broad phenotypic effects in animals. However, it has been debated to what extent expression variation and epigenetic modifications, such as patterns of DNA methylation, are transferred across generations, and therefore it is uncertain what role epigenetic variation may play in adaptation. Results In Red Junglefowl, ancestor of domestic chickens, gene expression and methylation profiles in thalamus/hypothalamus differed substantially from that of a domesticated egg laying breed. Expression as well as methylation differences were largely maintained in the offspring, demonstrating reliable inheritance of epigenetic variation. Some of the inherited methylation differences were tissue-specific, and the differential methylation at specific loci were little changed after eight generations of intercrossing between Red Junglefowl and domesticated laying hens. There was an over-representation of differentially expressed and methylated genes in selective sweep regions associated with chicken domestication. Conclusions Our results show that epigenetic variation is inherited in chickens, and we suggest that selection of favourable epigenomes, either by selection of genotypes affecting epigenetic states, or by selection of methylation states which are inherited independently of sequence differences, may have been an important aspect of chicken domestication.
Since the status of endogenous avian leucosis/sarcoma virus (ALSV) infections in Korean broiler chickens is unclear, this study examined embryonated eggs obtained from broiler farms and Korean native chickenbreeds in Korea using PCR with the primer sets specific for endogenous ALSVs. The PCR assays detected the genomes of EAV, ev, ev/J and ART-CH belonging to the endogenous ALSV from all embryos tested. Phylogenetically, the Korean EAV genomes were more closely related to the prototype EAV-0 than to the other prototype, E51. The Korean ART-CH elements clustered together but were distinct from the prototype ART-CH clones, 5 and 14. Although there was comparatively little divergence in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the Korean ev and ev/J genomes compared with the other known ev and ev/J genomes, the Korean genomes had phylogenetically distinct branches. From these results, endogenous genomes are quite prevalent in Korean broiler chickens. In addition, the endogenous genomes circulating in Korean broiler chickens are genetically different from the other known endogenous genomes. These results are expected to provide useful information for the control and establishment of a surveillance system for endogenous ALSVs in Korea. PMID:18250567
Kim, You-Jung; Park, Sang-Ik; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Ha-Hyun; Jung, Yong-Wun; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Jang, Byoung-Gui; Kim, Hak-Kue; Cho, Kyoung-Oh
Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand experience rates of ESKD several times higher than non-indigenous people. This relative rate is highest among people aged 45 - 54 for Aboriginal Australians, and 65 - 74 years for Maori. The majority of this is driven by diabetic nephropathy. Both groups have lesser utilization of transplantation as a renal replacement therapy than non-indigenous comparators, and lesser utilization of home dialysis modalities. PMID:20979960
The field of comparative indigenous studies has grown tremendously in recent years. Tiya Miles, Paige Raibmon, and J. Kehaulani Kauanui offer some of the most thought-provoking reflections on the politics of indigeneity. Highlighting debates over indigenous identity in the United States and Canada during the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, these authors uncover how Native peoples in modern industrial nation-states have
:The field of comparative indigenous studies has grown tremendously in recent years. Tiya Miles, Paige Raibmon, and J. Kehaulani Kauanui offer some of the most thought-provoking reflections on the politics of indigeneity. Highlighting debates over indigenous identity in the United States and Canada during the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, these authors uncover how Native peoples in modern industrial nation-states have
The concept of Indigenous Protected Areas (IPAs) wa s developed by the Australian Government in collaboration with Indigen ous land-holders over ten years ago. Twenty-five IPAs have been declared on Indigen ous-owned land in all Australian jurisdictions except the Australian Capital Territo ry. IPAs now contribute over twenty percent of the total terrestrial protected-area est ate in Australia. IPAs are
This review addresses the control exerted by insulin through its receptor on the general metabolism and gene expression in chicken liver and muscle. Compared with mammals, chickens have similar concentrations of circulating insulin, but still maintain high plasma glucose levels. This may be a consequence of the low sensitivity of the chicken to exogenous insulin. In order to determine whether this low sensitivity is the result of differences in insulin receptor signaling between mammals and birds, insulin receptors have been characterized in several chicken tissues and two insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1 and Shc) have been described in liver and muscle. Compared with mammals current knowledge of insulin signaling in birds is incomplete. This is particularly evident when considering the number of isoforms of the components involved in the insulin cascade (IRSs, AKT, ERK and others) many of which may have not been characterized in the chicken. Despite these shortfalls in available data, it appears that insulin signaling in chicken liver is similar to that in mammals, but is unlike that in mammals in muscle. In leg muscle, chickens differ from mammals in the early steps of the insulin signaling cascade (IR, IRS-1 and PI3K) where PI3K activity is about 30-fold greater in the chicken than in the rat. This "constitutive" hyperactivity of PI3K in chicken muscle may over-stimulate a feedback inhibitory pathway described in mammals thereby desensitizing chicken muscle to insulin. PMID:18996126
Developmental delay is common and often responds to early intervention. As with other health outcomes, the prevalence of developmental delay may be socially determined. Children in many Indigenous communities experience increased risk for developmental delay. This article highlights special conditions in Indigenous communities related to child development. It addresses the challenges of screening and evaluation for developmental delay in the context of Indigenous cultures, and in settings where resources are often inadequate. It is clear that careful research on child development in Indigenous settings is urgently needed. Intervention strategies tied to cultural traditions could enhance interest, acceptability, and ultimately developmental outcomes in children at risk. PMID:19962033
Summary We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a comparison of the sequences of 3 domestic chickens (broiler, layer, Silkie) to their wild ancestor Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about 5 SNP/kb for almost every possible comparison between RJF and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines - contrary to the idea that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated prior to domestication, and there is little to no evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales of greater than 100 kb.
CTSD (Cathepsin D) is a key enzyme in yolk formation, and it primarily affects egg yolk weight and egg weight. However, recent research has mostly focused on the genomic structure of the CTSD gene and the enzyme’s role in pathology, and less is known about the enzyme’s functions in chickens. In this paper, the correlations between CTSD polymorphisms and egg quality traits were analyzed in local Shandong chickenbreeds. CTSD polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction single strand conformation polymorphism) and sequencing analysis. Two variants were found to be associated with egg quality traits. One variant (2614T>C), located in exon 3, was novel. Another variant (5274G>T), located in intron 4, was previously referred to as rs16469410. Overall, our results indicated that CTSD would be a useful candidate gene in selection programs for improving yolk traits.
We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a comparison of the sequences of 3 domestic chickens (broiler, layer, Silkie) to their wild ancestor Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about 5 SNP/kb for almost every possible comparison between RJF and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--contrary to the idea that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated prior to domestication, and there is little to no evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales of greater than 100 kb.
Wong, G K; Hillier, L; Brandstrom, M; Croojmans, R; Ovcharenko, I; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L; Lucas, S; Glavina, T; Kaiser, P; Gunnarsson, U; Webber, C; Overton, I
Two trials were carried out to compare the nutritional values of two Zambian indigenous plant protein sources--soy bean cake (SBC) and sunflower meal (SFM) in the diets of broilers and growing pigs. In trial 1, 120 one week old chickens (Abbor acre strain) were used. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between chickens on SBC and SFM in voluntary feed intake. Average daily gain of SBC chickens differed (P < 0.05) from those of SFM. The protein source had an effect (P < 0.05) on N retained [g/day]. Carcasses dry matter and crude protein were higher (P < 0.05) in SBC chickens, but ash, ether extract, Ca and P were the same as SFM. In trial 2, 12 Large white x Landrace growing barrows 1-2 months old were used. In this trial, SBC diet was consumed more than SFM. Pigs on SBC and SFM gained 0.526 and 0.284 g/head/day, respectively (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in SBC diet. Trial 1, demonstrated that SBC and SFM could be used for broilers without adverse effect on growth rate and body conformation. However, for growing pigs SBC is a better protein source than SFM in the tropical environment of Zambia. Finally, results obtained seem to suggest that SBC and SFM can be used as plant protein sources, but SFM is not an ideal plant protein source for growing pigs. PMID:9829266
The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo yield of Day 0 protocol in Angora goats (AG) and indigenous\\u000a Kilis goats (KG) in the non-breeding season. A total of 16 Angora goats (AG group) and 11 Kilis goats (KG group) were used\\u000a in this study. In the synchronization process, after controlled internal drug release withdrawal, when estrus
Umut Ta?demir; Ali Reha A?ao?lu; Mustafa Kaymaz; Kübra Karaka?
Milo’s Kitchen' today announced that it is voluntarily recalling its Chicken Jerky and Chicken Grillers home-style dog treats from retailer shelves nationally. No other Milo’s Kitchen' products are affected.
The past century has seen animal breeding and genetics evolve and expand from definition and validation of basic population genetics theory to development of selection index theory to today's relatively sophisticated genetic prediction systems enabling industry genetic improvement. The end of the first century of the American Society of Animal Science coincides with the rapid movement of the field into the era of genome-enabled genetic improvement and precision management systems. Led by recent research infrastructure investments by the United States and international partners to develop chicken, bovine, swine, ovine, and equine "genomic toolboxes," the animal breeding community is poised to play a crucial role in the century to come. These genomic toolboxes provide the needed platforms for developing whole-genome selection programs based on linkage disequilibrium for a wide spectrum of traits; allow the opportunity to redefine genetic prediction based on allele sharing as opposed to traditional pedigree relationships; and provide for the first time simultaneous information upon which to practice genetic selection and plan precision management of specific genotypes, all early in the life of the animal. An area of major focus will be mining of the genomes through systems biology approaches to better understand gene and metabolic networks--what has previously been lumped into poorly understood genotype by environment and genotype by genotype interactions. Perhaps the greatest obstacle to the successful merger of genomic and quantitative approaches will be the lack of necessary animal resource populations to appropriately define and measure phenotypes (i.e., the so-called phenomic gap) for difficult-to-measure traits such as resistance to disease and stress, adaptability, longevity, and efficiency of nutrient utilization. Additionally, because of de-emphasis of quantitative genetics and animal breeding programs in academia over the past quarter century, a dearth of qualified young scientists to effectively mine the genomes must immediately be addressed. Although the motivating factors may have changed, the need for high-quality animal breeding and genetics research and education has never been greater. PMID:18952735
Indigenous intellectual Marcia Langton insists on a recognition of the mutual imbrication of Indigenous and non-Indigenous constituencies within the postcolonial nation. She suggests that Aboriginality (and we might add \\
It is impossible to teach well or conduct good research without some personal sense of involvement. Without attending to these apparently extraneous emotional aspects our work is impoverished. At the same time it is the needs of indigenous peoples as subjects in research and teaching which are paramount. The author touches on the relevance of…
|Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…
3 Abstract: The focus of this report was to assess the role of passive immunization using immunoglobulins derived from chicken egg yolk in protection against M. gallisepticum infection in chickens. Immunoglobulins were produced by egg yolk technology. ELISA was used to evaluate their immunoreactivity and western immunoblotting demonstrated that chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins Y (IgY) were capable of recognizing M.
H. M. Elsheikha; A. T. Abbas; M. M. Abdel Aziz; L. M. Elshabiny
This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.
Intensive investigations on the breeding sites of phebotomine sandflies were undertaken in Kitui, Machakos and Baringo foci of leishmaniases in Kenya. A total of 473 soil samples weighing approximately 4,244 kg were collected from termite hills, animal burrows, tree hole, human dwellings, animal enclosures, under tree canopy, open ground, chicken coop and rock crevices habitats and incubated in the field laboratories. 267 samples weighing approximately 3002 kg were positive, producing 6419 sandflies comprising 17 different species. This study resulted in the identification of both perennial and seasonal breeding sites of most of the phlebotomine sandfly species found in these three leishmaniases foci. PMID:2591326
Raising chickens in urban settings is a growing phenomenon in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) conducted a cross-sectional study to better understand health and management of privately owned chicken flocks, and Salmonella awareness among chicken owners, in three urban settings-Denver, Colorado; Los Angeles, California; and Miami, Florida. Feed stores in each city were visited by data collectors during summer 2010, and customers who owned chickens were asked to complete a questionnaire. A convenience sample of 449 feed store customers was selected, and 382 (85.1%) customers participated in the study. For analysis, a stratified random sample was assumed, with the strata being individual feed stores. Median flock sizes were 5, 11 and 19 chickens in Denver, Los Angeles and Miami, respectively. In all three cities, over three-fourths of flocks contained table egg chickenbreeds on the day the questionnaire was completed. In Denver, 20.4% of flocks had another species of bird present in addition to chickens, compared with 65.6% of flocks in Los Angeles and 53.6% of flocks in Miami. At the time of data collection in 2010, less than 50% of respondents in Miami and Los Angeles (40.0 and 30.2%, respectively) were aware of a connection between poultry contact, such as contact with chicks or ducks, and Salmonella infection in people, compared to 63.5% of respondents in Denver. Urban chicken flock owners who completed the questionnaire in English were more likely to be aware of the connection between poultry contact and Salmonella, compared with respondents who completed the questionnaire in Spanish (OR=3.5). The likelihood of Salmonella awareness was also higher for respondents who had heard of USDA's Biosecurity for Birds educational campaign and for respondents who sold or gave away eggs from their flocks (OR=2.5 and 2.8, respectively). Study findings demonstrate the importance of reaching the Spanish speaking population when creating educational outreach programs to reduce Salmonella infections in people who have live poultry contact. PMID:23290129
The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and gamma -32P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32P-phosphate labelled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer. PMID:2215076
Aramburo, C; Donoghue, D; Montiel, J L; Berghman, L R; Scanes, C G
Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented. PMID:21430880
Compared with nonindigenous people, indigenous people in first-world countries have experienced much higher rates of many vaccine preventable diseases. This systematic review of published scientific literature, government reports, and immunization guidelines from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States compares pre- and postvaccination disease rates and vaccination policy for indigenous people in these four countries. Nationally funded universal vaccination
|A recurring theme in Indigenous affairs in Australia is a tension between maintenance of Indigenous culture and achievement of socio-economic "equity": essentially "self-determination" versus "assimilation". Implicit in this tension is the view that attachment to traditional cultures and lifestyles is a hindrance to achieving "mainstream"…
|This article reflects on pathways for Indigenous education in the developing agenda of the Australian Curriculum, the cross-curriculum priorities, the general capability area of intercultural understanding, and the positioning of Indigenous learners within the diversity of learners with English as an additional language or dialect (EALD).|
This paper explores the intersection between critical methodologies and Indigenous knowledge. It is especially concerned with the ways in which the metaphors associated with the bricoleur researcher – tools and production – conceptualize Indigenous knowledge to that of an ecology and environmental work. This limits the appreciation for and engagement with narrative, and the ways in which “ecological” knowledge is
In this article I use ethnographic material drawn from research with M?ori to focus critical attention on the structural conditions that both enable and disable the reproduction of indigeneity in New Zealand. I conceptualize indigeneity as process, as intertwined with property struggles, as dynamically constituted and reconstituted in relation to the prevailing political economy, as facilitated and inhibited by state
This article looks at the inter-relationships between the global indigenous movement on the one hand, and the national policies and the changing fortunes of local indigenous organisations on the other. It provides a case study of a court case contesting the removal of San inhabitants of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) in Botswana that went on from 2004 to
|The growing distance between heritage languages and youth has become a constant point of discourse between Elders in Indigenous communities and those who could listen. Since Western contact, the pursuit for a "better life" through formal schooling has institutionalized Indigenous youth, separating them from their homelands and broadening a space…
This essay outlines key issues raised during a project that aimed to (1) identify the gaps in the international evidence base of systematic reviews of intervention effectiveness relevant to public health decision making to address health inequalities experienced by indigenous people, and (2) identify priority areas and topics for future reviews. A number of indigenous researchers and clinicians invited to
E. McDonald; N. Priest; J. Doyle; R. Bailie; I. Anderson; E. Waters
|This forum explores and expands on Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's article titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how indigenous knowledge is appropriated in science classrooms; how students from indigenous students'…
|There is an emerging global recognition of the inadequacies of conventional socio-economic and demographic data in being able to reflect the relative wellbeing of Indigenous peoples. This paper emerges out of a recent desktop study commissioned by an Australian Indigenous organization who identified a need to enhance local literacies in data…
|Museums in particular are educational tools used to create and perpetuate specific ideologies and historical memories. They have played a prominent role in defining the visibility of Indigenous peoples and cultures in America historical memory by creating exhibits of Indigenous peoples based on perceptions and views that benefit and justify…
In the late 1980s, following decades of authoritarianism and political violence, Latin America experienced a wave of transitions to democratic rule and social peace. Indigenous groups were prominent among the social sectors taking advan- tage of new spaces for political expression and dissent. By 1992, on the 500-year anniversary of the European conquest, indigenous organizations across the Ameri- cas had
This paper reports on implications of a research study with a group of 44 Indigenous middle school students learning the science concepts of energy and force. We found the concepts of energy and force need to be taught in English as we failed to find common comparable abstract concepts in the students' diverse Indigenous languages. Three…
|The historical exploitation experienced by indigenous people in the United States has left a number of negative legacies, including distrust toward research. This distrust poses a barrier to progress made through culturally sensitive research. Given the complex history of research with indigenous groups, the purpose of this descriptive…
Burnette, Catherine E.; Sanders, Sara; Butcher, Howard K.; Salois, Emily Matt
|In the first half of the 20th century, the social functions of the indigenous languages in Chukotka, in northeast Asia, increased due to the development of written languages, local press, and broadcasting on radio and television. From 1933 to 1989, the local press of indigenous peoples in Chukotka was used for Communist Party propaganda. However,…
This paper argues for the use of indigenous languages as languages of teaching and learning, focusing on Zimbabwe. It describes the language situation in Zimbabwe, which has three national languages (all of which enjoy some prominence under the current Education Act) and fourteen minority indigenous languages. English plays a central role in…
|In the past few years, transnational corporations and university researchers received patents for traditional medicines and for food and textile plants used by indigenous peoples without returning any benefits to those peoples. In light of U.S. and Canadian government claims that traditional knowledge is not intellectual property, indigenous…
|This author, a teacher of American Indian and Alaskan Native literature at an all-native school, contends that suppression of Indigenous literary texts is an aspect of colonization, and that reclamation of Indigenous American literature is a critical component of cultural sovereignty. In her classes, she emphasizes the hybrid nature of…
|This publication presents the results of a comprehensive research program on Indigenous Australians in vocational education and training (VET), along with feedback from over 200 people who attended the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) Research Forum on Indigenous VET in August 2005. The planning and implementation of the…
Despite their elevated risk of health problems and a propensity to be more overweight or underweight relative to the other members of the Australian population, there has been no previous investigation of body image concerns among Indigenous Australians. In this study we investigated the level of body image importance and body image dissatisfaction among 19 rural Indigenous adolescents (7 males,
David Mellor; Marita McCabe; Lina Ricciardelli; Kylie Ball
This report is based on a review of the literature on the importance of early childhood learning, the nature of Indigenous learning needs, and the role of educational television programs in improving learning outcomes for preschool-aged children. The report is intended to provide an evidence base for a proposal to develop an educational television program aimed primarily at Indigenous children
|This article explores a project at the Koori Centre, University of Sydney, funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) in 2011, titled "Indigenous On-Line Cultural Teaching and Sharing". One of the team members (Kutay) was also a project team member on the ALTC-funded project "Exploring PBL in Indigenous Australian Studies",…
|This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…
In 1998, I was appointed to a tenured position as an Associate Lecturer in the School of Law and Justice at Southern Cross University (‘SCU’), under the Indigenous Employment Strategy. In 1997 – prior to my appointment – I taught at SCU’s College of Indigenous Australian Peoples (‘CIAP’) as a casual lecturer. At CIAP I was fortunate to be the
|This book brings together essays that explore Indigenous ways of knowing and that consider how such knowledge can inform educational practices and institutions. Indigenous Knowledge is resiliently local in character and thus poses a distinct contrast to the international, more impersonal system of knowledge prevalent in Western educational…
|Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…
Recognising that literacy is fundamental to the educational success of Indigenous students, this essay reviews current literacy intervention programs from a social justice perspective. It reveals the tension between policies and initiatives that have addressed the two key rights of Indigenous people--the right to access mainstream knowledge and…
North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…
Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.
|Elderly African Americans residing in rural areas have practiced and continue to practice indigenous healing practices for various reasons. In addition to the belief in the value of such practices, many of these individuals practice indigenous healing because it is cost effective. In this article information is presented on the history of…
This forum explores and expands on Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's article titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how indigenous knowledge is appropriated in science classrooms; how students from indigenous students'…
This collection of papers represents an attempt to define better the purposes and content of education among the indigenous peoples of the circumpolar north. All the papers, except one on the Soviet Union, were written by members of indigenous groups in the far north. They are professionally involved in the field of Native education in their…
As is evident in this statement, the Indigenous peoples of Canada recognize the value of their languages and have been concerned for some time about the possibility of the loss of this resource. Our intentions in this paper are to discuss the context of Indigenous language education in Western Canada, the hope of language revitalization, and the role of the
Heather A. Blair; Donna Paskemin; Barbara Laderoute
Through reporting on an initiative in South Africa that aimed to provide epistemological access to teachers and learners of mathematics (and science) through translating mathematical concepts into two indigenous languages, this paper argues for the urgent development of mathematical registers in indigenous languages for mathematics and …
The University of Notre Dame Australia will establish a Centre for Indigenous Studies in 2008.\\u000aThe Centre will be located in Broome, with a whole of University approach that recognises and builds on existing commitments to Indigenous education. The Centre will focus on teaching, research, cultural outreach and cultural training with an aim to promote and integrate the mission of
The challenge for the future is to embrace a new partnership aimed at closing the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians on life expectancy, educational achievement and employment opportunities. Significant improvements in contemporary Indigenous health care can be achieved through culturally safe health education programs for Indigenous students. However, while participation rates of Australian Indigenous students in the higher education sector are increasing, attrition rates are markedly higher than those of the general student population. This paper focuses on a unique degree program that is offered exclusively to Indigenous students in the field of mental health in the School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health, Charles Sturt University. This qualitative exploratory study aimed to identify strategies that were especially helpful in sustaining students in the program and to identify and address barriers to the retention of students, to empower students to better prepare for the university environment and to inform academics within the course about areas that could be improved to provide a more culturally safe learning environment. The first stage of the study utilised focus group interviews with 36 Indigenous students across all three years of the program. The findings of the study addressing the issues of culturally appropriate pedagogy, curricula and cultural safety in the mental health degree program are discussed. PMID:21591823
The aim of this study has been to determine the potential production and consumption figures of indigenous fuels from a technical point of view up to the year 1995. Indigenous fuels that have been considered in the study are: peat, fuel wood, wood waste a...
|This paper describes psychosocial outcomes of an Indigenous residential substance abuse rehabilitation centre in Australia, examines the sensitivity to change of the new Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), and explores the degree to which service users value cultural components of the treatment program. Participants were 57 Indigenous and 46…
Berry, Stacey L.; Crowe, T. P.; Deane, F. P.; Billingham, M.; Bhagerutty, Y.
|This article discusses the development of a methodological metissage that combined Indigenous and interpretive traditions. This metissage was developed during a doctoral study conducted with Canadian environmental educators who incorporate Western and Indigenous knowledge and philosophy into their ecological identities and pedagogical praxis. It…
|Intellectual property enables individuals to gain financially from sharing unique and useful knowledge. Compensating indigenous people for sharing their knowledge and resources might both validate and be an equitable reward for indigenous knowledge of biological resources, and might promote the conservation of those resources. This book contains…
This paper examines the history of the development of indigenous people's media in Chukotka. I draw attention to the changes that have occurred with the Native newspaper and the reasons for those changes. I suggest that the newspaper has broadened the social functions of the indigenous languages of the area. I will show how the newspaper interacts with the educational
An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. Young Indigenous Australians are disproportionately represented among young people who do not successfully negotiate the transition from school to independence and employment. This paper focuses on issues of…
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).
A recurring theme in Indigenous affairs in Australia is a tension between maintenance of Indigenous culture and achievement of socio-economic "equity": essentially "self-determination" versus "assimilation". Implicit in this tension is the view that attachment to traditional cultures and lifestyles is a hindrance to achieving "mainstream" economic…
|Teaching about Indigenous culture from an Indigenous perspective in a Western educational institution involves unresolvable contradictions. A Metis faculty member describes how she has changed traditional academic practices by normalizing relationships with her students, taking students out of the classroom and bringing the outside in,…
Tuber aestivum is the most common European truffle with significant commercial exploitation. Its production originates from natural habitats and from artificially inoculated host tree plantations. Formation of Tuber ectomycorrhizae in host seedling roots is often inefficient. One possible reason is the lack of indigenous associative microbes. Here we aimed at metagenetic characterization and cultivation of indigenous prokaryotes associated with T. aestivum in a field transect cutting through the fungus colony margin. Several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed close association with the T. aestivum in the ectomycorrhizae and in the soil, but there was no overlap between the associative prokaryotes in the two different habitats. Among those positively associated with the ectomycorrhizae, we identified several bacterial genera belonging to Pseudonocardineae. Extensive isolation efforts yielded many cultures of ectomycorrhizae-associative bacteria belonging to Rhizobiales and Streptomycineae, but none belonging to the Pseudonocardineae. The specific unculturable Tuber-associated prokaryotes are likely to play important roles in the biology of these ectomycorrhizal fungi, including modulation of competition with other symbiotic and saprotrophic microbes, facilitation of root penetration and/or accessing mineral nutrients in the soil. However, the ultimate proof of this hypothesis will require isolation of the microbes for metabolic studies, using novel cultivation approaches. PMID:23754715
This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a potential way out of educational stagnation of indigenous adults, which is one of the challenges clearly formulated by UNESCO member states during CONFINTEA VI as a priority to be faced. The article concludes arguing the case for intercultural education, not only among indigenous peoples, but for the whole of the population, to be a guiding philosophy for education in general and adult education in particular in Latin American countries. It emphasises the fact that this cannot be achieved without the active participation of indigenous peoples themselves.
"The Centre for International Research and Advisory Networks (CIRAN) in co-operation with UNESCO's Management of Social Transformations Programme (MOST) has established a new Database Of Best Practices On Indigenous Knowledge." The site includes a definition of indigenous knowledges, a discussion of criteria for selecting "best practices," and a Registry of Best Practices that gives numerous detailed summaries of projects in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America that have sought to improve conditions and alleviate poverty through the successful employment of indigenous knowledges. The site also links to CIRAN and MOST's joint publication entitled "Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge," which provides further details on indigenous knowledge and on the production phase of the database. For a review of MOST's home site and more about their projects worldwide, see the November 18, 1997 Scout Report for Social Sciences.
Researchers have a responsibility to cause no harm, but research has been a source of distress for indigenous people because of inappropriate methods and practices. The way researchers acquire knowledge in indigenous communities may be as critical for eliminating health disparities as the actual knowledge that is gained about a particular health problem. Researchers working with indigenous communities must continue to resolve conflict between the values of the academic setting and those of the community. It is important to consider the ways of knowing that exist in indigenous communities when developing research methods. Challenges to research partnerships include how to distribute the benefits of the research findings when academic or external needs contrast with the need to protect indigenous knowledge.
Cochran, Patricia A. L.; Marshall, Catherine A.; Garcia-Downing, Carmen; Kendall, Elizabeth; Cook, Doris; McCubbin, Laurie; Gover, Reva Mariah S.
With an increasing interest in the role of indigenous peoples in the economy, the World Bank's Latin America & Caribbean division has created this 55-page report on that very subject. Published in February 2007, this report is primarily concerned with the fact that more than 80 percent of Latin America's indigenous population still lives in abject poverty. Some of the results from the paper include the finding that many indigenous persons tend to be concentrated in few occupations, and that they mostly work in the informal economy. The report's authors, Emmanuel Skoufias and Harry Patrinos, do have a number of policy suggestions, including designing development programs that improve infrastructure in areas where indigenous persons live and also raising the general awareness of the needs of indigenous people at the national and international levels. For persons with an interest in this region and public policy issues, this report will be a most valuable read.
The growing world-wide sensitivity to the aspirations of indigenous peoples is to be welcomed. However, there is still a tendency which should be avoided: to lump the claims of indigenous peoples with those of minorities. Indigenous peoples are the heirs of long-established political, social and cultural communities which have been oppressed for centuries or victimized by policies of genocide or forced assimilation into the approved language and religion of the dominating community. These forms of destruction can only be truly ended by returning to indigenous peoples a degree of autonomy which will ensure that they have real control over their future. Indigenous peoples should be able to create institutions, including schools, where their languages, religions and cultures are permitted to flourish without interference.
Background During the last decades, there has been an acceleration of the loss of domestic animal biodiversity. For conservation purposes, the genetic diversity of the H'Mong cattle, an indigenous local breed was studied. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the SRY gene and mtDNA D-Loop sequence were analysed to clarify the origin of the breed. The genetic diversity was assessed through genetic data with twenty-five FAO microsatellites, and morphometric data with five body measurements from 408 animals sampled from eight districts of the Ha Giang province. Results The SRY genes were all of the zebu type. Among the 27 mtDNA haplotypes, 12 haplotypes were of the taurine type and the remaining 15 of the zebu type. This indicates female taurine introgression in the zebu H'Mong. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.616 to 0.673 and from 0.681 to 0.729 respectively according to district, with low genetic differentiation (FST = 0.0076). Multivariate analysis on morphometric and genetic data shows a separation of districts into two groups following a south-west/north-east cline and admixture analysis confirmed the two clusters, but no differentiation of taurine introgression between clusters was observed. A possible admixture with the Yellow cattle breed from a neighbouring province was suggested through genetic data and householder interviews. Conclusions In this study we demonstrate the interest of fine-scale sampling for the study of genetic structure of local breeds. Such a study allows avoiding erroneous conservation policies and on the contrary, proposes measures for conserving and limiting crossbreeding between the H'Mong and the Yellow cattle breeds.
Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ?3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision.
One duplicated segment on chicken Z chromosome is a causal mutation to the late-feathering phenotype. However, understanding biological process of the late-feathering formation is also of interest to chickenbreeding and feather development theory. One hundred and thirty-seven valid single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from an SNP database were used to perform an association study of the Z chromosome in Xinghua chickens. Two SNPs, which were respectively on 9607480 bp and 10607757 bp, were significantly associated with feathering phenotypes. This result indicated the causal mutation of the late-feathering formation in Xinghua chickens was consistent with the previous report which showed the late-feathering locus ranged 9966364–10142688 bp on Z chromosome. Microarray expressions were implemented for six 1-day-old female Xinghua chicks. Compared to the early-feathering chicks, there were 249 and 83 upregulated and downregulated known genes in the late-feathering chicks. Forty-one genes were expressed in late-feathering chicks, but not in early-feathering ones. At least 14 significantly differentially expressed genes were directly related to keratin. In the region of the sex-linked feathering gene, only prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene was a significantly differentially expressed gene. Expression of PRLR in late-feathering chicks was 1.78-fold as that in early-feathering chicks. Late-feathering Wenchang chicks also had higher expression level of PRLR than early-feathering ones. This study suggested that increasing PRLR expression that resulted from the special variant on chicken Z chromosome caused the late-feathering phenotype. PMID:22297689
The role of communication in social development requires a keener eye to explore the fragile position of this marginalized sector: the indigenous peoples or IPs.With information and communication scholars taking an interest in new challenges towards sustainable social change, it is important to lay down a frame of understanding of the fragility of indigenous peoples’ position and the complexity of
The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic arsenic, we then applied the estimates to national chicken consumption data to calculate inorganic, organic, and total arsenic ingested by eating chicken. The mean concentration of total arsenic in young chickens was 0.39 ppm, 3- to 4-fold higher than in other poultry and meat. At mean levels of chicken consumption (60 g/person/day), people may ingest 1.38-5.24 microg/day of inorganic arsenic from chicken alone. At the 99th percentile of chicken consumption (350 g chicken/day), people may ingest 21.13-30.59 microg inorganic arsenic/day and 32.50-47.07 microg total arsenic/day from chicken. These concentrations are higher than previously recognized in chicken, which may necessitate adjustments to estimates of arsenic ingested through diet and may need to be considered when estimating overall exposure to arsenic.
Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K
Results obtained by several approaches in the application of Biotechnology in maize breeding are reviewed. RFLP technology in the determination of genetic variation; gene transfer by the use of different methods of gene delivery and the determination of gene integration. Three technologies for foreign gene introduction have been applied; injection of plasmid pRT100 neo into archesporial tissue before micro and macro sporogenesis, slightly modified pollen-tube pathway technology and dry seed incubation in plasmid DNA solution. NPTII gene integration was followed by dot-blot and Southern blot analysis of plant DNA of both T1 and T2 plants. Gene expression was analysed by neomycin phosphotransferase activity. Transformed plants contained the selective NPTII gene sequence in an active form. Bacterial gene integration induced several heritable changes of plant phenotype. As an important change, alteration of the flowering time has been used as a criterion for selection and plant propagation to keep transformed progeny. Besides plant genome transformation, endogenous bacteria living in different maize tissue were found. As a perspective approach for biotechnology application in maize breeding biological vaccine construction has been selected. Therefore, antagonistic effect of gram positive bacterial strains to several pathogenic fungi was investigated. Results obtained after in vivo experiments are discussed. PMID:1340483
Recent models of the evolution and dynamics of family structure in cooperatively breeding vertebrates predict that the opening\\u000a of breeding vacancies in cooperatively breeding groups will result in (1) dispersal movements to fill the reproductive position,\\u000a and (2) within-group conflict over access to reproduction. We describe the behavioral and demographic changes that followed\\u000a the creation of breeding vacancies in three
C. Lazaro-Perea; C. S. S. Castro; R. Harrison; A. Araujo; M. F. Arruda; C. T. Snowdon
This paper presents assessments of tritium-breeding requirements and breeding potential for the STARFIRE/DEMO design. The assessment of breeding requirement is described based on two design considerations; i.e.: (1) tritium inventory and doubling requirement; and (2) computational uncertainties associated with the breeding calculation. The lithium-containing materials considered include: solid Li/sub 2/O and LiAlO/sub 2/ and liquid lithium and 17 Li-83Pb.
Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized ...
Summary Participatory plant breeding is discussed not only for its advantages in exploiting specific adaptation and hence in fitting crops to the environment, but also as the only possible type of breeding which is possible for crops grown in unfavorable conditions and\\/or remote regions, and in areas not sufficiently large to justify the interest of large breeding programs. The paper
Salvatore Ceccarelli; Elizabeth Bailey; Stefania Grando; Richard Tutwiler
Chicken soup has long been regarded as a remedy for symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections. As it is likely that the clinical similarity of the diverse infectious processes that can result in "colds" is due to a shared inflammatory response, an effect of chicken soup in mitigating inflammation could account for its attested benefits. To evaluate this, a traditional chicken soup was tested for its ability to inhibit neutrophil migration using the standard Boyden blindwell chemotaxis chamber assay with zymosan-activated serum and fMet-Leu-Phe as chemoattractants. Chicken soup significantly inhibited neutrophil migration and did so in a concentration-dependent manner. The activity was present in a nonparticulate component of the chicken soup. All of the vegetables present in the soup and the chicken individually had inhibitory activity, although only the chicken lacked cytotoxic activity. Interestingly, the complete soup also lacked cytotoxic activity. Commercial soups varied greatly in their inhibitory activity. The present study, therefore, suggests that chicken soup may contain a number of substances with beneficial medicinal activity. A mild anti-inflammatory effect could be one mechanism by which the soup could result in the mitigation of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:11035691
Rennard, B O; Ertl, R F; Gossman, G L; Robbins, R A; Rennard, S I
Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)
What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...
Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens.
Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.